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Sample records for tensor-based morphometry study

  1. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

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    Mario Mascalchi

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM and cortical gray matter (GM in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  2. Tensor-based morphometry as a neuroimaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study of 676 AD, MCI, and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Parikshak, Neelroop; Lee, Suh; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-11-15

    In one of the largest brain MRI studies to date, we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to create 3D maps of structural atrophy in 676 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls, scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Using inverse-consistent 3D non-linear elastic image registration, we warped 676 individual brain MRI volumes to a population mean geometric template. Jacobian determinant maps were created, revealing the 3D profile of local volumetric expansion and compression. We compared the anatomical distribution of atrophy in 165 AD patients (age: 75.6+/-7.6 years), 330 MCI subjects (74.8+/-7.5), and 181 controls (75.9+/-5.1). Brain atrophy in selected regions-of-interest was correlated with clinical measurements--the sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR-SB), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the logical memory test scores - at voxel level followed by correction for multiple comparisons. Baseline temporal lobe atrophy correlated with current cognitive performance, future cognitive decline, and conversion from MCI to AD over the following year; it predicted future decline even in healthy subjects. Over half of the AD and MCI subjects carried the ApoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) gene, which increases risk for AD; they showed greater hippocampal and temporal lobe deficits than non-carriers. ApoE2 gene carriers--1/6 of the normal group--showed reduced ventricular expansion, suggesting a protective effect. As an automated image analysis technique, TBM reveals 3D correlations between neuroimaging markers, genes, and future clinical changes, and is highly efficient for large-scale MRI studies.

  3. Multi-template tensor-based morphometry: application to analysis of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    In this paper methods for using multiple templates in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) are presented and compared to the conventional single-template approach. TBM analysis requires non-rigid registrations which are often subject to registration errors. When using multiple templates and, therefore,...

  4. Tensor-based morphometry and stereology reveal brain pathology in the complexin1 knockout mouse.

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    Catherine Kielar

    Full Text Available Complexins (Cplxs are small, soluble, regulatory proteins that bind reversibly to the SNARE complex and modulate synaptic vesicle release. Cplx1 knockout mice (Cplx1(-/- have the earliest known onset of ataxia seen in a mouse model, although hitherto no histopathology has been described in these mice. Nevertheless, the profound neurological phenotype displayed by Cplx1(-/- mutants suggests that significant functional abnormalities must be present in these animals. In this study, MRI was used to automatically detect regions where structural differences were not obvious when using a traditional histological approach. Tensor-based morphometry of Cplx1(-/- mouse brains showed selective volume loss from the thalamus and cerebellum. Stereological analysis of Cplx1(-/- and Cplx1(+/+ mice brain slices confirmed the volume loss in the thalamus as well as loss in some lobules of the cerebellum. Finally, stereology was used to show that there was loss of cerebellar granule cells in Cplx1(-/- mice when compared to Cplx1(+/+ animals. Our study is the first to describe pathological changes in Cplx1(-/- mouse brain. We suggest that the ataxia in Cplx1(-/- mice is likely to be due to pathological changes in both cerebellum and thalamus. Reduced levels of Cplx proteins have been reported in brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, understanding the effects of Cplx depletion in brains from Cplx1(-/- mice may also shed light on the mechanisms underlying pathophysiology in disorders in which loss of Cplx1 occurs.

  5. A Matlab user interface for the statistically assisted fluid registration algorithm and tensor-based morphometry

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    Yepes-Calderon, Fernando; Brun, Caroline; Sant, Nishita; Thompson, Paul; Lepore, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM) is an increasingly popular method for group analysis of brain MRI data. The main steps in the analysis consist of a nonlinear registration to align each individual scan to a common space, and a subsequent statistical analysis to determine morphometric differences, or difference in fiber structure between groups. Recently, we implemented the Statistically-Assisted Fluid Registration Algorithm or SAFIRA,1 which is designed for tracking morphometric differences among populations. To this end, SAFIRA allows the inclusion of statistical priors extracted from the populations being studied as regularizers in the registration. This flexibility and degree of sophistication limit the tool to expert use, even more so considering that SAFIRA was initially implemented in command line mode. Here, we introduce a new, intuitive, easy to use, Matlab-based graphical user interface for SAFIRA's multivariate TBM. The interface also generates different choices for the TBM statistics, including both the traditional univariate statistics on the Jacobian matrix, and comparison of the full deformation tensors.2 This software will be freely disseminated to the neuroimaging research community.

  6. Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure

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    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

  7. Brain structural changes following adaptive cognitive training assessed by Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM).

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    Colom, Roberto; Hua, Xue; Martínez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Román, Francisco J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Carmona, Susanna; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM) allows the automatic mapping of brain changes across time building 3D deformation maps. This technique has been applied for tracking brain degeneration in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases with high sensitivity and reliability. Here we applied TBM to quantify changes in brain structure after completing a challenging adaptive cognitive training program based on the n-back task. Twenty-six young women completed twenty-four training sessions across twelve weeks and they showed, on average, large cognitive improvements. High-resolution MRI scans were obtained before and after training. The computed longitudinal deformation maps were analyzed for answering three questions: (a) Are there differential brain structural changes in the training group as compared with a matched control group? (b) Are these changes related to performance differences in the training program? (c) Are standardized changes in a set of psychological factors (fluid and crystallized intelligence, working memory, and attention control) measured before and after training, related to structural changes in the brain? Results showed (a) greater structural changes for the training group in the temporal lobe, (b) a negative correlation between these changes and performance across training sessions (the greater the structural change, the lower the cognitive performance improvements), and (c) negligible effects regarding the psychological factors measured before and after training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of whole-brain abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy using tensor-based morphometry with DARTEL

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    Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Lv, Bin; Li, Meng; Jin, Zhengyu

    2009-10-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an automated technique for detecting the anatomical differences between populations by examining the gradients of the deformation fields used to nonlinearly warp MR images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the whole-brain volume changes between the patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the controls using TBM with DARTEL, which could achieve more accurate inter-subject registration of brain images. T1-weighted images were acquired from 21 left-TLE patients, 21 right-TLE patients and 21 healthy controls, which were matched in age and gender. The determinants of the gradient of deformation fields at voxel level were obtained to quantify the expansion or contraction for individual images relative to the template, and then logarithmical transformation was applied on it. A whole brain analysis was performed using general lineal model (GLM), and the multiple comparison was corrected by false discovery rate (FDR) with p<0.05. For left-TLE patients, significant volume reductions were found in hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, precentral gyrus, right temporal lobe and cerebellum. These results potentially support the utility of TBM with DARTEL to study the structural changes between groups.

  9. Tensor-based morphometry of cannabis use on brain structure in individuals at elevated genetic risk of schizophrenia.

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    Welch, K A; Moorhead, T W; McIntosh, A M; Owens, D G C; Johnstone, E C; Lawrie, S M

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with various brain structural abnormalities, including reduced volume of the hippocampi, prefrontal lobes and thalami. Cannabis use increases the risk of schizophrenia but reports of brain structural abnormalities in the cannabis-using population have not been consistent. We used automated image analysis to compare brain structural changes over time in people at elevated risk of schizophrenia for familial reasons who did and did not use cannabis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from subjects at high familial risk of schizophrenia at entry to the Edinburgh High Risk Study (EHRS) and approximately 2 years later. Differential grey matter (GM) loss in those exposed (n=23) and not exposed to cannabis (n=32) in the intervening period was compared using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). Cannabis exposure was associated with significantly greater loss of right anterior hippocampal (pcorrected=0.029, t=3.88) and left superior frontal lobe GM (pcorrected=0.026, t=4.68). The former finding remained significant even after the exclusion of individuals who had used other drugs during the inter-scan interval. Using an automated analysis of longitudinal data, we demonstrate an association between cannabis use and GM loss in currently well people at familial risk of developing schizophrenia. This observation may be important in understanding the link between cannabis exposure and the subsequent development of schizophrenia.

  10. 3D characterization of brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Lee, Suh; Klunder, Andrea D; Toga, Arthur W; Lepore, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Brun, Caroline; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Britson, Paula J; Ward, Chadwick P; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Borowski, Bret; Fleisher, Adam S; Fox, Nick C; Boyes, Richard G; Barnes, Josephine; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Boreta, Lauren; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-05-15

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) creates three-dimensional maps of disease-related differences in brain structure, based on nonlinearly registering brain MRI scans to a common image template. Using two different TBM designs (averaging individual differences versus aligning group average templates), we compared the anatomical distribution of brain atrophy in 40 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition conferring increased risk for AD. We created an unbiased geometrical average image template for each of the three groups, which were matched for sex and age (mean age: 76.1 years+/-7.7 SD). We warped each individual brain image (N=120) to the control group average template to create Jacobian maps, which show the local expansion or compression factor at each point in the image, reflecting individual volumetric differences. Statistical maps of group differences revealed widespread medial temporal and limbic atrophy in AD, with a lesser, more restricted distribution in MCI. Atrophy and CSF space expansion both correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Using cumulative p-value plots, we investigated how detection sensitivity was influenced by the sample size, the choice of search region (whole brain, temporal lobe, hippocampus), the initial linear registration method (9- versus 12-parameter), and the type of TBM design. In the future, TBM may help to (1) identify factors that resist or accelerate the disease process, and (2) measure disease burden in treatment trials.

  11. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

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    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  12. Evaluating the predictive power of multivariate tensor-based morphometry in Alzheimer's disease progression via convex fused sparse group Lasso

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    Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Zhou, Jiayu; Shi, Jie; Ye, Jieping; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-03-01

    Prediction of Alzheimers disease (AD) progression based on baseline measures allows us to understand disease progression and has implications in decisions concerning treatment strategy. To this end we combine a predictive multi-task machine learning method1 with novel MR-based multivariate morphometric surface map of the hippocampus2 to predict future cognitive scores of patients. Previous work by Zhou et al.1 has shown that a multi-task learning framework that performs prediction of all future time points (or tasks) simultaneously can be used to encode both sparsity as well as temporal smoothness. They showed that this can be used in predicting cognitive outcomes of Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects based on FreeSurfer-based baseline MRI features, MMSE score demographic information and ApoE status. Whilst volumetric information may hold generalized information on brain status, we hypothesized that hippocampus specific information may be more useful in predictive modeling of AD. To this end, we applied Shi et al.2s recently developed multivariate tensor-based (mTBM) parametric surface analysis method to extract features from the hippocampal surface. We show that by combining the power of the multi-task framework with the sensitivity of mTBM features of the hippocampus surface, we are able to improve significantly improve predictive performance of ADAS cognitive scores 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months from baseline.

  13. Crater studies: Part A: lunar crater morphometry

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    Pike, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Morphometry, the quantitative study of shape, complements the visual observation and photointerpretation in analyzing the most outstanding landforms of the Moon, its craters (refs. 32-1 and 32-2). All three of these interpretative tools, which were developed throughout the long history of telescopic lunar study preceding the Apollo Program, will continue to be applicable to crater analysis until detailed field work becomes possible. Although no large (>17.5 km diameter) craters were examined in situ on any of the Apollo landings, the photographs acquired from the command modules will markedly strengthen results of less direct investigations of the craters. For morphometry, the most useful materials are the orbital metric and panoramic photographs from the final three Apollo missions. These photographs permit preparation of contour maps, topographic profiles, and other numerical data that accurately portray for the first time the surface geometry of lunar craters of all sizes. Interpretations of craters no longer need be compromised by inadequate topographic data. In the pre-Apollo era, hypotheses for the genesis of lunar craters usually were constructed without any numerical descriptive data. Such speculations will have little credibility unless supported by accurate, quantitative data, especially those generated from Apollo orbital photographs. This paper presents a general study of the surface geometry of 25 far-side craters and a more detailed study of rim-crest evenness for 15 near-side and far-side craters. Analysis of this preliminary sample of Apollo 15 and 17 data, which includes craters between 1.5 and 275 km in diameter, suggests that most genetic interpretations of craters made from pre-Apollo topographic measurements may require no drastic revision. All measurements were made from topographic profiles generated on a stereoplotter at the Photogrammetric Unit of the U.S. Geological Survey, Center of Astrogeology, Flagstaff, Arizona.

  14. Bronchial wash cytology: A study on morphology and morphometry

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    Rao, Shalinee; Rao, Shivani; Lal, Archana; Barathi, Gunabooshanam; Dhanasekar, Thangaswamy; Duvuru, Prathiba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bronchial wash cytology of lung lesions is a non/minimally invasive procedure utilized for diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bronchial wash cytology in the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary lesions and assess the role of morphometry in categorizing dysplastic/malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: All cases of bronchial wash cytology received from January 2006 to June 2010 were retrieved and reviewed. Cases with adequate clinical data or a subsequent biopsy were selected for the study and cytodiagnosis was correlated with available clinical details. Morphometry was done on alcohol fixed hematoxylin and eosin stained cytosmears using computer assisted Image Pro software. Results: One hundred and seventy-six cases of the 373 cases of bronchial cytology received were included for the study. Bronchial wash cytology technique showed high specificity. Cytohistopathology correlation showed 62.06% concordance rate. Cells from normal epithelium, reactive atypia, neoplastic atypia, squamous metaplasia, non-small cell and small cell carcinoma showed a mean nuclear diameter of 7.4 μm, 11.7 μm, 13.9 μm, 13.0 μm, 10.7 μm, and 17.7 μm, respectively, which was statistically significant with P < 0.05. Multiple comparisons between various groups using analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests also showed remarkable statistical significance. Conclusions: Bronchial wash cytology has low sensitivity in detecting pulmonary lesions. It can be of value in patients with contraindication for biopsy. Morphometry can be a useful adjunct to cytomorphology, especially in situations where biopsy is contraindicated. PMID:25210231

  15. Neuroanatomy of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia : A quantitative meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Costafreda, Sergi G.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, Andre; Allen, Paul

    Introduction: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies demonstrate grey matter volume (GMV) deficits in schizophrenia. This method is also applied for detecting associations between specific psychotic symptoms and brain structure, such as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). However, due to differing

  16. Study of nuclear and acrosomal sperm morphometry in ram using a computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis fluorescence (CASMA-F) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yániz, J L; Capistrós, S; Vicente-Fiel, S; Soler, C; Nuñez de Murga, J; Santolaria, P

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new method that allows morphometric assessment of the sperm nucleus and acrosome in the ram using fluorescence microscopy and free software. The study was divided into three experiments. In the first experiment, semen smears from 20 ejaculates were fixed and labeled with a propidium iodide-pisum sativum agglutinin (PI/PSA) combination. Digital images of the sperm nucleus, acrosome, and whole sperm head were captured and analyzed using the ImageJ program. The computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis fluorescence (CASMA-F) method used allowed the differentiation, capture, and morphometric analysis of most sperm nuclei, acrosomes, and whole heads with high precision and the assessment of the acrosomal status. In the second experiment, sperm nuclear morphometry by CASMA-F was compared by staining with the PI/PSA combination and staining with Hoechst 33342 as in previous studies. Similar results were obtained using both methods. In the third experiment, CASMA-F with PI/PSA was compared with a more conventional CASMA method (semen smears stained with Hemacolor (HEM) and processed with the ISAS commercial software, HEM). Spermatozoa displayed a bigger size when processed with CASMA-F than with HEM method in all primary sperm head morphometric parameters, but results using both methods were correlated. It was concluded that the CASMA-F method allows the simultaneous assessment of sperm nucleus, acrosome, and head in the ram. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variations in renal morphometry: A hospital-based Indian study

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    Ranjeet S Rathore

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study revealed that there exist differences in various morphometric parameters of the kidney and ureter in different subsets of the Indian population attending our hospital as compared with the standard values quoted in the world literature.

  18. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: a Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

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    Camila Callegari Piccinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia. Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in craniocervical dystonia but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry to identify patterns of gray matter changes in craniocervical dystonia.Methods: We compared 27 patients with craniocervical dystonia matched in age and gender to 54 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes. We created a two-sample t-test corrected for subjects’ age and we tested with a level of significance of p<0.001 and false discovery rate correction (p<0.05. Results: Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated significant reductions of gray matter using p<0.001 in the cerebellar vermis IV/V, bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, lingual gyrus and calcarine fissure; in the left hemisphere in the supplemementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, rolandic operculum , hippocampus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellar lobules IV/V, superior and middle temporal gyri; in the right hemisphere, the middle cingulate and precentral gyrus. Our study did not report any significant result using the false discovery rate correction. We also detected correlations between gray matter volume and age, disease duration, duration of botulinum toxin treatment and the Marsden-Fahn dystonia scale scores.Conclusions: We detected large clusters of gray matter changes chiefly in structures primarily involved in sensorimotor integration, motor planning, visuospatial function and emotional processing.

  19. A Cadaveric Study of the Morphometry of the Cervical Spinal Canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometry of the cervical spinal canal is of clinical importance in traumatic, degenerative and inflammatory conditions. A small canal diameter has been associated with an increase of injury mainly in athletes who participate in contact or collision sports. Before abnormal spinal morphometry can be determined, it is first ...

  20. Gray matter abnormalities in Internet addiction: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yan, E-mail: clare1475@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lin Fuchun, E-mail: fclin@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Du Yasong, E-mail: yasongdu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Qin Lingdi, E-mail: flyingfool838@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Zhao Zhimin, E-mail: zmzsky@163.com [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xu Jianrong, E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lei Hao, E-mail: leihao@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Background: This study aims to investigate brain gray matter density (GMD) changes in adolescents with Internet addiction (IA) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis on high-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images. Methods: Eighteen IA adolescents and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls took part in this study. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on the two groups. VBM analysis was used to compare the GMD between the two groups. Results: Compared with healthy controls, IA adolescents had lower GMD in the left anterior cingulate cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and left lingual gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that brain structural changes were present in IA adolescents, and this finding may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of IA.

  1. Cortical gray matter changes in primary blepharospasm: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Davide; Di Giorgio, Annabella; D'Ambrosio, Enrico; Popolizio, Teresa; Macerollo, Antonella; Livrea, Paolo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Defazio, Giovanni

    2011-08-15

    Previous voxel-based morphometry studies of patients with primary blepharospasm documented gray matter volumetric differences of the striatum, cerebellum, thalamus, and parietal lobe areas. However, these results were inconsistent across studies, which recruited relatively small samples and did not always provide detailed clinical information on patients with blepharospasm. The objective of this study was to analyze whole-brain gray matter volume in a larger sample of patients with blepharospasm and to expand on previous works by evaluating whether clinical features of blepharospasm correlate to whole-brain gray matter changes. Voxel-based morphometry was performed on 25 patients with primary adult-onset blepharospasm and 24 healthy subjects (controls) matched for age, sex, and handedness. Clinical data were collected through a standardized interview. Severity of blepharospasm was measured using the Jankovic Rating Scale. Patients with blepharospasm had greater gray matter volume than controls in the right middle frontal gyrus, whereas patients with blepharospasm had smaller gray matter volume than controls in the left postcentral gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Spearman correlation analysis with Bonferroni correction failed to show significant correlations between gray matter volume and the explored clinical variables, comprising age at onset, disease duration, blepharospasm severity, presence of an effective geste antagoniste, and dose and duration of botulinum toxin treatment. Patients with blepharospasm exhibited gray matter volume differences exclusively in cortical regions highly relevant to sensory processing and cognitive modulation of motor behavior. Gray matter changes in the primary sensory cortex may represent a common trait of primary dystonias, including blepharospasm. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Do manual and voxel-based morphometry measure the same? – A proof of concept study

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    Niels K. Focke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based morphometry (VBM is a commonly used method to study volumetric variations on a whole brain basis. However it is often criticised for potential confounds, mainly based on imperfect spatial registration. We therefore aimed to evaluate if VBM and gold-standard manual volumetry are measuring the same effects with respect to subcortical grey matter volumes. Manual regions-of-interest (ROIs were drawn in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, putamen, pallidum and caudate nucleus bilaterally. Resulting volumes were used for a whole brain VBM correlation analysis with SPM8. The hippocampus, amygdala, putamen and caudate nucleus were correctly identified by SPM using the contemporary high-dimensional normalization (DARTEL toolbox. This strongly suggests that VBM and manual volumetry both are indeed measuring the same effects with regard to subcortical brain structures.

  3. Lip morphometry in 600 North Indian adults: a data base study for sexual dimorphism.

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    Goel, Archana; Patnaik, Vvg; Puri, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    The study comprised lip morphometry of 600 North Indian adults (300 males and 300 females). The aim of the study was to create base data of various linear and vertical measurements of the upper and lower lips and width of the mouth. This standard may serve as a guideline for sexual dimorphism as well as for restoration or enhancement of esthetic and plastic surgery for the lips in the north Indian population, which will enable the surgeon to offer a better cosmetic result. Prior informed written consent from all the subjects was obtained. The exclusion and inclusion criteria for the subjects were predefined. The analysis shows the sexual dimorphism in most parameters of lips being greater in males. The results were compared with the available data for north white Americans, Malays, Malaysian Indians, Italians, western Indians and Caucasians. In the population under study, the measurements differ in all dimensions with Malays, Italians and Caucasians and show resemblance to the Malaysian Indians. Knowledge of the proportion between the upper and lower lips helps in surgical correction of the region. This study highlights the applied significance of observations of the present study to forensic, namely racial and sex dimorphic, criteria of identification. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Morphometry of the Palate and Pharyngeal Airway- A Computed Tomographic Study

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    Arvind Kumar Pandey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The morphometry of the palate and pharyngeal airway has a crucial role in the development of disorders like apnea. Therefore the present study aims to explore the shape and dimensions of the palate and the pharyngeal airway. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on normal sagittal and axial sections of head and neck in 100 CT images. Results: The average length of the hard and soft palates measured 4.49±0.38 and 3.44±0.61cm respectively. The anteroposterior dimension of the soft palate was 0.90±0.33 cm. The velopalatine angle measured 130.23±9.98º. The luminal areas were 4.59±1.81, 2.058±1.09 and 2.99±1.08 cm in naso, oro and laryngo pharynx respectively. The soft palate showed varied shapes which were classified as a straight line, leaf-like, rat-tail, distorted S, crooked and butt like. Conclusion: The present study attempts to provide a normal database to understand the anatomy of the soft palate and pharyngeal airways.

  5. Grey matter alterations in patients with depersonalization disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Judith K; Gaebler, Michael; Lamke, Jan-Peter; Walter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, no whole brain investigation of morphological aberrations in dissociative disorder is available to date. Previous region-of-interest studies focused exclusively on amygdalar, hippocampal and parahippocampal grey matter volumes and did not include patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD). We therefore carried out an explorative whole brain study on structural brain aberrations in patients with DPD. We acquired whole brain, structural MRI data for patients with DPD and healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was carried out to test for group differences, and correlations with symptom severity scores were computed for grey matter volume. Our study included 25 patients with DPD and 23 controls. Patients exhibited volume reductions in the right caudate, right thalamus and right cuneus as well as volume increases in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and right somatosensory region that are not a direct function of anxiety or depression symptoms. To ensure ecological validity, we included patients with comorbid disorders and patients taking psychotropic medication. The results of this first whole brain investigation of grey matter volume in patients with a dissociative disorder identified structural alterations in regions subserving the emergence of conscious perception. It remains unknown if these alterations are best understood as risk factors for or results of the disorder.

  6. Neurostructural correlates of two subtypes of specific phobia: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Kevin; Evens, Ricarda; Maslowski, Nina Isabel; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lueken, Ulrike

    2015-02-28

    The animal and blood-injection-injury (BII) subtypes of specific phobia are both characterized by subjective fear but distinct autonomic reactions to threat. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have related these characteristic responses to shared and non-shared neural underpinnings. However, no comparative structural data are available. This study aims to fill this gap by comparing the two subtypes and also comparing them with a non-phobic control group. Gray and white matter data of 33 snake phobia subjects (SP), 26 dental phobia subjects (DP), and 37 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. Especially DP differed from HC and SP by showing significantly increased grey matter volumes in widespread areas including the right subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left orbitofrontal and left prefrontal (PFC) cortices. In addition, white matter volume was significantly increased in the left PFC in DP compared with SP. These results are in line with functional changes observed in dental phobia and point toward those brain circuits associated with emotional processing and regulation. Future studies should aim to further delineate functional and structural connectivity alterations in specific phobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Creativity and borderline personality disorder: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutgeb, Verena; Ille, Rottraut; Wabnegger, Albert; Schienle, Anne; Schöggl, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Fink, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the history, various examples of eminent creative people suffering from mental disorders along with some empirical research reports strengthened the idea of a potential link between creativity and psychopathology. This study investigated different facets of psychometrically determined creativity in 20 females diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) relative to 19 healthy female controls. In addition, group differences in grey matter (GM) were examined. Behavioural findings revealed no significant differences between the BPD group and healthy controls with respect to verbal and figural-graphic creative task performance and creativity-related personality characteristics. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a distinct pattern of GM reductions in the BPD group (relative to controls) in a network of brain regions closely associated with various cognitive and emotional functions (including the bilateral orbital inferior frontal gyri and the left superior temporal gyrus), partly overlapping with creativity-related brain regions. Correlation analyses moreover revealed that in the BPD group GM reductions in the orbital parts of the inferior and middle frontal gyri were associated with lower levels of creativity. This study provides no indications in favour of the putative link between creativity and psychopathology, as sometimes reported in the literature.

  8. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  9. Different brain structures associated with artistic and scientific creativity: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Cao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qunlin; Zhuang, Kaixiang; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-02-21

    Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or behaviors. In real life, artistic and scientific creativity promoted the development of human civilization; however, to date, no studies have systematically investigated differences in the brain structures responsible for artistic and scientific creativity in a large sample. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study identified differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV) across the brain between artistic and scientific creativity (assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) in 356 young, healthy subjects. The results showed that artistic creativity was significantly negatively associated with the regional GMV of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, scientific creativity was significantly positively correlated with the regional GMV of the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG). Overall, artistic creativity was associated with the salience network (SN), whereas scientific creativity was associated with the executive attention network and semantic processing. These results may provide an effective marker that can be used to predict and evaluate individuals' creative performance in the fields of science and art.

  10. Structure-function correlations in Retinitis Pigmentosa patients with partially preserved vision: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Machado, Ana; Carvalho Pereira, Andreia; Ferreira, F?bio; Ferreira, S?nia; Quendera, Bruno; Silva, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa is a group of hereditary retinal dystrophy disorders associated with progressive peripheral visual field loss. The impact of this retinal loss in cortical gray matter volume has not been addressed before in Retinitis Pigmentosa patients with low vision. Voxel-based morphometry was applied to study whole brain gray matter volume changes in 27 Retinitis Pigmentosa patients with partially preserved vision and 38 age- and gender-matched normally sighted controls to determine ...

  11. Grey matter abnormalities in untreated hyperthyroidism: A voxel-based morphometry study using the DARTEL approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: will.zhang.1111@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Leshan 614000 (China); Song, Lingheng, E-mail: songlh1023@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, No. 324 Hospital of PLA, Chongqing 400020 (China); Yin, Xuntao, E-mail: xuntaoyin@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhang, Jiuquan, E-mail: jiuquanzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Chen, E-mail: cqliuchen@foxmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: wangjian_811@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Daiquan, E-mail: zhoudq77@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chen, Bing, E-mail: chenbing3@medmail.com.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Lii, Haitao, E-mail: haitaolii023@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with pronounced neuropsychiatric symptoms such as impulsiveness, irritability, poor concentration, and memory impairments. Functional neuroimaging has revealed changes in cerebral metabolism in hyperthyroidism, but regional changes in cortical morphology associated with specific neurological deficits have not been studied so far. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroid-associated neural dysfunction, we compared grey matter volume (GMV) between adult hyperthyroid patients and matched healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Materials and methods: High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired by 3T MRI from 51 hyperthyroid patients and 51 controls. VBM analysis was performed using SPM8. Correlations between regional GMV and both serum free thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and disease duration were assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Compared to controls, GM volumes in the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, calcarine, lingual gyrus, and left temporal pole were lower and bilateral supplementary motor area GMV higher in hyperthyroid patients. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentration was negatively correlated with the normalized regional volume (NRV) of the left parahippocampal gyrus and serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus and right parahippocampal gyrus. Disease duration was negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and left temporal pole. Conclusion: Hyperthyroid patients exhibited reduced GMV in regions associated with memory, attention, emotion, vision, and motor planning. Negative correlations between GMV and both free TH and disease duration suggest that chronic TH elevation induces abnormalities in the adult cortex.

  12. Brain correlates of pro-social personality traits: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Joana F; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Miguel; Soares, José M; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2013-09-01

    Of the five personality dimensions described by the Big Five Personality Model (Costa and McCrae 1992), Extraversion and Agreeableness are the traits most commonly associated with a pro-social orientation. In this study we tested whether a pro-social orientation, as expressed in terms of Extraversion and Agreeableness, is associated with a specific grey matter phenotype. Fifty-two healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), a self-report measure of the Big Five personality traits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate the correlation between brain structure and the personality traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. We found that Extraversion was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the middle frontal and orbitofrontal gyri while Agreeableness was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the inferior parietal, middle occipital and posterior cingulate gyri. No positive correlations were found. These results suggest that pro-social personality traits seem to be associated with decreases in grey matter density in more frontal regions for Extraversion, and more posterior regions for Agreeableness.

  13. Anatomy of the Episodic Buffer: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Patients with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Berlingeri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 Baddeley proposed the existence of a new component of working memory, the episodic buffer, which should contribute to the on-line maintenance of integrated memory traces. The author assumed that this component should be critical for immediate recall of a short story that exceeds the capacity of the phonological store. Accordingly, patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD should suffer of a deficit of the episodic buffer when immediate recall of a short story is impossible. On the other hand, the episodic buffer should be somewhat preserved in such patients when some IR can occur (Baddeley and Wilson, 2002. We adopted this logic for a voxel-based morphometry study. We compared the distribution of grey-matter density of two such groups of AD patients with a group of age-matched controls. We found that both AD groups had a significant atrophy of the left mid-hippocampus; on the other hand, the anterior part of the hippocampus was significantly more atrophic in patients who were also impaired on the immediate prose recall task. Six out of ten patients with no immediate recall were spared at “central executive” tasks. Taken together our findings suggest that the left anterior hippocampus contributes to the episodic buffer of the revised working memory model. We also suggest that the episodic buffer is somewhat independent from the central executive component of working memory.

  14. In vivo lung morphometry with accelerated hyperpolarized (3) He diffusion MRI: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yulin V; Quirk, James D; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A

    2015-04-01

    Parallel imaging can be used to reduce imaging time and to increase the spatial coverage in hyperpolarized gas magnetic resonance imaging of the lung. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigate the effects of parallel imaging on the morphometric measurement of lung microstructure using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging with hyperpolarized (3) He. Fully sampled and under-sampled multi-b diffusion data were acquired from human subjects using an 8-channel (3) He receive coil. A parallel imaging reconstruction technique (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions [GRAPPA]) was used to reconstruct under-sampled k-space data. The morphometric results of the generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions-reconstructed data were compared with the results of fully sampled data for three types of subjects: healthy volunteers, mild, and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Morphometric measurements varied only slightly at mild acceleration factors. The results were largely well preserved compared to fully sampled data for different lung conditions. Parallel imaging, given sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, provides a reliable means to accelerate hyperpolarized-gas magnetic resonance imaging with no significant difference in the measurement of lung morphometry from the fully sampled images. GRAPPA is a promising technique to significantly reduce imaging time and/or to improve the spatial coverage for the morphometric measurement with hyperpolarized gases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Brain volumetric abnormalities in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-09-30

    Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Theory of mind and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miyata, Jun; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yamada, Makiko; Namiki, Chihiro; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2008-10-01

    Impaired ability to infer the mental states of others (theory of mind; ToM) is considered to be a key contributor to the poor social functioning of patients with schizophrenia. Although neuroimaging and lesion studies have provided empirical evidence for the neural basis of ToM ability, including the involvement of several prefrontal and temporal structures, the association between pathology of these structures and ToM impairment in schizophrenia patients is less well understood. To address this issue, we investigated structural brain abnormalities and ToM impairment in patients with schizophrenia, and examined the relationship between them. Twenty schizophrenia patients and 20 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were examined for ToM ability based on the revised version of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (or Eyes) test [Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., Plumb, I., 2001. The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 42, 241-251]. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to investigate regional brain alterations. Relative to normal controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited gray matter reductions in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right insula. The patients performed poorly on the Eyes test. Importantly, poor performance on the Eyes test was found to be associated with gray matter reduction in the left VLPFC in the patient group. These results suggest that prefrontal cortical reduction, especially in the left VLPFC, is a key pathology underlying the difficulties faced by schizophrenia patients in inferring the mental states of others.

  17. Effects of androgen deprivation on cerebral morphometry in prostate cancer patients--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Herta H; Hu, Sien; Ide, Jaime S; Uchio, Edward; Zhang, Sheng; Rose, Michal; Concato, John; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2013-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment for non-metastatic, low-risk prostate cancer, but a potential side effect of ADT is impaired brain functioning. Previous work with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated altered prefrontal cortical activations in cognitive control, with undetectable changes in behavioral performance. Given the utility of brain imaging in identifying the potentially deleterious effects of ADT on brain functions, the current study examined the effects of ADT on cerebral structures using high resolution MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). High resolution T1 weighted image of the whole brain were acquired at baseline and six months after ADT for 12 prostate cancer patients and 12 demographically matched non-exposed control participants imaged at the same time points. Brain images were segmented into gray matter, white matter and cerebral ventricles using the VBM toolbox as implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. Compared to baseline scan, prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT showed decreased gray matter volume in frontopolar cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex, whereas the non-exposed control participants did not show such changes. In addition, the decrease in gray matter volume of the primary motor cortex showed a significant correlation with longer reaction time to target detection in a working memory task. ADT can affect cerebral gray matter volumes in prostate cancer patients. If replicated, these results may facilitate future studies of cognitive function and quality of life in men receiving ADT, and can also help clinicians weigh the benefits and risks of hormonal therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  18. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  19. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Simon

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17 and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females. We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri. These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  20. Effects of androgen deprivation on cerebral morphometry in prostate cancer patients--an exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta H Chao

    Full Text Available Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT is a common treatment for non-metastatic, low-risk prostate cancer, but a potential side effect of ADT is impaired brain functioning. Previous work with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated altered prefrontal cortical activations in cognitive control, with undetectable changes in behavioral performance. Given the utility of brain imaging in identifying the potentially deleterious effects of ADT on brain functions, the current study examined the effects of ADT on cerebral structures using high resolution MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM.High resolution T1 weighted image of the whole brain were acquired at baseline and six months after ADT for 12 prostate cancer patients and 12 demographically matched non-exposed control participants imaged at the same time points. Brain images were segmented into gray matter, white matter and cerebral ventricles using the VBM toolbox as implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8.Compared to baseline scan, prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT showed decreased gray matter volume in frontopolar cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex, whereas the non-exposed control participants did not show such changes. In addition, the decrease in gray matter volume of the primary motor cortex showed a significant correlation with longer reaction time to target detection in a working memory task.ADT can affect cerebral gray matter volumes in prostate cancer patients. If replicated, these results may facilitate future studies of cognitive function and quality of life in men receiving ADT, and can also help clinicians weigh the benefits and risks of hormonal therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  1. Structural neural correlates of multitasking: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ting; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Wang, Yi; Sui, Yuxiu; Yao, Jingjing; Zhang, Chen-Yuan; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-12-01

    Multitasking refers to the ability to organize assorted tasks efficiently in a short period of time, which plays an important role in daily life. However, the structural neural correlates of multitasking performance remain unclear. The present study aimed at exploring the brain regions associated with multitasking performance using global correlation analysis. Twenty-six healthy participants first underwent structural brain scans and then performed the modified Six Element Test, which required participants to attempt six subtasks in 10 min while obeying a specific rule. Voxel-based morphometry of the whole brain was used to detect the structural correlates of multitasking ability. Grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was positively correlated with the overall performance and time monitoring in multitasking. In addition, white matter volume of the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) was also positively correlated with time monitoring during multitasking. Other related brain regions associated with multitasking included the superior frontal gyrus, the inferior occipital gyrus, the lingual gyrus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. No significant correlation was found between grey matter volume of the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10) and multitasking performance. Using a global correlation analysis to examine various aspects of multitasking performance, this study provided new insights into the structural neural correlates of multitasking ability. In particular, the ACC was identified as an important brain region that played both a general and a specific time-monitoring role in multitasking, extending the role of the ACC from lesioned populations to healthy populations. The present findings also support the view that the ATR may influence multitasking performance by affecting time-monitoring abilities. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R.; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  3. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tensor-based Dictionary Learning for Spectral CT Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Wang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Spectral computed tomography (CT) produces an energy-discriminative attenuation map of an object, extending a conventional image volume with a spectral dimension. In spectral CT, an image can be sparsely represented in each of multiple energy channels, and are highly correlated among energy channels. According to this characteristics, we propose a tensor-based dictionary learning method for spectral CT reconstruction. In our method, tensor patches are extracted from an image tensor, which is reconstructed using the filtered backprojection (FBP), to form a training dataset. With the Candecomp/Parafac decomposition, a tensor-based dictionary is trained, in which each atom is a rank-one tensor. Then, the trained dictionary is used to sparsely represent image tensor patches during an iterative reconstruction process, and the alternating minimization scheme is adapted for optimization. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated with both numerically simulated and real preclinical mouse datasets. The results demonstrate that the proposed tensor-based method generally produces superior image quality, and leads to more accurate material decomposition than the currently popular popular methods. PMID:27541628

  5. Computer morphometry: experience in the study of clinical value in endometrial precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kh. Bishtavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of simple endometrial hyperplasia (SEH, complex endometrial hyperplasia (CEH, atypical endometrial hyper- plasia (AEH, and endometrial cancer (EC is associated with a number of difficulties, frequently giving rise to different interpretations of the same histology specimens.Objective: to assess the possibilities of computed morphometry in endometrial hyperplasia.Subjects and methods. The investigation included 35 patients, including 12 with SEH, 11 with CEH, 7 with AEH, and 5 with EC. Endome- trial computed morphometry was performed using the ImageScope Color.Conclusion. The morphometric changes in endometrial hyperplasia, which are expressed in quantitative indicators, are much more diverse than their schematic image in the current classification, which may be a reason for a difference between the diagnoses.

  6. Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, So Young; Roh, Myoung-Sun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kang, Do-Hyung; Ha, Tae Hyun; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I.; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2008-01-01

    To examine regional abnormalities in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we assessed the gray matter (GM) density using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We compared magnetic resonance images (MRIs) acquired from 71 OCD patients and 71 age- and gender-matched normal controls and examined the relationship between GM density and various clinical variables in OCD patients. We also investigated whether GM density differs among the subtypes of OCD compared to healthy cont...

  7. Structural differences in gray matter between glider pilots and non-pilots. A voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosif eAhamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full body rotations. In the present study we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction and oculomotor control.

  8. Structural Differences in Gray Matter between Glider Pilots and Non-Pilots. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Tosif; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin; Callan, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full-body rotations. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying, such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction, and oculomotor control.

  9. Study of morphometry to debit drainage basin (DAS) arau Padang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Lusi; Amrizal, Berd, Isril; Zuherna

    2017-11-01

    High intensity rain that happened in Padang city cause the happening of floods at DAS Arau. Floods that happened in Padang besides caused high rain intensity, require to be by research about morphometry that is cause parameter the happening of floods. Morphometry drainage basin physical network (DAS) quantitatively related to DAS geomorphology that is related to form of DAS, river network, closeness of stream, ramp, usage of farm, high and gradient steepness of river. Form DAS will influence rain concentration to outlet. Make an index to closeness of stream depict closeness of river stream at one particular DAS. Speed of river stream influenced by storey, level steepness of river. Steepness storey, level is comparison of difference height of river downstream and upstream. Ever greater of steepness of river stream, excelsior speed of river stream that way on the contrary. High to lower speed of river stream influence occurrence of floods, more than anything else if when influenced by debit big. Usage of farm in glove its link to process of infiltration where if geology type which is impermeable, be difficult the happening of infiltration, this matter will enlarge value of run off. Research by descriptive qualitative that is about characteristic of DAS. Method the used is method survey with data collecting, in the form of rainfall data of year 2005 until year 2015 and Image of DEM IFSAR with resolution 5 meter, analyzed use Software ARGIS. Result of research got by DAS reside in at condition of floods gristle.

  10. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Individual Variation in Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Euler

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry (FA of skeletal features are commonly used to estimate developmental instability (DI, the imprecise expression of developmental design due to perturbations during an individual's growth and maturation. Though many studies have detailed important behavioral correlates of FA, very little is known about its possible neuroanatomical correlates. In this study we obtained structural brain MRI scans from 20 adults and utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM to identify specific regions linked to FA. Greater FA predicted greater whole brain white matter volume, and a trend in the same direction was noted for whole brain gray matter volume. Greater FA was associated with significantly greater gray and white matter volumes in discrete brain regions, most prominently in the frontal lobes and in the right cerebral hemisphere. Developmental studies are needed to identify when FA-related brain differences emerge and to elucidate the specific neurobiological mechanisms leading to these differences.

  11. The Gray Matter Volume of the Amygdala Is Correlated with the Perception of Melodic Intervals: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; De Beuckelaer, A.; Guo, J.; Ma, F.; Xu, M.; Liu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the

  12. Gray Matter Atrophy within the Default Mode Network of Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, studies have demonstrated morphological changes in the brain of fibromyalgia (FMS. We aimed to conduct a coordinate-based meta-analytic research through systemic review on voxel-based morphometry (VBM imaging results to identify consistent gray matter (GM difference between FMS patients and healthy subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search in PubMed (January 2000–December 2015 and included six VBM publication on FMS. Stereotactic data were extracted from 180 patients of FMS and 123 healthy controls. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE technique, regional GM reduction in left medial prefrontal cortex and right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex was identified. Both regions are within the default mode network. In conclusion, the gray matter deficit is related to the both affective and nonaffective components of pain processing. This result also provided the neuroanatomical correlates for emotional and cognitive symptoms in FMS.

  13. Detecting brain dynamics during resting state: a tensor based evolutionary clustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-sharoa, Esraa; Al-khassaweneh, Mahmood; Aviyente, Selin

    2017-08-01

    Human brain is a complex network with connections across different regions. Understanding the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain is important both during resting state and task; as disruptions in connectivity patterns are indicators of different psychopathological and neurological diseases. In this work, we study the resting state functional connectivity networks (FCNs) of the brain from fMRI BOLD signals. Recent studies have shown that FCNs are dynamic even during resting state and understanding the temporal dynamics of FCNs is important for differentiating between different conditions. Therefore, it is important to develop algorithms to track the dynamic formation and dissociation of FCNs of the brain during resting state. In this paper, we propose a two step tensor based community detection algorithm to identify and track the brain network community structure across time. First, we introduce an information-theoretic function to reduce the dynamic FCN and identify the time points that are similar topologically to combine them into a tensor. These time points will be used to identify the different FC states. Second, a tensor based spectral clustering approach is developed to identify the community structure of the constructed tensors. The proposed algorithm applies Tucker decomposition to the constructed tensors and extract the orthogonal factor matrices along the connectivity mode to determine the common subspace within each FC state. The detected community structure is summarized and described as FC states. The results illustrate the dynamic structure of resting state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network, somatomotor network, subcortical network and visual network.

  14. Assessment of memory/attention impairment in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bing, E-mail: yubing@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Kong, Fanxing, E-mail: kongfx@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Peng, Miao, E-mail: pengm@sj-hospital.org [Psychological Outpatient Service, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Ma, Hongwei, E-mail: mahongwei1960@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna.916@163.com [Department of Radiology, the People' s Hospital of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Guo, Qiyong, E-mail: guoqy@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Assessment of memory/attention impairment and related exploration of the gray matter differential MR density variations between children with and without primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology is the aim of the present study. Methods: A total of 75 right-handed PNE children (M/F = 39:36, average age 10.4 ± 1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls (M/F = 40:32, 10.0 ± 1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in both PNE and control children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and memory/caution (M/C) factor were measured. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed using high resolution 3 Tesla T1-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5 in the PNE and control children. Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U test were performed to analyze the difference in the gray matter density (GMD) between the PNE and control children. Results: The FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group, though the M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group. Compared with normal controls, PNE children exhibited lower GMD in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Impairment in memory/attention was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right DLPFC and left cerebellum are likely to be implicated in these deficits.

  15. A Voxel Based Morphometry Study of Brain Gray Matter Volumes in Juvenile Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajan, Rajan Nishanth; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Viswanath, Biju; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Srinath, Shoba; Chandrashekar, C R; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have been shown to have gray matter (GM) volume differences from healthy controls in multiple regions - the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial frontal gyri (MFG), striatum, thalamus, and superior parietal lobule. However, there is paucity of data with regard to juvenile OCD. Hence, we examined GM volume differences between juvenile OCD patients and matched healthy controls using voxel based morphometry (VBM) with the above apriori regions of interest. Fifteen right handed juvenile patients with OCD and age- sex- handedness- matched healthy controls were recruited after administering the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-KID and the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VBM methodology was followed. In comparison with healthy controls, patients had significantly smaller GM volumes in left ACC. YBOCS total score (current) showed significant negative correlation with GM volumes in bilateral OFC, and left superior parietal lobule. These findings while reiterating the important role of the orbito-fronto-striatal circuitry, also implicate in the parietal lobe - especially the superior parietal lobule as an important structure involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.

  16. The neural substrates of procrastination: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Liu, Peiwei; Guo, Yiqun; Feng, Tingyong

    2018-03-01

    Procrastination is a pervasive phenomenon across different cultures and brings about lots of serious consequences, including performance, subjective well-being, and even public policy. However, little is known about the neural substrates of procrastination. In order to shed light upon this question, we investigated the neuroanatomical substrates of procrastination across two independent samples using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The whole-brain analysis showed procrastination was positively correlated with the graymatter (GM) volume of clusters in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), while negatively correlated with the GM volume of clusters in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in sample one (151 participants). We further conducted a verification procedure on another sample (108 participants) using region-of-interest analysis to examine the reliability of these results. Results showed procrastination can be predicted by the GM volume of the OFC and the MFG. The present findings suggest that the MFG and OFC, which are the key regions of self-control and emotion regulation, may play an important role in procrastination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  18. Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, A; Yücel, M; Patti, J; Wood, S J; Pantelis, C

    2009-03-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a popular tool for mapping neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia patients. Several recent meta-analyses have identified the brain regions in which patients most consistently show grey matter reductions, although they have not examined whether such changes reflect differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) or grey matter volume (GMV). These measures assess different aspects of grey matter integrity, and may therefore reflect different pathological processes. In this study, we used the Anatomical Likelihood Estimation procedure to analyse significant differences reported in 37 VBM studies of schizophrenia patients, incorporating data from 1646 patients and 1690 controls, and compared the findings of studies using either GMC or GMV to index grey matter differences. Analysis of all studies combined indicated that grey matter reductions in a network of frontal, temporal, thalamic and striatal regions are among the most frequently reported in literature. GMC reductions were generally larger and more consistent than GMV reductions, and were more frequent in the insula, medial prefrontal, medial temporal and striatal regions. GMV reductions were more frequent in dorso-medial frontal cortex, and lateral and orbital frontal areas. These findings support the primacy of frontal, limbic, and subcortical dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and suggest that the grey matter changes observed with MRI may not necessarily result from a unitary pathological process.

  19. Tensor-based dynamic reconstruction method for electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, J.; Mu, H. P.; Liu, Q. B.; Li, Z. H.; Liu, S.; Wang, X. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an attractive visualization measurement method, in which the acquisition of high-quality images is beneficial for the understanding of the underlying physical or chemical mechanisms of the dynamic behaviors of the measurement objects. In real-world measurement environments, imaging objects are often in a dynamic process, and the exploitation of the spatial-temporal correlations related to the dynamic nature will contribute to improving the imaging quality. Different from existing imaging methods that are often used in ECT measurements, in this paper a dynamic image sequence is stacked into a third-order tensor that consists of a low rank tensor and a sparse tensor within the framework of the multiple measurement vectors model and the multi-way data analysis method. The low rank tensor models the similar spatial distribution information among frames, which is slowly changing over time, and the sparse tensor captures the perturbations or differences introduced in each frame, which is rapidly changing over time. With the assistance of the Tikhonov regularization theory and the tensor-based multi-way data analysis method, a new cost function, with the considerations of the multi-frames measurement data, the dynamic evolution information of a time-varying imaging object and the characteristics of the low rank tensor and the sparse tensor, is proposed to convert the imaging task in the ECT measurement into a reconstruction problem of a third-order image tensor. An effective algorithm is developed to search for the optimal solution of the proposed cost function, and the images are reconstructed via a batching pattern. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed reconstruction method are numerically validated.

  20. Grey matter density decreases as well as increases in patients with classic galactosemia: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; van der Korput, Lisanne D; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2016-10-01

    Brain impairments have been observed in patients with classic galactosemia, an inherited metabolic disorder resulting in a particular neuro-cognitive profile. Neuroimaging studies showed abnormalities such as diffuse white mater (WM) abnormalities and grey matter (GM) atrophy. Our current study analysed grey matter density using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared the brains of eight adolescent patients with classic galactosemia with eight healthy gender- and aged-matched controls. GM density differences were found in several regions. Decreased GM density was found in the patients in the bilateral putamen and bilateral occipital cortex. Increased GM density in the patients, on the other hand, was found in the bilateral inferior frontal and medial prefrontal cortex. The anatomical profile of the abnormalities is in line with the neuro-cognitive profile of patients with classic galactosemia, including motor dysfunction, speech and language difficulties and higher order cognitive problems. Less favourable GM densities in patients (either increased or decreased compared to controls) correlated with younger age, a worse visual working memory performance, and an older age at initiation of the galactose-restricted diet. To conclude, this explorative study is the first to analyse the GM using VBM in this population, and demonstrates a mixed profile of both increased and decreased GM density in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal gray matter contraction in three variants of primary progressive aphasia: A tenser-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambati, Simona Maria; Amici, Serena; Racine, Caroline A; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Zachary; Ogar, Jenny; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce L; Rosen, Howard; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the pattern of longitudinal changes in cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Eight patients with the non-fluent variant of PPA (nfvPPA), 13 patients with the semantic variant (svPPA), seven patients with the logopenic variant (lvPPA), and 29 age-matched, neurologically healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent longitudinal MRI, neuropsychological and language testing at baseline and at a 1-year follow-up. Tenser-based morphometry (TBM) was applied to T1-weighted MRI images in order to map the progression of gray and white matter atrophy over a 1-year period. Results showed that each patient group was characterized by a specific pattern of cognitive and anatomical changes. Specifically, nfvPPA patients showed gray matter atrophy progression in the left frontal and subcortical areas as well as a decline in motor speech and executive functions; svPPA patients presented atrophy progression in the medial and lateral temporal lobe and decline in semantic memory abilities; and lvPPA patients showed atrophy progression in lateral/posterior temporal and medial parietal regions with a decline in memory, sentence repetition and calculations. In addition, in all three variants, the white matter fibers underlying the abovementioned cortical areas underwent significant volume contraction over a 1-year period. Overall, these results indicate that the three PPA variants present distinct patterns of neuroanatomical contraction, which reflect their clinical and cognitive progression.

  2. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kanako; Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME), music hobby (MH), and nonmusic (NM) group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44), left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.

  3. Relating inter-individual differences in verbal creative thinking to cerebral structures: an optimal voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zhu

    Full Text Available Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs and white matter volumes (WMVs. In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control.

  4. Relating inter-individual differences in verbal creative thinking to cerebral structures: an optimal voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control.

  5. Relating Inter-Individual Differences in Verbal Creative Thinking to Cerebral Structures: An Optimal Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control. PMID:24223921

  6. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME, music hobby (MH, and nonmusic (NM group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44, left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18, and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.

  7. Gray matter reduction associated with emotion regulation in female outpatients with major depressive disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Amanda K Y; Wong, Michael M C; Han, Shi-Hui; Lee, Tatia M C

    2009-10-01

    Though emotion dysregulation is the key feature in major depressive disorder, and structural changes in brain areas of depressed patients have been found, it is unknown how these regional volume alterations correlate with the ability to regulate emotion in the depressed population. We examined the gray matter concentration (GMC) and volume (GMV) in 17 depressed patients and 17 healthy volunteers using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. Images were acquired using a 1.5 T MRI scanner, and were spatially normalized and segmented. Statistical comparisons were performed using the general linear model. The identified volumetric alterations in the depressed participants were correlated with their performance on an emotion regulation task that involved reduction of positive or negative emotions to emotional pictures that were selected according to their individual ratings. The depressed participants showed specific difficulty in regulating negative emotion, though not positive emotion, which was associated with reduced GMV and concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Decreased GMC in the superior temporal cortex was also found in people with major depressive disorder. Abnormal structures in the ACC and OFC and the dysregulation of negative emotion may relate to the pathology of major depressive disorder.

  8. Gray Matter Abnormalities in the Inhibitory Circuitry of Young Binge Drinkers: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sónia S; Sampaio, Adriana; Marques, Paulo; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Crego, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is defined as a pattern of high alcohol intake in a short time followed by periods of abstinence. This behavior is very common in adolescence, a developmental stage characterized by the maturation of the prefrontal and striatal networks, important circuits underlying the capacity to control and regulate the behavior. In this study, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis, using a region of interest (ROI) analysis of brain regions associated with inhibitory control and self-regulatory processes, in a group of 36 young college students, 20 binge drinkers (BDs) and 16 alcohol abstinent controls (AAC). Results showed increased gray matter (GM) densities in the left middle frontal gyrus in BDs, when compared with alcohol abstinent controls. Additionally, a ROI-based Pearson analysis documented positive correlations between the left middle frontal gyrus GM densities and the self-control subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), in the BD group. These findings highlight abnormalities in core brain regions associated with self-regulatory processes in the BD group.

