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Sample records for tensor imaging histogram

  1. Glioma grade assessment by using histogram analysis of diffusion tensor imaging-derived maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakab, Andras; Berenyi, Ervin; Molnar, Peter; Emri, Miklos

    2011-01-01

    Current endeavors in neuro-oncology include morphological validation of imaging methods by histology, including molecular and immunohistochemical techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an up-to-date methodology of intracranial diagnostics that has gained importance in studies of neoplasia. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of discriminant analysis applied to histograms of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging-derived images for the prediction of glioma grade validated by histomorphology. Tumors of 40 consecutive patients included 13 grade II astrocytomas, seven oligoastrocytomas, six grade II oligodendrogliomas, three grade III oligoastrocytomas, and 11 glioblastoma multiformes. Preoperative DTI data comprised: unweighted (B 0 ) images, fractional anisotropy, longitudinal and radial diffusivity maps, directionally averaged diffusion-weighted imaging, and trace images. Sampling consisted of generating histograms for gross tumor volumes; 25 histogram bins per scalar map were calculated. The histogram bins that allowed the most precise determination of low-grade (LG) or high-grade (HG) classification were selected by multivariate discriminant analysis. Accuracy of the model was defined by the success rate of the leave-one-out cross-validation. Statistical descriptors of voxel value distribution did not differ between LG and HG tumors and did not allow classification. The histogram model had 88.5% specificity and 85.7% sensitivity in the separation of LG and HG gliomas; specificity was improved when cases with oligodendroglial components were omitted. Constructing histograms of preoperative radiological images over the tumor volume allows representation of the grade and enables discrimination of LG and HG gliomas which has been confirmed by histopathology. (orig.)

  2. Histogram Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Pediatric Cerebellar Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Narayan, Anand K; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values have been shown to assist in differentiating cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Previous studies have applied only ADC measurements and calculated the mean/median values. Here we investigated the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) histogram characteristics of the entire tumor for differentiation of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Presurgical DTI data were analyzed with a region of interest (ROI) approach to include the entire tumor. For each tumor, histogram-derived metrics including the 25th percentile, 75th percentile, and skewness were calculated for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivity. The histogram metrics were used as primary predictors of interest in a logistic regression model. Statistical significance levels were set at p histogram skewness showed statistically significant differences for MD between low- and high-grade tumors (P = .008). The 25th percentile for MD yields the best results for the presurgical differentiation between pediatric cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The analysis of other DTI metrics does not provide additional diagnostic value. Our study confirms the diagnostic value of the quantitative histogram analysis of DTI data in pediatric neuro-oncology. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  3. Histogram analysis of noise performance on fractional anisotropy brain MR image with different diffusion gradient numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sun; Kang, Duk Sik; Lee, Young Joo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Woo, Seung Koo; Suh, Kyung Jin

    2005-01-01

    We wished to analyze, qualitatively and quantitatively, the noise performance of fractional anisotropy brain images along with the different diffusion gradient numbers by using the histogram method. Diffusion tensor images were acquired using a 3.0 T MR scanner from ten normal volunteers who had no neurological symptoms. The single-shot spin-echo EPI with a Stejskal-Tanner type diffusion gradient scheme was employed for the diffusion tensor measurement. With a b-valuee of 1000 s/mm 2 , the diffusion tensor images were obtained for 6, 11, 23, 35 and 47 diffusion gradient directions. FA images were generated for each DTI scheme. The histograms were then obtained at selected ROIs for the anatomical structures on the FA image. At the same ROI location, the mean FA value and the standard deviation of the mean FA value were calculated. The quality of the FA image was improved as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased by showing better contrast between the WM and GM. The histogram showed that the variance of FA values was reduced as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased. This histogram analysis was in good agreement with the result obtained using quantitative analysis. The image quality of the FA map was significantly improved as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased. The histogram analysis well demonstrated that the improvement in the FA images resulted from the reduction in the variance of the FA values included in the ROI

  4. Using color histogram normalization for recovering chromatic illumination-changed images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, S C; Tseng, C L; Wu, C C

    2001-11-01

    We propose a novel image-recovery method using the covariance matrix of the red-green-blue (R-G-B) color histogram and tensor theories. The image-recovery method is called the color histogram normalization algorithm. It is known that the color histograms of an image taken under varied illuminations are related by a general affine transformation of the R-G-B coordinates when the illumination is changed. We propose a simplified affine model for application with illumination variation. This simplified affine model considers the effects of only three basic forms of distortion: translation, scaling, and rotation. According to this principle, we can estimate the affine transformation matrix necessary to recover images whose color distributions are varied as a result of illumination changes. We compare the normalized color histogram of the standard image with that of the tested image. By performing some operations of simple linear algebra, we can estimate the matrix of the affine transformation between two images under different illuminations. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we divide the experiments into two parts: computer-simulated images and real images corresponding to illumination changes. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is effective for both types of images. We also explain the noise-sensitive skew-rotation estimation that exists in the general affine model and demonstrate that the proposed simplified affine model without the use of skew rotation is better than the general affine model for such applications.

  5. COLOUR IMAGE ENHANCEMENT BASED ON HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Kapoor and Shaveta Arora

    2015-01-01

    Histogram equalization is a nonlinear technique for adjusting the contrast of an image using its histogram. It increases the brightness of a gray scale image which is different from the mean brightness of the original image. There are various types of Histogram equalization techniques like Histogram Equalization, Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization, Brightness Preserving Bi Histogram Equalization, Dualistic Sub Image Histogram Equalization, Minimum Mean Brightness Error Bi Histog...

  6. Information granules in image histogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieclawek, Wojciech

    2018-04-01

    A concept of granular computing employed in intensity-based image enhancement is discussed. First, a weighted granular computing idea is introduced. Then, the implementation of this term in the image processing area is presented. Finally, multidimensional granular histogram analysis is introduced. The proposed approach is dedicated to digital images, especially to medical images acquired by Computed Tomography (CT). As the histogram equalization approach, this method is based on image histogram analysis. Yet, unlike the histogram equalization technique, it works on a selected range of the pixel intensity and is controlled by two parameters. Performance is tested on anonymous clinical CT series. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Color Histogram Diffusion for Image Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taemin

    2011-01-01

    Various color histogram equalization (CHE) methods have been proposed to extend grayscale histogram equalization (GHE) for color images. In this paper a new method called histogram diffusion that extends the GHE method to arbitrary dimensions is proposed. Ranges in a histogram are specified as overlapping bars of uniform heights and variable widths which are proportional to their frequencies. This diagram is called the vistogram. As an alternative approach to GHE, the squared error of the vistogram from the uniform distribution is minimized. Each bar in the vistogram is approximated by a Gaussian function. Gaussian particles in the vistoram diffuse as a nonlinear autonomous system of ordinary differential equations. CHE results of color images showed that the approach is effective.

  8. Diffusion tensor image registration using hybrid connectivity and tensor features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yap, Pew-Thian; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-07-01

    Most existing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) registration methods estimate structural correspondences based on voxelwise matching of tensors. The rich connectivity information that is given by DTI, however, is often neglected. In this article, we propose to integrate complementary information given by connectivity features and tensor features for improved registration accuracy. To utilize connectivity information, we place multiple anchors representing different brain anatomies in the image space, and define the connectivity features for each voxel as the geodesic distances from all anchors to the voxel under consideration. The geodesic distance, which is computed in relation to the tensor field, encapsulates information of brain connectivity. We also extract tensor features for every voxel to reflect the local statistics of tensors in its neighborhood. We then combine both connectivity features and tensor features for registration of tensor images. From the images, landmarks are selected automatically and their correspondences are determined based on their connectivity and tensor feature vectors. The deformation field that deforms one tensor image to the other is iteratively estimated and optimized according to the landmarks and their associated correspondences. Experimental results show that, by using connectivity features and tensor features simultaneously, registration accuracy is increased substantially compared with the cases using either type of features alone. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Modified Image Comparison Algorithm Using Histogram Features

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Oraiqat, Anas M.; Kostyukova, Natalya S.

    2018-01-01

    This article discuss the problem of color image content comparison. Particularly, methods of image content comparison are analyzed, restrictions of color histogram are described and a modified method of images content comparison is proposed. This method uses the color histograms and considers color locations. Testing and analyzing of based and modified algorithms are performed. The modified method shows 97% average precision for a collection containing about 700 images without loss of the adv...

  10. Quadrant Dynamic with Automatic Plateau Limit Histogram Equalization for Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jagatheeswari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental and important preprocessing stage in image processing is the image contrast enhancement technique. Histogram equalization is an effective contrast enhancement technique. In this paper, a histogram equalization based technique called quadrant dynamic with automatic plateau limit histogram equalization (QDAPLHE is introduced. In this method, a hybrid of dynamic and clipped histogram equalization methods are used to increase the brightness preservation and to reduce the overenhancement. Initially, the proposed QDAPLHE algorithm passes the input image through a median filter to remove the noises present in the image. Then the histogram of the filtered image is divided into four subhistograms while maintaining second separated point as the mean brightness. Then the clipping process is implemented by calculating automatically the plateau limit as the clipped level. The clipped portion of the histogram is modified to reduce the loss of image intensity value. Finally the clipped portion is redistributed uniformly to the entire dynamic range and the conventional histogram equalization is executed in each subhistogram independently. Based on the qualitative and the quantitative analysis, the QDAPLHE method outperforms some existing methods in literature.

  11. Fuzzy Logic-Based Histogram Equalization for Image Contrast Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Magudeeswaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic-based histogram equalization (FHE is proposed for image contrast enhancement. The FHE consists of two stages. First, fuzzy histogram is computed based on fuzzy set theory to handle the inexactness of gray level values in a better way compared to classical crisp histograms. In the second stage, the fuzzy histogram is divided into two subhistograms based on the median value of the original image and then equalizes them independently to preserve image brightness. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of proposed FHE algorithm are evaluated using two well-known parameters like average information contents (AIC and natural image quality evaluator (NIQE index for various images. From the qualitative and quantitative measures, it is interesting to see that this proposed method provides optimum results by giving better contrast enhancement and preserving the local information of the original image. Experimental result shows that the proposed method can effectively and significantly eliminate washed-out appearance and adverse artifacts induced by several existing methods. The proposed method has been tested using several images and gives better visual quality as compared to the conventional methods.

  12. Robust histogram-based image retrieval

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Höschl, Cyril; Flusser, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2016), s. 72-81 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image retrieval * Noisy image * Histogram * Convolution * Moments * Invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.995, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/ZOI/hoschl-0452147.pdf

  13. Hand Vein Images Enhancement Based on Local Gray-level Information Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Histogram equalization theory, this paper presents a novel concept of histogram to realize the contrast enhancement of hand vein images, avoiding the lost of topological vein structure or importing the fake vein information. Firstly, we propose the concept of gray-level information histogram, the fundamental characteristic of which is that the amplitudes of the components can objectively reflect the contribution of the gray levels and information to the representation of image information. Then, we propose the histogram equalization method that is composed of an automatic histogram separation module and an intensity transformation module, and the histogram separation module is a combination of the proposed prompt multiple threshold procedure and an optimum peak signal-to-noise (PSNR calculation to separate the histogram into small-scale detail, the use of the intensity transformation module can enhance the vein images with vein topological structure and gray information preservation for each generated sub-histogram. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve extremely good contrast enhancement effect.

  14. Image Enhancement via Subimage Histogram Equalization Based on Mean and Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper puts forward a novel image enhancement method via Mean and Variance based Subimage Histogram Equalization (MVSIHE), which effectively increases the contrast of the input image with brightness and details well preserved compared with some other methods based on histogram equalization (HE). Firstly, the histogram of input image is divided into four segments based on the mean and variance of luminance component, and the histogram bins of each segment are modified and equalized, respectively. Secondly, the result is obtained via the concatenation of the processed subhistograms. Lastly, the normalization method is deployed on intensity levels, and the integration of the processed image with the input image is performed. 100 benchmark images from a public image database named CVG-UGR-Database are used for comparison with other state-of-the-art methods. The experiment results show that the algorithm can not only enhance image information effectively but also well preserve brightness and details of the original image. PMID:29403529

  15. Image Enhancement via Subimage Histogram Equalization Based on Mean and Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a novel image enhancement method via Mean and Variance based Subimage Histogram Equalization (MVSIHE, which effectively increases the contrast of the input image with brightness and details well preserved compared with some other methods based on histogram equalization (HE. Firstly, the histogram of input image is divided into four segments based on the mean and variance of luminance component, and the histogram bins of each segment are modified and equalized, respectively. Secondly, the result is obtained via the concatenation of the processed subhistograms. Lastly, the normalization method is deployed on intensity levels, and the integration of the processed image with the input image is performed. 100 benchmark images from a public image database named CVG-UGR-Database are used for comparison with other state-of-the-art methods. The experiment results show that the algorithm can not only enhance image information effectively but also well preserve brightness and details of the original image.

  16. Image Enhancement via Subimage Histogram Equalization Based on Mean and Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Liyun; Guan, Yepeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper puts forward a novel image enhancement method via Mean and Variance based Subimage Histogram Equalization (MVSIHE), which effectively increases the contrast of the input image with brightness and details well preserved compared with some other methods based on histogram equalization (HE). Firstly, the histogram of input image is divided into four segments based on the mean and variance of luminance component, and the histogram bins of each segment are modified and equalized, respectively. Secondly, the result is obtained via the concatenation of the processed subhistograms. Lastly, the normalization method is deployed on intensity levels, and the integration of the processed image with the input image is performed. 100 benchmark images from a public image database named CVG-UGR-Database are used for comparison with other state-of-the-art methods. The experiment results show that the algorithm can not only enhance image information effectively but also well preserve brightness and details of the original image.

  17. Histogram-based quantitative evaluation of endobronchial ultrasonography images of peripheral pulmonary lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Kei; Kurimoto, Noriaki; Inoue, Takeo; Mineshita, Masamichi; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography using a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) is an increasingly common bronchoscopic technique, but currently, no methods have been established to quantitatively evaluate EBUS images of peripheral pulmonary lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether histogram data collected from EBUS-GS images can contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. Histogram-based analyses focusing on the brightness of EBUS images were retrospectively conducted: 60 patients (38 lung cancer; 22 inflammatory diseases), with clear EBUS images were included. For each patient, a 400-pixel region of interest was selected, typically located at a 3- to 5-mm radius from the probe, from recorded EBUS images during bronchoscopy. Histogram height, width, height/width ratio, standard deviation, kurtosis and skewness were investigated as diagnostic indicators. Median histogram height, width, height/width ratio and standard deviation were significantly different between lung cancer and benign lesions (all p histogram standard deviation. Histogram standard deviation appears to be the most useful characteristic for diagnosing lung cancer using EBUS images. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Bin Ratio-Based Histogram Distances and Their Application to Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Nianhua; Hu, Ruiguang; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Qiang; Yan, Shuicheng; Maybank, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Large variations in image background may cause partial matching and normalization problems for histogram-based representations, i.e., the histograms of the same category may have bins which are significantly different, and normalization may produce large changes in the differences between corresponding bins. In this paper, we deal with this problem by using the ratios between bin values of histograms, rather than bin values' differences which are used in the traditional histogram distances. We propose a bin ratio-based histogram distance (BRD), which is an intra-cross-bin distance, in contrast with previous bin-to-bin distances and cross-bin distances. The BRD is robust to partial matching and histogram normalization, and captures correlations between bins with only a linear computational complexity. We combine the BRD with the ℓ1 histogram distance and the χ(2) histogram distance to generate the ℓ1 BRD and the χ(2) BRD, respectively. These combinations exploit and benefit from the robustness of the BRD under partial matching and the robustness of the ℓ1 and χ(2) distances to small noise. We propose a method for assessing the robustness of histogram distances to partial matching. The BRDs and logistic regression-based histogram fusion are applied to image classification. The experimental results on synthetic data sets show the robustness of the BRDs to partial matching, and the experiments on seven benchmark data sets demonstrate promising results of the BRDs for image classification.

  19. Adaptive Histogram Equalization Based Image Forensics Using Statistics of DC DCT Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of digital images is growing towards manipulation. This motivated an area of research to deal with digital image forgeries. The certifying origin and content of digital images is an open problem in the multimedia world. One of the ways to find the truth of images is finding the presence of any type of contrast enhancement. In this work, novel and simple machine learning tool is proposed to detect the presence of histogram equalization using statistical parameters of DC Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT coefficients. The statistical parameters of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM fitted to DC DCT coefficients are used as features for classifying original and histogram equalized images. An SVM classifier has been developed to classify original and histogram equalized image which can detect histogram equalized image with accuracy greater than 95% when false rate is less than 5%.

  20. The direct tensor solution and higher-order acquisition schemes for generalized diffusion tensor imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Erik M.

    2010-01-01

    Both in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and in generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI) the relation between the diffusion tensor and the measured apparent diffusion coefficients is given by a tensorial equation, which needs to be inverted in order to solve the diffusion tensor. The traditional

  1. DSP+FPGA-based real-time histogram equalization system of infrared image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongsheng; Yang, Nansheng; Pi, Defu; Hua, Min; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ruolan

    2001-10-01

    Histogram Modification is a simple but effective method to enhance an infrared image. There are several methods to equalize an infrared image's histogram due to the different characteristics of the different infrared images, such as the traditional HE (Histogram Equalization) method, and the improved HP (Histogram Projection) and PE (Plateau Equalization) method and so on. If to realize these methods in a single system, the system must have a mass of memory and extremely fast speed. In our system, we introduce a DSP + FPGA based real-time procession technology to do these things together. FPGA is used to realize the common part of these methods while DSP is to do the different part. The choice of methods and the parameter can be input by a keyboard or a computer. By this means, the function of the system is powerful while it is easy to operate and maintain. In this article, we give out the diagram of the system and the soft flow chart of the methods. And at the end of it, we give out the infrared image and its histogram before and after the process of HE method.

  2. Hybrid Histogram Descriptor: A Fusion Feature Representation for Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qinghe; Hao, Qiaohong; Chen, Yuqi; Yi, Yugen; Wei, Ying; Dai, Jiangyan

    2018-06-15

    Currently, visual sensors are becoming increasingly affordable and fashionable, acceleratingly the increasing number of image data. Image retrieval has attracted increasing interest due to space exploration, industrial, and biomedical applications. Nevertheless, designing effective feature representation is acknowledged as a hard yet fundamental issue. This paper presents a fusion feature representation called a hybrid histogram descriptor (HHD) for image retrieval. The proposed descriptor comprises two histograms jointly: a perceptually uniform histogram which is extracted by exploiting the color and edge orientation information in perceptually uniform regions; and a motif co-occurrence histogram which is acquired by calculating the probability of a pair of motif patterns. To evaluate the performance, we benchmarked the proposed descriptor on RSSCN7, AID, Outex-00013, Outex-00014 and ETHZ-53 datasets. Experimental results suggest that the proposed descriptor is more effective and robust than ten recent fusion-based descriptors under the content-based image retrieval framework. The computational complexity was also analyzed to give an in-depth evaluation. Furthermore, compared with the state-of-the-art convolutional neural network (CNN)-based descriptors, the proposed descriptor also achieves comparable performance, but does not require any training process.

  3. Concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion

    OpenAIRE

    Bengua, Johann A.; Tuan, Hoang D.; Phien, Ho N.; Do, Minh N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel framework called concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion (ICTAC), which recovers missing entries of color images with high accuracy. Typical images are second- or third-order tensors (2D/3D) depending if they are grayscale or color, hence tensor completion algorithms are ideal for their recovery. The proposed framework performs image completion by concatenating copies of a single image that has missing entries into a third-order tensor,...

  4. Histogram-based normalization technique on human brain magnetic resonance images from different acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Shi, Lin; Luo, Yishan; Yang, Wei; Li, Hongpeng; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng; Mok, Vincent C T; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2015-07-28

    Intensity normalization is an important preprocessing step in brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis. During MR image acquisition, different scanners or parameters would be used for scanning different subjects or the same subject at a different time, which may result in large intensity variations. This intensity variation will greatly undermine the performance of subsequent MRI processing and population analysis, such as image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement. In this work, we proposed a new histogram normalization method to reduce the intensity variation between MRIs obtained from different acquisitions. In our experiment, we scanned each subject twice on two different scanners using different imaging parameters. With noise estimation, the image with lower noise level was determined and treated as the high-quality reference image. Then the histogram of the low-quality image was normalized to the histogram of the high-quality image. The normalization algorithm includes two main steps: (1) intensity scaling (IS), where, for the high-quality reference image, the intensities of the image are first rescaled to a range between the low intensity region (LIR) value and the high intensity region (HIR) value; and (2) histogram normalization (HN),where the histogram of low-quality image as input image is stretched to match the histogram of the reference image, so that the intensity range in the normalized image will also lie between LIR and HIR. We performed three sets of experiments to evaluate the proposed method, i.e., image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement, and compared this with the existing intensity normalization method. It is then possible to validate that our histogram normalization framework can achieve better results in all the experiments. It is also demonstrated that the brain template with normalization preprocessing is of higher quality than the template with no normalization processing. We have proposed

  5. Bayesian regularization of diffusion tensor images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jesper; Hobolth, Asger; Østergaard, Leif

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful tool in the study of the course of nerve fibre bundles in the human brain. Using DTI, the local fibre orientation in each image voxel can be described by a diffusion tensor which is constructed from local measurements of diffusion coefficients along...... several directions. The measured diffusion coefficients and thereby the diffusion tensors are subject to noise, leading to possibly flawed representations of the three dimensional fibre bundles. In this paper we develop a Bayesian procedure for regularizing the diffusion tensor field, fully utilizing...

  6. Multifractal analysis of three-dimensional histogram from color images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Julien; Rousseau, David; Richard, Paul; Chapeau-Blondeau, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Natural images, especially color or multicomponent images, are complex information-carrying signals. To contribute to the characterization of this complexity, we investigate the possibility of multiscale organization in the colorimetric structure of natural images. This is realized by means of a multifractal analysis applied to the three-dimensional histogram from natural color images. The observed behaviors are confronted to those of reference models with known multifractal properties. We use for this purpose synthetic random images with trivial monofractal behavior, and multidimensional multiplicative cascades known for their actual multifractal behavior. The behaviors observed on natural images exhibit similarities with those of the multifractal multiplicative cascades and display the signature of elaborate multiscale organizations stemming from the histograms of natural color images. This type of characterization of colorimetric properties can be helpful to various tasks of digital image processing, as for instance modeling, classification, indexing.

  7. Curvature histogram features for retrieval of images of smooth 3D objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, I; Scherbakov, O; Potapov, A; Peterson, M

    2014-01-01

    We consider image features on the base of histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) with addition of contour curvature histogram (HOG-CH), and also compare it with results of known scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) approach in application to retrieval of images of smooth 3D objects.

  8. DE-STRIPING FOR TDICCD REMOTE SENSING IMAGE BASED ON STATISTICAL FEATURES OF HISTOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-T. Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim to striping noise brought by non-uniform response of remote sensing TDI CCD, a novel de-striping method based on statistical features of image histogram is put forward. By analysing the distribution of histograms,the centroid of histogram is selected to be an eigenvalue representing uniformity of ground objects,histogrammic centroid of whole image and each pixels are calculated first,the differences between them are regard as rough correction coefficients, then in order to avoid the sensitivity caused by single parameter and considering the strong continuity and pertinence of ground objects between two adjacent pixels,correlation coefficient of the histograms is introduces to reflect the similarities between them,fine correction coefficient is obtained by searching around the rough correction coefficient,additionally,in view of the influence of bright cloud on histogram,an automatic cloud detection based on multi-feature including grey level,texture,fractal dimension and edge is used to pre-process image.Two 0-level panchromatic images of SJ-9A satellite with obvious strip noise are processed by proposed method to evaluate the performance, results show that the visual quality of images are improved because the strip noise is entirely removed,we quantitatively analyse the result by calculating the non-uniformity ,which has reached about 1% and is better than histogram matching method.

  9. Voxel-based clustered imaging by multiparameter diffusion tensor images for glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inano, Rika; Oishi, Naoya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Shibata, Sumiya; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common intra-axial primary brain tumour; therefore, predicting glioma grade would influence therapeutic strategies. Although several methods based on single or multiple parameters from diagnostic images exist, a definitive method for pre-operatively determining glioma grade remains unknown. We aimed to develop an unsupervised method using multiple parameters from pre-operative diffusion tensor images for obtaining a clustered image that could enable visual grading of gliomas. Fourteen patients with low-grade gliomas and 19 with high-grade gliomas underwent diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before tumour resection. Seven features including diffusion-weighted imaging, fractional anisotropy, first eigenvalue, second eigenvalue, third eigenvalue, mean diffusivity and raw T2 signal with no diffusion weighting, were extracted as multiple parameters from diffusion tensor imaging. We developed a two-level clustering approach for a self-organizing map followed by the K-means algorithm to enable unsupervised clustering of a large number of input vectors with the seven features for the whole brain. The vectors were grouped by the self-organizing map as protoclusters, which were classified into the smaller number of clusters by K-means to make a voxel-based diffusion tensor-based clustered image. Furthermore, we also determined if the diffusion tensor-based clustered image was really helpful for predicting pre-operative glioma grade in a supervised manner. The ratio of each class in the diffusion tensor-based clustered images was calculated from the regions of interest manually traced on the diffusion tensor imaging space, and the common logarithmic ratio scales were calculated. We then applied support vector machine as a classifier for distinguishing between low- and high-grade gliomas. Consequently, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic

  10. Particle swarm optimization-based local entropy weighted histogram equalization for infrared image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Qian, Weixian; Ren, Kan; Chen, Qian; Maldague, Xavier

    2018-06-01

    Infrared image enhancement plays a significant role in intelligent urban surveillance systems for smart city applications. Unlike existing methods only exaggerating the global contrast, we propose a particle swam optimization-based local entropy weighted histogram equalization which involves the enhancement of both local details and fore-and background contrast. First of all, a novel local entropy weighted histogram depicting the distribution of detail information is calculated based on a modified hyperbolic tangent function. Then, the histogram is divided into two parts via a threshold maximizing the inter-class variance in order to improve the contrasts of foreground and background, respectively. To avoid over-enhancement and noise amplification, double plateau thresholds of the presented histogram are formulated by means of particle swarm optimization algorithm. Lastly, each sub-image is equalized independently according to the constrained sub-local entropy weighted histogram. Comparative experiments implemented on real infrared images prove that our algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of both visual and quantized evaluations.

  11. Histogram analysis of T2*-based pharmacokinetic imaging in cerebral glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Shan; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Hsu, Fei-Ting; Cho, Nai-Yu; Wang, Chao-Ying; Chou, Ming-Chung; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of histogram analysis of the T2*-based permeability parameter volume transfer constant (K trans ) for glioma grading and to explore the diagnostic performance of the histogram analysis of K trans and blood plasma volume (v p ). We recruited 31 and 11 patients with high- and low-grade gliomas, respectively. The histogram parameters of K trans and v p , derived from the first-pass pharmacokinetic modeling based on the T2* dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2* DSC-PW-MRI) from the entire tumor volume, were evaluated for differentiating glioma grades. Histogram parameters of K trans and v p showed significant differences between high- and low-grade gliomas and exhibited significant correlations with tumor grades. The mean K trans derived from the T2* DSC-PW-MRI had the highest sensitivity and specificity for differentiating high-grade gliomas from low-grade gliomas compared with other histogram parameters of K trans and v p . Histogram analysis of T2*-based pharmacokinetic imaging is useful for cerebral glioma grading. The histogram parameters of the entire tumor K trans measurement can provide increased accuracy with additional information regarding microvascular permeability changes for identifying high-grade brain tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Histogram Curve Matching Approaches for Object-based Image Classification of Land Cover and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Sory I.; Stow, Douglas A.; Weeks, John R.; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    The classification of image-objects is usually done using parametric statistical measures of central tendency and/or dispersion (e.g., mean or standard deviation). The objectives of this study were to analyze digital number histograms of image objects and evaluate classifications measures exploiting characteristic signatures of such histograms. Two histograms matching classifiers were evaluated and compared to the standard nearest neighbor to mean classifier. An ADS40 airborne multispectral image of San Diego, California was used for assessing the utility of curve matching classifiers in a geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) approach. The classifications were performed with data sets having 0.5 m, 2.5 m, and 5 m spatial resolutions. Results show that histograms are reliable features for characterizing classes. Also, both histogram matching classifiers consistently performed better than the one based on the standard nearest neighbor to mean rule. The highest classification accuracies were produced with images having 2.5 m spatial resolution. PMID:24403648

  13. Content Based Radiographic Images Indexing and Retrieval Using Pattern Orientation Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Lakdashti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is a method of image searching and retrieval in a  database. In medical applications, CBIR is a tool used by physicians to compare the previous and current  medical images associated with patients pathological conditions. As the volume of pictorial information  stored in medical image databases is in progress, efficient image indexing and retrieval is increasingly  becoming a necessity.  Materials and Methods: This paper presents a new content based radiographic image retrieval approach  based on histogram of pattern orientations, namely pattern orientation histogram (POH. POH represents  the  spatial  distribution  of  five  different  pattern  orientations:  vertical,  horizontal,  diagonal  down/left,  diagonal down/right and non-orientation. In this method, a given image is first divided into image-blocks  and  the  frequency  of  each  type  of  pattern  is  determined  in  each  image-block.  Then,  local  pattern  histograms for each of these image-blocks are computed.   Results: The method was compared to two well known texture-based image retrieval methods: Tamura  and  Edge  Histogram  Descriptors  (EHD  in  MPEG-7  standard.  Experimental  results  based  on  10000  IRMA  radiography  image  dataset,  demonstrate  that  POH  provides  better  precision  and  recall  rates  compared to Tamura and EHD. For some images, the recall and precision rates obtained by POH are,  respectively, 48% and 18% better than the best of the two above mentioned methods.    Discussion and Conclusion: Since we exploit the absolute location of the pattern in the image as well as  its global composition, the proposed matching method can retrieve semantically similar medical images.

  14. [An Improved Spectral Quaternion Interpolation Method of Diffusion Tensor Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghong; Gao, Shangce; Hao, Xiaofei

    2016-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging(DTI)is a rapid development technology in recent years of magnetic resonance imaging.The diffusion tensor interpolation is a very important procedure in DTI image processing.The traditional spectral quaternion interpolation method revises the direction of the interpolation tensor and can preserve tensors anisotropy,but the method does not revise the size of tensors.The present study puts forward an improved spectral quaternion interpolation method on the basis of traditional spectral quaternion interpolation.Firstly,we decomposed diffusion tensors with the direction of tensors being represented by quaternion.Then we revised the size and direction of the tensor respectively according to different situations.Finally,we acquired the tensor of interpolation point by calculating the weighted average.We compared the improved method with the spectral quaternion method and the Log-Euclidean method by the simulation data and the real data.The results showed that the improved method could not only keep the monotonicity of the fractional anisotropy(FA)and the determinant of tensors,but also preserve the tensor anisotropy at the same time.In conclusion,the improved method provides a kind of important interpolation method for diffusion tensor image processing.

  15. RGB Color Cube-Based Histogram Specification for Hue-Preserving Color Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Inoue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A large number of color image enhancement methods are based on the methods for grayscale image enhancement in which the main interest is contrast enhancement. However, since colors usually have three attributes, including hue, saturation and intensity of more than only one attribute of grayscale values, the naive application of the methods for grayscale images to color images often results in unsatisfactory consequences. Conventional hue-preserving color image enhancement methods utilize histogram equalization (HE for enhancing the contrast. However, they cannot always enhance the saturation simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a histogram specification (HS method for enhancing the saturation in hue-preserving color image enhancement. The proposed method computes the target histogram for HS on the basis of the geometry of RGB (rad, green and blue color space, whose shape is a cube with a unit side length. Therefore, the proposed method includes no parameters to be set by users. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves higher color saturation than recent parameter-free methods for hue-preserving color image enhancement. As a result, the proposed method can be used for an alternative method of HE in hue-preserving color image enhancement.

  16. Variational Histogram Equalization for Single Color Image Defogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foggy images taken in the bad weather inevitably suffer from contrast loss and color distortion. Existing defogging methods merely resort to digging out an accurate scene transmission in ignorance of their unpleasing distortion and high complexity. Different from previous works, we propose a simple but powerful method based on histogram equalization and the physical degradation model. By revising two constraints in a variational histogram equalization framework, the intensity component of a fog-free image can be estimated in HSI color space, since the airlight is inferred through a color attenuation prior in advance. To cut down the time consumption, a general variation filter is proposed to obtain a numerical solution from the revised framework. After getting the estimated intensity component, it is easy to infer the saturation component from the physical degradation model in saturation channel. Accordingly, the fog-free image can be restored with the estimated intensity and saturation components. In the end, the proposed method is tested on several foggy images and assessed by two no-reference indexes. Experimental results reveal that our method is relatively superior to three groups of relevant and state-of-the-art defogging methods.

  17. Histogram Matching Extends Acceptable Signal Strength Range on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Sigal, Ian A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We minimized the influence of image quality variability, as measured by signal strength (SS), on optical coherence tomography (OCT) thickness measurements using the histogram matching (HM) method. Methods. We scanned 12 eyes from 12 healthy subjects with the Cirrus HD-OCT device to obtain a series of OCT images with a wide range of SS (maximal range, 1–10) at the same visit. For each eye, the histogram of an image with the highest SS (best image quality) was set as the reference. We applied HM to the images with lower SS by shaping the input histogram into the reference histogram. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was automatically measured before and after HM processing (defined as original and HM measurements), and compared to the device output (device measurements). Nonlinear mixed effects models were used to analyze the relationship between RNFL thickness and SS. In addition, the lowest tolerable SSs, which gave the RNFL thickness within the variability margin of manufacturer recommended SS range (6–10), were determined for device, original, and HM measurements. Results. The HM measurements showed less variability across a wide range of image quality than the original and device measurements (slope = 1.17 vs. 4.89 and 1.72 μm/SS, respectively). The lowest tolerable SS was successfully reduced to 4.5 after HM processing. Conclusions. The HM method successfully extended the acceptable SS range on OCT images. This would qualify more OCT images with low SS for clinical assessment, broadening the OCT application to a wider range of subjects. PMID:26066749

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging in spinal cord compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Wen; Hao, Nanxin; Wang, Yibin; Zong, Genlin

    2012-01-01

    Background Although diffusion tensor imaging has been successfully applied in brain research for decades, several main difficulties have hindered its extended utilization in spinal cord imaging. Purpose To assess the feasibility and clinical value of diffusion tensor imaging and tractography for evaluating chronic spinal cord compression. Material and Methods Single-shot spin-echo echo-planar DT sequences were scanned in 42 spinal cord compression patients and 49 healthy volunteers. The mean values of the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy were measured in region of interest at the cervical and lower thoracic spinal cord. The patients were divided into two groups according to the high signal on T2WI (the SCC-HI group and the SCC-nHI group for with or without high signal). A one-way ANOVA was used. Diffusion tensor tractography was used to visualize the morphological features of normal and impaired white matter. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy values between the different spinal cord segments of the normal subjects. All of the patients in the SCC-HI group had increased apparent diffusion coefficient values and decreased fractional anisotropy values at the lesion level compared to the normal controls. However, there were no statistically significant diffusion index differences between the SCC-nHI group and the normal controls. In the diffusion tensor imaging maps, the normal spinal cord sections were depicted as fiber tracts that were color-encoded to a cephalocaudal orientation. The diffusion tensor images were compressed to different degrees in all of the patients. Conclusion Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography are promising methods for visualizing spinal cord tracts and can provide additional information in clinical studies in spinal cord compression

  19. Tri-Clustered Tensor Completion for Social-Aware Image Tag Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinhui; Shu, Xiangbo; Qi, Guo-Jun; Li, Zechao; Wang, Meng; Yan, Shuicheng; Jain, Ramesh

    2017-08-01

    Social image tag refinement, which aims to improve tag quality by automatically completing the missing tags and rectifying the noise-corrupted ones, is an essential component for social image search. Conventional approaches mainly focus on exploring the visual and tag information, without considering the user information, which often reveals important hints on the (in)correct tags of social images. Towards this end, we propose a novel tri-clustered tensor completion framework to collaboratively explore these three kinds of information to improve the performance of social image tag refinement. Specifically, the inter-relations among users, images and tags are modeled by a tensor, and the intra-relations between users, images and tags are explored by three regularizations respectively. To address the challenges of the super-sparse and large-scale tensor factorization that demands expensive computing and memory cost, we propose a novel tri-clustering method to divide the tensor into a certain number of sub-tensors by simultaneously clustering users, images and tags into a bunch of tri-clusters. And then we investigate two strategies to complete these sub-tensors by considering (in)dependence between the sub-tensors. Experimental results on a real-world social image database demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Efficient visibility-driven medical image visualisation via adaptive binned visibility histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Feng, David Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2016-07-01

    'Visibility' is a fundamental optical property that represents the observable, by users, proportion of the voxels in a volume during interactive volume rendering. The manipulation of this 'visibility' improves the volume rendering processes; for instance by ensuring the visibility of regions of interest (ROIs) or by guiding the identification of an optimal rendering view-point. The construction of visibility histograms (VHs), which represent the distribution of all the visibility of all voxels in the rendered volume, enables users to explore the volume with real-time feedback about occlusion patterns among spatially related structures during volume rendering manipulations. Volume rendered medical images have been a primary beneficiary of VH given the need to ensure that specific ROIs are visible relative to the surrounding structures, e.g. the visualisation of tumours that may otherwise be occluded by neighbouring structures. VH construction and its subsequent manipulations, however, are computationally expensive due to the histogram binning of the visibilities. This limits the real-time application of VH to medical images that have large intensity ranges and volume dimensions and require a large number of histogram bins. In this study, we introduce an efficient adaptive binned visibility histogram (AB-VH) in which a smaller number of histogram bins are used to represent the visibility distribution of the full VH. We adaptively bin medical images by using a cluster analysis algorithm that groups the voxels according to their intensity similarities into a smaller subset of bins while preserving the distribution of the intensity range of the original images. We increase efficiency by exploiting the parallel computation and multiple render targets (MRT) extension of the modern graphical processing units (GPUs) and this enables efficient computation of the histogram. We show the application of our method to single-modality computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging tensor shape analysis for assessment of regional white matter differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Dana M; Li, Jonathan Y; Lee, Hui J; Chen, Steven; Dickson, Patricia I; Ellinwood, N Matthew; White, Leonard E; Provenzale, James M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate a novel tensor shape plot analysis technique of diffusion tensor imaging data as a means to assess microstructural differences in brain tissue. We hypothesized that this technique could distinguish white matter regions with different microstructural compositions. Methods Three normal canines were euthanized at seven weeks old. Their brains were imaged using identical diffusion tensor imaging protocols on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system. We examined two white matter regions, the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, each subdivided into an anterior and posterior region. We placed 100 regions of interest in each of the four brain regions. Eigenvalues for each region of interest triangulated onto tensor shape plots as the weighted average of three shape metrics at the plot's vertices: CS, CL, and CP. Results The distribution of data on the plots for the internal capsule differed markedly from the centrum semiovale data, thus confirming our hypothesis. Furthermore, data for the internal capsule were distributed in a relatively tight cluster, possibly reflecting the compact and parallel nature of its fibers, while data for the centrum semiovale were more widely distributed, consistent with the less compact and often crossing pattern of its fibers. This indicates that the tensor shape plot technique can depict data in similar regions as being alike. Conclusion Tensor shape plots successfully depicted differences in tissue microstructure and reflected the microstructure of individual brain regions. This proof of principle study suggests that if our findings are reproduced in larger samples, including abnormal white matter states, the technique may be useful in assessment of white matter diseases.

  2. Image compression using moving average histogram and RBF network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khowaja, S.; Ismaili, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Modernization and Globalization have made the multimedia technology as one of the fastest growing field in recent times but optimal use of bandwidth and storage has been one of the topics which attract the research community to work on. Considering that images have a lion share in multimedia communication, efficient image compression technique has become the basic need for optimal use of bandwidth and space. This paper proposes a novel method for image compression based on fusion of moving average histogram and RBF (Radial Basis Function). Proposed technique employs the concept of reducing color intensity levels using moving average histogram technique followed by the correction of color intensity levels using RBF networks at reconstruction phase. Existing methods have used low resolution images for the testing purpose but the proposed method has been tested on various image resolutions to have a clear assessment of the said technique. The proposed method have been tested on 35 images with varying resolution and have been compared with the existing algorithms in terms of CR (Compression Ratio), MSE (Mean Square Error), PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), computational complexity. The outcome shows that the proposed methodology is a better trade off technique in terms of compression ratio, PSNR which determines the quality of the image and computational complexity. (author)

  3. Motion Detection in Ultrasound Image-Sequences Using Tensor Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inba, Masafumi; Yanagida, Hirotaka; Tamura, Yasutaka

    2008-05-01

    Motion detection in ultrasound image sequences using tensor voting is described. We have been developing an ultrasound imaging system adopting a combination of coded excitation and synthetic aperture focusing techniques. In our method, frame rate of the system at distance of 150 mm reaches 5000 frame/s. Sparse array and short duration coded ultrasound signals are used for high-speed data acquisition. However, many artifacts appear in the reconstructed image sequences because of the incompleteness of the transmitted code. To reduce the artifacts, we have examined the application of tensor voting to the imaging method which adopts both coded excitation and synthetic aperture techniques. In this study, the basis of applying tensor voting and the motion detection method to ultrasound images is derived. It was confirmed that velocity detection and feature enhancement are possible using tensor voting in the time and space of simulated ultrasound three-dimensional image sequences.

  4. Efficient Tensor Completion for Color Image and Video Recovery: Low-Rank Tensor Train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengua, Johann A; Phien, Ho N; Tuan, Hoang Duong; Do, Minh N

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to tensor completion, which recovers missing entries of data represented by tensors. The approach is based on the tensor train (TT) rank, which is able to capture hidden information from tensors thanks to its definition from a well-balanced matricization scheme. Accordingly, new optimization formulations for tensor completion are proposed as well as two new algorithms for their solution. The first one called simple low-rank tensor completion via TT (SiLRTC-TT) is intimately related to minimizing a nuclear norm based on TT rank. The second one is from a multilinear matrix factorization model to approximate the TT rank of a tensor, and is called tensor completion by parallel matrix factorization via TT (TMac-TT). A tensor augmentation scheme of transforming a low-order tensor to higher orders is also proposed to enhance the effectiveness of SiLRTC-TT and TMac-TT. Simulation results for color image and video recovery show the clear advantage of our method over all other methods.

  5. Diffusion tensor and diffusion weighted imaging. Pictorial mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Tsutomu [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    A new imaging algorithm for the treatment of a second order apparent diffusion tensor, D{sub app}{sup {xi}} is described. The method calls for only mathematics of images (pictorial mathematics) without necessity of eigenvalues/eigenvectors estimation. Nevertheless, it is capable of extracting properties of D{sub app}{sup {xi}} invariant to observation axes. While trace image is an example of images weighted by invariance of the tensor matrix, three dimensional anisotropy (3DAC) contrast represents the imaging method making use to anisotropic direction of tensor ellipsoid producing color coded contrast of exceptionally high anatomic resolution. Contrary to intuition, the processes require only a simple algorithm directly applicable to clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a contrast method which precisely represents physical characteristics of a target tissue, invariant D{sub app}{sup {xi}} images produced by pictorial mathematics possess significant potential for a number of biological and clinical applications. (author).

  6. Tensor based structure estimation in multi-channel images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Dierking, Wolfgang; Skriver, Henning

    2000-01-01

    . In the second part tensors are used for representing the structure information. This approach has the advantage, that tensors can be averaged either spatially or by applying several images, and the resulting tensor provides information of the average strength as well as orientation of the structure...