  9. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Suero, José; Barros, Alfonso; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry. Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators. The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  10. Gray Matter Abnormalities in the Inhibitory Circuitry of Young Binge Drinkers: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia S. Sousa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking (BD is defined as a pattern of high alcohol intake in a short time followed by periods of abstinence. This behavior is very common in adolescence, a developmental stage characterized by the maturation of the prefrontal and striatal networks, important circuits underlying the capacity to control and regulate the behavior. In this study, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis, using a region of interest (ROI analysis of brain regions associated with inhibitory control and self-regulatory processes, in a group of 36 young college students, 20 binge drinkers (BDs and 16 alcohol abstinent controls (AAC. Results showed increased gray matter (GM densities in the left middle frontal gyrus in BDs, when compared with alcohol abstinent controls. Additionally, a ROI-based Pearson analysis documented positive correlations between the left middle frontal gyrus GM densities and the self-control subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS, in the BD group. These findings highlight abnormalities in core brain regions associated with self-regulatory processes in the BD group.

  11. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Hernández

    Full Text Available To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators.The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  12. The overlapping brain region accounting for the relationship between procrastination and impulsivity: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peiwei; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-09-30

    Procrastination is a prevalent problematic behavior that brings serious consequences, such as lower levels of health, wealth, and well-being. Previous research has verified that impulsivity is one of the traits most strongly correlated with procrastination. However, little is known about why there is a tight behavioral relationship between them. To address this question, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the common neural substrates between procrastination and impulsivity. In line with previous findings, the behavioral results showed a strong behavioral correlation between procrastination and impulsivity. Neuroimaging results showed impulsivity and procrastination shared the common neurobiological underpinnings in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) based on the data from 85 participants (sample 1). Furthermore, the mediation analysis revealed that impulsivity mediated the impact of gray matter (GM) volumes of this overlapping region in the DLPFC on procrastination on another independent 84 participants' data (sample 2). In conclusion, the overlapping brain region in the DLPFC would be responsible for the close relationship between procrastination and impulsivity. As a whole, the present study extends our knowledge on procrastination, and provides a novel perspective to explain the tight impulsivity - procrastination relationship. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls-a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Pei-Chi; Kuan, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Cheng-Ta; Su, Tung-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to understand the possible neural mechanism of creative thinking in BD. We recruited 59 patients with BD I or BD II (35.3±8.5 y) and 56 age- and sex-matched controls (HCs; 34±7.4 y). Each participant underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of creative thinking, which was assessed using two validated tools: the Chinese version of the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults for divergent thinking and the Chinese Word Remote Associates Test for remote association. Voxel-based morphometry was performed using SPM12. In patients with BD, divergent thinking positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) in right medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9), and remote association positively correlated with the GMV in the medial prefrontal gyrus (BA 10). In the HCs, divergent thinking negatively correlated with the GMV in left superior frontal gyrus (BA 8) and positively correlated with the GMV in the precuneus and occipital regions, and remote association positively correlated with the GMV in the hippocampus. Patients with BD were receiving various dosages of antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizer. These medications may confound the GMV-creative thinking relationship in patients with BD. Our findings indicate that medial prefrontal cortex plays a major and positive role in creative thinking in patients with BD. By contrary, creative thinking involves more diverse structures, and the prefrontal cortex may have an opposite effect in HCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  15. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Aghakhanyan

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  16. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS. PMID:27626634

  17. Correlation between morphometry of the uterine artery and estradiol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Structure and morphometry of the uterine artery are important in influencing the pattern of blood flow to the uterus and may be affected by the levels of estradiol. Consequently these may have an effect on reproductive performance. Objective: This study aimed at describing the relation between morphometry of ...

  18. Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of providing us with information about central region anatomy of the brain but also in terms of the help of this information for the plans to be applied in neurosurgery. Objective: In the present study, central region morphometry of a ...

  19. Use of wing morphometry for the discrimination of some Cerceris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outline analysis, in which geometric and traditional morphometry potentials are insufficient, was performed by using the Fourier transformation. As a result of the comprehensive wing morphometry study, it was found that both Cerceris species can be distinguished according to their wing structures and the metric ...

  20. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation:A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Elías Hernández; José Suero; Alfonso Barros; José Luis González-Mora; Katya Rubia

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.DesignTwenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three nonmeditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.ResultsGrey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole bra...

  1. Attachment Security in Infancy: A Preliminary Study of Prospective Links to Brain Morphometry in Late Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élizabel Leblanc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A large body of longitudinal research provides compelling evidence for the critical role of early attachment relationships in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development. It is expected that parent–child attachment relationships may also impact children’s brain development, however, studies linking normative caregiving experiences and brain structure are scarce. To our knowledge, no study has yet examined the associations between the quality of parent–infant attachment relationships and brain morphology during childhood. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prospective links between mother–infant attachment security and whole-brain gray matter (GM volume and thickness in late childhood. Attachment security toward the mother was assessed in 33 children when they were 15 months old. These children were then invited to undergo structural magnetic resonance imaging at 10–11 years of age. Results indicated that children more securely attached to their mother in infancy had larger GM volumes in the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and precentral gyrus in late childhood. No associations between attachment security and cortical thickness were found. If replicated, these results would suggest that a secure attachment relationship and its main features (e.g., adequate dyadic emotion regulation, competent exploration may influence GM volume in brain regions involved in social, cognitive, and emotional functioning through experience-dependent processes.

  2. Normal gray matter volumes in women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2016-05-13

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has consistently been associated with reduced gray (GM) and white matter (WM) brain volumes. It is unclear whether GM alterations are present following recovery from AN, as previous findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to determine if women recovered from AN exhibit reduced global or regional GM volumes. Global GM and WM, as well as regional GM volumes, were investigated in 22 women recovered from AN and 22 age-matched healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging. Women were considered recovered if they had maintained a body mass index above 18.0 and had not engaged in binge eating, purging, or restrictive eating behaviors during the past year. There were no significant differences between recovered AN women and healthy controls in terms of GM and WM volumes. There were also no significant differences between restricting and binging-purging AN subtypes. Lowest lifetime weight was positively correlated with regional GM volumes in the precuneus and insula. The present study showed that regional GM and global GM and WM volumes were similar for women long-term recovered from AN and age-matched healthy controls. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which illness severity affect regional GM volumes.

  3. In vivo morphometry of menisci of the knee in South Indians: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V.N. Dhananjaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the in vivo morphometric data on the menisci of the knee joint of Indian subjects are scarce, we hereby studied the width and thickness of the menisci using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI to establish standard dimensions of the normal medial and lateral meniscus as an aid to orthopaedic surgery. Methods: Eighty menisci from 40 knee joints were analysed in each of three regions, the anterior horn, the mid body and the posterior horn. The thickness and width of the menisci were measured in sagittal and coronal T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI images and analysed statistically. Results: The mean thickness of medial meniscus at the anterior horn, mid body, and posterior horn were 6.3 ± 1.1 mm, 5.2 ± 1.3 mm, and 6.9 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The respective values for the lateral meniscus were 4.8 ± 0.7 mm, 6.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 7.0 ± 0.9 mm. The mean width of medial meniscus at the anterior horn, mid body, and posterior horn were 10.5 ± 1.2 mm, 7.8 ± 1 mm and 13.9 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The widths of lateral meniscus at the same regions were 11.8 ± 1.4 mm, 8.6 ± 1.2 mm, and 12.0 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The lateral meniscus was significantly wider than medial at the anterior horn and mid body (p = 0.00. In contrast, the posterior horn of medial meniscus was significantly wider than lateral meniscus. Both menisci were significantly wider at their posterior horn, followed by the anterior horn and were significantly narrower at their mid body. Conclusion: The present study provides new information on the meniscal thickness and width in South Indians that can be used in planning of orthopaedic and arthroscopic surgeries of the knee joint. However, the study needs to be analyzed with a large sample size for the better interpretation.

  4. A deformation-based morphometry study of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, P; Østergaard, Karen; Cumming, P

    2010-01-01

    purported to be more sensitive than VBM, to test for atrophy in patients with early-stage PD. METHODS: T1-weighted MRI images from 24 early-stage PD patients and 26 age-matched normal control subjects were compared using DBM. Two separate studies were conducted, where two minimally-biased nonlinear...... intensity-average were created; one for all subjects and another for just the PD patients. The DBM technique creates an average population-based MRI-average in an iterative hierarchical fashion. The nonlinear transformations estimated to match each subject to the MRI-average were then analysed. RESULTS......: The DBM comparison between patients and controls revealed significant contraction in the left cerebellum, and non-significant trends towards frontal, temporal and cingulate sulcal expansions with frontal and temporal white matter contractions. Within the patient group, the unified PD rating scores were...

  5. Quantitative studies of chicken somatotrophs during growth and development by morphometry, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Deaver, D; Perez, F; Radecki, S; Gibney, J; Scanes, C G

    1997-10-01

    Changes in the male chicken somatotroph during growth and maturation have been examined by morphometric and immunocytochemical (ICC) analysis of serial sections of the anterior pituitary gland and by flow cytometry of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. ICC showed that somatotrophs are confined to the middle and caudal thirds of the anterior pituitary gland at all ages from 5 to 26 weeks. At a given age somatotrophs are of equal size at all positions along the cephalocaudal axis of the anterior pituitary gland. However, there are age-related changes: from 5 to 11 weeks rises occur in both the mean total somatotroph volume per gland (64%) and the mean number of somatotrophs (78%), while the mean volume of the single somatotroph is unchanged. From 11 to 18 weeks the mean volume of the single somatotroph decreases 41%. From 18 to 26 weeks the mean volume of the somatotroph, the mean total somatotroph volume, and the mean number per gland do not change. Flow cytometry studies suggested that somatotrophs from adults have less growth hormone (GH) than somatotrophs from young birds. The increases in total somatotroph volume and number from 5 to 11 weeks are consistent with the rise in anterior pituitary GH reported previously. Basic quantitative morphological information about age-related changes in somatotrophs is reported here. When combined with additional facts from future work, they may explain the well-documented sharp decline in circulating GH from 5 to 11 weeks. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  6. Morphometry of small impact craters in the Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2 study areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Karachevtseva, I. P.; Gusakova, E. N.

    2014-03-01

    This work was based on analysis of LROC NAC images with resolution ~0.5 m per pixel for the Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod 2 study areas and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) produced from these images. On these images, craters≥7 m in diameter were identified and outlined and their diameters D and depths d were measured using the mentioned DEMs. Then the depth/diameter ratios (d/D) were determined and their analysis showed that only the measurements for craters with D≥20 m were reliable. In addition, the maximum slope of the crater inner walls was measured by two techniques. The d/D and the maximum slope were found well correlated and practically similar for the two study areas. These results were compared with the earlier published values of d/D and maximum slope of the crater inner walls that had been reported by Florensky et al. (1972a) and Basilevsky (1976) as typical for craters of certain morphologic classes. Analysis of d/D-frequency distribution showed that the crater degradation rate as a function of d/D had a characteristic bend suggesting that there are two different processes of crater degradation. One is rather quick and operates for craters with d/D above ~0.14 and the inner crater walls steeper than ~25o, the other, significantly slower process, operates for craters with the smaller relative depth and the gentler inner walls. The quick process with distinctive threshold is the downslope movement of the surface material by landslides and avalanches. The slow degradation without a threshold is probably contributed by crater filling by the ejecta from the near and distant craters and micrometeorite-induced diffusion creep of the regolith. These slow processes also operate on initial stage of crater degradation, but their role is minor in comparison to the quick processes. A critical evaluation of the novel method suggested by Sridharan et al. (2012) to forecast L-band scintillation is made using the results from a special campaign conducted from Trivandrum

  7. Mindboggling morphometry of human brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Forrest S.; Giard, Joachim; Stavsky, Eliezer; Lee, Noah; Rossa, Brian; Reuter, Martin; Chaibub Neto, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Mindboggle (http://mindboggle.info) is an open source brain morphometry platform that takes in preprocessed T1-weighted MRI data and outputs volume, surface, and tabular data containing label, feature, and shape information for further analysis. In this article, we document the software and demonstrate its use in studies of shape variation in healthy and diseased humans. The number of different shape measures and the size of the populations make this the largest and most detailed shape analysis of human brains ever conducted. Brain image morphometry shows great potential for providing much-needed biological markers for diagnosing, tracking, and predicting progression of mental health disorders. Very few software algorithms provide more than measures of volume and cortical thickness, while more subtle shape measures may provide more sensitive and specific biomarkers. Mindboggle computes a variety of (primarily surface-based) shapes: area, volume, thickness, curvature, depth, Laplace-Beltrami spectra, Zernike moments, etc. We evaluate Mindboggle’s algorithms using the largest set of manually labeled, publicly available brain images in the world and compare them against state-of-the-art algorithms where they exist. All data, code, and results of these evaluations are publicly available. PMID:28231282

  8. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Bomba,1,* Anna Riva,1,* Sabrina Morzenti,2 Marco Grimaldi,3 Francesca Neri,1 Renata Nacinovich1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Medical Physics Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, adolescent, gray matter, insula, voxel-based morphometry study

  9. Integration of diffusion tensor-based arcuate fasciculus fibre navigation and intraoperative MRI into glioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Sun, Guochen; Wang, Yubo; Song, Zhijun; Xu, Bainan

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of diffusion tensor-based arcuate fasciculus (AF) fibre navigation in combination with 1.5-Tesla (1.5-T) intraoperative MRI (iMRI) for the resection of gliomas involving eloquent language fibre tracts (AF tracts). Twenty patients with AF tract-involved gliomas in the dominant hemisphere were prospectively enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups. The normal group included nine patients with preoperative intact language function, while the aphasia group consisted of 11 patients who presented with different levels of conduction aphasia. The AF tractography results were integrated into three-dimensional (3D) datasets used for neuronavigation, and their course was superimposed onto the surgical field during glioma resection. The iMRI was used to compensate for the effects of brain shift and to evaluate the extent of resection. Fibre tract visualisation provided a quick and intuitive overview of the displaced course of the AF in 3D space and the surgical field under a microscope. At a 3-month to 6-month follow-up, only two patients from the normal group suffered exacerbated language deficits due to tumour recurrence. Meanwhile, language function in all patients in the aphasia group had improved. Therefore, AF neuronavigation, combined with 1.5 T iMRI, is a feasible method of maximising resection and minimising language deficits when removing gliomas that involve the AF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Nuclear Morphometry in Breast Cancer and its Correlation with Cytomorphological Grading of Breast Cancer: A Study of 64 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Anamika; Jain, Manjula; Shukla, Shailaja; Andley, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method of diagnosis of breast mass. Cytoprognostic grading in breast cancers is important to identify high-grade tumors. Computer-assisted image morphometric analysis has been developed to quantitate as well as standardize various grading systems. To apply nuclear morphometry on cytological aspirates of breast cancer and evaluate its correlation with cytomorphological grading with derivation of suitable cutoff values between various grades. Descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study. This study included 64 breast cancer cases (29 of grade 1, 22 of grade 2, and 13 of grade 3). Image analysis was performed on Papanicolaou stained FNAC slides by NIS -Elements Advanced Research software (Ver 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included 5 nuclear size, 2 shape, 4 texture, and 2 density parameters. Nuclear size parameters showed an increase in values with increasing cytological grades of carcinoma. Nuclear shape parameters were not found to be significantly different between the three grades. Among nuclear texture parameters, sum intensity, and sum brightness were found to be different between the three grades. Nuclear morphometry can be applied to augment the cytology grading of breast cancer and thus help in classifying patients into low and high-risk groups.

  11. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure.

  12. Grey matter volume differences associated with gender in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Villemonteix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Female participants have been underrepresented in previous structural magnetic resonance imaging reports on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry to examine grey matter volumes in a sample of 33 never-medicated children with combined-type ADHD and 27 typically developing (TD children. We found a gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, whereby boys with ADHD exhibited reduced volumes compared with TD boys, while girls with ADHD showed increased volumes when compared with TD girls. Considering the key role played by the ventral ACC in emotional regulation, we discuss the potential contribution of these alterations to gender-specific symptoms’ profiles in ADHD.

  13. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in regional gray matter volume in women with chronic pelvic pain - a voxel based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    As-Sanie, Sawsan; Harris, Richard; Napadow, Vitaly; Kim, Jieun; Neshewat, Gina; Kairys, Anson; Williams, David; Clauw, Daniel; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a highly prevalent pain condition, estimated to affect 15-20% of women in the United States. Endometriosis is often associated with CPP, however other factors, such as pre-existing or concomitant changes of the central pain system, might contribute to the development of chronic pain. We applied voxel-based morphometry to determine whether women with CPP with and without endometriosis display changes in brain morphology in regions known to be involved in pain processing.Four subgroups of women participated: 17 with endometriosis and CPP, 15 with endometriosis without CPP, 6 with CPP without endometriosis, as well as 23 healthy controls. All patients with endometriosis and/or CPP were surgically-confirmed. Relative to controls, women with endometriosis-associated CPP displayed decreased gray matter volume in brain regions involved in pain perception including the left thalamus, left cingulategyrus, right putamen, and right insula. Women with CPP without endometriosis also showed decreases in gray matter volume in the left thalamus. Such decreases were not observed in patients with endometriosis that had no CPP. We conclude thatCPP is associated with changes in regional gray matter volume within the central pain system. Although endometriosis may be an important risk factor for the development of CPP, acting as a cyclic source of peripheral nociceptive input, our data support the notion that changes in the central pain system also play an important role in the development of chronic pain, regardless of the presence of endometriosis. PMID:22387096

  15. Brain involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zikou, Anastasia K.; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kosmidou, Maria; Tsianos, Epameinondas [University of Ioannina, 1st Department of Internal Medicine (Hepato-Gastroenterology Unit), Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate structural brain changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 IBD patients (aged 45.16 ± 14.71 years) and 20 aged-matched control subjects. The imaging protocol consisted of a sagittal-FLAIR, a T1-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and a multisession spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences between patients and controls in brain volume and diffusion indices were evaluated using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods, respectively. The presence of white-matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) was evaluated on FLAIR images. VBM revealed decreased grey matter (GM) volume in patients in the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyrus bilaterally, the right precentral gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus (p < 0.05). TBSS showed decreased axial diffusivity (AD) in the right corticospinal tract and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus in patients compared with controls. A larger number of WMHIs was observed in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with IBD show an increase in WMHIs and GM atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis and ischaemia. Decreased AD in major white matter tracts could be a secondary phenomenon, representing Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  16. Atlas warping for brain morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexei M. C.; Gee, James C.

    1998-06-01

    In this work, we describe an automated approach to morphometry based on spatial normalizations of the data, and demonstrate its application to the analysis of gender differences in the human corpus callosum. The purpose is to describe a population by a reduced and representative set of variables, from which a prior model can be constructed. Our approach is rooted in the assumption that individual anatomies can be considered as quantitative variations on a common underlying qualitative plane. We can therefore imagine that a given individual's anatomy is a warped version of some referential anatomy, also known as an atlas. The spatial warps which transform a labeled atlas into anatomic alignment with a population yield immediate knowledge about organ size and shape in the group. Furthermore, variation within the set of spatial warps is directly related to the anatomic variation among the subjects. Specifically, the shape statistics--mean and variance of the mappings--for the population can be calculated in a special basis, and an eigendecomposition of the variance performed to identify the most significant modes of shape variation. The results obtained with the corpus callosum study confirm the existence of substantial anatomical differences between males and females, as reported in previous experimental work.

  17. A combined tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-based morphometry study of the first MRI scan after diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alruwaili, A R; Pannek, K; Coulthard, A; Henderson, R; Kurniawan, N D; McCombe, P

    2017-08-09

    This study aims to compare the cortical and subcortical deep gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of ALS subjects and controls and to compare ALS subjects with (ALScog) and without (ALSnon-cog) cognitive impairment. The study was performed in 30 ALS subjects, and 19 healthy controls. Structural T1- and diffusion-weighted MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). All DTI measures and GM volume differed significantly between ALS subjects and controls. Compared to controls, greater DTI changes were present in ALScog than ALSnon-cog subjects. GM results showed reduction in the caudate nucleus volume in ALScog subjects compared to ALSnon-cog. and comparing all ALS with controls, there were changes on the right side and in a small region in the left middle frontal gyrus. This combined DTI and VBM study showed changes in motor and extra-motor regions. The DTI changes were more extensive in ALScog than ALSnon-cog subjects. It is likely that the inclusion of ALS subjects with cognitive impairment in previous studies resulted in extra-motor WM abnormalities being reported in ALS subjects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Morphometry, asymmetry and variations of the sylvian fissure and sulci bordering and within the pars triangularis and pars operculum: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Olufemi Emmanuel; Soyemi, Sunday; Atobatele, Kazeem

    2014-11-01

    Speech and Language, one of the most lateralized of all cerebral functions is located within the pars opercularis (PO) and pars triangularis (PT). There is also inter-hemispheric variability of the sulcal contours bordering these areas. The study was undertaken to note the morphometry, asymmetry and variations of the Sylvian fissure (SF), and the sulci bordering and within the PO and PT. An adult autopsy cadaveric study was carried. The measurements made amongst others, included fronto-occipital cerebral length, cerebral width, Sylvian fissure length, and anterior Sylvian point (ASP) to inferior Rolandic point distance. The PT and PO were also studied. Sixty-two adult cadaveric hemispheres were studied. The SF length on the right (mean=84.3mm, median=88mm) was significantly shorter than that on the left (mean=89.4mm, median=92.0mm) (p=0.037). The anterior ascending and anterior horizontal rami of the SF arose from the ASP and either divides at this point (43 hemispheres, 69.4%) or have a common short stem before separating distally giving a Y-shape configuration. The triangularis sulcus was noted in 49 hemispheres (79%) while the diagonal sulcus was noted in 26 hemispheres (41.9%). The left SF was significantly longer than the right and both were positively correlated. The presence of the triangularis sulcus was not dependent on the side (p=0.348) or gender (0.622) unlike the diagonal sulcus was side dependent (p= 0.000).

  19. Females and males rely on different cortical regions in Raven's Matrices reasoning capacity: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Wenjing Yang

    Full Text Available Raven's Matrices test (RMT is a non-verbal test designed to assess individuals' ability to reason and solve new problems without relying extensively on declarative knowledge derived from schooling or previous experience. Despite a large number of behavioral studies that demonstrated gender differences in Raven's Matrices reasoning ability, no neural evidence supported this difference. In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used in an attempt to uncover the gender-specific neural basis of Raven's Matrices reasoning ability as measured by the combined Raven's Matrices test (CRT in 370 healthy young adults. The behavioral results showed no difference between males and females. However, the VBM results showed that the relationship between reasoning ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV differed between sexes. The association between CRT scores and rGMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (associated with visuospatial ability was significantly greater in males than in females, whereas the reverse was true for the inferior frontal cortex (relating to verbal reasoning ability and the medial frontal cortex (engaged in information binding where the association was greater in females. These findings suggest that males and females use differently structured brains in different ways to achieve similar levels of overall Raven's Matrices reasoning ability.

  20. The gray matter volume of the amygdala is correlated with the perception of melodic intervals: a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Xueting Li

    Full Text Available Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264. Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses.

  1. Fiber connections between the cerebral cortex and the corpus callosum in Alzheimer's disease: a diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydykova, Djyldyz; Stahl, Robert; Dietrich, Olaf; Ewers, Michael; Reiser, Maximilian F; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hampel, Harald; Teipel, Stefan J

    2007-10-01

    Regional cortical atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) most likely reflects the loss of cortical neurons. Several diffusion tensor imaging studies reported reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between reduced FA in the corpus callosum and gray matter atrophy in AD. Thirteen patients with AD with a mean (+/-standard deviation) age of 68.3 years (+/-11.5) and mean Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 21.8 (+/-4.8) were recruited. There were 13 control subjects with a mean age of 66.7 years (+/-6.4) and MMSE of 29.1 (+/-0.7). We used voxel-based morphometry of gray matter maps and region of interest-based analysis of FA in the corpus callosum. FA values of the anterior corpus callosum in AD patients were significantly correlated with gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and left parietal lobes. FA values of the posterior corpus callosum were significantly correlated with gray matter volume in the bilateral frontal, temporal, right parietal, and occipital lobes. In control subjects, no correlations were detected. Our findings suggest that decline of FA in the corpus callosum may be related to neuronal degeneration in corresponding cortical areas.

  2. Brainstem dysfunction in patients with late-onset Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study

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    Kang Min Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been a few reports of patients who developed Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS in the second decades of their life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate electroclinical presentation in patients with late-onset LGS. In addition, we evaluated structural abnormalities of the brain, which may give some clue about the common pathogenic pathway in LGS. Materials and Methods: We enrolled the patients with late-onset LGS. We collected electroclinical characteristics of the patients and evaluated structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis. Results: The three subjects were diagnosed with late-onset LGS. The patients have no mental retardation and normal background activities on electroencephalography (EEG, and they had generalized paroxysmal fast activities on EEG, especially during sleep. The TBSS analysis revealed that fractional anisotropy values in the patients were significantly reduced in the white matter of brainstem compared with normal controls. However, VBM analysis did not show any significant difference between the patients and normal controls. Conclusions: Patients with late-onset LGS have different clinical and EEG characteristics from those with early-onset LGS. In addition, we demonstrated that brainstem dysfunction might contribute to the pathogenesis of late-onset LGS.

  3. The structural neural substrates of persistent negative symptoms in first-episode of non-affective psychosis: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eBenoit

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: An important subset of patients with schizophrenia present clinically significant persistent negative symptoms (PNS. Identifying the neural substrates of PNS could help improve our understanding and treatment of these symptoms. Methods: This study included 64 non-affective first-episode of psychosis (FEP patients and 60 healthy controls; 16 patients displayed PNS (i.e., at least 1 primary negative symptom at moderate or worse severity sustained for at least 6 consecutive months. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM, we explored for grey matter differences between PNS and non-PNS patients; patient groups were also compared to controls. All comparisons were performed at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons.Results: PNS patients had smaller grey matter in the right frontal medial-orbital gyrus (extending into the inferior frontal gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus (extending into the fusiform gyrus compared to non-PNS patients. Compared to controls, PNS patients had smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal gyrus (extending into the fusiform gyrus and superior temporal gyrus; non-PNS patients showed no significant differences to controls. Conclusions: Neural substrates of persistent negative symptoms are evident in FEP patients. A better understanding of the neural etiology of PNS may encourage the search for new medications and/or alternative treatments to better help those affected.

  4. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Oser, Nadine; Urfer-Maurer, Natalie; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Bechtel, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Datta, Alexandre N

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA) with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age. We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females) enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm), 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm), and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm)) all born appropriate for GA (AGA) and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education. Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children. In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  5. Early Gray-Matter and White-Matter Concentration in Infancy Predict Later Language Skills: A Whole Brain Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months.…

  6. A comparative study of the morphometry of sperm head components in cattle, sheep, and pigs with a computer-assisted fluorescence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús L Yániz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the sperm nuclear and acrosomal morphometry of three species of domestic artiodactyls; cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, and pigs (Sus scrofa. Semen smears of twenty ejaculates from each species were fixed and labeled with a propidium iodide-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PI/PSA combination. Digital images of the sperm nucleus, acrosome, and whole sperm head were captured and analyzed. The use of the PI/PSA combination and CASA-Morph fluorescence-based method allowed the capture, morphometric analysis, and differentiation of most sperm nuclei, acrosomes and whole heads, and the assessment of acrosomal integrity with a high precision in the three species studied. For the size of the head and nuclear area, the relationship between the three species may be summarized as bull > ram > boar. However, for the other morphometric parameters (length, width, and perimeter, there were differences in the relationships between species for sperm nuclei and whole sperm heads. Bull sperm acrosomes were clearly smaller than those in the other species studied and covered a smaller proportion of the sperm head. The acrosomal morphology, small in the bull, large and broad in the sheep, and large, long, and with a pronounced equatorial segment curve in the boar, was species-characteristic. It was concluded that there are clear variations in the size and shape of the sperm head components between the three species studied, the acrosome being the structure showing the most variability, allowing a clear distinction of the spermatozoa of each species.

  7. Structural Changes Induced by Daily Music Listening in the Recovering Brain after Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain. PMID:24860466

  8. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppo eSärkämö

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis utilizing cost-function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural MRI data of the patients (n = 49 who either listened to their favourite music (music group, n = 16 or verbal material (audio book group, n = 18 or did not receive any listening material (control group, n = 15 during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant grey matter volume (GMV increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral / subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC and right ventral striatum (VS] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the music group than in the audio book and control groups. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioural recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  9. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  10. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

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    Jing Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, panic disorder (PD with and without agoraphobia (GA, and specific phobia (SP are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5 represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. METHODS: A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD, age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA, drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and

  11. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Ming-Yuan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p < 0.001, uncorrected, cluster size >100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  12. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Fu, Yuchuan; Ren, Zhengjia; Zhang, Tao; Du, Mingying; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (GA), and specific phobia (SP) are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5) represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs) were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA), drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and fear, and the importance of the ventral anterior

  13. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Carina; Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions.

  14. Incidence, morphology and morphometry of the foramen of Vesalius: complementary study for a safer planning and execution of the trigeminal rhizotomy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, André Luis; de Souza Melo, Carina Guimarães; Silveira, Elcia Maria Varize; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; de Castro Rodrigues, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    The foramen of Vesalius (FV) is located in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone between the foramen ovale (FO) and the foramen rotundum in an intracranial view. The FO allows the passage of the mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve, which is the target of the trigeminal radiofrequency rhizotomy. We analyzed its location, morphology, morphometry and interrelation among other foramina. 400 macerated adult human skulls were examined. A digital microscope (Dino-Lite plus) was used to capture images from the FV. A digital caliper was used to perform the measurements of the distance between the FV and other foramina (FO, foramen spinosum and the carotid canal) in an extracranial view of the skull base. In the 400 analyzed skulls, the FV was identified in 135 skulls (33.75%) and absent on both sides in 265 skulls (66.25%). The FV was observed present bilaterally in 15.5% of the skulls. The incidence of unilateral foramen was 18.25% of the skulls of which 7.75% on right side and 10.5% on left side. The diameter of the FV was measured and we found an average value of 0.65 mm, on right side 0.63 mm and on the left side 0.67 mm. We verified that positive correlations were statistically significant among the three analyzed distances. This study intends to offer specific anatomical data with morphological patterns (macroscopic and mesoscopic) to increase the understanding of the FV features as frequency, incidence and important distances among adjacent foramina.

  15. Association of creative achievement with cognitive flexibility by a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Haijiang; Lei, Qiao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-11-15

    Although researchers generally concur that creativity involves the production of novel and useful products, the neural basis of creativity remains elusive due to the complexity of the cognitive processes involved. Recent studies have shown that highly creative individuals displayed more cognitive flexibility. However, direct evidence supporting the relationship between creativity and cognitive flexibility has rarely been investigated using both structural and functional neuroimaging techniques. We used a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis to investigate the relationship between individual creativity ability assessed by the creative achievement questionnaire (CAQ), and regional gray matter volume (GMV), as well as intrinsic functional connectivity. Results showed that CAQ scores negatively correlated with GMV in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral dorsal ACC (dACC) extending to supplementary motor area, but positively correlated with GMV in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Further functional connectivity analysis revealed that higher creative achievement was inversely associated with the strength of rsFC between the dACC and medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), right middle frontal gyrus, and left orbito-frontal insula. Moreover, the association between the dACC-mSFG connectivity and CAQ scores was mediated by cognitive flexibility, assessed by a task-switching paradigm. These findings indicate that individual differences in creative achievement are associated with both brain structure and corresponding intrinsic functional connectivity involved in cognitive flexibility and deliberate creative processing. Furthermore, dACC-mSFG connectivity may affect creative achievement through its impact on cognitive flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O.; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions. PMID:28771634

  17. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Saarela

    Full Text Available Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions.

  18. Deformation-based brain morphometry in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaser, Christian; Schmidt, Silvio; Metzler, Martin; Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Krumbein, Ines; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Witte, Otto W

    2012-10-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based morphometry provides in vivo evidence for macro-structural plasticity of the brain. Experiments on small animals using automated morphometric methods usually require expensive measurements with ultra-high field dedicated animal MRI systems. Here, we developed a novel deformation-based morphometry (DBM) tool for automated analyses of rat brain images measured on a 3-Tesla clinical whole body scanner with appropriate coils. A landmark-based transformation of our customized reference brain into the coordinates of the widely used rat brain atlas from Paxinos and Watson (Paxinos Atlas) guarantees the comparability of results to other studies. For cross-sectional data, we warped images onto the reference brain using the low-dimensional nonlinear registration implemented in the MATLAB software package SPM8. For the analysis of longitudinal data sets, we chose high-dimensional registrations of all images of one data set to the first baseline image which facilitate the identification of more subtle structural changes. Because all deformations were finally used to transform the data into the space of the Paxinos Atlas, Jacobian determinants could be used to estimate absolute local volumes of predefined regions-of-interest. Pilot experiments were performed to analyze brain structural changes due to aging or photothrombotically-induced cortical stroke. The results support the utility of DBM based on commonly available clinical whole-body scanners for highly sensitive morphometric studies on rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphometry Dynamical of Siombak Lake, Medan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muhtadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Siombak lake (28 ha area was a salty lake located in Medan coastal, Indonesia. Water fluctuation influenced by the sea tide. Therefore, it needed to do morphometry dynamical study as the first impression of lake physical characteristic. The purpose of this study was to understand the dynamical of Siombak lake morphometry. The research was done in September 2016. Lake mapping was done by making 100 line zig zag and draw with ArcMap. Bathymetry showed that the bottom of the lake was sloping at the center part of west and southeast of the lake, and steeping at north, south and east. Siombak Lake has shoreline length 2,535.78 m, with SDI value 2.70. Maximum length 756 m, with maximum width 246.15 m. Lake maximum depth was 17.7 m at MSL, 18.98 m at highest tide and 16.71 m at lowest tide, with average depth 5.33 m at MSL, 6.30 m at highest tide and 4.30 m at lowest tide. Lake volume was 783,607.16 m3 at MSL, 829,395.52 m3 at highest tide and 355,544.14 m3 at lowest tide, with water debit around 32.50 – 50.17 m3s-1. Water retention time was ± 4.33 – 6.75 hours

  20. Longitudinal gray matter contraction in three variants of primary progressive aphasia: A tenser-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Brambati, Simona Maria; Amici, Serena; Racine, Caroline A.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Zachary; Ogar, Jenny; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce L; Rosen, Howard; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the pattern of longitudinal changes in cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Eight patients with the non-fluent variant of PPA (nfvPPA), 13 patients with the semantic variant (svPPA), seven patients with the logopenic variant (lvPPA), and 29 age-matched, neurologically healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent longitudinal MRI, neuropsychological and language testing at baseline and at a 1-yea...

  1. Testicular morphometry and sperm reserves of local turkey toms fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometry and sperm reserves of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of three groups (n=5/ group) of sexually active adult local turkey toms fed isocaloric diet with varying levels (12 %, 16 %, 20 %) of protein were studied for sixteen weeks. The weights of the toms before treatment were between 3.5 – 4.5 kg, while ...

  2. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding graded levels of cassava leaf meal (CLM) on genital tract morphometry and haematology of twenty 8-week old male rabbits weighing between 815 to 910g. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments viz: T (control), T , T and T with CLM inclusion ...

  3. Significance of wing morphometry in distinguishing some of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... morphometric wing measurement data from different families in Hymenoptera group. In this study, the possibilities of ... evolutionary connection to the wing morphometry should be examined. MATERIALS AND ..... genus, that the wing structure would make the largest contribution in the classification of these ...

  4. Effect of obestatin on morphometry of testes and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic intra peritoneal administration of obestatin on plasma testosterone concentrations and cellular morphometry of the testes in male Sprague Dawly rats. The treatment groups were injected with obestatin (1 nmol/100 μl saline i.p), while the control groups received ...

  5. Morphometry and micromorphometry analyses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRT

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... Studies on seed morphology with scanning electron microscope (SEM) have revealed taxonomically useful micro- characters. The present study was performed to study morphological and micromorphological features in seven Silene species and subspecies in the sect Auriculatae and Inflatae growing in ...

  6. Morphometry of the Myopectineal Orifice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    Morphometry of the Myopectineal Orifice: Relevance in Prosthesis Hernia Repair. B.M. Ndung'u, .C. Koech, M.K. Tharao. Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. СФФЗХТСРЖЗРЕЗ ЦС Dr. Bernard M. Ndungsu, Email: bmndungu@yahoo.com. ГЕНЙФСЧРЖ ОО ЙФСЛР КЗФРЛГХ ...

  7. A novel cadaveric study of the morphometry of the serratus anterior muscle: one part, two parts, three parts, four?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alexandra Louise; O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Stokes, Maria; Mottram, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented. Orientation and size of each fascicle were measured and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) calculated. Three subdivisions of the serratus anterior were identified. A new finding was the discovery of two distinctive fascicles attached to the superior and inferior aspects of rib 2. The rib 2 inferior fascicle had the largest PCSA (mean 1.6 cm 2 ) and attached, with the rib 3 fascicle, along the medial border of the scapula to form the middle division. The rib 2 superior and rib 1 fascicles attached to the superior angle of the scapula (upper division). Fascicles from ribs 4-8/9 attached to the inferior angle of the scapula (lower division). Mean fascicle angle relative to a vertical midline reference and PCSA for each division were 29° and 1.3 cm 2 (upper), 90° and 2.2 cm 2 (middle) and 59° and 3.0 cm 2 (lower). This novel study demonstrated the presence of morphologically distinct serratus anterior subdivisions. The results of this study will inform the development of optimal techniques for the assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of this architecturally complex muscle in shoulder and neck pain.

  8. Morphometry Predicts Early GFR Change in Primary Proteinuric Glomerulopathies: A Longitudinal Cohort Study Using Generalized Estimating Equations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin V Lemley

    Full Text Available Most predictive models of kidney disease progression have not incorporated structural data. If structural variables have been used in models, they have generally been only semi-quantitative.We examined the predictive utility of quantitative structural parameters measured on the digital images of baseline kidney biopsies from the NEPTUNE study of primary proteinuric glomerulopathies. These variables were included in longitudinal statistical models predicting the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR over up to 55 months of follow-up.The participants were fifty-six pediatric and adult subjects from the NEPTUNE longitudinal cohort study who had measurements made on their digital biopsy images; 25% were African-American, 70% were male and 39% were children; 25 had focal segmental glomerular sclerosis, 19 had minimal change disease, and 12 had membranous nephropathy. We considered four different sets of candidate predictors, each including four quantitative structural variables (for example, mean glomerular tuft area, cortical density of patent glomeruli and two of the principal components from the correlation matrix of six fractional cortical areas-interstitium, atrophic tubule, intact tubule, blood vessel, sclerotic glomerulus, and patent glomerulus along with 13 potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables (such as race, age, diagnosis, and baseline eGFR, quantitative proteinuria and BMI. We used longitudinal linear models based on these 17 variables to predict the change in eGFR over up to 55 months. All 4 models had a leave-one-out cross-validated R2 of about 62%.Several combinations of quantitative structural variables were significantly and strongly associated with changes in eGFR. The structural variables were generally stronger than any of the confounding variables, other than baseline eGFR. Our findings suggest that quantitative assessment of diagnostic renal biopsies may play a role in estimating the baseline

  9. Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells morphometry on the species determinism of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezar Adili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This survey was realized on cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and dogs, in order to study the influence of three morphometric parameters: the diameter, the circumference and the surface of red blood cells on the determinism of these species. Materials and Methods: For each species, blood samples were taken from 15 adult female by jugular venipuncture with confection of blood smears on microscope slides immediately after blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the software OPTIKA Pro Vision. To better describe the results, the statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive Boxplots test, ANOVA, and the Student's t-test. Results: The morphometric parameters of red blood cells are biggest in dogs followed by horses, cattle, and sheep, while goats have the lowest ones. Conclusion: This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea about the animal species taking into account the diameter, the circumference, and the surface of erythrocytes.

  10. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations associated With Ambient Fine Particles in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Casanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5µm has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure.Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1,365 women (aged 71-89 in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space. Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM and white matter (WM maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked WM decreased volumes to PM2.5 air pollution, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  11. Default-mode network changes in Huntington's disease: an integrated MRI study of functional connectivity and morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Quarantelli

    Full Text Available Previous MRI studies of functional connectivity in pre-symptomatic mutation carriers of Huntington's disease (HD have shown dysfunction of the Default-Mode Network (DMN. No data however are currently available on the DMN alterations in the symptomatic stages of the disease, which are characterized by cortical atrophy involving several DMN nodes. We assessed DMN integrity and its possible correlations with motor and cognitive symptoms in 26 symptomatic HD patients as compared to 22 normal volunteers, by analyzing resting state functional MRI data, using the Precuneal Cortex/Posterior Cingulate Cortices (PC/PCC as seed, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Direct correlation with PC/PCC was decreased, without correlation with atrophy, in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (including anterior cingulate and subgenual cortex, right dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, and in the right inferior parietal cortex (mainly involving the angular gyrus. Negative correlations with PC/PCC were decreased bilaterally in the inferior parietal cortices, while a cluster in the right middle occipital gyrus presented increased correlation with PC/PCC. DMN changes in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex significantly correlated with the performance at the Stroop test (p = .0002. Widespread DMN changes, not correlating with the atrophy of the involved nodes, are present in symptomatic HD patients, and correlate with cognitive disturbances.

  12. Morphometry of Glenoid Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Knowledge of the shape and dimensions of the glenoid are important in the design and fitting of glenoid components for total shoulder arthroplasty. An understanding of variations in normal anatomy of the glenoid is essential while evaluating pathological conditions like osseous Bankart lesions and osteochondral defects. Methods: This study was done on 202 dry, unpaired adult human scapulae of unknown sex belonging to the south Indian population. Three glenoid diameters were measured, the superior-inferior diameter, anterior-posterior diameter of the lower half and the anterior-posterior diameter of the upper half of the glenoid. Based on a notch present on the anterior glenoid rim, variations in the shape of the glenoid cavity were classified as inverted comma shaped, pear shaped and oval. Results: The average superior-inferior diameter on right and the left sides were 33.67±2.82mm and 33.92±2.87mm respectively. The average anterior-posterior diameter of the lower half of the right glenoid was 23.35±2.04mm and that of the left was 23.02±2.30mm. The mean diameter of the upper half of the right glenoid was 16.27±2.01mm and that of the left was 15.77±1.96mm. Conclusion: The dimensions of the glenoid observed in the present study were lesser than those recorded in the studies done on other populations. This fact may be taken into consideration while designing glenoid prostheses for the south Indian population. The current study recorded a higher percentage of glenoid cavities having the glenoid notch as compared to earlier studies. While evaluating defects/lesions of the glenoid, this fact could be useful.

  13. EEG Classification for Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Using a Tensor Based Multiclass Multimodal Analysis Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongfei; Li, Jie; Lu, Rongrong; Gu, Rong; Cao, Lei; Gong, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram- (EEG-) based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems usually utilize one type of changes in the dynamics of brain oscillations for control, such as event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS), steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), and P300 evoked potentials. There is a recent trend to detect more than one of these signals in one system to create a hybrid BCI. However, in this case, EEG data were always divided into groups and analyzed by the separate processing procedures. As a result, the interactive effects were ignored when different types of BCI tasks were executed simultaneously. In this work, we propose an improved tensor based multiclass multimodal scheme especially for hybrid BCI, in which EEG signals are denoted as multiway tensors, a nonredundant rank-one tensor decomposition model is proposed to obtain nonredundant tensor components, a weighted fisher criterion is designed to select multimodal discriminative patterns without ignoring the interactive effects, and support vector machine (SVM) is extended to multiclass classification. Experiment results suggest that the proposed scheme can not only identify the different changes in the dynamics of brain oscillations induced by different types of tasks but also capture the interactive effects of simultaneous tasks properly. Therefore, it has great potential use for hybrid BCI.

  14. A tensor-based subspace approach for bistatic MIMO radar in spatial colored noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianpeng; Wang, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Junxiang

    2014-02-25

    In this paper, a new tensor-based subspace approach is proposed to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and the direction of arrival (DOA) for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise. Firstly, the received signals can be packed into a third-order measurement tensor by exploiting the inherent structure of the matched filter. Then, the measurement tensor can be divided into two sub-tensors, and a cross-covariance tensor is formulated to eliminate the spatial colored noise. Finally, the signal subspace is constructed by utilizing the higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) of the cross-covariance tensor, and the DOD and DOA can be obtained through the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) algorithm, which are paired automatically. Since the multidimensional inherent structure and the cross-covariance tensor technique are used, the proposed method provides better angle estimation performance than Chen's method, the ESPRIT algorithm and the multi-SVD method. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness and the advantage of the proposed method.

  15. A Tensor-Based Subspace Approach for Bistatic MIMO Radar in Spatial Colored Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianpeng Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new tensor-based subspace approach is proposed to estimate the direction of departure (DOD and the direction of arrival (DOA for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar in the presence of spatial colored noise. Firstly, the received signals can be packed into a third-order measurement tensor by exploiting the inherent structure of the matched filter. Then, the measurement tensor can be divided into two sub-tensors, and a cross-covariance tensor is formulated to eliminate the spatial colored noise. Finally, the signal subspace is constructed by utilizing the higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD of the cross-covariance tensor, and the DOD and DOA can be obtained through the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT algorithm, which are paired automatically. Since the multidimensional inherent structure and the cross-covariance tensor technique are used, the proposed method provides better angle estimation performance than Chen’s method, the ESPRIT algorithm and the multi-SVD method. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness and the advantage of the proposed method.

  16. A Tensor-Based Subspace Approach for Bistatic MIMO Radar in Spatial Colored Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianpeng; Wang, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Junxiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new tensor-based subspace approach is proposed to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and the direction of arrival (DOA) for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise. Firstly, the received signals can be packed into a third-order measurement tensor by exploiting the inherent structure of the matched filter. Then, the measurement tensor can be divided into two sub-tensors, and a cross-covariance tensor is formulated to eliminate the spatial colored noise. Finally, the signal subspace is constructed by utilizing the higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) of the cross-covariance tensor, and the DOD and DOA can be obtained through the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) algorithm, which are paired automatically. Since the multidimensional inherent structure and the cross-covariance tensor technique are used, the proposed method provides better angle estimation performance than Chen's method, the ESPRIT algorithm and the multi-SVD method. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness and the advantage of the proposed method. PMID:24573313

  17. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  18. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khamis, Fathiya M; Masiga, Daniel K; Mohamed, Samira A; Salifu, Daisy; de Meyer, Marc; Ekesi, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    .... In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated...

  19. Numerical transcoding proficiency in 10-year-old schoolchildren is associated with grey-matter interindividual differences: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eLubin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  20. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  1. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Shan Baoci, E-mail: shanbc@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  2. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Medicas]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Pereira, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Dire, Glaucio; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Rocha, Emely Kazan [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Celular e Genetica

    2005-10-15

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P<0.05), probably caused by metabolites generated by EGb and capable of altering the bioavailability of the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}. (author)

  3. [Voxel-Based Morphometry in Autism Spectrum Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder shows deficits in social communication and interaction including nonverbal communicative behaviors (e.g., eye contact, gestures, voice prosody, and facial expressions) and restricted and repetitive behaviors as its core symptoms. These core symptoms are emerged as an atypical behavioral development in toddlers with the disorder. Atypical neural development is considered to be a neural underpinning of such behaviorally atypical development. A number of studies using voxel-based morphometry have already been conducted to compare regional brain volumes between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development. Furthermore, more than ten papers employing meta-analyses of the comparisons using voxel based morphometry between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development have already been published. The current review paper adds some brief discussions about potential factors contributing to the inconsistency observed in the previous findings such as difficulty in controlling the confounding effects of different developmental phases among study participants.

  4. Volcano morphometry and volume scaling on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1994-03-01

    A broad variety of volcanic edifices have been observed on Venus. They ranged in size from the limits of resolution of the Magellan SAR (i.e., hundreds of meters) to landforms over 500 km in basal diameter. One of the key questions pertaining to volcanism on Venus concerns the volume eruption rate or VER, which is linked to crustal productivity over time. While less than 3 percent of the surface area of Venus is manifested as discrete edifices larger than 50 km in diameter, a substantial component of the total crustal volume of the planet over the past 0.5 Ga is related to isolated volcanoes, which are certainly more easily studied than the relatively diffusely defined plains volcanic flow units. Thus, we have focused our efforts on constraining the volume productivity of major volcanic edifices larger than 100 km in basal diameter. Our approach takes advantage of the topographic data returned by Magellan, as well as our database of morphometric statistics for the 20 best known lava shields of Iceland, plus Mauna Loa of Hawaii. As part of this investigation, we have quantified the detailed morphometry of nearly 50 intermediate to large scale edifices, with particular attention to their shape systematics. We found that a set of venusian edifices which include Maat, Sapas, Tepev, Sif, Gula, a feature at 46 deg S, 215 deg E, as well as the shield-like structure at 10 deg N, 275 deg E are broadly representative of the approx. 400 volcanic landforms larger than 50 km. The cross-sectional shapes of these 7 representative edifices range from flattened cones (i.e., Sif) similar to classic terrestrial lava shields such as Mauna Loa and Skjaldbreidur, to rather dome-like structures which include Maat and Sapas. The majority of these larger volcanoes surveyed as part of our study displayed cross-sectional topographies with paraboloidal shaped, in sharp contrast with the cone-like appearance of most simple terrestrial lava shields. In order to more fully explore the

  5. Ethnic differences in COMT genetic effects on striatal grey matter alterations associated with childhood ADHD: A voxel-based morphometry study in a Japanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Koji; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Naruse, Hiroaki; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tomoda, Akemi

    2017-06-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in the dopaminergic fronto-striatal systems mediating higher-level cognitive functions. We hypothesised that a dopamine-regulating gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), would have differential effects on the neural systems of different ethnic samples with ADHD. In Caucasian children with ADHD, the COMT Val-homozygotes have been previously shown to be associated with striatal grey matter volume (GMV) alterations. By using voxel-based morphometry, we examined whether Asian children with ADHD would exhibit a pattern opposite to that found in Caucasian samples. Structural brain images were obtained for Japanese children with ADHD (n = 17; mean age = 10.3 years) and typically developing (TD) children (n = 15; mean age = 12.8 years). COMT Val158Met genotype data were also obtained for the ADHD group. Reduced GMV in the left striatum was observed in the ADHD group versus the TD group. This reduced GMV was modulated by COMT polymorphism; Met-carriers exhibited smaller striatal GMV than the Val/Val genotype. Contrasting with previous findings in Caucasians, the COMT Met allele was associated with striatal GMV alterations in Japanese children with ADHD. These results suggest the existence of ethnic differences in the COMT genetic effect on ADHD-related striatal abnormalities.

  6. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  7. Morphometry, geometry, function, and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnulty, Kieran P; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of geometric morphometrics (GM) in biological anthropology and more broadly throughout the biological sciences has resulted in a multitude of studies that adopt landmark-based approaches for addressing a variety of questions in evolutionary morphology. In some cases, particularly in the realm of systematics, the fit between research question and analytical design is quite good. Functional-adaptive studies, however, do not readily conform to the methods available in the GM toolkit. The symposium organized by Terhune and Cooke entitled "Assessing function via shape: What is the place of GM in functional morphology?" held at the 2013 meetings of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was designed specifically to explore this relationship between landmark-based methods and analyses of functional morphology, and the articles in this special issue, which stem in large part from this symposium, provide numerous examples of how the two approaches can complement and contrast each other. Here, we underscore some of the major difficulties in interpreting GM results within a functional regime. In combination with other contributions in this issue, we identify emerging areas of research that will help bridge the gap between multivariate morphometry and functional-adaptive analysis. Ultimately, neither geometric nor functional morphometric approaches is sufficient to elaborate the adaptive pathways that explain morphological evolution through natural selection. These perspectives must be further integrated with research from physiology, developmental biology, genomics, and ecology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Localization of spatially distributed brain sources after a tensor-based preprocessing of interictal epileptic EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albera, L; Becker, H; Karfoul, A; Gribonval, R; Kachenoura, A; Bensaid, S; Senhadji, L; Hernandez, A; Merlet, I

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the localization of spatially distributed sources from interictal epileptic electroencephalographic data after a tensor-based preprocessing. Justifying the Canonical Polyadic (CP) model of the space-time-frequency and space-time-wave-vector tensors is not an easy task when two or more extended sources have to be localized. On the other hand, the occurrence of several amplitude modulated spikes originating from the same epileptic region can be used to build a space-time-spike tensor from the EEG data. While the CP model of this tensor appears more justified, the exact computation of its loading matrices can be limited by the presence of highly correlated sources or/and a strong background noise. An efficient extended source localization scheme after the tensor-based preprocessing has then to be set up. Different strategies are thus investigated and compared on realistic simulated data: the "disk algorithm" using a precomputed dictionary of circular patches, a standardized Tikhonov regularization and a fused LASSO scheme.