  7. A tensor-based dictionary learning approach to tomographic image reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Sara; Kilmer, Misha E.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2016-01-01

    We consider tomographic reconstruction using priors in the form of a dictionary learned from training images. The reconstruction has two stages: first we construct a tensor dictionary prior from our training data, and then we pose the reconstruction problem in terms of recovering the expansion...... coefficients in that dictionary. Our approach differs from past approaches in that (a) we use a third-order tensor representation for our images and (b) we recast the reconstruction problem using the tensor formulation. The dictionary learning problem is presented as a non-negative tensor factorization problem...... with sparsity constraints. The reconstruction problem is formulated in a convex optimization framework by looking for a solution with a sparse representation in the tensor dictionary. Numerical results show that our tensor formulation leads to very sparse representations of both the training images...

  8. Tensor estimation for double-pulsed diffusional kurtosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Calvin B; Hui, Edward S; Helpern, Joseph A; Jensen, Jens H

    2017-07-01

    Double-pulsed diffusional kurtosis imaging (DP-DKI) represents the double diffusion encoding (DDE) MRI signal in terms of six-dimensional (6D) diffusion and kurtosis tensors. Here a method for estimating these tensors from experimental data is described. A standard numerical algorithm for tensor estimation from conventional (i.e. single diffusion encoding) diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) data is generalized to DP-DKI. This algorithm is based on a weighted least squares (WLS) fit of the signal model to the data combined with constraints designed to minimize unphysical parameter estimates. The numerical algorithm then takes the form of a quadratic programming problem. The principal change required to adapt the conventional DKI fitting algorithm to DP-DKI is replacing the three-dimensional diffusion and kurtosis tensors with the 6D tensors needed for DP-DKI. In this way, the 6D diffusion and kurtosis tensors for DP-DKI can be conveniently estimated from DDE data by using constrained WLS, providing a practical means for condensing DDE measurements into well-defined mathematical constructs that may be useful for interpreting and applying DDE MRI. Data from healthy volunteers for brain are used to demonstrate the DP-DKI tensor estimation algorithm. In particular, representative parametric maps of selected tensor-derived rotational invariants are presented. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform for small target detection in infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiming; Wang, Jingzhuo; Yang, Huizhen; Gong, Chenglong; Zhou, Yuanshen; Liu, Lipeng; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Shuli

    2016-09-01

    Infrared small targets detection plays a crucial role in warning and tracking systems. Some novel methods based on pattern recognition technology catch much attention from researchers. However, those classic methods must reshape images into vectors with the high dimensionality. Moreover, vectorizing breaks the natural structure and correlations in the image data. Image representation based on tensor treats images as matrices and can hold the natural structure and correlation information. So tensor algorithms have better classification performance than vector algorithms. Fukunaga-Koontz transform is one of classification algorithms and it is a vector version method with the disadvantage of all vector algorithms. In this paper, we first extended the Fukunaga-Koontz transform into its tensor version, tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform. Then we designed a method based on tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform for detecting targets and used it to detect small targets in infrared images. The experimental results, comparison through signal-to-clutter, signal-to-clutter gain and background suppression factor, have validated the advantage of the target detection based on the tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform over that based on the Fukunaga-Koontz transform.

  10. Histogram analysis of diffusion measures in clinically isolated syndromes and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chunshui; Lin Fuchun; Liu Yaou; Duan Yunyun; Lei Hao; Li Kuncheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of our study were to employ diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based histogram analysis to determine the presence of occult damage in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), to compare its severity with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to determine correlations between DTI histogram measures and clinical and MRI indices in these two diseases. Materials and methods: DTI scans were performed in 19 CIS and 19 RRMS patients and 19 matched healthy volunteers. Histogram analyses of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were performed in normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT), normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (NAGM). Correlations were analyzed between these measures and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores, T 2 WI lesion volumes (LV) and normalized brain tissue volumes (NBTV) in CIS and RRMS patients. Results: Significant differences were found among CIS, RRMS and control groups in the NBTV and most of the DTI histogram measures of the NABT, NAWM and NAGM. In CIS patients, some DTI histogram measures showed significant correlations with LV and NBTV, but none of them with EDSS. In RRMS patients, however, some DTI histogram measures were significantly correlated with LV, NBTV and EDSS. Conclusion: Occult damage occurs in both NAGM and NAWM in CIS, but the severity is milder than that in RRMS. In CIS and RRMS, the occult damage might be related to both T2 lesion load and brain tissue atrophy. Some DTI histogram measures might be useful for assessing the disease progression in RRMS patients

  11. STRUCTURE TENSOR IMAGE FILTERING USING RIEMANNIAN L1 AND L∞ CENTER-OF-MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Angulo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Structure tensor images are obtained by a Gaussian smoothing of the dyadic product of gradient image. These images give at each pixel a n×n symmetric positive definite matrix SPD(n, representing the local orientation and the edge information. Processing such images requires appropriate algorithms working on the Riemannian manifold on the SPD(n matrices. This contribution deals with structure tensor image filtering based on Lp geometric averaging. In particular, L1 center-of-mass (Riemannian median or Fermat-Weber point and L∞ center-of-mass (Riemannian circumcenter can be obtained for structure tensors using recently proposed algorithms. Our contribution in this paper is to study the interest of L1 and L∞ Riemannian estimators for structure tensor image processing. In particular, we compare both for two image analysis tasks: (i structure tensor image denoising; (ii anomaly detection in structure tensor images.

  12. Ultrasound elastic tensor imaging: comparison with MR diffusion tensor imaging in the myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Ning; Larrat, Benoît; Pernot, Mathieu; Tanter, Mickaël

    2012-08-01

    We have previously proven the feasibility of ultrasound-based shear wave imaging (SWI) to non-invasively characterize myocardial fiber orientation in both in vitro porcine and in vivo ovine hearts. The SWI-estimated results were in good correlation with histology. In this study, we proposed a new and robust fiber angle estimation method through a tensor-based approach for SWI, coined together as elastic tensor imaging (ETI), and compared it with magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a current gold standard and extensively reported non-invasive imaging technique for mapping fiber architecture. Fresh porcine (n = 5) and ovine (n = 5) myocardial samples (20 × 20 × 30 mm3) were studied. ETI was firstly performed to generate shear waves and to acquire the wave events at ultrafast frame rate (8000 fps). A 2.8 MHz phased array probe (pitch = 0.28 mm), connected to a prototype ultrasound scanner, was mounted on a customized MRI-compatible rotation device, which allowed both the rotation of the probe from -90° to 90° at 5° increments and co-registration between two imaging modalities. Transmural shear wave speed at all propagation directions realized was firstly estimated. The fiber angles were determined from the shear wave speed map using the least-squares method and eigen decomposition. The test myocardial sample together with the rotation device was then placed inside a 7T MRI scanner. Diffusion was encoded in six directions. A total of 270 diffusion-weighted images (b = 1000 s mm-2, FOV = 30 mm, matrix size = 60 × 64, TR = 6 s, TE = 19 ms, 24 averages) and 45 B0 images were acquired in 14 h 30 min. The fiber structure was analyzed by the fiber-tracking module in software, MedINRIA. The fiber orientation in the overlapped myocardial region which both ETI and DTI accessed was therefore compared, thanks to the co-registered imaging system. Results from all ten samples showed good correlation (r2 = 0.81, p 0.05, unpaired, one-tailed t-test, N = 10). In

  13. Identification of ghost artifact using texture analysis in pediatric spinal cord diffusion tensor images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mahdi; Conklin, Chris J; Middleton, Devon M; Shah, Pallav; Saksena, Sona; Krisa, Laura; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Faro, Scott H; Mulcahey, M J; Mohamed, Feroze B

    2018-04-01

    Ghost artifacts are a major contributor to degradation of spinal cord diffusion tensor images. A multi-stage post-processing pipeline was designed, implemented and validated to automatically remove ghost artifacts arising from reduced field of view diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the pediatric spinal cord. A total of 12 pediatric subjects including 7 healthy subjects (mean age=11.34years) with no evidence of spinal cord injury or pathology and 5 patients (mean age=10.96years) with cervical spinal cord injury were studied. Ghost/true cords, labeled as region of interests (ROIs), in non-diffusion weighted b0 images were segmented automatically using mathematical morphological processing. Initially, 21 texture features were extracted from each segmented ROI including 5 first-order features based on the histogram of the image (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis and entropy) and 16s-order feature vector elements, incorporating four statistical measures (contrast, correlation, homogeneity and energy) calculated from co-occurrence matrices in directions of 0°, 45°, 90° and 135°. Next, ten features with a high value of mutual information (MI) relative to the pre-defined target class and within the features were selected as final features which were input to a trained classifier (adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system) to separate the true cord from the ghost cord. The implemented pipeline was successfully able to separate the ghost artifacts from true cord structures. The results obtained from the classifier showed a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 79%, and accuracy of 84% in separating the true cord from ghost artifacts. The results show that the proposed method is promising for the automatic detection of ghost cords present in DTI images of the spinal cord. This step is crucial towards development of accurate, automatic DTI spinal cord post processing pipelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. X-ray strain tensor imaging: FEM simulation and experiments with a micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae G; Park, So E; Lee, Soo Y

    2014-01-01

    In tissue elasticity imaging, measuring the strain tensor components is necessary to solve the inverse problem. However, it is impractical to measure all the tensor components in ultrasound or MRI elastography because of their anisotropic spatial resolution. The objective of this study is to compute 3D strain tensor maps from the 3D CT images of a tissue-mimicking phantom. We took 3D micro-CT images of the phantom twice with applying two different mechanical compressions to it. Applying the 3D image correlation technique to the CT images under different compression, we computed 3D displacement vectors and strain tensors at every pixel. To evaluate the accuracy of the strain tensor maps, we made a 3D FEM model of the phantom, and we computed strain tensor maps through FEM simulation. Experimentally obtained strain tensor maps showed similar patterns to the FEM-simulated ones in visual inspection. The correlation between the strain tensor maps obtained from the experiment and the FEM simulation ranges from 0.03 to 0.93. Even though the strain tensor maps suffer from high level noise, we expect the x-ray strain tensor imaging may find some biomedical applications such as malignant tissue characterization and stress analysis inside the tissues.

  15. Anisotropic Conductivity Tensor Imaging of In Vivo Canine Brain Using DT-MREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Katoch, Nitish; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2017-01-01

    We present in vivo images of anisotropic electrical conductivity tensor distributions inside canine brains using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (DT-MREIT). The conductivity tensor is represented as a product of an ion mobility tensor and a scale factor of ion concentrations. Incorporating directional mobility information from water diffusion tensors, we developed a stable process to reconstruct anisotropic conductivity tensor images from measured magnetic flux density data using an MRI scanner. Devising a new image reconstruction algorithm, we reconstructed anisotropic conductivity tensor images of two canine brains with a pixel size of 1.25 mm. Though the reconstructed conductivity values matched well in general with those measured by using invasive probing methods, there were some discrepancies as well. The degree of white matter anisotropy was 2 to 4.5, which is smaller than previous findings of 5 to 10. The reconstructed conductivity value of the cerebrospinal fluid was about 1.3 S/m, which is smaller than previous measurements of about 1.8 S/m. Future studies of in vivo imaging experiments with disease models should follow this initial trial to validate clinical significance of DT-MREIT as a new diagnostic imaging modality. Applications in modeling and simulation studies of bioelectromagnetic phenomena including source imaging and electrical stimulation are also promising.

  16. Deep Into the Fibers! Postmortem Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Forensic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Patricia Mildred; Schroth, Sarah; Schweitzer, Wolf; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Slotboom, Johannes; Kiefer, Claus; Germerott, Tanja; Thali, Michael J; El-Koussy, Marwan

    2015-09-01

    In traumatic brain injury, diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging of the brain are essential techniques for determining the pathology sustained and the outcome. Postmortem cross-sectional imaging is an established adjunct to forensic autopsy in death investigation. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate postmortem diffusion tensor imaging in forensics for its feasibility, influencing factors and correlation to the cause of death compared with autopsy. Postmortem computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging with fiber tracking were performed in 10 deceased subjects. The Likert scale grading of colored fractional anisotropy maps was correlated to the body temperature and intracranial pathology to assess the diagnostic feasibility of postmortem diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking. Optimal fiber tracking (>15,000 fiber tracts) was achieved with a body temperature at 10°C. Likert scale grading showed no linear correlation (P > 0.7) to fiber tract counts. No statistically significant correlation between total fiber count and postmortem interval could be observed (P = 0.122). Postmortem diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking allowed for radiological diagnosis in cases with shearing injuries but was impaired in cases with pneumencephalon and intracerebral mass hemorrhage. Postmortem diffusion tensor imaging with fiber tracking provides an exceptional in situ insight "deep into the fibers" of the brain with diagnostic benefit in traumatic brain injury and axonal injuries in the assessment of the underlying cause of death, considering influencing factors for optimal imaging technique.

  17. Adaptive local backlight dimming algorithm based on local histogram and image characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    -off between power consumption and image quality preservation than the other algorithms representing the state of the art among feature based backlight algorithms. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.......Liquid Crystal Display (LCDs) with Light Emitting Diode (LED) backlight is a very popular display technology, used for instance in television sets, monitors and mobile phones. This paper presents a new backlight dimming algorithm that exploits the characteristics of the target image......, such as the local histograms and the average pixel intensity of each backlight segment, to reduce the power consumption of the backlight and enhance image quality. The local histogram of the pixels within each backlight segment is calculated and, based on this average, an adaptive quantile value is extracted...

  18. Digital image classification with the help of artificial neural network by simple histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranab; Banerjee, Nirmalya; Kaur, Rajwant

    2016-01-01

    Visual image classification is a great challenge to the cytopathologist in routine day-to-day work. Artificial neural network (ANN) may be helpful in this matter. In this study, we have tried to classify digital images of malignant and benign cells in effusion cytology smear with the help of simple histogram data and ANN. A total of 404 digital images consisting of 168 benign cells and 236 malignant cells were selected for this study. The simple histogram data was extracted from these digital images and an ANN was constructed with the help of Neurointelligence software [Alyuda Neurointelligence 2.2 (577), Cupertino, California, USA]. The network architecture was 6-3-1. The images were classified as training set (281), validation set (63), and test set (60). The on-line backpropagation training algorithm was used for this study. A total of 10,000 iterations were done to train the ANN system with the speed of 609.81/s. After the adequate training of this ANN model, the system was able to identify all 34 malignant cell images and 24 out of 26 benign cells. The ANN model can be used for the identification of the individual malignant cells with the help of simple histogram data. This study will be helpful in the future to identify malignant cells in unknown situations.

  19. Multipeak Mean Based Optimized Histogram Modification Framework Using Swarm Intelligence for Image Contrast Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach, Multipeak mean based optimized histogram modification framework (MMOHM is introduced for the purpose of enhancing the contrast as well as preserving essential details for any given gray scale and colour images. The basic idea of this technique is the calculation of multiple peaks (local maxima from the original histogram. The mean value of multiple peaks is computed and the input image’s histogram is segmented into two subhistograms based on this multipeak mean (mmean value. Then, a bicriteria optimization problem is formulated and the subhistograms are modified by selecting optimal contrast enhancement parameters. While formulating the enhancement parameters, particle swarm optimization is employed to find optimal values of them. Finally, the union of the modified subhistograms produces a contrast enhanced and details preserved output image. This mechanism enhances the contrast of the input image better than the existing contemporary HE methods. The performance of the proposed method is well supported by the contrast enhancement quantitative metrics such as discrete entropy, natural image quality evaluator, and absolute mean brightness error.

  20. Susceptibility Tensor Imaging (STI) of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (MSA) can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. PMID:27120169

  1. Bi-Histogram Equalization with Brightnes Preservation Using Contras Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Anitha Rani; Gowthami Rajagopal; A. Jagadeswaran

    2014-01-01

    Contrast enhancement is an important factor in the image preprocesing step. One of the widely acepted contrast enhancement method is the histogram equalization. Although histogram equalization achieves comparatively beter performance on almost al types of image, global histogram equalization sometimes produces excesive visual deterioration. A new extension of bi- histogram equalization caled Bi-Histogram Equalization with Neighborhod Metric (BHENM). First, large histogram bins that cause w...

  2. The Research of Histogram Enhancement Technique Based on Matlab Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Histogram enhancement technique has been widely applied as a typical pattern in digital image processing. The paper is based on Matlab software, through the two ways of histogram equalization and histogram specification technologies to deal with the darker images, using two methods of partial equilibrium and mapping histogram to transform the original histograms, thereby enhanced the image information. The results show that these two kinds of techniques both can significantly improve the image quality and enhance the image feature.

  3. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: correlation between Loes score and diffusion tensor imaging parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Sergio Eiji; de Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Coelho, Luiz Otávio de Mattos; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Bonfim, Carmem Maria Sales; Ribeiro, Lisandro Lima

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the correlation between diffusion tensor imaging parameters and Loes score as well as whether those parameters could indicate early structural alterations. Diffusion tensor imaging measurements were obtained in 30 studies of 14 patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and were correlated with Loes scores. A control group including 28 male patients was created to establish agematched diffusion tensor imaging measurements. Inter- and intraobserver statistical analyses were undertaken. Diffusion tensor imaging measurements presented strong Pearson correlation coefficients (r) of -0.86, 0.89, 0.89 and 0.84 for fractional anisotropy and mean, radial and axial diffusivities (p tensor measurements at early stage of the disease indicates that mean and radial diffusivities might be useful to predict the disease progression. Measurements of diffusion tensor parameters can be used as an adjunct to the Loes score, aiding in the monitoring of the disease and alerting for possible Loes score progression in the range of interest for therapeutic decisions.

  4. Validation of diffusion tensor MRI measurements of cardiac microstructure with structure tensor synchrotron radiation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Irvin; McClymont, Darryl; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Whittington, Hannah J; Davidoiu, Valentina; Lee, Jack; Lygate, Craig A; Rau, Christoph; Zanette, Irene; Schneider, Jürgen E

    2017-03-10

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is widely used to assess tissue microstructure non-invasively. Cardiac DTI enables inference of cell and sheetlet orientations, which are altered under pathological conditions. However, DTI is affected by many factors, therefore robust validation is critical. Existing histological validation is intrinsically flawed, since it requires further tissue processing leading to sample distortion, is routinely limited in field-of-view and requires reconstruction of three-dimensional volumes from two-dimensional images. In contrast, synchrotron radiation imaging (SRI) data enables imaging of the heart in 3D without further preparation following DTI. The objective of the study was to validate DTI measurements based on structure tensor analysis of SRI data. One isolated, fixed rat heart was imaged ex vivo with DTI and X-ray phase contrast SRI, and reconstructed at 100 μm and 3.6 μm isotropic resolution respectively. Structure tensors were determined from the SRI data and registered to the DTI data. Excellent agreement in helix angles (HA) and transverse angles (TA) was observed between the DTI and structure tensor synchrotron radiation imaging (STSRI) data, where HA DTI-STSRI  = -1.4° ± 23.2° and TA DTI-STSRI  = -1.4° ± 35.0° (mean ± 1.96 standard deviation across all voxels in the left ventricle). STSRI confirmed that the primary eigenvector of the diffusion tensor corresponds with the cardiomyocyte long-axis across the whole myocardium. We have used STSRI as a novel and high-resolution gold standard for the validation of DTI, allowing like-with-like comparison of three-dimensional tissue structures in the same intact heart free of distortion. This represents a critical step forward in independently verifying the structural basis and informing the interpretation of cardiac DTI data, thereby supporting the further development and adoption of DTI in structure-based electro-mechanical modelling and routine clinical

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human skeletal muscle: contributions and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neji, Radhouene

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we present several techniques for the processing of diffusion tensor images. They span a wide range of tasks such as estimation and regularization, clustering and segmentation, as well as registration. The variational framework proposed for recovering a tensor field from noisy diffusion weighted images exploits the fact that diffusion data represent populations of fibers and therefore each tensor can be reconstructed using a weighted combination of tensors lying in its neighborhood. The segmentation approach operates both at the voxel and the fiber tract levels. It is based on the use of Mercer kernels over Gaussian diffusion probabilities to model tensor similarity and spatial interactions, allowing the definition of fiber metrics that combine information from spatial localization and diffusion tensors. Several clustering techniques can be subsequently used to segment tensor fields and fiber tractographies. Moreover, we show how to develop supervised extensions of these algorithms. The registration algorithm uses probability kernels in order to match moving and target images. The deformation consistency is assessed using the distortion induced in the distances between neighboring probabilities. Discrete optimization is used to seek an optimum of the defined objective function. The experimental validation is done over a dataset of manually segmented diffusion images of the lower leg muscle for healthy and diseased subjects. The results of the techniques developed throughout this thesis are promising. (author)

  6. Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q; van Zijl, Peter C M; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging, STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of the susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of the susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in the myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A Review of Tensors and Tensor Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammoun, L.; Castaño-Moraga, C. A.; Muñoz-Moreno, E.; Sosa-Cabrera, D.; Acar, B.; Rodriguez-Florido, M. A.; Brun, A.; Knutsson, H.; Thiran, J. P.

    Tensors have been broadly used in mathematics and physics, since they are a generalization of scalars or vectors and allow to represent more complex properties. In this chapter we present an overview of some tensor applications, especially those focused on the image processing field. From a mathematical point of view, a lot of work has been developed about tensor calculus, which obviously is more complex than scalar or vectorial calculus. Moreover, tensors can represent the metric of a vector space, which is very useful in the field of differential geometry. In physics, tensors have been used to describe several magnitudes, such as the strain or stress of materials. In solid mechanics, tensors are used to define the generalized Hooke’s law, where a fourth order tensor relates the strain and stress tensors. In fluid dynamics, the velocity gradient tensor provides information about the vorticity and the strain of the fluids. Also an electromagnetic tensor is defined, that simplifies the notation of the Maxwell equations. But tensors are not constrained to physics and mathematics. They have been used, for instance, in medical imaging, where we can highlight two applications: the diffusion tensor image, which represents how molecules diffuse inside the tissues and is broadly used for brain imaging; and the tensorial elastography, which computes the strain and vorticity tensor to analyze the tissues properties. Tensors have also been used in computer vision to provide information about the local structure or to define anisotropic image filters.

  8. Review of diffusion tensor imaging and its application in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorona, Gregory A. [Children' s Hospital of Richmond at Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Radiology, Richmond, VA (United States); Berman, Jeffrey I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Diffusion MRI is an imaging technique that uses the random motion of water to probe tissue microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can quantitatively depict the organization and connectivity of white matter. Given the non-invasiveness of the technique, DTI has become a widely used tool for researchers and clinicians to examine the white matter of children. This review covers the basics of diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging and discusses examples of their clinical application in children. (orig.)

  9. Efficient contrast enhancement through log-power histogram modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, T.; Toet, A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple power-logarithm histogram modification operator is proposed to enhance digital image contrast. First a logarithm operator reduces the effect of spikes and transforms the image histogram into a smoothed one that approximates a uniform histogram while retaining the relative size ordering of

  10. An Adaptive Spectrally Weighted Structure Tensor Applied to Tensor Anisotropic Nonlinear Diffusion for Hyperspectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Quintero, Maider J.

    2013-01-01

    The structure tensor for vector valued images is most often defined as the average of the scalar structure tensors in each band. The problem with this definition is the assumption that all bands provide the same amount of edge information giving them the same weights. As a result non-edge pixels can be reinforced and edges can be weakened…

  11. Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Based Research on Human White Matter Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-guo Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the white matter by the diffusion tensor imaging and the Chinese visible human dataset and to provide the 3D anatomical data of the corticospinal tract for the neurosurgical planning by studying the probabilistic maps and the reproducibility of the corticospinal tract. Diffusion tensor images and high-resolution T1-weighted images of 15 healthy volunteers were acquired; the DTI data were processed using DtiStudio and FSL software. The FA and color FA maps were compared with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset. The probability maps of the corticospinal tract were generated as a quantitative measure of reproducibility for each voxel of the stereotaxic space. The fibers displayed by the diffusion tensor imaging were well consistent with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset and the existing anatomical knowledge. The three-dimensional architecture of the white matter fibers could be clearly visualized on the diffusion tensor tractography. The diffusion tensor tractography can establish the 3D probability maps of the corticospinal tract, in which the degree of intersubject reproducibility of the corticospinal tract is consistent with the previous architectonic report. DTI is a reliable method of studying the fiber connectivity in human brain, but it is difficult to identify the tiny fibers. The probability maps are useful for evaluating and identifying the corticospinal tract in the DTI, providing anatomical information for the preoperative planning and improving the accuracy of surgical risk assessments preoperatively.

  12. Anisotropic conductivity tensor imaging in MREIT using directional diffusion rate of water molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Oh In; Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is an emerging method to visualize electrical conductivity and/or current density images at low frequencies (below 1 KHz). Injecting currents into an imaging object, one component of the induced magnetic flux density is acquired using an MRI scanner for isotropic conductivity image reconstructions. Diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) measures the intrinsic three-dimensional diffusion property of water molecules within a tissue. It characterizes the anisotropic water transport by the effective diffusion tensor. Combining the DT-MRI and MREIT techniques, we propose a novel direct method for absolute conductivity tensor image reconstructions based on a linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. We first recover the projected current density, which is the best approximation of the internal current density one can obtain from the measured single component of the induced magnetic flux density. This enables us to estimate a scale factor between the diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor. Combining these values at all pixels with the acquired diffusion tensor map, we can quantitatively recover the anisotropic conductivity tensor map. From numerical simulations and experimental verifications using a biological tissue phantom, we found that the new method overcomes the limitations of each method and successfully reconstructs both the direction and magnitude of the conductivity tensor for both the anisotropic and isotropic regions. (paper)

  13. Time-optimized high-resolution readout-segmented diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Reishofer

    Full Text Available Readout-segmented echo planar imaging with 2D navigator-based reacquisition is an uprising technique enabling the sampling of high-resolution diffusion images with reduced susceptibility artifacts. However, low signal from the small voxels and long scan times hamper the clinical applicability. Therefore, we introduce a regularization algorithm based on total variation that is applied directly on the entire diffusion tensor. The spatially varying regularization parameter is determined automatically dependent on spatial variations in signal-to-noise ratio thus, avoiding over- or under-regularization. Information about the noise distribution in the diffusion tensor is extracted from the diffusion weighted images by means of complex independent component analysis. Moreover, the combination of those features enables processing of the diffusion data absolutely user independent. Tractography from in vivo data and from a software phantom demonstrate the advantage of the spatially varying regularization compared to un-regularized data with respect to parameters relevant for fiber-tracking such as Mean Fiber Length, Track Count, Volume and Voxel Count. Specifically, for in vivo data findings suggest that tractography results from the regularized diffusion tensor based on one measurement (16 min generates results comparable to the un-regularized data with three averages (48 min. This significant reduction in scan time renders high resolution (1 × 1 × 2.5 mm(3 diffusion tensor imaging of the entire brain applicable in a clinical context.

  14. Can histogram analysis of MR images predict aggressiveness in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Robertis, Riccardo; Maris, Bogdan; Cardobi, Nicolò; Tinazzi Martini, Paolo; Gobbo, Stefano; Capelli, Paola; Ortolani, Silvia; Cingarlini, Sara; Paiella, Salvatore; Landoni, Luca; Butturini, Giovanni; Regi, Paolo; Scarpa, Aldo; Tortora, Giampaolo; D'Onofrio, Mirko

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate MRI derived whole-tumour histogram analysis parameters in predicting pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (panNEN) grade and aggressiveness. Pre-operative MR of 42 consecutive patients with panNEN >1 cm were retrospectively analysed. T1-/T2-weighted images and ADC maps were analysed. Histogram-derived parameters were compared to histopathological features using the Mann-Whitney U test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by ROC-AUC analysis; sensitivity and specificity were assessed for each histogram parameter. ADC entropy was significantly higher in G2-3 tumours with ROC-AUC 0.757; sensitivity and specificity were 83.3 % (95 % CI: 61.2-94.5) and 61.1 % (95 % CI: 36.1-81.7). ADC kurtosis was higher in panNENs with vascular involvement, nodal and hepatic metastases (p= .008, .021 and .008; ROC-AUC= 0.820, 0.709 and 0.820); sensitivity and specificity were: 85.7/74.3 % (95 % CI: 42-99.2 /56.4-86.9), 36.8/96.5 % (95 % CI: 17.2-61.4 /76-99.8) and 100/62.8 % (95 % CI: 56.1-100/44.9-78.1). No significant differences between groups were found for other histogram-derived parameters (p >.05). Whole-tumour histogram analysis of ADC maps may be helpful in predicting tumour grade, vascular involvement, nodal and liver metastases in panNENs. ADC entropy and ADC kurtosis are the most accurate parameters for identification of panNENs with malignant behaviour. • Whole-tumour ADC histogram analysis can predict aggressiveness in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. • ADC entropy and kurtosis are higher in aggressive tumours. • ADC histogram analysis can quantify tumour diffusion heterogeneity. • Non-invasive quantification of tumour heterogeneity can provide adjunctive information for prognostication.

  15. Visualization of Plant Fibres via Difusion Tensor Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gescheidtová, E.; Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2011), s. 543-546 ISSN 1931-7360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/11/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : plant fibres * difusion weighted imaging * difusion tensor imaging * MR imaging Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  16. Regionally adaptive histogram equalization of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrier, R.H.; Johnson, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in digital chest radiography have resulted in the acquisition of high-quality digital images of the human chest. With these advances, there arises a genuine need for image processing algorithms, specific to chest images. The author has implemented the technique of histogram equalization, noting the problems encountered when it is adapted to chest images. These problems have been successfully solved with a regionally adaptive histogram equalization method. Histograms are calculated locally and then modified according to both the mean pixel value of a given region and certain characteristics of the cumulative distribution function. The method allows certain regions of the chest radiograph to be enhanced differentially

  17. Tensors in image processing and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    De Luis García, Rodrigo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2009-01-01

    Tensor signal processing is an emerging field with important applications to computer vision and image processing. This book presents the developments in this branch of signal processing, offering research and discussions by experts in the area. It is suitable for advanced students working in the area of computer vision and image processing.

  18. Spinal diffusion tensor imaging: a comprehensive review with emphasis on spinal cord anatomy and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Cauley, Keith A; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Pezeshk, Parham; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging technology allows for in vivo visualization of fiber tracts of the central nervous system using diffusion-weighted imaging sequences and data processing referred to as "diffusion tensor imaging" and "diffusion tensor tractography." While protocols for high-fidelity diffusion tensor imaging of the brain are well established, the spinal cord has proven a more difficult target for diffusion tensor methods. Here, we review the current literature on spinal diffusion tensor imaging and tractography with special emphasis on neuroanatomical correlations and clinical applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of low-grade glioma structural changes after chemotherapy using DTI-based histogram analysis and functional diffusion maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, Antonella; Iadanza, Antonella; Falini, Andrea [San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Neuroradiology Unit and CERMAC, Milano (Italy); Donativi, Marina [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics ' ' Ennio De Giorgi' ' and A.D.A.M. (Advanced Data Analysis in Medicine), Lecce (Italy); Ruda, Roberta; Bertero, Luca; Soffietti, Riccardo [University of Torino, Department of Neuro-oncology, Turin (Italy); De Nunzio, Giorgio [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics ' ' Ennio De Giorgi' ' and A.D.A.M. (Advanced Data Analysis in Medicine), Lecce (Italy); INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics), Lecce (Italy); Riva, Marco; Bello, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, and Humanitas Research Hospital, Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Rucco, Matteo [University of Camerino, School of Science and Technology, Computer Science Division, Camerino, MC (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    To explore the role of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based histogram analysis and functional diffusion maps (fDMs) in evaluating structural changes of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) receiving temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Twenty-one LGG patients underwent 3T-MR examinations before and after three and six cycles of dose-dense TMZ, including 3D-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences and DTI (b = 1000 s/mm{sup 2}, 32 directions). Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and tensor-decomposition DTI maps (p and q) were obtained. Histogram and fDM analyses were performed on co-registered baseline and post-chemotherapy maps. DTI changes were compared with modifications of tumour area and volume [according to Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria], and seizure response. After three cycles of TMZ, 20/21 patients were stable according to RANO criteria, but DTI changes were observed in all patients (Wilcoxon test, P ≤ 0.03). After six cycles, DTI changes were more pronounced (P ≤ 0.005). Seventy-five percent of patients had early seizure response with significant improvement of DTI values, maintaining stability on FLAIR. Early changes of the 25th percentiles of p and MD predicted final volume change (R{sup 2} = 0.614 and 0.561, P < 0.0005, respectively). TMZ-related changes were located mainly at tumour borders on p and MD fDMs. DTI-based histogram and fDM analyses are useful techniques to evaluate the early effects of TMZ chemotherapy in LGG patients. (orig.)

  20. Relationship between timed 25-foot walk and diffusion tensor imaging in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineova, Sylvia; Farber, Rebecca; Saiote, Catarina; Farrell, Colleen; Delman, Bradley N; Tanenbaum, Lawrence N; Friedman, Joshua; Inglese, Matilde; Lublin, Fred D; Krieger, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The majority of multiple sclerosis patients experience impaired walking ability, which impacts quality of life. Timed 25-foot walk is commonly used to gauge gait impairment but results can be broadly variable. Objective biological markers that correlate closely with patients' disability are needed. Diffusion tensor imaging, quantifying fiber tract integrity, might provide such information. In this project we analyzed relationships between timed 25-foot walk, conventional and diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance imaging markers. A cohort of gait impaired multiple sclerosis patients underwent brain and cervical spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging. Diffusion tensor imaging mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured on the brain corticospinal tracts and spinal restricted field of vision at C2/3. We analyzed relationships between baseline timed 25-foot walk, conventional and diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance imaging markers. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between several magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging metrics and timed 25-foot walk: brain mean diffusivity corticospinal tracts (p = 0.004), brain corticospinal tracts axial and radial diffusivity (P = 0.004 and 0.02), grey matter volume (p = 0.05), white matter volume (p = 0.03) and normalized brain volume (P = 0.01). The linear regression model containing mean diffusivity corticospinal tracts and controlled for gait assistance was the best fit model (p = 0.004). Our results suggest an association between diffusion tensor imaging metrics and gait impairment, evidenced by brain mean diffusivity corticospinal tracts and timed 25-foot walk.

  1. Joint eigenvector estimation from mutually anisotropic tensors improves susceptibility tensor imaging of the brain, kidney, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibb, Russell; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-06-01

    To develop a susceptibility-based MRI technique for probing microstructure and fiber architecture of magnetically anisotropic tissues-such as central nervous system white matter, renal tubules, and myocardial fibers-in three dimensions using susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) tools. STI can probe tissue microstructure, but is limited by reconstruction artifacts because of absent phase information outside the tissue and noise. STI accuracy may be improved by estimating a joint eigenvector from mutually anisotropic susceptibility and relaxation tensors. Gradient-recalled echo image data were simulated using a numerical phantom and acquired from the ex vivo mouse brain, kidney, and heart. Susceptibility tensor data were reconstructed using STI, regularized STI, and the proposed algorithm of mutually anisotropic and joint eigenvector STI (MAJESTI). Fiber map and tractography results from each technique were compared with diffusion tensor data. MAJESTI reduced the estimated susceptibility tensor orientation error by 30% in the phantom, 36% in brain white matter, 40% in the inner medulla of the kidney, and 45% in myocardium. This improved the continuity and consistency of susceptibility-based fiber tractography in each tissue. MAJESTI estimation of the susceptibility tensors yields lower orientation errors for susceptibility-based fiber mapping and tractography in the intact brain, kidney, and heart. Magn Reson Med 77:2331-2346, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Reproducibility of Histogram Analysis on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-yi; Su, Zi-hua; Xu, Xiao; Sun, Zhi-peng; Duan, Fei-xue; Song, Yuan-yuan; Li, Lu; Wang, Ying-wei; Ma, Xin; Guo, Ai-tao; Ma, Lin; Ye, Hui-yi

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) have been increasingly used to evaluate the permeability of tumor vessel. Histogram metrics are a recognized promising method of quantitative MR imaging that has been recently introduced in analysis of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters in oncology due to tumor heterogeneity. In this study, 21 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) underwent paired DCE-MRI studies on a 3.0 T MR system. Extended Tofts model and population-based arterial input function were used to calculate kinetic parameters of RCC tumors. Mean value and histogram metrics (Mode, Skewness and Kurtosis) of each pharmacokinetic parameter were generated automatically using ImageJ software. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and scan–rescan reproducibility were evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficient of variation (CoV). Our results demonstrated that the histogram method (Mode, Skewness and Kurtosis) was not superior to the conventional Mean value method in reproducibility evaluation on DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters (K trans & Ve) in renal cell carcinoma, especially for Skewness and Kurtosis which showed lower intra-, inter-observer and scan-rescan reproducibility than Mean value. Our findings suggest that additional studies are necessary before wide incorporation of histogram metrics in quantitative analysis of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:27380733

  3. Higher-order tensors in diffusion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, T.; Fuster, A.; Ghosh, A.; Deriche, R.; Florack, L.M.J.; Lim, L.H.; Westin, C.-F.; Vilanova, A.; Burgeth, B.

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion imaging is a noninvasive tool for probing the microstructure of fibrous nerve and muscle tissue. Higher-order tensors provide a powerful mathematical language to model and analyze the large and complex data that is generated by its modern variants such as High Angular Resolution Diffusion

  4. Tensor Based Representation and Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpoutis, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Cartesian tensor bases have been widely used to model spherical functions. In medical imaging, tensors of various orders can approximate the diffusivity function at each voxel of a diffusion-weighted MRI data set. This approximation produces tensor-valued datasets that contain information about the underlying local structure of the scanned tissue.…

  5. An improved contrast enhancement algorithm for infrared images based on adaptive double plateaus histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li; Li, Yiyang

    2018-05-01

    Infrared thermal images can reflect the thermal-radiation distribution of a particular scene. However, the contrast of the infrared images is usually low. Hence, it is generally necessary to enhance the contrast of infrared images in advance to facilitate subsequent recognition and analysis. Based on the adaptive double plateaus histogram equalization, this paper presents an improved contrast enhancement algorithm for infrared thermal images. In the proposed algorithm, the normalized coefficient of variation of the histogram, which characterizes the level of contrast enhancement, is introduced as feedback information to adjust the upper and lower plateau thresholds. The experiments on actual infrared images show that compared to the three typical contrast-enhancement algorithms, the proposed algorithm has better scene adaptability and yields better contrast-enhancement results for infrared images with more dark areas or a higher dynamic range. Hence, it has high application value in contrast enhancement, dynamic range compression, and digital detail enhancement for infrared thermal images.

  6. Adaptive distance learning scheme for diffusion tensor imaging using kernel target alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.R.; Vilanova, A.; Twellmann, T.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Alexander, D.; Gee, J.; Whitaker, R.

    2008-01-01

    In segmentation techniques for Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data, the similarity of diffusion tensors must be assessed for partitioning data into regions which are homogeneous in terms of tensor characteristics. Various distance measures have been proposed in literature for analysing the

  7. Data quality in diffusion tensor imaging studies of the preterm brain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterman, Kay; Plaisier, Annemarie; Govaert, Paul; Leemans, Alexander; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen

    2015-08-01

    To study early neurodevelopment in preterm infants, evaluation of brain maturation and injury is increasingly performed using diffusion tensor imaging, for which the reliability of underlying data is paramount. To review the literature to evaluate acquisition and processing methodology in diffusion tensor imaging studies of preterm infants. We searched the Embase, Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane databases for relevant papers published between 2003 and 2013. The following keywords were included in our search: prematurity, neuroimaging, brain, and diffusion tensor imaging. We found 74 diffusion tensor imaging studies in preterm infants meeting our inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in acquisition and processing methodology, and we found incomplete reporting of these settings. Nineteen studies (26%) reported the use of neonatal hardware. Data quality assessment was not reported in 13 (18%) studies. Artefacts-correction and data-exclusion was not reported in 33 (45%) and 18 (24%) studies, respectively. Tensor estimation algorithms were reported in 56 (76%) studies but were often suboptimal. Diffusion tensor imaging acquisition and processing settings are incompletely described in current literature, vary considerably, and frequently do not meet the highest standards.

  8. Novel Variants of a Histogram Shift-Based Reversible Watermarking Technique for Medical Images to Improve Hiding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Kelkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In telemedicine systems, critical medical data is shared on a public communication channel. This increases the risk of unauthorised access to patient’s information. This underlines the importance of secrecy and authentication for the medical data. This paper presents two innovative variations of classical histogram shift methods to increase the hiding capacity. The first technique divides the image into nonoverlapping blocks and embeds the watermark individually using the histogram method. The second method separates the region of interest and embeds the watermark only in the region of noninterest. This approach preserves the medical information intact. This method finds its use in critical medical cases. The high PSNR (above 45 dB obtained for both techniques indicates imperceptibility of the approaches. Experimental results illustrate superiority of the proposed approaches when compared with other methods based on histogram shifting techniques. These techniques improve embedding capacity by 5–15% depending on the image type, without affecting the quality of the watermarked image. Both techniques also enable lossless reconstruction of the watermark and the host medical image. A higher embedding capacity makes the proposed approaches attractive for medical image watermarking applications without compromising the quality of the image.

  9. Novel Variants of a Histogram Shift-Based Reversible Watermarking Technique for Medical Images to Improve Hiding Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckley, Kushal

    2017-01-01

    In telemedicine systems, critical medical data is shared on a public communication channel. This increases the risk of unauthorised access to patient's information. This underlines the importance of secrecy and authentication for the medical data. This paper presents two innovative variations of classical histogram shift methods to increase the hiding capacity. The first technique divides the image into nonoverlapping blocks and embeds the watermark individually using the histogram method. The second method separates the region of interest and embeds the watermark only in the region of noninterest. This approach preserves the medical information intact. This method finds its use in critical medical cases. The high PSNR (above 45 dB) obtained for both techniques indicates imperceptibility of the approaches. Experimental results illustrate superiority of the proposed approaches when compared with other methods based on histogram shifting techniques. These techniques improve embedding capacity by 5–15% depending on the image type, without affecting the quality of the watermarked image. Both techniques also enable lossless reconstruction of the watermark and the host medical image. A higher embedding capacity makes the proposed approaches attractive for medical image watermarking applications without compromising the quality of the image. PMID:29104744

  10. Histogram-based automatic thresholding for bruise detection of apples by structured-illumination reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thresholding is an important step in the segmentation of image features, and the existing methods are not all effective when the image histogram exhibits a unimodal pattern, which is common in defect detection of fruit. This study was aimed at developing a general automatic thresholding methodology ...

  11. A Riemannian scalar measure for diffusion tensor images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astola, L.J.; Fuster, A.; Florack, L.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We study a well-known scalar quantity in Riemannian geometry, the Ricci scalar, in the context of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), which is an emerging non-invasive medical imaging modality. We derive a physical interpretation for the Ricci scalar and explore experimentally its significance in DTI.

  12. An introduction to diffusion tensor image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lauren J; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2011-04-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) is a relatively new technology that is popular for imaging the white matter of the brain. This article provides a basic and broad overview of DTI to enable the reader to develop an intuitive understanding of these types of data, and an awareness of their strengths and weaknesses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Volume illustration of muscle from diffusion tensor images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Zhicheng; Zhang, Song; Crow, John Allen; Ebert, David S; McLaughlin, Ronald M; Mullins, Katie B; Cooper, Robert; Ding, Zi'ang; Liao, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Medical illustration has demonstrated its effectiveness to depict salient anatomical features while hiding the irrelevant details. Current solutions are ineffective for visualizing fibrous structures such as muscle, because typical datasets (CT or MRI) do not contain directional details. In this paper, we introduce a new muscle illustration approach that leverages diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and example-based texture synthesis techniques. Beginning with a volumetric diffusion tensor image, we reformulate it into a scalar field and an auxiliary guidance vector field to represent the structure and orientation of a muscle bundle. A muscle mask derived from the input diffusion tensor image is used to classify the muscle structure. The guidance vector field is further refined to remove noise and clarify structure. To simulate the internal appearance of the muscle, we propose a new two-dimensional example based solid texture synthesis algorithm that builds a solid texture constrained by the guidance vector field. Illustrating the constructed scalar field and solid texture efficiently highlights the global appearance of the muscle as well as the local shape and structure of the muscle fibers in an illustrative fashion. We have applied the proposed approach to five example datasets (four pig hearts and a pig leg), demonstrating plausible illustration and expressiveness.

  14. Data quality in diffusion tensor imaging studies of the preterm brain: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterman, Kay; Plaisier, Annemarie; Dudink, Jeroen [Erasmus Medical Center - Sophia, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, dr. Molewaterplein 60, GJ, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Govaert, Paul [Erasmus Medical Center - Sophia, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, dr. Molewaterplein 60, GJ, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatrics, Koningin Paola Children' s Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium); Leemans, Alexander [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten H. [Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    To study early neurodevelopment in preterm infants, evaluation of brain maturation and injury is increasingly performed using diffusion tensor imaging, for which the reliability of underlying data is paramount. To review the literature to evaluate acquisition and processing methodology in diffusion tensor imaging studies of preterm infants. We searched the Embase, Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane databases for relevant papers published between 2003 and 2013. The following keywords were included in our search: prematurity, neuroimaging, brain, and diffusion tensor imaging. We found 74 diffusion tensor imaging studies in preterm infants meeting our inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in acquisition and processing methodology, and we found incomplete reporting of these settings. Nineteen studies (26%) reported the use of neonatal hardware. Data quality assessment was not reported in 13 (18%) studies. Artefacts-correction and data-exclusion was not reported in 33 (45%) and 18 (24%) studies, respectively. Tensor estimation algorithms were reported in 56 (76%) studies but were often suboptimal. Diffusion tensor imaging acquisition and processing settings are incompletely described in current literature, vary considerably, and frequently do not meet the highest standards. (orig.)

  15. Data quality in diffusion tensor imaging studies of the preterm brain: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieterman, Kay; Plaisier, Annemarie; Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Leemans, Alexander; Lequin, Maarten H.

    2015-01-01

    To study early neurodevelopment in preterm infants, evaluation of brain maturation and injury is increasingly performed using diffusion tensor imaging, for which the reliability of underlying data is paramount. To review the literature to evaluate acquisition and processing methodology in diffusion tensor imaging studies of preterm infants. We searched the Embase, Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane databases for relevant papers published between 2003 and 2013. The following keywords were included in our search: prematurity, neuroimaging, brain, and diffusion tensor imaging. We found 74 diffusion tensor imaging studies in preterm infants meeting our inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in acquisition and processing methodology, and we found incomplete reporting of these settings. Nineteen studies (26%) reported the use of neonatal hardware. Data quality assessment was not reported in 13 (18%) studies. Artefacts-correction and data-exclusion was not reported in 33 (45%) and 18 (24%) studies, respectively. Tensor estimation algorithms were reported in 56 (76%) studies but were often suboptimal. Diffusion tensor imaging acquisition and processing settings are incompletely described in current literature, vary considerably, and frequently do not meet the highest standards. (orig.)

  16. Histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis imaging derived maps may distinguish between low and high grade gliomas before surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xi-Xun; Shi, Da-Fa; Ren, Si-Xie; Zhang, Su-Ya; Li, Long; Li, Qing-Chang; Guan, Li-Ming

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the value of histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) maps in the evaluation of glioma grading. A total of 39 glioma patients who underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were classified into low-grade (13 cases) and high-grade (26 cases) glioma groups. Parametric DKI maps were derived, and histogram metrics between low- and high-grade gliomas were analysed. The optimum diagnostic thresholds of the parameters, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were achieved using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Significant differences were observed not only in 12 metrics of histogram DKI parameters (PHistogram analysis of DKI may be more effective in glioma grading.

  17. Investigating the Role of Global Histogram Equalization Technique for 99mTechnetium-Methylene diphosphonate Bone Scan Image Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Param Dev; Dheer, Pankaj; Parida, Girish Kumar; Goyal, Harish; Patel, Chetan; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    99m Technetium-methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) bone scan images have limited number of counts per pixel, and hence, they have inferior image quality compared to X-rays. Theoretically, global histogram equalization (GHE) technique can improve the contrast of a given image though practical benefits of doing so have only limited acceptance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of GHE technique for 99m Tc-MDP-bone scan images. A set of 89 low contrast 99m Tc-MDP whole-body bone scan images were included in this study. These images were acquired with parallel hole collimation on Symbia E gamma camera. The images were then processed with histogram equalization technique. The image quality of input and processed images were reviewed by two nuclear medicine physicians on a 5-point scale where score of 1 is for very poor and 5 is for the best image quality. A statistical test was applied to find the significance of difference between the mean scores assigned to input and processed images. This technique improves the contrast of the images; however, oversaturation was noticed in the processed images. Student's t -test was applied, and a statistically significant difference in the input and processed image quality was found at P histogram equalization technique in combination with some other postprocessing technique is useful.

  18. Predicting patterns of glioma recurrence using diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Stephen J.; Pickard, John D.; Jena, Rajesh; Burnet, Neil G.; Carpenter, T.A.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2007-01-01

    Although multimodality therapy for high-grade gliomas is making some improvement in outcome, most patients will still die from their disease within a short time. We need tools that allow treatments to be tailored to an individual. In this study we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a technique sensitive to subtle disruption of white-matter tracts due to tumour infiltration, to see if it can be used to predict patterns of glioma recurrence. In this study we imaged 26 patients with gliomas using DTI. Patients were imaged after 2 years or on symptomatic tumour recurrence. The diffusion tensor was split into its isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components, and these were plotted on T 2 -weighted images to show the pattern of DTI abnormality. This was compared to the pattern of recurrence. Three DTI patterns could be identified: (a) a diffuse pattern of abnormality where p exceeded q in all directions and was associated with diffuse increase in tumour size; (b) a localised pattern of abnormality where the tumour recurred in one particular direction; and (c) a pattern of minimal abnormality seen in some patients with or without evidence of recurrence. Diffusion tensor imaging is able to predict patterns of tumour recurrence and may allow better individualisation of tumour management and stratification for randomised controlled trials. (orig.)

  19. Predicting patterns of glioma recurrence using diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Stephen J.; Pickard, John D. [University of Cambridge and Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Academic Neurosurgery Unit (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge and Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences (United Kingdom); Jena, Rajesh; Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge and Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, University Department of Oncology (United Kingdom); Carpenter, T.A. [University of Cambridge and Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [University of Cambridge and Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, University Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Although multimodality therapy for high-grade gliomas is making some improvement in outcome, most patients will still die from their disease within a short time. We need tools that allow treatments to be tailored to an individual. In this study we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a technique sensitive to subtle disruption of white-matter tracts due to tumour infiltration, to see if it can be used to predict patterns of glioma recurrence. In this study we imaged 26 patients with gliomas using DTI. Patients were imaged after 2 years or on symptomatic tumour recurrence. The diffusion tensor was split into its isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components, and these were plotted on T{sub 2}-weighted images to show the pattern of DTI abnormality. This was compared to the pattern of recurrence. Three DTI patterns could be identified: (a) a diffuse pattern of abnormality where p exceeded q in all directions and was associated with diffuse increase in tumour size; (b) a localised pattern of abnormality where the tumour recurred in one particular direction; and (c) a pattern of minimal abnormality seen in some patients with or without evidence of recurrence. Diffusion tensor imaging is able to predict patterns of tumour recurrence and may allow better individualisation of tumour management and stratification for randomised controlled trials. (orig.)

  20. Tensor Factorization for Low-Rank Tensor Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pan; Lu, Canyi; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Recently, a tensor nuclear norm (TNN) based method was proposed to solve the tensor completion problem, which has achieved state-of-the-art performance on image and video inpainting tasks. However, it requires computing tensor singular value decomposition (t-SVD), which costs much computation and thus cannot efficiently handle tensor data, due to its natural large scale. Motivated by TNN, we propose a novel low-rank tensor factorization method for efficiently solving the 3-way tensor completion problem. Our method preserves the low-rank structure of a tensor by factorizing it into the product of two tensors of smaller sizes. In the optimization process, our method only needs to update two smaller tensors, which can be more efficiently conducted than computing t-SVD. Furthermore, we prove that the proposed alternating minimization algorithm can converge to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. Experimental results on the synthetic data recovery, image and video inpainting tasks clearly demonstrate the superior performance and efficiency of our developed method over state-of-the-arts including the TNN and matricization methods.

  1. Fast Graph Partitioning Active Contours for Image Segmentation Using Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath SumitK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a method to improve the accuracy and speed, as well as significantly reduce the memory requirements, for the recently proposed Graph Partitioning Active Contours (GPACs algorithm for image segmentation in the work of Sumengen and Manjunath (2006. Instead of computing an approximate but still expensive dissimilarity matrix of quadratic size, , for a 2D image of size and regular image tiles of size , we use fixed length histograms and an intensity-based symmetric-centrosymmetric extensor matrix to jointly compute terms associated with the complete dissimilarity matrix. This computationally efficient reformulation of GPAC using a very small memory footprint offers two distinct advantages over the original implementation. It speeds up convergence of the evolving active contour and seamlessly extends performance of GPAC to multidimensional images.

  2. White matter injury in newborns with congenital heart disease: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Ou, Xiawei; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Glasier, Charles M; Swearingen, Christopher J; Melguizo, Maria S; Yap, Vivien L; Schmitz, Michael L; Bhutta, Adnan T

    2014-09-01

    Brain injury is observed on cranial magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively in up to 50% of newborns with congenital heart disease. Newer imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging provide sensitive measures of the white matter integrity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diffusion tensor imaging analysis technique of tract-based spatial statistics in newborns with congenital heart disease. Term newborns with congenital heart disease who would require surgery at less than 1 month of age were prospectively enrolled (n = 19). Infants underwent preoperative and postoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics, an objective whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging analysis technique, was used to determine differences in white matter fractional anisotropy between infant groups. Term control infants were also compared with congenital heart disease infants. Postmenstrual age was equivalent between congenital heart disease infant groups and between congenital heart disease and control infants. Ten infants had preoperative brain injury, either infarct or white matter injury, by conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging. The technique of tract-based spatial statistics showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (P tensor imaging analysis technique that may have better sensitivity in detecting white matter injury compared with conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging in term newborns with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Homogeneity based segmentation and enhancement of Diffusion Tensor Images : a white matter processing framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    In diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) the Brownian motion of the water molecules, within biological tissue, is measured through a series of images. In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) this diffusion is represented using tensors. DTI describes, in a non-invasive way, the local anisotropy

  4. MRI histogram analysis enables objective and continuous classification of intervertebral disc degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenberg, Christian; Hebelka, Hanna; Brisby, Helena; Lagerstrand, Kerstin Magdalena

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best diagnostic imaging method for low back pain. However, the technique is currently not utilized in its full capacity, often failing to depict painful intervertebral discs (IVDs), potentially due to the rough degeneration classification system used clinically today. MR image histograms, which reflect the IVD heterogeneity, may offer sensitive imaging biomarkers for IVD degeneration classification. This study investigates the feasibility of using histogram analysis as means of objective and continuous grading of IVD degeneration. Forty-nine IVDs in ten low back pain patients (six males, 25-69 years) were examined with MRI (T2-weighted images and T2-maps). Each IVD was semi-automatically segmented on three mid-sagittal slices. Histogram features of the IVD were extracted from the defined regions of interest and correlated to Pfirrmann grade. Both T2-weighted images and T2-maps displayed similar histogram features. Histograms of well-hydrated IVDs displayed two separate peaks, representing annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus. Degenerated IVDs displayed decreased peak separation, where the separation was shown to correlate strongly with Pfirrmann grade (P histogram appearances. Histogram features correlated well with IVD degeneration, suggesting that IVD histogram analysis is a suitable tool for objective and continuous IVD degeneration classification. As histogram analysis revealed IVD heterogeneity, it may be a clinical tool for characterization of regional IVD degeneration effects. To elucidate the usefulness of histogram analysis in patient management, IVD histogram features between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals needs to be compared.

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of the nigrostriatal fibers in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wu, I-Wei; Buckley, Shannon; Coffey, Christopher S; Foster, Eric; Mendick, Susan; Seibyl, John; Schuff, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is histopathologically characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The depletion of these neurons is thought to reduce the dopaminergic function of the nigrostriatal pathway, as well as the neural fibers that link the substantia nigra to the striatum (putamen and caudate), causing a dysregulation in striatal activity that ultimately leads to lack of movement control. Based on diffusion tensor imaging, visualizing this pathway and measuring alterations of the fiber integrity remain challenging. The objectives were to 1) develop a diffusion tensor tractography protocol for reliably tracking the nigrostriatal fibers on multicenter data; 2) test whether the integrities measured by diffusion tensor imaging of the nigrostriatal fibers are abnormal in PD; and 3) test whether abnormal integrities of the nigrostriatal fibers in PD patients are associated with the severity of motor disability and putaminal dopamine binding ratios. Diffusion tensor tractography was performed on 50 drug-naïve PD patients and 27 healthy control subjects from the international multicenter Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative. Tractography consistently detected the nigrostriatal fibers, yielding reliable diffusion measures. Fractional anisotropy, along with radial and axial diffusivity of the nigrostriatal tract, showed systematic abnormalities in patients. In addition, variations in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity of the nigrostriatal tract were associated with the degree of motor deficits in PD patients. Taken together, the findings imply that the diffusion tensor imaging characteristic of the nigrostriatal tract is potentially an index for detecting and staging of early PD. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  7. Real-time MR diffusion tensor and Q-ball imaging using Kalman filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupon, C.; Roche, A.; Dubois, J.; Mangin, J.F.; Poupon, F.

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has become an established research tool for the investigation of tissue structure and orientation. In this paper, we present a method for real-time processing of diffusion tensor and Q-ball imaging. The basic idea is to use Kalman filtering framework to fit either the linear tensor or Q-ball model. Because the Kalman filter is designed to be an incremental algorithm, it naturally enables updating the model estimate after the acquisition of any new diffusion-weighted volume. Processing diffusion models and maps during ongoing scans provides a new useful tool for clinicians, especially when it is not possible to predict how long a subject may remain still in the magnet. First, we introduce the general linear models corresponding to the two diffusion tensor and analytical Q-ball models of interest. Then, we present the Kalman filtering framework and we focus on the optimization of the diffusion orientation sets in order to speed up the convergence of the online processing. Last, we give some results on a healthy volunteer for the online tensor and the Q-ball model, and we make some comparisons with the conventional offline techniques used in the literature. We could achieve full real-time for diffusion tensor imaging and deferred time for Q-ball imaging, using a single workstation. (authors)

  8. Tensor voting for image correction by global and local intensity alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a voting method to perform image correction by global and local intensity alignment. The key to our modeless approach is the estimation of global and local replacement functions by reducing the complex estimation problem to the robust 2D tensor voting in the corresponding voting spaces. No complicated model for replacement function (curve) is assumed. Subject to the monotonic constraint only, we vote for an optimal replacement function by propagating the curve smoothness constraint using a dense tensor field. Our method effectively infers missing curve segments and rejects image outliers. Applications using our tensor voting approach are proposed and described. The first application consists of image mosaicking of static scenes, where the voted replacement functions are used in our iterative registration algorithm for computing the best warping matrix. In the presence of occlusion, our replacement function can be employed to construct a visually acceptable mosaic by detecting occlusion which has large and piecewise constant color. Furthermore, by the simultaneous consideration of color matches and spatial constraints in the voting space, we perform image intensity compensation and high contrast image correction using our voting framework, when only two defective input images are given.

  9. Histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Correlation between quantitative parameters and clinical stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Quan; Ma, Gao; Wang, Yan-Jun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Shi, Hai-Bin; Wu, Fei-Yun

    2017-07-18

    To evaluate the correlation between histogram parameters derived from diffusion-kurtosis (DK) imaging and the clinical stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). High T-stage (T3/4) NPC showed significantly higher Kapp-mean (P = 0.018), Kapp-median (P = 0.029) and Kapp-90th (P = 0.003) than low T-stage (T1/2) NPC. High N-stage NPC (N2/3) showed significantly lower Dapp-mean (P = 0.002), Dapp-median (P = 0.002) and Dapp-10th (P Histogram parameters, including mean, median, 10th, 90th percentiles, skewness and kurtosis of Dapp and Kapp were calculated. Patients were divided into low and high T, N and clinical stage based on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Differences of histogram parameters between low and high T, N and AJCC stages were compared using t test. Multiple receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine and compare the value of significant parameters in predicting high T, N and AJCC stage, respectively. DK imaging-derived parameters correlated well with clinical stage of NPC, therefore could serve as an adjunctive imaging technique for evaluating NPC.

  10. Gaussian mixtures on tensor fields for segmentation: applications to medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Alberola-López, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for tensor field segmentation based on the definition of mixtures of Gaussians on tensors as a statistical model. Working over the well-known Geodesic Active Regions segmentation framework, this scheme presents several interesting advantages. First, it yields a more flexible model than the use of a single Gaussian distribution, which enables the method to better adapt to the complexity of the data. Second, it can work directly on tensor-valued images or, through a parallel scheme that processes independently the intensity and the local structure tensor, on scalar textured images. Two different applications have been considered to show the suitability of the proposed method for medical imaging segmentation. First, we address DT-MRI segmentation on a dataset of 32 volumes, showing a successful segmentation of the corpus callosum and favourable comparisons with related approaches in the literature. Second, the segmentation of bones from hand radiographs is studied, and a complete automatic-semiautomatic approach has been developed that makes use of anatomical prior knowledge to produce accurate segmentation results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the rectum: Correlations between single-section and whole-tumor histogram analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M H; Oh, S N; Park, G E; Yeo, D-M; Jung, S E

    2018-05-10

    To evaluate the interobserver and intermethod correlations of histogram metrics of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters acquired by multiple readers using the single-section and whole-tumor volume methods. Four DCE parameters (K trans , K ep , V e , V p ) were evaluated in 45 patients (31 men and 14 women; mean age, 61±11 years [range, 29-83 years]) with locally advanced rectal cancer using pre-chemoradiotherapy (CRT) MRI. Ten histogram metrics were extracted using two methods of lesion selection performed by three radiologists: the whole-tumor volume method for the whole tumor on axial section-by-section images and the single-section method for the entire area of the tumor on one axial image. The interobserver and intermethod correlations were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The ICCs showed excellent interobserver and intermethod correlations in most of histogram metrics of the DCE parameters. The ICCs among the three readers were > 0.7 (Phistogram metrics, except for the minimum and maximum. The intermethod correlations for most of the histogram metrics were excellent for each radiologist, regardless of the differences in the radiologists' experience. The interobserver and intermethod correlations for most of the histogram metrics of the DCE parameters are excellent in rectal cancer. Therefore, the single-section method may be a potential alternative to the whole-tumor volume method using pre-CRT MRI, despite the fact that the high agreement between the two methods cannot be extrapolated to post-CRT MRI. Copyright © 2018 Société française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. On Adapting the Tensor Voting Framework to Robust Color Image Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Garcia, Miguel Angel; Puig, Domenec; Julià, Carme

    This paper presents an adaptation of the tensor voting framework for color image denoising, while preserving edges. Tensors are used in order to encode the CIELAB color channels, the uniformity and the edginess of image pixels. A specific voting process is proposed in order to propagate color from a pixel to its neighbors by considering the distance between pixels, the perceptual color difference (by using an optimized version of CIEDE2000), a uniformity measurement and the likelihood of the pixels being impulse noise. The original colors are corrected with those encoded by the tensors obtained after the voting process. Peak to noise ratios and visual inspection show that the proposed methodology has a better performance than state-of-the-art techniques.

  13. DNA IMAGE CYTOMETRY IN PROGNOSTICATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER: PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE TECHNIQUE AND INTERPRETATION OF THE HISTOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbaset Buhmeida

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of DNA content as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC is highly controversial. Some of these controversies are due to purely technical reasons, e.g. variable practices in interpreting the DNA histograms, which is problematic particularly in advanced cases. In this report, we give a detailed account on various options how these histograms could be optimally interpreted, with the idea of establishing the potential value of DNA image cytometry in prognosis and in selection of proper treatment. Material consists of nuclei isolated from 50 ƒĘm paraffin sections from 160 patients with stage II, III or IV CRC diagnosed, treated and followed-up in our clinic. The nuclei were stained with the Feulgen stain. Nuclear DNA was measured using computer-assisted image cytometry. We applied 4 different approaches to analyse the DNA histograms: 1 appearance of the histogram (ABCDE approach, 2 range of DNA values, 3 peak evaluation, and 4 events present at high DNA values. Intra-observer reproducibility of these four histogram interpretation was 89%, 95%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. We depicted selected histograms to illustrate the four analytical approaches in cases with different stages of CRC, with variable disease outcome. In our analysis, the range of DNA values was the best prognosticator, i.e., the tumours with the widest histograms had the most ominous prognosis. These data implicate that DNA cytometry based on isolated nuclei is valuable in predicting the prognosis of CRC. Different interpretation techniques differed in their reproducibility, but the method showing the best prognostic value also had high reproducibility in our analysis.

  14. Infrared Contrast Enhancement Through Log-Power Histogram Modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Wu, T.

    2015-01-01

    A simple power-logarithm histogram modification operator is proposed to enhance infrared (IR) image contrast. The algorithm combines a logarithm operator that smoothes the input image histogram while retaining the relative ordering of the original bins, with a power operator that restores the

  15. [Research on K-means clustering segmentation method for MRI brain image based on selecting multi-peaks in gray histogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoxue; Yu, Haizhong; Chen, Hao

    2013-12-01

    To solve the problem of traditional K-means clustering in which initial clustering centers are selected randomly, we proposed a new K-means segmentation algorithm based on robustly selecting 'peaks' standing for White Matter, Gray Matter and Cerebrospinal Fluid in multi-peaks gray histogram of MRI brain image. The new algorithm takes gray value of selected histogram 'peaks' as the initial K-means clustering center and can segment the MRI brain image into three parts of tissue more effectively, accurately, steadily and successfully. Massive experiments have proved that the proposed algorithm can overcome many shortcomings caused by traditional K-means clustering method such as low efficiency, veracity, robustness and time consuming. The histogram 'peak' selecting idea of the proposed segmentootion method is of more universal availability.

  16. Comparison of Magnetic Susceptibility Tensor and Diffusion Tensor of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei

    2013-10-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) provides a novel approach for noninvasive assessment of the white matter pathways of the brain. Using mouse brain ex vivo , we compared STI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in terms of tensor values, principal tensor values, anisotropy values, and tensor orientations. Despite the completely different biophysical underpinnings, magnetic susceptibility tensors and diffusion tensors show many similarities in the tensor and principal tensor images, for example, the tensors perpendicular to the fiber direction have the highest gray-white matter contrast, and the largest principal tensor is along the fiber direction. Comparison to DTI fractional anisotropy, the susceptibility anisotropy provides much higher sensitivity to the chemical composition of the white matter, especially myelin. The high sensitivity can be further enhanced with the perfusion of ProHance, a gadolinium-based contrast agent. Regarding the tensor orientations, the direction of the largest principal susceptibility tensor agrees with that of diffusion tensors in major white matter fiber bundles. The STI fiber tractography can reconstruct the fiber pathways for the whole corpus callosum and for white matter fiber bundles that are in close contact but in different orientations. There are some differences between susceptibility and diffusion tensor orientations, which are likely due to the limitations in the current STI reconstruction. With the development of more accurate reconstruction methods, STI holds the promise for probing the white matter micro-architectures with more anatomical details and higher chemical sensitivity.

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging: Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis for detecting pathologic complete response to chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moon Hyung; Oh, Soon Nam; Rha, Sung Eun; Choi, Joon-Il; Lee, Sung Hak; Jang, Hong Seok; Kim, Jun-Gi; Grimm, Robert; Son, Yohan

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from histogram analysis of the whole rectal cancer as a quantitative parameter to evaluate pathologic complete response (pCR) on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We enrolled a total of 86 consecutive patients who had undergone surgery for rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) at our institution between July 2012 and November 2014. Two radiologists who were blinded to the final pathological results reviewed post-CRT MRI to evaluate tumor stage. Quantitative image analysis was performed using T2 -weighted and diffusion-weighted images independently by two radiologists using dedicated software that performed histogram analysis to assess the distribution of ADC in the whole tumor. After surgery, 16 patients were confirmed to have achieved pCR (18.6%). All parameters from pre- and post-CRT ADC histogram showed good or excellent agreement between two readers. The minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile and mean ADC from post-CRT ADC histogram were significantly higher in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group for both readers. The 25th percentile value from ADC histogram in post-CRT MRI had the best diagnostic performance for detecting pCR, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.796. Low percentile values derived from the ADC histogram analysis of rectal cancer on MRI after CRT showed a significant difference between pCR and non-pCR groups, demonstrating the utility of the ADC value as a quantitative and objective marker to evaluate complete pathologic response to preoperative CRT in rectal cancer. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:212-220. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Usefulness of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of White Matter in Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, S.; Kinoshita, T.; Matsusue, E.; Fujii, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging in detecting the water diffusivity caused by neuro pathological change in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with Alzheimer disease, 20 with vascular dementia, and 10 control subjects were examined. Diffusion tensor imaging applied diffusion gradient encoding in six non-collinear directions. Fractional anisotropy values were compared in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and anterior and posterior white matter among the three groups. Results: In the patients with Alzheimer disease, fractional anisotropy values of the posterior white matter were significantly lower than those of controls. In patients with vascular dementia, fractional anisotropy values of the anterior white matter tended to be lower than those of the posterior white matter (P=0.07). Conclusion: Diffusion tensor imaging reflects the neuro pathological changes in the white matter, and may be useful in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Keywords: Alzheimer disease, .; diffusion tensor imaging, .; vascular dementia

  19. Wavelength-Adaptive Dehazing Using Histogram Merging-Based Classification for UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inhye Yoon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results.

  20. Wavelength-adaptive dehazing using histogram merging-based classification for UAV images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Inhye; Jeong, Seokhwa; Jeong, Jaeheon; Seo, Doochun; Paik, Joonki

    2015-03-19

    Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i) image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii) generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii) intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results.

  1. Reproducibility of brain ADC histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steens, S.C.A.; Buchem, M.A. van; Admiraal-Behloul, F.; Schaap, J.A.; Hoogenraad, F.G.C.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.M.; Tofts, P.S.; Cessie, S. le

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of differences in acquisition technique on whole-brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters, as well as to assess scan-rescan reproducibility. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in 7 healthy subjects with b-values 0-800, 0-1000, and 0-1500 s/mm 2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) DWI with b-values 0-1000 s/mm 2 . All sequences were repeated with and without repositioning. The peak location, peak height, and mean ADC of the ADC histograms and mean ADC of a region of interest (ROI) in the white matter were compared using paired-sample t tests. Scan-rescan reproducibility was assessed using paired-sample t tests, and repeatability coefficients were reported. With increasing maximum b-values, ADC histograms shifted to lower values, with an increase in peak height (p<0.01). With FLAIR DWI, the ADC histogram shifted to lower values with a significantly higher, narrower peak (p<0.01), although the ROI mean ADC showed no significant differences. For scan-rescan reproducibility, no significant differences were observed. Different DWI pulse sequences give rise to different ADC histograms. With a given pulse sequence, however, ADC histogram analysis is a robust and reproducible technique. Using FLAIR DWI, the partial-voluming effect of cerebrospinal fluid, and thus its confounding effect on histogram analyses, can be reduced

  2. Image denoising using non linear diffusion tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzarti, F.; Amiri, H.

    2011-01-01

    Image denoising is an important pre-processing step for many image analysis and computer vision system. It refers to the task of recovering a good estimate of the true image from a degraded observation without altering and changing useful structure in the image such as discontinuities and edges. In this paper, we propose a new approach for image denoising based on the combination of two non linear diffusion tensors. One allows diffusion along the orientation of greatest coherences, while the other allows diffusion along orthogonal directions. The idea is to track perfectly the local geometry of the degraded image and applying anisotropic diffusion mainly along the preferred structure direction. To illustrate the effective performance of our model, we present some experimental results on a test and real photographic color images.

  3. Multi-site Study of Diffusion Metric Variability: Characterizing the Effects of Site, Vendor, Field Strength, and Echo Time using the Histogram Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, K. G.; Chou, M-C.; Preciado, R. I.; Gimi, B.; Rollins, N. K.; Song, A.; Turner, J.; Mori, S.

    2016-01-01

    MRI-based multi-site trials now routinely include some form of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in their protocol. These studies can include data originating from scanners built by different vendors, each with their own set of unique protocol restrictions, including restrictions on the number of available gradient directions, whether an externally-generated list of gradient directions can be used, and restrictions on the echo time (TE). One challenge of multi-site studies is to create a common imaging protocol that will result in a reliable and accurate set of diffusion metrics. The present study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two common metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA). We have shown in earlier work that ROI metrics and the mean of MD and FA histograms are not sufficiently sensitive for use in site characterization. Here we use the distance between whole brain histograms of FA and MD to investigate within- and between-site effects. We concluded that the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time could influence the results in multi-center trials and that histogram distance is sensitive metrics for each of these variables. PMID:27350723

  4. Multi-site Study of Diffusion Metric Variability: Characterizing the Effects of Site, Vendor, Field Strength, and Echo Time using the Histogram Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, K G; Chou, M-C; Preciado, R I; Gimi, B; Rollins, N K; Song, A; Turner, J; Mori, S

    2016-02-27

    MRI-based multi-site trials now routinely include some form of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in their protocol. These studies can include data originating from scanners built by different vendors, each with their own set of unique protocol restrictions, including restrictions on the number of available gradient directions, whether an externally-generated list of gradient directions can be used, and restrictions on the echo time (TE). One challenge of multi-site studies is to create a common imaging protocol that will result in a reliable and accurate set of diffusion metrics. The present study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two common metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA). We have shown in earlier work that ROI metrics and the mean of MD and FA histograms are not sufficiently sensitive for use in site characterization. Here we use the distance between whole brain histograms of FA and MD to investigate within- and between-site effects. We concluded that the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time could influence the results in multi-center trials and that histogram distance is sensitive metrics for each of these variables.

  5. Tensor valuations and their applications in stochastic geometry and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kiderlen, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to give an up-to-date introduction to tensor valuations and their applications. Starting with classical results concerning scalar-valued valuations on the families of convex bodies and convex polytopes, it proceeds to the modern theory of tensor valuations. Product and Fourier-type transforms are introduced and various integral formulae are derived. New and well-known results are presented, together with generalizations in several directions, including extensions to the non-Euclidean setting and to non-convex sets. A variety of applications of tensor valuations to models in stochastic geometry, to local stereology and to imaging are also discussed.

  6. Impact of the radiotherapy technique on the correlation between dose–volume histograms of the bladder wall defined on MRI imaging and dose–volume/surface histograms in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, Angelo; Carillo, Viviana; Perna, Lucia; Fiorino, Claudio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Gabriele, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the ‘true’ absolute and relative dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of the bladder wall, dose–wall histogram (DWH) defined on MRI imaging and other surrogates of bladder dosimetry in prostate cancer patients, planned both with 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. For 17 prostate cancer patients, previously treated with radical intent, CT and MRI scans were acquired and matched. The contours of bladder walls were drawn by using MRI images. External bladder surfaces were then used to generate artificial bladder walls by performing automatic contractions of 5, 7 and 10 mm. For each patient a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and an IMRT treatment plan was generated with a prescription dose of 77.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) and DVH of the whole bladder of the artificial walls (DVH-5/10) and dose–surface histograms (DSHs) were calculated and compared against the DWH in absolute and relative value, for both treatment planning techniques. A specific software (VODCA v. 4.4.0, MSS Inc.) was used for calculating the dose–volume/surface histogram. Correlation was quantified for selected dose–volume/surface parameters by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The agreement between %DWH and DVH5, DVH7 and DVH10 was found to be very good (maximum average deviations below 2%, SD < 5%): DVH5 showed the best agreement. The correlation was slightly better for absolute (R = 0.80–0.94) compared to relative (R = 0.66–0.92) histograms. The DSH was also found to be highly correlated with the DWH, although slightly higher deviations were generally found. The DVH was not a good surrogate of the DWH (R < 0.7 for most of parameters). When comparing the two treatment techniques, more pronounced differences between relative histograms were seen for IMRT with respect to 3DCRT (p < 0.0001). (note)

  7. Prediction of myelopathic level in cervical spondylotic myelopathy using diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Cui, Jiao-Long; Li, Han-Xiong; Luk, Keith D K; Hu, Yong

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the use of a newly designed machine learning-based classifier in the automatic identification of myelopathic levels in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). In all, 58 normal volunteers and 16 subjects with CSM were recruited for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisition. The eigenvalues were extracted as the selected features from DTI images. Three classifiers, naive Bayesian, support vector machine, and support tensor machine, and fractional anisotropy (FA) were employed to identify myelopathic levels. The results were compared with clinical level diagnosis results and accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to evaluate the performance of the developed classifiers. The accuracy by support tensor machine was the highest (93.62%) among the three classifiers. The support tensor machine also showed excellent capacity to identify true positives (sensitivity: 84.62%) and true negatives (specificity: 97.06%). The accuracy by FA value was the lowest (76%) in all the methods. The classifiers-based method using eigenvalues had a better performance in identifying the levels of CSM than the diagnosis using FA values. The support tensor machine was the best among three classifiers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Defect detection based on extreme edge of defective region histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhir Wakaf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic thresholding has been used by many applications in image processing and pattern recognition systems. Specific attention was given during inspection for quality control purposes in various industries like steel processing and textile manufacturing. Automatic thresholding problem has been addressed well by the commonly used Otsu method, which provides suitable results for thresholding images based on a histogram of bimodal distribution. However, the Otsu method fails when the histogram is unimodal or close to unimodal. Defects have different shapes and sizes, ranging from very small to large. The gray-level distributions of the image histogram can vary between unimodal and multimodal. Furthermore, Otsu-revised methods, like the valley-emphasis method and the background histogram mode extents, which overcome the drawbacks of the Otsu method, require preprocessing steps and fail to use the general threshold for multimodal defects. This study proposes a new automatic thresholding algorithm based on the acquisition of the defective region histogram and the selection of its extreme edge as the threshold value to segment all defective objects in the foreground from the image background. To evaluate the proposed defect-detection method, common standard images for experimentation were used. Experimental results of the proposed method show that the proposed method outperforms the current methods in terms of defect detection.

  9. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and fiber tractography of the sacral plexus in children with spina bifida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakma, Wieke; Dik, Pieter; ten Haken, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    anatomical and microstructural properties of the sacral plexus of patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients 8 to 16 years old with spina bifida underwent diffusion tensor imaging on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system...... diffusivity values at S1-S3 were significantly lower in patients. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study showed for the first time sacral plexus asymmetry and disorganization in 10 patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography...

  10. Novel region of interest interrogation technique for diffusion tensor imaging analysis in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jonathan Y; Middleton, Dana M; Chen, Steven; White, Leonard; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Dickson, Patricia; Vite, Charles; Bradbury, Allison; Provenzale, James M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose We describe a novel technique for measuring diffusion tensor imaging metrics in the canine brain. We hypothesized that a standard method for region of interest placement could be developed that is highly reproducible, with less than 10% difference in measurements between raters. Methods Two sets of canine brains (three seven-week-old full-brains and two 17-week-old single hemispheres) were scanned ex-vivo on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system. Strict region of interest placement criteria were developed and then used by two raters to independently measure diffusion tensor imaging metrics within four different white-matter regions within each specimen. Average values of fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and the three eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, and λ3) within each region in each specimen overall and within each individual image slice were compared between raters by calculating the percentage difference between raters for each metric. Results The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when pooled by each region and specimen was 1.44% (range: 0.01-5.17%). The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when compared by individual image slice was 2.23% (range: 0.75-4.58%) per hemisphere. Conclusion Our results indicate that the technique described is highly reproducible, even when applied to canine specimens of differing age, morphology, and image resolution. We propose this technique for future studies of diffusion tensor imaging analysis in canine brains and for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of canine brain models of human central nervous system disease.

  11. Landmark Detection in Orbital Images Using Salience Histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Panetta, Julian; Schorghofer, Norbert; Greeley, Ronald; PendletonHoffer, Mary; bunte, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    NASA's planetary missions have collected, and continue to collect, massive volumes of orbital imagery. The volume is such that it is difficult to manually review all of the data and determine its significance. As a result, images are indexed and searchable by location and date but generally not by their content. A new automated method analyzes images and identifies "landmarks," or visually salient features such as gullies, craters, dust devil tracks, and the like. This technique uses a statistical measure of salience derived from information theory, so it is not associated with any specific landmark type. It identifies regions that are unusual or that stand out from their surroundings, so the resulting landmarks are context-sensitive areas that can be used to recognize the same area when it is encountered again. A machine learning classifier is used to identify the type of each discovered landmark. Using a specified window size, an intensity histogram is computed for each such window within the larger image (sliding the window across the image). Next, a salience map is computed that specifies, for each pixel, the salience of the window centered at that pixel. The salience map is thresholded to identify landmark contours (polygons) using the upper quartile of salience values. Descriptive attributes are extracted for each landmark polygon: size, perimeter, mean intensity, standard deviation of intensity, and shape features derived from an ellipse fit.

  12. Homogeneity based segmentation and enhancement of Diffusion Tensor Images : a white matter processing framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    In diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) the Brownian motion of the water molecules, within biological tissue, is measured through a series of images. In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) this diffusion is represented using tensors. DTI describes, in a non-invasive way, the local anisotropy pattern enabling the reconstruction of the nervous fibers - dubbed tractography. DMRI constitutes a powerful tool to analyse the structure of the white matter within a voxel, but also to investigate the...

  13. Efficient tensor completion for color image and video recovery: Low-rank tensor train

    OpenAIRE

    Bengua, Johann A.; Phien, Ho N.; Tuan, Hoang D.; Do, Minh N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to tensor completion, which recovers missing entries of data represented by tensors. The approach is based on the tensor train (TT) rank, which is able to capture hidden information from tensors thanks to its definition from a well-balanced matricization scheme. Accordingly, new optimization formulations for tensor completion are proposed as well as two new algorithms for their solution. The first one called simple low-rank tensor completion via tensor tra...

  14. AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE WHITE MATTER CONNECTIVITY BASED ON THE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY AND THE VOLUMETRIC WHITE MATTER PARCELLATIONS BASED ON DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Lee, Hyekyoung; Chung, Moo K.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Avants, Brian B.; Gee, James C.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating white matter connectivity using a novel computational framework that does not use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) but only uses T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed method relies on correlating Jacobian determinants across different voxels based on the tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework. In this paper, we show agreement between the TBM-based white matter connectivity and the DTI-based white matter atlas. As an application, altered white ...

  15. Image processing tensor transform and discrete tomography with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoryan, Artyom M

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on mathematical methods in computer tomography, Image Processing: Tensor Transform and Discrete Tomography with MATLAB(R) introduces novel approaches to help in solving the problem of image reconstruction on the Cartesian lattice. Specifically, it discusses methods of image processing along parallel rays to more quickly and accurately reconstruct images from a finite number of projections, thereby avoiding overradiation of the body during a computed tomography (CT) scan. The book presents several new ideas, concepts, and methods, many of which have not been published elsewhere. New co

  16. SUPERVISED AUTOMATIC HISTOGRAM CLUSTERING AND WATERSHED SEGMENTATION. APPLICATION TO MICROSCOPIC MEDICAL COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lezoray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to the segmentation of microscopic color images is addressed, and applied to medical images. The approach combines a clustering method and a region growing method. Each color plane is segmented independently relying on a watershed based clustering of the plane histogram. The marginal segmentation maps intersect in a label concordance map. The latter map is simplified based on the assumption that the color planes are correlated. This produces a simplified label concordance map containing labeled and unlabeled pixels. The formers are used as an image of seeds for a color watershed. This fast and robust segmentation scheme is applied to several types of medical images.

  17. ANALISA PENINGKATAN KUALITAS CITRA BAWAH AIR BERBASIS KOREKSI GAMMA dan HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Hendrawan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Underwater image of water quality in the dark, it depends on the depth of water at the time of image acquisition or image. The results of the image quality is adversely affecting the results matching the image pairs underwater with SIFT algorithm. This research aims to use the method of image preprocessing and Histogram Equalization Gamma Correction that works to improve the quality of images underwater. The results showed 27.76% increase using image preprocessing Gamma Correction and Histogram Equalization compared with no increase in image quality. Results of paired t-test has the null hypothesis is rejected so that there is a significant difference between the application of Gamma Correction Histogram Equalization with and without image enhancement.

  18. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Asymptomatic Lumbar Disc Herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Toshinori; Miyagi, Ryo; Yamabe, Eiko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Bhatia, Nitin N.; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performedon a healthy 31-year-old man with asymptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Althoughthe left S1 nerve root was obviously entrapped by a herniated mass, neither DWI nor DTI showed any significant findings for the nerve root. Decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were found. These results are contrary to those in previously published studies of symptomatic...

  19. Imaging Arterial Fibres Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging—Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerskens Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI was used to analyze the fibrous structure of aortic tissue. A fresh porcine aorta was imaged at 7T using a spin echo sequence with the following parameters: matrix 128 128 pixel; slice thickness 0.5 mm; interslice spacing 0.1 mm; number of slices 16; echo time 20.3 s; field of view 28 mm 28 mm. Eigenvectors from the diffusion tensor images were calculated for the central image slice and the averaged tensors and the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue showed two distinct angles corresponding to near and to the transverse plane of the aorta. Fibre tractography within the aortic volume imaged confirmed that fibre angles were oriented helically with lead angles of and . The findings correspond to current histological and microscopy data on the fibrous structure of aortic tissue, and therefore the eigenvector maps and fibre tractography appear to reflect the alignment of the fibers in the aorta. In view of current efforts to develop noninvasive diagnostic tools for cardiovascular diseases, DTI may offer a technique to assess the structural properties of arterial tissue and hence any changes or degradation in arterial tissue.

  20. Comparative study of pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling and dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging by histogram analysis in evaluation of glial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisawa, Atsuko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Hisashi; Takahashi, Hiroto; Matsuo, Chisato; Fujiwara, Takuya; Fujiwara, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2018-06-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive perfusion technique that may be an alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) for assessment of brain tumors. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on histogram analysis of ASL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ASL is comparable with DSC-MRI in terms of differentiating high-grade and low-grade gliomas by evaluating the histogram analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the entire tumor. Thirty-four patients with pathologically proven glioma underwent ASL and DSC-MRI. High-signal areas on contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted images or high-intensity areas on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were designated as the volumes of interest (VOIs). ASL-CBF, DSC-CBF, and DSC-cerebral blood volume maps were constructed and co-registered to the VOI. Perfusion histogram analyses of the whole VOI and statistical analyses were performed to compare the ASL and DSC images. There was no significant difference in the mean values for any of the histogram metrics in both of the low-grade gliomas (n = 15) and the high-grade gliomas (n = 19). Strong correlations were seen in the 75th percentile, mean, median, and standard deviation values between the ASL and DSC images. The area under the curve values tended to be greater for the DSC images than for the ASL images. DSC-MRI is superior to ASL for distinguishing high-grade from low-grade glioma. ASL could be an alternative evaluation method when DSC-MRI cannot be used, e.g., in patients with renal failure, those in whom repeated examination is required, and in children.

  1. Spatial Mapping of Translational Diffusion Coefficients Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Mathematical Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Anil N; Chiang, Sharon; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Kasprian, Gregor; Vannucci, Marina; Lee, Wesley

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the theoretical background for diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Molecular diffusion is a random process involving thermal Brownian motion. In biological tissues, the underlying microstructures restrict the diffusion of water molecules, making diffusion directionally dependent. Water diffusion in tissue is mathematically characterized by the diffusion tensor, the elements of which contain information about the magnitude and direction of diffusion and is a function of the coordinate system. Thus, it is possible to generate contrast in tissue based primarily on diffusion effects. Expressing diffusion in terms of the measured diffusion coefficient (eigenvalue) in any one direction can lead to errors. Nowhere is this more evident than in white matter, due to the preferential orientation of myelin fibers. The directional dependency is removed by diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, which then yields a set of three eigenvalues and eigenvectors, representing the magnitude and direction of the three orthogonal axes of the diffusion ellipsoid, respectively. For example, the eigenvalue corresponding to the eigenvector along the long axis of the fiber corresponds qualitatively to diffusion with least restriction. Determination of the principal values of the diffusion tensor and various anisotropic indices provides structural information. We review the use of diffusion measurements using the modified Stejskal-Tanner diffusion equation. The anisotropy is analyzed by decomposing the diffusion tensor based on symmetrical properties describing the geometry of diffusion tensor. We further describe diffusion tensor properties in visualizing fiber tract organization of the human brain.