  9. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4 and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na99mTcO4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na99mTcO4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (PSubstâncias podem interferir na biodisponibilidade de radiobiocomplexos, como os radiofármacos. O extrato de Ginkgo Biloba (EGb apresenta efeitos. Avaliou-se a influência de um EGb na biodisponibilidade do pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO-4Na e na morfometria de órgãos de ratos que foram tratados com EGb. 99mTcO-4Na foi injetado, os animais sacrificados e a radioatividade nos órgãos contada. Os resultados mostraram que o EGb alterou a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na em rins, fígado e duodeno e alterações morfométricas significativas (p<0.05 foram encontradas. Sugere-se que o EGb poderia gerar metabólitos capazes de alterar morfometricamente os órgãos citados e alterar a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na.

  10. The neuroanatomy of subthreshold depressive symptoms in Huntington's disease: a combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengelmeyer, R; Orth, M; Müller, H-P; Wolf, R C; Grön, G; Depping, M S; Kassubek, J; Justo, D; Rees, E M; Haider, S; Cole, J H; Hobbs, N Z; Roos, R A C; Dürr, A; Tabrizi, S J; Süssmuth, S D; Landwehrmeyer, G B

    2014-07-01

    Depressive symptoms are prominent psychopathological features of Huntington's disease (HD), making a negative impact on social functioning and well-being. We compared the frequencies of a history of depression, previous suicide attempts and current subthreshold depression between 61 early-stage HD participants and 40 matched controls. The HD group was then split based on the overall HD group's median Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression score into a group of 30 non-depressed participants (mean 0.8, s.d. = 0.7) and a group of 31 participants with subthreshold depressive symptoms (mean 7.3, s.d. = 3.5) to explore the neuroanatomy underlying subthreshold depressive symptoms in HD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Frequencies of history of depression, previous suicide attempts or current subthreshold depressive symptoms were higher in HD than in controls. The severity of current depressive symptoms was also higher in HD, but not associated with the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden. Compared with the non-depressed HD group DTI revealed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula and cerebellum of the HD group with subthreshold depressive symptoms. In contrast, VBM measures were similar in both HD groups. A history of depression, the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden did not correlate with FA values of these regions. Current subthreshold depressive symptoms in early HD are associated with microstructural changes - without concomitant brain volume loss - in brain regions known to be involved in major depressive disorder, but not those typically associated with HD pathology.

  11. Behavioral impulsivity mediates the relationship between decreased frontal gray matter volume and harmful alcohol drinking: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröpper, Sonja; Spengler, Stephanie; Stuke, Heiner; Gawron, Christiane K; Parnack, Jenny; Gutwinski, Stefan; Wiers, Corinde E; Bermpohl, Felix

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) with harmful drinking patterns is on the one hand characterized by impulsive behavior and is on the other hand known to involve structural brain alterations with lower gray matter volume (GMV), especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). So far it is unclear whether frontal brain volumes are associated to harmful alcohol drinking and impulsivity, while controlling simultaneously for a wide array of important confounding factors, which are related to alcohol consumption. We used voxel-based morphometry in 99 adults ranging within a continuum of normal to harmful drinking behavior and alcohol dependence, measured by the 'Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test', to examine whether the severity of harmful drinking is correlated with structural markers, in particular in the PFC and whether such markers are linked to self-reported impulsivity. We included alcohol and nicotine lifetime exposure, age, education, and BMI as covariates to control that GMV decreases were not related to those factors. Harmful drinking was associated with lower GMV in the right frontal pole, left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior parietal lobe. GMV loss in the PFC regions was correlated with increased impulsivity. Follow-up mediation analyses showed that the relationship between GMV in the frontal pole and harmful drinking was mediated by impulsivity. Our findings show that PFC reductions are associated with harmful drinking and impulsivity. Our data suggest that reduced frontal pole GM, independent of a number of alcohol drinking associated covariates, e.g. lifetime alcohol consumption, is related to impaired top-down control of alcohol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproductive tract morphometry and some haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluated for reproductive tract morphometry and some haematological characteristics. The results showed similarities (P>0.05) between the diets for all the parameters evaluated. The results suggest that dietary. PPM up to 30% level of inclusion may support normal body functions and the physiology of reproduction in ...

  13. Coracobrachialis muscle: morphology, morphometry and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilayperuma, Isurani; Nanayakkara, B G; Hasan, R; Uluwitiya, S M; Palahepitiya, K N

    2016-04-01

    Coracobrachialis (CBM) is a complex muscle with a wide range of variations in its morphology and innervation. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphology, morphometry, gender differences of CBM and precise anatomical position of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in an adult Sri Lankan population. Cadaveric upper limbs (n = 312) were examined for the proximal and distal attachments, length, width, thickness of CBM and its relationship with the MCN. The CBM originated from the tip of the coracoid process of the scapula and lateral, posterior and medial aspects of the tendon of short head of biceps brachii. Gender differences were observed in all morphometrical parameters of CBM. In 83.33 %, MCN perforated the CBM. In 50 % the MCN pierced the middle one-third of CBM while none pierced the lower one-third. The distance from the coracoid process to the point of entry of MCN into CBM (distance P) was 50.62 mm. A positive correlation was observed between the arm length and distance P indicating that arm length provides an accurate and reliable means of gauging the distance P of an individual. The present study provides new evidence pertaining to the origin of CBM. Further, it was revealed that the predicted distance P of any upper extremity can be calculated by dividing the arm length by 5. Precise anatomical location of MCN in relation to CBM using unequivocal and well-defined anatomical landmarks will be imperative in modern surgical procedures.

  14. Demonstration of decreased gray matter concentration in the midbrain encompassing the dorsal raphe nucleus and the limbic subcortical regions in major depressive disorder: an optimized voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Tae, Woo Suk; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Byeong-Taek; Paik, Jong-Woo; Son, Kyu-Ri; Oh, Yu-Whan; Lee, Min-Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2011-09-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have reported changes in several brain areas, such as the medial and dorsolateral orbital cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent, and relatively few studies have been conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect gray matter concentration (GMC) abnormalities in patients with MDD. We examined 47 MDD patients and 51 healthy controls to investigate structural abnormalities using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging system, which was normalized to a customized T1 template and segmented with optimized VBM. Analysis of covariance with age and gender as covariates was adopted for the VBM statistics; the level of statistical significance was set at Pemotion regulation was lower in MDD patients. In particular, we found decreased GMC in the DRN. These findings may provide a better understanding of the anatomical properties of the neural mechanisms underlying the etiology of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of fibromyalgia symptoms on brain morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Guzman, Manuel A; Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Catena, Andres

    2016-12-01

    Fibromyalgia (FMS) is a complex clinical syndrome that includes many symptoms beyond chronic pain. The studies that have addressed brain morphometry in FMS have had very heterogeneous results. Thus, the question of which specific FMS symptoms and clinical features-pain, but also psychological distress, sleep-related problems, health status, and medication intake-impact on brain morphometry remains open. Here, we wanted to determine if brain changes in FMS are "symptom-related" more than "diagnostic-related". We performed an observational study of 46 premenopausal women (23 FMS patients and 23 age-matched healthy participants). Magnetic resonance images were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and subcortical segmentation. We used multiple regression models to assess the associations between total and local brain volumes and FMS clinical characteristics. Furthermore, we calculated associations between subcortical structures' shapes and volumes and FMS clinical characteristics. Larger psychological distress, anxiety, and sleepiness, and higher analgesic consumption accounted for 38 % of FMS patients' smaller total gray matter volume (GMV). For both groups, local decrements of GMV in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were associated to larger psychological distress. Local increases of GMV were positively related to pain scores (superior frontal gyrus), psychological distress (cerebellum), anxiety (medial orbitofrontal cortex), and sleepiness (frontal superior medial cortex). FMS clinical characteristics were also associated to deformations in subcortical structures and volumes changes. This study reveals that total and local GMV changes in FMS go beyond the traditional "pain matrix" alterations. We demonstrated that brain morphology is altered by pain, but also by clinical characteristics that define the FMS experience.

  16. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Fei Khang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530 were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the

  17. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Tsung Fei; Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams's K mult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  18. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  19. DNA fragmentation and sperm head morphometry in cat epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Lange Consiglio, Anna; Faustini, Massimo; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-10-15

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is an important parameter to assess sperm quality and can be a putative fertility predictor. Because the sperm head consists almost entirely of DNA, subtle differences in sperm head morphometry might be related to DNA status. Several techniques are available to analyze sperm DNA fragmentation, but they are labor-intensive and require expensive instrumentations. Recently, a kit (Sperm-Halomax) based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test and developed for spermatozoa of different species, but not for cat spermatozoa, became commercially available. The first aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of Sperm-Halomax assay, specifically developed for canine semen, for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal cat spermatozoa. For this purpose, DNA fragmentation indexes (DFIs) obtained with Sperm-Halomax and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether a correlation between DNA status, sperm head morphology, and morphometry assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis exists in cat epididymal spermatozoa. No differences were observed in DFIs obtained with Sperm-Halomax and TUNEL. This result indicates that Sperm-Halomax assay provides a reliable evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal feline spermatozoa. The DFI seems to be independent from all the measured variables of sperm head morphology and morphometry. Thus, the evaluation of the DNA status of spermatozoa could effectively contribute to the completion of the standard analysis of fresh or frozen semen used in assisted reproductive technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gully morphometry and morphology in the Iyi-Ukwu basin, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study finally concludes that gullies in the study area were initiated by a combination of steep slopes, high rainfall, soil characteristics, and human activities. Precautionary measures and soft control methods are recommended. Key words: gully erosion, gully classification, morphometry, morphology, Iyi-Ukwu basin ...

  1. Extraction of strong beadlike reflections for a carbonate-karst reservoir using a tensor-based adaptive mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Lu, Wenkai; Wang, Benfeng; Chen, Jianjun; Ding, Jicai

    2017-10-01

    Anomalously high-amplitude bright spots appear on seismic migration sections of carbonate-karst oil-bearing or gas-bearing reservoirs, also called the the string of beads response or strong beadlike reflections (SBRs). Although SBRs have distinct characteristics, it is not easy to detect and extract them from seismic migration sections because the seismic events and noise cannot be completely separated using conventional methods. An algorithm based on adaptive mathematical morphology is proposed in this paper to detect and extract the SBRs for the subsequent quantitative description of karst cave reservoirs. In our proposed method, the instantaneous amplitude section is first obtained with the Hilbert transform. Then, a tensor-based adaptive morphology is introduced to construct the adaptive structure elements which vary from linear to circular shapes according to the local structure tensor. To eliminate the effects of seismic events and noise, the orientations of our designed structural elements are rotated to be the same as the local dominant gradient directions of the instantaneous amplitude section. Finally, a top-hat transform, as a morphological operator, is used to extract the SBRs and remove the effects of seismic events and noise. We demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of our proposed method with field data examples.

  2. A high-order statistical tensor based algorithm for anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Zhao, Yongchao

    2014-11-04

    Recently, high-order statistics have received more and more interest in the field of hyperspectral anomaly detection. However, most of the existing high-order statistics based anomaly detection methods require stepwise iterations since they are the direct applications of blind source separation. Moreover, these methods usually produce multiple detection maps rather than a single anomaly distribution image. In this study, we exploit the concept of coskewness tensor and propose a new anomaly detection method, which is called COSD (coskewness detector). COSD does not need iteration and can produce single detection map. The experiments based on both simulated and real hyperspectral data sets verify the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  3. A diffusion-tensor-based white matter atlas for rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zakszewski

    Full Text Available Atlases of key white matter (WM structures in humans are widely available, and are very useful for region of interest (ROI-based analyses of WM properties. There are histology-based atlases of cortical areas in the rhesus macaque, but none currently of specific WM structures. Since ROI-based analysis of WM pathways is also useful in studies using rhesus diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data, we have here created an atlas based on a publicly available DTI-based template of young rhesus macaques. The atlas was constructed to mimic the structure of an existing human atlas that is widely used, making results translatable between species. Parcellations were carefully hand-drawn on a principle-direction color-coded fractional anisotropy image of the population template. The resulting atlas can be used as a reference to which registration of individual rhesus data can be performed for the purpose of white-matter parcellation. Alternatively, specific ROIs from the atlas may be warped into individual space to be used in ROI-based group analyses. This atlas will be made publicly available so that it may be used as a resource for DTI studies of rhesus macaques.

  4. A diffusion-tensor-based white matter atlas for rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakszewski, Elizabeth; Adluru, Nagesh; Tromp, Do P M; Kalin, Ned; Alexander, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    Atlases of key white matter (WM) structures in humans are widely available, and are very useful for region of interest (ROI)-based analyses of WM properties. There are histology-based atlases of cortical areas in the rhesus macaque, but none currently of specific WM structures. Since ROI-based analysis of WM pathways is also useful in studies using rhesus diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, we have here created an atlas based on a publicly available DTI-based template of young rhesus macaques. The atlas was constructed to mimic the structure of an existing human atlas that is widely used, making results translatable between species. Parcellations were carefully hand-drawn on a principle-direction color-coded fractional anisotropy image of the population template. The resulting atlas can be used as a reference to which registration of individual rhesus data can be performed for the purpose of white-matter parcellation. Alternatively, specific ROIs from the atlas may be warped into individual space to be used in ROI-based group analyses. This atlas will be made publicly available so that it may be used as a resource for DTI studies of rhesus macaques.

  5. Automated morphometry of transgenic mouse brains in MR images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Alize Elske Hiltje

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and local morphometry of mouse brain MRI is a relatively new field of research, where automated methods can be exploited to rapidly provide accurate and repeatable results. In this thesis we reviewed several existing methods and applications of quantitative morphometry to brain MR

  6. Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Shahin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gleich, David F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Grama, Ananth [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.

  7. Tooth Morphometry in Lingual Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuan Tseng

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Lingual orthodontics is used clinically. This study investigated the lingual crown angulation and inclination of optimal occlusion in Taiwanese people. The sample included 45 sets of dental study casts from 28 males and 17 females with optimal occlusion selected from approximately 5,000 young adults. Mesial tipping occurred in all teeth except the upper second molars, the lower central incisors, and the lower lateral incisors. The greatest mesial tipping was observed in the lower second molars. The greatest distal tipping was observed in the lower lateral incisors. Labial (buccal inclination was observed in all teeth except the lower first molars and the lower second molars. Maximum labial inclination occurred in the upper central incisors. Maximum lingual inclination was observed in the lower first molars.

  8. Voxel Based Morphometry in Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Bhavna J; Chen, Min; Carass, Aaron; Jedynak, Bruno M; Al-Louzi, Omar; Solomon, Sharon D; Saidha, Shiv; Calabresi, Peter A; Prince, Jerry L

    2016-02-27

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the human retina is now becoming established as an important modality for the detection and tracking of various ocular diseases. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a long standing neuroimaging analysis technique that allows for the exploration of the regional differences in the brain. There has been limited work done in developing registration based methods for OCT, which has hampered the advancement of VBM analyses in OCT based population studies. Following on from our recent development of an OCT registration method, we explore the potential benefits of VBM analysis in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Specifically, we validate the stability of VBM analysis in two pools of HCs showing no significant difference between the two populations. Additionally, we also present a retrospective study of age and sex matched HCs and relapsing remitting MS patients, demonstrating results consistent with the reported literature while providing insight into the retinal changes associated with this MS subtype.

  9. Supersize my brain : A cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry study on the association between self-reported dietary restraint and regional grey matter volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Charbonnier, Lisette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Kroese, Floor M.; van Rijn, Inge; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    Restrained eaters do not eat less than their unrestrained counterparts. Proposed underlying mechanisms are that restrained eaters are more reward sensitive and that they have worse inhibitory control. Although fMRI studies assessed these mechanisms, it is unknown how brain anatomy relates to dietary

  10. Reproducibility in Nerve Morphometry: Comparison between Methods and among Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Paulo da Costa Bilego Neto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the reproducibility of a semiautomated method (computerized with manual intervention for nerve morphometry (counting and measuring myelinated fibers between three observers with different levels of expertise and experience with the method. Comparisons between automatic (fully computerized and semiautomated morphometric methods performed by the same computer software using the same nerve images were also performed. Sural nerves of normal adult rats were used. Automatic and semiautomated morphometry of the myelinated fibers were made through the computer software KS-400. Semiautomated morphometry was conducted by three independent observers on the same images, using the semiautomated method. Automatic morphometry overestimated the myelin sheath area, thus overestimating the myelinated fiber size and underestimating the axon size. Fiber distributions overestimation was of 0.5 μm. For the semiautomated morphometry, no differences were found between observers for myelinated fiber and axon size distributions. Overestimation of the myelin sheath size of normal fibers by the fully automatic method might have an impact when morphometry is used for diagnostic purposes. We suggest that not only semiautomated morphometry results can be compared between different centers in clinical trials but it can also be performed by more than one investigator in one single experiment, being a reliable and reproducible method.

  11. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Teppo eSärkämö; Pablo eRipollés; Henna eVepsäläinen; Taina eAutti; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Eero eSalli; Sari eLaitinen; Anita eForsblom; Seppo eSoinila; Antoni eRodríguez-Fornells

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve...

  12. A study on ecology, morphology and morphometry of Acomys dimidiatus Cretzschmar, 1826 (Rodentia: Muridae in Geno sanctuary and Minab County, Hormozgan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Ashrafzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, two populations of Acomys dimidiatus from different locations of Hormozgan Province (Geno sanctuary and Minab County were compared according to their morphometric, morphological and ecological characteristics. Fifty eight specimens of adult A. dimidiatus were collected by live traps (Sherman traps, Havahart traps and locally made traps from these regions. We caught the rodents from the height ranging from 1500 meters. According to our field observations, the studied species was mostly nocturnal. At first, five external and fifteen cranial- dental characters were measured, then ratios of measured characters to head and body length were calculated. The normality of data was analyzed by Kolmogorov- Smironov test. Descriptive statistics were calculated for characters and ratios. The results showed that the average of 14 out of 20 characters in Minab specimens was greater than Geno specimens. Also, the average of all of the ratios (20 ratios in Minab specimens was greater than that of Geno region. Independent Sample T-Test was used to test the statistical significance between length and ratios. The results indicated that there were significance differences in five out of twenty characters and nine out of twenty ratios in two regions(P<0.05. In addition, MANOVA test revealed significant differences among the studied populations (P<0.05. Also, intraspecific variations were assessed with the principal components analysis (PCA. The first two principal components accounted for more than 60% of the total variance and the species were fairly well separated by them.

  13. Impact of coil design on the contrast-to-noise ratio, precision, and consistency of quantitative cartilage morphometry at 3 Tesla: a pilot study for the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Felix; Kunz, Manuela; Hudelmaier, Martin; Jackson, Rebecca; Yu, Joseph; Eaton, Charles B; Schneider, Erika

    2007-02-01

    Phased-array (PA) coils generally provide higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) than quadrature knee coils. In this pilot study for the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) we compared these two types of coils in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), precision, and consistency of quantitative femorotibial cartilage measurements. Test-retest measurements were acquired using coronal fast low-angle shot with water excitation (FLASHwe) and coronal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) of sagittal double-echo steady state with water excitation (DESSwe) at 3T. The precision errors for cartilage volume and thickness were coil and coil with FLASHwe, and coil and sequence. The PA coil measurements did not always fully agree with the quadrature coil measurements, and some differences were significant. The higher CNR of the PA coil did not translate directly into improved precision of cartilage measurement; however, summing up cartilage plates within the medial and lateral compartment reduced precision errors. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Analysis of RPE morphometry in human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shagun K; Rashid, Alia; Chrenek, Micah A; Zhang, Qing; Bruce, Beau B; Klein, Mitchel; Boatright, Jeffrey H; Jiang, Yi; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Nickerson, John M

    2016-01-01

    To describe the RPE morphometry of healthy human eyes regarding age and topographic location using modern computational methods with high accuracy and objectivity. We tested whether there were regional and age-related differences in RPE cell area and shape. Human cadaver donor eyes of varying ages were dissected, and the RPE flatmounts were immunostained for F-actin with AF635-phalloidin, nuclei stained with propidium iodide, and imaged with confocal microscopy. Image analysis was performed using ImageJ (NIH) and CellProfiler software. Quantitative parameters, including cell density, cell area, polygonality of cells, number of neighboring cells, and measures of cell shape, were obtained from these analyses to characterize individual and groups of RPE cells. Measurements were taken from selected areas spanning the length of the temporal retina through the macula and the mid-periphery to the far periphery. Nineteen eyes from 14 Caucasian donors of varying ages ranging from 29 to 80 years were used. Along a horizontal nasal to temporal meridian, there were differences in several cell shape and size characteristics. Generally, the cell area and shape was relatively constant and regular except in the far periphery. In the outer third of the retina, the cell area and shape differed from the inner two-thirds statistically significantly. In the macula and the far periphery, an overall decreasing trend in RPE cell density, percent hexagonal cells, and form factor was observed with increasing age. We also found a trend toward increasing cell area and eccentricity with age in the macula and the far periphery. When individuals were divided into two age groups, RPE morphometry between age groups were found in the mid-periphery. Human cadaver RPE cells differ mainly in area and shape in the outer one third compared to the inner two-thirds of the temporal retina. RPE cells become less dense and larger, lose their typical hexagonal shape, and become more oval with increasing age.

  15. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors int...

  16. Estimation of Stature in Upper Egypt Population from External Ear Morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaleem SA; Abdelaleem SA

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of stature is considered an important parameter in medico-legal and forensic examinations. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possibility of estimating stature from external ear morphometry in a sample of Upper Egypt population. This study was carried out on 200 persons (120 males and 80 females). Besides stature, eight measurements were obtained from both ears of each participant using manual vernier caliper. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. There was a...

  17. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  18. Short Latency Gray Matter Changes in Voxel-Based Morphometry following High Frequent Visual Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Naegel; Tim Hagenacker; Nina Theysohn; Hans-Christoph Diener; Zaza Katsarava; Mark Obermann; Dagny Holle

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging studies using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) detected structural changes in the human brain within periods of months or weeks. The underlying molecular mechanisms of VBM findings remain unresolved. We showed that simple visual stimulation by an alternating checkerboard leads to instant, short-lasting alterations of the primary and secondary visual cortex detected by VBM. The rapidness of occurrence (i.e., within 10 minutes) rather excludes most of the proposed physio...

  19. Cytological evaluation of thyroid lesions by nuclear morphology and nuclear morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yashaswini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fine needle aspiration (FNA of the thyroid gland is an effective diagnostic method. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology classifies them into six categories and gives implied risk for malignancy and management protocol in each category. Though the system gives specific criteria, diagnostic dilemma still exists. Using nuclear morphometry, we can quantify the number of parameters, such as those related to nuclear size and shape. The evaluation of nuclear morphometry is not well established in thyroid cytology. Objective: To classify thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC using Bethesda system and to evaluate the significance of nuclear parameters in improving the prediction of thyroid malignancy. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 120 FNAC cases of thyroid lesions with histological diagnosis were included. Computerized nuclear morphometry was done on 81 cases which had confirmed cytohistological correlation, using Aperio computer software. One hundred nuclei from each case were outlined and eight nuclear parameters were analyzed. Results: In the present study, thyroid lesions were common in female with M: F ratio of 1:5 and most commonly in 40–60 yrs. Under Bethesda system, 73 (60.83% were category II; 14 (11.6% were category III, 3 (2.5% were category IV, 8 (6.6% were category V, and 22 (18.3% were category VI, which were malignant on histopathological correlation. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of Bethesda reporting system are 62.5, 84.38, and 74.16%, respectively. Minimal nuclear diameter, maximal nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, and nuclear area were higher in malignant group compared to nonneoplastic and benign group. Conclusion: The Bethesda system is a useful standardized system of reporting thyroid cytopathology. It gives implied risk of malignancy. Nuclear morphometry by computerized image analysis can be utilized as an additional diagnostic tool.

  20. Cytological Evaluation of Thyroid Lesions by Nuclear Morphology and Nuclear Morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashaswini, R; Suresh, T N; Sagayaraj, A

    2017-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid gland is an effective diagnostic method. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology classifies them into six categories and gives implied risk for malignancy and management protocol in each category. Though the system gives specific criteria, diagnostic dilemma still exists. Using nuclear morphometry, we can quantify the number of parameters, such as those related to nuclear size and shape. The evaluation of nuclear morphometry is not well established in thyroid cytology. To classify thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) using Bethesda system and to evaluate the significance of nuclear parameters in improving the prediction of thyroid malignancy. In the present study, 120 FNAC cases of thyroid lesions with histological diagnosis were included. Computerized nuclear morphometry was done on 81 cases which had confirmed cytohistological correlation, using Aperio computer software. One hundred nuclei from each case were outlined and eight nuclear parameters were analyzed. In the present study, thyroid lesions were common in female with M: F ratio of 1:5 and most commonly in 40-60 yrs. Under Bethesda system, 73 (60.83%) were category II; 14 (11.6%) were category III, 3 (2.5%) were category IV, 8 (6.6%) were category V, and 22 (18.3%) were category VI, which were malignant on histopathological correlation. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of Bethesda reporting system are 62.5, 84.38, and 74.16%, respectively. Minimal nuclear diameter, maximal nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, and nuclear area were higher in malignant group compared to nonneoplastic and benign group. The Bethesda system is a useful standardized system of reporting thyroid cytopathology. It gives implied risk of malignancy. Nuclear morphometry by computerized image analysis can be utilized as an additional diagnostic tool.

  1. Thanatophoric dysplasia. Correlation among bone X-ray morphometry, histopathology, and gene analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E. [University of Brescia, Orthopaedic Clinic, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Donzelli, Carla M. [Spedali Civili di Brescia, Morbid Anatomy Department, Brescia (Italy); Izzi, Claudia [University of Brescia, Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Brescia (Italy); Baldi, Maurizia [Hospital Galliera, Human Genetic Laboratory, Genova (Italy); Di Gaetano, Giuseppe; Bondioni, MariaPia [University of Brescia, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Documentation through X-ray morphometry and histology of the steady phenotype expressed by FGFR3 gene mutation and interpolation of mechanical factors on spine and long bones dysmorphism. Long bones and spine of eight thanatophoric dysplasia and three age-matched controls without skeletal dysplasia were studied after pregnancy termination between the 18th and the 22nd week with X-ray morphometry, histology, and molecular analysis. Statistical analysis with comparison between TD cases and controls and intraobserver/interobserver variation were applied to X-ray morphometric data. Generalized shortening of long bones was observed in TD. A variable distribution of axial deformities was correlated with chondrocyte proliferation inhibition, defective seriate cell columns organization, and final formation of the primary metaphyseal trabeculae. The periosteal longitudinal growth was not equally inhibited, so that decoupling with the cartilage growth pattern produced the typical lateral spurs around the metaphyseal growth plates. In spine, platyspondyly was due to a reduced height of the vertebral body anterior ossification center, while its enlargement in the transversal plane was not restricted. The peculiar radiographic and histopathological features of TD bones support the hypothesis of interpolation of mechanical factors with FGFR3 gene mutations. The correlated observations of X-ray morphometry, histopathology, and gene analysis prompted the following diagnostic workup for TD: (1) prenatal sonography suspicion of skeletal dysplasia; (2) post-mortem X-ray morphometry for provisional diagnosis; (3) confirmation by genetic tests (hot-spot exons 7, 10, 15, and 19 analysis with 80-90 % sensibility); (4) in negative cases if histopathology confirms TD diagnosis, research of rare mutations through sequential analysis of FGFR3 gene. (orig.)

  2. Aggregates morphometry in a Latosol (Oxisol under different soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Eloize Carducci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil physical properties are inherent in land use, mainly in superficial layers. Structural alterations can directly influence distribution, stability and especially morphometry of soil aggregates, which hence will affect pore system and the dynamic process of water and air in soil. Among the methods used to measure these changes, morphometry is a complementary tool to the classic methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate structural quality of a Latosol (Oxisol, under different management systems, using morphometric techniques. Treatments consisted of soil under no-tillage (NT; pasture (P, in which both had been cultivated for ten years, and an area under native vegetation (NV – Savannah like vegetation. Aggregates were sampled at depths of 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m, retained on sieves with 9.52 – 4.76 mm, 4.76 – 1.0mm, 1.0 – 0.5mm diameter ranges. Aggregate morphometry was assessed by 2D images from scanner via QUANTPORO software. The analyzed variables were: area, perimeter, aspect, roughness, Ferret diameter and compactness. Moreover, disturbed samples were collected at the same depths to determine particle size, aggregate stability in water, water-dispersible clay, clay flocculation index and organic matter content. It was observed that different soil management systems have modified soil aggregate morphology as well as physical attributes; and management effects’ magnitude increased from NT to P.

  3. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamboer, P.; Scholte, H.S.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in

  4. Dyslexia and Voxel-Based Morphometry: Correlations between Five Behavioural Measures of Dyslexia and Gray and White Matter Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H. Steven; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics…

  5. Dog sperm head morphometry: its diversity and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Soler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik. Morphometric analysis (CASA-Morph produced four size and four shape parameters. Length, Ellipticity, and Elongation showed higher differences between breeds. MANOVA revealed differences among all breeds. Considering the whole dataset, principal component analysis (PCA showed that PC1 was related to head shape and PC2 to size. Procluster analysis showed the British Bulldog to be the most isolated breed, followed by the German Shepherd. The PCA breed by breed showed the Chihuahua, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, and Staffordshire Terrier to have PC1 related to shape and PC2 to size, whereas the British Bulldog, Valencia Rat Hunting dog, and German Shepherd had PC1 related to size and PC2 to shape. The dendrogram for cluster groupings and the distance between them showed the British Bulldog to be separated from the rest of the breeds. Future work on dog semen must take into account the large differences in the breeds′ sperm characteristics. The results provide a base for future work on phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of dogs, based on their seminal characteristics.

  6. Dog sperm head morphometry: its diversity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Carles; Alambiaga, Ana; Martí, Maria A; García-Molina, Almudena; Valverde, Anthony; Contell, Jesús; Campos, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik. Morphometric analysis (CASA-Morph) produced four size and four shape parameters. Length, Ellipticity, and Elongation showed higher differences between breeds. MANOVA revealed differences among all breeds. Considering the whole dataset, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PC1 was related to head shape and PC2 to size. Procluster analysis showed the British Bulldog to be the most isolated breed, followed by the German Shepherd. The PCA breed by breed showed the Chihuahua, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, and Staffordshire Terrier to have PC1 related to shape and PC2 to size, whereas the British Bulldog, Valencia Rat Hunting dog, and German Shepherd had PC1 related to size and PC2 to shape. The dendrogram for cluster groupings and the distance between them showed the British Bulldog to be separated from the rest of the breeds. Future work on dog semen must take into account the large differences in the breeds' sperm characteristics. The results provide a base for future work on phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of dogs, based on their seminal characteristics.

  7. Dog sperm head morphometry: its diversity and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Carles; Alambiaga, Ana; Martí, Maria A; García-Molina, Almudena; Valverde, Anthony; Contell, Jesús; Campos, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik. Morphometric analysis (CASA-Morph) produced four size and four shape parameters. Length, Ellipticity, and Elongation showed higher differences between breeds. MANOVA revealed differences among all breeds. Considering the whole dataset, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PC1 was related to head shape and PC2 to size. Procluster analysis showed the British Bulldog to be the most isolated breed, followed by the German Shepherd. The PCA breed by breed showed the Chihuahua, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, and Staffordshire Terrier to have PC1 related to shape and PC2 to size, whereas the British Bulldog, Valencia Rat Hunting dog, and German Shepherd had PC1 related to size and PC2 to shape. The dendrogram for cluster groupings and the distance between them showed the British Bulldog to be separated from the rest of the breeds. Future work on dog semen must take into account the large differences in the breeds’ sperm characteristics. The results provide a base for future work on phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of dogs, based on their seminal characteristics. PMID:27751991

  8. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Båstrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with la...... in lake morphometry and catchment conditions when comparing metabolic responses of lakes to human impacts....... area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass (Chl), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP); (2) all lakes, especially small with less incident light, and forest lakes with high DOC, have negative net ecosystem production (NEP

  9. The anatomy and morphometry of cervical zygapophyseal joint meniscoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Scott F; Osmotherly, Peter G; Cornwall, Jon; Rivett, Darren A

    2015-09-01

    Meniscoids are folds of synovial membrane that project into the articular cavities of zygapophyseal joints throughout the cervical spine. These structures have been implicated in musculoskeletal neck pain; however, their anatomy has not been extensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to explore the morphometry and composition of the cervical zygapohyseal joint meniscoids. Twelve adult cadaveric hemi-spines were dissected and their C2-3 to C6-7 zygapophyseal joints disarticulated (six female; six left; mean 81.5 years, SD 7.3 years). Meniscoids were identified and their surface area, protrusion length and articular cartilage degeneration measured. Specimens were then sectioned sagittally, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and examined with a light microscope. Data were analysed descriptively and using non-parametric hypothesis testing (significance p histological composition. There were no significant associations between meniscoid size (surface area or protrusion length) and gender, position in joint, spinal level, or articular degeneration. Increased articular degeneration was associated with fibrous meniscoid classification. The morphological patterns observed, such as the association of fibrous meniscoids with cartilage degeneration, may provide insight into the significance of the zygapophyseal joint meniscoids in neck pathology. Further investigation is needed to explore the morphological qualities of these structures in a pathological population.

  10. Sex differences in impulsivity and brain morphometry in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogachi, Shannon; Chang, Linda; Alicata, Daniel; Cunningham, Eric; Ernst, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant, and METH users have abnormal brain structures and function. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, brain structures, and possible sex-specific differences between METH users and non-drug using Controls. Structural MRI and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) questionnaire were completed in 124 subjects: 62 METH (ages 41.2 ± 1.4 years, 34 males) and 62 Controls (ages 43.3 ± 2.3 years, 36 males). Independent and interactive effects of METH use status and sex were evaluated. Relationships between METH usage characteristics, brain morphometry, and impulsivity scores were examined. METH users had higher impulsivity scores, on both the Cognitive and Behavioral Factors from the BIS (p impulsivity (interaction-p ≤ 0.05). Only female METH users showed relatively larger nucleus accumbens (interaction-p = 0.03). Greater impulsivity and thinner frontal cortices in METH users are validated. Larger superior frontal cortex in male METH users with greater cognitive impulsivity suggest decreased dendritic pruning during adolescence might have contributed to their impulsive and drug use behaviors. In the female METH users, smaller frontal cortices and the associated greater impulsivity suggest greater neurotoxicity to these brain regions, while their relatively larger nucleus accumbens suggest an estrogen-mediated neuroprotective glial response. Men and women may be affected differently by METH use.

  11. Motor and extra-motor gray matter integrity may underlie neurophysiologic parameters of motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a combined voxel-based morphometry and transcranial stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Velonakis, Georgios; Rentzos, Michail; Zambelis, Thomas; Zouvelou, Vasiliki; Xirou, Sophia; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2018-02-07

    The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density. We also conducted regression analysis to examine correlations between GM density and the following TMS parameters: motor evoked potential (MEP)/M ratio and central motor conduction time (CMCT). We found significantly decreased GM density in ALS patients in several frontal, temporal, parietal/occipital and cerebellar regions (p motor area (negative association). CMCT was associated with GM density in (a) inferior frontal gyrus and middle cingulated gyrus (positive association) and (b) superior parietal lobule; cuneus and cerebellum (negative association). Our findings support a significant interaction between motor and extra-motor structural and functional changes and highlight that motor and extra-motor GM integrity may underlie TMS parameters of motor function in ALS patients.

  12. Individual Assessment of Brain Tissue Changes in MS and the Effect of Focal Lesions on Short-Term Focal Atrophy Development in MS: A Voxel-Guided Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fox

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We performed voxel-guided morphometry (VGM investigating the mechanisms of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS related to focal lesions. VGM maps detect regional brain changes when comparing 2 time points on high resolution T1-weighted (T1w magnetic resonace imaging (MRI. Two T1w MR datasets from 92 relapsing-remitting MS patients obtained 12 months apart were analysed with VGM. New lesions and volume changes of focal MS lesions as well as in the surrounding tissue were identified by visual inspection on colour coded VGM maps. Lesions were dichotomized in active and inactive lesions. Active lesions, defined by either new lesions (NL (volume increase > 5% in VGM, chronic enlarging lesions (CEL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume increase > 5%, or chronic shrinking lesions (CSL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume reduction > 5% in VGM, were accompanied by tissue shrinkage in surrounding and/or functionally related regions. Volume loss within the corpus callosum was highly correlated with the number of lesions in its close proximity. Volume loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus was correlated with lesions along the optic radiation. VGM analysis provides strong evidence that all active lesion types (NL, CEL, and CSL contribute to brain volume reduction in the vicinity of lesions and/or in anatomically and functionally related areas of the brain.

  13. Genitalia morphometry and testicular characteristics of male white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to evaluate genitalia morphometry of the male white Japanese quails at three different age groups. Fifty-four male Japanese quails were allotted to 3 treatment groups (Pubertal, Mature and Adult) in a completely randomized design. Pubertal (7-10 weeks), mature (15-20 weeks) and the adults ...

  14. Patch-Based Morphometry: Application to Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupe, Pierrick; Manjon, Jose; Fonov, Vladimir

    Background: While widely used to detect morphological differences between groups, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) is based on the assumption of one-to-one anatomical mapping between subjects and Gaussian distributions of focal tissue densities during statistical testing. To make data fit this model...

  15. Shell utilization and morphometries of the hermit crab Diogenes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fecundity, shell utilization, and crab and associated shell morphometries were investigated for the hermit crab Diogenes brevirostris collected from three intertidal sites in the eastern Cape. The relationship between crab fresh mass and egg number was linear. D. brevirostris was found to occupy 33 gastropod shell species ...

  16. Morphometry of organ cultured corneal endothelium using Voronoi segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Nigel H

    2017-06-01

    The endothelial viability of eye-banked corneas must be assessed before transplantation, yet phase-contrast images of the endothelium of corneas stored in an Organ Culture system have a huge variety of endothelial appearance at different focal planes, due to stromal swelling and an evaluation technique that swells the cells and their intercellular spaces to make them visible. This makes them difficult to assess using common edge-based segmentation methodologies that have mostly been developed in vivo using specular microscopy. Additionally, as the endothelial cell architecture has radically different form at apical and basal poles, segmentation of only the apical view cannot describe the cell as a whole. Using custom software, this study instead defines the cell borders using a calibrated Voronoi diagram, a region-based image segmentation technique that uses a point cloud of cell centroids as the only input required to measure the size (polymegathism) and shape (pleomorphism) of the endothelial cells. Measurements included the range and variation in the cell area and density, the number of cell sides, and several novel shape descriptors. A dataset of endothelial cell measurements was compiled from 2000 images of 678 corneas comprising 354,998 cells, and validated by comparison to previous studies from a variety of tissue sources, imaging modalities, and analysis techniques. While there were some differences in cell size variation and pleomorphic composition than seen in some other studies, much of the data was directly comparable, demonstrating fast and accurate endothelial cell morphometry at a large scale for a wide range of routine organ cultured corneas.

  17. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  18. Estimation and Perturbation of the Mid-Sagittal Plane and its Effects on Corpus Callosum Morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund, Karl; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    callosum (CC), the white-matter nervous tissue bridging the left and right cerebral hemisphere. A multitude of papers (e.g. [2]) report on measurements performed on the two-dimensional cross-section of the CC defined by the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) which separates the left hemisphere from the right......Brain morphometry is an important tool for detecting and monitoring brain pathologies such as epilepsy, dementia [1,2] and multiple sclerosis [3]. A common method is to delineate some well-defined area of the brain to yield a shape for interor intra-subject studies. One such structure is the corpus...

  19. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry fluorescence-based analysis has potential to determine progeny sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Santolaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the ability of computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph with fluorescence to discriminate between spermatozoa carrying different sex chromosomes from the nuclear morphometrics generated and different statistical procedures in the bovine species. The study was divided into two experiments. The first was to study the morphometric differences between X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa (SX and SY, respectively. Spermatozoa from eight bulls were processed to assess simultaneously the sex chromosome by FISH and sperm morphometry by fluorescence-based CASA-Morph. SX cells were larger than SY cells on average (P < 0.001 although with important differences between bulls. A simultaneous evaluation of all the measured features by discriminant analysis revealed that nuclear area and average fluorescence intensity were the variables selected by stepwise discriminant function analysis as the best discriminators between SX and SY. In the second experiment, the sperm nuclear morphometric results from CASA-Morph in nonsexed (mixed SX and SY and sexed (SX semen samples from four bulls were compared. FISH allowed a successful classification of spermatozoa according to their sex chromosome content. X-sexed spermatozoa displayed a larger size and fluorescence intensity than nonsexed spermatozoa (P < 0.05. We conclude that the CASA-Morph fluorescence-based method has the potential to find differences between X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in bovine species although more studies are needed to increase the precision of sex determination by this technique.

  20. Virtual computed tomography morphometry of the patella for estimation of sex using postmortem Japanese adult data in forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiue, Tomomi; Hishmat, Asmaa Mohammed; Oritani, Shigeki; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Amin, Mohamed Farghally; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2017-11-24

    In forensic anthropological identification of human remains and single bones, computed tomography (CT) data analysis facilitates volumetric and radiographic density analyses, and a recently developed automated analysis system markedly improved the performance, accuracy, and reproducibility of three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction. The present study aimed to investigate virtual CT morphometry of the patella for the estimation of sex using postmortem CT data of forensic autopsy cases of Japanese individuals aged ≥18 years (total n=220; 110 males and 110 females; estimated postmortem interval females; p60years. These findings indicate the efficacy of virtual CT morphometry of the patella using an automated analyzer for sex estimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies sibling species differentiation using egg morphometry and morphology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyagi, Varun; Sharma, A K; Dhiman, Sunil; Srivastava, A R; Yadav, Ruchi; Sukumaran, D; Agrawal, O P; Veer, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    .... Currently, for the first time egg morphometry and morphology has been used to differentiate the three known vector sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies collected from malaria endemic Madhya...

  2. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-06-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  3. Pathology and morphometry of Hystrichis acanthocephalicus (Nematoda from Phimosus infuscatus (Pelecaniformes in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Scheer

    Full Text Available Abstract Species of Hystrichis are parasite nematodes of the digestive tract of aquatic birds in South America, Europe and Asia. In Brazil, Hystrichis acanthocephalicus has been reported in Phimosus infuscatus. There are few data on the morphometry of this species and there are no reports on pathological conditions that it causes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to report morphometric data from H. acanthocephalicus and describe the pathological effects of this parasite on the Phimosus infuscatus proventriculus. Thirty gastrointestinal tracts of P. infuscatus were examined to search for nematodes and H. acanthocephalicus occurred in 83% of hosts. Were measured the total length and body width of males and females, and of their respective cuticular spines, esophagus, spicules and eggs, and the internal and external diameter of copulatory bursa. Histopathological examination revealed parasitic structures in the proventriculus from the lumen (anterior end to the outer layers of the organ (intermediate and posterior parts, in which we observed inflammatory reaction with infiltration of heterophils, hemorrhage and hemosiderin. The results of this study of histopathology, morphometry and parasitological indices are the first ones reported to H. acanthocephalicus and should contribute to the identification and recognition in cases of outbreaks in the Neotropical region.

  4. Cortical morphometry in frontoparietal and default mode networks in math-gifted adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Carmona, Susana; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Sánchez-González, Javier; Guzmán-de-Villoria, Juan; Franco, Carolina; Robles, Olalla; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Math-gifted subjects are characterized by above-age performance in intelligence tests, exceptional creativity, and high task commitment. Neuroimaging studies reveal enhanced functional brain organization and white matter microstructure in the frontoparietal executive network of math-gifted individuals. However, the cortical morphometry of these subjects remains largely unknown. The main goal of this study was to compare the cortical morphometry of math-gifted adolescents with that of an age- and IQ-matched control group. We used surface-based methods to perform a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness and surface area. Our results show that math-gifted adolescents present a thinner cortex and a larger surface area in key regions of the frontoparietal and default mode networks, which are involved in executive processing and creative thinking, respectively. The combination of reduced cortical thickness and larger surface area suggests above-age neural maturation of these networks in math-gifted individuals. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1893-1902, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cortical morphometry and cognition in very preterm and term-born children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Rummel, Christian; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm birth influences brain development and may result in alterations of cortical morphometry. These structural alterations may interact with cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in school-aged very preterm and term-born control children. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 41 very preterm (preterm children>controls). No group differences occurred for cortical surface area. The relationship between cortical morphometry and cognition differed between very preterm and control children. In very preterm children, some cognitive domains correlated positively and others negatively with regional cortical thickness and cortical surface area. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationship in very preterm children and their term-born peers. They add to the notion that this relationship varies depending on the brain region and the cognitive function in question and suggest developmental differences between very preterm and term-born children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of histological and immunohistochemical patterns of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors by computerized morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Vertemati, Maurizio; Petrella, Duccio; Bonacina, Edgardo; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Duregon, Eleonora; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro; Loli, Paola

    2017-07-01

    Diagnosis of benign and purely localized malignant adrenocortical lesions is still a complex issue. Moreover, histology-based diagnosis may suffer of a moment of subjectivity due to inter- and intra-individual variations. The aim of the present study was to assess, by computerized morphometry, the morphological features in benign and malignant adrenocortical neoplasms. Eleven adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) were compared with 18 adrenocortical cancers (ACC). All specimens were stained with H&E, cellular proliferation marker Ki-67 and reticulin. We generated a morphometric model based on the analysis of volume fractions occupied by Ki-67 positive and negative cells (nuclei and cytoplasm), vascular and inflammatory compartment; we also analyzed the surface fraction occupied by reticulin. We compared the quantitative data of Ki-67 obtained by morphometry with the quantification resulting from pathologist's visual reading. The volume fraction of Ki-67 positive cells in ACCs was higher than in ACAs. The volume fraction of nuclei in unit volume and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in both Ki-67 negative cells and Ki-67 positive cells were prominent in ACCs. The surface fraction of reticulin was considerably lower in ACCs. Our computerized morphometric model is simple, reproducible and can be used by the pathologist in the histological workup of adrenocortical tumors to achieve precise and reader-independent quantification of several morphological characteristics of adrenocortical tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative structural morphometry and elemental composition of three marine sponges from western coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Maushmi S; Shah, Bhaumik

    2014-04-01

    Three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata, Cliono lobata, and Spirastrella pachyspira from the western coastal region of India were compared for their morphometry, biochemical, and elemental composition. One-way analysis of variance was applied for spicule morphometry results. Length, width, and length:width ratio were calculated independently. The ratio of length:width varied from 35 to 42 among the grown samples, which remained in the range of 10-22 in young sample at the beginning of studies. However, no significant change was observed in spicule width compared to length. Elemental compositions of marine sponges were determined by field emission gun-scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron microscopy data revealed that the spicules of all the three sponges were mostly composed of O (47-56%) and Si (30-40%), whereas Al (14.33%) was only detected in the spicules of C. lobata. Apart from these, K, Ni, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, and S were additionally detected in all the three samples. Presence of heavy metals in the sponges was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Results showed that iron was present in a large amount in samples, followed by zinc, lead, and copper. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nuclear morphometry in canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas and squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Martano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether morphometrical analysis can be of diagnostic value for canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. We calculated, by means of an automated image analyser, some morphometric nuclear parameters, in particular: mean nuclear area (MNA, mean nuclear perimeter (MNP, maximum and minimum diameters (MDx and MDm coefficient of variation of the nuclear area (NACV, largest to smallest dimension ratio (LS ratio, and form factor (FF, in 8 canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas, and we compared these morphometric data to those of 13 squamous cell carcinomas of canine gingiva. The results indicated a progressive increase of the MNA, NACV, MNP and MDm proceeding from acanthomatous ameloblastomas (MNA: 42.11±8.74; NACV: 28,36±7,23; MNP: 24.18± 2.68; MDm: 5.69±0.49 to squamous cell carcinomas (MNA:49,69±9,10; NACV: 30,89±7,75; MNP: 25.63±2.54; MDm: 6.64±0.73. On the contrary, the LS ratio and the FF resulted greater in acanthomatous ameloblastomas (LS ratio: 1,63±0,12; FF: 1,13±0,002 than in SCCs (LS ratio: 1,40±0,12; FF:0.91±0.38. Moreover, the MNA, MNP,MDx and MDm resulted similar (MNA: p=0.89; MNP: p=0,65; MDm: p=0,16; MDx: p=0,13 in a subset of four acanthomatous ameloblastomas with cellular atypia (MNA:49,01±6,88; MNP: 26,28±1,99; MDm: 6.08±0.41; MDx: 10.18±0.88 and in squamous cell carcinomas (MNA:49.69±9,10; MNP: 25.63±2.54; MDm: 6.64±0.73; MDx: 9.26±1.05. While the NACV values resulted higher in typical acanthomatous ameloblastoma (29,99±6,06 than in atypical acanthomatous ameloblastoma (26,74±8,84 and similar to those of the SCCs (30,89±7,75. These results seem to confirm that acanthomatous ameloblastoma is a malignant or potentially malignant lesion and emphasizes that nuclear morphometry analysis can be an useful diagnostic and prognostic method in canine oral pathology.

  9. Active immunization against GnRH in ovine (Ovis aries: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in prepubertal ram lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research was to assess the effects of an active immunization against GnRH on male reproductive function as an alternative to surgical sterilization evaluating testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and plasma gonadotropin levels in prepubertal ram lambs. Dorper ram lambs (age= 2 months; control group, n= 5; treatment group, n=15 were immunised by using an anti-GnRH vaccine (two administrations spaced 15d developed by linking a GnRH homologous molecule to tetanus toxoid (clostridial toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as coadjuvant. To determine the effectiveness of the vaccination protocol, testicular morphometry was evaluated (length, width, mean volume and total volume together with histopathological alterations in testicular tissue samples (seminiferous tubule diameters, spermatogonia per testis and sperm presence and endocrine responses (ELISA from blood samples (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol plasma levels. Morphometric parameters (testicular length, width and volume were significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group (p0.05. In conclusion, prepubertal active immunization against GnRH led to marked differences on testes morphometry and activity in ovine species, however, it did not affect endocrine levels nor spermatogenesis in all individuals studied showing a partial vaccination effect in some of them. Thus, taking into account the heterogeneous dysfunctional responses obtained, different vaccination assays and strategies should be tested before active immunization against GnRH is considered as a viable alternative to conventional surgical sterilization.

  10. Effect of moderate and high intensity chronic exercise on the pancreatic islet morphometry in healthy rats: BDNF receptor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Maldonado, Alberto; Virgen-Ortiz, Adolfo; Melnikov, Valery; Rodríguez-Hernández, Alejandrina; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Montero, Sergio; Muñiz-Murguía, Jesús; Lemus, Mónica; Roces de Álvarez-Buylla, Elena

    2017-01-02

    The function and morphology of β-cells is largely dependent on insulin demand. As β-cells cover a bigger cell proportion in pancreas islets, changes of insulin producer cells affect the whole pancreatic islet morphology. Growth factors as the neurotrophins regulate the pancreas physiology, besides; physical exercise increases insulin sensitivity, and further modifies brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration in plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise (running in a treadmill for 8 weeks) intensity on pancreatic islet morphometry in healthy state. The BDNF receptor effect on the pancreatic islet morphometry was also evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were divided in 6 groups: Control (C); moderate intensity training (MIT); high intensity training (HIT) did not treat with BDNF receptor inhibitor (K252a), and C, MIT and HIT treated with K252a. The results shown that chronic exercise induces β-cells hypertrophy without BDNF receptor participation. On the other hand, the moderate exercise increases the number of β cells per islet; the last effect does not require TrkB participation. In sedentary conditions, the K252a treatment reduced the β-cell density. Exercise intensity has differential effects on pancreas islet morphometry in healthy model; furthermore, BDNF receptor plays a role to maintain the amount of β-cells in sedentary state.

  11. Relationship between structural brainstem and brain plasticity and lower-limb training in spinal cord injury: a longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eVilliger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitative training has shown to improve significantly motor outcomes and functional walking capacity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI. However, whether performance improvements during rehabilitation relate to brain plasticity or whether it is based on functional adaptation of movement strategies remain uncertain. This study assessed training improvement-induced structural brain plasticity in chronic iSCI patients using longitudinal MRI.We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM to analyze longitudinal brain volume changes associated with intensive virtual reality (VR-augmented lower limb training in nine traumatic iSCI patients. The MRI data was acquired before and after a 4-week training period (16-20 training sessions. Before training, voxel-based morphometry (VBM and voxel-based cortical thickness (VBCT assessed baseline morphometric differences in nine iSCI patients compared to 14 healthy controls. The intense VR-augmented training of limb control improved significantly balance, walking speed, ambulation, and muscle strength in patients. Retention of clinical improvements was confirmed by the 3-4 months follow-up. In patients relative to controls, reductions in VBM of white matter volume within the brainstem and cerebellum and VBCT showed cortical thinning in the primary motor cortex. Over time, TBM revealed significant improvement-induced increases in the left middle temporal and occipital gyrus, left temporal pole and fusiform gyrus, both hippocampi, cerebellum, corpus callosum, and brainstem in iSCI patients. This study demonstrates structural plasticity at the cortical and brainstem level as a consequence of VR-augmented training in iSCI patients. These structural changes may serve as neuroimaging biomarkers of VR-augmented lower limb neurorehabilitation in addition to performance measures to detect improvements in rehabilitative training.