  2. Combining voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmbeck, Jan T; Brassen, Stefanie; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-04-03

    The present study combined optimized voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes. We compared grey matter density maps (grey matter voxel-based morphometry) and white matter fractional anisotropy maps (diffusion tensor imaging-voxel-based morphometry) between two groups of 17 younger and 17 older women. Older women exhibited reduced white matter fractional anisotropy as well as decreased grey matter density most prominently in the frontal, limbic, parietal and temporal lobes. A discriminant analysis identified four frontal and limbic grey and white matter areas that separated the two groups most effectively. We conclude that grey matter voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based morphometry are well suited for the detection of age-related changes and their combination provides high accuracy when detecting the neural correlates of aging.

  3. [Characteristics of high resolution diffusion weighted imaging apparent diffusion coefficient histogram and its correlations with cancer stages in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G J; Wang, Y; Ye, Y; Chen, F; Lu, Y T; Li, S L

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To investigate the features of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters based on entire tumor volume data in high resolution diffusion weighted imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to evaluate its correlations with cancer stages. Methods: This retrospective study included 154 cases of NPC patients[102 males and 52 females, mean age (48±11) years]who had received readout segmentation of long variable echo trains of MRI scan before radiation therapy. The area of tumor was delineated on each section of axial ADC maps to generate ADC histogram by using Image J. ADC histogram of entire tumor along with the histogram parameters-the tumor voxels, ADC(mean), ADC(25%), ADC(50%), ADC(75%), skewness and kurtosis were obtained by merging all sections with SPSS 22.0 software. Intra-observer repeatability was assessed by using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). The patients were subdivided into two groups according to cancer volume: small cancer group (histogram parameters and cancer stages was evaluated with Spearman test. Results: The ICC of measuring ADC histogram parameters of tumor voxels, ADC(mean), ADC(25%), ADC(50%), ADC(75%), skewness, kurtosis was 0.938, 0.861, 0.885, 0.838, 0.836, 0.358 and 0.456, respectively. The tumor voxels was positively correlated with T staging ( r =0.368, P histogram (ADC(mean), ADC(25%), ADC(50%)) increases with T staging in NPC smaller than 2 cm(3).

  4. Histogram-Based Thresholding for Detection and Quantification of Hemorrhages in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Fadhel Hamdan Jaafar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal image analysis is commonly used for the detection and quantification of retinal diabetic retinopathy. In retinal images, dark lesions including hemorrhages and microaneurysms are the earliest warnings of vision loss. In this paper, new algorithm for extraction and quantification of hemorrhages in fundus images is presented. Hemorrhage candidates are extracted in a preliminary step as a coarse segmentation followed by a fine segmentation step. Local variation processes are applied in the coarse segmentation step to determine boundaries of all candidates with distinct edges. Fine segmentation processes are based on histogram thresholding to extract real hemorrhages from the segmented candidates locally. The proposed method was trained and tested using an image dataset of 153 manually labeled retinal images. At the pixel level, the proposed method could identify abnormal retinal images with 90.7% sensitivity and 85.1% predictive value. Due to its distinctive performance measurements, this technique demonstrates that it could be used for a computer-aided mass screening of retinal diseases.

  5. Yet Another Method for Image Segmentation based on Histograms and Heuristics

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    Horia-Nicolai L. Teodorescu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a method for image segmentation that requires little computations, yet providing comparable results to other methods. While the proposed method resembles to the known ones based on histograms, it is still different in the use of the gray level distribution. When to the basic procedure we add several heuristic rules, the method produces results that, in some cases, may outperform the results produced by the known methods. The paper reports preliminary results. More details on the method, improvements, and results will be presented in a future paper.

  6. AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE WHITE MATTER CONNECTIVITY BASED ON THE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY AND THE VOLUMETRIC WHITE MATTER PARCELLATIONS BASED ON DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Lee, Hyekyoung; Chung, Moo K; Hanson, Jamie L; Avants, Brian B; Gee, James C; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating white matter connectivity using a novel computational framework that does not use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) but only uses T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed method relies on correlating Jacobian determinants across different voxels based on the tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework. In this paper, we show agreement between the TBM-based white matter connectivity and the DTI-based white matter atlas. As an application, altered white matter connectivity in a clinical population is determined.

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging with direct cytopathological validation: characterisation of decorin treatment in experimental juvenile communicating hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aojula, Anuriti; Botfield, Hannah; McAllister, James Patterson; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Abdullah, Osama; Logan, Ann; Sinclair, Alexandra

    2016-05-31

    In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculomegaly; however decorin's ability to prevent cerebral cytopathology in communicating hydrocephalus has not been fully examined. Furthermore, the capacity for diffusion tensor imaging to act as a proxy measure of cerebral pathology in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury has recently been demonstrated. However, the use of diffusion tensor imaging to investigate cytopathological changes in communicating hydrocephalus is yet to occur. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether decorin treatment influences alterations in diffusion tensor imaging parameters and cytopathology in experimental communicating hydrocephalus. Moreover, the study also explored whether diffusion tensor imaging parameters correlate with cellular pathology in communicating hydrocephalus. Accordingly, communicating hydrocephalus was induced by injecting kaolin into the basal cisterns in 3-week old rats followed immediately by 14 days of continuous intraventricular delivery of either human recombinant decorin (n = 5) or vehicle (n = 6). Four rats remained as intact controls and a further four rats served as kaolin only controls. At 14-days post-kaolin, just prior to sacrifice, routine magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging was conducted and the mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, radial and axial diffusivity of seven cerebral regions were assessed by voxel-based analysis in the corpus callosum, periventricular white matter, caudal internal capsule, CA1 hippocampus, and outer and inner parietal cortex. Myelin integrity, gliosis and aquaporin-4 levels were evaluated by post-mortem immunohistochemistry in the CA3 hippocampus and in the caudal brain of the same cerebral structures analysed by diffusion tensor imaging. Decorin significantly

  8. Data quality in diffusion tensor imaging studies of the preterm brain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterman, Kay; Plaisier, Annemarie; Govaert, Paul; Leemans, Alexander; Lequin, Maarten H.; Dudink, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Background To study early neurodevelopment in preterm infants, evaluation of brain maturation and injury is increasingly performed using diffusion tensor imaging, for which the reliability of underlying data is paramount. Objective To review the literature to evaluate acquisition and processing methodology in diffusion tensor imaging studies of preterm infants. Materials and methods We searched the Embase, Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane databases for relevant papers published between 20...

  9. Imaging Arterial Fibres Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging—Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran K. Simms

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI was used to analyze the fibrous structure of aortic tissue. A fresh porcine aorta was imaged at 7T using a spin echo sequence with the following parameters: matrix 128 × 128 pixel; slice thickness 0.5 mm; interslice spacing 0.1 mm; number of slices 16; echo time 20.3 s; field of view 28 mm × 28 mm. Eigenvectors from the diffusion tensor images were calculated for the central image slice and the averaged tensors and the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue showed two distinct angles corresponding to near 0∘ and 180∘ to the transverse plane of the aorta. Fibre tractography within the aortic volume imaged confirmed that fibre angles were oriented helically with lead angles of 15±2.5∘ and 175±2.5∘. The findings correspond to current histological and microscopy data on the fibrous structure of aortic tissue, and therefore the eigenvector maps and fibre tractography appear to reflect the alignment of the fibers in the aorta. In view of current efforts to develop noninvasive diagnostic tools for cardiovascular diseases, DTI may offer a technique to assess the structural properties of arterial tissue and hence any changes or degradation in arterial tissue.

  10. Measurement of susceptibility artifacts with histogram-based reference value on magnetic resonance images according to standard ASTM F2119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Teichgräber, Ulf K; Güttler, Felix V

    2015-12-01

    The standard ASTM F2119 describes a test method for measuring the size of a susceptibility artifact based on the example of a passive implant. A pixel in an image is considered to be a part of an image artifact if the intensity is changed by at least 30% in the presence of a test object, compared to a reference image in which the test object is absent (reference value). The aim of this paper is to simplify and accelerate the test method using a histogram-based reference value. Four test objects were scanned parallel and perpendicular to the main magnetic field, and the largest susceptibility artifacts were measured using two methods of reference value determination (reference image-based and histogram-based reference value). The results between both methods were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The difference between both reference values was 42.35 ± 23.66. The difference of artifact size was 0.64 ± 0.69 mm. The artifact sizes of both methods did not show significant differences; the p-value of the Mann-Whitney U-test was between 0.710 and 0.521. A standard-conform method for a rapid, objective, and reproducible evaluation of susceptibility artifacts could be implemented. The result of the histogram-based method does not significantly differ from the ASTM-conform method.

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking with reliable tracking orientation and flexible step size☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Manning; Chen, Xinrong; Nie, Shengdong; Li, Zhexu; Xu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xuelong; Song, Zhijian

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method of reliable tracking orientation and flexible step size fiber tracking. A new directional strategy was defined to select one optimal tracking orientation from each directional set, which was based on the single-tensor model and the two-tensor model. The directional set of planar voxels contained three tracking directions: two from the two-tensor model and one from the single-tensor model. The directional set of linear voxels contained only one principal vector. In addition, a flexible step size, rather than fixable step sizes, was implemented to improve the accuracy of fiber tracking. We used two sets of human data to assess the performance of our method; one was from a healthy volunteer and the other from a patient with low-grade glioma. Results verified that our method was superior to the single-tensor Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking and the two-tensor eXtended Streamline Tractography for showing detailed images of fiber bundles. PMID:25206444

  12. MR imaging and ultrasonographic findings of tensor fasciae suralis muscle: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keun Ho; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The tensor fasciae suralis muscle is a very rare anomalous muscle located in the popliteal region. This anatomic variation has been reported often through cadaver studies. However, there are only a few radiologic reports of this entity. We presented a case of tensor fasciae suralis muscle detected as an incidental finding in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound.

  13. Whole-tumour diffusion kurtosis MR imaging histogram analysis of rectal adenocarcinoma: Correlation with clinical pathologic prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanfen; Yang, Xiaotang; Du, Xiaosong; Zhuo, Zhizheng; Xin, Lei; Cheng, Xintao

    2018-04-01

    To investigate potential relationships between diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)-derived parameters using whole-tumour volume histogram analysis and clinicopathological prognostic factors in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. 79 consecutive patients who underwent MRI examination with rectal adenocarcinoma were retrospectively evaluated. Parameters D, K and conventional ADC were measured using whole-tumour volume histogram analysis. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test, receiver operating characteristic curves and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. Almost all the percentile metrics of K were correlated positively with nodal involvement, higher histological grades, the presence of lymphangiovascular invasion (LVI) and circumferential margin (CRM) (phistogram analysis, especially K parameters, were associated with important prognostic factors of rectal cancer. • K correlated positively with some important prognostic factors of rectal cancer. • K mean showed higher AUC and specificity for differentiation of nodal involvement. • DKI metrics with whole-tumour volume histogram analysis depicted tumour heterogeneity.

  14. A review of anisotropic conductivity models of brain white matter based on diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhanxiong; Liu, Yang; Hong, Ming; Yu, Xiaohui

    2018-06-01

    The conductivity of brain tissues is not only essential for electromagnetic source estimation (ESI), but also a key reflector of the brain functional changes. Different from the other brain tissues, the conductivity of whiter matter (WM) is highly anisotropic and a tensor is needed to describe it. The traditional electrical property imaging methods, such as electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), usually fail to image the anisotropic conductivity tensor of WM with high spatial resolution. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a newly developed technique that can fulfill this purpose. This paper reviews the existing anisotropic conductivity models of WM based on the DTI and discusses their advantages and disadvantages, as well as identifies opportunities for future research on this subject. It is crucial to obtain the linear conversion coefficient between the eigenvalues of anisotropic conductivity tensor and diffusion tensor, since they share the same eigenvectors. We conclude that the electrochemical model is suitable for ESI analysis because the conversion coefficient can be directly obtained from the concentration of ions in extracellular liquid and that the volume fraction model is appropriate to study the influence of WM structural changes on electrical conductivity. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  15. ADC histogram analysis for adrenal tumor histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient in differentiating adrenal adenoma from pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanodan, Tomokazu; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Kumagae, Yuichi; Shindo, Toshikazu; Nakajo, Masatoyo; Takumi, Koji; Nakajo, Masanori; Hakamada, Hiroto; Umanodan, Aya; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiating adrenal adenoma from pheochromocytoma. We retrospectively evaluated 52 adrenal tumors (39 adenomas and 13 pheochromocytomas) in 47 patients (21 men, 26 women; mean age, 59.3 years; range, 16-86 years) who underwent DW 3.0T MRI. Histogram parameters of ADC (b-values of 0 and 200 [ADC 200 ], 0 and 400 [ADC 400 ], and 0 and 800 s/mm 2 [ADC 800 ])-mean, variance, coefficient of variation (CV), kurtosis, skewness, and entropy-were compared between adrenal adenomas and pheochromocytomas, using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the histogram parameters were generated to differentiate adrenal adenomas from pheochromocytomas. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using a threshold criterion that would maximize the average of sensitivity and specificity. Variance and CV of ADC 800 were significantly higher in pheochromocytomas than in adrenal adenomas (P histogram parameters for diagnosing adrenal adenomas (ADC 200 , 0.82; ADC 400 , 0.87; and ADC 800 , 0.92), with sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 84.6% (cutoff, ≤2.82) with ADC 200 ; sensitivity of 89.7% and specificity of 84.6% (cutoff, ≤2.77) with ADC 400 ; and sensitivity of 94.9% and specificity of 92.3% (cutoff, ≤2.67) with ADC 800 . ADC histogram analysis of DW MRI can help differentiate adrenal adenoma from pheochromocytoma. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:1195-1203. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging using multiple coils for mouse brain connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouls, John C; Badea, Alexandra; Anderson, Robert B J; Cofer, Gary P; Allan Johnson, G

    2018-04-19

    The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner. Preservation of the quality factor of each coil is essential to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance and throughput, because mouse brain specimen imaging at 7 T takes place in the coil-dominated noise regime. In that regime, we show a shielding configuration causing no SNR degradation in the two-coil system. To acquire data from several coils simultaneously, the coils are placed in the magnet bore, around the isocenter, in which gradient field distortions can bias diffusion tensor imaging metrics, affect tractography and contaminate measurements of the connectivity matrix. We quantified the experimental alterations in fractional anisotropy and eigenvector direction occurring in each coil. We showed that, when the coils were placed 12 mm away from the isocenter, measurements of the brain connectivity matrix appeared to be minimally altered by gradient field distortions. Simultaneous measurements on two mouse brain specimens demonstrated a full doubling of the diffusion tensor imaging throughput in practice. Each coil produced images devoid of shading or artifact. To further improve the throughput of mouse brain connectomics, we suggested a future expansion of the system to four coils. To better understand acceptable trade-offs between imaging throughput and connectivity

  17. Whole Tumor Histogram-profiling of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images Reflects Tumorbiological Features of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schob, Stefan; Münch, Benno; Dieckow, Julia; Quäschling, Ulf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Richter, Cindy; Garnov, Nikita; Frydrychowicz, Clara; Krause, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Surov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) quantifies motion of hydrogen nuclei in biological tissues and hereby has been used to assess the underlying tissue microarchitecture. Histogram-profiling of DWI provides more detailed information on diffusion characteristics of a lesion than the standardly calculated values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-minimum, mean and maximum. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate, which parameters of histogram-profiling of DWI in primary central nervous system lymphoma can be used to specifically predict features like cellular density, chromatin content and proliferative activity. Pre-treatment ADC maps of 21 PCNSL patients (8 female, 13 male, 28-89 years) from a 1.5T system were used for Matlab-based histogram profiling. Results of histopathology (H&E staining) and immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 expression) were quantified. Correlations between histogram-profiling parameters and neuropathologic examination were calculated using SPSS 23.0. The lower percentiles (p10 and p25) showed significant correlations with structural parameters of the neuropathologic examination (cellular density, chromatin content). The highest percentile, p90, correlated significantly with Ki-67 expression, resembling proliferative activity. Kurtosis of the ADC histogram correlated significantly with cellular density. Histogram-profiling of DWI in PCNSL provides a comprehensible set of parameters, which reflect distinct tumor-architectural and tumor-biological features, and hence, are promising biomarkers for treatment response and prognosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Principles and implementation of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Timothy P.L.; Schwartz, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    We review the physiological basis of diffusion-weighted imaging and discuss the implementation of diffusion-weighted imaging pulse sequences and the subsequent postprocessing to yield quantitative estimations of diffusion parameters. We also introduce the concept of directionality of ''apparent'' diffusion in vivo and the means of assessing such anisotropy quantitatively. This in turn leads to the methodological application of diffusion tensor imaging and the subsequent postprocessing, known as tractography. The following articles deal with the clinical applications enabled by such methodologies. (orig.)

  19. Retrospective correction of bias in diffusion tensor imaging arising from coil combination mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaie, Ken; Lowe, Mark

    2017-04-01

    To quantify and retrospectively correct for systematic differences in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements due to differences in coil combination mode. Multi-channel coils are now standard among MRI systems. There are several options for combining signal from multiple coils during image reconstruction, including sum-of-squares (SOS) and adaptive combine (AC). This contribution examines the bias between SOS- and AC-derived measures of tissue microstructure and a strategy for limiting that bias. Five healthy subjects were scanned under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Each set of raw image data was reconstructed twice-once with SOS and once with AC. The diffusion tensor was calculated from SOS- and AC-derived data by two algorithms-standard log-linear least squares and an approach that accounts for the impact of coil combination on signal statistics. Systematic differences between SOS and AC in terms of tissue microstructure (axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) were evaluated on a voxel-by-voxel basis. SOS-based tissue microstructure values are systematically lower than AC-based measures throughout the brain in each subject when using the standard tensor calculation method. The difference between SOS and AC can be virtually eliminated by taking into account the signal statistics associated with coil combination. The impact of coil combination mode on diffusion tensor-based measures of tissue microstructure is statistically significant but can be corrected retrospectively. The ability to do so is expected to facilitate pooling of data among imaging protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Underwater Image Enhancement by Adaptive Gray World and Differential Gray-Levels Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WONG, S.-L.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most underwater images tend to be dominated by a single color cast. This paper presents a solution to remove the color cast and improve the contrast in underwater images. However, after the removal of the color cast using Gray World (GW method, the resultant image is not visually pleasing. Hence, we propose an integrated approach using Adaptive GW (AGW and Differential Gray-Levels Histogram Equalization (DHE that operate in parallel. The AGW is applied to remove the color cast while DHE is used to improve the contrast of the underwater image. The outputs of both chromaticity components of AGW and intensity components of DHE are combined to form the enhanced image. The results of the proposed method are compared with three existing methods using qualitative and quantitative measures. The proposed method increased the visibility of underwater images and in most cases produces better quantitative scores when compared to the three existing methods.

  1. Tensor eigenvalues and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Liqun; Chen, Yannan

    2018-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to applications prompted by tensor analysis, especially by the spectral tensor theory developed in recent years. It covers applications of tensor eigenvalues in multilinear systems, exponential data fitting, tensor complementarity problems, and tensor eigenvalue complementarity problems. It also addresses higher-order diffusion tensor imaging, third-order symmetric and traceless tensors in liquid crystals, piezoelectric tensors, strong ellipticity for elasticity tensors, and higher-order tensors in quantum physics. This book is a valuable reference resource for researchers and graduate students who are interested in applications of tensor eigenvalues.

  2. Value of MR histogram analyses for prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Qin; Liang, He-Yue; Yang, Zhao-Xia; Ding, Ying; Zeng, Meng-Su; Rao, Sheng-Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The objective is to explore the value of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) histogram analyses in predicting microvascular invasion (MVI) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Fifty-one patients with histologically confirmed HCC who underwent diffusion-weighted and contrast-enhanced MR imaging were included. Histogram analyses were performed and mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, 1th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 99th percentiles were derived. Quantitative histogram parameters were compared between HCCs with and without MVI. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were generated to compare the diagnostic performance of tumor size, histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and MR enhancement.The mean, 1th, 10th, and 50th percentiles of ADC maps, and the mean, variance. 1th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 99th percentiles of the portal venous phase (PVP) images were significantly different between the groups with and without MVI (P histogram analyses-in particular for 1th percentile for PVP images-held promise for prediction of MVI of HCC.

  3. Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Application to the Study of the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Carissa J.; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its application to the study of white matter in the developing brain in both healthy and clinical samples. Method: The development of DTI and its application to brain imaging of white matter tracts is discussed. Forty-eight studies using DTI to examine diffusion properties of…

  4. Whole-tumor histogram analysis of the cerebral blood volume map: tumor volume defined by 11C-methionine positron emission tomography image improves the diagnostic accuracy of cerebral glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongli; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Arisawa, Atsuko; Takahashi, Hiroto; Tanaka, Hisashi; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Watabe, Tadashi; Isohashi, Kayako; Hatazawa, Jun; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the tumor volume definition using conventional magnetic resonance (MR) and 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET/PET) images in the differentiation of the pre-operative glioma grade by using whole-tumor histogram analysis of normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) maps. Thirty-four patients with histopathologically proven primary brain low-grade gliomas (n = 15) and high-grade gliomas (n = 19) underwent pre-operative or pre-biopsy MET/PET, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted at 3.0 T. The histogram distribution derived from the nCBV maps was obtained by co-registering the whole tumor volume delineated on conventional MR or MET/PET images, and eight histogram parameters were assessed. The mean nCBV value had the highest AUC value (0.906) based on MET/PET images. Diagnostic accuracy significantly improved when the tumor volume was measured from MET/PET images compared with conventional MR images for the parameters of mean, 50th, and 75th percentile nCBV value (p = 0.0246, 0.0223, and 0.0150, respectively). Whole-tumor histogram analysis of CBV map provides more valuable histogram parameters and increases diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of pre-operative cerebral gliomas when the tumor volume is derived from MET/PET images.

  5. Susceptibility tensor imaging and tractography of collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongjiang; Gibbs, Eric; Zhao, Peida; Wang, Nian; Cofer, Gary P; Zhang, Yuyao; Johnson, G Allan; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the B 0 orientation-dependent magnetic susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular cartilage and to determine whether susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) can detect the 3D collagen network within cartilage. Multiecho gradient echo datasets (100-μm isotropic resolution) were acquired from fixed porcine articular cartilage specimens at 9.4 T. The susceptibility tensor was calculated using phase images acquired at 12 or 15 different orientations relative to B 0 . The susceptibility anisotropy of the collagen fibril was quantified and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was compared against STI. 3D tractography was performed to visualize and track the collagen fibrils with DTI and STI. STI experiments showed the distinct and significant anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular cartilage. STI can be used to measure and quantify susceptibility anisotropy maps. Furthermore, STI provides orientation information of the underlying collagen network via 3D tractography. The findings of this study demonstrate that STI can characterize the orientation variation of collagen fibrils where diffusion anisotropy fails. We believe that STI could serve as a sensitive and noninvasive marker to study the collagen fibrils microstructure. Magn Reson Med 78:1683-1690, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Comparison of source moment tensor recovered by diffraction stacking migration and source time reversal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Diffraction stacking migration is an automatic location methods and widely used in microseismic monitoring of the hydraulic fracturing. It utilizes the stacking of thousands waveform to enhance signal-to-noise ratio of weak events. For surface monitoring, the diffraction stacking method is suffered from polarity reverse among receivers due to radiation pattern of moment source. Joint determination of location and source mechanism has been proposed to overcome the polarity problem but needs significantly increased computational calculations. As an effective method to recover source moment tensor, time reversal imaging based on wave equation can locate microseismic event by using interferometry on the image to extract source position. However, the time reversal imaging is very time consuming compared to the diffraction stacking location because of wave-equation simulation.In this study, we compare the image from diffraction stacking and time reversal imaging to check if the diffraction stacking can obtain similar moment tensor as time reversal imaging. We found that image produced by taking the largest imaging value at each point along time axis does not exhibit the radiation pattern, while with the same level of calculation efficiency, the image produced for each trial origin time can generate radiation pattern similar to time reversal imaging procedure. Thus it is potential to locate the source position by the diffraction stacking method for general moment tensor sources.

  7. Diffusion tensor mode in imaging of intracranial epidermoid cysts: one step ahead of fractional anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolapara, Milan; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Saini, Jitender; Patro, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman; Bodhey, Narendra; Radhakrishnan, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    The signal characteristics of an epidermoid on T2-weighted imaging have been attributed to the presence of increased water content within the tumor. In this study, we explore the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor metrics (DTM) in knowing the microstructural anatomy of epidermoid cysts. DTI was performed in ten patients with epidermoid cysts. Directionally averaged mean diffusivity (D av ), exponential diffusion, and DTM-like fractional anisotropy (FA), diffusion tensor mode (mode), linear (CL), planar (CP), and spherical (CS) anisotropy were measured from the tumor as well as from the normal-looking white matter. Epidermoid cysts showed high FA. However, D av and exponential diffusion values did not show any restriction of diffusion. Diffusion tensor mode values were near -1, and CP values were high within the tumor. This suggested preferential diffusion of water molecules along a two-dimensional geometry (plane) in epidermoid cysts, which could be attributed to the parallel-layered arrangement of keratin filaments and flakes within these tumors. Thus, advanced imaging modalities like DTI with DTM can provide information regarding the microstructural anatomy of the epidermoid cysts. (orig.)

  8. Current and future diagnostic tools for traumatic brain injury: CT, conventional MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, David L; Mac Donald, Christine L; Shimony, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Brain imaging plays a key role in the assessment of traumatic brain injury. In this review, we present our perspectives on the use of computed tomography (CT), conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and newer advanced modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging. Specifically, we address assessment for immediately life-threatening intracranial lesions (noncontrast head CT), assessment of progression of intracranial lesions (noncontrast head CT), documenting intracranial abnormalities for medicolegal reasons (conventional MRI with blood-sensitive sequences), presurgical planning for post-traumatic epilepsy (high spatial resolution conventional MRI), early prognostic decision making (conventional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging), prognostic assessment for rehabilitative planning (conventional MRI and possibly diffusion tensor imaging in the future), stratification of subjects and pharmacodynamic tracking of targeted therapies in clinical trials (specific MRI sequences or positron emission tomography (PET) ligands, e.g., diffusion tensor imaging for traumatic axonal injury). We would like to emphasize that all of these methods, especially the newer research approaches, require careful radiologic-pathologic validation for optimal interpretation. We have taken this approach in a mouse model of pericontusional traumatic axonal injury. We found that the extent of reduction in the diffusion tensor imaging parameter relative anisotropy directly correlated with the number of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-stained axonal varicosities (r(2)=0.81, p<0.0001, n=20 injured mice). Interestingly, however, the least severe contusional injuries did not result in APP-stained axonal varicosities, but did cause reduction in relative anisotropy. Clearly, both the imaging assessments and the pathologic assessments will require iterative refinement. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental evaluation of electrical conductivity imaging of anisotropic brain tissues using a combination of diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Jeong, Woo Chul; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong, E-mail: bmekim@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ejwoo@khu.ac.kr; Woo, Eung Je, E-mail: bmekim@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ejwoo@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Kyung, Eun Jung [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Bum [Department of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh In [Department of Mathematics, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Anisotropy of biological tissues is a low-frequency phenomenon that is associated with the function and structure of cell membranes. Imaging of anisotropic conductivity has potential for the analysis of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems, such as the prediction of current pathways in electrical stimulation therapy. To improve application to the clinical environment, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subjected to the stimulated currents. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the anisotropic conductivity tensor distribution of canine brain tissues, using a recently developed diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography method. At low frequency, electrical conductivity of the biological tissues can be expressed as a product of the mobility and concentration of ions in the extracellular space. From diffusion tensor images of the brain, we can obtain directional information on diffusive movements of water molecules, which correspond to the mobility of ions. The position dependent scale factor, which provides information on ion concentration, was successfully calculated from the magnetic flux density, to obtain the equivalent conductivity tensor. By combining the information from both techniques, we can finally reconstruct the anisotropic conductivity tensor images of brain tissues. The reconstructed conductivity images better demonstrate the enhanced signal intensity in strongly anisotropic brain regions, compared with those resulting from previous methods using a global scale factor.

  10. Seamless warping of diffusion tensor fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    To warp diffusion tensor fields accurately, tensors must be reoriented in the space to which the tensors are warped based on both the local deformation field and the orientation of the underlying fibers in the original image. Existing algorithms for warping tensors typically use forward mapping...... of seams, including voxels in which the deformation is extensive. Backward mapping, however, cannot reorient tensors in the template space because information about the directional orientation of fiber tracts is contained in the original, unwarped imaging space only, and backward mapping alone cannot...... transfer that information to the template space. To combine the advantages of forward and backward mapping, we propose a novel method for the spatial normalization of diffusion tensor (DT) fields that uses a bijection (a bidirectional mapping with one-to-one correspondences between image spaces) to warp DT...

  11. Comments on 'Reconsidering the definition of a dose-volume histogram'-dose-mass histogram (DMH) versus dose-volume histogram (DVH) for predicting radiation-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Plataniotis, Georgios A; Gorka, Magdalena Adamus; Lind, Bengt K

    2006-01-01

    In a recently published paper (Nioutsikou et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 L17) the authors showed that the use of the dose-mass histogram (DMH) concept is a more accurate descriptor of the dose delivered to lung than the traditionally used dose-volume histogram (DVH) concept. Furthermore, they state that if a functional imaging modality could also be registered to the anatomical imaging modality providing a functional weighting across the organ (functional mass) then the more general and realistic concept of the dose-functioning mass histogram (D[F]MH) could be an even more appropriate descriptor. The comments of the present letter to the editor are in line with the basic arguments of that work since their general conclusions appear to be supported by the comparison of the DMH and DVH concepts using radiobiological measures. In this study, it is examined whether the dose-mass histogram (DMH) concept deviated significantly from the widely used dose-volume histogram (DVH) concept regarding the expected lung complications and if there are clinical indications supporting these results. The problem was investigated theoretically by applying two hypothetical dose distributions (Gaussian and semi-Gaussian shaped) on two lungs of uniform and varying densities. The influence of the deviation between DVHs and DMHs on the treatment outcome was estimated by using the relative seriality and LKB models using the Gagliardi et al (2000 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 46 373) and Seppenwoolde et al (2003 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 55 724) parameter sets for radiation pneumonitis, respectively. Furthermore, the biological equivalent of their difference was estimated by the biologically effective uniform dose (D-bar) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) concepts, respectively. It is shown that the relation between the DVHs and DMHs varies depending on the underlying cell density distribution and the applied dose distribution. However, the range of their deviation in terms of

  12. Improved LSB matching steganography with histogram characters reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihong; Liu, Wenyao

    2008-03-01

    This letter bases on the researches of LSB (least significant bit, i.e. the last bit of a binary pixel value) matching steganographic method and the steganalytic method which aims at histograms of cover images, and proposes a modification to LSB matching. In the LSB matching, if the LSB of the next cover pixel matches the next bit of secret data, do nothing; otherwise, choose to add or subtract one from the cover pixel value at random. In our improved method, a steganographic information table is defined and records the changes which embedded secrete bits introduce in. Through the table, the next LSB which has the same pixel value will be judged to add or subtract one dynamically in order to ensure the histogram's change of cover image is minimized. Therefore, the modified method allows embedding the same payload as the LSB matching but with improved steganographic security and less vulnerability to attacks compared with LSB matching. The experimental results of the new method show that the histograms maintain their attributes, such as peak values and alternative trends, in an acceptable degree and have better performance than LSB matching in the respects of histogram distortion and resistance against existing steganalysis.

  13. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  14. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Chiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA, which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods.

  15. The Standardized Histogram Shift of T2 Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Signal Intensities of Nephroblastoma Does Not Predict Histopathological Diagnostic Information

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Sabine; David, Ruslan; Marias, Kostas; Graf, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess standardized histograms of signal intensities of T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) modality before and after preoperative chemotherapy for nephroblastoma (Wilms? tumor). All analyzed patients are enrolled in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) 2001/GPOH trial.1 The question to be answered is whether the comparison of the histograms can add new knowledge by comparing them with the histology of the tumor after preoperative ch...

  16. Direct comparison of in vivo versus postmortem second-order motion-compensated cardiac diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Christian T; von Deuster, Constantin; Fleischmann, Thea; Lipiski, Miriam; Cesarovic, Nikola; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    To directly compare in vivo versus postmortem second-order motion-compensated spin-echo diffusion tensor imaging of the porcine heart. Second-order motion-compensated spin-echo cardiac diffusion tensor imaging was performed during systolic contraction in vivo and repeated upon cardiac arrest by bariumchloride without repositioning of the study animal or replaning of imaging slices. In vivo and postmortem reproducibility was assessed by repeat measurements. Comparison of helix, transverse, and sheet (E2A) angulation as well as mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy was performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients for repeated measurements (postmortem/in vivo) were 0.95/0.96 for helix, 0.70/0.66 for transverse, and 0.79/0.72 for E2A angulation; 0.83/0.72 for mean diffusivity; and 0.78/0.76 for fractional anisotropy. The corresponding 95% levels of agreement across the left ventricle were: helix 14 to 18°/12 to 15°, transverse 9 to 10°/10 to 11°, E2A 15 to 20°/16 to 18°. The 95% levels of agreement across the left ventricle for the comparison of postmortem versus in vivo were 20 to 22° for helix, 13 to 19° for transverse, and 24 to 31° for E2A angulation. Parameters derived from in vivo second-order motion-compensated spin-echo diffusion tensor imaging agreed well with postmortem imaging, indicating sufficient suppression of motion-induced signal distortions of in vivo cardiac diffusion tensor imaging. Magn Reson Med 79:2265-2276, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Differentiation between malignant and benign thyroid nodules and stratification of papillary thyroid cancer with aggressive histological features: Whole-lesion diffusion-weighted imaging histogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Pan, Chu; Chen, WeiWei; Li, Tao; Zhu, WenZhen; Qi, JianPin

    2016-12-01

    To explore the usefulness of whole-lesion histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from reduced field-of-view (r-FOV) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules and stratifying papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with aggressive histological features. This Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study included 93 patients with 101 pathologically proven thyroid nodules. All patients underwent preoperative r-FOV DWI at 3T. The whole-lesion ADC assessments were performed for each patient. Histogram-derived ADC parameters between different subgroups (pathologic type, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastasis) were compared. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine optimal histogram parameters in differentiating benign and malignant nodules and predicting aggressiveness of PTC. Mean ADC, median ADC, 5 th percentile ADC, 25 th percentile ADC, 75 th percentile ADC, 95 th percentile ADC (all P histogram analysis might help to differentiate malignant nodules from benign ones and show the PTCs with extrathyroidal extension. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1546-1555. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. 4.7-T diffusion tensor imaging of acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Richard B; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Riley, D Colton; Sexton, Kevin W; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Dortch, Richard D; Nanney, Lillian B; Does, Mark D; Thayer, Wesley P

    2015-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of peripheral nerve injury is complicated by the inability to assess microstructural features of injured nerve fibers via clinical examination and electrophysiology. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to accurately detect nerve injury and regeneration in crush models of peripheral nerve injury, but no prior studies have been conducted on nerve transection, a surgical emergency that can lead to permanent weakness or paralysis. Acute sciatic nerve injuries were performed microsurgically to produce multiple grades of nerve transection in rats that were harvested 1 hour after surgery. High-resolution diffusion tensor images from ex vivo sciatic nerves were obtained using diffusion-weighted spin-echo acquisitions at 4.7 T. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced at the injury sites of transected rats compared with sham rats. Additionally, minor eigenvalues and radial diffusivity were profoundly elevated at all injury sites and were negatively correlated to the degree of injury. Diffusion tensor tractography showed discontinuities at all injury sites and significantly reduced continuous tract counts. These findings demonstrate that high-resolution DTI is a promising tool for acute diagnosis and grading of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries.

  19. HEp-2 Cell Classification Using Shape Index Histograms With Donut-Shaped Spatial Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for automatic classification of indirect immunoflourescence images of HEp-2 cells into different staining pattern classes. Our method is based on a new texture measure called shape index histograms that captures second-order image structure at multiple scales. Moreover, we...... datasets. Our results show that shape index histograms are superior to other popular texture descriptors for HEp-2 cell classification. Moreover, when comparing to other automated systems for HEp-2 cell classification we show that shape index histograms are very competitive; especially considering...

  20. Muscle changes detected with diffusion-tensor imaging after long-distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Martijn; Oudeman, Jos; Strijkers, Gustav J; Maas, Mario; Drost, Maarten R; Nicolay, Klaas; Nederveen, Aart J

    2015-02-01

    To develop a protocol for diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) of the complete upper legs and to demonstrate feasibility of detection of subclinical sports-related muscle changes in athletes after strenuous exercise, which remain undetected by using conventional T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with fat suppression. The research was approved by the institutional ethics committee review board, and the volunteers provided written consent before the study. Five male amateur long-distance runners underwent an MR examination (DTI, T1-weighted MR imaging, and T2-weighted MR imaging with fat suppression) of both upper legs 1 week before, 2 days after, and 3 weeks after they participated in a marathon. The tensor eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, and λ3), the mean diffusivity, and the fractional anisotropy (FA) were derived from the DTI data. Data per muscle from the three time-points were compared by using a two-way mixed-design analysis of variance with a Bonferroni posthoc test. The DTI protocol allowed imaging of both complete upper legs with adequate signal-to-noise ratio and within a 20-minute imaging time. After the marathon, T2-weighted MR imaging revealed grade 1 muscle strains in nine of the 180 investigated muscles. The three eigenvalues, mean diffusivity, and FA were significantly increased (P DTI measurements of the upper legs was developed that fully included frequently injured muscles, such as hamstrings, in one single imaging session. This study also revealed changes in DTI parameters that over time were not revealed by qualitative T2-weighted MR imaging with fat suppression. © RSNA, 2014.

  1. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pratik; Miller, Jeffrey H; Shimony, Joshua S; Philip, Joseph V; Nehra, Deepika; Snyder, Abraham Z; Conturo, Thomas E; Neil, Jeffrey J; McKinstry, Robert C

    2002-10-01

    Conventional MR imaging findings of human brain development are thought to result from decreasing water content, increasing macromolecular concentration, and myelination. We use diffusion-tensor MR imaging to test theoretical models that incorporate hypotheses regarding how these maturational processes influence water diffusion in developing gray and white matter. Experimental data were derived from diffusion-tensor imaging of 167 participants, ages 31 gestational weeks to 11 postnatal years. An isotropic diffusion model was applied to the gray matter of the basal ganglia and thalamus. A model that assumes changes in the magnitude of diffusion while maintaining cylindrically symmetric anisotropy was applied to the white matter of the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Deviations of the diffusion tensor from the ideal model predictions, due to measurement noise, were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Developing gray matter of the basal ganglia and developing white matter of the internal capsule and corpus callosum largely conformed to theory, with only small departures from model predictions in older children. However, data from the thalamus substantially diverged from predicted values, with progressively larger deviations from the model with increasing participant age. Changes in water diffusion during maturation of central gray and white matter structures can largely be explained by theoretical models incorporating simple assumptions regarding the influence of brain water content and myelination, although deviations from theory increase as the brain matures. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging is a powerful method for studying the process of brain development, with both scientific and clinical applications.

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging of occult injury of optic radiation following optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiafeng; Zhu, Lijun; Li, He; Lu, Ziwen; Chen, Xin; Fang, Shaokuan

    2016-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is easily detected by routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is not possible to detect early or occult lesions in MS by routine MRI, and this may explain the inconsistency between the severity of the lesions found by MRI and the degree of clinical disability of patients with MS. The present study included 10 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 10 healthy volunteers. Each patient underwent routine 3.0 T MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Optic nerve and optic radiation were analyzed by DTI and DTT. The fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), λ // , and λ ┴ values were measured. In the 10 patients with MS, 7 optic nerves were affected, and 13 optic nerves were not affected. Cranial MRI showed that optic nerve thickening and hyperintensity occurred in 2 patients with MS. In the directionally encoded color maps, a hypointensive green signal in the optic nerve was observed in 3 patients with MS. The FA values were significantly lower and the MD, λ // , and λ ┴ values were significantly higher in the affected and unaffected optic nerves and optic radiations in patients with MS in comparison with controls (P0.05). Diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive in the detection of occult injury of the optic nerve and optic radiation following optic neuritis. Diffusion tensor imaging may be a useful tool for the early diagnosis, treatment and management of MS.

  3. An introduction to visualization of diffusion tensor imaging and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilanova, A.; Zhang, S.; Kindlmann, G.; Laidlaw, D.H.; Weickert, J.; Hagen, H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary. Water diffusion is anisotropic in organized tissues such as white matter and muscle. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a non-invasive MR technique, measures water self-diffusion rates and thus gives an indication of the underlying tissue microstructure. The diffusion rate is often expressed

  4. Generalized tensor-based morphometry of HIV/AIDS using multivariate statistics on deformation tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, N; Brun, C; Chou, Y Y; Chiang, M C; Dutton, R A; Hayashi, K M; Luders, E; Lopez, O L; Aizenstein, H J; Toga, A W; Becker, J T; Thompson, P M

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a new multivariate method for tensor-based morphometry (TBM). Statistics on Riemannian manifolds are developed that exploit the full information in deformation tensor fields. In TBM, multiple brain images are warped to a common neuroanatomical template via 3-D nonlinear registration; the resulting deformation fields are analyzed statistically to identify group differences in anatomy. Rather than study the Jacobian determinant (volume expansion factor) of these deformations, as is common, we retain the full deformation tensors and apply a manifold version of Hotelling's $T(2) test to them, in a Log-Euclidean domain. In 2-D and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 26 HIV/AIDS patients and 14 matched healthy subjects, we compared multivariate tensor analysis versus univariate tests of simpler tensor-derived indices: the Jacobian determinant, the trace, geodesic anisotropy, and eigenvalues of the deformation tensor, and the angle of rotation of its eigenvectors. We detected consistent, but more extensive patterns of structural abnormalities, with multivariate tests on the full tensor manifold. Their improved power was established by analyzing cumulative p-value plots using false discovery rate (FDR) methods, appropriately controlling for false positives. This increased detection sensitivity may empower drug trials and large-scale studies of disease that use tensor-based morphometry.

  5. Oriented Shape Index Histograms for Cell Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel extension to the shape index histogram feature descriptor where the orientation of the second-order curvature is included in the histograms. The orientation of the shape index is reminiscent but not equal to gradient orientation which is widely used for feature description. We...... evaluate our new feature descriptor using a public dataset consisting of HEp-2 cell images from indirect immunoflourescence lighting. Our results show that we can improve classification performance significantly when including the shape index orientation. Notably, we show that shape index orientation...

  6. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates of Reading Ability in Dysfluent and Non-Impaired Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Catherine; Shaywitz, Bennett; Holahan, John; Shaywitz, Sally; Marchione, Karen; Beaulieu, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many children and adults have specific reading disabilities; insight into the brain structure underlying these difficulties is evolving from imaging. Previous research highlights the left temporal-parietal white matter as important in reading, yet the degree of involvement of other areas remains unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and…

  7. TensorLy: Tensor Learning in Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Tensor methods are gaining increasing traction in machine learning. However, there are scant to no resources available to perform tensor learning and decomposition in Python. To answer this need we developed TensorLy. TensorLy is a state of the art general purpose library for tensor learning.

  8. Tensor-based Dictionary Learning for Spectral CT Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Wang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Spectral computed tomography (CT) produces an energy-discriminative attenuation map of an object, extending a conventional image volume with a spectral dimension. In spectral CT, an image can be sparsely represented in each of multiple energy channels, and are highly correlated among energy channels. According to this characteristics, we propose a tensor-based dictionary learning method for spectral CT reconstruction. In our method, tensor patches are extracted from an image tensor, which is reconstructed using the filtered backprojection (FBP), to form a training dataset. With the Candecomp/Parafac decomposition, a tensor-based dictionary is trained, in which each atom is a rank-one tensor. Then, the trained dictionary is used to sparsely represent image tensor patches during an iterative reconstruction process, and the alternating minimization scheme is adapted for optimization. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated with both numerically simulated and real preclinical mouse datasets. The results demonstrate that the proposed tensor-based method generally produces superior image quality, and leads to more accurate material decomposition than the currently popular popular methods. PMID:27541628

  9. Tensor-Based Dictionary Learning for Spectral CT Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Mou, Xuanqin; Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2017-01-01

    Spectral computed tomography (CT) produces an energy-discriminative attenuation map of an object, extending a conventional image volume with a spectral dimension. In spectral CT, an image can be sparsely represented in each of multiple energy channels, and are highly correlated among energy channels. According to this characteristics, we propose a tensor-based dictionary learning method for spectral CT reconstruction. In our method, tensor patches are extracted from an image tensor, which is reconstructed using the filtered backprojection (FBP), to form a training dataset. With the Candecomp/Parafac decomposition, a tensor-based dictionary is trained, in which each atom is a rank-one tensor. Then, the trained dictionary is used to sparsely represent image tensor patches during an iterative reconstruction process, and the alternating minimization scheme is adapted for optimization. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated with both numerically simulated and real preclinical mouse datasets. The results demonstrate that the proposed tensor-based method generally produces superior image quality, and leads to more accurate material decomposition than the currently popular popular methods.

  10. A novel parallel architecture for local histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Mesrob I.; Choueiter, Ghinwa F.; Diab, Hassan

    2005-07-01

    Local histogram equalization is an image enhancement algorithm that has found wide application in the pre-processing stage of areas such as computer vision, pattern recognition and medical imaging. The computationally intensive nature of the procedure, however, is a main limitation when real time interactive applications are in question. This work explores the possibility of performing parallel local histogram equalization, using an array of special purpose elementary processors, through an HDL implementation that targets FPGA or ASIC platforms. A novel parallelization scheme is presented and the corresponding architecture is derived. The algorithm is reduced to pixel-level operations. Processing elements are assigned image blocks, to maintain a reasonable performance-cost ratio. To further simplify both processor and memory organizations, a bit-serial access scheme is used. A brief performance assessment is provided to illustrate and quantify the merit of the approach.

  11. Registration for Optical Multimodal Remote Sensing Images Based on FAST Detection, Window Selection, and Histogram Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, digital frame cameras have been increasingly used for remote sensing applications. However, it is always a challenge to align or register images captured with different cameras or different imaging sensor units. In this research, a novel registration method was proposed. Coarse registration was first applied to approximately align the sensed and reference images. Window selection was then used to reduce the search space and a histogram specification was applied to optimize the grayscale similarity between the images. After comparisons with other commonly-used detectors, the fast corner detector, FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test, was selected to extract the feature points. The matching point pairs were then detected between the images, the outliers were eliminated, and geometric transformation was performed. The appropriate window size was searched and set to one-tenth of the image width. The images that were acquired by a two-camera system, a camera with five imaging sensors, and a camera with replaceable filters mounted on a manned aircraft, an unmanned aerial vehicle, and a ground-based platform, respectively, were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The image analysis results showed that, through the appropriate window selection and histogram specification, the number of correctly matched point pairs had increased by 11.30 times, and that the correct matching rate had increased by 36%, compared with the results based on FAST alone. The root mean square error (RMSE in the x and y directions was generally within 0.5 pixels. In comparison with the binary robust invariant scalable keypoints (BRISK, curvature scale space (CSS, Harris, speed up robust features (SURF, and commercial software ERDAS and ENVI, this method resulted in larger numbers of correct matching pairs and smaller, more consistent RMSE. Furthermore, it was not necessary to choose any tie control points manually before registration

  12. Comparison of quality control software tools for diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilan; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui

    2015-04-01

    Image quality of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is critical for image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. However, DTI is susceptible to numerous detrimental artifacts that may impair the reliability and validity of the obtained data. Although many quality control (QC) software tools are being developed and are widely used and each has its different tradeoffs, there is still no general agreement on an image quality control routine for DTIs, and the practical impact of these tradeoffs is not well studied. An objective comparison that identifies the pros and cons of each of the QC tools will be helpful for the users to make the best choice among tools for specific DTI applications. This study aims to quantitatively compare the effectiveness of three popular QC tools including DTI studio (Johns Hopkins University), DTIprep (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Iowa and University of Utah) and TORTOISE (National Institute of Health). Both synthetic and in vivo human brain data were used to quantify adverse effects of major DTI artifacts to tensor calculation as well as the effectiveness of different QC tools in identifying and correcting these artifacts. The technical basis of each tool was discussed, and the ways in which particular techniques affect the output of each of the tools were analyzed. The different functions and I/O formats that three QC tools provide for building a general DTI processing pipeline and integration with other popular image processing tools were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PENGARUH HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION UNTUK PERBAIKAN KUALITAS CITRA DIGITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisilia Daeng Bakka Mau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini membahas penggunaan metode histogram equalization yang akan digunakan untuk perbaikan kualitas citra. Perbaikan kualitas citra (image enhancement merupakan salah satu proses awal dalam peningkatan mutu citra. Peningkatan mutu citra diperlukan karena seringkali citra yang dijadikan objek pembahasan mempunyai kualitas yang buruk, misalnya citra mengalami derau, kabur, citra terlalu gelap atau terang, citra kurang tajam dan sebagainya. Perbaikan kualitas citra adalah proses memperjelas dan mempertajam ciri atau fitur tertentu dari citra agar citra lebih mudah dipersepsi maupun dianalisa secara lebih teliti. Hasil penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa penggunaan metode histogram equalization dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kontras citra dan dapat meningkatkan kualitas citra, sehingga informasi yang ada pada citra lebih jelas terlihat. Kata kunci: perbaikan kualitas citra, histogram equalization, citra digital

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging, white matter lesions, the corpus callosum, and gait in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gait impairment is common in the elderly, especially affected by stroke and white matter hyper intensities found in conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more sensitive to white matter damage than conventional MRI. The relationship between DTI measure...

  15. Differences in Gaussian diffusion tensor imaging and non-Gaussian diffusion kurtosis imaging model-based estimates of diffusion tensor invariants in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, S; Giannelli, M; Garaci, F; Floris, R; Duggento, A; Guerrisi, M; Toschi, N

    2016-05-01

    An increasing number of studies have aimed to compare diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-related parameters [e.g., mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD)] to complementary new indexes [e.g., mean kurtosis (MK)/radial kurtosis (RK)/axial kurtosis (AK)] derived through diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in terms of their discriminative potential about tissue disease-related microstructural alterations. Given that the DTI and DKI models provide conceptually and quantitatively different estimates of the diffusion tensor, which can also depend on fitting routine, the aim of this study was to investigate model- and algorithm-dependent differences in MD/FA/RD/AD and anisotropy mode (MO) estimates in diffusion-weighted imaging of human brain white matter. The authors employed (a) data collected from 33 healthy subjects (20-59 yr, F: 15, M: 18) within the Human Connectome Project (HCP) on a customized 3 T scanner, and (b) data from 34 healthy subjects (26-61 yr, F: 5, M: 29) acquired on a clinical 3 T scanner. The DTI model was fitted to b-value =0 and b-value =1000 s/mm(2) data while the DKI model was fitted to data comprising b-value =0, 1000 and 3000/2500 s/mm(2) [for dataset (a)/(b), respectively] through nonlinear and weighted linear least squares algorithms. In addition to MK/RK/AK maps, MD/FA/MO/RD/AD maps were estimated from both models and both algorithms. Using tract-based spatial statistics, the authors tested the null hypothesis of zero difference between the two MD/FA/MO/RD/AD estimates in brain white matter for both datasets and both algorithms. DKI-derived MD/FA/RD/AD and MO estimates were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than corresponding DTI-derived estimates. All voxelwise differences extended over most of the white matter skeleton. Fractional differences between the two estimates [(DKI - DTI)/DTI] of most invariants were seen to vary with the invariant value itself as well as with MK

  16. Thresholding using two-dimensional histogram and watershed algorithm in the luggage inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingyun; Cong Peng; Song Qi

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a new DR image segmentation method based on two-dimensional histogram and watershed algorithm. The authors use watershed algorithm to locate threshold on the vertical projection plane of two-dimensional histogram. This method is applied to the segmentation of DR images produced by luggage inspection system with DR-CT. The advantage of this method is also analyzed. (authors)

  17. Shape anisotropy: tensor distance to anisotropy measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; El-Hilo, Saba; Atkins, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    Fractional anisotropy, defined as the distance of a diffusion tensor from its closest isotropic tensor, has been extensively studied as quantitative anisotropy measure for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images (DT-MRI). It has been used to reveal the white matter profile of brain images, as guiding feature for seeding and stopping in fiber tractography and for the diagnosis and assessment of degenerative brain diseases. Despite its extensive use in DT-MRI community, however, not much attention has been given to the mathematical correctness of its derivation from diffusion tensors which is achieved using Euclidean dot product in 9D space. But, recent progress in DT-MRI has shown that the space of diffusion tensors does not form a Euclidean vector space and thus Euclidean dot product is not appropriate for tensors. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust rotationally invariant diffusion anisotropy measure derived using the recently proposed Log-Euclidean and J-divergence tensor distance measures. An interesting finding of our work is that given a diffusion tensor, its closest isotropic tensor is different for different tensor distance metrics used. We demonstrate qualitatively that our new anisotropy measure reveals superior white matter profile of DT-MR brain images and analytically show that it has a higher signal to noise ratio than fractional anisotropy.

  18. Assessment of axonal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease with diffusion tensor MRI; Diffusion tensor imaging zur Erfassung axonaler Degeneration bei Morbus Alzheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, R. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie - Grosshadern, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie - Grosshadern, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Muenchen (Germany); Dietrich, O.; Reiser, M.F.; Schoenberg, S.O. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie - Grosshadern, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Teipel, S.; Hampel, H. [Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) causes cortical degeneration with subsequent degenerative changes of the white matter. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of white matter tissue damage of patients with Alzheimer's disease in comparison with healthy subjects using diffusion tensor MRI (DTI). The value of integrated parallel imaging techniques (iPAT) for reduction of image distortion was assessed. We studied 9 patients with mild AD and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls. DTI brain scans were obtained on a 1.5 tesla system (Siemens Magnetom Sonata) using parallel imaging (iPAT) and an EPI diffusion sequence with TE/TR 71 ms/6000 ms. We used an 8-element head coil and a GRAPPA reconstruction algorithm with an acceleration factor of 2. From the tensor, the mean diffusivity (D), the fractional anisotropy (FA), and the relative anisotropy (RA) of several white matter regions were determined. FA was significantly lower (p <0,05) in the white matter of the genu of corpus callosum from patients with AD than in the corresponding regions from healthy controls. There was a trend observed for slightly higher ADC values in the AD group (p=0,06). No significant changes were observed in the regions of the splenium, internal capsule, pericallosal areas, frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobe. The images obtained with iPAT contained substantially less susceptibility artefacts and were less distorted than images acquired with non-parallel imaging technique. DTI is a method with potential to assess early stages of white matter damage in vivo. The altered FA and ADC values in the genu of corpus callosum of patients with AD presumably reflect the microscopic white matter degeneration. Acquisition time can be reduced by iPAT methods with less image distortion from susceptibility artefacts resulting in a more accurate calculation of the diffusion tensor. (orig.) [German] Bei der Alzheimer-Erkrankung (AD) kommt es zur kortikalen Degeneration und sekundaer zu

  19. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Heterotopia: Changes of Fractional Anisotropy during Radial Migration of Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion tensor imaging provides better understanding of pathophysiology of congenital anomalies, involving central nervous system. This study was aimed to specify the pathogenetic mechanism of heterotopia, proved by diffusion tensor imaging, and establish new findings of heterotopia on fractional anisotropy maps. Materials and Methods Diffusion-weighted imaging data from 11 patients (M : F = 7 : 4, aged from 1 to 22 years, mean = 12.3 years) who visited the epilepsy clinic and received a routine seizure protocol MRI exam were retrospectively analyzed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated from diffusion tensor imaging of 11 patients with heterotopia. Regions of interests (ROI) were placed in cerebral cortex, heterotopic gray matter and deep gray matter, including putamen. ANOVA analysis was performed for comparison of different gray matter tissues. Results Heterotopic gray matter showed signal intensities similar to normal gray matter on T1 and T2 weighted MRI. The measured FA of heterotopic gray matter was higher than that of cortical gray matter (0.236 ± 0.011 vs. 0.169 ± 0.015, p < 0.01, one way ANOVA), and slightly lower than that of deep gray matter (0.236 ± 0.011 vs. 0.259 ± 0.016, p < 0.01). Conclusion Increased FA of heterotopic gray matter suggests arrested neuron during radial migration and provides better understanding of neurodevelopment. PMID:20499428

  20. TensorLy: Tensor Learning in Python

    OpenAIRE

    Kossaifi, Jean; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Tensors are higher-order extensions of matrices. While matrix methods form the cornerstone of machine learning and data analysis, tensor methods have been gaining increasing traction. However, software support for tensor operations is not on the same footing. In order to bridge this gap, we have developed \\emph{TensorLy}, a high-level API for tensor methods and deep tensorized neural networks in Python. TensorLy aims to follow the same standards adopted by the main projects of the Python scie...

  1. Diffusion tensor trace mapping in normal adult brain using single-shot EPI technique: A methodological study of the aging brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.G.; Hindmarsh, T.; Li, T.Q.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify age-related changes of the average diffusion coefficient value in normal adult brain using orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace mapping and to address the methodological influences on diffusion quantification. Material and Methods: Fifty-four normal subjects (aged 20-79 years) were studied on a 1.5-T whole-body MR medical unit using a diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging technique. Orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace maps were constructed for each subject using diffusion-weighted MR measurements in four different directions using a tetrahedral gradient combination pattern. The global average (including cerebral spinal fluid) and the tissue average of diffusion coefficients in adult brains were determined by analyzing the diffusion coefficient distribution histogram for the entire brain. Methodological influences on the measured diffusion coefficient were also investigated by comparing the results obtained using different experimental settings. Results: Both global and tissue averages of the diffusion coefficient are significantly correlated with age (p<0.03). The global average of the diffusion coefficient increases 3% per decade after the age of 40, whereas the increase in the tissue average of diffusion coefficient is about 1% per decade. Experimental settings for self-diffusion measurements, such as data acquisition methods and number of b-values, can slightly influence the statistical distribution histogram of the diffusion tensor trace and its average value. Conclusion: Increased average diffusion coefficient in adult brains with aging are consistent with findings regarding structural changes in the brain that have been associated with aging. The study also demonstrates that it is desirable to use the same experimental parameters for diffusion coefficient quantification when comparing between different subjects and groups of interest

  2. A novel JPEG steganography method based on modulus function with histogram analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Banoci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel steganographic method for embedding of secret data in still grayscale JPEG image. In order to provide large capacity of the proposed method while maintaining good visual quality of stego-image, the embedding process is performed in quantized transform coefficients of Discrete Cosine transform (DCT by modifying coefficients according to modulo function, what gives to the steganography system blind extraction predisposition. After-embedding histogram of proposed Modulo Histogram Fitting (MHF method is analyzed to secure steganography system against steganalysis attacks. In addition, AES ciphering was implemented to increase security and improve histogram after-embedding characteristics of proposed steganography system as experimental results show.

  3. A diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm based on Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Nathan S; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L; Shattuck, David W

    2009-03-01

    We introduce a fluid mechanics based tractography method for estimating the most likely connection paths between points in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) volumes. We customize the Navier-Stokes equations to include information from the diffusion tensor and simulate an artificial fluid flow through the DTI image volume. We then estimate the most likely connection paths between points in the DTI volume using a metric derived from the fluid velocity vector field. We validate our algorithm using digital DTI phantoms based on a helical shape. Our method segmented the structure of the phantom with less distortion than was produced using implementations of heat-based partial differential equation (PDE) and streamline based methods. In addition, our method was able to successfully segment divergent and crossing fiber geometries, closely following the ideal path through a digital helical phantom in the presence of multiple crossing tracts. To assess the performance of our algorithm on anatomical data, we applied our method to DTI volumes from normal human subjects. Our method produced paths that were consistent with both known anatomy and directionally encoded color images of the DTI dataset.

  4. Directional Histogram Ratio at Random Probes: A Local Thresholding Criterion for Capillary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Silva, Jharon; Gu, Yu; Gerber, Scott; Wu, Hulin; Gelbard, Harris; Dewhurst, Stephen; Miao, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of micron-scale imaging techniques, capillaries can be conveniently visualized using methods such as two-photon and whole mount microscopy. However, the presence of background staining, leaky vessels and the diffusion of small fluorescent molecules can lead to significant complexity in image analysis and loss of information necessary to accurately quantify vascular metrics. One solution to this problem is the development of accurate thresholding algorithms that reliably distinguish blood vessels from surrounding tissue. Although various thresholding algorithms have been proposed, our results suggest that without appropriate pre- or post-processing, the existing approaches may fail to obtain satisfactory results for capillary images that include areas of contamination. In this study, we propose a novel local thresholding algorithm, called directional histogram ratio at random probes (DHR-RP). This method explicitly considers the geometric features of tube-like objects in conducting image binarization, and has a reliable performance in distinguishing small vessels from either clean or contaminated background. Experimental and simulation studies suggest that our DHR-RP algorithm is superior over existing thresholding methods. PMID:23525856

  5. Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-jun Hou; Yong Huang; Zi-wen Fan; Xin-chun Li; Bing-yi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy v...

  6. ADC histogram analysis of muscle lymphoma - Correlation with histopathology in a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Pazaitis, Nikolaos; Surov, Alexey

    2018-06-21

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is able to reflect histopathology architecture. A novel imaging approach, namely histogram analysis, is used to further characterize lesion on MRI. The purpose of this study is to correlate histogram parameters derived from apparent diffusion coefficient- (ADC) maps with histopathology parameters in muscle lymphoma. Eight patients (mean age 64.8 years, range 45-72 years) with histopathologically confirmed muscle lymphoma were retrospectively identified. Cell count, total nucleic and average nucleic areas were estimated using ImageJ. Additionally, Ki67-index was calculated. DWI was obtained on a 1.5T scanner by using the b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2. Histogram analysis was performed as a whole lesion measurement by using a custom-made Matlabbased application. The correlation analysis revealed statistically significant correlation between cell count and ADCmean (p=-0.76, P=0.03) as well with ADCp75 (p=-0.79, P=0.02). Kurtosis and entropy correlated with average nucleic area (p=-0.81, P=0.02, p=0.88, P=0.007, respectively). None of the analyzed ADC parameters correlated with total nucleic area and with Ki67-index. This study identified significant correlations between cellularity and histogram parameters derived from ADC maps in muscle lymphoma. Thus, histogram analysis parameters reflect histopathology in muscle tumors. Advances in knowledge: Whole lesion ADC histogram analysis is able to reflect histopathology parameters in muscle lymphomas.

  7. In-utero three dimension high resolution fetal brain diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuzhou; Xue, Hui; Counsell, Serena; Anjari, Mustafa; Allsop, Joanna; Rutherford, Mary; Rueckert, Daniel; Hajnal, Joseph V

    2007-01-01

    We present a methodology to achieve 3D high resolution in-utero fetal brain DTI that shows excellent ADC as well as promising FA maps. After continuous DTI scanning to acquire a repeated series of parallel slices with 15 diffusion directions, image registration is used to realign the images to correct for fetal motion. Once aligned, the diffusion images are treated as irregularly sampled data where each voxel is associated with an appropriately rotated diffusion direction, and used to estimate the diffusion tensor on a regular grid. The method has been tested successful on eight fetuses and has been validated on adults imaged at 1.5T.

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging. Theory, sequence optimization and application in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieltjes, B.; Schlueter, M.; Hahn, H.K.; Wilhelm, T.; Essig, M.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) offers an in vivo view into the microarchitecture of the brain. Furthermore it allows a three-dimensional reconstruction of fiber tracts. We will discuss the principles of DTI and possibilities for sequence optimization. Finally we will give an overview of DTI and its application in Alzheimer's disease. (orig.) [de

  9. The histogram analysis of diffusion-weighted intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging for differentiating the gleason grade of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Wang, Qing; Wu, Chen-Jiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for discriminating the Gleason grade of prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 48 patients pathologically confirmed as having clinically significant PCa (size > 0.5 cm) underwent preoperative DW-MRI (b of 0-900 s/mm(2)). Data was post-processed by monoexponential and IVIM model for quantitation of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), perfusion fraction f, diffusivity D and pseudo-diffusivity D*. Histogram analysis was performed by outlining entire-tumour regions of interest (ROIs) from histological-radiological correlation. The ability of imaging indices to differentiate low-grade (LG, Gleason score (GS) ≤6) from intermediate/high-grade (HG, GS > 6) PCa was analysed by ROC regression. Eleven patients had LG tumours (18 foci) and 37 patients had HG tumours (42 foci) on pathology examination. HG tumours had significantly lower ADCs and D in terms of mean, median, 10th and 75th percentiles, combined with higher histogram kurtosis and skewness for ADCs, D and f, than LG PCa (p Histogram D showed relatively higher correlations (ñ = 0.641-0.668 vs. ADCs: 0.544-0.574) with ordinal GS of PCa; and its mean, median and 10th percentile performed better than ADCs did in distinguishing LG from HG PCa. It is feasible to stratify the pathological grade of PCa by IVIM with histogram metrics. D performed better in distinguishing LG from HG tumour than conventional ADCs. • GS had relatively higher correlation with tumour D than ADCs. • Difference of histogram D among two-grade tumours was statistically significant. • D yielded better individual features in demonstrating tumour grade than ADC. • D* and f failed to determine tumour grade of PCa.

  10. Visual Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Histogram Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chih-Chung; Wu, Bing-Fei; Chung, Meng-Liang; Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Wu, Ya-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement techniques primarily improve the contrast of an image to lend it a better appearance. One of the popular enhancement methods is histogram equalization (HE) because of its simplicity and effectiveness. However, it is rarely applied to consumer electronics products because it can cause excessive contrast enhancement and feature loss problems. These problems make the images processed by HE look unnatural and introduce unwanted artifacts in them. In this study, a visual contrast enhancement algorithm (VCEA) based on HE is proposed. VCEA considers the requirements of the human visual perception in order to address the drawbacks of HE. It effectively solves the excessive contrast enhancement problem by adjusting the spaces between two adjacent gray values of the HE histogram. In addition, VCEA reduces the effects of the feature loss problem by using the obtained spaces. Furthermore, VCEA enhances the detailed textures of an image to generate an enhanced image with better visual quality. Experimental results show that images obtained by applying VCEA have higher contrast and are more suited to human visual perception than those processed by HE and other HE-based methods. PMID:26184219

  11. Visual Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chung Ting

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement techniques primarily improve the contrast of an image to lend it a better appearance. One of the popular enhancement methods is histogram equalization (HE because of its simplicity and effectiveness. However, it is rarely applied to consumer electronics products because it can cause excessive contrast enhancement and feature loss problems. These problems make the images processed by HE look unnatural and introduce unwanted artifacts in them. In this study, a visual contrast enhancement algorithm (VCEA based on HE is proposed. VCEA considers the requirements of the human visual perception in order to address the drawbacks of HE. It effectively solves the excessive contrast enhancement problem by adjusting the spaces between two adjacent gray values of the HE histogram. In addition, VCEA reduces the effects of the feature loss problem by using the obtained spaces. Furthermore, VCEA enhances the detailed textures of an image to generate an enhanced image with better visual quality. Experimental results show that images obtained by applying VCEA have higher contrast and are more suited to human visual perception than those processed by HE and other HE-based methods.

  12. Contrast Enhancement Method Based on Gray and Its Distance Double-Weighting Histogram Equalization for 3D CT Images of PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is a new detection method for 3D nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards (PCBs. However, the obtained 3D image of PCBs exhibits low contrast because of several factors, such as the occurrence of metal artifacts and beam hardening, during the process of CBCT imaging. Histogram equalization (HE algorithms cannot effectively extend the gray difference between a substrate and a metal in 3D CT images of PCBs, and the reinforcing effects are insignificant. To address this shortcoming, this study proposes an image enhancement algorithm based on gray and its distance double-weighting HE. Considering the characteristics of 3D CT images of PCBs, the proposed algorithm uses gray and its distance double-weighting strategy to change the form of the original image histogram distribution, suppresses the grayscale of a nonmetallic substrate, and expands the grayscale of wires and other metals. The proposed algorithm also enhances the gray difference between a substrate and a metal and highlights metallic materials. The proposed algorithm can enhance the gray value of wires and other metals in 3D CT images of PCBs. It applies enhancement strategies of changing gray and its distance double-weighting mechanism to adapt to this particular purpose. The flexibility and advantages of the proposed algorithm are confirmed by analyses and experimental results.

  13. Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming

    2014-10-01

    Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1- and L2-norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods.

  14. Road detection in SAR images using a tensor voting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dajiang; Hu, Chun; Yang, Bing; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, the problem of the detection of road networks in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is addressed. Most of the previous methods extract the road by detecting lines and network reconstruction. Traditional algorithms such as MRFs, GA, Level Set, used in the progress of reconstruction are iterative. The tensor voting methodology we proposed is non-iterative, and non-sensitive to initialization. Furthermore, the only free parameter is the size of the neighborhood, related to the scale. The algorithm we present is verified to be effective when it's applied to the road extraction using the real Radarsat Image.

  15. Determination of mouse skeletal muscle architecture using three dimensional diffusion tensor imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, A.M.; Strijkers, G.J.; Vilanova, A.; Drost, M.R.; Nicolaij, K.

    2005-01-01

    Muscle architecture is the main determinant of the mechanical behavior of skeletal muscles. This study explored the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking to noninvasively determine the in vivo three-dimensional (3D) architecture of skeletal muscle in mouse hind leg. In six

  16. Determination of mouse skeletal muscle architecture using three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Anneriet M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Vilanova, Anna; Drost, Maarten R.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2005-01-01

    Muscle architecture is the main determinant of the mechanical behavior of skeletal muscles. This study explored the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking to noninvasively determine the in vivo three-dimensional (3D) architecture of skeletal muscle in mouse hind leg. In six

  17. Complexity of possibly gapped histogram and analysis of histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushing, Hsieh; Roy, Tania

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate that gaps and distributional patterns embedded within real-valued measurements are inseparable biological and mechanistic information contents of the system. Such patterns are discovered through data-driven possibly gapped histogram, which further leads to the geometry-based analysis of histogram (ANOHT). Constructing a possibly gapped histogram is a complex problem of statistical mechanics due to the ensemble of candidate histograms being captured by a two-layer Ising model. This construction is also a distinctive problem of Information Theory from the perspective of data compression via uniformity. By defining a Hamiltonian (or energy) as a sum of total coding lengths of boundaries and total decoding errors within bins, this issue of computing the minimum energy macroscopic states is surprisingly resolved by applying the hierarchical clustering algorithm. Thus, a possibly gapped histogram corresponds to a macro-state. And then the first phase of ANOHT is developed for simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments, while the second phase of ANOHT is developed based on classical empirical process theory for a tree-geometry that can check the authenticity of branches of the treatment tree. The well-known Iris data are used to illustrate our technical developments. Also, a large baseball pitching dataset and a heavily right-censored divorce data are analysed to showcase the existential gaps and utilities of ANOHT.

  18. Complexity of possibly gapped histogram and analysis of histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushing, Hsieh; Roy, Tania

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate that gaps and distributional patterns embedded within real-valued measurements are inseparable biological and mechanistic information contents of the system. Such patterns are discovered through data-driven possibly gapped histogram, which further leads to the geometry-based analysis of histogram (ANOHT). Constructing a possibly gapped histogram is a complex problem of statistical mechanics due to the ensemble of candidate histograms being captured by a two-layer Ising model. This construction is also a distinctive problem of Information Theory from the perspective of data compression via uniformity. By defining a Hamiltonian (or energy) as a sum of total coding lengths of boundaries and total decoding errors within bins, this issue of computing the minimum energy macroscopic states is surprisingly resolved by applying the hierarchical clustering algorithm. Thus, a possibly gapped histogram corresponds to a macro-state. And then the first phase of ANOHT is developed for simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments, while the second phase of ANOHT is developed based on classical empirical process theory for a tree-geometry that can check the authenticity of branches of the treatment tree. The well-known Iris data are used to illustrate our technical developments. Also, a large baseball pitching dataset and a heavily right-censored divorce data are analysed to showcase the existential gaps and utilities of ANOHT.

  19. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cunha Carneiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammographic images into categories of breast density using an Artificial Neural Network. Methods We used 307 mammographic images from the INbreast digital database, extracting histogram features and texture descriptors of all mammograms and selecting them with the K-means technique. Then, these groups of selected features were used as inputs of an Artificial Neural Network to classify the images automatically into the four categories reported by radiologists. Results An average accuracy of 92.9% was obtained in a few tests using only some of the Haralick texture descriptors. Also, the accuracy rate increased to 98.95% when texture descriptors were mixed with some features based on a histogram. Conclusion Texture descriptors have proven to be better than gray levels features at differentiating the breast densities in mammographic images. From this paper, it was possible to automate the feature selection and the classification with acceptable error rates since the extraction of the features is suitable to the characteristics of the images involving the problem.

  20. Diagnosis of Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis remains difficult. Here, we report on a case in which bilateral lumbar foraminal stenosis was difficult to diagnose, and in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was useful. The patient was a 52-year-old woman with low back pain and pain in both legs that was dominant on the right. Right lumbosacral nerve compression due to a massive uterine myoma was apparent, but the leg pain continued after a myomectomy was performed. No abnormalities were observed dur...

  1. Adaptive local thresholding for robust nucleus segmentation utilizing shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Srinivas, Chukka

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a novel local thresholding method for foreground detection. First, a Canny edge detection method is used for initial edge detection. Then, tensor voting is applied on the initial edge pixels, using a nonsymmetric tensor field tailored to encode prior information about nucleus size, shape, and intensity spatial distribution. Tensor analysis is then performed to generate the saliency image and, based on that, the refined edge. Next, the image domain is divided into blocks. In each block, at least one foreground and one background pixel are sampled for each refined edge pixel. The saliency weighted foreground histogram and background histogram are then created. These two histograms are used to calculate a threshold by minimizing the background and foreground pixel classification error. The block-wise thresholds are then used to generate the threshold for each pixel via interpolation. Finally, the foreground is obtained by comparing the original image with the threshold image. The effective use of prior information, combined with robust techniques, results in far more reliable foreground detection, which leads to robust nucleus segmentation.

  2. Harmonization of multi-site diffusion tensor imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Parker, Drew; Tunç, Birkan; Watanabe, Takanori; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Roalf, David R; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Schultz, Robert T; Verma, Ragini; Shinohara, Russell T

    2017-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a well-established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique used for studying microstructural changes in the white matter. As with many other imaging modalities, DTI images suffer from technical between-scanner variation that hinders comparisons of images across imaging sites, scanners and over time. Using fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps of 205 healthy participants acquired on two different scanners, we show that the DTI measurements are highly site-specific, highlighting the need of correcting for site effects before performing downstream statistical analyses. We first show evidence that combining DTI data from multiple sites, without harmonization, may be counter-productive and negatively impacts the inference. Then, we propose and compare several harmonization approaches for DTI data, and show that ComBat, a popular batch-effect correction tool used in genomics, performs best at modeling and removing the unwanted inter-site variability in FA and MD maps. Using age as a biological phenotype of interest, we show that ComBat both preserves biological variability and removes the unwanted variation introduced by site. Finally, we assess the different harmonization methods in the presence of different levels of confounding between site and age, in addition to test robustness to small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of diffusion tensor imaging in neurosurgery; Anwendung der Diffusions-Tensor-Bildgebung in der Neurochirurgie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, R. [Sektion fuer Experimentelle Kernspinresonanz des ZNS, Abt. Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany); Augenklinik des Universitaetsklinikums Tuebingen (Germany); Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Universitaetsklinikums Tuebingen (Germany); Gharabaghi, A. [Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie des Universitaetsklinikums Tuebingen (Germany); Erb, M. [Sektion fuer Experimentelle Kernspinresonanz des ZNS, Abt. Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Knowledge about integrity and location of fibre tracts arising from eloquent cortical areas is important to plan neurosurgical interventions and to allow maximization of resection of pathological tissue while preserving vital white matter tracts. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is so far the only method to get preoperatively an impression of the individual complexity of nerve bundles. Thereby nerve fibres are not mapped directly. They are derived indirectly by analysis of the directional distribution of diffusion of water molecules which is influenced mainly by large fibre tracts. From acquisition to reconstruction and visualisation of the fibre tracts many representational stages and working steps have to be passed. Exact knowledge about problems of Diffusion Imaging is important for interpretation of the results. Particularly, brain tumor edema, intraoperative brain shift, MR-artefacts and limitations of the mathematical models and algorithms challenge DTI-developers and applicants. (orig.)

  4. Altered brain microstructure assessed by diffusion tensor imaging in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Olesen, Søren Schou; Gram, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Objective In patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) there is increasing evidence of abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Using magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging, brain microstructure in areas involved in processing of visceral pain was characterised...

  5. The histogramming tool hparse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, V.; Shabratova, G.

    2005-01-01

    A general-purpose package aimed to simplify the histogramming in the data analysis is described. The proposed dedicated language for writing the histogramming scripts provides an effective and flexible tool for definition of a complicated histogram set. The script is more transparent and much easier to maintain than corresponding C++ code. In the TTree analysis it could be a good complement to the TTreeViewer class: the TTreeViewer is used for choice of the required histogram/cut set, while the hparse enables one to generate a code for systematic analysis

  6. Feasibility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessing Functional Recovery in Rats with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation After Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mengchao; Gao, Zhengchao; Li, Xiaohui; Zhao, Feng; Guo, Lei; Liu, Jiantao; He, Xijing

    2017-06-17

    BACKGROUND Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury. Diffusion tensor imaging has been applied to assess various kinds of spinal cord injury. However, it has rarely been used to evaluate the beneficial effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of functional recovery in rats with olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine the purity of olfactory ensheathing cells. Rats received cell transplantation at week 1 after injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was used to assess the functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging was applied weekly, including diffusion tensor imaging. Diffusion tensor tractography was reconstructed to visualize the repair process. RESULTS The results showed that olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation increased the functional and histological recovery and restrained the secondary injury process after the initial spinal cord injury. The fractional anisotropy values in rats with cell transplantation were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly lower. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was positively and linearly correlated with fractional anisotropy value, and it was negatively and linearly correlated with apparent diffusion coefficient value. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that diffusion tensor imaging parameters are sensitive biomarker indices for olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation interventions, and diffusion tensor imaging scan can reflect the functional recovery promoted by the olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury.

  7. The Online Histogram Presenter for the ATLAS experiment: A modular system for histogram visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotti, Andrea; Adragna, Paolo; Vitillo, Roberto A

    2010-01-01

    The Online Histogram Presenter (OHP) is the ATLAS tool to display histograms produced by the online monitoring system. In spite of the name, the Online Histogram Presenter is much more than just a histogram display. To cope with the large amount of data, the application has been designed to minimise the network traffic; sophisticated caching, hashing and filtering algorithms reduce memory and CPU usage. The system uses Qt and ROOT for histogram visualisation and manipulation. In addition, histogram visualisation can be extensively customised through configuration files. Finally, its very modular architecture features a lightweight plug-in system, allowing extensions to accommodate specific user needs. After an architectural overview of the application, the paper is going to present in detail the solutions adopted to increase the performance and a description of the plug-in system.

  8. The Online Histogram Presenter for the ATLAS experiment: A modular system for histogram visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, Andrea [CERN, CH-1211 Genve 23 Switzerland (Switzerland); Adragna, Paolo [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London Mile End Road London E1 4RP UK (United Kingdom); Vitillo, Roberto A, E-mail: andrea.dotti@cern.c [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Ed. C Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    The Online Histogram Presenter (OHP) is the ATLAS tool to display histograms produced by the online monitoring system. In spite of the name, the Online Histogram Presenter is much more than just a histogram display. To cope with the large amount of data, the application has been designed to minimise the network traffic; sophisticated caching, hashing and filtering algorithms reduce memory and CPU usage. The system uses Qt and ROOT for histogram visualisation and manipulation. In addition, histogram visualisation can be extensively customised through configuration files. Finally, its very modular architecture features a lightweight plug-in system, allowing extensions to accommodate specific user needs. After an architectural overview of the application, the paper is going to present in detail the solutions adopted to increase the performance and a description of the plug-in system.

  9. The relationship between functional magnetic resonance imaging activation, diffusion tensor imaging, and training effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Danielle; Budson, Andrew E

    2017-04-01

    While the relationship between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements and training effects is explored by Voelker et al. (this issue), a cursory discussion of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements categorizes increased activation with findings of greater white matter integrity. Evidence of the relationship between fMRI activation and white matter integrity is conflicting, as is the relationship between fMRI activation and training effects. An examination of the changes in fMRI activation in response to training is helpful, but the relationship between DTI and fMRI activation, particularly in the context of white matter changes, must be examined further before general conclusions can be drawn.

  10. Retinal Vessel Segmentation via Structure Tensor Coloring and Anisotropy Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nergiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vessel segmentation is one of the preliminary tasks for developing diagnosis software systems related to various retinal diseases. In this study, a fully automated vessel segmentation system is proposed. Firstly, the vessels are enhanced using a Frangi Filter. Afterwards, Structure Tensor is applied to the response of the Frangi Filter and a 4-D tensor field is obtained. After decomposing the Eigenvalues of the tensor field, the anisotropy between the principal Eigenvalues are enhanced exponentially. Furthermore, this 4-D tensor field is converted to the 3-D space which is composed of energy, anisotropy and orientation and then a Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization algorithm is applied to the energy space. Later, the obtained energy space is multiplied by the enhanced mean surface curvature of itself and the modified 3-D space is converted back to the 4-D tensor field. Lastly, the vessel segmentation is performed by using Otsu algorithm and tensor coloring method which is inspired by the ellipsoid tensor visualization technique. Finally, some post-processing techniques are applied to the segmentation result. In this study, the proposed method achieved mean sensitivity of 0.8123, 0.8126, 0.7246 and mean specificity of 0.9342, 0.9442, 0.9453 as well as mean accuracy of 0.9183, 0.9442, 0.9236 for DRIVE, STARE and CHASE_DB1 datasets, respectively. The mean execution time of this study is 6.104, 6.4525 and 18.8370 s for the aforementioned three datasets respectively.

  11. Modeling the dark current histogram induced by gold contamination in complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domengie, F., E-mail: florian.domengie@st.com; Morin, P. [STMicroelectronics Crolles 2 (SAS), 850 Rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Bauza, D. [CNRS, IMEP-LAHC - Grenoble INP, Minatec: 3, rue Parvis Louis Néel, CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France)

    2015-07-14

    We propose a model for dark current induced by metallic contamination in a CMOS image sensor. Based on Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics, the expression of dark current proposed accounts for the electric field enhanced emission factor due to the Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering and phonon-assisted tunneling mechanisms. To that aim, we considered the distribution of the electric field magnitude and metal atoms in the depth of the pixel. Poisson statistics were used to estimate the random distribution of metal atoms in each pixel for a given contamination dose. Then, we performed a Monte-Carlo-based simulation for each pixel to set the number of metal atoms the pixel contained and the enhancement factor each atom underwent, and obtained a histogram of the number of pixels versus dark current for the full sensor. Excellent agreement with the dark current histogram measured on an ion-implanted gold-contaminated imager has been achieved, in particular, for the description of the distribution tails due to the pixel regions in which the contaminant atoms undergo a large electric field. The agreement remains very good when increasing the temperature by 15 °C. We demonstrated that the amplification of the dark current generated for the typical electric fields encountered in the CMOS image sensors, which depends on the nature of the metal contaminant, may become very large at high electric field. The electron and hole emissions and the resulting enhancement factor are described as a function of the trap characteristics, electric field, and temperature.

  12. The Amazing Histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, H.; DeWreede, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a histogram drawing program which sorts real numbers in up to 30 categories. Entered data are sorted and saved in a text file which is then used to generate the histogram. Complete Applesoft program listings are included. (JN)

  13. Diagnosis of Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis remains difficult. Here, we report on a case in which bilateral lumbar foraminal stenosis was difficult to diagnose, and in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was useful. The patient was a 52-year-old woman with low back pain and pain in both legs that was dominant on the right. Right lumbosacral nerve compression due to a massive uterine myoma was apparent, but the leg pain continued after a myomectomy was performed. No abnormalities were observed during nerve conduction studies. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral L5 lumbar foraminal stenosis. DTI imaging was done. The extraforaminal values were decreased and tractography was interrupted in the foraminal region. Bilateral L5 vertebral foraminal stenosis was treated by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and the pain in both legs disappeared. The case indicates the value of DTI for diagnosing vertebral foraminal stenosis.

  14. Impact of Gradient Number and Voxel Size on Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography for Resective Brain Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Friso W. A.; de Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Barkhof, Frederik; Vandertop, W. Peter

    2017-01-01

    To explore quantitatively and qualitatively how the number of gradient directions (NGD) and spatial resolution (SR) affect diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography in patients planned for brain tumor surgery, using routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging protocols. Of 67 patients with

  15. Histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis imaging estimates for in vivo assessment of 2016 WHO glioma grades: A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Johann-Martin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Brendle, Cornelia; Bender, Benjamin; Bier, Georg; Skardelly, Marco; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Castaneda Vega, Salvador; Ernemann, Ulrike; Klose, Uwe

    2017-10-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) maps for in vivo assessment of the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (2016 CNS WHO) integrated glioma grades. Seventy-seven patients with histopathologically-confirmed glioma who provided written informed consent were retrospectively assessed between 01/2014 and 03/2017 from a prospective trial approved by the local institutional review board. Ten histogram parameters of mean kurtosis (MK) and mean diffusivity (MD) metrics from DKI were independently assessed by two blinded physicians from a volume of interest around the entire solid tumor. One-way ANOVA was used to compare MK and MD histogram parameter values between 2016 CNS WHO-based tumor grades. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on MK and MD histogram parameters for significant results. The 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of MK and average MK showed significant differences between IDH1/2 wild-type gliomas, IDH1/2 mutated gliomas, and oligodendrogliomas with chromosome 1p/19q loss of heterozygosity and IDH1/2 mutation (pHistogram analysis of DKI can stratify gliomas according to the integrated approach of 2016 CNS WHO. The 50th (median), 75th , and the 90th percentiles showed the highest diagnostic performance. However, the average MK is also robust and feasible in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging for target volume definition in glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berberat, Jatta; Remonda, Luca [Cantonal Hospital, Department of Neuro-radiology, Aarau (Switzerland); McNamara, Jane; Rogers, Susanne [Cantonal Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aarau (Switzerland); Bodis, Stephan [Cantonal Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aarau (Switzerland); University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MR-based technique that may better detect the peritumoural region than MRI. Our aim was to explore the feasibility of using DTI for target volume delineation in glioblastoma patients. MR tensor tracts and maps of the isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components of water diffusion were coregistered with CT in 13 glioblastoma patients. An in-house image processing program was used to analyse water diffusion in each voxel of interest in the region of the tumour. Tumour infiltration was mapped according to validated criteria and contralateral normal brain was used as an internal control. A clinical target volume (CTV) was generated based on the T{sub 1}-weighted image obtained using contrast agent (T{sub 1Gd}), tractography and the infiltration map. This was compared to a conventional T{sub 2}-weighted CTV (T{sub 2}-w CTV). Definition of a diffusion-based CTV that included the adjacent white matter tracts proved highly feasible. A statistically significant difference was detected between the DTI-CTV and T{sub 2}-w CTV volumes (p < 0.005, t = 3.480). As the DTI-CTVs were smaller than the T{sub 2}-w CTVs (tumour plus peritumoural oedema), the pq maps were not simply detecting oedema. Compared to the clinical planning target volume (PTV), the DTI-PTV showed a trend towards volume reduction. These diffusion-based volumes were smaller than conventional volumes, yet still included sites of tumour recurrence. Extending the CTV along the abnormal tensor tracts in order to preserve coverage of the likely routes of dissemination, whilst sparing uninvolved brain, is a rational approach to individualising radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma patients. (orig.) [German] Die Diffusions-Tensor-Bildgebung (DTI) ist eine MR-Technik, die dank der Erfassung des peritumoralen Bereichs eine Verbesserung bezueglich MRI bringt. Unser Ziel war die Pruefung der Machbarkeit der Verwendung der DTI fuer die Zielvolumenabgrenzung fuer Patienten mit

  17. A Novel Histogram Region Merging Based Multithreshold Segmentation Algorithm for MR Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multithreshold segmentation algorithm is time-consuming, and the time complexity will increase exponentially with the increase of thresholds. In order to reduce the time complexity, a novel multithreshold segmentation algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, all gray levels are used as thresholds, so the histogram of the original image is divided into 256 small regions, and each region corresponds to one gray level. Then, two adjacent regions are merged in each iteration by a new designed scheme, and a threshold is removed each time. To improve the accuracy of the merger operation, variance and probability are used as energy. No matter how many the thresholds are, the time complexity of the algorithm is stable at O(L. Finally, the experiment is conducted on many MR brain images to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Experiment results show that our method can reduce the running time effectively and obtain segmentation results with high accuracy.