  12. Relationship between structural brainstem and brain plasticity and lower-limb training in spinal cord injury: a longitudinal pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Michael; Grabher, Patrick; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Curt, Armin; Bolliger, Marc; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina; Kollias, Spyros; Eng, Kynan; Freund, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitative training has shown to improve significantly motor outcomes and functional walking capacity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, whether performance improvements during rehabilitation relate to brain plasticity or whether it is based on functional adaptation of movement strategies remain uncertain. This study assessed training improvement-induced structural brain plasticity in chronic iSCI patients using longitudinal MRI. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to analyze longitudinal brain volume changes associated with intensive virtual reality (VR)-augmented lower limb training in nine traumatic iSCI patients. The MRI data was acquired before and after a 4-week training period (16-20 training sessions). Before training, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based cortical thickness (VBCT) assessed baseline morphometric differences in nine iSCI patients compared to 14 healthy controls. The intense VR-augmented training of limb control improved significantly balance, walking speed, ambulation, and muscle strength in patients. Retention of clinical improvements was confirmed by the 3-4 months follow-up. In patients relative to controls, VBM revealed reductions of white matter volume within the brainstem and cerebellum and VBCT showed cortical thinning in the primary motor cortex. Over time, TBM revealed significant improvement-induced volume increases in the left middle temporal and occipital gyrus, left temporal pole and fusiform gyrus, both hippocampi, cerebellum, corpus callosum, and brainstem in iSCI patients. This study demonstrates structural plasticity at the cortical and brainstem level as a consequence of VR-augmented training in iSCI patients. These structural changes may serve as neuroimaging biomarkers of VR-augmented lower limb neurorehabilitation in addition to performance measures to detect improvements in rehabilitative training.

  13. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort

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    Benjamin S.C. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of HIV+ individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD and radial distances (RD defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV+ participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV+ participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV+ people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV+ participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  14. Assessment of the impact of the scanner-related factors on brain morphometry analysis with Brainvisa

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    Shokouhi Mahsa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain morphometry is extensively used in cross-sectional studies. However, the difference in the estimated values of the morphometric measures between patients and healthy subjects may be small and hence overshadowed by the scanner-related variability, especially with multicentre and longitudinal studies. It is important therefore to investigate the variability and reliability of morphometric measurements between different scanners and different sessions of the same scanner. Methods We assessed the variability and reliability for the grey matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral hemisphere volumes as well as the global sulcal index, sulcal surface and mean geodesic depth using Brainvisa. We used datasets obtained across multiple MR scanners at 1.5 T and 3 T from the same groups of 13 and 11 healthy volunteers, respectively. For each morphometric measure, we conducted ANOVA analysis and verified whether the estimated values were significantly different across different scanners or different sessions of the same scanner. The between-centre and between-visit reliabilities were estimated from their contribution to the total variance, using a random-effects ANOVA model. To estimate the main processes responsible for low reliability, the results of brain segmentation were compared to those obtained using FAST within FSL. Results In a considerable number of cases, the main effects of both centre and visit factors were found to be significant. Moreover, both between-centre and between-visit reliabilities ranged from poor to excellent for most morphometric measures. A comparison between segmentation using Brainvisa and FAST revealed that FAST improved the reliabilities for most cases, suggesting that morphometry could benefit from improving the bias correction. However, the results were still significantly different across different scanners or different visits. Conclusions Our results confirm that for morphometry

  15. Cirque overdeepening and their relationship to morphometry

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    Křížek, Marek; Vočadlová, Klára; Engel, Zbyněk

    2012-02-01

    Shape and size characteristics of cirques and their changes and mutual relationships include not only spatial and descriptive aspects but also genetic attributes. The goals of this article were to define an application of k-curve (sensu Haynes, 1968) that describes the extent of cirque overdeepening and to identify k-curve equation input variables. The k-values depend on the profile location, and hence, a clear definition of the cirque profile position is necessary. Therefore, ideal profiles were delineated through the steepest part of the cirque headwall ( k-steepest, ks) or through a point on the cirque crest that had a maximal elevation ( k-highest, kh). Knowledge of the cirque headwall height allows for the mathematical (theoretical) calculation of cirque overdeepening (i.e., the maximum depth of the cirque floor, sedimentary filling of the cirque floor). Further, the goal of this study was to analyse and compare cirque classification methods according to the extent of overdeepening and standard morphometric characteristics. As a training data set, 27 example cirques of the Bohemian Massif (Giant Mts., Šumava Mts., and Hrubý Jeseník Mts.) and a total of 12 morphometric characteristics were used in the analyses. Cirques were classified into two groups using cluster analysis based on the extent of overdeepening ( k-values: kh and ks). A mutual relationship between cluster analysis classifications and classifications based on morphometric characteristics ( L/ W, H, and 3D/ 2D) was determined using general discriminant analysis. The classification of cirques based on other characteristics corresponded closely (in total, 81% for the first group and the cross-validation group) with cirque classifications based on the degree of overdeepening ( k-value).

  16. Voxel based morphometry reveals specific gray matter changes in primary dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Karl; Mueller, Joerg; Schocke, Michael; Brenneis, Christian; Rinnerthaler, Martina; Seppi, Klaus; Trieb, Thomas; Wenning, Gregor K; Hallett, Mark; Poewe, Werner

    2007-08-15

    The present study assessed patterns of brain tissue alterations in different types of primary dystonia using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Nine patients with primary generalized dystonia (GD), 11 patients with primary cervical dystonia (CD), and 11 patients with primary focal hand dystonia (FHD) as well as 31 age and gender-matched controls were included. When compared with healthy controls, patients with primary dystonia (n=31) showed gray matter volume increase bilaterally in the globus pallidus internus, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, as well as unilaterally in the left inferior parietal lobe. This is the first study using VBM in patients with different types of primary dystonia, showing a common pattern of gray matter changes. Copyright (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Morphometry, Morphology and Ultrastructure of Ring-tailed Coati Sperm (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H V R; Magalhães, F F; Ribeiro, L R; Souza, A L P; Freitas, C I A; de Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R; Silva, L D M

    2015-12-01

    The ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua) is a procyonid whose population is in sharp decline. Therefore, studies are needed to better understand the reproduction of this animal. For this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the morphology, morphometry and sperm ultrastructure of ring-tailed coati sperm. Four captive adult males were used for this study. Slides stained with Bengal Rose were used for the morphometric and morphologic analyses. The length and width of the head were measured, as well as the length of the midpiece and tail and the total length of the sperm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for the ultrastructural analyses. The most obvious morphological abnormalities observed were coiled tails (6.1 ± 8.7%) and the lack of acrosomes (5.4 ± 4.4%). Regarding the morphometry, the measurements of the head (length × width), midpiece (length) and tail (length) were (mean ± SD) 6.2 ± 0.4 × 8.1 ± 0.6 μm, 14.1 ± 0.5 and 63.9 ± 4.1 μm, respectively, and the total length of the sperm was 86.1 ± 4.3 μm. Through electron microscopy, the presence of electron-lucent points in the nucleus and the presence of approximately 55 mitochondrial spirals in the midpiece were identified. The data obtained in this study provide detailed information on the sperm characteristics of coatis and may inform future research on germplasm conservation, both for this species and other threatened procyonids. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Regional gray matter volume of dopaminergic system associate with creativity: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

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    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-06-01

    Creativity has been essential to the development of human civilization and plays a crucial role in cultural life. However, despite a number of functional imaging studies on creativity, the relationship between regional gray matter morphology and creativity has never been investigated in subcortical regions. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the gray matter correlates of individual creativity as measured by the divergent thinking test. We found positive correlations between regional gray matter volume and individual creativity in several regions such as the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral striata and in an anatomical cluster which included areas such as the substantia nigra, tegmental ventral area and periaqueductal gray. These findings suggest that individual creativity, as measured by the divergent thinking test, is mainly related to the regional gray matter of brain regions known to be associated with the dopaminergic system, congruent with the idea that dopaminergic physiological mechanisms are associated with individual creativity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Grey matter concentration revealed by voxel-based morphometry in individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuwen; Lei, Hui; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhang, Xiaocui

    2017-06-28

    To explore the grey matter concentration in individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression.
 Methods: Thirty individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression and thirty age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study, and they were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The grey matter concentration differences were compared between the two groups by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following MRI.
 Results: Individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression showed significantly lower grey matter density in bilateral insular, left cerebellum, right supplementary motor area, and left precentral gyrus than those in the healthy controls, while the healthy controls showed significantly lower grey density in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left cuneus than those in the individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression.
 Conclusion: Structural brain abnormalities in individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression might be the neural basis for cognitive vulnerability to depression.

  20. Influence of APOE Genotype on Hippocampal Atrophy over Time - An N=1925 Surface-Based ADNI Study.

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    Bolun Li

    Full Text Available The apolipoprotein E (APOE e4 genotype is a powerful risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD. In the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort, we previously reported significant baseline structural differences in APOE e4 carriers relative to non-carriers, involving the left hippocampus more than the right--a difference more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. We now examine the longitudinal effects of APOE genotype on hippocampal morphometry at 6-, 12- and 24-months, in the ADNI cohort. We employed a new automated surface registration system based on conformal geometry and tensor-based morphometry. Among different hippocampal surfaces, we computed high-order correspondences, using a novel inverse-consistent surface-based fluid registration method and multivariate statistics consisting of multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM and radial distance. At each time point, using Hotelling's T(2 test, we found significant morphological deformation in APOE e4 carriers relative to non-carriers in the full cohort as well as in the non-demented (pooled MCI and control subjects at each follow-up interval. In the complete ADNI cohort, we found greater atrophy of the left hippocampus than the right, and this asymmetry was more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. These findings, combined with our earlier investigations, demonstrate an e4 dose effect on accelerated hippocampal atrophy, and support the enrichment of prevention trial cohorts with e4 carriers.

  1. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Fathiya M; Masiga, Daniel K; Mohamed, Samira A; Salifu, Daisy; de Meyer, Marc; Ekesi, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D(2) = 122.9) was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1) and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4). Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s.), branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree.

  2. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathiya M Khamis

    Full Text Available In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D(2 = 122.9 was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1 and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4. Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s., branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree.

  3. Fully automated corneal endothelial morphometry of images captured by clinical specular microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucht, Curry; Söderberg, Per; Manneberg, Göran

    2010-02-01

    The corneal endothelium serves as the posterior barrier of the cornea. Factors such as clarity and refractive properties of the cornea are in direct relationship to the quality of the endothelium. The endothelial cell density is considered the most important morphological factor of the corneal endothelium. Pathological conditions and physical trauma may threaten the endothelial cell density to such an extent that the optical property of the cornea and thus clear eyesight is threatened. Diagnosis of the corneal endothelium through morphometry is an important part of several clinical applications. Morphometry of the corneal endothelium is presently carried out by semi automated analysis of pictures captured by a Clinical Specular Microscope (CSM). Because of the occasional need of operator involvement, this process can be tedious, having a negative impact on sampling size. This study was dedicated to the development and use of fully automated analysis of a very large range of images of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, using Fourier analysis. Software was developed in the mathematical programming language Matlab. Pictures of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, were read into the analysis software. The software automatically performed digital enhancement of the images, normalizing lights and contrasts. The digitally enhanced images of the corneal endothelium were Fourier transformed, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and stored as new images. Tools were developed and applied for identification and analysis of relevant characteristics of the Fourier transformed images. The data obtained from each Fourier transformed image was used to calculate the mean cell density of its corresponding corneal endothelium. The calculation was based on well known diffraction theory. Results in form of estimated cell density of the corneal endothelium were obtained, using fully automated analysis software on 292 images captured by CSM. The cell density obtained by the

  4. Effects of starter diet supplementation with arginine on broiler production performance and on small intestine morphometry

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    Alice E. Murakami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of starter diet (days 1 to 21 supplemented with arginine (Arg on the production performance and duodenum and jejunum mucosa morphometry of broilers were studied. Male Cobb broiler chickens (990 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a complete random design. Measurements of 33 chicks per treatment were made in six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet with 1.390% digestible Arg (no supplementation and four dietary levels (1.490%, 1.590%, 1.690%, and 1.790%, providing a relationship with lysine of 1.103; 1.183; 1.262; 1.341 and 1.421%, respectively. From the age of 22 days on, all birds received conventional grower diet. The data were submitted to regression analysis by polynomial decomposition of the degrees of freedom in relation to the levels of Arg. The Arg supplementation increased (P0.05 in the growth phase (days 22 to 42 in the absence of the Arg supplementation. The supplementation of Arg over of NRC recommendation during the starter phase may be necessary for the expression of the maximal weight gain potential in birds. No effect (P<0.05 of Arg dietary supplementation was observed either on small intestine weight and length at any age. However, the duodenum villus:crypt ratio increased and the crypt depth decreased in the first week in response to increasing dietary Arg. It is concluded that broiler Arg dietary supplementation in the starter diet improved production performance and small intestine morphometry, especially in the first week.

  5. Divide and Conquer: Sub-Grouping of ASD Improves ASD Detection Based on Brain Morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Gajendra J; Baum, Stefi A; Cahill, Nathan D; Michael, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Low success (ASD) classification using brain morphometry from the large multi-site ABIDE dataset and inconsistent findings on brain morphometric abnormalities in ASD can be attributed to the ASD heterogeneity. In this study, we show that ASD brain morphometry is highly heterogeneous, and demonstrate that the heterogeneity can be mitigated and classification improved if autism severity (AS), verbal IQ (VIQ) and age are used with morphometric features. Morphometric features from structural MRIs (sMRIs) of 734 males (ASD: 361, controls: 373) of ABIDE were derived using FreeSurfer. Applying the Random Forest classifier, an AUC of 0.61 was achieved. Adding VIQ and age to morphometric features, AUC improved to 0.68. Sub-grouping the subjects by AS, VIQ and age improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.8 in the moderate-AS sub-group (AS = 7-8). Matching subjects on age and/or VIQ in each sub-group further improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.92 in the low AS sub-group (AS = 4-5). AUC decreased with AS and VIQ, and was the lowest in the mid-age sub-group (13-18 years). The important features were mainly from the frontal, temporal, ventricular, right hippocampal and left amygdala regions. However, they highly varied with AS, VIQ and age. The curvature and folding index features from frontal, temporal, lingual and insular regions were dominant in younger subjects suggesting their importance for early detection. When the experiments were repeated using the Gradient Boosting classifier similar results were obtained. Our findings suggest that identifying brain biomarkers in sub-groups of ASD can yield more robust and insightful results than searching across the whole spectrum. Further, it may allow identification of sub-group specific brain biomarkers that are optimized for early detection and monitoring, increasing the utility of sMRI as an important tool for early detection of ASD.

  6. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.

  7. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  8. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Mid-Atlantic Region 2 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  9. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Arkansas White Red Region 11 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  10. Pelvic belt effects on pelvic morphometry, muscle activity and body balance in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

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    Odette Soisson

    Full Text Available The sacroiliac joint (SIJ is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application.Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects.Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level.Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest.

  11. Comparative morphometry of the antebrachial and crural interosseous membranes: preliminary study for the use of the crural interosseous membrane in the surgical repair of the antebrachial interosseous membrane tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamrani, Driss; Aumar, Aurélien; Wavreille, Guillaume; Fontaine, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Traumatic tears of the antebrachial interosseous membrane (AIOM) on its whole length are difficult to treat, particularly in the Essex-Lopresti syndrome. The number of ligamentoplasty techniques described in the literature witnesses the difficulty of its reconstruction and the absence of reliable and satisfying procedure. The aim of this study was to explore a new way of treatment, which consists in replacing the AIOM by the crural interosseous membrane (CIOM), harvested from the same patient. A morphometric study of the AIOM and CIOM has been conducted on both sides of 15 formalin preserved corpses (i.e. 30 AIOM and 30 CIOM). Studied data were: length of forearms and legs, length and width (at different locations) of the membranes, in situ and after harvesting, and orientation of their fibers. The thickness of membrane was also measured but only after harvesting. Concerning the AIOM, the mean length was 13.3 cm in situ and 12.8 cm after harvesting. Its width was maximal at the union of middle and distal thirds with an average value of 1.7 cm in situ and 1.45 cm after harvesting. Mean thickness was 1 mm. Anterior fibers were oblique distally and medially (20.5° ± 0.95°), and posterior fibers were oblique distally and laterally (40° ± 3.4°). Concerning the CIOM, the mean length was 24.75 cm in situ and 23.9 cm after harvesting. Its width was maximal at the union of proximal and middle thirds with an average value of 2.3 cm in situ and 1.85 cm after harvesting. Mean thickness was 0.5 mm. Obliquity of its fibers was reverse of that of the AIOM: the anterior fibers were quite oblique distally and laterally (13° ± 2.6°), and the posterior fibers oblique were oblique distally and medially (24.2° ± 2.48°). From these results, one may conclude that the largest length and width of the CIOM allow its use as substitute for the injured AIOM. The orientation of its fibers should necessitate either its reversal while using the same side or the use of the CIOM of the

  12. Fast, automated measurement of nematode swimming (thrashing without morphometry

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    Sattelle David B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "thrashing assay", in which nematodes are placed in liquid and the frequency of lateral swimming ("thrashing" movements estimated, is a well-established method for measuring motility in the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans as well as in parasitic nematodes. It is used as an index of the effects of drugs, chemicals or mutations on motility and has proved useful in identifying mutants affecting behaviour. However, the method is laborious, subject to experimenter error, and therefore does not permit high-throughput applications. Existing automation methods usually involve analysis of worm shape, but this is computationally demanding and error-prone. Here we present a novel, robust and rapid method of automatically counting the thrashing frequency of worms that avoids morphometry but nonetheless gives a direct measure of thrashing frequency. Our method uses principal components analysis to remove the background, followed by computation of a covariance matrix of the remaining image frames from which the interval between statistically-similar frames is estimated. Results We tested the performance of our covariance method in measuring thrashing rates of worms using mutations that affect motility and found that it accurately substituted for laborious, manual measurements over a wide range of thrashing rates. The algorithm used also enabled us to determine a dose-dependent inhibition of thrashing frequency by the anthelmintic drug, levamisole, illustrating the suitability of the system for assaying the effects of drugs and chemicals on motility. Furthermore, the algorithm successfully measured the actions of levamisole on a parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, which undergoes complex contorted shapes whilst swimming, without alterations in the code or of any parameters, indicating that it is applicable to different nematode species, including parasitic nematodes. Our method is capable of analyzing a 30 s movie in

  13. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE MORPHOMETRY OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT ATTACHMENT SITES. Estudio anatómico de la morfometría de los sitios de fijación del ligamento cruzado anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul I Iyaji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture and its consequent reconstruction is on the rise. In contributing to the achievement of anatomic reconstruction this study seek to provide information regarding the position and variability of the tibial attachment sites, dimensions of femoral insertions and compare these measurements in males and females, and in right and left knees. Thirty one cadaveric knees (15 right and 16 left from 9 females and 7 males, mean age 77 years were dissected. Various ACL footprint dimensions were taken. The mean length and width of the tibial anteromedial (AM bundle footprint were 8.9 and 9.8 mm while that of the posterolateral (PL bundle were 9.3 and 8.0 mm respectively. The mean length and width of the tibial AM and PL bundles in males were 8.5 and 9.8 mm, and 9.1 and 8.3 mm while corresponding values in females were and 9.2 and 9.7 mm, and 9.4 and 7.8 mm respectively.  Males had larger femoral footprints (P=0.020 and tibial plateau (P<0.001. No significant difference between the right and left knees were observed. The mean anatomical positions of the AM and PL bundles were 46.0% and 50.0% of the mediolateral diameter of the tibial plateau. The mean length and width of the ACL femoral insertion sites were 8.3 and 7.7 mm for the AM bundle and 7.8 and 6.9 mm for the PL bundle respectively. The smaller ACL attachment parameters in females could be a contributing factor to the higher incidence of ACL rupture in female athletes. La incidencia de la rotura del ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA y su consiguiente reconstrucción está en aumento. Para contribuir a la actualización de la reconstrucción anatómica del ligamento cruzado anterior, este estudio proporciona información sobre la posición y la variabilidad de los sitios de fijación en la tibia, las dimensiones de las inserciones femorales, así como las relaciones de estas mediciones en hombres y mujeres y en las rodillas derecha e izquierda. Se

  14. Schizotypy and brain structure : a voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, G.; Mechelli, A.; Ormel, J.; Groenewold, N. A.; Aleman, A.; McGuire, P. K.

    Background. Schizotypy is conceptualized as a subclinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Individuals with psychometric schizotypy (PS) experience subthreshold psychotic signs and can be

  15. Schizotypy and brain structure: a voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, G.; Mechelli, A.; Ormel, J.; Groenewold, N.A.; Aleman, A.; McGuire, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Schizotypy is conceptualized as a subclinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Individuals with psychometric schizotypy (PS) experience subthreshold psychotic signs and can be

  16. Can Taichi reshape the brain? A brain morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xia Wei

    Full Text Available Although research has provided abundant evidence for Taichi-induced improvements in psychological and physiological well-being, little is known about possible links to brain structure of Taichi practice. Using high-resolution MRI of 22 Tai Chi Chuan (TCC practitioners and 18 controls matched for age, sex and education, we set out to examine the underlying anatomical correlates of long-term Taichi practice at two different levels of regional specificity. For this purpose, parcel-wise and vertex-wise analyses were employed to quantify the difference between TCC practitioners and the controls based on cortical surface reconstruction. We also adopted the Attention Network Test (ANT to explore the effect of TCC on executive control. TCC practitioners, compared with controls, showed significantly thicker cortex in precentral gyrus, insula sulcus and middle frontal sulcus in the right hemisphere and superior temporal gyrus and medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus in the left hemisphere. Moreover, we found that thicker cortex in left medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus was associated with greater intensity of TCC practice. These findings indicate that long-term TCC practice could induce regional structural change and also suggest TCC might share similar patterns of neural correlates with meditation and aerobic exercise.

  17. Studies on the morphometry of Macrobrachium nobilii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

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    Pitchaimuthu Mariappan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen morphometric characters of Macrobrachium nobilii (Henderson and Matthai, 1910, a freshwater prawn were measured from 72 males and 66 females collected at random in field. The growth constant (b of total length and weight for male (4.28 and female (3.02 differed significantly (PQuatorze características morfológicas do Macrobrachium nobilii (Henderson e Matthai, 1910, 72 machos e 66 fêmeas de lagostas de água fresca foram medidas. O crescimento constante (b do comprimento total e peso para os machos (4.28 e fêmeas (3.02 apresentaram diferenças significativas (P<0.05. A comparação da inclinação e da elevação das regressões entre sexos indicaram diferenças significativas em todos os parâmetros dependentes estudados comprimento da carcaça (x, exceto largura da carcaça (y. Nos machos, as garras principais e secundárias demonstraram alometria positiva quando nas fêmeas o crescimento foi isométrico.

  18. Transient elastography compared to liver biopsy and morphometry for predicting fibrosis in pediatric chronic liver disease: Does etiology matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behairy, Behairy El-Sayed; Sira, Mostafa Mohamed; Zalata, Khaled Refat; Salama, El-Sayed Ebrahem; Abd-Allah, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-04-28

    To evaluate transient elastography (TE) as a noninvasive tool in staging liver fibrosis compared with liver biopsy and morphometry in children with different chronic liver diseases. A total of 90 children [50 with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), 20 with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and 20 with Wilson disease] were included in the study and underwent liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using TE. Liver biopsies were evaluated for fibrosis, qualitatively, by Ishak score and quantitatively by fibrosis area fraction (FAF) using digital image analysis (morphometry). LSM was correlated with fibrosis and other studied variables using spearman correlation. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was also performed to examine independent factors associated with LSM. Different cut-off values of LSM were calculated for predicting individual fibrosis stages using receiver-operating characteristic curve. Cut-off values with optimal clinical performance (optimal sensitivity and specificity simultaneously) were selected. The majority of HCV group had minimal activity (80%) and no/mild fibrosis (72%). On the other hand, the majority of AIH group had mild to moderate activity (70%) and moderate to severe fibrosis (95%) and all Wilson disease group had mild to moderate activity (100%) and moderate to severe fibrosis (100%). LSM correlated significantly with both FAF and Ishak scores and the correlation appeared better with the latter (r = 0.839 vs 0.879, P liver fibrosis in children. However, its values vary according to the disease type. For that, a disease-specific estimation of cut-off values for fibrosis staging is worthy.

  19. Effect of propolis ethanol extract on myostatin gene expression and muscle morphometry of Nile tilapia in net cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, E L; Mizubuti, I Y; Alfieri, A A; Otonel, R A A; Buck, L Y; Souza, F P; Prado-Calixto, O P; Poveda-Parra, A R; Alexandre Filho, L; Lopera-Barrero, N M

    2017-03-16

    Propolis can be used as growth enhancer due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immune-stimulant properties, but its effects on morphometry and muscle gene expression are largely unknown. The present study evaluates the influence of propolis on muscle morphometry and myostatin gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) bred in net cages. Reversed males (GIFT strain) with an initial weight of 170 ± 25 g were distributed in a (2 x 4) factorial scheme, with two diets (DPRO, commercial diet with 4% propolis ethanol extract and DCON, commercial diet without propolis, control) and four assessment periods (0, 35, 70, and 105 experimental days). Muscles were evaluated at each assessment period. Histomorphometric analysis classified the fiber diameters into four groups: 50 μm. RT-qPCR was performed to assess myostatin gene expression. Fibers 30 µm (30-50 and > 50 µm) at 70 days were 25.39% and 40.07% for DPRO and DCON, respectively. There was greater myostatin gene expression at 105 days, averaging 1.93 and 1.89 for DCON and DPRO, respectively, with no significant difference in any of the analyzed periods. Propolis ethanol extract did not affect the diameter of muscle fibers or the gene expression of myostatin. Future studies should describe the mechanisms of natural products' effects on muscle growth and development since these factors are highly relevant for fish production performance.

  20. Cortical and Subcortical Brain Morphometry Differences Between Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: Results From the ENIGMA ASD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Arango, Celso; Auzias, Guillaume; Behrmann, Marlene; Busatto, Geraldo F; Calderoni, Sara; Daly, Eileen; Deruelle, Christine; Di Martino, Adriana; Dinstein, Ilan; Duran, Fabio Luis Souza; Durston, Sarah; Ecker, Christine; Fair, Damien; Fedor, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Jackie; Freitag, Christine M; Gallagher, Louise; Gori, Ilaria; Haar, Shlomi; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; Jahanshad, Neda; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Janssen, Joost; Lerch, Jason; Luna, Beatriz; Martinho, Mauricio Moller; McGrath, Jane; Muratori, Filippo; Murphy, Clodagh M; Murphy, Declan G M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Oranje, Bob; Parellada, Mara; Retico, Alessandra; Rossa, Pedro; Rubia, Katya; Shook, Devon; Taylor, Margot; Thompson, Paul M; Tosetti, Michela; Wallace, Gregory L; Zhou, Fengfeng; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-11-17

    Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group. The sample comprised 1,571 patients with ASD and 1,651 healthy control subjects (age range, 2-64 years) from 49 participating sites. MRI scans were preprocessed at individual sites with a harmonized protocol based on a validated automated-segmentation software program. Mega-analyses were used to test for case-control differences in subcortical volumes, cortical thickness, and surface area. Development of brain morphometry over the lifespan was modeled using a fractional polynomial approach. The case-control mega-analysis demonstrated that ASD was associated with smaller subcortical volumes of the pallidum, putamen, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (effect sizes [Cohen's d], 0.13 to -0.13), as well as increased cortical thickness in the frontal cortex and decreased thickness in the temporal cortex (effect sizes, -0.21 to 0.20). Analyses of age effects indicate that the development of cortical thickness is altered in ASD, with the largest differences occurring around adolescence. No age-by-ASD interactions were observed in the subcortical partitions. The ENIGMA ASD working group provides the largest study of brain morphometry differences in ASD to date, using a well-established, validated, publicly available analysis pipeline. ASD patients showed altered morphometry in the cognitive and affective parts of the striatum, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Complex developmental trajectories were observed for the different

  1. Differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and gp70 expression correlate with the virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rafaela A; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H; Teixeira, Pedro A C; Sanches, Glenda F; Teixeira, Marcus M; Quintella, Leonardo P; Almeida, Sandro R; Costa, Rosane O; Camargo, Zoilo P; Felipe, Maria S S; de Souza, Wanderley; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes.

  2. Voxel-based morphometry in women with borderline personality disorder with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Inga Niedtfeld

    Full Text Available Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD showed reduced volume of amygdala and hippocampus, but similar findings are evident in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Applying voxel-based morphometry (VBM in a larger cohort of patients with BPD, we sought to extend earlier findings of volume abnormalities in limbic regions and to evaluate the influence of co-occurring PTSD in BPD patients. We used voxel-based morphometry to study gray matter volume (GMV in 60 healthy controls (HC and 60 patients with BPD. Subgroup analyses on 53 patients concerning the role of co-occurring PTSD were conducted. Additionally, regression analyses were calculated to assess the relation between borderline symptom severity as well as dissociative experiences and GMV. Differences in local GMV between patients with BPD and HC were observed in the amygdale and hippocampus as well as in the fusiform and cingulate gyrus. Co-occurring PTSD was accompanied by increased GMV in the superior temporal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Independent of co-occurring PTSD, severity of BPD symptoms predicted smaller GMV in the amygdala and dorsal ACC. Dissociation was positively related to GMV in the middle temporal gyrus. We could replicate earlier findings of diminished limbic GMV in patients with BPD and additionally show that patients with co-morbid PTSD feature increased GMV in prefrontal regions associated with cognitive control.

  3. Investigating Structural Brain Changes of Dehydration Using Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitbürger, Daniel-Paolo; Möller, Harald E.; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Hund-Georgiadis, Margret; Schroeter, Matthias L.; Mueller, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Dehydration can affect the volume of brain structures, which might imply a confound in volumetric and morphometric studies of normal or diseased brain. Six young, healthy volunteers were repeatedly investigated using three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during states of normal hydration, hyperhydration, and dehydration to assess volume changes in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The datasets were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a widely used voxel-wise statistical analysis tool, FreeSurfer, a fully automated volumetric segmentation measure, and SIENAr a longitudinal brain-change detection algorithm. A significant decrease of GM and WM volume associated with dehydration was found in various brain regions, most prominently, in temporal and sub-gyral parietal areas, in the left inferior orbito-frontal region, and in the extra-nuclear region. Moreover, we found consistent increases in CSF, that is, an expansion of the ventricular system affecting both lateral ventricles, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Similar degrees of shrinkage in WM volume and increase of the ventricular system have been reported in studies of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheime s disease during disease progression. Based on these findings, a potential confound in GM and WM or ventricular volume studies due to the subjects’ hydration state cannot be excluded and should be appropriately addressed in morphometric studies of the brain. PMID:22952926

  4. Preclinical evaluation of nuclear morphometry and tissue topology for breast carcinoma detection and margin assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Ndeke; Farkas, Daniel L; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2011-04-01

    effectively since it is a combination of both nuclear size and count in any given region of the analyzed image, and thus yields high sensitivity and specificity (~97%) in tumor detection. This is further substantiated by an independent parameter, fractal dimension, based on the tissue topology. Although the basic definition of cancer as an uncontrolled cell growth entails a high nuclear density in tumor regions, a simple but systematic exploration of nuclear distribution in thick tissues by nuclear morphometry and tissue topology as performed in this study has never been carried out, to the best of our knowledge. We discuss the practical aspects of implementing this imaging approach in automated tissue sampling scenario where the accuracy of tumor margin assessment can be significantly increased by scanning the entire surgical specimen rather than sampling only a few sections as in current histopathology analysis.

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR morphometry of the central auditory pathway and auditory cortex in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profant, O; Škoch, A; Balogová, Z; Tintěra, J; Hlinka, J; Syka, J

    2014-02-28

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is caused mainly by the hypofunction of the inner ear, but recent findings point also toward a central component of presbycusis. We used MR morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 3T MR system with the aim to study the state of the central auditory system in a group of elderly subjects (>65years) with mild presbycusis, in a group of elderly subjects with expressed presbycusis and in young controls. Cortical reconstruction, volumetric segmentation and auditory pathway tractography were performed. Three parameters were evaluated by morphometry: the volume of the gray matter, the surface area of the gyrus and the thickness of the cortex. In all experimental groups the surface area and gray matter volume were larger on the left side in Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale and slightly larger in the gyrus frontalis superior, whereas they were larger on the right side in the primary visual cortex. Almost all of the measured parameters were significantly smaller in the elderly subjects in Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale and gyrus frontalis superior. Aging did not change the side asymmetry (laterality) of the gyri. In the central part of the auditory pathway above the inferior colliculus, a trend toward an effect of aging was present in the axial vector of the diffusion (L1) variable of DTI, with increased values observed in elderly subjects. A trend toward a decrease of L1 on the left side, which was more pronounced in the elderly groups, was observed. The effect of hearing loss was present in subjects with expressed presbycusis as a trend toward an increase of the radial vectors (L2L3) in the white matter under Heschl's gyrus. These results suggest that in addition to peripheral changes, changes in the central part of the auditory system in elderly subjects are also present; however, the extent of hearing loss does not play a significant role in the central changes. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Short Latency Gray Matter Changes in Voxel-Based Morphometry following High Frequent Visual Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegel, Steffen; Hagenacker, Tim; Theysohn, Nina; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Katsarava, Zaza; Obermann, Mark; Holle, Dagny

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging studies using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) detected structural changes in the human brain within periods of months or weeks. The underlying molecular mechanisms of VBM findings remain unresolved. We showed that simple visual stimulation by an alternating checkerboard leads to instant, short-lasting alterations of the primary and secondary visual cortex detected by VBM. The rapidness of occurrence (i.e., within 10 minutes) rather excludes most of the proposed physiological mechanism such as neural or glial cell genesis/degeneration or synapse turnover. We therefore favour cerebral fluid shifts to be the underlying correlate of the here observed VBM gray matter changes. Fast onset gray matter changes might be one important explanation for the inconsistency of VBM study results that often raise concern in regard to the validity of presented data. This study shows that changes detectable by VBM may occur within a few minutes after physiological stimulation and must be considered in future VBM experiments to avoid misinterpretation of results.

  7. Wing morphometry of Slovak lines of Apis mellifera carnica honeybee population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Chlebo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of honeybee workers and drones forewings from 16 hives belonging to various lines of Slovak Carniolan bee kept by queen breeders in Slovakia were taken in year 2013 to perform wing morphometry measurements. The Dawino, complex wing morphometry method, has been applied for workers samples and measurements of Cubital index for drones samples. Worker bees samples showed similarity to Carniolan bee standard from 50 to 84 % in 15 cases, on sample was out of standard. Cubital index of drones samples comply with a carnica bee standard in 14 cases, 2 samples were out of the range. The future of use wing morphometry for detection of hybridization in A. m. carnica populations is discussed.

  8. IDENTIFYING THE INFLUENCE OF MORPHOMETRY ON THE URBAN MORPHOLOGY OF ZALĂU USING GIS

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    ANDREEA MARIA VÂTCA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the Influence of Morphometry on the Urban Morphology of Zalău Using GIS. The topography is considered to be the main component lying at the basis of human activities and settlements. Its analysis can highlight the territories which are favourable or restrictive for urban expansion and city development. The present study used cartographic databases and geoinformation software to identify the present distribution of edilitary constructions on elevation and slope angle intervals, two morphometric characteristics which have the strongest influence on the urban development of Zalău Municipality. In order to highlight the geomorphological processes which influence in a negative way the city expansion, the study has identified the building distribution in each neighbourhood on landslide probability classes, these specific categories being identified using the methodology described in the Governmental Decision 447/2003. Starting from these databases, the geomorphological risk map was created. This type of analysis, which relies on the current territorial expansion of the city, offers an overall image on the future development options and enables a sustainable planning of the analysed territory.

  9. Morphometry of stylomastoid foramen and its clinical application in facial nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nidhi; Varshney, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Stylomastoid foramen is an important site for Nadbath facial nerve block. Exact localization of foramen holds the key to success, thus decreasing the complications. Wide racial variation exists in position of stylomastoid foramen in different population groups. The aim was to study the morphometry of stylomastoid foramen and its location with respect to nearby anatomical landmarks. A total of 100 dry skulls (60 male and 40 female) were studied to locate the position of center of stylomastoid foramen (CSMF) with respect to tip and anterior border of the mastoid process and jugular foramen (JF). Along with this angle between antero-posterior line passing through the tip of the mastoid process and line joining the tip with stylomastoid foramen was also measured. In 83.51% sides of skulls, the most common position of foramen was found to be anterior to the line passing through anterior border of the mastoid process. The mean distance of center of foramen from the tip of the mastoid process was 15.26 ± 1.4 mm on right and 14.32 ± 1.8 on the left side (P facial nerve block.

  10. Clinical examination compared with morphometry of digital photographs for evaluation of repaired cleft lips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M; Svensson, H; Jacobsson, S

    1998-09-01

    Twenty-four adult patients who had been operated on as infants for isolated cleft lip underwent clinical examination combined with photographic documentation using a digital camera. The same predetermined protocol comprising 20 variables describing nasolabial appearance was used for both the clinical examination and the computerised evaluation of the images. The correlation between the two methods is described in the present study. The results obtained with the two methods agreed closely. For metric variables the mean coefficient of correlation was 0.73 and when all measurements were combined, it reached 0.98. Likewise, discrete variables showed a close correlation, with a mean kappa value of 0.72. Variables related to muscular dynamics of the lip can for obvious reasons not be judged from photographs. However, the computerised photographic evaluation was able to detect more precisely even minor angular deviations of the nose and to measure areas such as the areas of the nostrils. We conclude that morphometry of digital photographs is a new valuable clinical tool for the assessment of the nasolabial appearance in patients with cleft lip and palate.

  11. Computed tomography evaluation of the morphometry and variations of the infraorbital canal relating to endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açar, Gülay; Özen, Kemal Emre; Güler, İbrahim; Büyükmumcu, Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    The course of the infraorbital canal may leave the infraorbital nerve susceptible to injury during reconstructive and endoscopic surgery, particularly when surgically manipulating the roof of the maxillary sinus. We investigated both the morphometry and variations of the infraorbital canal with the aim to show the relationship between them relative to endoscopic approaches. This retrospective study was performed on paranasal multidetector computed tomography images of 200 patients. The infraorbital canal corpus types were categorized as Type 1: within the maxillary bony roof (55.3%), Type 2: partially protruding into maxillary sinus (26.7%), Type 3: within the maxillary sinus (9.5%), Type 4: located anatomically at the outer limit of the zygomatic recess of the maxillary bone (8.5%). The internal angulation and the length of the infraorbital canal, the infraorbital foramen entry angles and the distances related to the infraorbital foramen localization were measured and their relationships with the infraorbital canal variations were analyzed. We reported that the internal angulations in both sagittal and axial sections were mostly found in infraorbital canal Type 1 and 4 (69.2%, 64.7%) but, there were commonly no angulation in Type 3 (68.4%) (pCirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

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    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  13. Surface-based morphometry reveals the neuroanatomical basis of the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccelli, Roberta; Toschi, Nicola; Nigro, Salvatore; Terracciano, Antonio; Passamonti, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) is a widely used taxonomy of human personality; yet its neuro anatomical basis remains unclear. This is partly because past associations between gray-matter volume and FFM were driven by different surface-based morphometry (SBM) indices (i.e. cortical thickness, surface area, cortical folding or any combination of them). To overcome this limitation, we used Free-Surfer to study how variability in SBM measures was related to the FFM in n = 507 participants from the Human Connectome Project.Neuroticism was associated with thicker cortex and smaller area and folding in prefrontal-temporal regions. Extraversion was linked to thicker pre-cuneus and smaller superior temporal cortex area. Openness was linked to thinner cortex and greater area and folding in prefrontal-parietal regions. Agreeableness was correlated to thinner prefrontal cortex and smaller fusiform gyrus area. Conscientiousness was associated with thicker cortex and smaller area and folding in prefrontal regions. These findings demonstrate that anatomical variability in prefrontal cortices is linked to individual differences in the socio-cognitive dispositions described by the FFM. Cortical thickness and surface area/folding were inversely related each others as a function of different FFM traits (neuroticism, extraversion and consciousness vs openness), which may reflect brain maturational effects that predispose or protect against psychiatric disorders. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Brain morphometry and intelligence quotient measurements in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Pawlak, Mikolaj A; Flynn, Thomas B; Krejza, Jaroslaw; Herskovits, Edward H; Melhem, Elias R

    2009-12-01

    To verify the hypothesis that volume of regional gray matter accounts substantially for variability in intelligence quotient (IQ) score among children with sickle cell disease, who have no magnetic resonance visible infarcts. We studied 31 children with sickle cell disease, homozygous for hemoglobin S, with no history of stroke, no magnetic resonance signal-intensity abnormality, and transcranial Doppler velocities Intelligence Test. On the basis of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, we classified these children into 2 groups: high and low IQ based on a median split. We then used an automated and novel Bayesian voxel-based morphometry technique, called Graphical-Model-Based Multivariate Analysis (GAMMA), to assess the probabilistic association between IQ score and regional gray matter volume. GAMMA found 1 region linking low IQ with smaller cortical gray matter volume. In comparison with the children in the high-IQ group, children in the low-IQ group had smaller regional gray matter volume in both frontal lobes, both temporal lobes, and both parietal lobes. In children with sickle cell disease, we found a linear association between IQ and regional gray matter volume. This finding suggests that some variance in intellectual ability in children with sickle cell disease is accounted for by regional variability of gray matter volume, which is independent of neuroradiological evidence of infarct.

  15. Voxel-Based Morphometry ALE meta-analysis of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Omar; Laird, Robert

    2012-03-01

    A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.

  16. Mapping cortical degeneration in ALS with magnetization transfer ratio and voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Cosottini

    Full Text Available Pathological and imaging data indicate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a multisystem disease involving several cerebral cortical areas. Advanced quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques enable to explore in vivo the volume and microstructure of the cerebral cortex in ALS. We studied with a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM and magnetization transfer (MT imaging approach the capability of MRI to identify the cortical areas affected by neurodegeneration in ALS patients. Eighteen ALS patients and 18 age-matched healthy controls were examined on a 1.5T scanner using a high-resolution 3D T1 weighted spoiled gradient recalled sequence with and without MT saturation pulse. A voxel-based analysis (VBA was adopted in order to automatically compute the regional atrophy and MT ratio (MTr changes of the entire cerebral cortex. By using a multimodal image analysis MTr was adjusted for local gray matter (GM atrophy to investigate if MTr changes can be independent of atrophy of the cerebral cortex. VBA revealed several clusters of combined GM atrophy and MTr decrease in motor-related areas and extra-motor frontotemporal cortex. The multimodal image analysis identified areas of isolated MTr decrease in premotor and extra-motor frontotemporal areas. VBM and MTr are capable to detect the distribution of neurodegenerative alterations in the cortical GM of ALS patients, supporting the hypothesis of a multi-systemic involvement in ALS. MT imaging changes exist beyond volume loss in frontotemporal cortices.

  17. Using deep belief network modelling to characterize differences in brain morphometry in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaya, Walter H. L.; Gadelha, Ary; Doyle, Orla M.; Noto, Cristiano; Zugman, André; Cordeiro, Quirino; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Sato, João R.

    2016-12-01

    Neuroimaging-based models contribute to increasing our understanding of schizophrenia pathophysiology and can reveal the underlying characteristics of this and other clinical conditions. However, the considerable variability in reported neuroimaging results mirrors the heterogeneity of the disorder. Machine learning methods capable of representing invariant features could circumvent this problem. In this structural MRI study, we trained a deep learning model known as deep belief network (DBN) to extract features from brain morphometry data and investigated its performance in discriminating between healthy controls (N = 83) and patients with schizophrenia (N = 143). We further analysed performance in classifying patients with a first-episode psychosis (N = 32). The DBN highlighted differences between classes, especially in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular cortices, and in some subcortical regions, including the corpus callosum, putamen, and cerebellum. The DBN was slightly more accurate as a classifier (accuracy = 73.6%) than the support vector machine (accuracy = 68.1%). Finally, the error rate of the DBN in classifying first-episode patients was 56.3%, indicating that the representations learned from patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were not suitable to define these patients. Our data suggest that deep learning could improve our understanding of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia by improving neuromorphometric analyses.

  18. Intestinal and liver morphometry of the Yellow Tail Tetra (Astyanax altiparanae fed with oregano oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLLYANNA M.F. FERREIRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oregano oil on the intestinal and liver morphometry of yellow tail tetra, Astyanax altiparanae. Fish (1.46 ± 0.09 g were kept in a 60-L aquaria, at a stocking density of 0.5 fi sh L-1. Six diets containing varying amounts of oregano oil were evaluated (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 g of oregano oil kg-1. At the end of 90 days, the fi sh were euthanised. Four intestines and four livers were collected per treatment, which were fi xed in Bouin and embedded in resin. For height and width folds, the absorption surface area and thickness of the muscular layer a positive linear effect of oregano oil was observed. A decrescent linear effect on the total number of goblet cells was also observed. For the cytoplasmic percentage of hepatocytes and liver glycogen, a positive linear effect of oregano oil was observed. There was a decreasing linear effect on the percentage of nuclei in the hepatocytes and capillaries. Thus, the oregano essential oil promotes increased absorption areas, modulates the amount of goblet cells involved in protecting the intestinal mucosa and promotes cytoplasmic increase with greater deposition of liver glycogen in yellow tail tetra.

  19. Voxel-based Morphometry of Brain MRI in Normal Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using structural brain MRI has been widely used for assessment of normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). VBM of MRI data comprises segmentation into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid partitions, anatomical standardization of all the images to the same stereotactic space using linear affine transformation and further non-linear warping, smoothing, and finally performing a statistical analysis. Two techniques for VBM are commonly used, optimized VBM using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 2 or SPM5 with non-linear warping based on discrete cosine transforms and SPM8 plus non-linear warping based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). In normal aging, most cortical regions prominently in frontal and insular areas have been reported to show age-related gray matter atrophy. In contrast, specific structures such as amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus have been reported to be preserved in normal aging. On the other hand, VBM studies have demonstrated progression of atrophy mapping upstream to Braak's stages of neurofibrillary tangle deposition in AD. The earliest atrophy takes place in medial temporal structures. Stand-alone VBM software using SPM8 plus DARTEL running on Windows has been newly developed as an adjunct to the clinical assessment of AD. This software provides a Z-score map as a consequence of comparison of a patient's MRI with a normal database.

  20. MANDIBULAR MORPHOMETRY APPLIED TO ANESTHETIC BLOCKAGE IN THE MANED WOLF (CHRYSOCYON BRACHYURUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Junior, Paulo; de Moraes, Flavio Machado; de Carvalho, Natan da Cruz; Canelo, Evandro Alves; Thiesen, Roberto; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto

    2016-03-01

    Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf) is the biggest South American canid and has a high frequency of dental injuries, both in the wild and in captivity. Thus, veterinary procedures are necessary to preserve the feeding capacity of hundreds of captive specimens worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the mandibular morphometry of the maned wolf with emphasis on the establishment of anatomic references for anesthetic block of the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. Therefore, 16 measurements in 22 mandibles of C. brachyurus adults were taken. For extraoral block of the inferior alveolar nerve at the level of the mandibular foramen, the needle should be advanced close to the medial face of the mandibular ramus for 11.4 mm perpendicular to the palpable concavity. In another extraoral approach, the needle may be introduced for 30.4 mm from the angular process at a 20-25° angle to the ventral margin. For blocking only the mental nerve, the needle should be inserted for 10 mm from ventral border, close to the labial surface of the mandibular body, at the level of the lower first premolar. The mandibular foramen showed similar position, size, and symmetry in the maned wolf specimens examined. Comparison of the data observed here with those available for other carnivores indicates the need to determine these anatomic references specifically for each species.

  1. Effect of oral dietary supplement for chicks subjected to thermal oscillation on performance and intestinal morphometry

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    Jovanir Inês Müller Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional formulation based on amino acids and vitamins supplemented in the drinking water for chicks in the first week of life subjected to thermal oscillation on performance, organ development and intestinal morphometry from 1 to 21 days. 640-male broiler chicks were distributed in a 2x2 factorial completely randomized design (with or without dietary supplementation and at comfort temperature or thermal oscillation. Chicks subjected to thermal oscillation presented worse performance (p < 0.05 than those under thermal comfort of 1 to 7, 1 to 14 and 1 to 21 days. Nutritional supplementation did not alter the performance (p < 0.05 of the birds, but resulted in a higher body weight (p < 0.05 regardless of the environmental thermal condition. At 7 days, chicks under thermal comfort had better intestinal morphometric parameters (p < 0.05, in relation to birds under thermal oscillation. In conclusion, the temperature oscillations caused negative consequences to the productive performance and the intestinal morphology of chicks for which dietary supplementation was not enough to mitigate the effects of the environmental challenge during the first week of life of the birds.

  2. Adolescent drinking and brain morphometry: A co-twin control analysis

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    Sylia Wilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental changes in structure and functioning are thought to make the adolescent brain particularly sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol. Although alcohol use disorders are relatively rare in adolescence, the initiation of alcohol use, including problematic use, becomes increasingly prevalent during this period. The present study examined associations between normative drinking (alcohol initiation, binge drinking, intoxication and brain morphometry in a sample of 96 adolescent monozygotic twins. A priori regions of interest included 11 subcortical and 20 cortical structures implicated in the existing empirical literature as associated with normative alcohol use in adolescence. In addition, co-twin control analyses were used to disentangle risk for alcohol use from consequences of alcohol exposure on the developing brain. Results indicated significant associations reflecting preexisting vulnerability toward problematic alcohol use, including reduced volume of the amygdala, increased volume of the cerebellum, and reduced cortical volume and thickness in several frontal and temporal regions, including the superior and middle frontal gyri, pars triangularis, and middle and inferior temporal gyri. Results also indicated some associations consistent with a neurotoxic effect of alcohol exposure, including reduced volume of the ventral diencephalon and the middle temporal gyrus.

  3. Wing morphometry as a tool for correct identification of primary and secondary New World screwworm fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, M L; Hatadani, L M; de Azeredo-Espin, A M L; Klaczko, L B

    2010-02-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax and Cochliomyia macellaria are endemic Neotropical Calliphoridae species. The former causes severe myiasis in hosts while the latter is Sarcosaprophagous, but commonly found as a second invader in wounds. Due to the morphological similarity between them and the potential losses that C. hominivorax represents for cattle breeders, the rapid and correct identification of these two species is very important. In addition to a correct identification of these species, a good knowledge of C. hominivorax biology can be helpful for designing control programs. We applied geometric morphometric methods to assess wing differences between C. hominivorax and C. macellaria and conduct a preliminary analysis of wing morphological variation in C. hominivorax populations. Canonical variate analysis, using wing shape data, correctly classified 100% of the individuals analyzed according to sex and species. This result demonstrates that wing morphometry is a simple and reliable method for identifying C. hominivorax and C. macellaria samples and can be used to monitor C. hominivorax. Both species show sexual dimorphism, but in C. hominivorax it is magnified. We suggest that this may reflect different histories of selection pressures operating on males and females. Significant differences in wing size and shape were obtained among C. hominivorax populations, with little correlation with latitude. This result suggests that wing variation is also a good morphological marker for studying population variation in C. hominivorax.

  4. Immature and mature sperm morphometry in fresh and frozen-thawed falcon ejaculates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde-Morcillo, S; Soler, A J; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Miñano-Berna, A; Gonzalez, F; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2017-08-01

    Sperm morphometry is one characteristic which may be useful in prediction of fertility and sperm freezability in a species. Knowledge of the sperm characteristics of the ejaculate and the morphometric descriptors is necessary to effectively develop sperm cryopreservation. The aim of the current study was to provide a general description of the sperm from two falcon species (Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus peregrinus/brookei and Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus) including immature sperm, sperm head morphometric descriptors, and the existence of mature sperm subpopulations. Semen samples were collected by massage and voluntary false copulation and diluted with Lake and Ravie medium. Smears were prepared of the diluted samples, stained with Hemacolor ® , and subjected to: 1) morphological analysis (bright field optical microscopy), and 2) computerised morphometric analysis; each sperm head was measured for length, width, area and perimeter. In addition, in the Gyrfalcon, pooled semen was frozen in pellets using DMA as a cryoprotectant and the analyses repeated after thawing. The mean percentage of immature sperm (spermatocytes and spermatids) was similarly high in all species/subspecies: Brookei Peregrine falcon (F. p. brookei) 55.5%, European Peregrine falcon (F. p. peregrinus) 65.5% and Gyrfalcon 64.7%. Clustering analyses identified four subpopulations of mature spermatozoa with different morphometric characteristics (P falcon sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional gray matter density associated with emotional conflict resolution: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z; Wei, D; Xue, S; Du, X; Hitchman, G; Qiu, J

    2014-09-05

    Successful emotion regulation is a fundamental prerequisite for well-being and dysregulation may lead to psychopathology. The ability to inhibit spontaneous emotions while behaving in accordance with desired goals is an important dimension of emotion regulation and can be measured using emotional conflict resolution tasks. Few studies have investigated the gray matter correlates underlying successful emotional conflict resolution at the whole-brain level. We had 190 adults complete an emotional conflict resolution task (face-word task) and examined the brain regions significantly correlated with successful emotional conflict resolution using voxel-based morphometry. We found successful emotional conflict resolution was associated with increased regional gray matter density in widely distributed brain regions. These regions included the dorsal anterior cingulate/dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, amygdala, ventral striatum, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus and fusiform face area. Together, our results indicate that individual differences in emotional conflict resolution ability may be attributed to regional structural differences across widely distributed brain regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphometry, growth and reproduction of an Atlantic population of the razor clam Ensis macha (Molina, 1782

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    Pedro J. Barón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensis macha is a razor clam distributed throughout the coasts of southern Argentina and Chile. Even though it represents a valuable fishery resource, the exploitation of its Atlantic populations has begun only in recent years. This study provides the first estimates of growth rate, an interpretation of the reproductive cycle on the coast of the northern Argentine Patagonia and an analysis of the species morphometry. Growth was estimated by direct observation of growth rings on the valves by two observers. The reproductive cycle was interpreted by the analysis of temporal change of oocyte size frequency distributions. Parameter estimations for the von Bertalanffy equations respectively obtained by observers 1 and 2 were 154 and 153.7 mm for L?, 0.25 and 0.20 yr-1 for k, and -0.08 and -0.72 yr for t0. Two spawning peaks were detected: September-November 1999 and May-June 2000. However, mature females were found all year round. An abrupt change in the relationship between shell length and height was detected at 11.2 mm length.