  18. Histogram Analysis of Diffusion Weighted Imaging at 3T is Useful for Prediction of Lymphatic Metastatic Spread, Proliferative Activity, and Cellularity in Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schob, Stefan; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Dieckow, Julia; Pervinder, Bhogal; Pazaitis, Nikolaos; Höhn, Anne Kathrin; Garnov, Nikita; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Surov, Alexey

    2017-04-12

    Pre-surgical diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is increasingly important in the context of thyroid cancer for identification of the optimal treatment strategy. It has exemplarily been shown that DWI at 3T can distinguish undifferentiated from well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which has decisive implications for the magnitude of surgery. This study used DWI histogram analysis of whole tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. The primary aim was to discriminate thyroid carcinomas which had already gained the capacity to metastasize lymphatically from those not yet being able to spread via the lymphatic system. The secondary aim was to reflect prognostically important tumor-biological features like cellularity and proliferative activity with ADC histogram analysis. Fifteen patients with follicular-cell derived thyroid cancer were enrolled. Lymph node status, extent of infiltration of surrounding tissue, and Ki-67 and p53 expression were assessed in these patients. DWI was obtained in a 3T system using b values of 0, 400, and 800 s/mm². Whole tumor ADC volumes were analyzed using a histogram-based approach. Several ADC parameters showed significant correlations with immunohistopathological parameters. Most importantly, ADC histogram skewness and ADC histogram kurtosis were able to differentiate between nodal negative and nodal positive thyroid carcinoma. histogram analysis of whole ADC tumor volumes has the potential to provide valuable information on tumor biology in thyroid carcinoma. However, further studies are warranted.

  19. Imaging of postthalamic visual fiber tracts by anisotropic diffusion weighted MRI and diffusion tensor imaging: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinges, Marcus H.T.; Schoth, Felix; Coenen, Volker A.; Krings, Timo

    2004-01-01

    Diffusion weighted MRI offers the possibility to study the course of the cerebral white matter tracts. In the present manuscript, the basics, the technique and the limitations of diffusion tensor imaging and anisotropic diffusion weighted MRI are presented and their applications in various neurological and neurosurgical diseases are discussed with special emphasis on the visual system. A special focus is laid on the combination of fiber tract imaging, anatomical imaging and functional MRI for presurgical planning and intraoperative neuronavigation of lesions near the visual system

  20. Mean template for tensor-based morphometry using deformation tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporé, Natasha; Brun, Caroline; Pennec, Xavier; Chou, Yi-Yu; Lopez, Oscar L; Aizenstein, Howard J; Becker, James T; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) studies anatomical differences between brain images statistically, to identify regions that differ between groups, over time, or correlate with cognitive or clinical measures. Using a nonlinear registration algorithm, all images are mapped to a common space, and statistics are most commonly performed on the Jacobian determinant (local expansion factor) of the deformation fields. In, it was shown that the detection sensitivity of the standard TBM approach could be increased by using the full deformation tensors in a multivariate statistical analysis. Here we set out to improve the common space itself, by choosing the shape that minimizes a natural metric on the deformation tensors from that space to the population of control subjects. This method avoids statistical bias and should ease nonlinear registration of new subjects data to a template that is 'closest' to all subjects' anatomies. As deformation tensors are symmetric positive-definite matrices and do not form a vector space, all computations are performed in the log-Euclidean framework. The control brain B that is already the closest to 'average' is found. A gradient descent algorithm is then used to perform the minimization that iteratively deforms this template and obtains the mean shape. We apply our method to map the profile of anatomical differences in a dataset of 26 HIV/AIDS patients and 14 controls, via a log-Euclidean Hotelling's T2 test on the deformation tensors. These results are compared to the ones found using the 'best' control, B. Statistics on both shapes are evaluated using cumulative distribution functions of the p-values in maps of inter-group differences.

  1. Simultaneous analysis and quality assurance for diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn B Lauzon

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI enables non-invasive, cyto-architectural mapping of in vivo tissue microarchitecture through voxel-wise mathematical modeling of multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI acquisitions, each differently sensitized to water diffusion. DTI computations are fundamentally estimation processes and are sensitive to noise and artifacts. Despite widespread adoption in the neuroimaging community, maintaining consistent DTI data quality remains challenging given the propensity for patient motion, artifacts associated with fast imaging techniques, and the possibility of hardware changes/failures. Furthermore, the quantity of data acquired per voxel, the non-linear estimation process, and numerous potential use cases complicate traditional visual data inspection approaches. Currently, quality inspection of DTI data has relied on visual inspection and individual processing in DTI analysis software programs (e.g. DTIPrep, DTI-studio. However, recent advances in applied statistical methods have yielded several different metrics to assess noise level, artifact propensity, quality of tensor fit, variance of estimated measures, and bias in estimated measures. To date, these metrics have been largely studied in isolation. Herein, we select complementary metrics for integration into an automatic DTI analysis and quality assurance pipeline. The pipeline completes in 24 hours, stores statistical outputs, and produces a graphical summary quality analysis (QA report. We assess the utility of this streamlined approach for empirical quality assessment on 608 DTI datasets from pediatric neuroimaging studies. The efficiency and accuracy of quality analysis using the proposed pipeline is compared with quality analysis based on visual inspection. The unified pipeline is found to save a statistically significant amount of time (over 70% while improving the consistency of QA between a DTI expert and a pool of research associates. Projection of QA

  2. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A.; Saunders, Dawn E.

    2012-01-01

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging correlates with lesion volume in cerebral hemisphere infarctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Maija E; Jason, Eeva; Marchesotti, Silvia; Dastidar, Prasun; Ollikainen, Jyrki; Soimakallio, Seppo

    2010-01-01

    Both a large lesion volume and abnormalities in diffusion tensor imaging are independently associated with a poor prognosis after cerebral infarctions. Therefore, we assume that they are associated. This study assessed the associations between lesion volumes and diffusion tensor imaging in patients with a right-sided cerebral infarction. The lesion volumes of 33 patients (age 65.9 ± 8.7, 26 males and 7 females) were imaged using computed tomography (CT) in the acute phase (within 3-4 hours) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase (follow-up at 12 months, with a range of 8-27 months). The chronic-phase fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were measured at the site of the infarct and selected white matter tracts. Neurological tests in both the acute and chronic phases, and DTI lateralization were assessed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The effects of thrombolytic therapy (n = 10) were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test. The correlations between the measured parameters were analysed with Spearman's rho correlation. Bonferroni post-hoc correction was used to compensate for the familywise error rate in multiple comparisons. Several MD values in the right hemisphere correlated positively and FA values negatively with the lesion volumes. These correlations included both lesion area and healthy tissue. The results of the mini-mental state examination and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale also correlated with the lesion volume. A larger infarct volume is associated with more pronounced tissue modifications in the chronic stage as observed with the MD and FA alterations

  4. Motion-robust diffusion tensor acquisition at routine 3T magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, Hasina; Abe, Osamu; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    We compared different acquisition and reconstruction methods in phantom and human studies in the clinical setting to validate our hypothesis that optimizing the k-space acquisition and reconstruction method could decrease motion artifacts. Diffusion tensor images of a water phantom were obtained with three table displacement magnitudes: 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm. Images were reconstructed using homodyne and zero-fill reconstruction. Overscanning in 8- and 16-k y lines was tested. We performed visual assessment of the artifacts using reconstructed coronal images and analyzed them with Wilcoxon signed-ranks test both for phantom and human studies. Also, fractional anisotropy (FA) changes between acquisition methods were compared. Artifacts due to smaller displacement (1 and 2 mm) were significantly reduced in 16-k y overscan with zero filling. The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test showed significant differences (P<0.031 for reconstruction methods and P<0.016 for overscanning methods). FA changes were statistically significant (P<0.037; Student's t-test). The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test showed significant reductions (P<0.005) in the human study. Motion-induced artifacts can be reduced by optimizing acquisition and reconstruction methods. The techniques described in this study offer an effective method for robust estimation of diffusion tensor in the presence of motion-related artifactual data points. (author)

  5. Evaluation and comparison of signal to noise ratio according to histogram equalization of heart shadow on chest image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Won; Lee, Eul Kyu; Jeong, Hoi Woun; Kang, Byung Sam; Kim, Hyun Soo; Min, Jung Whan; Son, Jin Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure signal to noise ratio (SNR) according to change of equalization from region of interest (ROI) of heart shadow in chest image. We examined images of chest image of 87 patients in a University-affiliated hospital, Seoul, Korea. Chest images of each patient were calculated by using Image. We have analysis socio-demographical variables, SNR according to images, 95% confidence according to SNR of difference in a mean of SNR. Differences of SNR among change of equalization were tested by SPSS Statistics21 ANOVA test for there was statistical significance 95%(p < 0.05). In SNR results, with the quality of distributions in the order of original chest image, original chest image heart shadow and equalization chest image, equalization chest image heart shadow(p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study would be that quantitative evaluation of heart shadow on chest image can be used as an adjunct to the histogram equalization chest image

  6. Evaluation and comparison of signal to noise ratio according to histogram equalization of heart shadow on chest image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eul Kyu [Inje Paik University Hospital at Jeo-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [The Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Sam; Kim, Hyun Soo; Min, Jung Whan; Son, Jin Hyun [The Shingu University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure signal to noise ratio (SNR) according to change of equalization from region of interest (ROI) of heart shadow in chest image. We examined images of chest image of 87 patients in a University-affiliated hospital, Seoul, Korea. Chest images of each patient were calculated by using Image. We have analysis socio-demographical variables, SNR according to images, 95% confidence according to SNR of difference in a mean of SNR. Differences of SNR among change of equalization were tested by SPSS Statistics21 ANOVA test for there was statistical significance 95%(p < 0.05). In SNR results, with the quality of distributions in the order of original chest image, original chest image heart shadow and equalization chest image, equalization chest image heart shadow(p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study would be that quantitative evaluation of heart shadow on chest image can be used as an adjunct to the histogram equalization chest image.

  7. Potential of MR histogram analyses for prediction of response to chemotherapy in patients with colorectal hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, He-Yue; Huang, Ya-Qin; Yang, Zhao-Xia; Ying-Ding; Zeng, Meng-Su; Rao, Sheng-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    To determine if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) histogram analyses can help predict response to chemotherapy in patients with colorectal hepatic metastases by using response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST1.1) as the reference standard. Standard MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (b=0, 500 s/mm(2)) was performed before chemotherapy in 53 patients with colorectal hepatic metastases. Histograms were performed for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, arterial, and portal venous phase images; thereafter, mean, percentiles (1st, 10th, 50th, 90th, 99th), skewness, kurtosis, and variance were generated. Quantitative histogram parameters were compared between responders (partial and complete response, n=15) and non-responders (progressive and stable disease, n=38). Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analyses were further analyzed for the significant parameters. The mean, 1st percentile, 10th percentile, 50th percentile, 90th percentile, 99th percentile of the ADC maps were significantly lower in responding group than that in non-responding group (p=0.000-0.002) with area under the ROC curve (AUCs) of 0.76-0.82. The histogram parameters of arterial and portal venous phase showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups. Histogram-derived parameters for ADC maps seem to be a promising tool for predicting response to chemotherapy in patients with colorectal hepatic metastases. • ADC histogram analyses can potentially predict chemotherapy response in colorectal liver metastases. • Lower histogram-derived parameters (mean, percentiles) for ADC tend to have good response. • MR enhancement histogram analyses are not reliable to predict response.

  8. The Value of Neurosurgical and Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography in Clinically Integrated Neuroanatomy Modules: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Relucenti, Michela; Heyn, Rosemarie; Baldini, Rossella; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Familiari, Pietro; Bozzao, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is considered to be one of the most difficult anatomical subjects for students. To provide motivation and improve learning outcomes in this area, clinical cases and neurosurgical images from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractographies produced using an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging apparatus (MRI/DTI) were presented and…

  9. Enhancement of Edge-based Image Quality Measures Using Entropy for Histogram Equalization-based Contrast Enhancement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. R. Kurmasha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An Edge-based image quality measure (IQM technique for the assessment of histogram equalization (HE-based contrast enhancement techniques has been proposed that outperforms the Absolute Mean Brightness Error (AMBE and Entropy which are the most commonly used IQMs to evaluate Histogram Equalization based techniques, and also the two prominent fidelity-based IQMs which are Multi-Scale Structural Similarity (MSSIM and Information Fidelity Criterion-based (IFC measures. The statistical evaluation results show that the Edge-based IQM, which was designed for detecting noise artifacts distortion, has a Person Correlation Coefficient (PCC > 0.86 while the others have poor or fair correlation to human opinion, considering the Human Visual Perception (HVP. Based on HVP, this paper propose an enhancement to classic Edge-based IQM by taking into account the brightness saturation distortion which is the most prominent distortion in HE-based contrast enhancement techniques. It is tested and found to have significantly well correlation (PCC > 0.87, Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (SROCC > 0.92, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE < 0.1054, and Outlier Ratio (OR = 0%.

  10. Integral Histogram with Random Projection for Pedestrian Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hua Liu

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a systematic study to report several deep insights into the HOG, one of the most widely used features in the modern computer vision and image processing applications. We first show that, its magnitudes of gradient can be randomly projected with random matrix. To handle over-fitting, an integral histogram based on the differences of randomly selected blocks is proposed. The experiments show that both the random projection and integral histogram outperform the HOG feature obviously. Finally, the two ideas are combined into a new descriptor termed IHRP, which outperforms the HOG feature with less dimensions and higher speed.

  11. Underwater image quality enhancement of sea cucumbers based on improved histogram equalization and wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers usually live in an environment where lighting and visibility are generally not controllable, which cause the underwater image of sea cucumbers to be distorted, blurred, and severely attenuated. Therefore, the valuable information from such an image cannot be fully extracted for further processing. To solve the problems mentioned above and improve the quality of the underwater images of sea cucumbers, pre-processing of a sea cucumber image is attracting increasing interest. This paper presents a new method based on contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and wavelet transform (CLAHE-WT to enhance the sea cucumber image quality. CLAHE was used to process the underwater image for increasing contrast based on the Rayleigh distribution, and WT was used for de-noising based on a soft threshold. Qualitative analysis indicated that the proposed method exhibited better performance in enhancing the quality and retaining the image details. For quantitative analysis, the test with 120 underwater images showed that for the proposed method, the mean square error (MSE, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, and entropy were 49.2098, 13.3909, and 6.6815, respectively. The proposed method outperformed three established methods in enhancing the visual quality of sea cucumber underwater gray image.

  12. Probing white-matter microstructure with higher-order diffusion tensors and susceptibility tensor MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Murphy, Nicole E.; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion MRI has become an invaluable tool for studying white matter microstructure and brain connectivity. The emergence of quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) has provided another unique tool for assessing the structure of white matter. In the highly ordered white matter structure, diffusion MRI measures hindered water mobility induced by various tissue and cell membranes, while susceptibility sensitizes to the molecular composition and axonal arrangement. Integrating these two methods may produce new insights into the complex physiology of white matter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between diffusion and magnetic susceptibility in the white matter. Experiments were conducted on phantoms and human brains in vivo. Diffusion properties were quantified with the diffusion tensor model and also with the higher order tensor model based on the cumulant expansion. Frequency shift and susceptibility tensor were measured with quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging. These diffusion and susceptibility quantities were compared and correlated in regions of single fiber bundles and regions of multiple fiber orientations. Relationships were established with similarities and differences identified. It is believed that diffusion MRI and susceptibility MRI provide complementary information of the microstructure of white matter. Together, they allow a more complete assessment of healthy and diseased brains. PMID:23507987

  13. Contemporary imaging of mild TBI: the journey toward diffusion tensor imaging to assess neuronal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W Christopher; Park, Min S; Belverud, Shawn; Klugh, Arnett; Rivet, Dennis; Tomlin, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-01

    To follow the progression of neuroimaging as a means of non-invasive evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in order to provide recommendations based on reproducible, defined imaging findings. A comprehensive literature review and analysis of contemporary published articles was performed to study the progression of neuroimaging findings as a non-invasive 'biomarker' for mTBI. Multiple imaging modalities exist to support the evaluation of patients with mTBI, including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These techniques continue to evolve with the development of fractional anisotropy (FA), fiber tractography (FT), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Modern imaging techniques, when applied in the appropriate clinical setting, may serve as a valuable tool for diagnosis and management of patients with mTBI. An understanding of modern neuroanatomical imaging will enhance our ability to analyse injury and recognize the manifestations of mTBI.

  14. Mean magnetic susceptibility regularized susceptibility tensor imaging (MMSR-STI) for estimating orientations of white matter fibers in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2014-09-01

    An increasing number of studies show that magnetic susceptibility in white matter fibers is anisotropic and may be described by a tensor. However, the limited head rotation possible for in vivo human studies leads to an ill-conditioned inverse problem in susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). Here we suggest the combined use of limiting the susceptibility anisotropy to white matter and imposing morphology constraints on the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) for regularizing the STI inverse problem. The proposed MMS regularized STI (MMSR-STI) method was tested using computer simulations and in vivo human data collected at 3T. The fiber orientation estimated from both the STI and MMSR-STI methods was compared to that from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Computer simulations show that the MMSR-STI method provides a more accurate estimation of the susceptibility tensor than the conventional STI approach. Similarly, in vivo data show that use of the MMSR-STI method leads to a smaller difference between the fiber orientation estimated from STI and DTI for most selected white matter fibers. The proposed regularization strategy for STI can improve estimation of the susceptibility tensor in white matter. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Data quality in diffusion tensor imaging studies of the preterm brain : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterman, Kay; Plaisier, Annemarie; Govaert, Paul; Leemans, A; Lequin, Maarten H.; Dudink, Jeroen

    BACKGROUND: To study early neurodevelopment in preterm infants, evaluation of brain maturation and injury is increasingly performed using diffusion tensor imaging, for which the reliability of underlying data is paramount. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature to evaluate acquisition and processing

  16. Dynamics of chaotic maps for modelling the multifractal spectrum of human brain Diffusion Tensor Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provata, A.; Katsaloulis, P.; Verganelakis, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Calculation of human brain multifractal spectra. ► Calculations are based on Diffusion Tensor MRI Images. ► Spectra are modelled by coupled Ikeda map dynamics. ► Coupled lattice Ikeda maps model well only positive multifractal spectra. ► Appropriately modified coupled lattice Ikeda maps give correct spectra. - Abstract: The multifractal spectra of 3d Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) obtained by magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain are studied. They are shown to deviate substantially from artificial brain images with the same white matter intensity. All spectra, obtained from 12 healthy subjects, show common characteristics indicating non-trivial moments of the intensity. To model the spectra the dynamics of the chaotic Ikeda map are used. The DTI multifractal spectra for positive q are best approximated by 3d coupled Ikeda maps in the fully developed chaotic regime. The coupling constants are as small as α = 0.01. These results reflect not only the white tissue non-trivial architectural complexity in the human brain, but also demonstrate the presence and importance of coupling between neuron axons. The architectural complexity is also mirrored by the deviations in the negative q-spectra, where the rare events dominate. To obtain a good agreement in the DTI negative q-spectrum of the brain with the Ikeda dynamics, it is enough to slightly modify the most rare events of the coupled Ikeda distributions. The representation of Diffusion Tensor Images with coupled Ikeda maps is not unique: similar conclusions are drawn when other chaotic maps (Tent, Logistic or Henon maps) are employed in the modelling of the neuron axons network.

  17. Combining Diffusion Tensor Metrics and DSC Perfusion Imaging: Can It Improve the Diagnostic Accuracy in Differentiating Tumefactive Demyelination from High-Grade Glioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, S B; Muraleedharan, A; Kumar, S; Nagesh, C; Kesavadas, C; Abraham, M; Kapilamoorthy, T R; Thomas, B

    2017-04-01

    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions with atypical features can mimic high-grade gliomas on conventional imaging sequences. The aim of this study was to assess the role of conventional imaging, DTI metrics ( p:q tensor decomposition), and DSC perfusion in differentiating tumefactive demyelinating lesions and high-grade gliomas. Fourteen patients with tumefactive demyelinating lesions and 21 patients with high-grade gliomas underwent brain MR imaging with conventional, DTI, and DSC perfusion imaging. Imaging sequences were assessed for differentiation of the lesions. DTI metrics in the enhancing areas and perilesional hyperintensity were obtained by ROI analysis, and the relative CBV values in enhancing areas were calculated on DSC perfusion imaging. Conventional imaging sequences had a sensitivity of 80.9% and specificity of 57.1% in differentiating high-grade gliomas ( P = .049) from tumefactive demyelinating lesions. DTI metrics ( p : q tensor decomposition) and DSC perfusion demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the mean values of ADC, the isotropic component of the diffusion tensor, the anisotropic component of the diffusion tensor, the total magnitude of the diffusion tensor, and rCBV among enhancing portions in tumefactive demyelinating lesions and high-grade gliomas ( P ≤ .02), with the highest specificity for ADC, the anisotropic component of the diffusion tensor, and relative CBV (92.9%). Mean fractional anisotropy values showed no significant statistical difference between tumefactive demyelinating lesions and high-grade gliomas. The combination of DTI and DSC parameters improved the diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve = 0.901). Addition of a heterogeneous enhancement pattern to DTI and DSC parameters improved it further (area under the curve = 0.966). The sensitivity increased from 71.4% to 85.7% after the addition of the enhancement pattern. DTI and DSC perfusion add profoundly to conventional imaging in differentiating tumefactive

  18. Efficient Human Action and Gait Analysis Using Multiresolution Motion Energy Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chin Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Average Motion Energy (AME image is a good way to describe human motions. However, it has to face the computation efficiency problem with the increasing number of database templates. In this paper, we propose a histogram-based approach to improve the computation efficiency. We convert the human action/gait recognition problem to a histogram matching problem. In order to speed up the recognition process, we adopt a multiresolution structure on the Motion Energy Histogram (MEH. To utilize the multiresolution structure more efficiently, we propose an automated uneven partitioning method which is achieved by utilizing the quadtree decomposition results of MEH. In that case, the computation time is only relevant to the number of partitioned histogram bins, which is much less than the AME method. Two applications, action recognition and gait classification, are conducted in the experiments to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed approach.

  19. Use of diffusion tensor imaging to identify similarities and differences between cerebellar and Parkinsonism forms of multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Po-Shan [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Neurological Institute, Taipei (China); Taipei Municipal Gan-Dau Hospital, Neurological Institute, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Brain Science, Taipei (China); Wu, Hsiu-Mei [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Brain Science, Taipei (China); Soong, Bing-Wen [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Neurological Institute, Taipei (China)

    2011-07-15

    We performed diffusion tensor imaging to determine if multiple system atrophy (MSA)-cerebellar (C) and MSA-Parkinsonism (P) show similar changes, as shown in pathological studies. Nineteen patients with MSA-C, 12 patients with MSA-P, 20 patients with Parkinson disease, and 20 healthy controls were evaluated with the use of voxel-based morphometry analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. There was an increase in apparent diffusion coefficient values in the middle cerebellar peduncles and cerebellum and a decrease in fractional anisotropy in the pyramidal tract, middle cerebellar peduncles, and white matter of the cerebellum in patients with MSA-C and MSA-P compared to the controls (P<0.001). In addition, isotropic diffusion-weighted image values were reduced in the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei in patients with MSA-C and increased in the basal ganglia in patients with MSA-P. These results indicate that despite their disparate clinical manifestations, patients with MSA-C and MSA-P share similar diffusion tensor imaging features in the infratentorial region. Further, the combination of FA, ADC and iDWI images can be used to distinguish between MSA (either form) and Parkinson disease, which has potential therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  20. Use of diffusion tensor imaging to identify similarities and differences between cerebellar and Parkinsonism forms of multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Po-Shan; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Ching-Po; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We performed diffusion tensor imaging to determine if multiple system atrophy (MSA)-cerebellar (C) and MSA-Parkinsonism (P) show similar changes, as shown in pathological studies. Nineteen patients with MSA-C, 12 patients with MSA-P, 20 patients with Parkinson disease, and 20 healthy controls were evaluated with the use of voxel-based morphometry analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. There was an increase in apparent diffusion coefficient values in the middle cerebellar peduncles and cerebellum and a decrease in fractional anisotropy in the pyramidal tract, middle cerebellar peduncles, and white matter of the cerebellum in patients with MSA-C and MSA-P compared to the controls (P<0.001). In addition, isotropic diffusion-weighted image values were reduced in the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei in patients with MSA-C and increased in the basal ganglia in patients with MSA-P. These results indicate that despite their disparate clinical manifestations, patients with MSA-C and MSA-P share similar diffusion tensor imaging features in the infratentorial region. Further, the combination of FA, ADC and iDWI images can be used to distinguish between MSA (either form) and Parkinson disease, which has potential therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  1. Use of diffusion tensor imaging to identify similarities and differences between cerebellar and Parkinsonism forms of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Shan; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Ching-Po; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2011-07-01

    We performed diffusion tensor imaging to determine if multiple system atrophy (MSA)-cerebellar (C) and MSA-Parkinsonism (P) show similar changes, as shown in pathological studies. Nineteen patients with MSA-C, 12 patients with MSA-P, 20 patients with Parkinson disease, and 20 healthy controls were evaluated with the use of voxel-based morphometry analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. There was an increase in apparent diffusion coefficient values in the middle cerebellar peduncles and cerebellum and a decrease in fractional anisotropy in the pyramidal tract, middle cerebellar peduncles, and white matter of the cerebellum in patients with MSA-C and MSA-P compared to the controls (P < 0.001). In addition, isotropic diffusion-weighted image values were reduced in the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei in patients with MSA-C and increased in the basal ganglia in patients with MSA-P. These results indicate that despite their disparate clinical manifestations, patients with MSA-C and MSA-P share similar diffusion tensor imaging features in the infratentorial region. Further, the combination of FA, ADC and iDWI images can be used to distinguish between MSA (either form) and Parkinson disease, which has potential therapeutic implications.

  2. Assessment of the Log-Euclidean Metric Performance in Diffusion Tensor Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Charmi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Appropriate definition of the distance measure between diffusion tensors has a deep impact on Diffusion Tensor Image (DTI segmentation results. The geodesic metric is the best distance measure since it yields high-quality segmentation results. However, the important problem with the geodesic metric is a high computational cost of the algorithms based on it. The main goal of this paper is to assess the possible substitution of the geodesic metric with the Log-Euclidean one to reduce the computational cost of a statistical surface evolution algorithm. Materials and Methods: We incorporated the Log-Euclidean metric in the statistical surface evolution algorithm framework. To achieve this goal, the statistics and gradients of diffusion tensor images were defined using the Log-Euclidean metric. Numerical implementation of the segmentation algorithm was performed in the MATLAB software using the finite difference techniques. Results: In the statistical surface evolution framework, the Log-Euclidean metric was able to discriminate the torus and helix patterns in synthesis datasets and rat spinal cords in biological phantom datasets from the background better than the Euclidean and J-divergence metrics. In addition, similar results were obtained with the geodesic metric. However, the main advantage of the Log-Euclidean metric over the geodesic metric was the dramatic reduction of computational cost of the segmentation algorithm, at least by 70 times. Discussion and Conclusion: The qualitative and quantitative results have shown that the Log-Euclidean metric is a good substitute for the geodesic metric when using a statistical surface evolution algorithm in DTIs segmentation.

  3. Vessel Enhancement and Segmentation of 4D CT Lung Image Using Stick Tensor Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Tan; Hao, Yang; Jingli, Shi; Xuan, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Vessel enhancement and segmentation plays a significant role in medical image analysis. This paper proposes a novel vessel enhancement and segmentation method for 4D CT lung image using stick tensor voting algorithm, which focuses on addressing the vessel distortion issue of vessel enhancement diffusion (VED) method. Furthermore, the enhanced results are easily segmented using level-set segmentation. In our method, firstly, vessels are filtered using Frangi's filter to reduce intrapulmonary noises and extract rough blood vessels. Secondly, stick tensor voting algorithm is employed to estimate the correct direction along the vessel. Then the estimated direction along the vessel is used as the anisotropic diffusion direction of vessel in VED algorithm, which makes the intensity diffusion of points locating at the vessel wall be consistent with the directions of vessels and enhance the tubular features of vessels. Finally, vessels can be extracted from the enhanced image by applying level-set segmentation method. A number of experiments results show that our method outperforms traditional VED method in vessel enhancement and results in satisfied segmented vessels.

  4. Reducing surgical levels by paraspinal mapping and diffusion tensor imaging techniques in lumbar spinal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hua-Biao; Wan, Qi; Xu, Qi-Feng; Chen, Yi; Bai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Correlating symptoms and physical examination findings with surgical levels based on common imaging results is not reliable. In patients who have no concordance between radiological and clinical symptoms, the surgical levels determined by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurogenic examination (NE) may lead to a more extensive surgery and significant complications. We aimed to confirm that whether the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and paraspinal mapping (PM...

  5. Stochastic learning of multi-instance dictionary for earth mover’s distance-based histogram comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Jihong

    2016-09-17

    Dictionary plays an important role in multi-instance data representation. It maps bags of instances to histograms. Earth mover’s distance (EMD) is the most effective histogram distance metric for the application of multi-instance retrieval. However, up to now, there is no existing multi-instance dictionary learning methods designed for EMD-based histogram comparison. To fill this gap, we develop the first EMD-optimal dictionary learning method using stochastic optimization method. In the stochastic learning framework, we have one triplet of bags, including one basic bag, one positive bag, and one negative bag. These bags are mapped to histograms using a multi-instance dictionary. We argue that the EMD between the basic histogram and the positive histogram should be smaller than that between the basic histogram and the negative histogram. Base on this condition, we design a hinge loss. By minimizing this hinge loss and some regularization terms of the dictionary, we update the dictionary instances. The experiments over multi-instance retrieval applications shows its effectiveness when compared to other dictionary learning methods over the problems of medical image retrieval and natural language relation classification. © 2016 The Natural Computing Applications Forum

  6. Contrast Enhancement Using Brightness Preserving Histogram Equalization Technique for Classification of Date Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision technique is becoming popular for quality assessment of many products in food industries. Image enhancement is the first step in analyzing the images in order to obtain detailed information for the determination of quality. In this study, Brightness preserving histogram equalization technique was used to enhance the features of gray scale images to classify three date varieties (Khalas, Fard and Madina. Mean, entropy, kurtosis and skewness features were extracted from the original and enhanced images. Mean and entropy from original images and kurtosis from the enhanced images were selected based on Lukka's feature selection approach. An overall classification efficiency of 93.72% was achieved with just three features. Brightness preserving histogram equalization technique has great potential to improve the classification in various quality attributes of food and agricultural products with minimum features.

  7. Histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix on gray-scale ultrasound images for diagnosing lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Gyung; Yoo, Jaeheung; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Hong, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Han, Kyunghwa; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether texture analysis using histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) parameters can help clinicians diagnose lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and differentiate LT according to pathologic grade. The background thyroid pathology of 441 patients was classified into no evidence of LT, chronic LT (CLT), and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Histogram and GLCM parameters were extracted from the regions of interest on ultrasound. The diagnostic performances of the parameters for diagnosing and differentiating LT were calculated. Of the histogram and GLCM parameters, the mean on histogram had the highest Az (0.63) and VUS (0.303). As the degrees of LT increased, the mean decreased and the standard deviation and entropy increased. The mean on histogram from gray-scale ultrasound showed the best diagnostic performance as a single parameter in differentiating LT according to pathologic grade as well as in diagnosing LT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tensor voting for robust color edge detection

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Rodrigo; García, Miguel Ángel; Puig, Domenec

    2014-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7584-8_9 This chapter proposes two robust color edge detection methods based on tensor voting. The first method is a direct adaptation of the classical tensor voting to color images where tensors are initialized with either the gradient or the local color structure tensor. The second method is based on an extension of tensor voting in which the encoding and voting processes are specifically tailored to ...

  9. The Disruption of Geniculocalcarine Tract in Occipital Neoplasm: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigate the disruption of geniculocalcarine tract (GCT in different occipital neoplasm by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Methods. Thirty-two subjects (44.1 ± 3.6 years who had single occipital neoplasm (9 gliomas, 6 meningiomas, and 17 metastatic tumors with ipsilateral GCT involved and thirty healthy subjects (39.2 ± 3.3 years underwent conventional sequences scanning and diffusion tensor imaging by a 1.5T MR scanner. The diffusion-sensitive gradient direction is 13. Compare the fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD values of healthy GCT with the corresponding values of GCT in peritumoral edema area. Perform diffusion tensor tractography (DTT on GCT by the line propagation technique in all subjects. Results. The FA values of GCT in peritumoral edema area decreased (P=0.001 while the MD values increased (P=0.002 when compared with healthy subjects. There was no difference in the FA values across tumor types (P=0.114 while the MD values of GCT in the metastatic tumor group were higher than the other groups (P=0.001. GCTs were infiltrated in all the 9 gliomas cases, with displacement in 2 cases and disruption in 7 cases. GCTs were displaced in 6 meningiomas cases. GCTs were displaced in all the 7 metastatic cases, with disruption in 7 cases. Conclusions. DTI represents valid markers for evaluating GCT’s disruption in occipital neoplasm. The disruption of GCT varies according to the properties of neoplasm.

  10. Real-time image-based B-mode ultrasound image simulation of needles using tensor-product interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengchen; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an interpolation-based method for simulating rigid needles in B-mode ultrasound images in real time. We parameterize the needle B-mode image as a function of needle position and orientation. We collect needle images under various spatial configurations in a water-tank using a needle guidance robot. Then we use multidimensional tensor-product interpolation to simulate images of needles with arbitrary poses and positions using collected images. After further processing, the interpolated needle and seed images are superimposed on top of phantom or tissue image backgrounds. The similarity between the simulated and the real images is measured using a correlation metric. A comparison is also performed with in vivo images obtained during prostate brachytherapy. Our results, carried out for both the convex (transverse plane) and linear (sagittal/para-sagittal plane) arrays of a trans-rectal transducer indicate that our interpolation method produces good results while requiring modest computing resources. The needle simulation method we present can be extended to the simulation of ultrasound images of other wire-like objects. In particular, we have shown that the proposed approach can be used to simulate brachytherapy seeds.

  11. Corticospinal tract degeneration and possible pathogenesis in ALS evaluated by MR diffusion tensor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, Merete; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Wiegell, Mette R.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) appears to be a powerful method to investigate the neuronal and axonal fibre distribution in the human brain. Changes in diffusion characteristics of water molecules in the white matter can be estimated as the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC...

  12. Kronecker-Basis-Representation Based Tensor Sparsity and Its Applications to Tensor Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Zhao, Qian; Meng, Deyu; Xu, Zongben

    2017-08-02

    It is well known that the sparsity/low-rank of a vector/matrix can be rationally measured by nonzero-entries-number ($l_0$ norm)/nonzero- singular-values-number (rank), respectively. However, data from real applications are often generated by the interaction of multiple factors, which obviously cannot be sufficiently represented by a vector/matrix, while a high order tensor is expected to provide more faithful representation to deliver the intrinsic structure underlying such data ensembles. Unlike the vector/matrix case, constructing a rational high order sparsity measure for tensor is a relatively harder task. To this aim, in this paper we propose a measure for tensor sparsity, called Kronecker-basis-representation based tensor sparsity measure (KBR briefly), which encodes both sparsity insights delivered by Tucker and CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) low-rank decompositions for a general tensor. Then we study the KBR regularization minimization (KBRM) problem, and design an effective ADMM algorithm for solving it, where each involved parameter can be updated with closed-form equations. Such an efficient solver makes it possible to extend KBR to various tasks like tensor completion and tensor robust principal component analysis. A series of experiments, including multispectral image (MSI) denoising, MSI completion and background subtraction, substantiate the superiority of the proposed methods beyond state-of-the-arts.

  13. Studying Dynamic Myofiber Aggregate Reorientation in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Using In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Deuster, Constantin; Sammut, Eva; Asner, Liya; Nordsletten, David; Lamata, Pablo; Stoeck, Christian T; Kozerke, Sebastian; Razavi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the dynamic alterations of myocardial microstructure and strain between diastole and systole in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to healthy controls using the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, myocardial tagging, and biomechanical modeling. Dual heart-phase diffusion tensor imaging was successfully performed in 9 patients and 9 controls. Tagging data were acquired for the diffusion tensor strain correction and cardiac motion analysis. Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and myocyte aggregate orientations were compared between both cohorts. Cardiac function was assessed by left ventricular ejection fraction, torsion, and strain. Computational modeling was used to study the impact of cardiac shape on fiber reorientation and how fiber orientations affect strain. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, a more longitudinal orientation of diastolic myofiber aggregates was measured compared with controls. Although a significant steepening of helix angles (HAs) during contraction was found in the controls, consistent change in HAs during contraction was absent in patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac torsion, and strain were significantly lower in the patients compared with controls. Computational modeling revealed that the dilated heart results in reduced HA changes compared with a normal heart. Reduced torsion was found to be exacerbated by steeper HAs. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed reduced reorientation of myofiber aggregates during cardiac contraction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to controls. Left ventricular remodeling seems to be an important factor in the changes to myocyte orientation. Steeper HAs are coupled with a worsening in strain and torsion. Overall, the findings provide new insights into the structural alterations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. The effects of noise over the complete space of diffusion tensor shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Jin Kyu; Kindlmann, Gordon; Ennis, Daniel B

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a technique used to quantify the microstructural organization of biological tissues. Multiple images are necessary to reconstruct the tensor data and each acquisition is subject to complex thermal noise. As such, measures of tensor invariants, which characterize components of tensor shape, derived from the tensor data will be biased from their true values. Previous work has examined this bias, but over a narrow range of tensor shape. Herein, we define the mathematics for constructing a tensor from tensor invariants, which permits an intuitive and principled means for building tensors with a complete range of tensor shape and salient microstructural properties. Thereafter, we use this development to evaluate by simulation the effects of noise on characterizing tensor shape over the complete space of tensor shape for three encoding schemes with different SNR and gradient directions. We also define a new framework for determining the distribution of the true values of tensor invariants given their measures, which provides guidance about the confidence the observer should have in the measures. Finally, we present the statistics of tensor invariant estimates over the complete space of tensor shape to demonstrate how the noise sensitivity of tensor invariants varies across the space of tensor shape as well as how the imaging protocol impacts measures of tensor invariants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-01-01

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields

  16. Independent histogram pursuit for segmentation of skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, D.D.; Butakoff, C.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an unsupervised algorithm, called the Independent Histogram Pursuit (HIP), for segmenting dermatological lesions is proposed. The algorithm estimates a set of linear combinations of image bands that enhance different structures embedded in the image. In particular, the first estima...... to deal with different types of dermatological lesions. The boundary detection precision using k-means segmentation was close to 97%. The proposed algorithm can be easily combined with the majority of classification algorithms....

  17. Improved Steganographic Method Preserving Pixel-Value Differencing Histogram with Modulus Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Kyu Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein advance a secure steganographic algorithm that uses a turnover policy and a novel adjusting process. Although the method of Wang et al. uses Pixel-Value Differencing (PVD and their modulus function provides high capacity and good image quality, the embedding process causes a number of artifacts, such as abnormal increases and fluctuations in the PVD histogram, which may reveal the existence of the hidden message. In order to enhance the security of the algorithm, a turnover policy is used that prevents abnormal increases in the histogram values and a novel adjusting process is devised to remove the fluctuations at the border of the subrange in the PVD histogram. The proposed method therefore eliminates all the weaknesses of the PVD steganographic methods thus far proposed and guarantees secure communication. In the experiments described herein, the proposed algorithm is compared with other PVD steganographic algorithms by using well-known steganalysis techniques, such as RS-analysis, steganalysis for LSB matching, and histogram-based attacks. The results support our contention that the proposed method enhances security by keeping the PVD histogram similar to the cover, while also providing high embedding capacity and good imperceptibility to the naked eye.

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of asymptomatic lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Miyagi, Ryo; Yamabe, Eiko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; N Bhatia, Nitin; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on a healthy 31-year-old man with asymptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Although the left S1 nerve root was obviously entrapped by a herniated mass, neither DWI nor DTI showed any significant findings for the nerve root. Decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were found. These results are contrary to those in previously published studies of symptomatic patients, in which a combination of increased ADC and decreased FA seem to have a relationship with nerve injury and subsequent symptoms, such as leg pain or palsy. Our results seen in an asymptomatic subject suggest that the compressed nerve with no injury, such as edema, demyelination, or persistent axonal injury, may be indicated by a combination of decreased ADC and increased FA. ADC and FA could therefore be potential tools to elucidate the pathomechanism of radiculopathy.

  19. Dictionary-Based Tensor Canonical Polyadic Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy Emile; Gillis, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    To ensure interpretability of extracted sources in tensor decomposition, we introduce in this paper a dictionary-based tensor canonical polyadic decomposition which enforces one factor to belong exactly to a known dictionary. A new formulation of sparse coding is proposed which enables high dimensional tensors dictionary-based canonical polyadic decomposition. The benefits of using a dictionary in tensor decomposition models are explored both in terms of parameter identifiability and estimation accuracy. Performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated on the decomposition of simulated data and the unmixing of hyperspectral images.

  20. Whole-Lesion Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for the Assessment of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Shi, Hua; Chen, Ying; Liu, Song; Li, Weifeng; Jiang, Zhuoran; Wang, Huanhuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Ge, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the application of whole-lesion histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical cancer. A total of 54 women (mean age, 53 years) with cervical cancers underwent 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm prospectively. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of ADC values was performed. Paired sample t test was used to compare differences in ADC histogram parameters between cervical cancers and normal cervical tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to identify the optimal threshold of each parameter. All histogram parameters in this study including ADCmean, ADCmin, ADC10%-ADC90%, mode, skewness, and kurtosis of cervical cancers were significantly lower than those of normal cervical tissues (all P histogram analysis of ADC maps is useful in the assessment of cervical cancer.

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion tensor imaging-fibre tractograph depict the mechanisms of Broca-like and Wernicke-like conduction aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinjie; Dornbos, David; Lai, Zongli; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Tieshan; Chen, Hongyan; Yang, Zhonghua

    2011-06-01

    Conduction aphasia is usually considered a result of damage of the arcuate fasciculus, which is subjacent to the parietal portion of the supra-marginal gyrus and the upper part of the insula. It is important to stress that many features of conduction aphasia relate to a cortical deficit, more than a pure disconnection mechanism. In this study, we explore the mechanism of Broca-like and Wernicke-like conduction aphasia by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor imaging-fibre tractograph (DT-FT). We enrolled five Broca-like conduction aphasia cases, five Wernicke-like aphasia conduction cases and 10 healthy volunteers residing in Beijing and speaking Mandarin. All are right handed. We analyzed the arcuate fasciculus, Broca's areas and Wernicke's areas by DTI and measured fractional anisotrogy (FA). The results of left and right hemispheres were compared in both conduction aphasia cases and volunteers. Then the results of the conduction aphasia cases were compared with those of volunteers. The fibre construction of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was also compared by DTI-FT. The FA occupied by the identified connective pathways (Broca's area, Wernicke's area and the arcuate fasciculus) in the left hemisphere was larger than that in the right hemisphere in the control group (Paphasia cases, the FA of the left Broca's area was smaller than that of the right mirror side (PWernicke-like conduction aphasia patients, the FA of the left Wernicke's area was smaller than that of right mirror side (Paphasia results from not only arcuate fasciculus destruction, but also from disruption of the associated cortical areas. Along different segments of the arcuate fasciculus, the characteristics of language disorders of conduction aphasia were different. A lesion involving Broca's area and the anterior segments of the arcuate fasciculus would lead to Broca-like conduction aphasia, whereas a lesion involved Wernicke's area and posterior segments of the arcuate fasciculus

  2. Combined Tensor Fitting and TV Regularization in Diffusion Tensor Imaging Based on a Riemannian Manifold Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baust, Maximilian; Weinmann, Andreas; Wieczorek, Matthias; Lasser, Tobias; Storath, Martin; Navab, Nassir

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we consider combined TV denoising and diffusion tensor fitting in DTI using the affine-invariant Riemannian metric on the space of diffusion tensors. Instead of first fitting the diffusion tensors, and then denoising them, we define a suitable TV type energy functional which incorporates the measured DWIs (using an inverse problem setup) and which measures the nearness of neighboring tensors in the manifold. To approach this functional, we propose generalized forward- backward splitting algorithms which combine an explicit and several implicit steps performed on a decomposition of the functional. We validate the performance of the derived algorithms on synthetic and real DTI data. In particular, we work on real 3D data. To our knowledge, the present paper describes the first approach to TV regularization in a combined manifold and inverse problem setup.

  3. Changes of brain microstructure in patients with painful chronic pancreatitis assessed by diffusion tensor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Olesen, Søren Schou; Gram, Mikkel

    Objective In patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) there is increasing evidence of abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Using magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging, brain microstructure in areas involved in processing of visceral pain was characterised...

  4. Hot Spots Detection of Operating PV Arrays through IR Thermal Image Using Method Based on Curve Fitting of Gray Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall efficiency of PV arrays is affected by hot spots which should be detected and diagnosed by applying responsible monitoring techniques. The method using the IR thermal image to detect hot spots has been studied as a direct, noncontact, nondestructive technique. However, IR thermal images suffer from relatively high stochastic noise and non-uniformity clutter, so the conventional methods of image processing are not effective. The paper proposes a method to detect hotspots based on curve fitting of gray histogram. The result of MATLAB simulation proves the method proposed in the paper is effective to detect the hot spots suppressing the noise generated during the process of image acquisition.

  5. Chi-square tests for comparing weighted histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagunashvili, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Weighted histograms in Monte Carlo simulations are often used for the estimation of probability density functions. They are obtained as a result of random experiments with random events that have weights. In this paper, the bin contents of a weighted histogram are considered as a sum of random variables with a random number of terms. Generalizations of the classical chi-square test for comparing weighted histograms are proposed. Numerical examples illustrate an application of the tests for the histograms with different statistics of events and different weighted functions. The proposed tests can be used for the comparison of experimental data histograms with simulated data histograms as well as for the two simulated data histograms.

  6. Glyph-Based Comparative Visualization for Diffusion Tensor Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changgong; Schultz, Thomas; Lawonn, Kai; Eisemann, Elmar; Vilanova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging modality that enables the in-vivo reconstruction and visualization of fibrous structures. To inspect the local and individual diffusion tensors, glyph-based visualizations are commonly used since they are able to effectively convey full aspects of the diffusion tensor. For several applications it is necessary to compare tensor fields, e.g., to study the effects of acquisition parameters, or to investigate the influence of pathologies on white matter structures. This comparison is commonly done by extracting scalar information out of the tensor fields and then comparing these scalar fields, which leads to a loss of information. If the glyph representation is kept, simple juxtaposition or superposition can be used. However, neither facilitates the identification and interpretation of the differences between the tensor fields. Inspired by the checkerboard style visualization and the superquadric tensor glyph, we design a new glyph to locally visualize differences between two diffusion tensors by combining juxtaposition and explicit encoding. Because tensor scale, anisotropy type, and orientation are related to anatomical information relevant for DTI applications, we focus on visualizing tensor differences in these three aspects. As demonstrated in a user study, our new glyph design allows users to efficiently and effectively identify the tensor differences. We also apply our new glyphs to investigate the differences between DTI datasets of the human brain in two different contexts using different b-values, and to compare datasets from a healthy and HIV-infected subject.

  7. Generalized Tensor-Based Morphometry of HIV/AIDS Using Multivariate Statistics on Deformation Tensors

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, Natasha; Brun, Caroline; Chou, Yi-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Luders, Eileen; Lopez, Oscar L.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Becker, James T.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a new multivariate method for tensor-based morphometry (TBM). Statistics on Riemannian manifolds are developed that exploit the full information in deformation tensor fields. In TBM, multiple brain images are warped to a common neuroanatomical template via 3-D nonlinear registration; the resulting deformation fields are analyzed statistically to identify group differences in anatomy. Rather than study the Jacobian determinant (volume expansion factor...

  8. Infrared face recognition based on LBP histogram and KW feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua

    2014-07-01

    The conventional LBP-based feature as represented by the local binary pattern (LBP) histogram still has room for performance improvements. This paper focuses on the dimension reduction of LBP micro-patterns and proposes an improved infrared face recognition method based on LBP histogram representation. To extract the local robust features in infrared face images, LBP is chosen to get the composition of micro-patterns of sub-blocks. Based on statistical test theory, Kruskal-Wallis (KW) feature selection method is proposed to get the LBP patterns which are suitable for infrared face recognition. The experimental results show combination of LBP and KW features selection improves the performance of infrared face recognition, the proposed method outperforms the traditional methods based on LBP histogram, discrete cosine transform(DCT) or principal component analysis(PCA).

  9. Comparison of Turbo Spin Echo and Echo Planar Imaging for intravoxel incoherent motion and diffusion tensor imaging of the kidney at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Wech, Tobias; Neubauer, Henning; Veldhoen, Simon; Bley, Thorsten Alexander; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-10-01

    Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) is most commonly applied to acquire diffusion-weighted MR-images. EPI is able to capture an entire image in very short time, but is prone to distortions and artifacts. In diffusion-weighted EPI of the kidney severe distortions may occur due to intestinal gas. Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) is robust against distortions and artifacts, but needs more time to acquire an entire image compared to EPI. Therefore, TSE is more sensitive to motion during the readout. In this study we compare diffusion-weighted TSE and EPI of the human kidney with regard to intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Images were acquired with b-values between 0 and 750 s/mm{sup 2} with TSE and EPI. Distortions were observed with the EPI readout in all volunteers, while the TSE images were virtually distortion-free. Fractional anisotropy of the diffusion tensor was significantly lower for TSE than for EPI. All other parameters of DTI and IVIM were comparable for TSE and EPI. Especially the main diffusion directions yielded by TSE and EPI were similar. The results demonstrate that TSE is a worthwhile distortion-free alternative to EPI for diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidney at 3 Tesla.

  10. Improved Steganographic Method Preserving Pixel-Value Differencing Histogram with Modulus Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hae-Yeoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We herein advance a secure steganographic algorithm that uses a turnover policy and a novel adjusting process. Although the method of Wang et al. uses Pixel-Value Differencing (PVD and their modulus function provides high capacity and good image quality, the embedding process causes a number of artifacts, such as abnormal increases and fluctuations in the PVD histogram, which may reveal the existence of the hidden message. In order to enhance the security of the algorithm, a turnover policy is used that prevents abnormal increases in the histogram values and a novel adjusting process is devised to remove the fluctuations at the border of the subrange in the PVD histogram. The proposed method therefore eliminates all the weaknesses of the PVD steganographic methods thus far proposed and guarantees secure communication. In the experiments described herein, the proposed algorithm is compared with other PVD steganographic algorithms by using well-known steganalysis techniques, such as RS-analysis, steganalysis for LSB matching, and histogram-based attacks. The results support our contention that the proposed method enhances security by keeping the PVD histogram similar to the cover, while also providing high embedding capacity and good imperceptibility to the naked eye.

  11. [Clinical application of MRI histogram in evaluation of muscle fatty infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y M; Du, J; Li, W Z; Wang, Z X; Zhang, W; Xiao, J X; Yuan, Y

    2016-10-18

    To describe a method based on analysis of the histogram of intensity values produced from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying the degree of fatty infiltration. The study included 25 patients with dystrophinopathy. All the subjects underwent muscle MRI test at thigh level. The histogram M values of 250 muscles adjusted for subcutaneous fat, representing the degree of fatty infiltration, were compared with the expert visual reading using the modified Mercuri scale. There was a significant positive correlation between the histogram M values and the scores of visual reading (r=0.854, Phistogram M values was similar to that of visual reading and results in literature. The histogram M values had stronger correlations with the clinical data than the scores of visual reading as follows: the correlations with age (r=0.730, Phistogram M values analysis had better repeatability than visual reading with the interclass correlation coefficient was 0.998 (95% CI: 0.997-0.998, PHistogram M values analysis of MRI with the advantages of repeatability and objectivity can be used to evaluate the degree of muscle fatty infiltration.

  12. The role of diffusion tensor imaging in brain tumor surgery : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; Wagemakers, Michiel; van Hulzen, Arjen L. J.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Hoving, Eelco W.; Groen, Rob J. M.

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent technique that utilizes diffusion of water molecules to make assumptions about white matter tract architecture of the brain. Early on, neurosurgeons recognized its potential value in neurosurgical planning, as it is the only technique that offers the

  13. Neuropsychological Correlates of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G.; Kubicki, Marek; Gurrera, Ronald J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Frumin, Melissa; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 41) and healthy comparison participants (n = 46) completed neuropsychological measures of intelligence, memory, and executive function. A subset of each group also completed magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies (fractional anisotropy and cross-sectional area) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulate bundle (CB). Patients with schizophrenia showed reduced levels of functioning across all neuropsychological measures. In addition, selective neuropsychological–DTI relationships emerged. Among patients but not controls, lower levels of declarative–episodic verbal memory correlated with reduced left UF, whereas executive function errors related to performance monitoring correlated with reduced left CB. The data suggested abnormal DTI patterns linking declarative–episodic verbal memory deficits to the left UF and executive function deficits to the left CB among patients with schizophrenia. PMID:15506830

  14. Denoising human cardiac diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images using sparse representation combined with segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, L J; Zhu, Y M; Liu, W Y; Pu, Z B; Magnin, I E; Croisille, P; Robini, M

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is noise sensitive, and the noise can induce numerous systematic errors in subsequent parameter calculations. This paper proposes a sparse representation-based method for denoising cardiac DT-MRI images. The method first generates a dictionary of multiple bases according to the features of the observed image. A segmentation algorithm based on nonstationary degree detector is then introduced to make the selection of atoms in the dictionary adapted to the image's features. The denoising is achieved by gradually approximating the underlying image using the atoms selected from the generated dictionary. The results on both simulated image and real cardiac DT-MRI images from ex vivo human hearts show that the proposed denoising method performs better than conventional denoising techniques by preserving image contrast and fine structures.

  15. Histogram Profiling of Postcontrast T1-Weighted MRI Gives Valuable Insights into Tumor Biology and Enables Prediction of Growth Kinetics and Prognosis in Meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gihr, Georg Alexander; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Kohlhof-Meinecke, Patricia; Ganslandt, Oliver; Henkes, Hans; Richter, Cindy; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Surov, Alexey; Schob, Stefan

    2018-06-14

    Meningiomas are the most frequently diagnosed intracranial masses, oftentimes requiring surgery. Especially procedure-related morbidity can be substantial, particularly in elderly patients. Hence, reliable imaging modalities enabling pretherapeutic prediction of tumor grade, growth kinetic, realistic prognosis, and-as a consequence-necessity of surgery are of great value. In this context, a promising diagnostic approach is advanced analysis of magnetic resonance imaging data. Therefore, our study investigated whether histogram profiling of routinely acquired postcontrast T1-weighted images is capable of separating low-grade from high-grade lesions and whether histogram parameters reflect Ki-67 expression in meningiomas. Pretreatment T1-weighted postcontrast volumes of 44 meningioma patients were used for signal intensity histogram profiling. WHO grade, tumor volume, and Ki-67 expression were evaluated. Comparative and correlative statistics investigating the association between histogram profile parameters and neuropathology were performed. None of the investigated histogram parameters revealed significant differences between low-grade and high-grade meningiomas. However, significant correlations were identified between Ki-67 and the histogram parameters skewness and entropy as well as between entropy and tumor volume. Contrary to previously reported findings, pretherapeutic postcontrast T1-weighted images can be used to predict growth kinetics in meningiomas if whole tumor histogram analysis is employed. However, no differences between distinct WHO grades were identifiable in out cohort. As a consequence, histogram analysis of postcontrast T1-weighted images is a promising approach to obtain quantitative in vivo biomarkers reflecting the proliferative potential in meningiomas. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Histogram-Area Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzer, William; Carpenter, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates an alternative approach to the construction of histograms--one based on the notion of using area to represent relative density in intervals of unequal length. The resulting histograms illustrate the connection between the area of the rectangles associated with particular outcomes and the relative frequency (probability)…

  17. An exploration into diffusion tensor imaging in the bovine ocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan eVaghefi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe our development of the diffusion tensor imaging modality for the bovine ocular lens. Diffusion gradients were added to a spin-echo pulse sequence and the relevant parameters of the sequence were refined to achieve good diffusion weighting in the lens tissue, which demonstrated heterogeneous regions of diffusive signal attenuation. Decay curves for b-value (loosely summarizes the strength of diffusion weighting and TE (determines the amount of MRI-obtained signal were used to estimate apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC and T2 in different lens regions. The ADCs varied by over an order of magnitude and revealed diffusive anisotropy in the lens. Up to 30 diffusion gradient directions, and 8 signal acquisition averages, were applied to lenses in culture in order to improve maps of diffusion tensor eigenvalues, equivalent to ADC, across the lens. From these maps, fractional anisotropy maps were calculated and compared to known spatial distributions of anisotropic molecular fluxes in the lens. This comparison suggested new hypotheses and experiments to quantitatively assess models of circulation in the avascular lens.

  18. Whole-tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to differentiate benign peripheral neurogenic tumors from soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Masanori; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Hakamada, Hiroto; Yoneyama, Tomohide; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Nagano, Satoshi; Nakajo, Masayuki; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-02-22

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analyses have been used to differentiate tumor grades and predict therapeutic responses in various anatomic sites with moderate success. To determine the ability of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with a whole-tumor ADC histogram analysis to differentiate benign peripheral neurogenic tumors (BPNTs) from soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). Retrospective study, single institution. In all, 25 BPNTs and 31 STSs. Two-b value DWI (b-values = 0, 1000s/mm 2 ) was at 3.0T. The histogram parameters of whole-tumor for ADC were calculated by two radiologists and compared between BPNTs and STSs. Nonparametric tests were performed for comparisons between BPNTs and STSs. P histogram parameters except kurtosis and entropy differed significantly between BPNTs and STSs. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging in inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions: Focusing on fiber tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Eugene; Kim, Sung Gon; Kang, Yu Suhn; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions have overlapping clinical features, and it is occasionally difficult to distinguish one from the other on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. We aimed to compare diffusion tensor imaging findings between inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions, with a specific focus on patterns of fiber tracking. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in patients with either inflammatory or neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions. The fiber tracking patterns (categorized as “intact,” “displaced,” or “interrupted”) were compared between these two groups. Eight patients were included in the study: 5 patients with pathologically or clinically confirmed inflammatory lesions and 3 patients with pathologically or clinically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Among the 5 patients with inflammatory lesions, 2 patients exhibited the displaced pattern and 3 patients exhibited the intact pattern. Among the 3 patients with neoplastic lesions, 1 patient exhibited the intact pattern, 1 patient exhibited the displaced pattern, and 1 patient exhibited the interrupted pattern. In this study, inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions were not clearly differentiated by fiber tracking; both conditions can present with overlapping features such as displaced fibers. The exclusion of inflammatory conditions based on the presence of displaced fibers in fiber tracking images should be avoided.

  20. Histogram analysis for smartphone-based rapid hematocrit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Uddin M.; Kim, Sang C.; Shim, Joon S.

    2017-01-01

    A novel and rapid analysis technique using histogram has been proposed for the colorimetric quantification of blood hematocrits. A smartphone-based “Histogram” app for the detection of hematocrits has been developed integrating the smartphone embedded camera with a microfluidic chip via a custom-made optical platform. The developed histogram analysis shows its effectiveness in the automatic detection of sample channel including auto-calibration and can analyze the single-channel as well as multi-channel images. Furthermore, the analyzing method is advantageous to the quantification of blood-hematocrit both in the equal and varying optical conditions. The rapid determination of blood hematocrits carries enormous information regarding physiological disorders, and the use of such reproducible, cost-effective, and standard techniques may effectively help with the diagnosis and prevention of a number of human diseases. PMID:28717569

  1. Regional Cerebral Disease Progression in Friedreich's Ataxia: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola; Giannelli, Marco; Ginestroni, Andrea; Della Nave, Riccardo; Tessa, Carlo; Piacentini, Silvia; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Aiello, Marco; Nicolai, Emanuele; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvi, Fabrizio; Diciotti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Imaging biomarkers of disease progression are desirable in inherited ataxias. MRI has demonstrated brain damage in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) in form of regional atrophy of the medulla, peridentate cerebellar white matter (WM) and superior cerebellar peduncles (visible in T1-weighted images) and of change of microstructural characteristics of WM tracts of the brainstem, cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, and supratentorial structures (visible through diffusion-weighted imaging). We explored the potential of brain MR morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to track the progression of neurodegeneration in FRDA. Eight patients (5F, 3M; age 13.4-41.2 years) and 8 healthy controls (2F, 6M; age 26.2-48.3 years) underwent 2 MRI examinations (mean 3.9 and 4.1 years apart, respectively) on the same 1.5T scanner. The protocol included 3D T1-weighted images and axial diffusion-weighted images (b-value 1,000 s/mm(2)) for calculating maps of fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity, and mode of anisotropy. Tensor-based morphometry was used to investigate regional volume changes and tract-based spatial statistics was used to investigate microstructural changes in WM tracts. Longitudinal analyses showed no differences in regional volume changes but a significant difference in axial diffusivity changes in cerebral and corpus callosum WM of patients as compared to controls (mean longitudinal rate of change for axial diffusivity: -.02 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s/year in patients vs. .01 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s/year in controls). No correlation with number of triplets, disease duration, and worsening of the clinical deficit was observed. DTI can track brain microstructural changes in FRDA and can be considered a potential biomarker of disease progression. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Simultaneous multislice echo planar imaging with blipped controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration: a promising technique for accelerated diffusion tensor imaging of skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Filli, Lukas; Piccirelli, Marco; Kenkel, David; Guggenberger, Roman; Andreisek, Gustav; Beck, Thomas; Runge, Val M; Boss, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of accelerated diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of skeletal muscle using echo planar imaging (EPI) applying simultaneous multislice excitation with a blipped controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration unaliasing technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS After federal ethics board approval, the lower leg muscles of 8 healthy volunteers (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [2.9] years) were examined in a clinical 3-T magnetic ...

  3. Structural connectivity via the tensor-based morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S.; Chung, M.; Hanson, J.; Avants, B.; Gee, J.; Davidson, R.; Pollak, S.

    2011-01-01

    The tensor-based morphometry (TBM) has been widely used in characterizing tissue volume difference between populations at voxel level. We present a novel computational framework for investigating the white matter connectivity using TBM. Unlike other diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based white matter connectivity studies, we do not use DTI but only T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To construct brain network graphs, we have developed a new data-driven approach called the ε-neighbor ...

  4. Retrospective Correction of Physiological Noise in DTI Using an Extended Tensor Model and Peripheral Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Hutton, Chloe; Nagy, Zoltan; Josephs, Oliver; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is widely used in research and clinical applications, but this modality is highly sensitive to artefacts. We developed an easy-to-implement extension of the original diffusion tensor model to account for physiological noise in diffusion tensor imaging using measures of peripheral physiology (pulse and respiration), the so-called extended tensor model. Within the framework of the extended tensor model two types of regressors, which respectively modeled small (linear) and strong (nonlinear) variations in the diffusion signal, were derived from peripheral measures. We tested the performance of four extended tensor models with different physiological noise regressors on nongated and gated diffusion tensor imaging data, and compared it to an established data-driven robust fitting method. In the brainstem and cerebellum the extended tensor models reduced the noise in the tensor-fit by up to 23% in accordance with previous studies on physiological noise. The extended tensor model addresses both large-amplitude outliers and small-amplitude signal-changes. The framework of the extended tensor model also facilitates further investigation into physiological noise in diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed extended tensor model can be readily combined with other artefact correction methods such as robust fitting and eddy current correction. PMID:22936599

  5. Tensor Rank Preserving Discriminant Analysis for Facial Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dapeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yaotang; Gao, Xinbo

    2017-10-12

    Facial recognition, one of the basic topics in computer vision and pattern recognition, has received substantial attention in recent years. However, for those traditional facial recognition algorithms, the facial images are reshaped to a long vector, thereby losing part of the original spatial constraints of each pixel. In this paper, a new tensor-based feature extraction algorithm termed tensor rank preserving discriminant analysis (TRPDA) for facial image recognition is proposed; the proposed method involves two stages: in the first stage, the low-dimensional tensor subspace of the original input tensor samples was obtained; in the second stage, discriminative locality alignment was utilized to obtain the ultimate vector feature representation for subsequent facial recognition. On the one hand, the proposed TRPDA algorithm fully utilizes the natural structure of the input samples, and it applies an optimization criterion that can directly handle the tensor spectral analysis problem, thereby decreasing the computation cost compared those traditional tensor-based feature selection algorithms. On the other hand, the proposed TRPDA algorithm extracts feature by finding a tensor subspace that preserves most of the rank order information of the intra-class input samples. Experiments on the three facial databases are performed here to determine the effectiveness of the proposed TRPDA algorithm.

  6. Identification of column edges of DNA fragments by using K-means clustering and mean algorithm on lane histograms of DNA agarose gel electrophoresis images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Muhammed K.; Sehirli, Eftal; Elen, Abdullah; Karas, Ismail R.

    2015-07-01

    Gel electrophoresis (GE) is one of the most used method to separate DNA, RNA, protein molecules according to size, weight and quantity parameters in many areas such as genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology. The main way to separate each molecule is to find borders of each molecule fragment. This paper presents a software application that show columns edges of DNA fragments in 3 steps. In the first step the application obtains lane histograms of agarose gel electrophoresis images by doing projection based on x-axis. In the second step, it utilizes k-means clustering algorithm to classify point values of lane histogram such as left side values, right side values and undesired values. In the third step, column edges of DNA fragments is shown by using mean algorithm and mathematical processes to separate DNA fragments from the background in a fully automated way. In addition to this, the application presents locations of DNA fragments and how many DNA fragments exist on images captured by a scientific camera.

  7. White Matter Integrity in Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Deeley, Quinton; Sundram, Fred; Daly, Eileen M.; Barker, Gareth J.; Jones, Derek K.; van Amelsvoort, Therese A. M. J.; Schmitz, Nicole; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome and autism, is a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. There is a consensus that ASD has a biological basis, and it has been proposed that it is a "connectivity" disorder. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  8. Repeatability of derived parameters from histograms following non-Gaussian diffusion modelling of diffusion-weighted imaging in a paediatric oncological cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, Neil P.; Miyazaki, Keiko; Collins, David J.; Orton, Matthew R.; D' Arcy, James A.; Leach, Martin O. [Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, Toni; Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Moreno, Lucas [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Division of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); Hospital Nino Jesus, Madrid (Spain); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Marshall, Lynley V.; Carceller, Fernando; Zacharoulis, Stergios [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Division of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    To examine repeatability of parameters derived from non-Gaussian diffusion models in data acquired in children with solid tumours. Paediatric patients (<16 years, n = 17) were scanned twice, 24 h apart, using DWI (6 b-values, 0-1000 mm{sup -2} s) at 1.5 T in a prospective study. Tumour ROIs were drawn (3 slices) and all data fitted using IVIM, stretched exponential, and kurtosis models; percentage coefficients of variation (CV) calculated for each parameter at all ROI histogram centiles, including the medians. The values for ADC, D, DDC{sub α}, α, and DDC{sub K} gave CV < 10 % down to the 5th centile, with sharp CV increases below 5th and above 95th centile. K, f, and D* showed increased CV (>30 %) over the histogram. ADC, D, DDC{sub α}, and DDC{sub K} were strongly correlated (ρ > 0.9), DDC{sub α} and α were not correlated (ρ = 0.083). Perfusion- and kurtosis-related parameters displayed larger, more variable CV across the histogram, indicating observed clinical changes outside of D/DDC in these models should be interpreted with caution. Centiles below 5th for all parameters show high CV and are unreliable as diffusion metrics. The stretched exponential model behaved well for both DDC{sub α} and α, making it a strong candidate for modelling multiple-b-value diffusion imaging data. (orig.)

  9. Subtype differentiation of renal tumors using voxel-based histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaing, Byron; Sigmund, Eric E; Huang, William C; Babb, James S; Parikh, Nainesh S; Stoffel, David; Chandarana, Hersh

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if voxel-based histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion imaging (IVIM) parameters can differentiate various subtypes of renal tumors, including benign and malignant lesions. A total of 44 patients with renal tumors who underwent surgery and had histopathology available were included in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved, single-institution prospective study. In addition to routine renal magnetic resonance imaging examination performed on a 1.5-T system, all patients were imaged with axial diffusion-weighted imaging using 8 b values (range, 0-800 s/mm). A biexponential model was fitted to the diffusion signal data using a segmented algorithm to extract the IVIM parameters perfusion fraction (fp), tissue diffusivity (Dt), and pseudodiffusivity (Dp) for each voxel. Mean and histogram measures of heterogeneity (standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis) of IVIM parameters were correlated with pathology results of tumor subtype using unequal variance t tests to compare subtypes in terms of each measure. Correction for multiple comparisons was accomplished using the Tukey honestly significant difference procedure. A total of 44 renal tumors including 23 clear cell (ccRCC), 4 papillary (pRCC), 5 chromophobe, and 5 cystic renal cell carcinomas, as well as benign lesions, 4 oncocytomas (Onc) and 3 angiomyolipomas (AMLs), were included in our analysis. Mean IVIM parameters fp and Dt differentiated 8 of 15 pairs of renal tumors. Histogram analysis of IVIM parameters differentiated 9 of 15 subtype pairs. One subtype pair (ccRCC vs pRCC) was differentiated by mean analysis but not by histogram analysis. However, 2 other subtype pairs (AML vs Onc and ccRCC vs Onc) were differentiated by histogram distribution parameters exclusively. The standard deviation of Dt [σ(Dt)] differentiated ccRCC (0.362 ± 0.136 × 10 mm/s) from AML (0.199 ± 0.043 × 10 mm/s) (P = 0

  10. Whole-tumor MRI histogram analyses of hepatocellular carcinoma: Correlations with Ki-67 labeling index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Xing; Yang, Zhao-Xia; Liang, He-Yue; Ding, Ying; Grimm, Robert; Fu, Cai-Xia; Liu, Hui; Yan, Xu; Ji, Yuan; Zeng, Meng-Su; Rao, Sheng-Xiang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate whether whole-tumor histogram-derived parameters for an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could aid in assessing Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In all, 57 patients with HCC who underwent pretreatment MRI with a 3T MR scanner were included retrospectively. Histogram parameters including mean, median, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and percentiles (5 th , 25 th , 75 th , 95 th ) were derived from the ADC map and MR enhancement. Correlations between histogram parameters and Ki-67 LI were evaluated and differences between low Ki-67 (≤10%) and high Ki-67 (>10%) groups were assessed. Mean, median, 5 th , 25 th , 75 th percentiles of ADC, and mean, median, 25 th , 75 th , 95 th percentiles of enhancement of arterial phase (AP) demonstrated significant inverse correlations with Ki-67 LI (rho up to -0.48 for ADC, -0.43 for AP) and showed significant differences between low and high Ki-67 groups (P Histogram-derived parameters of ADC and AP were potentially helpful for predicting Ki-67 LI of HCC. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:383-392. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Modeling Early Postnatal Brain Growth and Development with CT: Changes in the Brain Radiodensity Histogram from Birth to 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, K A; Hu, Y; Och, J; Yorks, P J; Fielden, S W

    2018-04-01

    The majority of brain growth and development occur in the first 2 years of life. This study investigated these changes by analysis of the brain radiodensity histogram of head CT scans from the clinical population, 0-2 years of age. One hundred twenty consecutive head CTs with normal findings meeting the inclusion criteria from children from birth to 2 years were retrospectively identified from 3 different CT scan platforms. Histogram analysis was performed on brain-extracted images, and histogram mean, mode, full width at half maximum, skewness, kurtosis, and SD were correlated with subject age. The effects of scan platform were investigated. Normative curves were fitted by polynomial regression analysis. Average total brain volume was 360 cm 3 at birth, 948 cm 3 at 1 year, and 1072 cm 3 at 2 years. Total brain tissue density showed an 11% increase in mean density at 1 year and 19% at 2 years. Brain radiodensity histogram skewness was positive at birth, declining logarithmically in the first 200 days of life. The histogram kurtosis also decreased in the first 200 days to approach a normal distribution. Direct segmentation of CT images showed that changes in brain radiodensity histogram skewness correlated with, and can be explained by, a relative increase in gray matter volume and an increase in gray and white matter tissue density that occurs during this period of brain maturation. Normative metrics of the brain radiodensity histogram derived from routine clinical head CT images can be used to develop a model of normal brain development. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficients for Occult Tonsil Cancer in Patients with Cervical Nodal Metastasis from an Unknown Primary Site at Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Hye Ok; Kim, Dae Yoon; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Cho, So Hyun; Koh, Myeong Ju; Kim, Namkug; Kim, Sang Yoon; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To explore the added value of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values over magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the detection of occult palatine tonsil squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with cervical nodal metastasis from a cancer of an unknown primary site. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Differences in the bimodal histogram parameters of the ADC values were assessed among occult palatine tonsil SCC (n = 19), overt palatine tonsil SCC (n = 20), and normal palatine tonsils (n = 20). One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze differences among the three groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best differentiating parameters. The increased sensitivity of histogram analysis over MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of occult palatine tonsil SCC was evaluated as added value. Histogram analysis showed statistically significant differences in the mean, standard deviation, and 50th and 90th percentile ADC values among the three groups (P histogram analysis was 52.6% over MR imaging alone and 15.8% over combined conventional MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Adding ADC histogram analysis to conventional MR imaging can improve the detection sensitivity for occult palatine tonsil SCC in patients with a cervical nodal metastasis originating from a cancer of an unknown primary site. © RSNA, 2015.

  13. Breast lesion characterization using whole-lesion histogram analysis with stretched-exponential diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunling; Wang, Kun; Li, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jine; Ding, Jie; Spuhler, Karl; Duong, Timothy; Liang, Changhong; Huang, Chuan

    2018-06-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been studied in breast imaging and can provide more information about diffusion, perfusion and other physiological interests than standard pulse sequences. The stretched-exponential model has previously been shown to be more reliable than conventional DWI techniques, but different diagnostic sensitivities were found from study to study. This work investigated the characteristics of whole-lesion histogram parameters derived from the stretched-exponential diffusion model for benign and malignant breast lesions, compared them with conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and further determined which histogram metrics can be best used to differentiate malignant from benign lesions. This was a prospective study. Seventy females were included in the study. Multi-b value DWI was performed on a 1.5T scanner. Histogram parameters of whole lesions for distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), heterogeneity index (α), and ADC were calculated by two radiologists and compared among benign lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive carcinoma confirmed by pathology. Nonparametric tests were performed for comparisons among invasive carcinoma, DCIS, and benign lesions. Comparisons of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to show the ability to discriminate malignant from benign lesions. The majority of histogram parameters (mean/min/max, skewness/kurtosis, 10-90 th percentile values) from DDC, α, and ADC were significantly different among invasive carcinoma, DCIS, and benign lesions. DDC 10% (area under curve [AUC] = 0.931), ADC 10% (AUC = 0.893), and α mean (AUC = 0.787) were found to be the best metrics in differentiating benign from malignant tumors among all histogram parameters derived from ADC and α, respectively. The combination of DDC 10% and α mean , using logistic regression, yielded the highest sensitivity (90.2%) and specificity (95.5%). DDC 10% and α mean derived from

  14. SU-C-207A-07: Cumulative 18F-FDG Uptake Histogram Relative to Radiation Dose Volume Histogram of Lung After IMRT Or PSPT and Their Association with Radiation Pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shusharina, N; Choi, N; Bortfeld, T; Liao, Z; Mohan, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the difference in cumulative 18F-FDG uptake histogram of lung treated with either IMRT or PSPT is associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with inoperable stage II and III NSCLC. Methods: We analyzed 24 patients from a prospective randomized trial to compare IMRT (n=12) with vs. PSPT (n=12) for inoperable NSCLC. All patients underwent PET-CT imaging between 35 and 88 days post-therapy. Post-treatment PET-CT was aligned with planning 4D CT to establish a voxel-to-voxel correspondence between post-treatment PET and planning dose images. 18F-FDG uptake as a function of radiation dose to normal lung was obtained for each patient. Distribution of the standard uptake value (SUV) was analyzed using a volume histogram method. The image quantitative characteristics and DVH measures were correlated with clinical symptoms of pneumonitis. Results: Patients with RP were present in both groups: 5 in the IMRT and 6 in the PSPT. The analysis of cumulative SUV histograms showed significantly higher relative volumes of the normal lung having higher SUV uptake in the PSPT patients for both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases (VSUV=2: 10% for IMRT vs 16% for proton RT and VSUV=1: 10% for IMRT vs 23% for proton RT). In addition, the SUV histograms for symptomatic cases in PSPT patients exhibited a significantly longer tail at the highest SUV. The absolute volume of the lung receiving the dose >70 Gy was larger in the PSPT patients. Conclusion: 18F-FDG uptake – radiation dose response correlates with RP in both groups of patients by means of the linear regression slope. SUV is higher for the PSPT patients for both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. Higher uptake after PSPT patients is explained by larger volumes of the lung receiving high radiation dose.

  15. Methodological improvements in voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor images: applications to study the impact of apolipoprotein E on white matter integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlander, Shawn M; Chu, Alan; Sinha, Usha S; Lu, Po H; Bartzokis, George

    2014-02-01

    To identify regional differences in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) using customized preprocessing before voxel-based analysis (VBA) in 14 normal subjects with the specific genes that decrease (apolipoprotein [APO] E ε2) and that increase (APOE ε4) the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Diffusion tensor images (DTI) acquired at 1.5 Tesla were denoised with a total variation tensor regularization algorithm before affine and nonlinear registration to generate a common reference frame for the image volumes of all subjects. Anisotropic and isotropic smoothing with varying kernel sizes was applied to the aligned data before VBA to determine regional differences between cohorts segregated by allele status. VBA on the denoised tensor data identified regions of reduced FA in APOE ε4 compared with the APOE ε2 healthy older carriers. The most consistent results were obtained using the denoised tensor and anisotropic smoothing before statistical testing. In contrast, isotropic smoothing identified regional differences for small filter sizes alone, emphasizing that this method introduces bias in FA values for higher kernel sizes. Voxel-based DTI analysis can be performed on low signal to noise ratio images to detect subtle regional differences in cohorts using the proposed preprocessing techniques. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Global diffusion tensor imaging derived metrics differentiate glioblastoma multiforme vs. normal brains by using discriminant analysis: introduction of a novel whole-brain approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Rios, Camilo; Cortez-Conradis, David; Favila, Rafael; Moreno-Jimenez, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Histological behavior of glioblastoma multiforme suggests it would benefit more from a global rather than regional evaluation. A global (whole-brain) calculation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived tensor metrics offers a valid method to detect the integrity of white matter structures without missing infiltrated brain areas not seen in conventional sequences. In this study we calculated a predictive model of brain infiltration in patients with glioblastoma using global tensor metrics. Retrospective, case and control study; 11 global DTI-derived tensor metrics were calculated in 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme and 34 controls: mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, pure isotropic diffusion, pure anisotropic diffusion, the total magnitude of the diffusion tensor, linear tensor, planar tensor, spherical tensor, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. The multivariate discriminant analysis of these variables (including age) with a diagnostic test evaluation was performed. The simultaneous analysis of 732 measures from 12 continuous variables in 61 subjects revealed one discriminant model that significantly differentiated normal brains and brains with glioblastoma: Wilks' λ = 0.324, χ(2) (3) = 38.907, p tensor and linear tensor. These metrics might be clinically applied for diagnosis, follow-up, and the study of other neurological diseases.

  17. Spherical Tensor Calculus for Local Adaptive Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisert, Marco; Burkhardt, Hans

    In 3D image processing tensors play an important role. While rank-1 and rank-2 tensors are well understood and commonly used, higher rank tensors are rare. This is probably due to their cumbersome rotation behavior which prevents a computationally efficient use. In this chapter we want to introduce the notion of a spherical tensor which is based on the irreducible representations of the 3D rotation group. In fact, any ordinary cartesian tensor can be decomposed into a sum of spherical tensors, while each spherical tensor has a quite simple rotation behavior. We introduce so called tensorial harmonics that provide an orthogonal basis for spherical tensor fields of any rank. It is just a generalization of the well known spherical harmonics. Additionally we propose a spherical derivative which connects spherical tensor fields of different degree by differentiation. Based on the proposed theory we present two applications. We propose an efficient algorithm for dense tensor voting in 3D, which makes use of tensorial harmonics decomposition of the tensor-valued voting field. In this way it is possible to perform tensor voting by linear-combinations of convolutions in an efficient way. Secondly, we propose an anisotropic smoothing filter that uses a local shape and orientation adaptive filter kernel which can be computed efficiently by the use spherical derivatives.

  18. Structural changes of central white matter tracts in Kennedy's disease - a diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C C; Konrad, C; Sommer, J; Teismann, I; Schiffbauer, H

    2013-05-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy [Kennedy's disease (KD)] is a rare X-linked neurodegenerative disorder of mainly spinal and bulbar motoneurons. Recent studies suggest a multisystem character of this disease. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize structural changes of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) in the central nervous system. Whole-brain-based voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses were applied to MRI data of eight genetically proven patients with KD and compared with 16 healthy age-matched controls. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis showed not only decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the brainstem, but also widespread changes in central WM tracts, whereas VBM analysis of the WM showed alterations primarily in the brainstem and cerebellum. There were no changes in GM volume. The FA value decrease in the brainstem correlated with the disease duration. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed subtle changes of central WM tract integrity, while GM and WM volume remained unaffected. In our patient sample, KD had more extended effects than previously reported. These changes could either be attributed primarily to neurodegeneration or reflect secondary plastic changes due to atrophy of lower motor neurons and reorganization of cortical structures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Comparison between cerebral ischemia disease and multiple sclerosis by using MR diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Xin; Cai Youquan; Ma Lin; Cai Jianming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the differentiation between the patients with cerebral ischemia disease and multiple sclerosis. Methods: MR diffusion tensor imaging was performed in thirty-two patients with internal carotid artery stenosis ≥70% and eighteen patients with clinical diagnosed multiple sclerosis. Fractional anisotropy (FA) value of the germ, splenium, body of the corpus callosum, and the white matter of the frontal and occipital lobe were measured respectively, and independent-sample t-test statistical analysis was performed. Results: The FA value was decreased obviously in the anterior and posterior body and splenium of the corpus callosumin the MS patients compared with the ICA severe stenosis patients (0.67 ± 0.12 vs. 0.75 ± 0.05, t=3.443, P 0.05; 0.34 ± 0.08 vs. 0.34 ± 0.05, t=0.137, P> 0.05; 0.29 ± 0.06 vs. 0.40 ± 0.06, t=5.449, P>0.05). Conclusion: DTI can noninvasive detect the potential disorder of corpus callosum in vivo, thus providing useful information to differentiate the cerebral ischemia disease from multiple sclerosis. (authors)

  20. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient maps for differentiating primary CNS lymphomas from tumefactive demyelinating lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan Shan; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Namkug; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Lim, Young Min

    2015-04-01

    This study intended to investigate the usefulness of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for discriminating primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSLs), especially atypical PCNSLs, from tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDLs). Forty-seven patients with PCNSLs and 18 with TDLs were enrolled in our study. Hyperintense lesions seen on T2-weighted images were defined as ROIs after ADC maps were registered to the corresponding T2-weighted image. ADC histograms were calculated from the ROIs containing the entire lesion on every section and on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The ADC histogram parameters were compared among all PCNSLs and TDLs as well as between the subgroup of atypical PCNSLs and TDLs. ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the histogram parameters and to determine the optimum thresholds. The differences between the PCNSLs and TDLs were found in the minimum ADC values (ADCmin) and in the 5th and 10th percentiles (ADC5% and ADC10%) of the cumulative ADC histograms. However, no statistical significance was found in the mean ADC value or in the ADC value concerning the mode, kurtosis, and skewness. The ADCmin, ADC5%, and ADC10% were also lower in atypical PCNSLs than in TDLs. ADCmin was the best indicator for discriminating atypical PCNSLs from TDLs, with a threshold of 556×10(-6) mm2/s (sensitivity, 81.3 %; specificity, 88.9%). Histogram analysis of ADC maps may help to discriminate PCNSLs from TDLs and may be particularly useful in differentiating atypical PCNSLs from TDLs.

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging in spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Ravindra B; Venkataramana, Neelam K; Naik, Arun L; Rao, Shailesh V

    2011-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of spinal tractography in patients of spinal cord injury vs a control group and to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between the groups. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in the spinal cord of 29 patients (18 patients and 11 controls). DTI was done in the cervical region if the cord injury was at the dorsal or lumbar region and in the conus region if cord injury was in the cervical or dorsal region. FA was calculated for the patients and the controls and the values were compared. The mean FA value was 0.550±0.09 in the control group and 0.367±0.14 in the patients; this difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). Spinal tractography is a feasible technique to assess the extent of spinal cord injury by FA, which is reduced in patients of spinal cord injury, suggesting possible Wallerian degeneration. In future, this technique may become a useful tool for assessing cord injury patients after stem cell therapy, with improvement in FA values indicating axonal regeneration

  2. Assessment of histological differentiation in gastric cancers using whole-volume histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Shi, Hua; Guan, Wenxian; Ji, Changfeng; Guo, Tingting; Zheng, Huanhuan; Guan, Yue; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Tian

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy of histogram analysis of the entire tumor volume in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for differentiating between histological grades in gastric cancer. Seventy-eight patients with gastric cancer were enrolled in a retrospective 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. ADC maps were obtained at two different b values (0 and 1000 sec/mm 2 ) for each patient. Tumors were delineated on each slice of the ADC maps, and a histogram for the entire tumor volume was subsequently generated. A series of histogram parameters (eg, skew and kurtosis) were calculated and correlated with the histological grade of the surgical specimen. The diagnostic performance of each parameter for distinguishing poorly from moderately well-differentiated gastric cancers was assessed by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). There were significant differences in the 5 th , 10 th , 25 th , and 50 th percentiles, skew, and kurtosis between poorly and well-differentiated gastric cancers (P histogram parameters, including the 10 th percentile, skew, kurtosis, and max frequency; the correlation coefficients were 0.273, -0.361, -0.339, and -0.370, respectively. Among all the histogram parameters, the max frequency had the largest AUC value, which was 0.675. Histogram analysis of the ADC maps on the basis of the entire tumor volume can be useful in differentiating between histological grades for gastric cancer. 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:440-449. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Principal component analysis of the CT density histogram to generate parametric response maps of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, N.; Capaldi, D. P. I.; Pike, D.; McCormack, D. G.; Cunningham, I. A.; Parraga, G.