  7. Pelvic floor morphometry and function in women with and without puborectalis avulsion in the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marie-Pierre; Kruger, Jennifer; Wong, Vivien; Dumoulin, Chantale; Girard, Isabelle; Morin, Mélanie

    2017-03-01

    Pelvic floor muscles are subject to considerable stretching during vaginal birth. In 13-36% of women, stretching results in avulsion injury whereby the puborectalis muscle disconnects from its insertion points on the pubis bone. Until now, few studies have investigated the effect of this lesion on pelvic floor muscles in the early postpartum period. The primary aim of this study was to compare pelvic floor muscle morphometry and function in primiparous women with and without puborectalis avulsion in the early postpartum period. Our secondary objective was to compare the 2 groups for pelvic floor disorders and impact on quality of life. In all, 52 primiparous women diagnosed with (n = 22) or without (n = 30) puborectalis avulsion injury were assessed at 3 months postpartum. Pelvic floor muscle morphometry was evaluated with 3-/4-dimensional transperineal ultrasound at rest, maximal contraction, and Valsalva maneuver. Different parameters were measured in the midsagittal and axial planes: bladder neck position, levator plate angle, anorectal angle, and levator hiatus dimensions. The dynamometric speculum was used to assess pelvic floor muscle function including: passive properties (passive forces and stiffness) during dynamic stretches, maximal strength, speed of contraction, and endurance. Pelvic floor disorder-related symptoms (eg, urinary incontinence, vaginal and bowel symptoms) and impact on quality of life were evaluated with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-Short Form. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification was also assessed. In comparison to women without avulsion, women with avulsion presented an enlarged hiatus area at rest, maximal contraction, and Valsalva maneuver (P ≤ .013) and all other ultrasound parameters were found to be significantly altered during maximal contraction (P ≤ .014). They showed lower passive forces at maximal and 20-mm vaginal apertures as well as lower

  8. Comparison of the total length and areas of upper central incisors between males and females using computer-assisted morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Vicente P A; Rodrigues, Denise B R; Reis, Marlene A; Castro, Eumênia C C; Piccioni, Dino E; Beghini, Marcela; de Lima Pereira, Sanívia A

    2013-06-01

    The determination of measurements of teeth facilitates various procedures in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total length and the area of the non-extracted upper central incisors (UCI). Periapical radiographies of 42 UCI were placed over a lighted box. The outlines of the teeth and the pulp cavity were traced onto sheets and then measured using an image analyzer. The area of the upper left central incisor tooth (tooth 21) was statistically significantly larger in males than in females (p = 0.02). The total length of the right UCI was similar to that of the left one. This study demonstrates that computer-assisted morphometry is an important tool for the evaluation of the total length and areas of teeth and their pulp cavities. The significantly larger area of tooth 21 in males compared to females has anthropomorphic and clinical implications.

  9. Morphometry and diet of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacépède) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometry and diet of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus in Epe lagoon were investigated between January and July 2008. The major fishing methods employed for collecting the 600 specimens were cast netting and set netting. The total lengths ranged from 11.00 to 30.20 cm (mean size 19.67 ± 4.56 cm) while the ...

  10. Supremacy of modern morphometry in typing renal oncocytoma and malignant look-alikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlmeier, Franziska; Feuchtinger, Annette; Borgmann, Daniela; Rudelius, Martina; Autenrieth, Michael; Walch, Axel Karl; Weirich, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    In the era of tumour type-specific therapies, the correct typing of renal tumours is of prime importance. As immunotyping and genotyping approaches are laborious and fall short of standardization, we used whole-scale computer-assisted morphometry instead. Three different types of renal tumours with different prognoses and therapies, notoriously prone to mistyping, were analysed . The sample of 335 tumours included clear cell renal cell carcinoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma. The sample was analysed using H&E stains of tissue microarrrays in combination with an image-scanning software. Nuclear and cytoplasmic features were registered with the aid of computer-assisted morphometry. Features included shape, texture, colour and colour intensity for different cell compartments, e.g. nuclei and cytoplasm. The software passed several training steps for final validation. Using morphometry, we were able to classify the three renal tumour types correctly, with a 100 % specificity compared to the WHO typing. Nuclear features dominated the typing of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, whereas cytoplasmic features were the leading classificators for renal oncocytoma. The grading of clear cell renal cell carcinoma attained a specificity of 80 %. In conclusion, modern morphometry may serve as a tool for typing renal epithelial tumours and additionally draws the attention to future nuclear research in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

  11. Hip morphometry of femoroacetabular impingement pattern in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

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    Lee, Jong Yoon; Lee, Eu Gene; Choi, Jung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To analyze hip morphometry of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) pattern in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and correlate them with sacroiliitis grades. 384 patients with AS were analyzed regarding demographics, radiologic signs of FAI for hip involvement, and sacroiliitis grades. FAI was classified into 3 types according to alpha angle, lateral center-edge angle and pistol grip deformity. Sacroiliitis was graded according to the New York criteria. Prevalence of FAI morphometry types was determined and evaluated for association with sacroiliitis grades. Statistical analysis regarding numerical variables, including age, sacroiliitis score using t-test, sacroiliitis score in three groups using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test, corrected by Bonferroni methods for post hoc analysis was done. Among 384 patients, 141 (36.7%) had FAI morphometry. Male predominance was found in group with FAI pattern involvement (87.2%) (p = 0.000). Pincer type (20.6%) was the most common. Hip involvement group also showed greater sacroiliitis score (2.49 vs. 1.75, p = 0.000). Combined-type had greater sacroiliitis score compared with others (p = 0.002, 0.003). FAI morphometry was frequent in hips of AS patients (36.7%), especially pincer type, more frequent in male, and associated with significantly greater grade of sacroiliitis; combined type FAI pattern had greater sacroiliitis score.

  12. Annual Research Review: Progress in Using Brain Morphometry as a Clinical Tool for Diagnosing Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, Alexander; Peterson, Bradley S.; Bansal, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Brain morphometry in recent decades has increased our understanding of the neural bases of psychiatric disorders by localizing anatomical disturbances to specific nuclei and subnuclei of the brain. At least some of these disturbances precede the overt expression of clinical symptoms and possibly are endophenotypes that could be used to diagnose an…

  13. Morphometry and Morphology of Fresh Craters on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Wood, C. A.; Neish, C.; Lucas, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Cassini Radar Team

    2011-12-01

    Cassini RADAR imagery obtained on Titan flyby T77 revealed a 40-km diameter fresh impact crater at 11.6° N 44.6° W. This is only the 8th crater identified with high confidence (Wood et al., 2010, Icarus 206, 334), and the 3rd (after Sinlap D=79 km and Ksa D=30 km) for which the depth can be estimated by comparing the foreshortening of the near and far walls. This "autostereo" technique yields an estimated depth of 680 m. The T77 image forms a stereo pair with the T17 discovery image of Ksa from which we estimate the depth of Ksa at 750-800 m, in close agreement with SARTopo data. The depth of Sinlap is 760 m based on SARTopo. Depth-diameter ratios for these craters thus range from 0.01 to 0.025 and the depths are comparable to but 200-400 m shallower than fresh craters of the same size on Ganymede (Bray et al., 2008, Met. Planet Sci. 43, 1979). The depth differences could be explained by initial crater morphometry, by relaxation in a different thermal environment, or (perhaps most plausibly given the bland floors of even the freshest Titan craters) to sedimentary infill. In contrast, the 18x36 km elliptical depression at Sotra Facula is much deeper than Ganymede craters of similar size (d=1500 m from stereo), supporting the conclusion that it is not an impact crater. All three craters exhibit a relatively radar-bright annulus around the outer edge of the floor, possibly as the result of mass wasting of blocky materials from the crater walls. The central part of each crater is darker. The central darker floor of the new crater is symmetrical and featureless, whereas Ksa has a bright central ring 7 km in diameter. Stereo spot heights indicate the ring is 350±100 m above the outer floor. This height is in close agreement with the scaling for Ganymede crater central peaks from Bray et al. (2008). The darker floor area of Sinlap is substantially asymmetrical with a small bright central spot whose elevation is unknown. The new crater has continuous, radar

  14. Voxel Based Morphometry Alterations in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome.

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    Yoon-Hee Cha

    Full Text Available Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS is a disorder of chronic self-motion perception that occurs though entrainment to rhythmic background motion, such as from sea voyage, and involves the perception of low-frequency rocking that can last for months or years. The neural basis of this persistent sensory perception abnormality is not well understood.We investigated grey matter volume differences underlying persistent MdDS by performing voxel-based morphometry on whole brain and pre-specified ROIs in 28 individuals with MdDS and comparing them to 18 age, sex, and handedness matched controls.MdDS participants exhibited greater grey matter volume in the left inferior parietal lobule, right inferior occipital gyrus (area V3v, right temporal pole, bilateral cerebellar hemispheric lobules VIII/IX and left lobule VIIa/VIIb. Grey matter volumes were lower in bilateral inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC and left superior medial gyri (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr. In ROI analyses, there were no volume differences in the middle occipital gyrus (region of V5/MT or parietal operculum 2 (region of the parietoinsular vestibular cortex. Illness duration was positively related to grey matter volume in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI, right posterior insula, superior parietal lobule, left middle occipital gyrus (V5/MT, bilateral postcentral gyrus, anterior cerebellum, and left cerebellar hemisphere and vermian lobule IX. In contrast, illness duration was negatively related to volume in pgACC, posterior middle cingulate gyrus (MCC, left middle frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-DLPFC, and right cerebellar hemispheric lobule VIIIb (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr. The most significant differences were decreased volume in the pgACC and increased volume in the left IFG/AI with longer illness duration (qFDRcorr <0.05. Concurrent medication use did not correlate with these findings or have a relationship with

  15. Defining the bone morphometry, micro-architecture and volumetric density profile in osteopenic vs non-osteopenic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lee, Wayne Yuk-Wai; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Yip, Benjamin Hon-Kei; Yu, Fiona Wai-Ping; Yu, Wing-Sze; Zhu, Feng; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2017-06-01

    Osteopenia has been widely reported in about 30 % of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, the bone quality profile of the 70 % non-osteopenic AIS defined by areal bone mineral density (BMD) with conventional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has not been adequately studied. Our purpose was to verify whether abnormal volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone structure (morphometry and micro-architecture) also existed in the non-osteopenic AIS when compared with matched controls using both DXA and high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT). This was a case-control cross-sectional study. 257 AIS girls with a mean age of 12.7 (SD = 0.8) years old and 187 age- and gender-matched normal controls with an average age of 12.9 (SD = 0.5) years old were included. Areal BMD (aBMD) and bone quality were measured with standard DXA and HR-pQCT, respectively. The parameters of HR-pQCT could be categorized as bone morphometry, vBMD and bone micro-architecture. The results were compared between the osteopenic AIS and osteopenic control, and between the non-osteopenic AIS and non-osteopenic control. In addition to the lower aBMD and vBMD, osteopenic AIS showed significantly greater cortical perimeter and trabecular area than the osteopenic control even after adjustments of age (P architecture and volumetric density profile compared with their normal matched controls. The observed abnormalities were suggestive of decreased endocortical bone apposition or active endocortical resorption that could affect the mechanical bone strength in AIS. The underlying pathomechanism might be attributed to abnormal bone modeling/remodeling that could be associated with the etiopathogenesis of AIS.

  16. Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Pennington

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC as well as light drinking controls (CON, the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU, and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive

  17. Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, David L; Durazzo, Timothy C; Schmidt, Thomas P; Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control. All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control. PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON. Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive

  18. Morphometry of stylomastoid foramen and its clinical application in facial nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stylomastoid foramen is an important site for Nadbath facial nerve block. Exact localization of foramen holds the key to success, thus decreasing the complications. Wide racial variation exists in position of stylomastoid foramen in different population groups. Aim: The aim was to study the morphometry of stylomastoid foramen and its location with respect to nearby anatomical landmarks. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dry skulls (60 male and 40 female were studied to locate the position of center of stylomastoid foramen (CSMF with respect to tip and anterior border of the mastoid process and jugular foramen (JF. Along with this angle between antero-posterior line passing through the tip of the mastoid process and line joining the tip with stylomastoid foramen was also measured. Result: In 83.51% sides of skulls, the most common position of foramen was found to be anterior to the line passing through anterior border of the mastoid process. The mean distance of center of foramen from the tip of the mastoid process was 15.26 ± 1.4 mm on right and 14.32 ± 1.8 on the left side (P < 0.001 and from JF was 12.28 ± 1.9 mm and 12.96 ± 2.1 mm on the right and left sides, respectively (P < 0.01. The position of CSMF was found at an angle of 66.57° ± 2.6° and 65.96° ± 1.8° on the right and left sides, respectively from the tip of the mastoid process. Conclusion: This study makes possible the identification of the exact position of stylomastoid foramen and its application in facial nerve block.

  19. Differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and gp70 expression correlate with the virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis clinical isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A Castro

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes.

  20. Standardization of whole slide image morphologic assessment with definition of a new application: Digital slide dynamic morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Puppa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In histopathology, the quantitative assessment of various morphologic features is based on methods originally conceived on specific areas observed through the microscope used. Failure to reproduce the same reference field of view using a different microscope will change the score assessed. Visualization of a digital slide on a screen through a dedicated viewer allows selection of the magnification. However, the field of view is rectangular, unlike the circular field of optical microscopy. In addition, the size of the selected area is not evident, and must be calculated. Materials and Methods: A digital slide morphometric system was conceived to reproduce the various methods published for assessing tumor budding in colorectal cancer. Eighteen international experts in colorectal cancer were invited to participate in a web-based study by assessing tumor budding with five different methods in 100 digital slides. Results: The specific areas to be tested by each method were marked by colored circles. The areas were grouped in a target-like pattern and then saved as an .xml file. When a digital slide was opened, the .xml file was imported in order to perform the measurements. Since the morphometric tool is composed of layers that can be freely moved on top of the digital slide, the technique was named digital slide dynamic morphometry. Twelve investigators completed the task, the majority of them performing the multiple evaluations of each of the cases in less than 12 minutes. Conclusions: Digital slide dynamic morphometry has various potential applications and might be a useful tool for the assessment of histologic parameters originally conceived for optical microscopy that need to be quantified.

  1. Examining Brain Morphometry Associated with Self-Esteem in Young Adults Using Multilevel-ROI-Features-Based Classification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is to exam self-esteem related brain morphometry on brain magnetic resonance (MR images using multilevel-features-based classification method.Method: The multilevel region of interest (ROI features consist of two types of features: (i ROI features, which include gray matter volume, white matter volume, cerebrospinal fluid volume, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area, and (ii similarity features, which are based on similarity calculation of cortical thickness between ROIs. For each feature type, a hybrid feature selection method, comprising of filter-based and wrapper-based algorithms, is used to select the most discriminating features. ROI features and similarity features are integrated by using multi-kernel support vector machines (SVMs with appropriate weighting factor.Results: The classification performance is improved by using multilevel ROI features with an accuracy of 96.66%, a specificity of 96.62%, and a sensitivity of 95.67%. The most discriminating ROI features that are related to self-esteem spread over occipital lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, and central region, mainly involving white matter and cortical thickness. The most discriminating similarity features are distributed in both the right and left hemisphere, including frontal lobe, occipital lobe, limbic lobe, parietal lobe, and central region, which conveys information of structural connections between different brain regions.Conclusion: By using ROI features and similarity features to exam self-esteem related brain morphometry, this paper provides a pilot evidence that self-esteem is linked to specific ROIs and structural connections between different brain regions.

  2. Applicability of preoperative nuclear morphometry to evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Karino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of preoperative nuclear morphometry for evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastases in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, is known to differ depending on the anatomical site of the primary tumor, such as the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of this morphometric technique to evaluating the risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A digital image system was used to measure the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, nuclear circular rate, ratio of nuclear length to width (aspect ratio, and nuclear area coefficient of variation (NACV. Relationships between these parameters and nodal status were evaluated by t-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma (52 of the tongue, 25 of the gingiva, 4 of the buccal mucosa, and 7 of the mouth floor were included: 46 with positive node classification and 42 with negative node classification. Nuclear area and perimeter were significantly larger in node-positive cases than in node-negative cases; however, there were no significant differences in circular rate, aspect ratio, or NACV. We derived two risk models based on the results of multivariate analysis: Model 1, which identified age and mean nuclear area and Model 2, which identified age and mean nuclear perimeter. It should be noted that primary tumor site was not associated the pN-positive status. There were no significant differences in pathological nodal status by aspect ratio, NACV, or primary tumor site. CONCLUSION: Our method of preoperative nuclear morphometry may contribute valuable information to evaluations of the risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. Postmortem CT morphometry with a proposal of novel parameters for sex discrimination of the mandible using Japanese adult data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Tetsuya; Oritani, Shigeki; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Hishmat, Asmaa Mohammed; Sogawa, Nozomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    Major human sex differences in the mandible after adolescence include the overall size as well as the shape of the chin and mandibular angle; however, objective interpretation of discrimination accuracy is difficult for these morphological indicators. The present study investigated measurements of the mandible for sex discrimination using postmortem CT morphometry in forensic autopsy cases of Japanese subjects after adolescence (age>16 years; male, n=116, and female, n=106), including the proposal of novel parameters representing the overall mandibular size and shape. The distance between the gnathion and condylus (gn-cdl), and bigonial width (go-go), as well as the angle formed by bilateral gn-cdl lines (Agn-cdl), correlated with bicondylar breadth (cdl-cdl), independent of the body height, showing no significant sex difference. The distance from the gn to the cdl-cdl line (oblique length), the ratio of Agn-cdl to cdl-cdl, and the oblique triangular area formed by bilateral gn-cdl and cdl-cdl lines (Δobl), which were proposed as indicators of chin protrusion, showed significant sex differences (p<0.001). Overall sensitivity and specificity at respective discriminating points for sex estimation were 0.72 and 0.78 at 105.0mm for the oblique length, 0.73 and 0.83 at 0.49 for the Agn-cdl to cdl-cdl ratio, and 0.82 and 0.78 at 643 mm(2) for Δobl; the efficacy for females was greater in younger subjects. Although these parameters weakly depended on the body height (p<0.0001), the correlations were insufficient for stature estimation. These findings suggest the efficacy of CT morphometry of the mandible for sex discrimination with quantitative assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual and combined effects of genistein and hesperidin on immunity and intestinal morphometry in lipopolysacharide-challenged broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboh, A A; Zhu, W-Y

    2014-09-01

    Genistein and hesperidin have been shown to have beneficial effects in several animal models including mice, rats, pigs, and humans. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of genistein (an isoflavone) and hesperidin (a flavanone) on immunity and intestinal morphometry in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broiler chickens. Seven hundred twenty 1-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 treatments, with 6 replicates of 20 birds each. Chicks were fed a basal diet without any additive (control), supplemented with 5 mg of genistein/kg of feed (G5) and 20 mg of hesperidin/kg of feed (H20), or a mixture of genistein and hesperidin (1:4) with doses of 5 (GH5), 10 (GH10), and 20 (GH20) mg/kg of feed for 42 d. On d 16, 18, and 20, one-half the birds from each group were separated and injected intraperitoneally with Escherichia coli LPS (250 µg/kg of BW) to induce the immunological stimulation. Samples were collected on 21 and 42 d. The results showed that LPS treatment exerts immunomodulatory effects (P hesperidin seemed to modify the immunity positively by altering the phagocytic activity (P hesperidin in both LPS-unchallenged and -challenged groups. However, no effect (P > 0.05) was observed for BWG, FI, and FCR of broilers. Overall, genistein and hesperidin improved the immunity and the morphometry of small intestine in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provided the first account on the in vivo effects of genistein and hesperidin for immunostimulation and morphometric gut development in LPS-challenged chickens. Thus, both compounds may be used as alternative feed additives in the poultry industry to promote gut health and improve immunity against infections. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Adjusting for global effects in voxel-based morphometry: gray matter decline in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Cusack, Rhodri; Henson, Richard N A

    2012-04-02

    Results from studies that have examined age-related changes in gray matter based on structural MRI scans have not always been consistent. Reasons for this variability likely include small or unevenly-distributed samples, different methods for tissue class segmentation and spatial normalization, and the use of different statistical models. Particularly relevant to the latter is the method of adjusting for global (total) gray matter when making inferences about regionally-specific changes. In the current study, we use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the impact of these methodological choices in assessing age-related changes in gray matter volume in a sample of 420 adults evenly distributed between the ages of 18-77 years. At a broad level, we replicate previous findings, showing age-related gray matter decline in nearly all parts of the brain, with particularly rapid decline in inferior regions of frontal cortex (e.g., insula and left inferior frontal gyrus) and the central sulcus. Segmentation was improved by increasing the number of tissue classes and using less age-biased templates, and registration was improved by using a diffeomorphic flow-based algorithm (DARTEL) rather than a "constrained warp" approach. Importantly, different approaches to adjusting for global effects--not adjusting, Local Covariation, Global Scaling, and Local Scaling--significantly affected regionally-specific estimates of age-related decline, as demonstrated by ranking age effects across anatomical ROIs. Split-half cross-validation showed that, on average, Local Covariation explained a greater proportion of age-related variance across these ROIs than did Global Scaling. Nonetheless, the appropriate choice for global adjustment depends on one's assumptions and specific research questions. More generally, these results emphasize the importance of being explicit about the assumptions underlying key methodological choices made in VBM analyses and the inferences that follow. Copyright

  6. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, H; Minnerop, M; Pieperhoff, P; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Altenmüller, E; Amunts, K

    2013-01-01

    To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using deformation-based morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed. Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life.

  7. Surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging in schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin-Romero, Ramón; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Kumfor, Fiona; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Madre, Mercè; Maristany, Teresa; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L

    2017-01-01

    The profile of grey matter abnormalities and related white-matter pathology in schizoaffective disorder has only been studied to a limited extent. The aim of this study was to identify grey- and white-matter abnormalities in patients with schizoaffective disorder using complementary structural imaging techniques. Forty-five patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria and Research Diagnostic Criteria for schizoaffective disorder and 45 matched healthy controls underwent structural-T1 and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to enable surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses. Analyses were conducted to determine group differences in cortical volume, cortical thickness and surface area, as well as in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. At a threshold of p = 0.05 corrected, all measures revealed significant differences between patients and controls at the group level. Spatial overlap of abnormalities was observed across the various structural neuroimaging measures. In grey matter, patients with schizoaffective disorder showed abnormalities in the frontal and temporal lobes, striatum, fusiform, cuneus, precuneus, lingual and limbic regions. White-matter abnormalities were identified in tracts connecting these areas, including the corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle. The spatial overlap of abnormalities across the different imaging techniques suggests widespread and consistent brain pathology in schizoaffective disorder. The abnormalities were mainly detected in areas that have commonly been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia, and to some extent in bipolar disorder, which may explain the clinical and aetiological overlap in these disorders.

  8. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the “classical” statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs. PMID:27678464

  9. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eGärtner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using Deformation Field Morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed.Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout

  10. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, H.; Minnerop, M.; Pieperhoff, P.; Schleicher, A.; Zilles, K.; Altenmüller, E.; Amunts, K.

    2013-01-01

    To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using deformation-based morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed. Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life. PMID

  11. Changes in intraocular pressure and anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, I

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To study changes in anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between any observed changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after the procedure. METHODS: The anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOP were measured in 101 non-glaucomatous eyes before and after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. RESULTS: After cataract surgery, the mean ACD, ACV, and ACA values increased by 1.08 mm, 54.4 mm(3), and 13.1 degrees , respectively, and the mean IOP (corrected for CCT) decreased by 3.2 mm Hg. The predictive value of a previously described index (preoperative ACD\\/preoperative IOP (corrected for CCT) or CPD ratio) for IOP (corrected for CCT) reduction after cataract surgery was confirmed, reflected in an r(2) value of 23.3% between these two parameters (P<0.001). Other indices predictive of IOP reduction after cataract surgery were also identified, including preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACV and preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACA, reflected in r(2) values of 13.7 and 13.7%, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the predictive value of the CPD ratio for IOP reduction after cataract surgery, and may contribute to the decision-making process in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Furthermore, two novel indices of preoperative parameters that are predictive for IOP reduction after cataract surgery were identified, and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IOP changes after this procedure.

  12. Morphometry of the hard palate in Down's syndrome through CBCT-image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, M T; Outumuro, M; Diniz, M; Limeres, J; Ramos, I; Diz, P

    2015-11-01

    To define the morphometry of the hard palate in Down's syndrome (DS) on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Santiago de Compostela University (Spain). The study group included 40 white DS individuals aged 10 to 40 years (mean = 18.8 ± 7.3 years), 25 males and 15 females. The control group consisted of 40 individuals matched for age and sex were selected. Nine measurements were taken on the CBCT images. Axial plane: anteroposterior length (aAPL) and arch length (aARL); sagittal plane: anteroposterior length (sAPL), maximum height (sMH) and sagittal arch (sAR); coronal plane: interdental width (cIDW), height (cHE), skeletal width (cSW) and coronal arch (cAR). aAPL, aARL, sAPL, sMH, sAR, cMH and cAR were comparable in the two groups. cIDW and cSW were greater in controls than in DS. We found no statistically significant differences between males and females with DS. In the controls, sAPL and sAR were greater in males than females. In DS, age only had a statistically significantly increasing effect on aAPL and sAPL. In the controls, age significantly affected sAR and cHE. The hard palate is narrower in DS than in controls, but the anteroposterior measurements and the height of the vault are comparable in both groups. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Micro-RNA expression in muscle and fiber morphometry in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritegotto, Chiara; Ferrati, Chiara; Pegoraro, Valentina; Angelini, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to explore the cellular action of micro-RNAs that are non-coding-RNAs modulating gene expression, whose expression is dysregulated in myotonic dystrophy (DM1). Basic procedure was to measure the levels of muscle-specific myo-miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a/b, miR-206) in muscle of 12 DM1 patients. Muscle fiber morphometry and a new grading of histopathological severity score were used to compare specific myo-miRNA level and fiber atrophy. We found that the levels of miR-1 and miR-133a/b were significantly decreased, while miR-206 was significantly increased as compared to controls. The histopathological score did not significantly correlate with the levels of myo-miRNAs, even if the lowest levels of miRNA-1 and miRNA-133a/b, and the highest levels of miRNA-206 were observed in patients with either severe histopathological scores or long disease duration. The histopathological score was inversely correlated with disease duration. Nowadays that DM1 muscle biopsies are scanty, since patients are usually diagnosed by genetic analysis, our study offers a unique opportunity to present miRNA expression profiles in muscle and correlate them to muscle morphology in this rare multisystem disorder. Our molecular and morphologic data suggest a post-transcriptional regulatory action of myo-miRNA in DM1, highlighting their potential role as biomarkers of muscle plasticity.

  14. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-09-15

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  15. Evaluation of Regional White Matter Volume Reduction after Diffuse Axonal Injury using Voxel-based Morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, Go; Hashimoto, Keiji; Abo, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new and convenient method that employs voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to evaluate regional reduction in the volume of white matter after diffuse axonal injury (DAI). We studied 29 patients with moderate cognitive disability after DAI. Each subject underwent 3-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Images were preprocessed automatically using stand-alone software running on a Windows PC for VBM of volumetric MR imaging utilizing a statistical parametric mapping (SPM) version 8 software engine and an algorithm for diffeomorphic anatomic registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL). We then computed a Z-score for all coordinates on the white matter, which represented the relative reduction in white matter volume. Finally, we used voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation (vbSEE) to compute the extent of regional reduction in the volume of white matter (rWMVR) for each region of interest (ROI), defined as the rate of coordinates with Z-scores exceeding 2.0 in the ROI. For each ROI, we used Pearson's correlation analysis to examine the correlation between the extent of regional volume reduction and patient scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We detected marked rWMVR in several ROIs, including the corpus callosum, and rWMVR correlated significantly with performance IQ and processing speed index in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The results indicate the utility of our applications for the daily clinical evaluation of DAI. That they can be used on a PC and allow acquisition of volumetric data from standard MR images are their advantages.

  16. Brain morphometry predicts individual creative potential and the ability to combine remote ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendetowicz, David; Urbanski, Marika; Aichelburg, Clarisse; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions. We developed a Remote Combination Association Task adapted from Mednick's test, in which subjects had to find a solution word related to three cue words presented to them. In our adaptation of the task, we used free association norms to quantify the associative distance between the cue words and solution words, and we varied this distance. The tendency to solve the task with insight and the ability to evaluate the appropriateness of a proposed solution were also analysed. Fifty-four healthy volunteers performed this task and underwent a structural MRI. Structure-function relationships were analysed using regression models between grey matter (GM) volume and task performance. Significant clusters were mapped onto an atlas of white matter (WM) tracts. The ability to solve the task, which depended on the associative distance of the solution word, was associated with structural variation in the left rostrolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal regions; the left rostral prefrontal region was connected to distant regions through long-range pathways. By using a creative combination task in which the semantic distance between words varied, we revealed a brain network centred on the left frontal pole that appears to support the ability to combine information in new ways by bridging the semantic distance between pieces of information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Analysis of normal pelvis morphometry of modern Chinese southern Han female and its correlation with age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Yu, Yan-Hong; Chen, Chun-Lin; Tang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Li; Mao, Dong-Rui; Xu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Lan

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the normal pelvis morphometry of Chinese southern Han female and its correlation with age. From August 2009 to September 2011, 289 Han nationality females who received pelvis CT scan at Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University were eligible for the study. Their mean age was 43.5 years, with normal body development and no pelvic abnormality. The patients were divided into 3 age groups: 25 to 40 (n = 109), 41 to 50 (n = 115), and >50 years (n = 65). After constructing a three-dimensional digital model of the pelvis, the following parameters were measured, including transverse inlet diameter, posterior sagittal diameter of pelvic inlet, sagittal inlet, diagonal conjugate, biischial diameter, posterior sagittal diameter of midpelvis, sagittal midpelvic diameter, intertuberous distance, posterior sagittal diameter of outlet, angle of pubic arch, sagittal outlet, penal height, sacrum length and sacrum curvature. The relationship between all parameters and age was analyzed. (1) The posterior sagittal diameters of pelvic inlet of the 25 to 40 age group, 41 to 50 age group, >50 years age group were (53 ± 8), (51 ± 7), (48 ± 6) mm. The sagittal inlet of the three groups were (122 ± 8), (120 ± 9), (114 ± 8) mm. And the diagonal conjugate of the three groups were (135 ± 10), (132 ± 9), (127 ± 9) mm. All had significant differences among the three groups (P 0.05). (3) The intertuberous distance of the three groups were (122 ± 11), (121 ± 10), (117 ± 11) mm, and the posterior sagittal diameter of outlet of the three groups were (56 ± 9), (58 ± 8), (57 ± 9) mm. There was no significant difference among the three groups (P > 0.05) .(4) Penal height of three groups were (31 ± 3), (33 ± 3), (34 ± 3) mm, there was with significant differences (P pelvis became deeper. Mid pelvis and the pelvic outlet was almost unchanged, and showed no correlation with age.

  18. Response of Thalassia Testudinum Morphometry and Distribution to Environmental Drivers in a Pristine Tropical Lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Medina-Gómez

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the relationships between the biomass, morphometry, and density of short shoots (SS of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum and the physical-environmental forcing in the region. Seasonal sampling surveys were undertaken four times in Bahia de la Ascension, a shallow estuary in the western Mexican Caribbean, to measure plant morphology and environmental variables. The estuary has a fresh water-influenced inner bay, a large central basin and a marine zone featuring a barrier reef at the seaward margin. Leaf size was positively correlated with increasing salinity, but total biomass was not, being similar across most of the sites. Aboveground biomass exhibited seasonal differences in dry and rainy seasons along the bay, most markedly in the brackish inner bay where an abrupt decline in biomass coincided with the rainy season. The relationship between nutrients and biomass indicates that the aboveground/belowground biomass ratio increases as nutrient availability increases. Areal cover was inversely correlated with SS density during both dry and rainy seasons. Maximum SS recruitment coincided with the rainy season. Peaks in SS density were recorded in the freshwater-influenced inner bay during an ENSO cold phase in 2007 ("La Niña" which is associated with a wetter dry season and following a strong storm (Hurricane Dean. The onset of the rainy season influences both shoot density and T. testudinum biomass by controlling the freshwater input to the bay and thus, the system's salinity gradient and external nutrients supply from the coastal wetland.

  19. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Northern Portion of the South Atlantic-Gulf Region 3 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  20. Sources of trophic action on performance and intestinal morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Sakamoto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sources of trophic action (glutamine alone, glutamine associated with glutamic acid and yeast associated with vaccination against coccidiosis on the performance and morphometry of the small intestine of broilers. In the trial, 1,200 broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 + 2 (trophic action x vaccination or not + control - free trophic factor factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 30 birds each. Vaccination negatively affected performance parameters and the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, but at the end of the experimental period, among the broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis, the group fed glutamine presented better recovery from epithelial losses of the intestinal mucosa compared with the control groups. Therefore, the dietary supplementation with the evaluated sources of trophic action could be a strategy to enhance the development of broilers submitted to vaccine stress, also considering the economic viability of the productive segment.

  1. Penalized Fisher Discriminant Analysis and Its Application to Image-Based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Mo, Yilin; Ozolek, John A.; Rohde, Gustavo K.

    2011-01-01

    Image-based morphometry is an important area of pattern recognition research, with numerous applications in science and technology (including biology and medicine). Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA) techniques are often employed to elucidate and visualize important information that discriminates between two or more populations. We demonstrate that the direct application of FLDA can lead to undesirable errors in characterizing such information and that the reason for such errors is not necessarily the ill conditioning in the resulting generalized eigenvalue problem, as usually assumed. We show that the regularized eigenvalue decomposition often used is related to solving a modified FLDA criterion that includes a least-squares-type representation penalty, and derive the relationship explicitly. We demonstrate the concepts by applying this modified technique to several problems in image-based morphometry, and build discriminant representative models for different data sets. PMID:22140290

  2. [The establishment of three-dimensional soft tissue facial reconstruction and morphometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Guo, H; Liu, F

    2001-07-01

    To establish a digital three-dimensional facial soft tissue morphometry and reconstruction system for orthodontic diagnosis and analysis of the facial soft tissue. Three-dimensonal characteristics of facial soft tissue were captured by 4 digital cameras of high resolution. The developed hardware and software system and stereophotogrammetry were used for three-dimensional facial soft tissue reconstruction and morphometry at the same time. The three-dimensional facial soft tissue were successfully reconstructed with high reality and the three dimensional facial image can be rotated, moved and zoomed on the purpose. The system has the following advantages: (1) rapid capture of the facial image within 1 second or so, (2) accurate identification of facial landmark within 0.5 mm of resolution, (3) easy manipulation, (4) no exposure to radiation. The established system has proved to be effective for three-dimensional facial soft tissue diagnosis and analysis with the advantages of high resolution, high speed and, no exposure to radiation.

  3. Cytological evaluation of thyroid lesions by nuclear morphology and nuclear morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    R Yashaswini; T N Suresh; Sagayaraj, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid gland is an effective diagnostic method. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology classifies them into six categories and gives implied risk for malignancy and management protocol in each category. Though the system gives specific criteria, diagnostic dilemma still exists. Using nuclear morphometry, we can quantify the number of parameters, such as those related to nuclear size and shape. The evaluation of nuclear morpho...

  4. Improving Tensor Based Recommenders with Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Zemaitis, Valdas

    2012-01-01

    Social tagging systems (STS) model three types of entities (i.e. tag-user-item) and relationships between them are encoded into a 3-order tensor. Latent relationships and patterns can be discovered by applying tensor factorization techniques like Higher Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD),...... of the recommendations and execution time are improved and memory requirements are decreased. The clustering is motivated by the fact that many tags in a tag space are semantically similar thus the tags can be grouped. Finally, promising experimental results are presented...

  5. Active immunization against GnRH in pre-pubertal domestic mammals: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in rabbits, guinea pigs and ram lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, P M; Gutierrez-Reinoso, M A; Sanchez-Cepeda, E G; Garcia-Herreros, M

    2017-08-24

    Effective tools for male contraception are important in the control of reproduction in animal populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of active immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on male reproductive function assessing testicular morphological changes and serum-gonadotropin levels in pre-pubertal rabbits, guinea pigs and ram lambs. An anti-GnRH vaccine was developed by linking a GnRH-homologous molecule to a tetanus clostridial toxoid (Al(OH)3 coadjuvant). After vaccination protocols testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and endocrine responses (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol serum levels) were evaluated. Testicular volume was significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group in rabbits, guinea pigs and ram lambs (Pguinea pigs and ram lambs (Pguinea pigs (80%) and ram lambs (60%). No significant differences were observed between vaccinated and control groups regarding FSH and LH during the experiments in the three experimental species/models used. Testosterone, however, was only significantly lower (~22-fold, P<0.01) in vaccinated rabbits. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that pre-pubertal active immunization against GnRH leads to endocrine disruption and marked differences on testicular morphometry, development and activity among lagomorphs, hystricomorphs and ovine species with species-specific sensitivity regarding the anti-GnRH immune response.

  6. Influence of Group on Individual Subject Maps in SPM Voxel Based Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Michael

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Voxel based morphometry (VBM is a widely utilized neuroimaging technique for spatially normalizing brain structural MRI (sMRI onto a common template. The DARTEL technique of VBM takes into account the spatial intensity distribution of sMRIs to construct a study specific group template. The group template is then used to create final individual normalized tissue maps (FINTM for each subject in the group. In this study we investigate the effect of group on FINTM, i.e., we evaluate the variability of a constant subject’s FINTM when other subjects in the group are iteratively changed. We examine this variability under the following scenarios: (1 when the demographics and conditions for the iterative groups are similar, (2 when the average age of the iterative groups is increased and (3 when the number of subjects with a brain disorder (here we use subjects with autism is increased. Our results show that when subject demographics of the group remains similar the mean standard deviation (SD of FINTM gray matter (GM of the constant subject was around 0.01. As the average age of the group is increased, mean SD of GM increased to around 0.03 and at certain brain locations variability was as high as 0.23. A similar increase of variability was observed when the number of autism subjects in the group was increased where mean SD was around 0.02. Further, we find that autism versus control GM differences are in the range of -0.05 to +0.05 for more than 97% of the voxels and note that the magnitude of the differences are comparable to GM variability. Finally, we report that opting not to modulate during normalization or increasing the size of the smoothing kernel can decrease FINTM variability but at the loss of subject-specific features. Based on the findings of this study we outline precautions that should be considered by investigators to reduce the impact of group on FINTM and thereby to derive meaningful group differences when comparing two cohorts of

  7. Microscopic morphology and testis morphometry of captivity-bred Adult bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the testicular morphometry of captivity-bred adult bullfrogs. Fifteen young adult male were studied, in the rainy season and a lengthy photoperiod. The GSI was established at 0.15%. The nuclear diameter of germinative and Leydig cells, the nucleolus diameter of Sertoli cells and the area of cysts and tubules were determined and the mean number of ISPC, IISPC and SPT per cyst and the mean number of cysts per tubule was estimated. The nucleoplasmatic proportion of the nucleus of the Leydig cell was 76.22%, indicating less cytoplasmic activity. Eight generations of spermatogonia were found. The spermatogenesis efficiency in meiosis and in mitosis was 63 and 49%, respectively. The spermatogenesis of bullfrog fited in the pattern of other captivity Anurans, with differences as the morphology of Sertoli and Leydig cells nuclei.A morfometria é uma importante ferramenta para a biologia estrutural, permitindo estudos estereológicos e análises quantitativas. Existem muitos pontos a serem esclarecidos sobre a morfometria testicular desta espécie, que objetivamos desvendar neste trabalho. Quinze machos adultos foram estudados, em período chuvoso e de fotoperíodo longo (dezembro, 2000. O IGS encontrado foi de 0.15%. O diâmetro nuclear das células germinativas e da célula de Leydig, o diâmetro nucleolar das células de Sertoli e a área dos cistos e túbulos foram determinados. O número médio de ISPC, IISPC e SPT por cisto e o número médio de cisto por túbulo foi estimado. A proporção nucleoplasmática do núcleo da célula de Leydig foi de 76.22%, indicando pouca atividade citoplasmática. Oito gerações de espermatogônia foram estimadas. A eficiência da espermatogênese na meiose e mitose foi de 63% e49%, respectivamente. A espermatogênese de rãtouro segue os padrões dos demais Anuros de cativeiro, apresentando diferenças nos núcleos das c��lulas de Sertoli e Leydig.

  8. Virtual CT morphometry of lower limb long bones for estimation of the sex and stature using postmortem Japanese adult data in forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishmat, Asmaa Mohammed; Michiue, Tomomi; Sogawa, Nozomi; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Fawzy, Irene Atef; Hashem, Mohamed Abdel Mohsen; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    The application of computed tomography (CT) is useful for the documentation of whole-body anatomical data on routine autopsy, virtual reconstruction of skeletal structure, objective measurements, and reassessment by repetitive analyses. In addition, CT data processing facilitates volumetric and radiographic density analyses. Furthermore, a recently developed automated analysis system markedly improved the performance and accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The present study investigated virtual CT morphometry of lower limb long bones, including the femur, tibia, fibula, and first metatarsus, to estimate the sex and stature using postmortem CT data of forensic autopsy cases of Japanese over 19 years of age (total n = 259, 150 males and 109 females). Bone mass volumes, lengths, and total CT attenuation values of bilateral femurs, tibias, and fibulas correlated with the stature; however, the mean CT attenuation (HU) values showed age-dependent decreases. Correlations with the stature were similar for the lengths and mass volumes of the femur, tibia, and fibula (r = 0.77-0.85) but were higher for the mass volume of the first metatarsus (r = 0.77 for right and r = 0.58 for left). In addition, the ratio of the bone volume to the length of each bone showed the most significant sex-related differences (males > females with accuracy of 75.8-98.1 %). These findings indicate the usefulness of virtual CT morphometry of individual lower limb long bones, including volumetry, to estimate the sex and stature in identification.

  9. Correlation between voxel based morphometry and manual volumetry in magnetic resonance images of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R. Uchida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a comparative study between manual volumetry (MV and voxel based morphometry (VBM as methods of evaluating the volume of brain structures in magnetic resonance images. The volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala of 16 panic disorder patients and 16 healthy controls measured through MV were correlated with the volumes of gray matter estimated by optimized modulated VBM. The chosen structures are composed almost exclusively of gray matter. Using a 4 mm Gaussian filter, statistically significant clusters were found bilaterally in the hippocampus and in the right amygdala in the statistical parametric map correlating with the respective manual volume. With the conventional 12 mm filter,a significant correlation was found only for the right hippocampus. Therefore,narrowfilters increase the sensitivity of the correlation procedure, especially when small brain structures are analyzed. The two techniques seem to consistently measure structural volume.Trata-se de estudo comparativo entre a volumetria manual(VM e a morfometria baseada no vóxel (MBV, como métodos de avaliação do volume de estruturas cerebrais. Os volumes do hipocampo e da amídala de 16 pacientes de pânico e 16 controles sadios medidos através da VM foram correlacionados com os volumes de matéria cinzenta estimados pela MBV.As estruturas escolhidas são constituídas quase exclusivamente de matéria cinzenta. Utilizando um filtro Gaussiano de 4 mm, encontram-se, bilateralmente, aglomerados significativos de correlação nas duas estruturas no mapa estatístico paramétrico, correspondendo ao respectivo volume manual. Com o filtro convencional de 12 mm, apenas uma correlação significativa foi encontrada no hipocampo direito. Portanto, filtros estreitos aumentam a sensibilidade do procedimento de correlação,especialmente quando estruturas pequenas são analisadas. Ambas as técnicas parecem medir consistentemente o volume estrutural.

  10. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  11. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  12. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  13. Analysis of beak morphometry of the horned octopus Eledone cirrhosa (Cephalopoda: Octopoda in the Thracian Sea (NE Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopod beaks are chitinous structures situated in the buccal mass lying at the base of their arms. Because they are among the few hard structures of cephalopods with high resistance to erosion during digestive process in predator stomachs, the study of the beak morphometry is of major importance for the species taxonomy, as well as, for the size estimation of the cephalopods consumed. In this study new information is provided on the dimensions and pigmentation process of the upper and lower beak of the horned octopus Eledone cirrhosa derived from 67 female and 47 male specimens caught by trawl in the Thracian Sea (NE Mediterranean. The growth of both beaks was allometric in relation to the mantle length and body weight. According to the results of covariance analysis, no difference was found in growth pattern of beaks between sexes. Four degrees of pigmentation were identified in both upper and lower beaks, the darkening process starting in females at a smaller size.

  14. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  15. Significance of wing morphometry in distinguishing some of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study geometric morphometric analysis of some Hymenoptera species was undertaken. The aim was to discriminate maxillosus, flavipennis and pruinosus species of the Sphex genus from each other by applying geometric morphometric methods. Species were identified by making use of the morphometric wing ...

  16. Multispectral Brain Morphometry in Tourette Syndrome Persisting into Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganski, Bogdan; Martino, Davide; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Hutton, Chloe; Orth, Michael; Robertson, Mary M.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Frackowiak, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder co-morbidities. Structural changes have been found in frontal cortex and striatum in children and adolescents. A limited number of morphometric studies in Tourette syndrome persisting into…

  17. Morphology and morphometry of postnatal suprarenal glands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy Journal of Africa ... significance in weight of suprarenals and sex-wise significance in weight of kidneys, thickness of left suprarenal and thickness of left cortex and side-wise significance in length, width and thickness of suprarenal, thickness of cortex and weight of kidney were observed in the present study.

  18. Morphometry of the osteodural bridge and the myodural bridge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The osteodural bridge, the connective tissue between the axis and dura can be measured radiographically. The aim of the study was therefore to determine if there is a relationship between their lengths. Thirty formalin fixed cadavers were meticulously dissected at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, ...

  19. Assessment of spino-pelvic morphometry, a predictor of lumbosacral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Spino-pelvic malalignment may be responsible for accelerated degeneration of the lumbar spine and consequent instability. Previous studies have documented the high degree of variability in the sagittal alignment of the lumbar spine and specific parameters have been identified. Objectives: To evaluate ...

  20. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H Steven; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-10-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics and 57 non-dyslexics) with two analyses: group differences in local GM and total GM and WM volume and correlations between GM and WM volumes and five behavioural measures. We found no significant group differences after corrections for multiple comparisons although total WM volume was lower in the group of dyslexics when age was partialled out. We presented an overview of uncorrected clusters of voxels (p  200) with reduced or increased GM volume. We found four significant correlations between factors of dyslexia representing various behavioural measures and the clusters found in the first analysis. In the whole sample, a factor related to performances in spelling correlated negatively with GM volume in the left posterior cerebellum. Within the group of dyslexics, a factor related to performances in Dutch-English rhyme words correlated positively with GM volume in the left and right caudate nucleus and negatively with increased total WM volume. Most of our findings were in accordance with previous reports. A relatively new finding was the involvement of the caudate nucleus. We confirmed the multiple cognitive nature of dyslexia and suggested that experience greatly influences anatomical alterations depending on various subtypes of dyslexia, especially in a student sample.

  1. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Marie Bas-Hoogendam

    2017-01-01

    An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174 and healthy control (HC-participants (n = 213 using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs. Thereby, the results of this mega-analysis suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Our findings emphasize the importance of large sample imaging studies and the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA Consortium.

  2. Three-dimensional computer graphics-based ankle morphometry with computerized tomography for total ankle replacement design and positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chien-Chung; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Leardini, Alberto; Lu, Tung-Wu; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2014-05-01

    Morphometry of the bones of the ankle joint is important for the design of joint replacements and their surgical implantations. However, very little three-dimensional (3D) data are available and not a single study has addressed the Chinese population. Fifty-eight fresh frozen Chinese cadaveric ankle specimens, 26 females, and 32 males, were CT-scanned in the neutral position and their 3D computer graphics-based models were reconstructed. The 3D morphology of the distal tibia/fibula segment and the full talus was analyzed by measuring 31 parameters, defining the relevant dimensions, areas, and volumes from the models. The measurements were compared statistically between sexes and with previously reported data from Caucasian subjects. The results showed that, within a general similarity of ankle morphology between the current Chinese and previous Caucasian subjects groups, there were significant differences in 9 out of the 31 parameters analyzed. From a quantitative comparison with available prostheses designed for the Caucasian population, few of these designs have both tibial and talar components suitable in dimension for the Chinese population. The current data will be helpful for the sizing, design, and surgical positioning of ankle replacements and for surgical instruments, especially for the Chinese population. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Canine spinal cord neuron and axon myelin sheath morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francischini Carvalho, A C; Pacheco, M R; Baraldi Artoni, S M; Mateus, O

    2006-10-01

    This inedited morphometric study has been developed from healthy canine spinal cord neuron cytoplasm and nucleus, and white matter axonal myelin sheath, from cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions. For the morphometric study, the parameters were area, perimeter, maximum and minimum diameters and roundness for neurons and myelin thickness for axon. For each parameter, 300 neurons were analysed. The results revealed that lumbar neurons had the highest mean values for the analysed parameters, indicating the presence of large neurons in this region, with large axons as a result of myelin thickness, which is proportional to axon calibre. We conclude that these morphometric results can contribute for the establishment of normal patterns, for canine spinal cord cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments.

  4. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by [alpha] particles must be determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations and in parallel on electron micrographs of the dog bronchial lining. The second part of this proposal describes studies to quantitate the cycling bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on frozen and paraffin sections and similar labeling of isolated bronchial epithelial cells sorted flow cytometry.

  5. Coupled 0D-1D CFD Modeling of Right Heart and Pulmonary Artery Morphometry Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Melody; Yang, Weiguang; Feinstein, Jeffrey A.; Marsden, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery (PA) pressure and remodeling of the distal PAs resulting in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and failure. It is hypothesized that patients with untreated ventricular septal defects (VSD) may develop PAH due to elevated flows and pressures in the PAs. Wall shear stress (WSS), due to elevated flows, and circumferential stress, due to elevated pressures, are known to play a role in vascular mechanobiology. Thus, simulating VSD hemodynamics and wall mechanics may facilitate our understanding of mechanical stimuli leading to PAH initiation and progression. Although 3D CFD models can capture detailed hemodynamics in the proximal PAs, they cannot easily model hemodynamics and wave propagation in the distal PAs, where remodeling occurs. To improve current PA models, we will present a new method that couples distal PA hemodynamics with RV function. Our model couples a 0D lumped parameter model of the RV to a 1D model of the PA tree, based on human PA morphometry data, to characterize RV performance and WSS changes in the PA tree. We will compare a VSD 0D-1D model and a 0D-3D model coupled to a mathematical morphometry tree model to quantify WSS in the entire PA vascular tree.

  6. Fast and Accurate Digital Morphometry of Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Carl Martin; Schreiber, Lisa; Zachow, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Facial surgery deals with a part of the human body that is of particular importance in everyday social interactions. The perception of a person's natural, emotional, and social appearance is significantly influenced by one's expression. This is why facial dynamics has been increasingly studied by both artists and scholars since the mid-Renaissance. Currently, facial dynamics and their importance in the perception of a patient's identity play a fundamental role in planning facial surgery. Assistance is needed for patient information and communication, and documentation and evaluation of the treatment as well as during the surgical procedure. Here, the quantitative assessment of morphological features has been facilitated by the emergence of diverse digital imaging modalities in the last decades. Unfortunately, the manual data preparation usually needed for further quantitative analysis of the digitized head models (surface registration, landmark annotation) is time-consuming, and thus inhibits its use for treatment planning and communication. In this article, we refer to historical studies on facial dynamics, briefly present related work from the field of facial surgery, and draw implications for further developments in this context. A prototypical stereophotogrammetric system for high-quality assessment of patient-specific 3D dynamic morphology is described. An individual statistical model of several facial expressions is computed, and possibilities to address a broad range of clinical questions in facial surgery are demonstrated. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Thoracic pedicle morphometry in vertebrae from scoliotic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Skalli, Wafa; de Guise, Jacques

    2004-02-01

    A morphometric analysis of thoracic pedicles in vertebrae from scoliotic specimens. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes occurring in thoracic pedicles affected by a scoliotic deformity. There exists a lot of controversy in the literature concerning the shape and size of thoracic pedicles in idiopathic scoliosis. In recent years, thoracic pedicle screws are being used more frequently in corrective spine surgery, but few studies have evaluated the morphology of scoliotic thoracic pedicles. Thirty scoliotic specimens with curves presenting various degrees of severity were studied using a three-dimensional digitizing protocol developed to create a precise three-dimensional reconstruction of the vertebrae. Twenty-two parameters describing specifically the pedicles were then calculated for each vertebra from these reconstructions. Every scoliotic specimen was then matched with a normal specimen to provide for a representative control group and comparisons were made on pedicle width, length, height, surface, and orientation. A total of 683 thoracic vertebrae were measured (325 scoliotic and 358 normal vertebrae). Pedicles located on the concavity of typical right thoracic curves were found to be significantly thinner than their normal counterparts with a maximal mean difference of 1.37 mm at T8. The pedicles on the concavity of the high thoracic compensatory curve were also found to be significantly diminished with a maximal mean difference of 1.68 mm at T4. Mean left pedicle width at T8 (concavity) and mean right pedicle width at T4 (concavity) were found to be 4.08 mm and 2.60 mm, respectively. Pedicle length was found to be slightly increased, and pedicle height was found to be slightly decreased in pedicles from scoliotic spines with no preference for concavity or convexity. Pedicle orientation and inclination were unchanged with respect to each corresponding vertebral body. These results are of critical importance for clinicians performing spinal

  8. Patellofemoral morphometry in patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar Carrion Martin, Maria del [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferruizsan@terra.e [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Pozuelo Calvo, Rocio [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To compare clinical and computed tomography (CT) measures in extension, 20{sup o} and 30{sup o} of flexion of symptomatic knees of patient with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome with the contra lateral asymptomatic knee. Materials and methods: Knees of 52 consecutive patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain were studied with CT. In 28 patients this condition was unilateral and asymptomatic knee was used as control; 76 knees were symptomatic. Results: In patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain we found a greater Q angle and internal condylar facet width in symptomatic knees with regard to asymptomatic knees. Conclusion: Greater Q angle and medial condylar facet can lead to overpressure on the medial knee compartment during maneuvers that increase contact between patella and medial condylar facet, such as knee flexion and squatting, contributing to development of idiopathic patellofemoral pain.

  9. MORPHOMETRY OF LAKE SFANTA ANA, ROMANIA (LAKE SAINT ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril PANDI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake Sfanta Ana is one of the most emblematic lacustrine complexes of our country. In this context, its monitoring is not only necessary but also compulsory. The study of its evolution and the forecasts are done easier because we have had hydrotopometric highs for about 100 years, even if the frequency of evaluations has not been periodical. The morphometric elements have had a normal evolution, of continuous diminution, specific to lacustrine complexes. The modification rates of the morphometric parameters are different, but they all highlight the necessity of taking urgent measures of protection, in order to slow down the filling speed of the lake basin. Silting is fast due to anthropic influences. The tourism activity produces, direct and indirectly, alluviums that reach inside the lake, due to the processes occurred on the slopes of the crater. We must find a modus vivendi, which is possible in theory, so that tourism and environment protection may “live together” in harmony.

  10. [Morphometry in Development of Red Deer's Adrenal Glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovcharenko, N D; Gribanova, O G; Bondyreva, L A

    2015-01-01

    Histological structures and morphometric and some histochemical indicators of elk's adrenal gland development as subspecies of red deer in prenatal and postnatal ontogenies stages was studied. It was found that the growth of the fetus adrenal glands weight and the thickness of the structures adrenal glands fragments continue throughout the prenatal period of ontogeny. The cells of androgenic zone with single wandering sympathogoniae are differentiated in the adrenal glands in the second month of development. The androgenic and definite zone and the adrenal medulla are differentiated by the third month of development. At the 4 months, adrenal gland cortex zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculate-reticularis are differentiated; zona reticularis is differentiated only by the seventh month. By the eighth month, the structure of adrenal glands corresponds to the adrenal glands of a newborn. Full structural formation of the adrenal glands takes place in young animals by age 1.5. Obvious structural changes were not found late in the postnatal stages of development.

  11. Morphometry of the Greater Palatal Canal in Adult Skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Reinaldo A; Cáceres, Felipe; Vera, Cristóbal

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in dry skulls the length and angle between the greater palatine foramen and the foramen rotundum in both the frontal and sagittal planes. In 50 human skulls from the department of morphology, the distance and angulation required to reach the foramen rotundum through the greater palatine canal were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes. A stylet was introduced up to the foramen rotundum in each greater palatine canal and fixed. The skulls were then photographed from a front and lateral view (both right and left). Finally, the stylets were photographed on graph paper. These images were analyzed with Photoshop software. In the frontal plane, mean angulations of 5.32 degrees on the right side and 6.15 degrees on the left side were obtained. In the sagittal plane, mean angulations of 61.66 degrees on the right side and 61.81 degrees on the left side were obtained. Finally, the mean length required to reach the foramen rotundum was 31.95  mm on the right side and 32.49  mm on the left side. Some of these results differ from those stated in the foreign literature (10 degrees front, 70 degrees sagittal). These differences should be considered for both clinical practice and teaching in Chile.

  12. Computer aided morphometry of the neonatal fetal alcohol syndrome face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Lawrence; Sokol, Robert J.; Martier, Susan S.

    1993-09-01

    Facial dysmorphology related to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) has been studied from neonatal snapshots with computer-aided imaging tools by looking at facial landmarks and silhouettes. Statistical methods were used to characterize FAS-related midfacial hypoplasia by using standardized landmark coordinates of frontal and profile snapshots. Additional analyses were performed by tracing a segment of the facial silhouettes from the profile snapshots. In spite of inherent distortions due to the coordinate standardization procedure, controlled for race, three significant facial landmark coordinates accounted for 30.6% of the explained variance of FAS. Residualized for race, eight points along the silhouettes were shown to be significant in explaining 45.8% of the outcome variance. Combining the landmark coordinates and silhouettes points, 57% of the outcome variance was explained. Finally, including birthweight with landmark coordinates and silhouettes, 63% of the outcome variance was explained, with a jackknifed sensitivity of 95% (19/20) and a specificity of 92.9% (52/56).

  13. Spatial distribution and morphometry of permafrost-related landforms in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Oliva, Marc; Lopes, Luís; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesus; Palma, Pedro; Pereira, Paulo

    2017-04-01

    corresponds to the highest parts of the cirques, oscillating between 2700 m a.s.l. for protalus lobes and 2900 m a.s.l. for rock glaciers. Nevertheless, 77% of the rock glaciers and 78% of the protalus lobes are located in the elevation belt ranging from 2200 to 2600 m a.s.l., which is assumed to be the optimal elevation range for their development in the study area. Aspect does not show any prevailing orientation in the case of rock glaciers, though protalus lobe formed preferably on SW aspects (27%), being almost absent in the S, SE and E aspects (only 5%). Regarding morphometry, the average area occupied by the rock glaciers decreases with altitude (6.4 ha to 1.2 ha). This trend is not observed in the case of protalus lobes, which show the largest surfaces between 2200 and 2600 m a.s.l. The W/L ratio reveals that the rock glaciers distributed at lower altitudes are more elongated (W/L ratio > 2), while those at higher elevations are shorter. No clear patterns are observed when comparing the morphology of protalus lobes and the altitude. The average slope of both landforms lies between 21-22°, with a maximum of 29° for rock glaciers and 31° for protalus lobes. The minimum slope necessary for the development of these two landforms is 11°. The geomorphological mapping of the glacial landforms that is being now conducted will allow identifying the chronology of the development of these landforms based on its chronostratigraphic position within the valley and with respect to the four moraine complexes (glacial stages) identified in the area.

  14. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate in diets for weaning piglets ─ effect on growth performance, intestinal morphometry and microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opheim, Margareth; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Sterten, Hallgeir; Øverland, Margareth; Kjos, Nils Petter

    2016-01-01

    Salmon protein hydrolysates (SPH) from two different rest raw materials were evaluated in diets for weaning piglets. Four experimental diets were included in the study: a diet based on plant protein with soy protein as the main protein source (Diet PP), a diet based on fishmeal in exchange for soy protein (Diet FM) and two diets in which different SPH replaced fishmeal in the FM diet. The experimental diets were fed to piglets from the day of weaning until 32 d postweaning. In addition to the record of performance data, an intestinal sampling for mucosal morphometry and microbiota 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed at day 11 on a subset of the animals. The duodenal villi absorption area was significantly larger in piglets receiving Diets SPH compared with Diet PP (p diets. To conclude, SPH seem to be an interesting novel protein source in weanling piglets.

  15. Structural and functional brain changes in early- and mid-stage primary open-angle glaucoma using voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Ming; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Shi, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jian; Huang, Xiang-He

    2017-03-01

    To investigate structural and functional brain changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by using voxel-based morphometry based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL) and blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), respectively.Thirteen patients diagnosed with POAG and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. For each participant, high-resolution structural brain imaging and blood flow imaging were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Structural and functional changes between the POAG and control groups were analyzed. An analysis was carried out to identify correlations between structural and functional changes acquired in the previous analysis and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL).Patients in the POAG group showed a significant (P brain structure and blood flow. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02570867).

  16. Analysis of the morphometry and variations in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle: an anatomic guide for muscle flap and tendon transfer surgical dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Swamy, Ravindra S; Nayak, Satheesha B; Somayaji, Nagabhooshana S; Rao, Mohandas K G; Bhat, Kumar M R

    2013-09-01

    The extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) is a practical option for use as an island flap or free flap when reconstructing soft tissue defects in the ankle as well as in the entire lower limb. It is frequently used to correct crossover toe deformity and other painful toe disorders. We evaluated the morphometry of the EDB in 44 formalin-fixed limbs. Length and width of the muscles were measured. Surface area was calculated as the product of length and width of the muscle. The length of each tendon was also measured from its origin to the point of distal attachment. Presence of any additional tendons was noted. Mean length, width, and surface area of the muscle were 7.39±0.71 cm, 4.1±0.37 cm, and 30.5±4.78 cm(2) on the right side and 7.2±0.84 cm, 3.9±0.37 cm, and 28.4±5.35 cm(2) on the left side, respectively. Morphometry of the tendons revealed that the tendon of the great toe had the highest mean length (9.5 cm) and the tendon of the fourth toe had the lowest mean length (6.3 cm). Four of the limbs studied (9.09%) had only three tendons. Three of the limbs studied (6.81%) had five tendons, and in one exceptional case (2.27%), six tendons were detected. These observations have significant value and are applicable to plastic and orthopedic surgery.

  17. Permutation and parametric tests for effect sizes in voxel-based morphometry of gray matter volume in brain structural MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, David A; Mikhael, Shadia; Job, Dominic E; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Laidlaw, David H; Bastin, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    Permutation testing has been widely implemented in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) tools. However, this type of non-parametric inference has yet to be thoroughly compared with traditional parametric inference in VBM studies of brain structure. Here we compare both types of inference and investigate what influence the number of permutations in permutation testing has on results in an exemplar study of how gray matter proportion changes with age in a group of working age adults. High resolution T1-weighted volume scans were acquired from 80 healthy adults aged 25-64years. Using a validated VBM procedure and voxel-based permutation testing for Pearson product-moment coefficient, the effect sizes of changes in gray matter proportion with age were assessed using traditional parametric and permutation testing inference with 100, 500, 1000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 permutations. The statistical significance was set at Pparametric inference (N=3221voxels). Permutation testing with 10000 (N=6251voxels) and 20000 (N=6233voxels) permutations produced clusters that were generally consistent with each other. However, with 1000 permutations there were approximately 20% more statistically significant voxels (N=7117voxels) than with ≥10000 permutations. Permutation testing inference may provide a more sensitive method than traditional parametric inference for identifying age-related differences in gray matter proportion. Based on the results reported here, at least 10000 permutations should be used in future univariate VBM studies investigating age related changes in gray matter to avoid potential false findings. Additional studies using permutation testing in large imaging databanks are required to address the impact of model complexity, multivariate analysis, number of observations, sampling bias and data quality on the accuracy with which subtle differences in brain structure associated with normal aging can be identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function after repeated freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Esteso, M C; Pradiee, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; O'Brien, E; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Martínez-Nevado, E; Delclaux, M; Fernández-Morán, J; Zhihe, Z

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the effects of subsequent cycles of freezing-thawing on giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function, and assesses whether density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) can increase the number of freezing-thawing cycles this sperm can withstand. A sperm sample was collected by electroejaculation from a mature giant panda and subjected to five freezing-thawing cycles. Although repeated freezing-thawing negatively affected (P 60% of the sperm cells in both treatments showed acrosome integrity even after the fifth freezing cycle. In fresh semen, the sperm head length was 4.7 μm, the head width 3.6 μm, area 14.3 μm(2) and perimeter length 14.1 μm. The present results suggest that giant panda sperm trends to be resistant to repeated freezing-thawing, even without DGC selection. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. [Principles of voxel-based morphometry and availability of integrated software BAAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    BAAD is integrated software for investigation of brain morphological change using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The basic part of the software is voxel-based morphometry (VBM) that has been developed by Drs. Ashburner and Friston. Pathological changes with neuronal loss results in brain atrophy, which can be detected by MRI. VBM provides an automated and unbiased assessment of such morphometric change throughout the brain. Recently, VBM has been drastically improved by introducing the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) registration method that implements a high dimensional warping process. BAAD supports the full-length steps for VBM analysis and makes it easy for everyone. BAAD is a free software and works on 64bit Windows machine without MATLAB installation.

  20. [Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2005-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had the highest positive allometry coefficient. All the variables were joined in two Principal Components; tail length and cloacal distance in Factor 2 and the rest of them in Factor 1. Lack of correlation among tail measures and the other variables as well as their inclusion in a different Factor could be related with an incipient development of sexual dimorphism characters.

  1. Volumetric Brain Morphometry Changes in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome : effects of CPAP treatment and literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly T Huynh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a frequent breathing disorder occurring during sleep that is characterized by recurrent hypoxic episodes and sleep fragmentation. It remains unclear whether OSAS leads to structural brain changes, and if so, in which brain regions. Brain region-specific gray and white matter volume (GMV and WMV changes can be measured with voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The aims of this study were to use VBM to analyze GMV and WMV in untreated OSAS patients compared to healthy controls (HC; examine the impact of OSAS-related variables (nocturnal hypoxemia duration and sleep fragmentation index on GMV and WMV; and assess the effects of therapeutic versus sham continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. We discuss our results in light of previous findings and provide a comprehensive literature review. Methods: Twenty-seven treatment-naïve male patients with moderate to severe OSAS and seven healthy age- and education-matched control subjects (HC were recruited. After a baseline fMRI scan, patients randomly received either active (therapeutic, n=14 or sham (subtherapeutic, n=13 nasal CPAP treatment for 2 months. Results: Significant negative correlations were observed between nocturnal hypoxemia duration and GMV in bilateral lateral temporal regions. No differences in GMV or WMV were found between OSAS patients and HC, and no differences between CPAP versus sham CPAP treatment effects in OSAS patients. Conclusion: It appears that considering VBM GMV changes there is little difference between OSAS patients and HC. The largest VBM study to date indicates structural changes in the lateral aspect of the temporal lobe, which also showed a significant negative correlation with nocturnal hypoxemia duration in our study. This finding suggests an association between the effect of nocturnal hypoxemia and decreased GMV in OSAS patients.

  2. Volumetric Brain Morphometry Changes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Effects of CPAP Treatment and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nelly T; Prilipko, Olga; Kushida, Clete A; Guilleminault, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a frequent breathing disorder occurring during sleep that is characterized by recurrent hypoxic episodes and sleep fragmentation. It remains unclear whether OSAS leads to structural brain changes, and if so, in which brain regions. Brain region-specific gray and white matter volume (GMV and WMV) changes can be measured with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The aims of this study were to use VBM to analyze GMV and WMV in untreated OSAS patients compared to healthy controls (HC); examine the impact of OSAS-related variables (nocturnal hypoxemia duration and sleep fragmentation index) on GMV and WMV; and assess the effects of therapeutic vs. sham continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. We discuss our results in light of previous findings and provide a comprehensive literature review. Twenty-seven treatment-naïve male patients with moderate to severe OSAS and seven healthy age- and education-matched HC were recruited. After a baseline fMRI scan, patients randomly received either active (therapeutic, n = 14) or sham (subtherapeutic, n = 13) nasal CPAP treatment for 2 months. Significant negative correlations were observed between nocturnal hypoxemia duration and GMV in bilateral lateral temporal regions. No differences in GMV or WMV were found between OSAS patients and HC, and no differences between CPAP vs. sham CPAP treatment effects in OSAS patients. It appears that considering VBM GMV changes there is little difference between OSAS patients and HC. The largest VBM study to date indicates structural changes in the lateral aspect of the temporal lobe, which also showed a significant negative correlation with nocturnal hypoxemia duration in our study. This finding suggests an association between the effect of nocturnal hypoxemia and decreased GMV in OSAS patients.

  3. A terrestrial analog for transverse aeolian ridges (TARs): Environment, morphometry, and recent dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Barchyn, Thomas E.

    2017-06-01

    Transverse aeolian ridges (TARs) are a distinct aeolian bedform found on Mars. The formative processes, evolution, and geological significance of TARs is poorly understood. Fundamentally, it is unknown whether TARs are dunes, mega-ripples, or another bedform type. We examined aeolian bedforms in the Lut Desert of Iran as a terrestrial analog for Martian TARs. From an objective sampling strategy with high-resolution satellite imagery, we developed a large morphometric dataset for comparison with existing Martian TARs. We also examined the dynamics of the Lut bedforms between 2004 and 2012 to determine if they were static or migrating. Results indicate that the range in the dimensions (length, width, height, and wavelength) of the Lut bedforms and Martian TARs overlap, suggesting Lut bedforms are a viable terrestrial TAR analog. Our sample yielded median values of 55.18 m, 9.80, 1.02 m, and 20 m for length (longest planview axis), width (shortest planview axis), height, and wavelength, respectively. Cumulative log-frequency plots of morphometric parameters suggest the sample is from a single population and process mechanism. Although the vast majority of Lut bedforms examined were static between 2004 and 2012, some migrated up to 0.09 myr-1 on average. This is much slower than nearby dunes (4-12 myr-1), but is explained by the existence of a surface lag of coarse particles on the TAR-like bedforms. The combination of morphometry, surface sedimentology, and slow migration rate indicate the Lut bedforms are mega-ripples, which provides evidence supporting interpretation of Martian TARs as mega-ripples. Testing the mega-ripple hypothesis for Martian TARs requires measurements of their sedimentology, which may be possible with the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, as well as expanded measurements of TAR morphometry to constrain their size, shape, and scaling.

  4. Computational tools for quantitative breast morphometry based on 3D scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Chittajallu, D R; Passalis, G; Kakadiaris, I A

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative analysis of breast morphometry is critical to breast plastic surgery. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) photography has emerged as a strong new alternative for breast morphometry analysis in comparison to other existing techniques. 3D photography enables the capture of the entire breast surface topology virtually in a single snapshot and without any direct contact with the patient, thus causing minimal discomfort. In this paper, we present a set of computational tools for the quantitative analysis of two key morphological properties of the breast that are of interest to breast plastic surgery based on 3D scans, namely breast shape and volume. The breast shape is modeled using a compact geometric model capable of capturing the global shape of the breast with very few parameters. Specifically, the shape model is deduced by applying a set of five global deformations to a geometric primitive. These deformations, defined using very intuitive parameters, closely model the key shape variables that surgeons inherently use to describe the overall shape of the breast. Patient-specific parameters of the breast shape model are automatically recovered by fitting a generic breast shape model to the 3D scan of the patient's breast using a physics-based deformable model framework. The mean error of fit between the automatically fitted shape model and the actual breast surface for 12 subjects varied between 0.9 and 2.6 mm. These results are very encouraging considering the fact that only 17 parameters are used to determine the shape of the breast. The breast volume is estimated automatically by first localizing the breast on a 3D scan of the patient's torso and then computing the volume enclosed between an interpolated breast-less torso surface and the actual breast. The volume estimated by the proposed method was found to be within the intra-operator variability among five segmentation trials performed manually by an expert on 3D torso scans of three subjects.

  5. Aging-related changes in respiratory system mechanics and morphometry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Mantilla, Carlos B; Pabelick, Christina M; Roden, Anja C; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-07-01

    Previous work investigating respiratory system mechanics in mice has reported an aging-related increase in compliance and mean linear intercept (Lm). However, these changes were assessed using only a young (2-mo-old) and old (20- and 26-mo-old) group yet were interpreted to reflect a linear evolution across the life span. Therefore, to investigate respiratory system mechanics and lung morphometry across a more complete spectrum of ages, we utilized 2 (100% survival, n = 6)-, 6 (100% survival, n = 12)-, 18 (90% survival, n = 12)-, 24 (75% survival, n = 12)-, and 30 (25% survival, n = 12)-mo-old C57BL/6 mice. We found a nonlinear aging-related decrease in respiratory system resistance and increase in dynamic compliance and hysteresis between 2- and 24-mo-old mice. However, in 30-mo-old mice, respiratory system resistance increased, and dynamic compliance and hysteresis decreased relative to 24-mo-old mice. Respiratory system impedance spectra were measured between 1-20.5 Hz at positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 1, 3, 5, and 7 cmH2O. Respiratory system resistance and reactance at each level of PEEP were increased and decreased, respectively, only in 2-mo-old animals. No differences in the respiratory system impedance spectra were observed in 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-mo-old mice. Additionally, lungs were fixed following tracheal instillation of 4% paraformaldehyde at 25 cmH2O and processed for Lm and airway collagen deposition. There was an aging-related increase in Lm consistent with emphysematous-like changes and no evidence of increased airway collagen deposition. Accordingly, we demonstrate nonlinear aging-related changes in lung mechanics and morphometry in C57BL/6 mice. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Cortical and Subcortical Structural Plasticity Associated with the Glioma Volumes in Patients with Cerebral Gliomas Revealed by Surface-Based Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postlesional plasticity has been identified in patients with cerebral gliomas by inducing a large functional reshaping of brain networks. Although numerous non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this functional redistribution in patients with cerebral gliomas, little effort has been made to investigate the structural plasticity of cortical and subcortical structures associated with the glioma volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the contralateral cortical and subcortical structures are able to actively reorganize by themselves in these patients. The compensation mechanism following contralateral cortical and subcortical structural plasticity is considered. We adopted the surface-based morphometry to investigate the difference of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM volumes in a cohort of 14 healthy controls and 13 patients with left-hemisphere cerebral gliomas [including 1 patients with World Health Organization (WHO I, 8 WHO II, and 4 WHO III]. The glioma volume ranges from 5.1633 to 208.165 cm2. Compared to healthy controls, we found significantly increased GM volume of the right cuneus and the left thalamus, as well as a trend toward enlargement in the right globus pallidus in patients with cerebral gliomas. Moreover, the GM volumes of these regions were positively correlated with the glioma volumes of the patients. These results provide evidence of cortical and subcortical enlargement, suggesting the usefulness of surface-based morphometry to investigate the structural plasticity. Moreover, the structural plasticity might be acted as the compensation mechanism to better fulfill its functions in patients with cerebral gliomas as the gliomas get larger.

  7. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired 3D...... T1-weighted MRIs about 8 weeks and 12 months post-injury. For comparison, 14 healthy controls with similar distribution of age, gender and education were scanned with a similar time interval. For each subject, longitudinal atrophy was estimated using SIENA, and atrophy occurring before the first...... scan time point using SIENAX. Regional distribution of atrophy was evaluated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). At the first scan time point, brain parenchymal volume was reduced by mean 8.4% in patients as compared to controls. During the scan interval, patients exhibited continued atrophy...

  8. CNS involvement in primary Sjogren Syndrome: assessment of gray and white matter changes with MRI and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C; Tsifetaki, Niki; Konitsiotis, Spyridon; Zikou, Anastasia; Astrakas, Loukas; Drosos, Alexandros; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate with MRI the involvement of gray matter and white matter structures in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Fifty-three patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, 18 age- and disease duration-matched patients with systemic sclerosis, and 35 age-matched control subjects were examined for differences in white matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) detected on FLAIR MR images. Differences in brain volume between patients with primary Sjögren syndrome and controls were studied by application of voxel-based morphometry to a 3D T1-weighted sequence. WMHIs were observed in 38 of the 53 patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, six of 18 patients with systemic sclerosis, and 17 of 35 controls. The numbers of WMHIs 2 mm or larger and the number smaller than 2 mm were higher in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome than in controls (≥ 2 mm, p = 0.004; primary Sjögren syndrome patients and that in systemic sclerosis patients. After control for age, a positive relation was found between disease duration and total number of WMHIs (p = 0.037) and number of WMHIs 2 mm or larger (p = 0.023) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. In comparison with the controls, patients with primary Sjögren syndrome had decreased gray matter volume in the cortex, deep gray matter, and cerebellum. Associated loss of white matter volume was observed in areas corresponding to gray matter atrophy and in the corpus callosum (p primary Sjögren syndrome have WMHIs and gray and white matter atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis.

  9. Sensitivity of drainage morphometry based hydrological response (GIUH) of a river basin to the spatial resolution of DEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ramendra; Jain, Vikrant

    2018-02-01

    Drainage network pattern and its associated morphometric ratios are some of the important plan form attributes of a drainage basin. Extraction of these attributes for any basin is usually done by spatial analysis of the elevation data of that basin. These planform attributes are further used as input data for studying numerous process-response interactions inside the physical premise of the basin. One of the important uses of the morphometric ratios is its usage in the derivation of hydrologic response of a basin using GIUH concept. Hence, accuracy of the basin hydrological response to any storm event depends upon the accuracy with which, the morphometric ratios can be estimated. This in turn, is affected by the spatial resolution of the source data, i.e. the digital elevation model (DEM). We have estimated the sensitivity of the morphometric ratios and the GIUH derived hydrograph parameters, to the resolution of source data using a 30 meter and a 90 meter DEM. The analysis has been carried out for 50 drainage basins in a mountainous catchment. A simple and comprehensive algorithm has been developed for estimation of the morphometric indices from a stream network. We have calculated all the morphometric parameters and the hydrograph parameters for each of these basins extracted from two different DEMs, with different spatial resolutions. Paired t-test and Sign test were used for the comparison. Our results didn't show any statistically significant difference among any of the parameters calculated from the two source data. Along with the comparative study, a first-hand empirical analysis about the frequency distribution of the morphometric and hydrologic response parameters has also been communicated. Further, a comparison with other hydrological models suggests that plan form morphometry based GIUH model is more consistent with resolution variability in comparison to topographic based hydrological model.

  10. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based assessment of gray matter loss in medial temporal lobe epilepsy; comparison with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang Gun; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Dong Soo [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The aims of this study were to find brain regions in which gray matter volume was reduced and to show the capability of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for lateralizing epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The findings were compared with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). MR T1-weighted images of 12 left mTLE and 11 right mTLE patients were compared with those of 37 normal controls. Images were transformed to standard MNI space and averaged in order to create study-specific brain template. Each image was normalized to this local template and brain tissues were segmented. Modulation VBM analysis was performed in order to observe gray matter volume change. Gray matter was smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. After these preprocessing, statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). FDG PET images were compared with those of 22 normal controls using SPM. Gray matter volume was significantly reduced in the left amygdala and hippocampus in left mTLE. In addition, volume of cerebellum, anterior cingulate, and fusiform gyrus in both sides and left insula was reduced. In right mTLE, volume was reduced significantly in right hippocampus. In contrast, FDG uptake was decreased in broad areas of left or right temporal lobes in left TLE and right TLE, respectively. Gray matter loss was found in the ipsilateral hippocampus by modulation VBM analysis in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. This VBM analysis might be useful in lateralizing the epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy, while SPM analysis of FDG PET disclosed hypometabolic epileptogenic zones.

  11. A cerebellar role in performance monitoring - evidence from EEG and voxel-based morphometry in patients with cerebellar degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterburs, Jutta; Thürling, Markus; Rustemeier, Martina; Göricke, Sophia; Suchan, Boris; Timmann, Dagmar; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The cerebellum applies an internal forward-model to predict the sensory consequences of actions. This forward-model is updated based on on-line performance monitoring. A previous study has shown that performance monitoring is altered in patients with focal vascular cerebellar lesions, but altered neural responses are not paralleled by impaired behaviour, and the critical cerebellar sites have yet to be identified. The present study investigated if saccadic performance monitoring is more severely altered in patients with cerebellar degenerative disease relative to the previously examined patients with focal vascular cerebellar lesions, and which cerebellar regions support performance monitoring. 16 patients and 16 healthy controls performed an antisaccade task while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Error rates were increased, and the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential (ERP) component associated with error processing/performance monitoring, was reduced while the error positivity (Pe), a later ERP component related to more conscious aspects of error processing, was preserved in patients. Thus, performance monitoring is altered in patients with cerebellar degeneration, confirming a critical role of the cerebellum for fast classification of saccadic accuracy. In contrast to patients with focal lesions, post-acute functional reorganization and compensation presumably is hampered by disease progression, resulting in altered neural processing and impaired behavioural performance. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) indicated the strongest effects for behavioural performance, with correlations between gray matter volume reduction in bilateral posterolateral regions (left Crus II and right lobule VI) and increased error rates. Moreover, somewhat smaller correlations were found for volume loss in left lobule VIIb/VIIIa and right lobule V and ERN amplitude, and in right Crus I and Pe amplitude. The present findings are consistent with involvement

  12. Cardiovascular morphometry with high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance: First application to left ventricle diastolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Diego; Vardoulis, Orestis; Monney, Pierre; Piccini, Davide; Antiochos, Panagiotis; Schwitter, Juerg; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2017-09-01

    In this study, an image-based morphometry toolset quantifying geometric descriptors of the left ventricle, aorta and their coupling is applied to investigate whether morphological information can differentiate between subjects affected by diastolic dysfunction (patient group) and their age-matched controls (control group). The ventriculo-aortic region of 20 total participants (10 per group) were segmented from high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance images, from the left ventricle to the descending aorta. Each geometry was divided into segments in correspondence of anatomical landmarks. The orientation of each segment was estimated by least-squares fitting of the respective centerline segment to a plane. Curvature and torsion of vessels' centerlines were automatically extracted, and aortic arch was characterized in terms of height and width. Tilt angle between subsequent best-fit planes in the left ventricle and ascending aorta regions, curvature and cross-sectional area in the descending aorta resulted significantly different between patient and control groups (P-values< 0.05). Aortic volume (P = 0.04) and aortic arch width (P = 0.03) resulted significantly different between the two groups. The observed morphometric differences underlie differences in hemodynamics, by virtue of the influence of geometry on blood flow patterns. The present exploratory analysis does not determine if aortic geometric changes precede diastolic dysfunction, or vice versa. However, this study (1) underlines differences between healthy and diastolic dysfunction subjects, and (2) provides geometric parameters that might help to determine early aortic geometric alterations and potentially prevent evolution toward advanced diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the brains of Baduk (Go experts: gray matter morphometry, resting-state functional connectivity, and graph theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi Hoon eJung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One major characteristic of experts is intuitive judgment, which is an automatic process whereby patterns stored in memory through long-term training are recognized. Indeed, long-term training may influence brain structure and function. A recent study revealed that chess experts at rest showed differences in structure and functional connectivity (FC in the head of caudate, which is associated with rapid best next-move generation. However, less is known about the structure and function of the brains of Baduk experts compared with those of experts in other strategy games. Therefore, we performed voxel-based morphometry and FC analyses in Baduk experts to investigate structural brain differences and to clarify the influence of these differences on functional interactions. We also conducted graph theoretical analysis to explore the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks. Compared to novices, Baduk experts exhibited decreased and increased gray matter volume in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, respectively. We also found increased FC between the amygdala and medial orbitofrontal cortex and decreased FC between the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex. Further graph theoretical analysis revealed differences in measures of the integration of the network and in the regional nodal characteristics of various brain regions activated during Baduk. This study provides evidence for structural and functional differences as well as altered topological organization of the whole-brain functional networks in Baduk experts. Our findings also offer novel suggestions about the cognitive mechanisms behind Baduk expertise, which involves intuitive decision-making mediated by somatic marker circuitry and visuospatial processing.

  14. Effects of minocycline add-on treatment on brain morphometry and cerebral perfusion in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cristiano; Marque, Cristiane R; Maia-de-Oliveira, João P; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Ferrari, Thiago B; Santos, Antonio C; Araújo, David; Machado-de-Sousa, João P; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Elkis, Helio; Crippa, José A; Guimarães, Francisco S; Zuardi, Antônio W; Baker, Glen B; Dursun, Serdar M; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2015-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline has neuroprotective effects and is a potential treatment for schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms of action of minocycline in the CNS remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on brain morphology and cerebral perfusion in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia after 12months of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of minocycline add-on treatment. This study included 24 outpatients with recent-onset schizophrenia randomized for 12months of adjuvant treatment with minocycline (200mg/d) or placebo. MRI (1.5T) and [(99m)Tc]-ECD SPECT brain scans were performed at the end of the 12-month of trial. Between-condition comparisons of SPECT and MRI brain images were performed using statistical parametric mapping and analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Minocycline adjuvant treatment significantly reduced positive and negative symptoms when compared with placebo. The VBM analysis of MRI scans showed that the patients in the placebo group had significant lower gray matter volumes in the midposterior cingulate cortex and in the precentral gyrus in comparison with the patients in the minocycline group. In addition, a decreased ECD uptake in the minocycline condition was observed in fronto-temporal areas. These results suggest that minocycline may protect against gray matter loss and modulate fronto-temporal areas involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, minocycline add-on treatment may be a potential treatment in the early stages of schizophrenia and may ameliorate clinical deterioration and brain alterations observed in this period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative analysis and implications of drainage morphometry of the Agula watershed in the semi-arid northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuyuki; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Woldearegay, Kifle

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed at quantitative analysis of morphometric parameters of Agula watershed and its sub-watersheds using remote sensing data, geographic information system, and statistical methods. Morphometric parameters were evaluated from four perspectives: drainage network, watershed geometry, drainage texture, and relief characteristics. A sixth-order river drains Agula watershed and the drainage network is mainly dendritic type. The mean bifurcation ratio ( R b) was 4.46 and at sub-watershed scale, high R b values ( R b > 5) were observed which might be expected in regions of steeply sloping terrain. The longest flow path of Agula watershed is 48.5 km, with knickpoints along the main river which could be attributed to change of lithology and major faults which are common along the rift escarpments. The watershed has elongated shape suggesting low peak flows for longer duration and hence easier flood management. The drainage texture analysis revealed fine drainage which implies the dominance of impermeable soft rock with low resistance against erosion. High relief and steep slopes dominates, by which rough landforms (hills, breaks, and low mountains) make up 76% of the watershed. The S-shaped hypsometric curve with hypsometric integral of 0.4 suggests that Agula watershed is in equilibrium or mature stage of geomorphic evolution. At sub-watershed scale, the derived morphometric parameters were grouped into three clusters (low, moderate, and high) and considerable spatial variability was observed. The results of this study provide information on drainage morphometry that can help better understand the watershed characteristics and serve as a basis for improved planning, management, and decision making to ensure sustainable use of watershed resources.

  16. Droplet morphometry and velocimetry (DMV): a video processing software for time-resolved, label-free tracking of droplet parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amar S

    2013-05-21

    Emerging assays in droplet microfluidics require the measurement of parameters such as drop size, velocity, trajectory, shape deformation, fluorescence intensity, and others. While micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV) and related techniques are suitable for measuring flow using tracer particles, no tool exists for tracking droplets at the granularity of a single entity. This paper presents droplet morphometry and velocimetry (DMV), a digital video processing software for time-resolved droplet analysis. Droplets are identified through a series of image processing steps which operate on transparent, translucent, fluorescent, or opaque droplets. The steps include background image generation, background subtraction, edge detection, small object removal, morphological close and fill, and shape discrimination. A frame correlation step then links droplets spanning multiple frames via a nearest neighbor search with user-defined matching criteria. Each step can be individually tuned for maximum compatibility. For each droplet found, DMV provides a time-history of 20 different parameters, including trajectory, velocity, area, dimensions, shape deformation, orientation, nearest neighbour spacing, and pixel statistics. The data can be reported via scatter plots, histograms, and tables at the granularity of individual droplets or by statistics accrued over the population. We present several case studies from industry and academic labs, including the measurement of 1) size distributions and flow perturbations in a drop generator, 2) size distributions and mixing rates in drop splitting/merging devices, 3) efficiency of single cell encapsulation devices, 4) position tracking in electrowetting operations, 5) chemical concentrations in a serial drop dilutor, 6) drop sorting efficiency of a tensiophoresis device, 7) plug length and orientation of nonspherical plugs in a serpentine channel, and 8) high throughput tracking of >250 drops in a reinjection system. Performance metrics

  17. The Morphometry of the Deep-Water Sinuous Mendocino Channel and the Immediate Environs, Northeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V. Gardner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mendocino Channel, a deep-water sinuous channel located along the base of Gorda Escarpment, was for the first time completely mapped with a multibeam echosounder. This study uses newly acquired multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, together with supporting multichannel seismic and sediment core data to quantitatively describe the morphometry of the entire Mendocino Channel and to explore the age and possible causes that may have contributed to the formation and maintenance of the channel. The first 42 km of the channel is a linear reach followed for the next 83.8 km by a sinuous reach. The sinuous reach has a sinuosity index of 1.66 before it changes back to a linear reach for the next 22.2 km. A second sinuous reach is 40.2 km long and the two reaches are separated by a crevasse splay and a large landslide that deflected the channel northwest towards Gorda Basin. Both sinuous reaches have oxbow bends, cut-off meanders, interior and exterior terraces and extensive levee systems. The lower sinuous reach becomes more linear for the next 22.2 km before the channel relief falls below the resolution of the data. Levees suddenly decrease in height above the channel floor mid-way along the lower linear reach close to where the channel makes a 90° turn to the southwest. The entire channel floor is smooth at the resolution of the data and only two large mounds and one large sediment pile were found on the channel floor. The bathymetry and acoustic backscatter, together with previously collected seismic data and box and piston cores provide details to suggest Mendocino Channel may be no older than early Quaternary. A combination of significant and numerous earthquakes and wave-loading resuspension by storms are the most likely processes that generated turbidity currents that have formed and modified Mendocino Channel.

  18. Effect of Kaiyu Qingwei Jianji on the morphometry and residual strain distribution of small intestine in experimental diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Hong; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Tong, Xiao-Lin; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan; Gregersen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a Chinese medicine, Kaiyu Qingwei Jianji (KYQWJJ) used for diabetic treatment, on the morphometry and residual strain distribution of the small intestine in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Correlation analysis was also performed between the opening angle and residual strain with the blood glucose level. METHODS: Forty-two male Wistar rats weighing 220-240 g were included in this study. Thirty-two STZ-induced diabetic rats were subdivided into four groups (n = 8 in each group), i.e. diabetic control group (DM); high dose of KYQWJJ (T1, 36g/kg per day); low dose of KYQWJJ (T2, 17 g/kg per day) and Gliclazide (T3, 50 mg/kg per day). Another ten rats were used as non-diabetic control (CON). The medicines were poured directly into stomach lumen by gastric lavage twice daily. The rats of CON and DM groups were only poured the physiological saline. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured. Experimental period was 35 d. At the end of experiment, three 5-cm long segments were harvested from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Three rings of 1-2 mm in length for no-load and zero-stress state tests were cut from the middle of different segments. The morphometric data, such as the circumferential length, the wall thickness and the opening angle were measured from the digitized images of intestinal segments in the no-load state and zero-stress state. The residual strain was computed from the morphometry data. Furthermore, the linear regression analysis was performed between blood glucose level with morphometric and biomechanical data in the different intestinal segments. RESULTS: The blood glucose level of DM group was consistent 4-fold to 5-fold higher than those in CON group during the experiment (16.89 ± 1.11 vs 3.44 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P 0.05) was significantly lower than those in DM group. The plasma insulin levels of DM, T1, T2 and T3 groups were significantly lower than those in CON group (10.98 ± 1.02, 12.52 ± 1

  19. A comparison of manual neuronal reconstruction from biocytin histology or 2-photon imaging: morphometry and computer modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Arne V.; Grabuschnig, Stefan; Legenstein, Robert; Sjöström, P. Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Accurate 3D reconstruction of neurons is vital for applications linking anatomy and physiology. Reconstructions are typically created using Neurolucida after biocytin histology (BH). An alternative inexpensive and fast method is to use freeware such as Neuromantic to reconstruct from fluorescence imaging (FI) stacks acquired using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy during physiological recording. We compare these two methods with respect to morphometry, cell classification, and multicompartme...

  20. Salt sensitivity of the morphometry of Artemia franciscana during development: a demonstration of 3D critical windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Casey A; Willis, Eric; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-02-01

    A 3D conceptual framework of 'critical windows' was used to examine whether the morphometry of Artemia franciscana is altered by salinity exposure during certain key periods of development. Artemia franciscana were hatched at 20 ppt (designated control salinity) and were then exposed to 10, 30, 40 or 50 ppt either chronically (days 1-15) or only on days 1-6, 7-9, 10-12 or 13-15. On day 15, maturity was assessed and morphometric characteristics, including mass, total body length, tail length and width, length of the third swimming appendage and eye diameter, were measured. Maturation and morphometry on day 15 were influenced by the exposure window and salinity dose. Artemia franciscana were generally larger following exposure to 10 and 40 ppt during days 1-6 and 7-9 when compared with days 10-12 and 13-15, in part due to a higher percentage of mature individuals. Exposure to different salinities on days 1-6 produced the greatest differences in morphometry, and thus this appears to be a period in development when A. franciscana is particularly sensitive to salinity. Viewing the developmental window as three-dimensional allowed more effective visualization of the complex interactions between exposure window, stressor dose and the magnitude of morphometric changes in A. franciscana. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. A morphometry map and a new method for honey bee morphometric analysis by using the ArcGIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam F. Abou-Shaara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphometric analysis of honey bees has a substantial importance for honey bee subspecies characterization and discrimination while the ArcGIS is a geographical program for data analysis. In the present research, the combination between the morphometric data and the spatial analysis options of the ArcGIS was done and subsequently tested in creating a morphometry map for honey bees from some regions in Egypt as well as for the discrimination between two honey bee subspecies. Therefore, I present a model for creating the morphometry maps and a new method for the morphometric analysis by the transformation of the morphometric data to raster data layers. The obtained results showed that the created morphometry map classified the regions successfully according to the morphological character means. The morphometric analysis was successfully performed by using trend analysis and raster difference range. The analysis of the morphometric data as raster layers showed high sensitivity for the differences between subspecies and regions. The presented model and the method are effective and can be applied for the discrimination between subspecies, regions and colonies as well as can be used with other insects.

  2. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Geriatric Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun, Jie [Department of Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  3. Occurrence of the foramen of Vesalius and its morphometry relevant to clinical consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisuksunt, Vipavadee; Kwathai, Lanaprai; Namonta, Kritsana; Rungruang, Thanaporn; Apinhasmit, Wandee; Chompoopong, Supin

    2012-01-01

    All 377 dry skulls were examined for the occurrence and morphometry of the foramen of Vesalius (FV) both in the middle cranial fossa and at the extracranial view of the skull base. There were 25.9% and 10.9% of FV found at the extracranial view of the skull base and in the middle cranial fossa, respectively. Total patent FV were 16.1% (11.9% unilaterally and 4.2% bilaterally). Most FV were found in male and on the left side. Comparatively, FV at the extracranial view of the skull base had a larger maximum diameter. The distance between FV and the foramen ovale (FO) was as short as 2.05 ± 1.09 mm measured at the extracranial view of the skull base. In conclusion, although the existence of FV is inconstant, its occurrence could not be negligible. The proximity of FV to FO should remind neurosurgeons to be cautious when performing the surgical approach through FO.

  4. Voxel-based morphometry findings in Alzheimer's disease: neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability correlations - preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Gois Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The role of structural brain changes and their correlations with neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability in Alzheimer's disease are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether structural changes in grey matter volume in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease are associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability METHODS: Nineteen Alzheimer's disease patients (9 females; total mean age =75.2 y old +4.7; total mean education level =8.5 y +4.9 underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination and voxel-based morphometry analysis. T1-weighted images were spatially normalized and segmented. Grey matter images were smoothed and analyzed using a multiple regression design. The results were corrected for multiple comparisons. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to evaluate the neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the Functional Activities Questionnaire and Disability Assessment for Dementia were used for functional evaluation RESULTS: A significant negative correlation was found between the bilateral middle frontal gyri, left inferior temporal gyrus, right orbitofrontal gyrus, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores. A negative correlation was found between bilateral middle temporal gyri, left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform gyri, and the Functional Activities Questionnaire. There was a positive correlation between the right amygdala, bilateral fusiform gyri, right anterior insula, left inferior and middle temporal gyri, right superior temporal gyrus, and Disability Assessment for Dementia scores CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the neuropsychiatric symptoms observed in Alzheimer's disease patients could be mainly due to frontal structural abnormalities, whereas disability could be associated with reductions in temporal structures.

  5. Nuclear morphometry and molecular biomarkers of actinic keratosis, sun-damaged, and nonexposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Philip M; Linden, Kenneth G; McLaren, Christine E; Li, Kuo-Tung; Arain, Shehla; Barr, Ronald J; Hite, Pamela; Sun, Joannie D; Meyskens, Frank L

    2004-12-01

    Computer-assisted image analysis is useful for quantifying the histologic and molecular changes of sun-induced squamous cell carcinoma progression. We used the CAS 200 image analysis system to measure nuclear morphometric parameters, p53 expression, and proliferation markers in actinic keratosis (AK), sun-exposed, and normal skin in 51 patients. Nuclear morphometry revealed significant increases in nuclear absorbance, irregularity of nuclear shape, and nuclear size in AK compared with normal and sun-damaged skin. These parameters showed significantly greater variability in AK nuclei. Argyrophyllic nucleolar organizer area and number were also significantly greater in AK compared with sun-damaged skin and normal skin. Ki67 and p53 expressions were both increased in sun-damaged skin relative to normal and greater still in AK. These data are evidence that sun damage induces proliferation and p53 abnormalities before the appearance of nuclear abnormalities and their associated DNA instability. Following these changes during a skin cancer chemopreventative trial can then help assess the efficacy of the agent and help determine where in the progression of neoplastic changes it exerts its biological effects.

  6. Normozoospermic versus teratozoospermic domestic cats: differential testicular volume, sperm morphometry, and subpopulation structure during epididymal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Reinoso, Miguel Angel; García-Herreros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Teratozoospermia (sperm morphometric traits, and potential differences regarding the sperm subpopulational structure during epididymal sperm maturation in teratozoospermic feline donors. Epididymal sperm samples were collected from the caput (R1), corpus (R2), and cauda (R3) epididymidis in two donor groups (N: normozoospermic; T: teratozoospermic). Aliquots were assessed for concentration, viability, motility, and acrosomal integrity. Sperm morphometric descriptors from CASA-Morph analysis were analyzed by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analyses. Irrespective of the group analyzed, PCA revealed two Principal Components (PCs) for each epididymal region explaining more than the 93% of the variance. Surprisingly, the number of subpopulations remained constant in regions R1-R2-R3 irrespective of the donor group analyzed. However, the distribution of these subpopulations was found to be structurally different and strongly influenced by the epididymal region and the donor group. In conclusion, testicular morphometry and the sperm subpopulation structure were different in N and T donors. The alterations in subpopulations during epididymal maturation could be used as a potential clinical indicator of teratozoospermic individuals since an important influence of teratozoospermia on sperm subpopulation structure has been demonstrated.

  7. Regional brain morphometry predicts memory rehabilitation outcome after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly include difficulties with memory, attention, and executive dysfunction. These deficits are amenable to cognitive rehabilitation, but optimally selecting rehabilitation programs for individual patients remains a challenge. Recent methods for quantifying regional brain morphometry allow for automated quantification of tissue volumes in numerous distinct brain structures. We hypothesized that such quantitative structural information could help identify individuals more or less likely to benefit from memory rehabilitation. Fifty individuals with TBI of all severities who reported having memory difficulties first underwent structural MRI scanning. They then participated in a 12 session memory rehabilitation program emphasizing internal memory strategies (I-MEMS. Primary outcome measures (HVLT, RBMT were collected at the time of the MRI scan, immediately following therapy, and again at one month post-therapy. Regional brain volumes were used to predict outcome, adjusting for standard predictors (e.g., injury severity, age, education, pretest scores. We identified several brain regions that provided significant predictions of rehabilitation outcome, including the volume of the hippocampus, the lateral prefrontal cortex, the thalamus, and several subregions of the cingulate cortex. The prediction range of regional brain volumes were in some cases nearly equal in magnitude to prediction ranges provided by pretest scores on the outcome variable. We conclude that specific cerebral networks including these regions may contribute to learning during I-MEMS rehabilitation, and suggest that morphometric measures may provide substantial predictive value for rehabilitation outcome in other cognitive interventions as well.

  8. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  9. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  10. Neuroanatomical correlates of developmental dyscalculia: combined evidence from morphometry and tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rykhlevskaia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor mathematical abilities adversely affect academic and career opportunities. The neuroanatomical basis of developmental dyscalculia (DD, a specific learning deficit with prevalence rates exceeding 5%, is poorly understood. We used structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine macro- and micro-structural impairments in 7-9 year old children with DD, compared to a group of typically developing (TD children matched on age, gender, intelligence, reading abilities and working memory capacity. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM revealed reduced grey matter (GM bilaterally in superior parietal lobule, intra-parietal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and right anterior temporal cortex in children with DD. VBM analysis also showed reduced white matter (WM volume in right temporal-parietal cortex. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in this WM region, pointing to significant right hemisphere micro-structural impairments. Furthermore, FA in this region was correlated with numerical operations but not verbal mathematical reasoning or word reading. Atlas-based tract mapping identified the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and caudal forceps major as key pathways impaired in DD. DTI tractography suggests that long-range WM projection fibers linking the right fusiform gyrus with temporal-parietal WM are a specific source of vulnerability in DD. Network and classification analysis suggest that DD in children may be characterized by multiple dysfunctional circuits arising from a core WM deficit. Our findings link GM and WM abnormalities in children with DD and they point to macro- and micro-structural abnormalities in right hemisphere temporal-parietal WM, and pathways associated with it, as key neuroanatomical correlates of DD.

  11. SU-E-QI-12: Morphometry Based Measurements of the Structural Response to Whole Brain Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, D; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Guerrero, T [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Although state of the art radiation therapy techniques for treating intracranial malignancies have eliminated acute brain injury, cognitive impairment occurs in 50–90% of patients who survive >6mo post irradiation. Quantitative characterization of therapy response is needed to facilitate therapeutic strategies to minimize radiation induced cognitive impairment [1]. Deformation based morphometry techniques [2, 3] are presented as a quantitative imaging biomarker of therapy response in patients receiving whole brain radiation for treating medulloblastoma. Methods: Post-irradiation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets were retrospectively analyzed in N=15 patients, >60 MR image datasets. As seen in Fig 1(a), volume changes at multiple time points post-irradiation were quantitatively measured in the cerebrum and ventricles with respect to pre-irradiation MRI. A high resolution image Template, was registered to the pre-irradiation MRI of each patient to create a brain atlas for the cerebrum, cerebellum, and ventricles. Skull stripped images for each patient were registered to the initial pre-treatment scan. Average volume changes in the labeled regions were measured using the determinant of the displacement field Jacobian. Results: Longitudinal measurements, Fig 1(b-c), show a negative correlation p=.06, of the cerebral volume change with the time interval from irradiation. A corresponding positive correlation, p=.01, between ventricular volume change and time interval from irradiation is seen. One sample t-test for correlations were computed using a Spearman method. An average decrease in cerebral volume, p=.08, and increase in ventricular volume, p<.001, was observed. The radiation dose was seen directly proportional to the induced volume changes in the cerebrum, r=−.44, p<.001, Fig 1(d). Conclusion: Results indicate that morphometric monitoring of brain tissue volume changes may potentially be used to quantitatively assess toxicity and response to

  12. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Developmental Dyscalculia: Combined Evidence from Morphometry and Tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Kondos, Leeza; Menon, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    Poor mathematical abilities adversely affect academic and career opportunities. The neuroanatomical basis of developmental dyscalculia (DD), a specific learning deficit with prevalence rates exceeding 5%, is poorly understood. We used structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine macro- and micro-structural impairments in 7- to 9-year-old children with DD, compared to a group of typically developing (TD) children matched on age, gender, intelligence, reading abilities and working memory capacity. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed reduced grey matter (GM) bilaterally in superior parietal lobule, intra-parietal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and right anterior temporal cortex in children with DD. VBM analysis also showed reduced white matter (WM) volume in right temporal-parietal cortex. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in this WM region, pointing to significant right hemisphere micro-structural impairments. Furthermore, FA in this region was correlated with numerical operations but not verbal mathematical reasoning or word reading. Atlas-based tract mapping identified the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and caudal forceps major as key pathways impaired in DD. DTI tractography suggests that long-range WM projection fibers linking the right fusiform gyrus with temporal-parietal WM are a specific source of vulnerability in DD. Network and classification analysis suggest that DD in children may be characterized by multiple dysfunctional circuits arising from a core WM deficit. Our findings link GM and WM abnormalities in children with DD and they point to macro- and micro-structural abnormalities in right hemisphere temporal-parietal WM, and pathways associated with it, as key neuroanatomical correlates of DD. PMID:20046827

  13. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE MORPHOMETRY OF THE TIBIAL AND FEMORAL ATTACHMENT SITES OF THE POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT; Estudio anatómico de la morfometría de los sitios de inserción tibial y femoral del ligamento cruzado posterior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Inalegwu Iyaji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available , Although later isolated injuries cruciate of the ligament (PCL are managed through non-operative rehabilitation, reconstruction is becoming ITS anatomic increasingly important. This study Provides Information Regarding the position and variability of Its tibial attachment sites, dimensions of the femoral insertions, Between These Comparing males and females, and Between right and left knees. Thirty one cadaveric knees (15 right, 16 left from nine female and seven male cadavers ( mean age 77 years Were Examined. The PCL footprint Which was Identified from the mean length and width of the tibial anterolateral (AL and posteromedial (PM 8.7 and 10.9 mm Were bundles, and 7.3 and 13.44mm respectively. The mean length and width of the tibial footprint in males and females 10.2 and 10.3 mm Were, and 7.7 and 11.4 mm for the AL bundle and 8.2 and 14.2 mm and 12.9 mm and 6.7 for the PM bundle respectively. The mean anatomical position of the AL and 51.0% Were PM bundles and 50.0% of the mediolateral diameter of the tibial plateau. The mean lengths and widths of the PCL femoral attachment Were 9.4 mm and 12.8 for the AL bundle and 7.5 and 11.4 mm for the PM bundle, with the AL bundle attachment being Significantly larger (P = 0.034 in evils. No Difference between right and left knees Were Observed . The data presented here will aid in making decisions to Achieve Appropriate anatomic PCL reconstruction., Although isolated lesions of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL are Treated by non-operative rehabilitation, anatomical reconstruction've Become increasingly important. This study Provides information on the position and variability of the binding sites of the tibia, the dimensions of the femoral insertions, Comparing them Between the sexes, and Between the right and left knee. They Were Examined thirty-one (15 right and 16 left knees of 9 women and 7 dead bodies of males (mean age 77 years. Brand LCP was Identified from the length and width

  14. Estuarine morphometry governs optically active substances, Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L. C.; Nielsen, J. M.; Blüthgen, J.

    2013-01-01

    °N) at high discharges. The major difference was the spatial distribution of the optical properties against distance, best described by significant power functions in the ria, compared to significant linear functions in the coastal plain. It was hypothesized that estuarine morphometry could explain...... this spatial distribution. Partition and multiple regression analyses showed that Chl-a governed Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation coefficient in both estuaries. Significant, high correlations were obtained by multiple regression analyses in the estimation of Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation coefficients in the two...... in the tropical ria and a linear function in the temperate coastal plain estuary, and applicable to similar estuary types....

  15. Relationships between metacarpal morphometry, fore-arm and vertebral bone density and fractures in post-menopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishart, J.M.; Horowitz, M.; Bochner, M.; Need, A.G.; Nordin, B.E.C. (Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia))

    1993-05-01

    The relationships between metacarpal morphometric, vertebral and forearm density measurement and the prevalence of vertebral and peripheral fractures were examined in 239 postmenopausal women (median age 63, range 32-84 years). Metacarpal cortical area/total area ratio (CA/TA) was measured with needle calipers forearm mineral density (FMD) by single photon absorptiometry and vertebral mineral density (VMD) by single energy quantitative computed tomography. The authors suggest that metacarpal morphometry, which is widely available at relatively low cost, yields cross-sectional information about bone density and fracture risk, comparable with that obtained by forearm and vertebral densitometry. (Author).

  16. The effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinole treatment on gonadal micro-vascularization and affected fertility examined by SEM and 3D-morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlbacher, K. M. T.; Minnich, B.

    2015-10-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the reproductive system in nude rats with special emphasis on how Δ9-THC impacts the vascularization of testes which in turn indirectly influences fertility. Basically, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) causes not only negative (psychoactive) effects in the human body as cannabinole administration in medical use (dose-dependent) offers multiple new treatment opportunities such as pain relief or containment of various cancers. Concerning the reproductive system it strongly influences CB-receptors along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis resulting in reduced plasma testosterone levels. There is also altered sperm quality parameters reported such as sperm motility or sperm count. On the other hand Δ9-THC effects endothelial growth factors (VEGF, Ang-1 etc.) respectively acts on their specific receptors which in turn modify angiogenesis and vascularization of tissues and organs (e.g. tumorous tissues). This leads to new therapeutical strategies in the suppression of various cancers by inhibiting (neo-)vascularization and in turn famishment of tumorous tissues (lack of nutrition supply). Here we studied the micro-vascularization of gonads in a long-term THC-treated nude rat model by vascular corrosion casting, SEM and 3D-morphometry.

  17. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition...

  18. A voxel-based morphometry study comparing problem gamblers, alcohol abusers, and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, R.J.; de Ruiter, M.B.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with smaller grey matter volumes in cortical and subcortical brain regions which are related to cognitive impairments often found in these disorders. Similar cognitive impairments have been found in patients suffering from problem gambling

  19. Neuro-degeneration profile of Alzheimer's patients: A brain morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Ramos Bernardes da Silva Filho

    2017-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: As previously reported, brain regions affected by AD during its initial stages, such as hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, and parahippocampal region, were found to be altered even in individuals with severe AD. In addition, individuals, specifically, with CDR 3, have multiple regions with lower volumes than individuals with a CDR 2. These results indicate that rates of atrophy have not plateaued out at CDR 2–3, and in severe patients there are yet neuronal loss and gliosis. These findings can add important information to the more accepted model in the literature that focuses mainly on early stages. Our findings allow a better understanding on the AD pathophysiologic process and follow-up process of drug treatment even at advanced disease stages.

  20. Noninvasive quantification of alveolar morphometry in elderly never- and ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Gregory A; Ouriadov, Alexei; Lessard, Eric; Sheikh, Khadija; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2015-10-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a way to generate in vivo lung images with contrast sensitive to the molecular displacement of inhaled gas at subcellular length scales. Here, we aimed to evaluate hyperpolarized (3)He MRI estimates of the alveolar dimensions in 38 healthy elderly never-smokers (73 ± 6 years, 15 males) and 21 elderly ex-smokers (70 ± 10 years, 14 males) with (n = 8, 77 ± 6 years) and without emphysema (n = 13, 65 ± 10 years). The ex-smoker and never-smoker subgroups were significantly different for FEV1/FVC (P = 0.0001) and DLCO (P = 0.009); while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly diminished FEV1/FVC (P = 0.02) and a trend toward lower DLCO (P = 0.05) than ex-smokers without emphysema. MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and CT measurements of emphysema (relative area-CT density histogram, RA950) were significantly different (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007) for never-smoker and ex-smoker subgroups. In never-smokers, the MRI estimate of mean linear intercept (260 ± 27 μm) was significantly elevated as compared to the results previously reported in younger never-smokers (210 ± 30 μm), and trended smaller than in the age-matched ex-smokers (320 ± 72 μm, P = 0.06) evaluated here. Never-smokers also reported significantly smaller internal (220 ± 24 μm, P = 0.01) acinar radius but greater alveolar sheath thickness (120 ± 4 μm, P Never-smokers were also significantly different than ex-smokers without emphysema for alveolar sheath thickness but not ADC, while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly different ADC but not alveolar sheath thickness compared to ex-smokers without CT evidence of emphysema. Differences in alveolar measurements in never- and ex-smokers demonstrate the sensitivity of MRI measurements to the different effects of smoking and aging on acinar morphometry. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley

  1. Brain structure differences among male schizophrenic patients with history of serious violent acts: an MRI voxel-based morphometric study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noriomi Kuroki; Hiroko Kashiwagi; Miho Ota; Masanori Ishikawa; Hiroshi Kunugi; Noriko Sato; Naotsugu Hirabayashi; Toshio Ota

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of brain morphometry in patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts, who were being treated under relatively new...

  2. Genetic Variation in the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Val108/158Met Is Linked to the Caudate and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Volume in Healthy Subjects: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Watanabe

    Full Text Available The effect of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism on brain morphology has been investigated but remains controversial. We hypothesized that a comparison between Val/Val and Val/Met individuals, which may represent the most different combinations concerning the effects of the COMT genotype, may reveal new findings. We investigated the brain morphology using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in 27 Val/Val and 22 Val/Met individuals. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that the volumes of the bilateral caudate and posterior cingulate cortex were significantly smaller in Val/Val individuals than in Val/Met individuals [right caudate: false discovery rate (FDR-corrected p = 0.048; left caudate: FDR-corrected p = 0.048; and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex: FDR-corrected p = 0.048]. This study demonstrates that interacting functional variants of COMT affect gray matter regional volumes in healthy subjects.

  3. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie; van Steenbergen, Henk; Nienke Pannekoek, J.

    2017-01-01

    . An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174) and healthy control (HC)-participants (n = 213) using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) approach......Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in gray matter (GM......) in various brain regions, as well as on the relationship between brain structure and SAD-symptomatology. These heterogeneous findings are possibly due to limited sample sizes. Multi-site imaging offers new opportunities to investigate SAD-related alterations in brain structure in larger samples...

  4. Morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle in relation to median nerve compression at the proximal forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, I A; Altinel, L; Gayretli, O; Akgul, T; Uzun, I; Dikici, F

    2016-12-01

    The pronator syndrome is a rare compression neuropathy of the median nerve. Ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle may cause compression at proximal forearm. Detailed morphologic and morphometric studies on the anatomy of the ulnar head of pronator teres is scarce. We dissected 112 forearms of fresh cadavers. We evaluated the morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. The average ulnar head width was 16.3±8.2mm. The median nerve passed anterior to the ulnar head at a distance of 50.4±10.7mm from the interepicondylar line. We classified the morphology of the ulnar head into 5 types. In type 1, the ulnar head was fibromuscular in 60 forearms (53.6%). In type 2, it was muscular in 23 forearms (20.5%). In type 3, it was just a fibrotic band in 18 forearms (16.1%). In type 4, it was absent in 9 forearms (8%). In type 5, the ulnar head had two arches in 2 forearms (1.8%). In 80 forearms (71.5%: types 1, 3, and 5), the ulnar head was either fibromuscular or a fibrotic band. Although the pronator syndrome is a rare compression syndrome, the ulnar head of pronator teres is reported as the major cause of entrapment in the majority of the cases. The location of the compression of the median nerve in relation to the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle and the morphology of the ulnar head is important for open or minimally-invasive surgical treatment. Sectional study. Basic science study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear morphometry in male breast carcinoma: association with cell proliferative activity, oncogene expression, DNA content and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiusa, L; Margaria, E; Pich, A

    2000-11-20

    To investigate the prognostic value of nuclear morphometry in male breast carcinoma (MBC), histological samples from 50 patients (mean age 62.2 years) were retrospectively analyzed by computerized nuclear morphometry. All patients received surgery; 35 had multiple combinations of adjuvant therapies. Mean follow-up was 67 months (range 1-230). In each case, 100 tumor cells were measured, and the mean nuclear area (MNA), standard deviation of the nuclear area (SDNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), standard deviation of the nuclear perimeter (SDNP) and shape factor (SHF) were calculated. Morphometric features were compared with tumor histological grade, size, nodal status, DNA ploidy evaluated by flow-cytometry and cell proliferative activity assessed by the quantity of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region-associated proteins (AgNORs), monoclonal antibody (MAb) PC10 against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and MAb MIB-1. Comparison was also made with the immunohistochemical detection of p53, bcl-2, c-erbB-2 and c-myc proteins. Significant association was found between nuclear morphometric parameters and tumor grade, DNA content and cell proliferation indices. SDNA was greater in p53-positive and bcl-2-negative cases; SDNP was greater in p53-positive cases; SHF was lower in p53- and c-myc-positive cases. Overall survival was shorter in carcinomas with high MNA, SDNA, MNP and SDNP and low SHF. In multivariate analysis, performed by testing nuclear morphometric parameters, histological grade, tumor size, nodal status and p53 immunostaining in the Cox model, p53 over-expression and histological grade retained independent prognostic significance. When p53 was excluded, only SDNP appeared as an independent prognostic variable. Our results indicate that nuclear morphometric parameters can identify an aggressive tumor phenotype and provide additional prognostic information for patients with MBC. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effects of hemodialysis on corneal and anterior chamber morphometry and intraocular pressure in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Caglayan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD on corneal and anterior chamber morphometry, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with end-stage renal disease. Methods: Fifty right eyes were examined 30 minutes before and after HD. IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer, and Ehlers' formula was used to calculate the corrected IOP values. The central corneal thickness (CCT, corneal volume (CV, keratometric values, anterior chamber depth (ACD, aqueous depth (AQD, anterior chamber volume (ACV, and anterior chamber angle (ACA in the nasal and temporal quadrants were measured with a Sirius anterior segment analysis system. Blood urea nitrogen levels, body mass, and systolic and diastolic arterial pressure were also measured before and after HD. Results: The mean age was 60.80 ± 13.38 (range: 35-80 years. The mean uncorrected and corrected IOP values decreased from 18.06 ± 3.91 and 18.31 ± 4.83 mmHg to 16.94 ± 3.87 and 16.95 ± 4.74 mmHg after HD, respectively (p=0.011 and p=0.003, respectively. The mean CCT decreased from 536.38 ± 24.73 to 533.18 ± 27.25 µm (p=0.002, and the mean CV decreased from 57.52 ± 3.15 to 55.68 ± 3.55 mm³ (p0.05 for all values. There were no significant correlations between the ocular and systemic parameters (p>0.05 for all correlations. Conclusions: Uncorrected IOP, corrected IOP, CCT, and CV values decreased after HD, whereas the anterior chamber morphometry values remained similar between the measurements performed before and after HD.

  7. Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 weighted voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In childhood, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is reliably associated with reduced volume of the striatum. In contrast, striatal abnormalities are infrequently detected in voxel-based morphometry (VBM neuroimaging studies of adults with ADHD. This discrepancy has been suggested to reflect normalisation of striatal morphology with age and prolonged treatment of symptoms. If so, this would indicate that while striatal abnormalities are linked to symptom expression in childhood, they cannot explain the persistence of these symptoms in adulthood. However, this may not be case. Instead, we hypothesized that the lack of evidence for striatal abnormalities in adult ADHD may reflect poor sensitivity of typical (T1-weighted neuroimaging to detect subcortical differences. To address this, we acquired both magnetisation transfer (MT saturation maps optimised for subcortical contrast, and conventional T1-weighted images in 30 adults with ADHD and 30 age, IQ, gender and handedness-matched controls. Using VBM of both datasets, we demonstrate volumetric reductions within the left ventral striatum on MT that are not observed on identically pre-processed T1-weighted images from the same participants. Nevertheless, both techniques reported similar sensitivity to cortical abnormalities in the right inferior parietal lobe. Additionally, we show that differences in striatal iron may potentially explain this reduced sensitivity of T1-weighted images in adults. Together, these findings indicate that prior VBM studies reporting no abnormalities in striatal volume in adult ADHD might have been compromised by the methodological insensitivity of T1-weighted VBM to subcortical differences, and that structural abnormalities of the striatum in ADHD do indeed persist into adulthood.

  8. Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 weighted voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Arjun; Evelyn-Rahr, Edwin; Dowell, Nicholas; Jain, Sanjay; Voon, Valerie; Critchley, Hugo D; Harrison, Neil A; Cercignani, Mara

    2017-01-01

    In childhood, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is reliably associated with reduced volume of the striatum. In contrast, striatal abnormalities are infrequently detected in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) neuroimaging studies of adults with ADHD. This discrepancy has been suggested to reflect normalisation of striatal morphology with age and prolonged treatment of symptoms. If so, this would indicate that while striatal abnormalities are linked to symptom expression in childhood, they cannot explain the persistence of these symptoms in adulthood. However, this may not be case. Instead, we hypothesized that the lack of evidence for striatal abnormalities in adult ADHD may reflect poor sensitivity of typical (T1-weighted) neuroimaging to detect subcortical differences. To address this, we acquired both magnetisation transfer (MT) saturation maps optimised for subcortical contrast, and conventional T1-weighted images in 30 adults with ADHD and 30 age, IQ, gender and handedness-matched controls. Using VBM of both datasets, we demonstrate volumetric reductions within the left ventral striatum on MT that are not observed on identically pre-processed T1-weighted images from the same participants. Nevertheless, both techniques reported similar sensitivity to cortical abnormalities in the right inferior parietal lobe. Additionally, we show that differences in striatal iron may potentially explain this reduced sensitivity of T1-weighted images in adults. Together, these findings indicate that prior VBM studies reporting no abnormalities in striatal volume in adult ADHD might have been compromised by the methodological insensitivity of T1-weighted VBM to subcortical differences, and that structural abnormalities of the striatum in ADHD do indeed persist into adulthood.

  9. Sastrugi Geometrical Properties and Morphometry Over Two Winter Seasons at col du Lac Blanc (french Alps, 2700 m a.s.l)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaim, Florence; Picard, Ghislain; Bellot, Hervé; Arnaud, Laurent; Vionnet, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Some elements of snow surface roughness, such as ripple or sastrugi, are a direct manifestation of wind erosion and in turn modify the near-surface wind field and consequently the horizontal snow mass fluxes. This leads to a negative feedback between wind strength and surface roughness that must be taken into account in numerical models. Formation of sastrugi, which are elongated metric-scale ridges of wind-packed snow whose longitudinal axis is parallel to the prevailing wind at the time of their formation, is still not well-understood. The first step to provide new information about the formation and evolution of such features is to integrate meteorological data and accurate description of geometrical properties. But the complex and dynamic surface of sastrugi cannot be easily captured by manual measurements (Bellot et al., 2014), which furthermore must be frequent as the formation of new landforms can happen very quickly. That's why the potential of a low-cost time-lapse terrestrial laserscan RLS (Picard et al., 2016) has been investigated during the winter seasons 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 at Col du Lac Blanc in the French Alps. This experimental test site, dedicated to drifting snow studies, and subject to the formation of sastrugi is well-suited for such study : accurate meteorological data, including drifting snow fluxes, are available each 10 minutes. RLS covered a surface area of around 200 m2 for a spatial horizontal resolution of nearly 2 cm and monitored successfully surface roughness once a day during the whole winter seasons. Sastrugi geometrical parameters, such as the frontal area and average height of roughness elements has been extracted from the RLS data and the sastrugi morphometry has be examined over two winter seasons in link with snow fall, drifting snow occurence and intensity and wind speed.

  10. Influence of parameter settings in voxel-based morphometry 8. Using DARTEL and region-of-interest on reproducibility in gray matter volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, M; Abe, O; Aoki, S; Hayashi, N; Miyati, T; Takao, H; Matsuda, H; Yamashita, F; Iwatsubo, T; Mori, H; Kunimatsu, A; Ino, K; Yano, K; Ohtomo, K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether reproducibility of gray matter volumetry is influenced by parameter settings for VBM 8 using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) with region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. We prepared three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects. All subjects were imaged with each of five MRI systems. Voxel-based morphometry 8 (VBM 8) and WFU PickAtlas software were used for gray matter volumetry. The bilateral ROI labels used were those provided as default settings with the software: Frontal Lobe, Hippocampus, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Parietal Lobe, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe. All 3D-T1WIs were segmented to gray matter with six parameters of VBM 8, with each parameter having between three and eight selectable levels. Reproducibility was evaluated as the standard deviation (mm³) of measured values for the five MRI systems. Reproducibility was influenced by 'Bias regularization (BiasR)', 'Bias FWHM', and 'De-noising filter' settings, but not by 'MRF weighting', 'Sampling distance', or 'Warping regularization' settings. Reproducibility in BiasR was influenced by ROI. Superior reproducibility was observed in Frontal Lobe with the BiasR1 setting, and in Hippocampus, Parietal Lobe, and Putamen with the BiasR3*, BiasR1, and BiasR5 settings, respectively. Reproducibility of gray matter volumetry was influenced by parameter settings in VBM 8 using DARTEL and ROI. In multi-center studies, the use of appropriate settings in VBM 8 with DARTEL results in reduced scanner effect.

  11. Computerized image recognition for morphometry of nerve attribute of shape of sampled transverse sections of myelinated fibers which best estimates their average diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, J; Robb, R; O'Brien, P C; Lambert, E H; Dyck, P J

    1977-10-01

    A computerized image recognition method was used to measure various attributes of shape of cross-sections of myelinated nerve fibers. Measurements were made at intervals over 1/2 internode of each fiber on 20 fibers from each of 4 sural nerves from rats. Diameters were computed in 6 different ways from the computer measurements and compared for bias, precision, and accuracy between sections and to the diameter of an idealized cylinder reconstructed for each fiber from multiple actual cross sections. The diameter computed from cross-sectional areas of transversely sectioned myelinated fibers, converted into a circle, showed the highest precision, greatest accuracy and least bias. Fibers were classified by shape and the frequency was determined in defined regions (I1 = paranodal, I3= nuclear and I2=region between I1 and I3) of the 1/2 internode. A crenated shape is highly characteristic of the I1 region. The boomerang shape was found most frequently in I3 whereas the circular shape was found most frequently in I2. Epileptical and boomerang shapes of myelinated fibers within fascicles which have been orientated carefully to obtain transverse sections, are not due to obliquity of section. Therefore, using the minor axis to determine the diameter of such profiles, as we had done previously in our laboratory, is in error. We conclude from these studies, that in carefully orientated transverse sections of nerve trucks, the diameter calculated from measurement of area converted to a circular shape is the best among the various estimates of myelinated fiber diameter and is the most suitable one for use in computerized image recognition systems for nerve morphometry. It seems reasonable to extrapolate this general conclusion to myelinated fibers of man.

  12. MORFOLOGÍA Y MORFOMETRÍA DE DOS ESPECIES DE BANDERITAS (ORCHIDACEAE: MASDEVALLIA EN COLOMBIA Morphology and Morphometry of Two Banderitas Species (Orchidaceae: Masdevallia in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA ADRIANA CUERVO MARTÍNEZ

    2012-12-01

    difficult access. For this reason these species are in the II appendix of CITES. However, little is known on their reproductive biology, floral biology and pollination and the literature about this is incomplete. Under this framework, the goal of the project was to study the morphology and morphometry of M. coccinea and M. ignea (Pleurothallidinae under semicultivation conditions in the Villa Rosa farm located in the Municipality of Guasca, Cundinamarca (Colombia. The floral morphology was analyzed by digital photography, morphometry and Scanning Electron Microscope. The main results were differences in color and length of dorsal and lateral sepals between M. coccinea (X = 53.0 mm σ = 7.4 mm and X = 44.4 mm and σ = 8.3 mm and M. ignea (X = 34 mm σ = 7.7 mm and X = 31.5 mm and σ = 6.1 mm. These parts were longest in M. coccinea in contrast to M. ignea. However the lip was longest in M. ignea (X = 7.1 mm y σ = 0.6 mm. On the other hand both species had lip articulated to the column but without rewards as nectar and osmophores.

  13. Prospective motion correction with volumetric navigators (vNavs) reduces the bias and variance in brain morphometry induced by subject motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdall, M. Dylan; Reuter, Martin; Qureshi, Abid; Buckner, Randy L.; Fischl, Bruce; van der Kouwe, André J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that subject motion produces systematic biases in the metrics computed by widely used morphometry software packages, even when the motion is too small to produce noticeable image artefacts. In the common situation where the control population exhibits different behaviours in the scanner when compared to the experimental population, these systematic measurement biases may produce significant confounds for between-group analyses, leading to erroneous conclusions about group differences. While previous work has shown that prospective motion correction can improve perceived image quality, here we demonstrate that, in healthy subjects performing a variety of directed motions, the use of the volumetric navigator (vNav) prospective motion correction system significantly reduces the motion-induced bias and variance in morphometry. PMID:26654788

  14. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 2, changes in surface morphometry from terrestrial laser scanning in the summer of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; McCoy, Scott W.; Tucker, Greg E.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution topographic data that quantify changes in channel form caused by sequential debris flows in natural channels are rare at the reach scale. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) techniques are utilized to capture morphological changes brought about by a high-frequency of debris-flow events at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the topographic response of a natural channel to the documented debris-flow events. TLS survey data allowed for the generation of high-resolution (2-cm) digital terrain models (DTM) of the channel. A robust network of twelve permanent control points permitted repeat scanning sessions that provided multiple DTM to evaluate fine-scale topographic change associated with three debris-flow events. Difference surfaces from the DTM permit the interpretations of spatial variations in channel morphometry and net volume of material deposited and eroded within and between a series of channel reaches. Each channel reach experienced erosion, deposition, and both net volumetric gains and losses were measured. Analysis of potential relationships between erosion and deposition magnitudes yielded no strong correlations with measures of channel-reach morphometry, suggesting that channel reach-specific predictions of potential erosion or deposition locations or rates cannot be adequately derived from statistical analyses of pre-event channel-reach morphometry.

  15. Microgeographic Spatial Structuring of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Populations Using Wing Geometric Morphometry in the Argentine Chaco

    Science.gov (United States)

    GASPE, M. S.; SCHACHTER-BROIDE, J.; GUREVITZ, J. M.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.; DUJARDIN, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of spatial structuring in Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations 12 yr after the last community-wide insecticide spraying campaign in rural Pampa del Indio, in the Gran Chaco of northeastern Argentina. In total, 172 male and 149 female right wings collected at 16 georeferenced sites with at least 10 individuals of the same sex were analyzed using geometric morphometry. Mean female body length and wing centroid size (CS) were significantly larger than for males. Log-transformed CS and length were significantly and positively correlated both for males and females. Males collected in domiciles had significantly smaller CS than those collected in peridomestic structures both closed (kitchens or storerooms) or open (chicken coops), in agreement with our previous results elsewhere in the dry Argentine Chaco. Female wing CS was not significantly different between ecotopes. Wing shape analyses showed the occurrence of significant geographic structuring in males and females combined and in males only. Male wings showed a strong association between Mahalanobis distance and geographic distance. In general, Mahalanobis distances were significantly different between collection sites located >4 km apart. For collection sites located <4 km apart, the greater the geographic distance the larger the difference in wing shape variables. Among females, only a partial correspondence between geographic groups and Mahalanobis distances was recorded. The strong spatial structuring found in T. infestans populations may be useful for the identification of putative reinfestation sources after vector control interventions. PMID:22679857

  16. Crater Morphometry and Crater Degradation on Mercury: Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Measurements and Comparison to Stereo-DTM Derived Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, C.; Fassett, C. I.; Crowley, M. C.; Dyar, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Two types of measurements of Mercury's surface topography were obtained by the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface Space ENvironment, GEochemisty and Ranging) spacecraft: laser ranging data from Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) [1], and stereo imagery from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) camera [e.g., 2, 3]. MLA data provide precise and accurate elevation meaurements, but with sparse spatial sampling except at the highest northern latitudes. Digital terrain models (DTMs) from MDIS have superior resolution but with less vertical accuracy, limited approximately to the pixel resolution of the original images (in the case of [3], 15-75 m). Last year [4], we reported topographic measurements of craters in the D=2.5 to 5 km diameter range from stereo images and suggested that craters on Mercury degrade more quickly than on the Moon (by a factor of up to approximately 10×). However, we listed several alternative explanations for this finding, including the hypothesis that the lower depth/diameter ratios we observe might be a result of the resolution and accuracy of the stereo DTMs. Thus, additional measurements were undertaken using MLA data to examine the morphometry of craters in this diameter range and assess whether the faster crater degradation rates proposed to occur on Mercury is robust.

  17. Integration of co-localized glandular morphometry and protein biomarker expression in immunofluorescent images for prostate cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard; Khan, Faisal M.; Zeineh, Jack; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Immunofluorescent (IF) image analysis of tissue pathology has proven to be extremely valuable and robust in developing prognostic assessments of disease, particularly in prostate cancer. There have been significant advances in the literature in quantitative biomarker expression as well as characterization of glandular architectures in discrete gland rings. However, while biomarker and glandular morphometric features have been combined as separate predictors in multivariate models, there is a lack of integrative features for biomarkers co-localized within specific morphological sub-types; for example the evaluation of androgen receptor (AR) expression within Gleason 3 glands only. In this work we propose a novel framework employing multiple techniques to generate integrated metrics of morphology and biomarker expression. We demonstrate the utility of the approaches in predicting clinical disease progression in images from 326 prostate biopsies and 373 prostatectomies. Our proposed integrative approaches yield significant improvements over existing IF image feature metrics. This work presents some of the first algorithms for generating innovative characteristics in tissue diagnostics that integrate co-localized morphometry and protein biomarker expression.

  18. When the Single Matters more than the Group (II): Addressing the Problem of High False Positive Rates in Single Case Voxel Based Morphometry Using Non-parametric Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpazza, Cristina; Nichols, Thomas E; Seramondi, Donato; Maumet, Camille; Sartori, Giuseppe; Mechelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies have used Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) to compare a single patient with a psychiatric or neurological condition of interest against a group of healthy controls. However, the validity of this approach critically relies on the assumption that the single patient is drawn from a hypothetical population with a normal distribution and variance equal to that of the control group. In a previous investigation, we demonstrated that family-wise false positive error rate (i.e., the proportion of statistical comparisons yielding at least one false positive) in single case VBM are much higher than expected (Scarpazza et al., 2013). Here, we examine whether the use of non-parametric statistics, which does not rely on the assumptions of normal distribution and equal variance, would enable the investigation of single subjects with good control of false positive risk. We empirically estimated false positive rates (FPRs) in single case non-parametric VBM, by performing 400 statistical comparisons between a single disease-free individual and a group of 100 disease-free controls. The impact of smoothing (4, 8, and 12 mm) and type of pre-processing (Modulated, Unmodulated) was also examined, as these factors have been found to influence FPRs in previous investigations using parametric statistics. The 400 statistical comparisons were repeated using two independent, freely available data sets in order to maximize the generalizability of the results. We found that the family-wise error rate was 5% for increases and 3.6% for decreases in one data set; and 5.6% for increases and 6.3% for decreases in the other data set (5% nominal). Further, these results were not dependent on the level of smoothing and modulation. Therefore, the present study provides empirical evidence that single case VBM studies with non-parametric statistics are not susceptible to high false positive rates. The critical implication of this finding is that VBM can be used

  19. Small animals bone density and morphometry analysis with a dual energy X-rays absorptiometry bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector; Analyse de la densite osseuse et de la morphometrie de petits animaux avec un osteodensitometre bi-energie utilisant un capteur 2D de radiographie numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudousq, V. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nimes, 30 (France); Bordy, T.; Gonon, G.; Dinten, J.M. [CEA Grenoble (DTBS/STD), Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique, LETI, 38 (France)

    2004-07-01

    LEXXOS (DMS, Montpellier, France) is the first axial and total body cone beam bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector. In previous papers, technical principles and patients' Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement performances were presented. Bone densitometers are also used on small animals for drug development. In this presentation, we show how LEXXOS can be adapted for small animals' examinations and evaluate its performances. At first, in order to take advantage of the whole area of the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} digital radiographic detector, it has been made profit of X-Rays magnification by adapting the geometrical configuration. Secondly, as small animals present low BMD, a specific dual energy calibration has been defined. This adapted system has then been evaluated on two sets of mice: six reference mice and six ovariectomized mice. Each month, these two populations have been examined and the averaged total body BMD has been measured. This evaluation shows that the right order of BMD magnitude is obtained and, as expected, BMD increases on two sets until a period around puberty and the ovariectomized set presents a significant decrease after. Moreover, the bone image obtained by dual energy processing on LEXXOS presents a radiographic image quality providing useful complementary information on bone morphometry and architecture. This study shows that LEXXOS cone beam bone densitometer provides simultaneously useful quantitative and qualitative information for analysis of bone evolution on small animals. In the future, same system architecture and processing methodology can be used with higher resolution detectors in order to refine information on bone architecture. (authors)

  20. Functional Electrical Stimulation as a Safe and Effective Treatment for Equine Epaxial Muscle Spasms: Clinical Evaluations and Histochemical Morphometry of Mitochondria in Muscle Biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Barbara; Gobbo, Valerio; Carraro, Ugo; Gelbmann, Lin; Pribyl, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has been used extensively over several decades to reverse muscle atrophy during rehabilitation for spinal cord injury patients. The benefits of the technology are being expanded into other areas, and FES has been recently utilized for injury rehabilitation and performance enhancement in horses. Six retired horses (age from 10 to 17 yrs) that had been previously used mainly for dressage riding were selected for this study. Clinical evaluation found epaxial muscle spasms in all horses with minimal to no pelvic extension when manually palpated. FES treatments were performed on the sacral/lumbar region 3 times per week for a period of 8 weeks, obtaining a total of 22 treatments per horse. The Modified Ashworth Scale for grading muscle spasms found a one grade improvement after approximately four FES treatments, indicating improved functional movement of the sacral/lumbar region, supporting the evidence by clinical palpations that a reduction in epaxial muscle spasms occurred. Skeletal muscle biopsies Pre and Post FES treatments were obtained from the longissimus lumborum muscle. Cryosections were stained with a Hemotoxylin-Eosin (H-E), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase reaction (NADH-TR). The eventual size change of the muscle fibers were evaluated by morphometry in the H-E and NADH-TR stained cryosections, while in the NADH-TR slides the histochemical density and distribution of mitochondria were also determined. The main results of the morphometric analyses were: 1) As expected for the type of FES treatment used in this study, only a couple of horses showed significant increases in mean muscle fiber size when Pre- vs Post-FES biopsies were compared; 2) In the older horses, there were sparse (or many in one horse) very atrophic and angulated muscle fibers in both Pre- and Post-FES samples, whose attributes and distribution suggests that they were denervated due to a distal neuropathy; 3) The hypothesis

  1. MORPHOMETRY OF THE ARTICULAR FACETS ON THE SUPERIOR, MEDIAL AND LATERAL SURFACES OF THE BODY OF TALUS AND ITS CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goda Jatin B, Patel Shailesh M, Parmar Ajay M, Agarwal GC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the formation of Ankle joint, tibio-fibular mortice receives superior, medial and lateral articular surfaces of body of Talus. Because of very limited availability of the data on the Morphometry of the articular facets on the Body of the dry human tali, this study was undertaken. Aims: To prepare the database on the articular facets on the superior, medial and lateral surfaces of body of talus, to find if there is statistically significant difference between both the sides of measurements and to compare the results with the previous studies. Methods and Material: 40 Dry Human Tali (20 Right and 20 Left were measured with Digital vernier caliper for the following Measurements: On the Trochlear surface: Medial length, Central length, Lateral length, Anterior width, Central width, Posterior width. On the lateral triangular articular facet: Central height, Central width. On the coma shaped medial articular facet: Central height, Central width. Results: Mean values of Medial, Central and Lateral lengths were 31.02, 30.39 and 29.63mm on Right side and 31.79, 30.65 and 29.45mm on Left side. Mean Anterior, Central and Posterior widths were 28.87, 28.16 and 21.59mm on right side and 29.08, 27.54 and 21.78mm on left side. On the medial articular surface, mean central height was 11.93mm on the right side and 11.29mm on the left side, Mean central width was 27.94mm on the right side and 28.29mm on the left side. On the lateral articular surface, mean central height was 22.14mm on the right side and 22.63mm on the left side. Mean central width was 18.93mm on the right side and 18.99mm on the left side. There is no significant difference between right and left sides of measurements. Conclusion: The trochlear articular surface is wider in front, measurements of opposite talus bone can be used as a control during talus bone replacement surgery, it may help surgeons to plan pre-operatively the complex talar fracture surgeries, to design accurate

  2. 3D modelling of radical prostatectomy specimens: Developing a method to quantify tumor morphometry for prostate cancer risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovens, Marcus C; Lo, Kevin; Kerger, Michael; Pedersen, John; Nottle, Timothy; Kurganovs, Natalie; Ryan, Andrew; Peters, Justin S; Moon, Daniel; Costello, Anthony J; Corcoran, Niall M; Hong, Matthew K H

    2017-12-01

    Prostate cancer displays a wide spectrum of clinical behaviour from biological indolence to rapidly lethal disease, but we remain unable to accurately predict an individual tumor's future clinical course at an early curable stage. Beyond basic dimensions and volume calculations, tumor morphometry is an area that has received little attention, as it requires the analysis of the prostate gland and tumor foci in three-dimensions. Previous efforts to generate three-dimensional prostate models have required specialised graphics units and focused on the spatial distribution of tumors for optimisation of biopsy strategies rather than to generate novel morphometric variables such as tumor surface area. Here, we aimed to develop a method of creating three-dimensional models of a prostate's pathological state post radical prostatectomy that allowed the derivation of surface areas and volumes of both prostate and tumors, to assess the method's accuracy to known clinical data, and to perform initial investigation into the utility of morphometric variables in prostate cancer prognostication. Serial histology slides from 21 prostatectomy specimens covering a range of tumor sizes and pathologies were digitised. Computer generated three-dimensional models of tumor and prostate space filling models were reconstructed from these scanned images using Rhinoceros 4.0 spatial reconstruction software. Analysis of three-dimensional modelled prostate volume correlated only moderately with weak concordance to that from the clinical data (r=0.552, θ=0.405), but tumor volume correlated well with strong concordance (r=0.949, θ=0.876). We divided the cohort of 21 patients into those with features of aggressive tumor versus those without and found that larger tumor surface area (32.7 vs 3.4cc, p=0.008) and a lower tumor surface area to volume ratio (4.7 vs 15.4, p=0.008) were associated with aggressive tumor biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder on growth, gastrointestinal morphometry and blood and liver metabolites in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvinorova, P I; Lekhanya, L; Erlwanger, K; Chivandi, E

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) as a dietary supplement on growth performance, gastrointestinal (GIT) morphometry and liver function using weanling Sprague Dawley rats to model humans under ad libitum and restricted feeding. An MOLP-based diet was generated by supplementing normal rat feed with the leaf powder at 20%. Four dietary regimens included normal rat feed fed at 20% of body mass (NRF: ad libitum), NRF fed at 14% of body mass (NRFR, restricted), Moringa-supplemented feeds fed at 20% and 14% of body mass (MOF: ad libitum and MOFR: restrictedly) respectively. Thirty-two pups were randomly assigned to the diets and fed for 5 weeks, after which they were fasted, euthanased and GIT viscera masses, lengths and histology were assessed. Blood was collected for metabolite and markers of liver function assays. Tibiae and femora lengths were used to determine linear growth. Rats fed the restricted diets had lower weekly body mass gains (p = 0.0001) than those on ad libitum feeding; however, they showed compensatory growth by 5 weeks. Terminally, the rats fed MOFR had shorter (p < 0.05) femora and tibiae than their counterparts on the other diets. Except on the caeca, diet had no effect on the absolute masses and lengths of GIT viscera. Relative to tibia length, rats on the MOF had significantly heavier stomachs and caeca and longer small and large intestines than their counterparts on NRF, but this was not supported histologically. Level of feeding and supplementation did not affect blood metabolite concentration, liver glycogen and lipid storage nor the plasma activities AST and ALP in the rats. Supplementing diets with MOLP under restricted access to feed (low calorific supply) might compromise linear growth. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Voxel-based morphometry reveals increased gray matter density in Broca's area in male symphony orchestra musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluming, Vanessa; Barrick, Thomas; Howard, Matthew; Cezayirli, Enis; Mayes, Andrew; Roberts, Neil

    2002-11-01

    Broca's area is a major neuroanatomical substrate for spoken language and various musically relevant abilities, including visuospatial and audiospatial localization. Sight reading is a musician-specific visuospatial analysis task, and spatial ability is known to be amenable to training effects. Musicians have been reported to perform significantly better than nonmusicians on spatial ability tests, which is supported by our findings with the Benton judgement of line orientation (JOL) test (P musicians. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and stereological analyses were applied to high-resolution 3D MR images in male orchestral musicians (n = 26) and sex, handedness, and IQ-matched nonmusicians (n = 26). The wide age range (26 to 66 years) of volunteers permitted a secondary analysis of age-related effects. VBM with small volume correction (SVC) revealed a significant (P = 0.002) region of increased gray matter in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus in musicians. We observed significant age-related volume reductions in cerebral hemispheres, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex subfields bilaterally and gray matter density in the left inferior frontal gyrus in controls but not musicians; a positive correlation between JOL test score and age in musicians but not controls; a positive correlation between years of playing and the volume of gray matter in a significant region identified by VBM in under-50-year-old musicians. We suggest that orchestral musical performance promotes use-dependent retention, and possibly expansion, of gray matter involving Broca's area and that this provides further support for shared neural substrates underpinning expressive output in music and language.

  5. A comparison of manual neuronal reconstruction from biocytin histology or 2-photon imaging: morphometry and computer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Arne V; Grabuschnig, Stefan; Legenstein, Robert; Sjöström, P Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Accurate 3D reconstruction of neurons is vital for applications linking anatomy and physiology. Reconstructions are typically created using Neurolucida after biocytin histology (BH). An alternative inexpensive and fast method is to use freeware such as Neuromantic to reconstruct from fluorescence imaging (FI) stacks acquired using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy during physiological recording. We compare these two methods with respect to morphometry, cell classification, and multicompartmental modeling in the NEURON simulation environment. Quantitative morphological analysis of the same cells reconstructed using both methods reveals that whilst biocytin reconstructions facilitate tracing of more distal collaterals, both methods are comparable in representing the overall morphology: automated clustering of reconstructions from both methods successfully separates neocortical basket cells from pyramidal cells but not BH from FI reconstructions. BH reconstructions suffer more from tissue shrinkage and compression artifacts than FI reconstructions do. FI reconstructions, on the other hand, consistently have larger process diameters. Consequently, significant differences in NEURON modeling of excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) forward propagation are seen between the two methods, with FI reconstructions exhibiting smaller depolarizations. Simulated action potential backpropagation (bAP), however, is indistinguishable between reconstructions obtained with the two methods. In our hands, BH reconstructions are necessary for NEURON modeling and detailed morphological tracing, and thus remain state of the art, although they are more labor intensive, more expensive, and suffer from a higher failure rate due to the occasional poor outcome of histological processing. However, for a subset of anatomical applications such as cell type identification, FI reconstructions are superior, because of indistinguishable classification performance with greater ease of use

  6. A Comparison of Manual Neuronal Reconstruction from Biocytin Histology or 2-Photon Imaging: Morphometry and Computer Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Vladimir Blackman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate 3D reconstruction of neurons is vital for applications linking anatomy and physiology. Reconstructions are typically created using Neurolucida after biocytin histology (BH. An alternative inexpensive and fast method is to use freeware such as Neuromantic to reconstruct from fluorescence imaging (FI stacks acquired using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy during physiological recording. We compare these two methods with respect to morphometry, cell classification, and multicompartmental modeling in the NEURON simulation environment. Quantitative morphological analysis of the same cells reconstructed using both methods reveals that whilst biocytin reconstructions facilitate tracing of more distal collaterals, both methods are comparable in representing the overall morphology: automated clustering of reconstructions from both methods successfully separates neocortical basket cells from pyramidal cells but not BH from FI reconstructions. BH reconstructions suffer more from tissue shrinkage and compression artifacts than FI reconstructions do. FI reconstructions, on the other hand, consistently have larger process diameters. Consequently, significant differences in NEURON modeling of excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP forward propagation are seen between the two methods, with FI reconstructions exhibiting smaller depolarizations. Simulated action potential backpropagation (bAP, however, is indistinguishable between reconstructions obtained with the two methods. In our hands, BH reconstructions are necessary for NEURON modeling and detailed morphological tracing, and thus remain state of the art, although they are more labor intensive, more expensive, and suffer from a higher failure rate. However, for a subset of anatomical applications such as cell type identification, FI reconstructions are superior, because of indistinguishable classification performance with greater ease of use, essentially 100% success rate, and lower cost.

  7. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Doallo

    Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.

  8. Osteoporosis diagnosis improvement on systems Esinga 2D digital flat-panel, by morphometry and bone architecture analysis; Amelioration du diagnostic de l'osteoporose sur systemes bi-energies a capteur bi-dimensionnel par morphometrie et analyse de la trame osseuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinten, J.M

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the project is to explore the complementary diagnosis elements of the fracture risk that could give simultaneously on a same system the measure of the bone mineral density and an image with a radiological quality. This project has explored two improvement ways of the fracture risk diagnosis: the vertebral and femoral morphometry, the characterization of the bone micro-architecture from projected radiographs. (N.C.)

  9. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate in diets for weaning piglets ─ effect on growth performance, intestinal morphometry and microbiota composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opheim, Margareth; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Sterten, Hallgeir

    2016-01-01

    protein (Diet FM) and two diets in which different SPH replaced fishmeal in the FM diet. The experimental diets were fed to piglets from the day of weaning until 32 d postweaning. In addition to the record of performance data, an intestinal sampling for mucosal morphometry and microbiota 16S rRNA gene...... postweaning was detected. Only small differences in intestinal microbiota community and no differences in growth performance were detected between the experimental diets. To conclude, SPH seem to be an interesting novel protein source in weanling piglets....

  10. Assessment of the impact of the scanner-related factors on brain morphometry analysis with Brainvisa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shokouhi, Mahsa; Barnes, Anna; Suckling, John; Moorhead, Thomas Wj; Brennan, David; Job, Dominic; Lymer, Katherine; Dazzan, Paola; Reis Marques, Tiago; Mackay, Clare; McKie, Shane; Williams, Steven Cr; Lawrie, Stephen M; Deakin, Bill; Williams, Steve R; Condon, Barrie

    2011-01-01

    ... with multicentre and longitudinal studies. It is important therefore to investigate the variability and reliability of morphometric measurements between different scanners and different sessions of the same scanner...

  11. Compactação da cromatina e morfometria da cabeça de espermatozoides na produção de embriões in vitro utilizando touros zebuínos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.1002 Chromatin packaging and sperm head morphometry on "in vitro" fertilization programs with zebu bulls - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.1002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Emílio Beletti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre a morfometria da cabeça do espermatozoide e a compactação da cromatina com as taxas de clivagem e formação de blastocisto em programas de produção de embriões in vitro (PIV. Neste estudo foram utilizados dados de 38 rotinas de PIVs com sêmen de touros zebuínos com espermograma de rotina normal, realizadas em dois diferentes laboratórios de Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Para avaliar a morfometria e compactação da cromatina, foram usados esfregaços de sêmen corados com azul de toluidina e avaliados por análise de imagem computacional. A cromatina foi avaliada quanto à intensidade de compactação e homogeneidade. Os resultados permitem concluir que pequenas variações na morfometria da cabeça e na compactação da cromatina espermática pouco influenciam a clivagem e o número de blastocistos morfologicamente normais na PIV.The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between sperm head morphometry and chromatin packaging with the cleavage ratio and blastocyst formation during in vitro fertilization programs (IVF. Data of 38 IVFs using semen of zebu bulls with normal spermogram, carried out at two laboratories in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used in this study. Sperm smears stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by computer image analysis were used to evaluate the morphometry and chromatin packaging. The packaging intensity and homogeneity of sperm chromatin were evaluated. The results made it possible to conclude that light variations in the head morphometry and chromatin packaging had little influence on the cleavage and number of morphologically normal blastocysts during IVF.

  12. Neonatal Cerebral Morphometry and Later Risk of Persistent Inattention/Hyperactivity in Children Born Very Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Samudragupta; Pritchard, Verena E.; Chen, Zhe; Inder, Terrie E.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention problems are among the most prevalent neurobehavioral morbidities affecting very preterm (VPT) born children. The first study aim was to document rates of persistent attention/hyperactivity problems from ages 4 to 9 years in a regional cohort of VPT born children. The second aim was to examine the extent to which persistent…

  13. The Effects of Palm wine on the Morphometry and Femur Histology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Palm-wine as an alcoholic beverage plays an important role in the social life of many people in Nigeria especially those in the southern part of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible teratogenic effects of palm wine on wistar rat foetuses. Methodology: Female rats were caged with mature ...

  14. The efficacy of a voxel-based morphometry on the analysis of imaging in schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakeda, Shingo; Korogi, Yukunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) done by means of MRI have provided new insights into the neuroanatomical basis for subjects with several conditions. Recently, VBM has been applied to investigate not only regional volumetric changes but also voxel-wise maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) computed from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The aim of this article is to review the recent work using VBM technique in particular focusing on schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In patients with schizophrenia, VBM approach detects the structural brain abnormalities that appear normal on conventional MRI. Moreover, this technique also has the potential to emerge as a useful clinical tool for early detection and monitoring of disease progression and treatment response in patients with schizophrenia or AD/MCI. In TLE, VBM approach may help elucidate some unresolved important research questions such as how recurrent temporal lobe seizures affect hippocampal and extrahippocampal morphology. Thus, in the future, large cohort studies to monitor whole brain changes on a VBM basis will lead to a further understanding of the neuropathology of several conditions. (orig.)

  15. Morphometry for alpha particle hits of critical targets in the lungs. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this study is to provide detailed data on the number, location and type of critical target cells in the airspaces and to use these data in order to make risk assessments of the health effects of radon and radon progeny in the lungs. This will be done by quantitative morphometric study of the distribution of the various cell types and mucous lining layers in the lungs. The results provide anatomically correct models for dosimetry in the rate and human airways which significantly improve the ability to do risk assessment for radon exposures by providing quantitative data for specific cell types and provide a basis for mechanism based comparison between data available in animal exposures and human epidemiology.

  16. Landlocked Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus ) population structure and lake morphometry in Greenland - is there a connection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Jeppesen, E.; Landkildehus, F.

    2000-01-01

    correlated with lake volume. Our study indicates that the charr population structure became more complex with increasing lake size. Moreover, the population structure seemed to be influenced by lake-water transparency and the presence or absence of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)......Landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alphinus) populations in sub-Arctic and Arctic Greenland lakes were sampled with multi- mesh-sized survey gillnets. The study covered a range of small shallow lakes (0.01 km(2) maximum depth 200 In). Arctic charr were found in one to three different forms...... in lakes with maximum depths >3 m. A dwarf form occurred in all lakes inhabited by Arctic charr and was the only form in lakes with maximum depths 20 m, large-sized charr were more abundant, and the length- frequency distribution of the population was bimodal, with a first mode around 10-12 cm and a second...

  17. Using sperm morphometry and multivariate analysis to differentiate species of gray Mazama

    OpenAIRE

    Cursino, Marina Suzuki; Duarte, Jos? Maur?cio Barbanti

    2016-01-01

    There is genetic evidence that the two species of Brazilian gray Mazama, Mazama gouazoubira and Mazama nemorivaga, belong to different genera. This study identified significant differences that separated them into distinct groups, based on characteristics of the spermatozoa and ejaculate of both species. The characteristics that most clearly differentiated between the species were ejaculate colour, white for M.?gouazoubira and reddish for M.?nemorivaga, and sperm head dimensions. Multivariate...

  18. Morphometry of Cornops aquaticum(Orthoptera: Acrididae: Leptysminae) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    FRJ Silva; LD Battirola; MG Lhano; WO Sousa; MI Marques

    2014-01-01

    Insects show morphometric variations associated with the environment that may be the result of phenotypic response or genetic inheritance, or both. Thereby, studies that emphasise the variability in body size are very useful for understanding the dynamics and the stability of ecological systems. Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906) (Acrididae) is a semi-aquatic grasshopper, distributed from the southeast of Mexico to the south of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, and is intimately associated with...

  19. Mechanosensitivity of astrocytes on optimized polyacrylamide gels analyzed by quantitative morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshayedi, Pouria; Christ, Andreas; Guck, Jochen; Franze, Kristian [Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Da F Costa, Luciano [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Lacour, Stephanie P [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, 11 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FF (United Kingdom); Fawcett, James, E-mail: jg473@cam.ac.u [Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, ED Adrian Building, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0PY (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-19

    Cells are able to detect and respond to mechanical cues from their environment. Previous studies have investigated this mechanosensitivity on various cell types, including neural cells such as astrocytes. In this study, we have carefully optimized polyacrylamide gels, commonly used as compliant growth substrates, considering their homogeneity in surface topography, mechanical properties, and coating density, and identified several potential pitfalls for the purpose of mechanosensitivity studies. The resulting astrocyte response to growth on substrates with shear storage moduli of G' 100 Pa and G' = 10 kPa was then evaluated as a function of coating density of poly-D-lysine using quantitative morphometric analysis. Astrocytes cultured on stiff substrates showed significantly increased perimeter, area, diameter, elongation, number of extremities and overall complexity if compared to those cultured on compliant substrates. A statistically significant difference in the overall morphological score was confirmed with an artificial intelligence-based shape analysis. The dependence of the cells' morphology on PDL coating density seemed to be weak compared to the effect of the substrate stiffness and was slightly biphasic, with a maximum at 10-100 {mu}g ml{sup -1} PDL concentration. Our finding suggests that the compliance of the surrounding tissue in vivo may influence astrocyte morphology and behavior.

  20. Sexual dimorphism of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in South Korea: Craniodental geometric morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Alice Ching Ching; Asahara, Masakazu; Han, Sung Yong; Kimura, Junpei

    2016-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism of the craniodental morphology of the Eurasian otter in South Korea was studied with geometric morphometrics. 29 adult skulls (15 males and 14 females) were used. Images of the dorsal and ventral view of the cranium and right lateral view of the mandible were taken and then digitized, and measurements were taken on the right side. Results showed that size difference between males and females was significant. Correlations between the size and shape variations have not been observed in this study. The bivariate plots with centroid size showed size dimorphism between males and females with some overlapping. Most relative warp (RW) scores were not significantly different between males and females. We observed only RW2 for dorsal and ventral view of the skull, and only RW1 for mandible was significantly different between the sexes. Shape dimorphisms were revealed at the postorbital constriction, temporal-mandibular joint, coronoid process, mandibular condyle and angular process of the skull. Based on our study, sexual dimorphism exists in Eurasian otter from the South Korean population in terms of both the size and shape. Furthermore, the degree of size dimorphism is greater than shape dimorphism.

  1. Response of water temperatures and stratification to changing climate in three lakes with different morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Magee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water temperatures and stratification are important drivers for ecological and water quality processes within lake systems, and changes in these with increases in air temperature and changes to wind speeds may have significant ecological consequences. To properly manage these systems under changing climate, it is important to understand the effects of increasing air temperatures and wind speed changes in lakes of different depths and surface areas. In this study, we simulate three lakes that vary in depth and surface area to elucidate the effects of the observed increasing air temperatures and decreasing wind speeds on lake thermal variables (water temperature, stratification dates, strength of stratification, and surface heat fluxes over a century (1911–2014. For all three lakes, simulations showed that epilimnetic temperatures increased, hypolimnetic temperatures decreased, the length of the stratified season increased due to earlier stratification onset and later fall overturn, stability increased, and longwave and sensible heat fluxes at the surface increased. Overall, lake depth influences the presence of stratification, Schmidt stability, and differences in surface heat flux, while lake surface area influences differences in hypolimnion temperature, hypolimnetic heating, variability of Schmidt stability, and stratification onset and fall overturn dates. Larger surface area lakes have greater wind mixing due to increased surface momentum. Climate perturbations indicate that our larger study lakes have more variability in temperature and stratification variables than the smaller lakes, and this variability increases with larger wind speeds. For all study lakes, Pearson correlations and climate perturbation scenarios indicate that wind speed has a large effect on temperature and stratification variables, sometimes greater than changes in air temperature, and wind can act to either amplify or mitigate the effect of warmer air temperatures on

  2. Eutrophication potential of lakes: an integrated analysis of trophic state, morphometry, land occupation, and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvino, R F; Barbosa, F A R

    2015-08-01

    Despite being inside a protected area, Lake Sumidouro has been impacted by the anthropogenic occupation of the surrounding area since the 1970's, compromising the ecological integrity of the lake and the sustainable use of natural resources. This study examined the current trophic classification of the lake and developed methods for improving it through an integrated analysis of morphometric and limnological parameters, land use and land occupation in the watershed, and eutrophication potential. Data for the limnological parameters, land use and land occupation, and morphometric characteristics of Lake Sumidouro were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2009 and 2010. Depending on the trophic classification system used, Lake Sumidouro is classified as oligotrophic to hypereutrophic. In our study, the highest concentration of nutrients occurred in the rainy season, indicating that high nutrient inputs played an important role during this period. Areas of anthropogenic occupation comprised approximately 62.9% of the total area of the watershed, with pasture and urban settlement as the main types of land use. The influent total phosphorus load was estimated to be 15,824.3 kg/year. To maintain mesotrophic conditions, this load must be reduced by 29.4%. By comparing the isolated use of trophic state indices, this study demonstrated that comparing the trophic state classification with morphometric analyses, land use and land occupation types in the watershed, and potential phosphorus load provided better information to guide management actions for restoration and conservation. Furthermore, this approach also allowed for evaluating the vulnerability of the environment to the eutrophication process.

  3. Eutrophication potential of lakes: an integrated analysis of trophic state, morphometry, land occupation, and land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RF Silvino

    Full Text Available AbstractDespite being inside a protected area, Lake Sumidouro has been impacted by the anthropogenic occupation of the surrounding area since the 1970’s, compromising the ecological integrity of the lake and the sustainable use of natural resources. This study examined the current trophic classification of the lake and developed methods for improving it through an integrated analysis of morphometric and limnological parameters, land use and land occupation in the watershed, and eutrophication potential. Data for the limnological parameters, land use and land occupation, and morphometric characteristics of Lake Sumidouro were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2009 and 2010. Depending on the trophic classification system used, Lake Sumidouro is classified as oligotrophic to hypereutrophic. In our study, the highest concentration of nutrients occurred in the rainy season, indicating that high nutrient inputs played an important role during this period. Areas of anthropogenic occupation comprised approximately 62.9% of the total area of the watershed, with pasture and urban settlement as the main types of land use. The influent total phosphorus load was estimated to be 15,824.3 kg/year. To maintain mesotrophic conditions, this load must be reduced by 29.4%. By comparing the isolated use of trophic state indices, this study demonstrated that comparing the trophic state classification with morphometric analyses, land use and land occupation types in the watershed, and potential phosphorus load provided better information to guide management actions for restoration and conservation. Furthermore, this approach also allowed for evaluating the vulnerability of the environment to the eutrophication process.

  4. Morphometry of the coronary ostia and the structure of coronary arteries in the shorthair domestic cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Barszcz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia, assess their localization in the coronary sinuses and to determine the morphology of the stem of the left and right coronary arteries in the domestic shorthair cat. The study was conducted on 100 hearts of domestic shorthair cats of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, with an average body weight of 4.05 kg. A morphometric analysis of the coronary ostia was carried out on 52 hearts. The remaining 48 hearts were injected with a casting material in order to carry out a morphological assessment of the left and right coronary arteries. In all the studied animals, the surface of the left coronary artery ostium was larger than the surface of the right coronary artery ostium. There were four types of the left main coronary artery: type I (23 animals, 49%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch, type II (12 animals, 26%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch without the septal branch, type III (11 animals, 23%-triple-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch, interventricular branch and the septal branch, type IV (1 animal, 2%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the interventricular paraconal branch and the left circumflex branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch. The left coronary artery ostium is greater than the right one. There is considerable diversity in the branches of proximal segment of the left coronary artery, while the right coronary artery is more conservative. These results can be useful in defining the optimal strategies in the endovascular procedures involving the coronary arteries or the aortic valve in the domestic shorthair cat.

  5. Morphometry of the coronary ostia and the structure of coronary arteries in the shorthair domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Karolina; Kupczyńska, Marta; Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Janeczek, Maciej; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Dzierzęcka, Małgorzata; Janczyk, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia, assess their localization in the coronary sinuses and to determine the morphology of the stem of the left and right coronary arteries in the domestic shorthair cat. The study was conducted on 100 hearts of domestic shorthair cats of both sexes, aged 2–18 years, with an average body weight of 4.05 kg. A morphometric analysis of the coronary ostia was carried out on 52 hearts. The remaining 48 hearts were injected with a casting material in order to carry out a morphological assessment of the left and right coronary arteries. In all the studied animals, the surface of the left coronary artery ostium was larger than the surface of the right coronary artery ostium. There were four types of the left main coronary artery: type I (23 animals, 49%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch), type II (12 animals, 26%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch without the septal branch), type III (11 animals, 23%)–triple-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch, interventricular branch and the septal branch, type IV (1 animal, 2%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the interventricular paraconal branch and the left circumflex branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch). The left coronary artery ostium is greater than the right one. There is considerable diversity in the branches of proximal segment of the left coronary artery, while the right coronary artery is more conservative. These results can be useful in defining the optimal strategies in the endovascular procedures involving the coronary arteries or the aortic valve in the domestic shorthair cat. PMID:29020103

  6. Associations between Measures of Structural Morphometry and Sensorimotor Performance in Individuals with Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeyenberghs, K; Pijnenburg, M; Goossens, N; Janssens, L; Brumagne, S

    2017-01-01

    To date, most structural brain imaging studies in individuals with nonspecific low back pain have evaluated volumetric changes. These alterations are particularly found in sensorimotor-related areas. Although it is suggested that specific measures, such as cortical surface area and cortical thickness, reflect different underlying neural architectures, the literature regarding these different measures in individuals with nonspecific low back pain is limited. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the association between the performance on a sensorimotor task, more specifically the sit-to-stand-to-sit task, and cortical surface area and cortical thickness in individuals with nonspecific low back pain and healthy controls. Seventeen individuals with nonspecific low back pain and 17 healthy controls were instructed to perform 5 consecutive sit-to-stand-to-sit movements as fast as possible. In addition, T1-weighted anatomic scans of the brain were acquired and analyzed with FreeSurfer. Compared with healthy controls, individuals with nonspecific low back pain needed significantly more time to perform 5 sit-to-stand-to-sit movements (P low back pain compared with controls. Furthermore, decreased cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex was associated with lower sit-to-stand-to-sit performance on an unstable support surface in individuals with nonspecific low back pain and healthy controls (r = -0.47, P pain intensity and cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus (r = 0.70, P pain intensity in individuals with nonspecific low back pain. No associations were found between cortical surface area and the pain characteristics in this group. The current study suggests that cortical thickness may contribute to different aspects of sit-to-stand-to-sit performance and perceived pain intensity in individuals with nonspecific low back pain. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Renal Medullary and Cortical Correlates in Fibrosis, Epithelial Mass, Microvascularity, and Microanatomy Using Whole Slide Image Analysis Morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alton B Farris

    Full Text Available Renal tubulointerstitial injury often leads to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA. IF/TA is typically assessed in the renal cortex and can be objectively quantitated with computerized image analysis (IA. However, the human medulla accounts for a substantial proportion of the nephron; therefore, medullary scarring will have important cortical consequences and may parallel overall chronic renal injury. Trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, and collagen III immunohistochemistry (IHC were visually examined and quantitated on scanned whole slide images (WSIs (N = 67 cases. When tuned to measure fibrosis, IA of trichrome and Trichrome-PAS (T-P WSIs correlated for all anatomic compartments (among cortex, medulla, and entire tissue, r = 0.84 to 0.89, P all <0.0001; and collagen III deposition correlated between compartments (r = 0.69 to 0.89, P <0.0001 to 0.0002; however, trichrome and T-P measures did not correlate with collagen deposition, suggesting heterogeneous contributions to extracellular matrix deposition. Epithelial cell mass (EPCM correlated between cortex and medulla when measured with cytokeratin IHC and with the trichrome red portion (r = 0.85 and 0.66, respectively, all P < 0.0001. Visual assessment also correlated between compartments for fibrosis and EPCM. Correlations were found between increasing medullary inner stripe (IS width and fibrosis in all of the tissue and the medulla by trichrome morphometry (r = 0.56, P < 0.0001, and r = 0.48, P = 0.00008, respectively. Weak correlations were found between increasing IS width and decreasing visual assessment of all tissue EPCM. Microvessel density (MVD and microvessel area (MVA measured using a MVD algorithm applied to CD34 IHC correlated significantly between all compartments (r = 0.76 to 0.87 for MVD and 0.71 to 0.87 for MVA, P all < 0.0001. Overall, these findings demonstrate the interrelatedness of the cortex and medulla and the importance of considering the renal

  8. Localization of Epileptogenic Zones using Partical Volume Corrected FDG Uptake on FDG PET and Voxel Based Morphometry on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Univ. of Seoul National, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Partial volume corrected (PVC) FDG uptake yields information about regional metabolic level void of volume change, and voxel based morphometry (VBM) yields objective information regarding gray matter concentration. We investigated the roles of PVC PET and VBM to localize epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. As a control group for PVC, 40 normal volunteers without history of neurologic or psychiatric diseases underwent FDG PET and MRI. Seventeen mTLE patients (M: F=7: 10, age=309 y) and nine neocortical epilepsy patients (M: F=6: 3, age=246, lateral temporal: 5, frontal: 3, occipital: 1) confirmed by surgery or epilepsy board meeting were enrolled. Standard VBM analysis was performed using individual MRI images compared with those of age-matched controls. For PVC, FDG PET was co-registered with its own MRI. PVC PET was obtained by dividing spillover-corrected PET by smoothed gray matter image pixel by pixel. SPAM was applied as a mask of volume of interest (VOI) to calculate gyral FDG uptake on PVC-FDG PET. Hippocampus, amygdala, superior, middle, inferior temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were the gyral SPAM VOIs in mTLE. Globally normalized PVC-FDG counts were compared with those of age-matched controls in mTLE and neocortical epilepsy patients. In mTlE, PVC-FDG PET correctly localized epileptogenic zones with the accuracy of 76% (13/17) in hippocampus and 82% (14/17) in any of six regions. VBM correctly localized 59% (10/17) in mTLE. In neocortical epilepsy, PVC-FDG PET localized epileptogenic zones in 44%, and VBM in 33%, Using VBM and PVC-FDG PET altogether, epileptogenic zones were localized in 66% (6/9). In mTLE, gyral PVC FDG uptake of temporal lobes was useful in localizing epileptogenic zones by demonstrating partial volume-void FDG concentration. In non-lesional cryptogenic neocortical epilepsy, combination of PVC-FDG PET and VBM is recommended to localize epileptogenic zones.

  9. Aspects of sexual precocity and morphometry of uterus, placenta and embryos/fetuses in Piau breed and Commercial line gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, José Carlos; Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; Camilo, Breno Soares; Shiomi, Hugo Hideki; Lima, Daniel Araújo; Pinho, Rogério Oliveira; Pereira, Jhonata Vieira Tavares do Nascimento; Okano, Denise Silva; Costa, Karine Assis; Guimarães, José Domingos

    2018-01-01

    In view of the importance of the genetic material of local breeds in the swine industry and the lack of information about reproductive performance of Piau females, two experiments were conducted to evaluate puberty and sexual maturity as well as the morphometry of embryos/fetuses, placenta and uterus during the first 90 days of gestation in Piau breed and Commercial line gilts. In experiment I, 37 Piau and 25 commercial line gilts were used. From the 120 days of age, detection of estrus was performed using mature boars from the first to third estrus of each gilt. Data regarding to age, body weight and estrus duration were recorded. After third estrus, females were slaughtered and ovaries were collected to determine ovulation rate. In experiment II, 36 Piau and 18 commercial line gilts were distributed into three groups according to the mating: Commercial, commercial line females x commercial line male; cross-mated, Piau females x commercial line male; and Piau, Piau females x Piau male. Gilts were slaughtered at 7, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. Piau females reached puberty and sexual maturity at the same age as commercial line females, but with lower weight; moreover, Piau group showed negative correlations of birth weight with puberty (-0.27) and sexual maturity (-0.29). Commercial gilts presented higher ovulation rate, weight and length of uterus, and length and thoracic circumference of fetuses. Nevertheless, number of fetuses was similar in all groups at 90 days of gestation suggesting that Piau females present higher survival rates of the conceptuses. The results showed differences between the genetic groups related to fetal and placental development, gestational losses, number of ovulations and uterine development. In addition, an intermediate status of fetal weight was observed in Piau/Commercial line crossbred conceptuses; thus, the selection of Piau females on reproductive traits to be mated with commercial line males would be an alternative to

  10. Nonrigid registration of multiple sclerosis brain images using lesion inpainting for morphometry or lesion mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdika, Michaël; Pelletier, Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Morphometric studies of medical images often include a nonrigid registration step from a subject to a common reference. The presence of white matter multiple sclerosis lesions will distort and bias the output of the registration. In this article, we present a method to remove this bias by filling such lesions to make the brain look like a healthy brain before the registration. We finally propose a dedicated method to fill the lesions and present numerical results showing that our method outperforms current state of the art method. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Spermiogram and sperm head morphometry assessed by multivariate cluster analysis results during adolescence (12-18 years and the effect of varicocele

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    Fernando Vásquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates sperm head morphometric characteristics in adolescents from 12 to 18 years of age, and the effect of varicocele. Volunteers between 150 and 224 months of age (mean 191, n = 87, who had reached oigarche by 12 years old, were recruited in the area of Barranquilla, Colombia. Morphometric analysis of sperm heads was performed with principal component (PC and discriminant analysis. Combining seminal fluid and sperm parameters provided five PCs: two related to sperm morphometry, one to sperm motility, and two to seminal fluid components. Discriminant analysis on the morphometric results of varicocele and nonvaricocele groups did not provide a useful classification matrix. Of the semen-related PCs, the most explanatory (40% was related to sperm motility. Two PCs, including sperm head elongation and size, were sufficient to evaluate sperm morphometric characteristics. Most of the morphometric variables were correlated with age, with an increase in size and decrease in the elongation of the sperm head. For head size, the entire sperm population could be divided into two morphometric subpopulations, SP1 and SP2, which did not change during adolescence. In general, for varicocele individuals, SP1 had larger and more elongated sperm heads than SP2, which had smaller and more elongated heads than in nonvaricocele men. In summary, sperm head morphometry assessed by CASA-Morph and multivariate cluster analysis provides a better comprehension of the ejaculate structure and possibly sperm function. Morphometric analysis provides much more information than data obtained from conventional semen analysis.

  12. The morphometry of the glomerular epithelial cell and its foot processes after the injection of bovine serum albumin or egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, D B; Filip, O

    1976-12-01

    The intraperitoneal injection of 1 g of bovine serum albumin daily for 5 days was shown by electron-microscope morphometry to cause swelling of the glomerular epithelial cells and very severe loss of foot processes. However, these changes were found in only 70 per cent. of glomeruli and the other 30 per cent. remained normal. After 7 days' recovery following five daily injections of 1 g of bovine serum albumin, the swelling of the glomerular epithelial cells had subsided and the foot process reappeared. These changes were accompanied by severe proteinuria which resolved only slowly when the injections were stopped. After daily injections of 0-8 g of egg albumin for 5 days there was no swelling of the glomerular epithelial cells and only very slight loss of foot processes detectable only by morphometry. There was a less severe proteinuria than after injections of bovine serum albumin and it resolved more rapidly when injections were stopped. It is suggested that these differences arise from the fact that bovine serum albumin is reabsorbed by the glomerular epithelial cell but egg albumin is not. Two of four rats allowed to recover for 7 days after five daily injections of 1 g of bovine serum albumin had unusual glomerular lesions.

  13. Spermiogram and sperm head morphometry assessed by multivariate cluster analysis results during adolescence (12-18 years) and the effect of varicocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Fernando; Soler, Carles; Camps, Patricia; Valverde, Anthony; García-Molina, Almudena

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates sperm head morphometric characteristics in adolescents from 12 to 18 years of age, and the effect of varicocele. Volunteers between 150 and 224 months of age (mean 191, n = 87), who had reached oigarche by 12 years old, were recruited in the area of Barranquilla, Colombia. Morphometric analysis of sperm heads was performed with principal component (PC) and discriminant analysis. Combining seminal fluid and sperm parameters provided five PCs: two related to sperm morphometry, one to sperm motility, and two to seminal fluid components. Discriminant analysis on the morphometric results of varicocele and nonvaricocele groups did not provide a useful classification matrix. Of the semen-related PCs, the most explanatory (40%) was related to sperm motility. Two PCs, including sperm head elongation and size, were sufficient to evaluate sperm morphometric characteristics. Most of the morphometric variables were correlated with age, with an increase in size and decrease in the elongation of the sperm head. For head size, the entire sperm population could be divided into two morphometric subpopulations, SP1 and SP2, which did not change during adolescence. In general, for varicocele individuals, SP1 had larger and more elongated sperm heads than SP2, which had smaller and more elongated heads than in nonvaricocele men. In summary, sperm head morphometry assessed by CASA-Morph and multivariate cluster analysis provides a better comprehension of the ejaculate structure and possibly sperm function. Morphometric analysis provides much more information than data obtained from conventional semen analysis. PMID:27751986

  14. Morphometry Governs the Dynamics of a Drainage Basin: Analysis and Implications

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    Atrayee Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous rivers are the most significant source of water supply in the Himalayan provinces of India. The drainage basin dynamics of these rivers are controlled by the tectonomorphic parameters, which include both surface and subsurface characteristics of a basin. To understand the drainage basin dynamics and their usefulness in watershed prioritisation and management in terms of soil erosion studies and groundwater potential assessment and flood hazard risk reduction in mountainous rivers, morphometric analysis of a Himalayan River (Supin River basin has been taken as a case study. The entire Supin River basin has been subdivided into 27 subwatersheds and 36 morphometric parameters have been calculated under four broad categories: drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture, and relief characteristics, each of which is further grouped into five different clusters having similar morphometric properties. The various morphometric parameters have been correlated with each other to understand their underlying relationship and control over the basin hydrogeomorphology. The result thus generated provides adequate knowledge base required for decision making during strategic planning and delineation of prioritised hazard management zones in mountainous terrains.

  15. Morphometry of submucous and myenteric esophagic plexus of dogs experimentally reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Machado Evandro MM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a morphometric study of the esophagus of cross-bred dogs experimentally infected or consecutively reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi 147 and SC-1 strains, in order to verify denervation and/or neuronal hypertrophy in the intramural plexus. The animals were sacrificed in the chronic stage, 38 months after the initial infection. Neither nests of amastigotes, nor myositis or ganglionitis, were observed in all third inferior portions of esophageal rings analyzed. No nerve cell was identified in the submucous of this organ. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between the number, maximum diameter, perimeter, or area and volume of the nerve cells of the myenteric plexus of infected and/or reinfected dogs and of the non-infected ones. In view of these results we may conclude that the 147 and SC-1 strains have little neurotropism and do not determine denervation and/or hypertrophy in the intramural esophageal plexuses in the animals studied, independent of the reinfections.

  16. Anatomical Variation of Human Sacral Hiatus Its Morphometry and Clinical Importance in Caudal Epidural Anesthesia.

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    Dr. Ashish Khokhariya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sacrum is a bone which contributes to the formation of the pelvic girdle. It has piqued the interest of anatomists, forensic scientists and physicians, especially anaesthetists because of its unique value in gender estimation in medico- legal proceedings as well as the importance of its anatomical structure in relation to the technique of giving caudal anaesthesia. Material & Method:-This study was carried out on 200 dry human sacrum in Bone store of Anatomy Department, B.J Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Parameters of sacral hiatus such as shape, level of apex and base, length, antero-posterior (AP diameter at apex, and intercornual distance along with distance between supero-lateral sacral crests and their distance from apex of sacral hiatus were studied. Results: Various shapes of sacral hiatus were observed which included inverted U, inverted V, irregular, dumbbell, bifid and absent of sacral hiatus. Conclusion: The understanding of the sacral hiatus anatomy helps to define landmarks clinically used during the procedure of caudal anaesthesia.

  17. Anterior segment morphology and morphometry in selected reptile species using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Franck; Linsart, Adeline; Isard, Pierre-François; Besson, Christian; Dulaurent, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To provide new and original images of the anterior segment (AS) of the eye of selected Ophidian, Chelonian, and Saurian species and to compare the AS architecture among and within these three groups. 17 Saurians, 14 Ophidians, and 11 Chelonians with no concurrent systemic or eye disease were included in the study. Age, weight, nose-cloaca distance (NCD), and pupil shape were collected for each animal. The AS was examined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). After gross description of the appearance of the AS, the central and peripheral corneal thickness (CCT, PCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured using the software provided with the OCT device. The ratio CCT/ACD was then calculated for each animal. Pupil shape was a vertical slit in all the crepuscular or nocturnal animals (except for 1 chelonian and 1 ophidian). Each group had its own particular AS architecture. Saurians had a regularly thin cornea with a flat anterior lens capsule and a deep anterior chamber. Ophidians had a thick cornea with a narrow anterior chamber due to a very anteriorly anchored spherical lens. The spectacle was difficult to identify in all ophidians except in Python molurus bivitattus in which it was more obvious. Chelonians displayed an intermediate architecture which more closely resembled the Saurian type than the Ophidian type. Despite grossly similar AS architecture, the three groups of reptiles in the study demonstrated differences that are suggestive of a link between anatomical disparities and variations in environment and lifestyle. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Ultrastructure and morphometry of ovarian follicles in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

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    CODÓN S. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural and morphometric changes in oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells during armadillo follicular growth are described. Primordial, intermediary, early and late primary, secondary, tertiary and preovulatory Graafian follicles were found. From primordial to Graafian follicle, granulosa cells increase in height, become multilayered while fluid-filled spaces arise among them in the tertiary follicle stage. As the follicle expands the oocyte is located eccentrically and grows in size. From primordial to secondary stage organelles develop in number and complexity and many vesicles start arising in the cytoplasm at the secondary stage. From tertiary follicle stage the number of mitochondria decreases. In follicular cells, secreting-related organelles expand, but mitochondrial number decreases according to the follicle expansion. Intercellular junctions between both cell types increase. The morphometrical study shows a biphasic pattern of oocyte and follicle growth. The morphological baseline here provided will be essential for further comprehension of the reproductive biology in armadillos.

  19. Ultrastructure and morphometry of ovarian follicles in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. CODÓN

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural and morphometric changes in oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells during armadillo follicular growth are described. Primordial, intermediary, early and late primary, secondary, tertiary and preovulatory Graafian follicles were found. From primordial to Graafian follicle, granulosa cells increase in height, become multilayered while fluid-filled spaces arise among them in the tertiary follicle stage. As the follicle expands the oocyte is located eccentrically and grows in size. From primordial to secondary stage organelles develop in number and complexity and many vesicles start arising in the cytoplasm at the secondary stage. From tertiary follicle stage the number of mitochondria decreases. In follicular cells, secreting-related organelles expand, but mitochondrial number decreases according to the follicle expansion. Intercellular junctions between both cell types increase. The morphometrical study shows a biphasic pattern of oocyte and follicle growth. The morphological baseline here provided will be essential for further comprehension of the reproductive biology in armadillos.

  20. Ultrastructure and morphometry of ovarian follicles in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codón, S M; Estecondo, S G; Galíndez, E J; Casanave, E B

    2001-08-01

    Ultrastructural and morphometric changes in oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells during armadillo follicular growth are described. Primordial, intermediary, early and late primary, secondary, tertiary and preovulatory Graafian follicles were found. From primordial to Graafian follicle, granulosa cells increase in height, become multilayered while fluid-filled spaces arise among them in the tertiary follicle stage. As the follicle expands the oocyte is located eccentrically and grows in size. From primordial to secondary stage organelles develop in number and complexity and many vesicles start arising in the cytoplasm at the secondary stage. From tertiary follicle stage the number of mitochondria decreases. In follicular cells, secreting-related organelles expand, but mitochondrial number decreases according to the follicle expansion. Intercellular junctions between both cell types increase. The morphometrical study shows a biphasic pattern of oocyte and follicle growth. The morphological baseline here provided will be essential for further comprehension of the reproductive biology in armadillos.

  1. Soft tissue facial morphometry before and after total oral rehabilitation with implant-supported prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Dolci, Claudia; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess a low-cost, noninvasive facial morphometric digitizer to assist the practitioner in three-dimensional soft-tissue changes before and after oral rehabilitation. Twenty-two patients aged 45 to 82 years, all with edentulous maxilla and mandible, were assessed both before and after receiving their definitive complete implant-supported prostheses (each received 4-11 implants in each dental arch; full-arch fixed prostheses were made). The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 soft-tissue facial landmarks were collected with a noninvasive digitizer; labial and facial areas, volumes, angles, and distances were compared without and with the prostheses. Dental prostheses induced significant reductions in the nasolabial, mentolabial, and interlabial angles, with increased labial prominence (P provisional prosthetic restoration, providing quantitative information to prepare the best definitive prosthesis.

  2. [New approach to corneal nerve fibers morphometry in diabetes mellitus on the basis of confocal biomicroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Novikov, I A; Makhotin, S S; Surnina, Z V

    2015-01-01

    to develop a new approach to morphometric analysis of corneal nerve fibers (CNF) and to evaluate their age-related changes in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The study enrolled 150 participants (300 eyes) aged from 13 to 83 years, of them 37 type 1 diabetes patients (74 eyes), 51 type 2 diabetes patients (102 eyes), and 62 healthy volunteers (124 eyes). All participants were examined with HRT III Rostock Corneal Module (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH). Digital images thus obtained were analyzed with specially developed original software that automatically computes coefficients of CNF orientation symmetry and anisotropy. A strong inverse correlation has been found between the coefficient of CNF orientation anisotropy and glycated hemoglobin levels (r = -0.83, p diabetes respectively) as well as the duration of the disease (r = -0,7, p diabetes respectively). On the contrary, the coefficient of CNF orientation symmetry has been shown to be directly correlated with both glycated hemoglobin levels (r = 0.64, p diabetes respectively) and the duration of the disease (r = 0.62, p diabetes respectively). Interocular asymmetry in both coefficients was found in diabetic patients but not in the controls. On the basis of the proposed coefficients, age-related changes in corneal nerve fibers orientation have been determined. Normally, the degree of CNF tortuosity increases with age. The rate of this increase is the highest before the age of 35-40. As shown, type 1 diabetes is associated with low coefficients of CNF orientation anisotropy and high coefficients of CNF orientation symmetry as compared to type 2 diabetes in the same age group. As suggested by the results, the two proposed coefficients that describe the state of corneal nerve fibers can possibly be used for diagnosis and monitoring of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However, to produce enough evidence, further studies should be conducted.

  3. Morphometry of Cornops aquaticum(Orthoptera: Acrididae: Leptysminae in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    FRJ Silva

    Full Text Available Insects show morphometric variations associated with the environment that may be the result of phenotypic response or genetic inheritance, or both. Thereby, studies that emphasise the variability in body size are very useful for understanding the dynamics and the stability of ecological systems. Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Acrididae is a semi-aquatic grasshopper, distributed from the southeast of Mexico to the south of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, and is intimately associated with the aquatic macrophytes Eichhorniaspp. and Pontederia spp. In its wide habitat distribution, C. aquaticum shows variations in its life cycle and morphometric differences that were observed suggesting geographic and host plant influence. Considering these findings, this study aimed to find out the morphometric characteristics of this species at the Pantanal of Poconé – MT, using the protocol of the project “HICWA – Host-Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth”, as well as to assess possible differences in each stage of development between the sexes and among seasonal periods (flood, high water, low water and dry. During 12 months a total of 600 individuals were collected in monthly collections of 50 grasshoppers, and of this total, 261 were adults and 339 nymphs. The following measurements were taken: total length (A; body length (B; wing length (I and measurement of the hind femur (H. The results showed that both male and female have different measurements but not correlated with seasonal periods. The average obtained for each character and the seasonality showed the highest values during the flood period. In nymphs, the measurement of the posterior femur presented the lower variation between individuals and characters.

  4. Morphometry of Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Leptysminae) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F R J; Battirola, L D; Lhano, M G; Sousa, W O; Marques, M I

    2014-08-01

    Insects show morphometric variations associated with the environment that may be the result of phenotypic response or genetic inheritance, or both. Thereby, studies that emphasise the variability in body size are very useful for understanding the dynamics and the stability of ecological systems. Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906) (Acrididae) is a semi-aquatic grasshopper, distributed from the southeast of Mexico to the south of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, and is intimately associated with the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia spp. and Pontederia spp. In its wide habitat distribution, C. aquaticum shows variations in its life cycle and morphometric differences that were observed suggesting geographic and host plant influence. Considering these findings, this study aimed to find out the morphometric characteristics of this species at the Pantanal of Poconé - MT, using the protocol of the project "HICWA - Host-Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth", as well as to assess possible differences in each stage of development between the sexes and among seasonal periods (flood, high water, low water and dry). During 12 months a total of 600 individuals were collected in monthly collections of 50 grasshoppers, and of this total, 261 were adults and 339 nymphs. The following measurements were taken: total length (A); body length (B); wing length (I) and measurement of the hind femur (H). The results showed that both male and female have different measurements but not correlated with seasonal periods. The average obtained for each character and the seasonality showed the highest values during the flood period. In nymphs, the measurement of the posterior femur presented the lower variation between individuals and characters.

  5. Morphology and morphometry of the human embryonic brain: A three-dimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, N; Katayama, A; Nakashima, T; Yamada, S; Uwabe, C; Kose, K; Takakuwa, T

    2015-07-15

    The three-dimensional dynamics and morphology of the human embryonic brain have not been previously analyzed using modern imaging techniques. The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was analyzed using images derived from human embryo specimens from the Kyoto Collection, which were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. A total of 101 embryos between Carnegie stages (CS) 13 and 23, without apparent morphological damage or torsion in the brain ventricles and axes, were studied. To estimate the uneven development of the cerebral vesicles, the volumes of the whole embryo and brain, prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon with their respective ventricles were measured using image analyzing Amira™ software. The brain volume, excluding the ventricles (brain tissue), was 1.15 ± 0.43 mm(3) (mean ± SD) at CS13 and increased exponentially to 189.10 ± 36.91 mm(3) at CS23, a 164.4-fold increase, which is consistent with the observed morphological changes. The mean volume of the prosencephalon was 0.26 ± 0.15 mm(3) at CS13. The volume increased exponentially until CS23, when it reached 110.99 ± 27.58 mm(3). The mean volumes of the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon were 0.20 ± 0.07 mm(3) and 0.69 ± 0.23 mm(3) at CS13, respectively; the volumes reached 21.86 ± 3.30 mm(3) and 56.45 ± 7.64 mm(3) at CS23, respectively. The ratio of the cerebellum to the rhombencephalon was approximately 7.2% at CS20, and increased to 12.8% at CS23. The ratio of the volume of the cerebral vesicles to that of the whole embryo remained nearly constant between CS15 and CS23 (11.6-15.5%). The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue during development, which may indicate the differentiation of the brain, was visualized with surface color mapping by thickness. At CS23, the basal regions of the prosencephalon and rhombencephalon were thicker than the corresponding dorsal regions. The brain was further studied by

  6. By hook or by crook? Morphometry, competition and cooperation in rodent sperm.

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    Simone Immler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sperm design varies enormously across species and sperm competition is thought to be a major factor influencing this variation. However, the functional significance of many sperm traits is still poorly understood. The sperm of most murid rodents are characterised by an apical hook of the sperm head that varies markedly in extent across species. In the European woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus (Muridae, the highly reflected apical hook of sperm is used to form sperm groups, or "trains," which exhibited increased swimming velocity and thrusting force compared to individual sperm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use a comparative study of murine rodent sperm and demonstrate that the apical hook and sperm cooperation are likely to be general adaptations to sperm competition in rodents. We found that species with relatively larger testes, and therefore more intense sperm competition, have a longer, more reflected apical sperm hook. In addition, we show that sperm groups also occur in rodents other than the European woodmouse. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in rodents sperm cooperation is more widespread than assumed so far and highlight the importance of diploid versus haploid selection in the evolution of sperm design and function.

  7. Morphology and morphometry of the human sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements of edentulous patients

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    Josiane Costa Rodrigues de SA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic mouth floor enlargements may be observed in edentulous patients. These masses, which protrude from the mouth floor, may complicate the fitting of dentures and require surgery. Whether this "entity" may be considered an anatomical variation of the mouth floor or represent specific alterations in the sublingual gland is not known. Objective: The aim of this work is to investigate the morphological and morphometric aspects of the sublingual glands of edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements and compare the glands of these patients with the sublingual glands of human cadavers. Material and Methods: Microscopic evaluation was performed on human sublingual glands from edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements (n=20 and edentulous cadavers (n=20. The patients and cadavers were of similar ages. The data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests (p0.05. Only the variables "autolysis" and "congested blood vessels" presented statistical difference between groups (p=0.014; p=0.043. The morphometric study revealed that the volume densities of acini, ducts, stroma and adipose tissue were similar between the groups (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The microscopic characteristics of the sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements in edentulous patients correspond to characteristics associated with the normal aging process. The glands are not pathological and represent an age-related alteration that occurs with or without the presence of the mouth floor enlargements.

  8. Medial prefrontal aberrations in major depressive disorder revealed by cytoarchitectonically informed voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, Sebastian; Bzdok, Danilo; Gruber, Oliver; Kohn, Nils; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Müller, Veronika I.; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Amunts, Katrin; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The heterogeneous human frontal pole has been identified as a node in the dysfunctional network of major depressive disorder. The contribution of the medial (socio-affective) versus lateral (cognitive) frontal pole to major depression pathogenesis is currently unclear. The present study performs morphometric comparison of the microstructurally informed subdivisions of human frontal pole between depressed patients and controls using both uni- and multivariate statistics. Methods Multi-site voxel- and region-based morphometric MRI analysis of 73 depressed patients and 73 matched controls without psychiatric history. Frontal pole volume was first compared between depressed patients and controls by subdivision-wise classical morphometric analysis. In a second approach, frontal pole volume was compared by subdivision-naive multivariate searchlight analysis based on support vector machines. Results Subdivision-wise morphometric analysis found a significantly smaller medial frontal pole in depressed patients with a negative correlation of disease severity and duration. Histologically uninformed multivariate voxel-wise statistics provided converging evidence for structural aberrations specific to the microstructurally defined medial area of the frontal pole in depressed patients. Conclusions Across disparate methods, we demonstrated subregion specificity in the left medial frontal pole volume in depressed patients. Indeed, the frontal pole was shown to structurally and functionally connect to other key regions in major depression pathology like the anterior cingulate cortex and the amygdala via the uncinate fasciculus. Present and previous findings consolidate the left medial portion of the frontal pole as particularly altered in major depression. PMID:26621569

  9. Morphology and morphometry of the caudate lobe of the liver in two populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, Mandeep Gill; Aland, R Claire; Gosden, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The caudate lobe of the liver has portal blood supply and hepatic vein drainage independent of the remainder of the liver and may be differentially affected in liver pathologies. Ultrasonographic measurement of the caudate lobe can be used to generate hepatic indices that may indicate cirrhosis. This study investigated the relationship of metrics of the caudate lobe and other morphological features of human livers from a northwest Indian Punjabi population (n = 50) and a UK Caucasian population (n = 25), which may affect the calculation of hepatic indices. The width of the right lobe of the liver was significantly smaller, while the anteroposterior diameter of the caudate lobe and both Harbin's Index and the Hess Index scores were significantly larger in NWI livers than in UKC livers. The Hess Index score, in particular, is much larger in the NWI population (265 %, p liver. These differences may affect the calculation of hepatic indices, resulting in a greater percentage of false positives of cirrhosis in the NWI population. Population-specific data are required to correctly determine normal ranges.

  10. Nostril Morphometry Evaluation before and after Cleft Lip Surgical Correction: Clinical Evidence

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    Feijo, Mario Jorge Frassy; Brandão, Stella Ramos; Pereira, Rui Manoel Rodrigues; Santos, Mariana Batista de Souza; Justino da Silva, Hilton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose to this work is to review systematically the morphological changes of the nostrils of patients undergoing surgery for correction of cleft lip and identify in the literature the issues involved in the evaluation of surgical results in this population. Review of Literature A review was conducted, searching for clinical evidence from MEDLINE. The search occurred in January 2012. Selection criteria included original articles and research articles on individual subjects with cleft lip or cleft palate with unilateral nostril anthropometric measurements before and after surgical correction of cleft lip and measurements of soft tissues. There were 1,343 articles from the search descriptors and free terms. Of these, five articles were selected. Discussion Most studies in this review evaluated children in Eastern countries, using different measurement techniques but with the aid of computers, and showed improved nostril asymmetry postoperatively compared with preoperatively. Conclusion There is a reduction of the total nasal width postoperatively compared with preoperative measurements in patients with cleft lip. PMID:25992089

  11. EFFECT OF THE THIGMOMORPHOGENESIS IN THE MORPHOMETRY OF Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch. SEEDLINGS

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    Cátia Raquel Volkweis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814571The present study aimed to quantify morphological changes due to mechanical stimuli by stem bending in the hardening phase of ‘espinheira-santa’ [Maytenus ilicifolia [(Schrad. Planch.] seedlings. The experiment was conducted at shade house as a completely randomized factorial design (2 x 5 formed by seedlings of two height classes and five stem bending intensities (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 performed daily for thirty days, with four replicates of ten seedlings. The effect of mechanical stimuli was quantified by the increments in height, stem diameter as well as root and shoot biomass to calculate the absolute growth rate. In addition, root electrolyte leakage was measured. The data was submitted to regression analysis at 5%. The results indicated that increasing the frequency of stem bending induced a reduction in height increment, electrolyte leakage from root tissues and an increase in stem diameter increment and root biomass in seedlings classified by height. The shoot biomass of seedlings with larger dimensions increased a frequency of 20 stem bending even with the linear reduction in seedling height, and consequently increased growth rate. Mechanical stimulus is an option to promote morphological changes in Maytenus ilicifolia seedlings which increases hardiness and seedlings quality for out planting.  

  12. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Martin, Thomas; Ruf, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean species. The morphometric anatomy of the SCs was correlated to the locomotion mode. Even if the phylogenetic signal cannot entirely be excluded, the main significance for functional morphological studies has been found in the diameter of the SCs, whereas the radius of curvature is of minor interest. Additionally, we found clear differences in the bias angle of the canals between subterranean and gliding taxa, but also between sciurids and glirids. The sensitivity of the inner ear correlates with the locomotion mode, with a higher sensitivity of the SCs in fossorial species than in flying taxa. We conclude that the inner ear of flying and gliding mammals is less sensitive due to the large information flow into this sense organ during locomotion. PMID:26019162

  13. Preferences of Rusa timorensis to Grasses and Their Body Morphometry and Velvet Antler Characteristics

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    M. Sudibyo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a wild native animal to Indonesia. The stags produce a high economic value of velvet antler (VA. This study was designed to evaluate the feed preference, nutrient consumption, age and morphometric of deer in relation to their velvet antler product (weigth and length and quality (mineral and amino acids. Five stags with three ages classes were offered 3 combinations of 4 grasses in a captive area. Grasses were offered for 3 periods of 12 consecutive days during velvet antler growth period. Velvet antlers were harvested at 36 days old and analysed for their chemical content. The result showed that Timor deer had different preference to the grasses offered. Deer had a high preference on the combination of Pennisetum purpureum, Commelina benghalensis, Hierochloe horsfieldii, and Sorghum caudatum. High intake of grasses increased body weight. The regresion equation between the weight or length of velvet antler withage (year and girth size (cm were: Y (velvet antler weight= 0.43 + 0.03 (age, r2= 0.99, P<0.05, and Y (length of velvet antler = 5.7 + 0.31 (girth size, r2= 0.99, P<0.05. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and proline content of velvel antler were high in the older deer. The older deer having high girth size had the higher quality of velvet antler.

  14. Possible application of CT morphometry of the calcaneus and talus in forensic anthropological identification.

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    Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Mustafa, Asmaa Mohammed Hishmat; Sogawa, Nozomi; Kanou, Tetsuya; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) data provide information for volumetric and radiographic density analysis. The present study investigated the application of virtual CT volumetry of the tarsal bones to estimation of the sex, stature, and body weight using postmortem CT (PMCT) data of forensic autopsy cases. Three-dimensional (3D) images of the bilateral foot bones of intact Japanese subjects after adolescence (age ≥ 15 years, n = 179, 100 males and 79 females) were reconstructed on an automated CT image analyzer system. Measured parameters were mass volume, mean CT value (HU), and total CT value of the talus and calcaneus. Mean CT values of these bones showed age-dependent decreases in elderly subjects over 60 years of age for both sexes, with significant sex-related differences especially in the elderly. The mass volumes and total CT values of the talus and calcaneus showed significant sex-related differences, and also moderate correlations with body height and weight for bilateral bones in all cases (r = 0.58-0.78, p forensic identification; however, greater variations should be considered in body weight estimations of females.

  15. Bilateral effects of unilateral cerebellar lesions as detected by voxel based morphometry and diffusion imaging.

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    Olivito, Giusy; Dayan, Michael; Battistoni, Valentina; Clausi, Silvia; Cercignani, Mara; Molinari, Marco; Leggio, Maria; Bozzali, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, the importance of cerebellar processing for cortical functions has been acknowledged and consensus was reached on the strict functional and structural cortico-cerebellar interrelations. From an anatomical point of view strictly contralateral interconnections link the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex mainly through the middle and superior cerebellar peduncle. Diffusion MRI (dMRI) based tractography has already been applied to address cortico-cerebellar-cortical loops in healthy subjects and to detect diffusivity alteration patterns in patients with neurodegenerative pathologies of the cerebellum. In the present study we used dMRI-based tractography to determine the degree and pattern of pathological changes of cerebellar white matter microstructure in patients with focal cerebellar lesions. Diffusion imaging and high-resolution volumes were obtained in patients with left cerebellar lesions and in normal controls. Middle cerebellar peduncles and superior cerebellar peduncles were reconstructed by multi fiber diffusion tractography. From each tract, measures of microscopic damage were assessed, and despite the presence of unilateral lesions, bilateral diffusivity differences in white matter tracts were found comparing patients with normal controls. Consistently, bilateral alterations were also evidenced in specific brain regions linked to the cerebellum and involved in higher-level functions. This could be in line with the evidence that in the presence of unilateral cerebellar lesions, different cognitive functions can be affected and they are not strictly linked to the side of the cerebellar lesion.

  16. Bilateral effects of unilateral cerebellar lesions as detected by voxel based morphometry and diffusion imaging.

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    Giusy Olivito

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the importance of cerebellar processing for cortical functions has been acknowledged and consensus was reached on the strict functional and structural cortico-cerebellar interrelations. From an anatomical point of view strictly contralateral interconnections link the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex mainly through the middle and superior cerebellar peduncle. Diffusion MRI (dMRI based tractography has already been applied to address cortico-cerebellar-cortical loops in healthy subjects and to detect diffusivity alteration patterns in patients with neurodegenerative pathologies of the cerebellum. In the present study we used dMRI-based tractography to determine the degree and pattern of pathological changes of cerebellar white matter microstructure in patients with focal cerebellar lesions. Diffusion imaging and high-resolution volumes were obtained in patients with left cerebellar lesions and in normal controls. Middle cerebellar peduncles and superior cerebellar peduncles were reconstructed by multi fiber diffusion tractography. From each tract, measures of microscopic damage were assessed, and despite the presence of unilateral lesions, bilateral diffusivity differences in white matter tracts were found comparing patients with normal controls. Consistently, bilateral alterations were also evidenced in specific brain regions linked to the cerebellum and involved in higher-level functions. This could be in line with the evidence that in the presence of unilateral cerebellar lesions, different cognitive functions can be affected and they are not strictly linked to the side of the cerebellar lesion.

  17. Using sperm morphometry and multivariate analysis to differentiate species of gray Mazama.

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    Cursino, Marina Suzuki; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2016-11-01

    There is genetic evidence that the two species of Brazilian gray Mazama, Mazama gouazoubira and Mazama nemorivaga, belong to different genera. This study identified significant differences that separated them into distinct groups, based on characteristics of the spermatozoa and ejaculate of both species. The characteristics that most clearly differentiated between the species were ejaculate colour, white for M. gouazoubira and reddish for M. nemorivaga, and sperm head dimensions. Multivariate analysis of sperm head dimension and format data accurately discriminated three groups for species with total percentage of misclassified of 0.71. The individual analysis, by animal, and the multivariate analysis have also discriminated correctly all five animals (total percentage of misclassified of 13.95%), and the canonical plot has shown three different clusters: Cluster 1, including individuals of M. nemorivaga; Cluster 2, including two individuals of M. gouazoubira; and Cluster 3, including a single individual of M. gouazoubira. The results obtained in this work corroborate the hypothesis of the formation of new genera and species for gray Mazama. Moreover, the easily applied method described herein can be used as an auxiliary tool to identify sibling species of other taxonomic groups.

  18. Hydrological investigations in the semi-arid Makhawan watershed, using morphometry

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    Khanday, Mohd Yousuf; Javed, Akram

    2017-11-01

    In order to understand the hydrological behavior of a catchment area, morphometric analysis of the drainage basin plays an important role to expresses the geology, geomorphology and structural antecedents. In the present study, morphometric analysis and its influence on hydrology were carried out in Makhawan watershed, Central India, using SRTM, remote sensing and GIS. SRTM data were used for preparation of DEM, slope and aspect maps. DEM was used to delineate the watershed limits and to extract the channel network, which was later updated using IRS 1D LISS III data. The hydrological module in ArcGIS was used for calculation of watershed and morphometric parameters, under linear, relief and aerial aspects. The watershed shows dendritic-to-sub-dendritic drainage pattern; however, parallel-to-sub-parallel pattern developed locally which may be due to rejuvenation of streams in mature stage with moderate drainage texture. High drainage density in the watershed is observed over impermeable subsurface material, sparse vegetation with high relief; whereas, low drainage density is found over permeable subsurface material and low relief. It has been found that low relief with low drainage density areas are favorable sites for more groundwater prospects.

  19. Glandular object based tumor morphometry in H&E biopsy samples for prostate cancer prognosis

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    Fogarasi, Stephen I.; Khan, Faisal M.; Pang, Ho-Yuen H.; Mesa-Tejada, Ricardo; Donovan, Michael J.; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2011-03-01

    Morphological and architectural characteristics of primary prostate tissue compartments, such as epithelial nuclei (EN) and cytoplasm, provide critical information for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. The subjective and variable Gleason grade assessed by expert pathologists in Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained specimens has been the standard for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We propose a novel morphometric, glandular object-oriented image analysis approach for the robust quantification of H&E prostate biopsy images. We demonstrate the utility of features extracted through the proposed method in predicting disease progression post treatment in a multi-institution cohort of 1027 patients. The biopsy based features were univariately predictive for clinical response post therapy; with concordance indexes (CI) = 0.6. In multivariate analysis, a glandular object feature quantifying tumor epithelial cells not directly associated with an intact tumor gland was selected in a model incorporating preoperative clinical data, protein biomarker and morphological imaging features. The model achieved a CI of 0.73 in validation, which was significantly higher than a CI of 0.69 for the standard multivariate model based solely on clinical features currently used in clinical practice. This work presents one of the first demonstrations of glandular object based morphological features in the H&E stained biopsy specimen to predict disease progression post primary treatment. Additionally, it is the largest scale study of the efficacy and robustness of the proposed features in prostate cancer prognosis.

  20. Morphometry and carcass characteristics of goats submitted to grazing in the Caatinga

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    Sharleny Braz Lobato Bezerra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate morphometric measures, carcass yields, absolute weights and yields of commercial cuts of carcass of kids with no defined breed. Eighteen castrated male goats, with average weight of 15 kg were used. The experimental period lasted 105 days. The experimental design was completely randomized; animals were allocated to three treatments: free grazing without supplementation; restricted grazing without supplementation and free grazing with supplementation. Animals were supplemented (1% of body weight with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus - indica, Mill and soybean meal (Glycine max. The feeding consisted of continuous grazing on caatinga. Supplemented animals had higher live slaughter weight and body score, and consequently higher morphometric measures in vivo and in carcasses. The supplementation provided carcasses with higher body weight and body score. For yields of carcass, there was no difference between treatments restricted grazing and grazing with supplementation; supplementation provided carcasses with higher yields. Supplemented animals had higher absolute weights for commercial cuts. Supplementation of grazing goats raised in the caatinga provides animals with higher body weight at slaughter, greater morphometric measures in vivo and in carcass and better body conformation. Therefore, for supplementation, the level used in this experiment is a good alternative in the creation of small ruminants during the dry period in the semi-arid region.

  1. Design, morphometry and development of the secondary osteonal system in the femoral shaft of the rabbit.

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    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Bonaspetti, Giovanni; Rodella, Luigi F; Ranchetti, Federico; Azzola, Flavio

    2007-09-01

    The architecture of the diaphyseal bone is closely correlated with the cortical vessel network, whose pattern develops in the course of growth. Various methods have been applied to clarify the three-dimensional anatomy of the cortical canal system, but there is still disagreement about the geometry, blood supply, flux dynamics and factors controlling canal geometry during bone growth and remodeling. A modification of the currently employed dye-injection method was applied to study the vessel network of the whole hemi-shaft of the rabbit femur in mature bones (8-month-old rabbits) and growing bones (1.5-month-old rabbits). The cortical vascular tree of the hemi-shaft of the femur was injected with black China ink and observed in full-thickness specimens of the cortex. The same specimens were then processed for histology. A comparative study of the middle diaphysis (mid-shaft) with the distal extremity (distal shaft) was performed in both young and old rabbit femurs. The longitudinally oriented pattern of the vessel network was seen to develop in the diaphysis of mature femurs, while at the extremity of the shaft of the same specimen the network showed a reticular organization without a dominant polarization. The vessels were significantly higher in the mid-shaft than in the distal shaft of the old femurs (P rabbits at mid-shaft level the longitudinally oriented pattern of the vessel network was not yet completely developed, without their being significant differences in length and diameter between the mid-shaft and distal shaft. The differentiation of the mid-shaft from the distal shaft was confirmed histologically by the presence, in the latter, of longitudinal calcified cartilage septa between osteons. This pattern of structural organization and development of the intracortical vascular network has not been previously reported. The cells primarily involved in polarization of the remodeling process were the osteoclasts at the top of the cutting cones advancing from

  2. Cell counting in human endobronchial biopsies--disagreement of 2D versus 3D morphometry.

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    Vlad A Bratu

    Full Text Available QUESTION: Inflammatory cell numbers are important endpoints in clinical studies relying on endobronchial biopsies. Assumption-based bidimensional (2D counting methods are widely used, although theoretically design-based stereologic three-dimensional (3D methods alone offer an unbiased quantitative tool. We assessed the method agreement between 2D and 3D counting designs in practice when applied to identical samples in parallel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsies from segmental bronchi were collected from healthy non-smokers (n = 7 and smokers (n = 7, embedded and sectioned exhaustively. Systematic uniform random samples were immunohistochemically stained for macrophages (CD68 and T-lymphocytes (CD3, respectively. In identical fields of view, cell numbers per volume unit (NV were assessed using the physical disector (3D, and profiles per area unit (NA were counted (2D. For CD68+ cells, profiles with and without nucleus were separately recorded. In order to enable a direct comparison of the two methods, the zero-dimensional CD68+/CD3+-ratio was calculated for each approach. Method agreement was tested by Bland-Altmann analysis. RESULTS: In both groups, mean CD68+/CD3+ ratios for NV and NA were significantly different (non-smokers: 0.39 and 0.68, p<0.05; smokers: 0.49 and 1.68, p<0.05. When counting only nucleated CD68+ profiles, mean ratios obtained by 2D and 3D counting were similar, but the regression-based Bland-Altmann analysis indicated a bias of the 2D ratios proportional to t