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary x-ray computed tomography (CT) may be used to characterize emphysema and airways disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One analysis approach - parametric response mapping (PMR) utilizes registered inspiratory and expiratory CT image volumes and CT-density-histogram thresholds, but there is no consensus regarding the threshold values used, or their clinical meaning. Principal-component-analysis (PCA) of the CT density histogram can be exploited to quantify emphysema using data-driven CT-density-histogram thresholds. Thus, the objective of this proof-of-concept demonstration was to develop a PRM approach using PCA-derived thresholds in COPD patients and ex-smokers without airflow limitation. Methods: Fifteen COPD ex-smokers and 5 normal ex-smokers were evaluated. Thoracic CT images were also acquired at full inspiration and full expiration and these images were non-rigidly co-registered. PCA was performed for the CT density histograms, from which the components with the highest eigenvalues greater than one were summed. Since the values of the principal component curve correlate directly with the variability in the sample, the maximum and minimum points on the curve were used as threshold values for the PCA-adjusted PRM technique. Results: A significant correlation was determined between conventional and PCA-adjusted PRM with 3He MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (p<0.001), with CT RA950 (p<0.0001), as well as with 3He MRI ventilation defect percent, a measurement of both small airways disease (p=0.049 and p=0.06, respectively) and emphysema (p=0.02). Conclusions: PRM generated using PCA thresholds of the CT density histogram showed significant correlations with CT and 3He MRI measurements of emphysema, but not airways disease.

  4. Tract-Specific Analyses of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Show Widespread White Matter Compromise in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown white matter compromise in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may relate to reduced connectivity and impaired function of distributed networks. However, tract-specific evidence remains limited in ASD. We applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)…

  5. Tensor rank is not multiplicative under the tensor product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Christandl (Matthias); A. K. Jensen (Asger Kjærulff); J. Zuiddam (Jeroen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe tensor rank of a tensor t is the smallest number r such that t can be decomposed as a sum of r simple tensors. Let s be a k-tensor and let t be an ℓ-tensor. The tensor product of s and t is a (k+ℓ)-tensor. Tensor rank is sub-multiplicative under the tensor product. We revisit the

  6. Tensor rank is not multiplicative under the tensor product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Christandl (Matthias); A. K. Jensen (Asger Kjærulff); J. Zuiddam (Jeroen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe tensor rank of a tensor is the smallest number r such that the tensor can be decomposed as a sum of r simple tensors. Let s be a k-tensor and let t be an l-tensor. The tensor product of s and t is a (k + l)-tensor (not to be confused with the "tensor Kronecker product" used in

  7. Tensor rank is not multiplicative under the tensor product

    OpenAIRE

    Christandl, Matthias; Jensen, Asger Kjærulff; Zuiddam, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The tensor rank of a tensor t is the smallest number r such that t can be decomposed as a sum of r simple tensors. Let s be a k-tensor and let t be an l-tensor. The tensor product of s and t is a (k + l)-tensor. Tensor rank is sub-multiplicative under the tensor product. We revisit the connection between restrictions and degenerations. A result of our study is that tensor rank is not in general multiplicative under the tensor product. This answers a question of Draisma and Saptharishi. Specif...

  8. Theory and Application of DNA Histogram Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Charles Bruce

    The underlying principles and assumptions associated with DNA histograms are discussed along with the characteristics of fluorescent probes. Information theory was described and used to calculate the information content of a DNA histogram. Two major types of DNA histogram analyses are proposed: parametric and nonparametric analysis. Three levels…

  9. Tensor surgery and tensor rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Christandl (Matthias); J. Zuiddam (Jeroen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce a method for transforming low-order tensors into higher-order tensors and apply it to tensors defined by graphs and hypergraphs. The transformation proceeds according to a surgery-like procedure that splits vertices, creates and absorbs virtual edges and inserts new vertices

  10. Tensor surgery and tensor rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Christandl (Matthias); J. Zuiddam (Jeroen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce a method for transforming low-order tensors into higher-order tensors and apply it to tensors defined by graphs and hypergraphs. The transformation proceeds according to a surgery-like procedure that splits vertices, creates and absorbs virtual edges and inserts new

  11. T2-enhanced tensor diffusion trace-weighted image in the detection of hyper-acute cerebral infarction: Comparison with isotropic diffusion-weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, M.-C.; Tzeng, W.-S.; Chung, H.-W.; Wang, C.-Y.; Liu, H.-S.; Juan, C.-J.; Lo, C.-P.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although isotropic diffusion-weighted imaging (isoDWI) is very sensitive to the detection of acute ischemic stroke, it may occasionally show diffusion negative result in hyper-acute stroke. We hypothesize that high diffusion contrast diffusion trace-weighted image with enhanced T2 may improve stroke lesion conspicuity. Methods: Five hyper acute stroke patients (M:F = 0:5, average age = 61.8 ± 20.5 y/o) and 16 acute stroke patients (M:F = 11:5, average age = 67.7 ± 12 y/o) were examined six-direction tensor DWIs at b = 707 s/mm 2 . Three different diffusion-weighted images, including isotropic (isoDWI), diffusion trace-weighted image (trDWI) and T2-enhanced diffusion trace-weighted image (T2E t rDWI), were generated. Normalized lesion-to-normal ratio (nLNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of three diffusion images were calculated from each patient and statistically compared. Results: The trDWI shows better nLNR than isoDWI on both hyper-acute and acute stroke lesions, whereas no significant improvement in CNR. Nevertheless, the T2E t rDWI has statistically superior CNR and nLNR than those of isoDWI and trDWI in both hyper-acute and acute stroke. Conclusions: We concluded that tensor diffusion trace-weighted image with T2 enhancement is more sensitive to stroke lesion detection, and can provide higher lesion conspicuity than the conventional isotropic DWI for early stroke lesion delineation without the need of high-b-value technique.

  12. Tensor rank is not multiplicative under the tensor product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christandl, Matthias; Jensen, Asger Kjærulff; Zuiddam, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    The tensor rank of a tensor t is the smallest number r such that t can be decomposed as a sum of r simple tensors. Let s be a k-tensor and let t be an ℓ-tensor. The tensor product of s and t is a (k+ℓ)-tensor. Tensor rank is sub-multiplicative under the tensor product. We revisit the connection b...

  13. Whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis: significance in T and N staging of gastric cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Zhang, Yujuan; Chen, Ling; Guan, Wenxian; Guan, Yue; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang

    2017-10-02

    Whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis has been introduced and proved effective in assessment of multiple tumors. However, the application of whole-volume ADC histogram analysis in gastrointestinal tumors has just started and never been reported in T and N staging of gastric cancers. Eighty patients with pathologically confirmed gastric carcinomas underwent diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging before surgery prospectively. Whole-lesion ADC histogram analysis was performed by two radiologists independently. The differences of ADC histogram parameters among different T and N stages were compared with independent-samples Kruskal-Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of ADC histogram parameters in differentiating particular T or N stages of gastric cancers. There were significant differences of all the ADC histogram parameters for gastric cancers at different T (except ADC min and ADC max ) and N (except ADC max ) stages. Most ADC histogram parameters differed significantly between T1 vs T3, T1 vs T4, T2 vs T4, N0 vs N1, N0 vs N3, and some parameters (ADC 5% , ADC 10% , ADC min ) differed significantly between N0 vs N2, N2 vs N3 (all P histogram parameters held great potential in differentiating different T and N stages of gastric cancers preoperatively.

  14. Investigating Student Understanding of Histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Gabrosek, John G.; Curtiss, Phyllis; Malone, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are adept at revealing the distribution of data values, especially the shape of the distribution and any outlier values. They are included in introductory statistics texts, research methods texts, and in the popular press, yet students often have difficulty interpreting the information conveyed by a histogram. This research identifies…

  15. Age-related differences in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture in the medial and lateral gastrocnemius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Usha; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Xue, Yanjie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2015-04-01

    To investigate age related changes in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The lower leg of five young and five senior subjects was scanned at 3 Tesla and DTI indices extracted using three methods: region of interest, histogram, and tract based. Tracked fibers were automatically edited to ensure physiologically relevant tracks. Pennation angles were measured with respect to the deep and superficial aponeuroses of both muscles. The three methods provided internally consistent measures of the DTI indices (correlation coefficient in the range of 0.90-0.99). The primary, secondary, and tertiary eigenvalues in the MG and LG increased significantly in the senior cohort (P < 0.05), while the small increase in fractional anisotropy with age was not significant (MG/LG: P = 0.39/0.85; 95% confidence interval: [-0.059/-0.056, 0.116/0.064]). Fiber lengths of MG fibers originating distally were significantly decreased in seniors (P < 0.05) while pennation angles decreased with age in the MG and LG but this was not significant. Fiber atrophy and increased fibrosis have opposing effects on the diffusion indices resulting in a complicated dependence with aging. Fiber architectural changes could play a role in determining aging muscle function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Age Related Differences in Diffusion Tensor Indices and Fiber Architecture in the Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Usha; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Xue, Yanjie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate age related changes in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods The lower leg of five young and five senior subjects was scanned at 3T and DTI indices extracted using three methods: ROI, histogram and tract based. Tracked fibers were automatically edited to ensure physiologically relevant tracks. Pennation angles were measured with respect to the deep and superficial aponeuroses of both muscles. Results The three methods provided internally consistent measures of the DTI indices (correlation coefficient in the range of 0.90-0.99). The primary, secondary and tertiary eigenvalues in the MG and LG increased significantly in the senior cohort (p<0.05), while the small increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) with age was not significant (MG/LG: p=0.39/0.85; 95% CI:[ −0.059/-0.056, 0.116/0.064]). Fiber lengths of MG fibers originating distally were significantly decreased in seniors (p<0.05) while pennation angles decreased with age in the MG and LG but this was not significant. Conclusion Fiber atrophy and increased fibrosis have opposing effects on the diffusion indices resulting in a complicated dependence with aging. Fiber architectural changes could play a role in determining aging muscle function. PMID:24771672

  17. An Implementation of Document Image Reconstruction System on a Smart Device Using a 1D Histogram Calibration Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the smart devices equipped with imaging functions are widely spreading for consumer application. It is very convenient for people to record information using these devices. For example, people can photo one page of a book in a library or they can capture an interesting piece of news on the bulletin board when walking on the street. But sometimes, one shot full area image cannot give a sufficient resolution for OCR soft or for human visual recognition. Therefore, people would prefer to take several partial character images of a readable size and then stitch them together in an efficient way. In this study, we propose a print document acquisition method using a device with a video camera. A one-dimensional histogram based self-calibration algorithm is developed for calibration. Because the calculation cost is low, it can be installed on a smartphone. The simulation result shows that the calibration and stitching are well performed.

  18. SU-E-I-93: Improved Imaging Quality for Multislice Helical CT Via Sparsity Regularized Iterative Image Reconstruction Method Based On Tensor Framelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, H; Guo, M; Lee, K; Li, R; Xing, L; Gao, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Inspired by compressive sensing, sparsity regularized iterative reconstruction method has been extensively studied. However, its utility pertinent to multislice helical 4D CT for radiotherapy with respect to imaging quality, dose, and time has not been thoroughly addressed. As the beginning of such an investigation, this work carries out the initial comparison of reconstructed imaging quality between sparsity regularized iterative method and analytic method through static phantom studies using a state-of-art 128-channel multi-slice Siemens helical CT scanner. Methods: In our iterative method, tensor framelet (TF) is chosen as the regularization method for its superior performance from total variation regularization in terms of reduced piecewise-constant artifacts and improved imaging quality that has been demonstrated in our prior work. On the other hand, X-ray transforms and its adjoints are computed on-the-fly through GPU implementation using our previous developed fast parallel algorithms with O(1) complexity per computing thread. For comparison, both FDK (approximate analytic method) and Katsevich algorithm (exact analytic method) are used for multislice helical CT image reconstruction. Results: The phantom experimental data with different imaging doses were acquired using a state-of-art 128-channel multi-slice Siemens helical CT scanner. The reconstructed image quality was compared between TF-based iterative method, FDK and Katsevich algorithm with the quantitative analysis for characterizing signal-to-noise ratio, image contrast, and spatial resolution of high-contrast and low-contrast objects. Conclusion: The experimental results suggest that our tensor framelet regularized iterative reconstruction algorithm improves the helical CT imaging quality from FDK and Katsevich algorithm for static experimental phantom studies that have been performed

  19. Algorithms for adaptive histogram equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, S.M.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Ter Haar Romeny, B.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.

    1986-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness [Zimmerman, 1985]. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. The authors summarize algorithms designed to overcome these and other concerns. These algorithms include interpolated ahe, to speed up the method on general purpose computers; a version of interpolated ahe designed to run in a few seconds on feedback processors; a version of full ahe designed to run in under one second on custom VLSI hardware; and clipped ahe, designed to overcome the problem of overenhancement of noise contrast. The authors conclude that clipped ahe should become a method of choice in medical imaging and probably also in other areas of digital imaging, and that clipped ahe can be made adequately fast to be routinely applied in the normal display sequence

  20. Histogram deconvolution - An aid to automated classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorre, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that N-dimensional histograms are convolved by the addition of noise in the picture domain. Three methods are described which provide the ability to deconvolve such noise-affected histograms. The purpose of the deconvolution is to provide automated classifiers with a higher quality N-dimensional histogram from which to obtain classification statistics.

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  2. Diffusion tensor tractography of the brainstem pyramidal tract; A study on the optimal reduction factor in parallel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Park, Jong Bin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu [Dept. of of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Parallel imaging mitigates susceptibility artifacts that can adversely affect diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) of the pons depending on the reduction (R) factor. We aimed to find the optimal R factor for DTT of the pons that would allow us to visualize the largest possible number of pyramidal tract fibers. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed on 10 healthy subjects at 3 Tesla based on single-shot echo-planar imaging using the following parameters: b value, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}; gradient direction, 15; voxel size, 2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3}; and R factors, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. DTT of the right and left pyramidal tracts in the pons was conducted in all subjects. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), image distortion, and the number of fibers in the tracts were compared across R factors. SNR, image distortion, and fiber number were significantly different according to R factor. Maximal SNR was achieved with an R factor of 2. Image distortion was minimal with an R factor of 5. The number of visible fibers was greatest with an R factor of 3. R factor 3 is optimal for DTT of the pontine pyramidal tract. A balanced consideration of SNR and image distortion, which do not have the same dependence on the R factor, is necessary for DTT of the pons.

  3. Distance Adaptive Tensor Discriminative Geometry Preserving Projection for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in dimensionality reduction techniques for face recognition, however, the traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms often transform the input face image data into vectors before embedding. Such vectorization often ignores the underlying data structure and leads to higher computational complexity. To effectively cope with these problems, a novel dimensionality reduction algorithm termed distance adaptive tensor discriminative geometry preserving projection (DATDGPP is proposed in this paper. The key idea of DATDGPP is as follows: first, the face image data are directly encoded in high-order tensor structure so that the relationships among the face image data can be preserved; second, the data-adaptive tensor distance is adopted to model the correlation among different coordinates of tensor data; third, the transformation matrix which can preserve discrimination and local geometry information is obtained by an iteration algorithm. Experimental results on three face databases show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other representative dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  4. Gliomas: Application of Cumulative Histogram Analysis of Normalized Cerebral Blood Volume on 3 T MRI to Tumor Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Ryoo, Inseon; Kim, Soo Chin; Yeom, Jeong A.; Shin, Hwaseon; Jung, Seung Chai; Lee, A. Leum; Yun, Tae Jin; Park, Chul-Kee; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma grading assumes significant importance in that low- and high-grade gliomas display different prognoses and are treated with dissimilar therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to retrospectively assess the usefulness of a cumulative normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) histogram for glioma grading based on 3 T MRI. Methods From February 2010 to April 2012, 63 patients with astrocytic tumors underwent 3 T MRI with dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging. Regions of interest containing the entire tumor volume were drawn on every section of the co-registered relative CBV (rCBV) maps and T2-weighted images. The percentile values from the cumulative nCBV histograms and the other histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grades. Cochran’s Q test and the McNemar test were used to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the histogram parameters after the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Using the parameter offering the highest diagnostic accuracy, a validation process was performed with an independent test set of nine patients. Results The 99th percentile of the cumulative nCBV histogram (nCBV C99), mean and peak height differed significantly between low- and high-grade gliomas (P = histogram analysis of nCBV using 3 T MRI can be a useful method for preoperative glioma grading. The nCBV C99 value is helpful in distinguishing high- from low-grade gliomas and grade IV from III gliomas. PMID:23704910

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of cingulum bundle and corpus callosum in schizophrenia vs. bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Igor; Hoof, Anna; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Güllmar, Daniel

    2017-08-30

    Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show abnormalities of white matter, as seen in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses of major brain fibre bundles. While studies in each of the two conditions have indicated possible overlap in anatomical location, there are few direct comparisons between the disorders. Also, it is unclear whether phenotypically similar subgroups (e.g. patients with bipolar disorder and psychotic features) might share white matter pathologies or be rather similar. Using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T, we analysed fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the corpus callosum and cingulum bundle in 33 schizophrenia patients, 17 euthymic (previously psychotic) bipolar disorder patients, and 36 healthy controls. ANOVA analysis showed significant main effects of group for RD and ADC (both elevated in schizophrenia). Across the corpus callosum ROIs, there was not group effect on FA, but for RD (elevated in schizophrenia, lower in bipolar disorder) and ADC (higher in schizophrenia, intermediate in bipolar disorder). Our findings show similarities and difference (some gradual) across regions of the two major fibre tracts implicated in these disorders, which would be consistent with a neurobiological overlap of similar clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Zwol, Arjen L. van; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes B. van [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam, Zuid-holland (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Zwol, Arjen L. van; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes B. van; Buijs, Jan; Lequin, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  8. AN ILLUMINATION INVARIANT FACE RECOGNITION BY ENHANCED CONTRAST LIMITED ADAPTIVE HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thamizharasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition system is gaining more importance in social networks and surveillance. The face recognition task is complex due to the variations in illumination, expression, occlusion, aging and pose. The illumination variations in image are due to changes in lighting conditions, poor illumination, low contrast or increased brightness. The variations in illumination adversely affect the quality of image and recognition accuracy. The illumination variations in face image have to be pre-processed prior to face recognition. The Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE is an image enhancement technique popular in enhancing medical images. The proposed work is to create illumination invariant face recognition system by enhancing Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique. This method is termed as “Enhanced CLAHE”. The efficiency of Enhanced CLAHE is tested using Fuzzy K Nearest Neighbour classifier and fisher face subspace projection method. The face recognition accuracy percentage rate, Equal Error Rate and False Acceptance Rate at 1% are calculated. The performance of CLAHE and Enhanced CLAHE methods is compared. The efficiency of the Enhanced CLAHE method is tested with three public face databases AR, Yale and ORL. The Enhanced CLAHE has very high recognition accuracy percentage rate when compared to CLAHE.

  9. ADC Histogram Analysis of Cervical Cancer Aids Detecting Lymphatic Metastases-a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schob, Stefan; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Pazaitis, Nikolaos; Schramm, Dominik; Bremicker, Kristina; Exner, Marc; Höhn, Anne Kathrin; Garnov, Nikita; Surov, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis has been used to some extent in cervical cancer (CC) to distinguish between low-grade and high-grade tumors. Although this differentiation is undoubtedly helpful, it would be even more crucial in the presurgical setting to determine whether a tumor already gained the potential to metastasize via the lymphatic system. So far, no studies investigated the potential of 3T ADC histogram analysis in CC to differentiate between nodal-positive and nodal-negative entities. Therefore, the principal aim of our study was to investigate the potential of 3T ADC histogram analysis to differentiate between CC with and without lymph node metastasis. The second aim was to elucidate possible differences in ADC histogram parameters between CC with limited vs. advanced tumor stages and well-differentiated vs. undifferentiated lesions. Finally, correlations of p53 expression and Ki-67 index with ADC parameters were analyzed. Eighteen female patients (mean age 55.4 years, range 32-79 years) with histopathologically confirmed cervical squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were prospectively enrolled. Tumor stages, tumor grading, status of metastatic dissemination, Ki67-index, and p53 expression were assessed in these patients. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was obtained in a 3T scanner using the following b values: b0 and b1000 s/mm 2 . Group comparisons using Mann-Whitney U test revealed the following findings: nodal-positive CC had statistically significant lower ADC parameters (ADCmin, ADCmean, median ADC, Mode, p10, p25, p75, and p90) in comparison to nodal-negative CC (all p histogram analysis in 3T DWI. This information is crucial for the gynecological surgeon to identify the optimal treatment strategy for patients suffering from CC. Furthermore, ADCentropy was identified as a potential imaging biomarker for tumor heterogeneity and might be able to indicate further molecular changes like loss of p53 expression

  10. Improved characterisation of stroke phenotype using sequential MR diffusion tensor imaging at 3 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.; Price, C.J.S.; Warburton, E; Pena, A.; Donovan, T.; Carpenter, T.A.; Pickard, J.D.; Gillard, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: MR diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) enables the identification of early ischemia in acute stroke. Recent advances in DWI allow the identification of anisotropic white matter tracts with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).We used DTI to study patients with recent stroke in a high field MR system to establish the type of phenotypic abnormalities demonstrated and to determine whether DTI could produce an alternative tool that might be used in studies of clinical outcome and recovery. 25 patients with recent stroke were imaged at 3 Telsa. The extent of abnormality on the conventional and tensor images were compared. Regions of interest were drawn within the area of ischemia and in the contralateral hemisphere. The relative anisotropy index for these areas was calculated and compared. DTI studies were repeated in 11 patients at 1 week and 8 patients at 3 months. DTI was successfully performed in 21 patients. There were 21 men, mean age 58 years (range 25-86 years) imaged at a median of 1 day (range 6 hours to 14 days) from the known time of stroke onset. 19/21 patients demonstrated DWI changes on the b = 1000s/mm2 trace image. DTI imaging was initially normal in 6 patients. The abnormalities consisted of actual disruption of white matter tracts in 13 patients. Ansiotropy indices were reduced to 0.21 in the ischaemic areas compared with 0.34 in normal appearing contralateral white matter (p = 0.016). 2 patients demonstrated distortion of white matter tracts around ischemia induced mass effect. One patient without tract disruption initially had progressed to tract disruption when re-imaged six days from stroke onset. A further patient had distortion of white matter tracts around an infarct and had a good clinical outcome. DTI is able to quantify the extent of white matter tract disruption in acute stroke. The extent or lack of tract destruction may be prognostically important as it provides information that is not available with conventional diffusion or perfusion

  11. STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY VIA THE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Chung, Moo K; Hanson, Jamie L; Avants, Brian B; Gee, James C; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2011-01-01

    The tensor-based morphometry (TBM) has been widely used in characterizing tissue volume difference between populations at voxel level. We present a novel computational framework for investigating the white matter connectivity using TBM. Unlike other diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based white matter connectivity studies, we do not use DTI but only T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To construct brain network graphs, we have developed a new data-driven approach called the ε -neighbor method that does not need any predetermined parcellation. The proposed pipeline is applied in detecting the topological alteration of the white matter connectivity in maltreated children.

  12. Preliminary diffusion tensor imaging studies in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Tobon, S.; Hernandez-Salazar, G.; Vargas-Cañas, S.; Marrufo-Melendez, O.; Solis-Najera, S.; Taboada-Barajas, J.; Rodriguez, A. O.; Delgado-Hernandez, R.

    2012-10-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a group of autosomal dominantly or recessively inherited muscular dystrophies that also present with primary proximal (limb-girdle) muscle weakness. This type of dystrophy involves the shoulder and pelvic girdles, distinct phenotypic or clinical characteristics are recognized. Imaging experiments were conducted on a 1.5T GE scanner (General Electric Medical Systems. Milwaukee. USA), using a combination of two eight-channel coil array. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data were acquired using a SE-EPI sequence, diffusion weighted gradients were applied along 30 non-collinear directions with a b-value=550 s/mm2. The connective tissue content does not appear to have a significant effect on the directionality of the diffusion, as assessed by fractional anisotropy. The fibers of the Sartorius muscle and gracilis showed decreased number of tracts, secondary to fatty infiltration and replacement of connective tissue and muscle mass loss characteristic of the underlying pathology. Our results demonstrated the utility of non-invasive MRI techniques to characterize the muscle pathology, through quantitative and qualitative methods such as the FA values and tractrography.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging of brain in relapsing neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chunshui; Li Kuncheng; Qin Wen; Lin Fuchun; Jiang Tianzi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of occult brain tissue damage in patients with relapsing neuromyelitis optica (RNMO) and its possible mechanism by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: DTI scans were performed in 16 patients with RNMO and 16 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Histogram analysis of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was performed in brain tissue (BT), white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) to detect the presence of occult brain tissue damage in RNMO patients. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of MD and FA was also performed in 6 dedicated regions with or without direct connection with spinal cord or optic nerve to determine the relationship between occult brain tissue damage and the damage of spinal cord and optic nerve. Results Patients with RNMO had a significantly higher average MD of the BT [RNMO (0.95 ± 0.02) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.91 ± 0.03) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=3.940, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls(0.80 ± 0.02) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=3.117, P=0.004] an.d GM [RNMO (1.06 ± 0.04) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.88 ± 0.05) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=4.031, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.81 ± 0.02) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=4.373, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (1.11 ± 0.10) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=4.260, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.87 ± 0.05) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t4.391, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.72 ± O.01) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=4.683, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.82+0.03) x 10-3 mm2/s, t = 4. 619, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.73±0.03) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t =2.804, P=0.009 and splenium of corpus callosum: RNMO(0.77 ± 0.05) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.73 ± 0.04) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=2.234, P=0.033] and FA [genu of corpus callosum: RNMO 0.82± 0.03 ,controls 0.82 ± 0.03, t=0.196, P=0.846 and splenium of corpus caltosum: RNMO 0.83±0.03, controls 0.83 ± 0.02, t=0.333, P=0.741] between RNMO patients and controls. Conclusion: RNMO patients have occult brain tissue damage, which might be related to the antegrade and retrograde degeneration secondary to lesions in

  14. Diffusion tensor MRI and fiber tractography of the sacral plexus in children with spina bifida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakma, Wieke; Dik, Pieter; ten Haken, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    anatomical and microstructural properties of the sacral plexus of patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients 8 to 16 years old with spina bifida underwent diffusion tensor imaging on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system...... diffusivity values at S1-S3 were significantly lower in patients. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study showed for the first time sacral plexus asymmetry and disorganization in 10 patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography...

  15. A Novel Contrast Enhancement Technique on Palm Bone Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tsang Chang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhancement plays a fundamental role in image processing. Many histogram-based techniques are widely used for contrast enhancement of given images, due to their simple function and effectiveness. However, the conventional histogram equalization (HE methods result in excessive contrast enhancement, which causes natural looking and satisfactory results for a variety of low contrast images. To solve such problems, a novel multi-histogram equalization technique is proposed to enhance the contrast of the palm bone X-ray radiographs in this paper. For images, the mean-variance analysis method is employed to partition the histogram of the original grey scale image into multiple sub-histograms. These histograms are independently equalized. By using this mean-variance partition method, a proposed multi-histogram equalization technique is employed to achieve the contrast enhancement of the palm bone X-ray radiographs. Experimental results show that the multi-histogram equalization technique achieves a lower average absolute mean brightness error (AMBE value. The multi-histogram equalization technique simultaneously preserved the mean brightness and enhanced the local contrast of the original image.

  16. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient for monitoring early response in patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Li; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    Background Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis has been widely used in determining tumor prognosis. Purpose To investigate the dynamic changes of ADC histogram parameters during concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with advanced cervical cancers. Material and Methods This prospective study enrolled 32 patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing CCRT who received diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before CCRT, at the end of the second and fourth week during CCRT and one month after CCRT completion. The ADC histogram for the entire tumor volume was generated, and a series of histogram parameters was obtained. Dynamic changes of those parameters in cervical cancers were investigated as early biomarkers for treatment response. Results All histogram parameters except AUC low showed significant changes during CCRT (all P histogram parameters of cervical cancers changed significantly at the early stage of CCRT, indicating their potential in monitoring early tumor response to therapy.

  17. Peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors: differences in diffusion characteristics evaluated with diffusion-tensor MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, Cheng-Hong; Wong, Alex M.-C; Wong, Ho-Fai; Wan, Yung-Liang; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Ng, Shu-Hang

    2007-01-01

    We prospectively compared the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors with diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained. Preoperative diffusion-tensor MR imaging was performed in 15 patients with meningiomas and 11 patients with metastatic brain tumors. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in the peritumoral edema and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the contralateral hemisphere to measure the FA and MD. The FA and MD ratios were calculated for each ROI in relation to the NAWM of the contralateral hemisphere. Changes in peritumoral MD and FA, in terms of primary values and ratios, were compared using a two-sample t-test; P -3 mm 2 /s) of the peritumoral edema for metastases and meningiomas, respectively, were 0.902 ± 0.057 and 0.820 ± 0.094, the mean MD ratios were 220.3 ± 22.6 and 193.1 ± 23.4, the mean FA values were 0.146 ± 0.026 and 0.199 ± 0.052, and the mean FA ratios were 32.3 ± 5.9 and 46.0 ± 12.1. All the values were significantly different between metastases and meningiomas (MD values P 0.016, MD ratios P = 0.006, FA values P = 0.005, FA ratios P = 0.002). The peritumoral edema of metastatic brain tumors and meningiomas show different MD and FA on diffusion-tensor MR imaging. (orig.)

  18. Peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors: differences in diffusion characteristics evaluated with diffusion-tensor MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toh, Cheng-Hong; Wong, Alex M.-C; Wong, Ho-Fai; Wan, Yung-Liang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Medicine and Medical Technology, Tao-Yuan (China); Wei, Kuo-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Medicine and Medical Technology, Tao-Yuan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Medicine and Medical Technology, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Molecular Image Center, Tao-Yuan (China)

    2007-06-15

    We prospectively compared the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors with diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained. Preoperative diffusion-tensor MR imaging was performed in 15 patients with meningiomas and 11 patients with metastatic brain tumors. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in the peritumoral edema and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the contralateral hemisphere to measure the FA and MD. The FA and MD ratios were calculated for each ROI in relation to the NAWM of the contralateral hemisphere. Changes in peritumoral MD and FA, in terms of primary values and ratios, were compared using a two-sample t-test; P < 0.05 was taken as indicating statistical significance. The mean MD values (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) of the peritumoral edema for metastases and meningiomas, respectively, were 0.902 {+-} 0.057 and 0.820 {+-} 0.094, the mean MD ratios were 220.3 {+-} 22.6 and 193.1 {+-} 23.4, the mean FA values were 0.146 {+-} 0.026 and 0.199 {+-} 0.052, and the mean FA ratios were 32.3 {+-} 5.9 and 46.0 {+-} 12.1. All the values were significantly different between metastases and meningiomas (MD values P = 0.016, MD ratios P = 0.006, FA values P = 0.005, FA ratios P = 0.002). The peritumoral edema of metastatic brain tumors and meningiomas show different MD and FA on diffusion-tensor MR imaging. (orig.)

  19. Differential diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus by MRI mean diffusivity histogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkovic, M; Liu, B; Ahmed, F; Moore, D; Huang, C; Raj, A; Kovanlikaya, I; Heier, L; Relkin, N

    2013-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus is challenging because the clinical symptoms and radiographic appearance of NPH often overlap those of other conditions, including age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. We hypothesized that radiologic differences between NPH and AD/PD can be characterized by a robust and objective MR imaging DTI technique that does not require intersubject image registration or operator-defined regions of interest, thus avoiding many pitfalls common in DTI methods. We collected 3T DTI data from 15 patients with probable NPH and 25 controls with AD, PD, or dementia with Lewy bodies. We developed a parametric model for the shape of intracranial mean diffusivity histograms that separates brain and ventricular components from a third component composed mostly of partial volume voxels. To accurately fit the shape of the third component, we constructed a parametric function named the generalized Voss-Dyke function. We then examined the use of the fitting parameters for the differential diagnosis of NPH from AD, PD, and DLB. Using parameters for the MD histogram shape, we distinguished clinically probable NPH from the 3 other disorders with 86% sensitivity and 96% specificity. The technique yielded 86% sensitivity and 88% specificity when differentiating NPH from AD only. An adequate parametric model for the shape of intracranial MD histograms can distinguish NPH from AD, PD, or DLB with high sensitivity and specificity.

  20. Evaluation of glymphatic system activity with the diffusion MR technique: diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) in Alzheimer’s disease cases

    OpenAIRE

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Naganawa, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The activity of the glymphatic system is impaired in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We evaluated the activity of the human glymphatic system in cases of AD with a diffusion-based technique called diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS). Materials and methods: Diffusion tensor images were acquired to calculate diffusivities in the x, y, and z axes of the plane of the lateral ventricle body in 31 patients. We evaluated the diffusivity along t...

  1. Tensor gauge condition and tensor field decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ben-Chao; Chen, Xiang-Song

    2015-10-01

    We discuss various proposals of separating a tensor field into pure-gauge and gauge-invariant components. Such tensor field decomposition is intimately related to the effort of identifying the real gravitational degrees of freedom out of the metric tensor in Einstein’s general relativity. We show that as for a vector field, the tensor field decomposition has exact correspondence to and can be derived from the gauge-fixing approach. The complication for the tensor field, however, is that there are infinitely many complete gauge conditions in contrast to the uniqueness of Coulomb gauge for a vector field. The cause of such complication, as we reveal, is the emergence of a peculiar gauge-invariant pure-gauge construction for any gauge field of spin ≥ 2. We make an extensive exploration of the complete tensor gauge conditions and their corresponding tensor field decompositions, regarding mathematical structures, equations of motion for the fields and nonlinear properties. Apparently, no single choice is superior in all aspects, due to an awkward fact that no gauge-fixing can reduce a tensor field to be purely dynamical (i.e. transverse and traceless), as can the Coulomb gauge in a vector case.

  2. Histogram Modification and Wavelet Transform for High Performance Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shen Juang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a reversible watermarking technique for natural images. According to the similarity of neighbor coefficients’ values in wavelet domain, most differences between two adjacent pixels are close to zero. The histogram is built based on these difference statistics. As more peak points can be used for secret data hiding, the hiding capacity is improved compared with those conventional methods. Moreover, as the differences concentricity around zero is improved, the transparency of the host image can be increased. Experimental results and comparison show that the proposed method has both advantages in hiding capacity and transparency.

  3. Tensor spherical harmonics and tensor multipoles. II. Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumens, M.; Minnaert, P.

    1976-01-01

    The bases of tensor spherical harmonics and of tensor multipoles discussed in the preceding paper are generalized in the Hilbert space of Minkowski tensor fields. The transformation properties of the tensor multipoles under Lorentz transformation lead to the notion of irreducible tensor multipoles. We show that the usual 4-vector multipoles are themselves irreducible, and we build the irreducible tensor multipoles of the second order. We also give their relations with the symmetric tensor multipoles defined by Zerilli for application to the gravitational radiation

  4. Influence of Sampling Practices on the Appearance of DNA Image Histograms of Prostate Cells in FNAB Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbaset Buhmeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty‐one fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB of the prostate, diagnostically classified as definitely malignant, were studied. The Papanicolaou or H&E stained samples were destained and then stained for DNA with the Feulgen reaction. DNA cytometry was applied after different sampling rules. The histograms varied according to the sampling rule applied. Because free cells between cell groups were easier to measure than cells in the cell groups, two sampling rules were tested in all samples: (i cells in the cell groups were measured, and (ii free cells between cell groups were measured. Abnormal histograms were more common after the sampling rule based on free cells, suggesting that abnormal patterns are best revealed through the free cells in these samples. The conclusions were independent of the applied histogram interpretation method.

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brainstem in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Carson, Kathryn A; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brainstem, microstructural integrity of the white matter in children with achondroplasia and age-matched participants and to correlate the severity of craniocervical junction (CCJ) narrowing and neurological findings with DTI scalars in children with achondroplasia. This study also aimed to assess the potential role of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 on white matter microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed using a 1.5T magnetic resonance scanner and balanced pairs of diffusion gradients along 20 non-collinear directions. Measurements were obtained from regions of interest, sampled in each pontine corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus, and middle cerebellar peduncle, as well as in the lower brainstem and centrum semiovale, for fractional anisotropy and for mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. In addition, a severity score for achondroplasia was assessed by measuring CCJ narrowing. Eight patients with achondroplasia (seven males, one female; mean age 5y 6mo, range 1y 1mo-15y 1mo) and eight age- and sex-matched comparison participants (mean age 5y 2mo, range 1y 1mo-14y 11mo) were included in this study. Fractional anisotropy was lower and mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity were higher in the lower brainstem of patients with achondroplasia than in age-matched comparison participants. The CST and middle cerebellar peduncle of the participants showed increases in mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy in the lower brainstem was negatively correlated with the degree of CCJ narrowing. No differences in the DTI metrics of the centrum semiovale were observed between the two groups. The reduction in fractional anisotropy and increase in diffusivities in the lower brainstem of participants with achondroplasia may reflect secondary encephalomalacic degeneration and cavitation of the affected white matter tracts as shown by histology. In

  6. Comparison between types I and II epithelial ovarian cancer using histogram analysis of monoexponential, biexponential, and stretched-exponential diffusion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Yuxiang; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Congrong; Xie, Lizhi; Zhou, Zhenyu; Liang, Dong; Shen, Yang; Yao, Zhihang; Liu, Jianyu

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the utility of histogram analysis of monoexponential, biexponential, and stretched-exponential models to a dualistic model of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Fifty-two patients with histopathologically proven EOC underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (including diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI] with 11 b-values) using a 3.0T system and were divided into two groups: types I and II. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and intravoxel water diffusion heterogeneity (α) histograms were obtained based on solid components of the entire tumor. The following metrics of each histogram were compared between two types: 1) mean; 2) median; 3) 10th percentile and 90th percentile. Conventional MRI morphological features were also recorded. Significant morphological features for predicting EOC type were maximum diameter (P = 0.007), texture of lesion (P = 0.001), and peritoneal implants (P = 0.001). For ADC, D, f, DDC, and α, all metrics were significantly lower in type II than type I (P histogram metrics of ADC, D, and DDC had significantly higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values than those of f and α (P histogram analysis. ADC, D, and DDC have better performance than f and α; f and α may provide additional information. 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1797-1809. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Clinical Utility of Blood Cell Histogram Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E T Arun; Bhagya, S; Majeed, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    An automated haematology analyser provides blood cell histograms by plotting the sizes of different blood cells on X-axis and their relative number on Y-axis. Histogram interpretation needs careful analysis of Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC) and platelet distribution curves. Histogram analysis is often a neglected part of the automated haemogram which if interpreted well, has significant potential to provide diagnostically relevant information even before higher level investigations are ordered.

  8. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram shape analysis for monitoring early response in patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Li; Wang, Huanhuan; Liu, Song; Yan, Jing; Liu, Baorui; Guan, Yue; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-22

    To explore the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram shape related parameters in early assessment of treatment response during the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) course of advanced cervical cancers. This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-two patients with advanced cervical squamous cell carcinomas underwent diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (b values, 0 and 800 s/mm 2 ) before CCRT, at the end of 2nd and 4th week during CCRT and immediately after CCRT completion. Whole lesion ADC histogram analysis generated several histogram shape related parameters including skewness, kurtosis, s-sD av , width, standard deviation, as well as first-order entropy and second-order entropies. The averaged ADC histograms of 32 patients were generated to visually observe dynamic changes of the histogram shape following CCRT. All parameters except width and standard deviation showed significant changes during CCRT (all P histogram also changed obviously following CCRT. ADC histogram shape analysis held the potential in monitoring early tumor response in patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing CCRT.

  9. Linear Invariant Tensor Interpolation Applied to Cardiac Diffusion Tensor MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Jin Kyu; Wisniewski, Nicholas; Kindlmann, Gordon; Kung, Geoffrey L.; Klug, William S.; Garfinkel, Alan; Ennis, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Various methods exist for interpolating diffusion tensor fields, but none of them linearly interpolate tensor shape attributes. Linear interpolation is expected not to introduce spurious changes in tensor shape. Methods Herein we define a new linear invariant (LI) tensor interpolation method that linearly interpolates components of tensor shape (tensor invariants) and recapitulates the interpolated tensor from the linearly interpolated tensor invariants and the eigenvectors of a linearly interpolated tensor. The LI tensor interpolation method is compared to the Euclidean (EU), affine-invariant Riemannian (AI), log-Euclidean (LE) and geodesic-loxodrome (GL) interpolation methods using both a synthetic tensor field and three experimentally measured cardiac DT-MRI datasets. Results EU, AI, and LE introduce significant microstructural bias, which can be avoided through the use of GL or LI. Conclusion GL introduces the least microstructural bias, but LI tensor interpolation performs very similarly and at substantially reduced computational cost. PMID:23286085

  10. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Normal-Appearing White Matter as Biomarker for Radiation-Induced Late Delayed Cognitive Decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Nagesh, Vijaya; Sundgren, Pia C.; Buchtel, Henry; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Junck, Larry; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether early assessment of cerebral white matter degradation can predict late delayed cognitive decline after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients undergoing conformal fractionated brain RT participated in a prospective diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were acquired before RT, at 3 and 6 weeks during RT, and 10, 30, and 78 weeks after starting RT. The diffusivity variables in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle and temporal lobe white matter were computed. A quality-of-life survey and neurocognitive function tests were administered before and after RT at the magnetic resonance imaging follow-up visits. Results: In both structures, longitudinal diffusivity (λ ‖ ) decreased and perpendicular diffusivity (λ ⊥ ) increased after RT, with early changes correlating to later changes (p ⊥ at 3 weeks, and patients with >50% of cingula volume receiving >12 Gy had a greater increase in λ ⊥ at 3 and 6 weeks (p ‖ (30 weeks, p ‖ changes predicted for post-RT changes in verbal recall scores (3 and 6 weeks, p < .05). The neurocognitive test scores correlated significantly with the quality-of-life survey results. Conclusions: The correlation between early diffusivity changes in the parahippocampal cingulum and the late decline in verbal recall suggests that diffusion tensor imaging might be useful as a biomarker for predicting late delayed cognitive decline.

  11. Structural changes in Parkinson's disease: voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses based on 123I-MIBG uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Somehara, Ryo; Kamei, Ryotaro; Baba, Shingo; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may exhibit symptoms of sympathetic dysfunction that can be measured using 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. We investigated the relationship between microstructural brain changes and 123 I-MIBG uptake in patients with PD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses. This retrospective study included 24 patients with PD who underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy. They were divided into two groups: 12 MIBG-positive and 12 MIBG-negative cases (10 men and 14 women; age range: 60-81 years, corrected for gender and age). The heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio was calculated on anterior planar 123 I-MIBG images obtained 4 h post-injection. VBM and DTI were performed to detect structural differences between these two groups. Patients with low H/M ratio had significantly reduced brain volume at the right inferior frontal gyrus (uncorrected p  90). Patients with low H/M ratios also exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy than those with high H/M ratios (p based morphometry can detect grey matter changes in Parkinson's disease. • Diffusion tensor imaging can detect white matter changes in Parkinson's disease.

  12. Motor Oil Classification using Color Histograms and Pattern Recognition Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Shiva; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Habibi, Biuck

    2018-04-20

    Motor oil classification is important for quality control and the identification of oil adulteration. In thiswork, we propose a simple, rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive approach based on image analysis and pattern recognition techniques for the classification of nine different types of motor oils according to their corresponding color histograms. For this, we applied color histogram in different color spaces such as red green blue (RGB), grayscale, and hue saturation intensity (HSI) in order to extract features that can help with the classification procedure. These color histograms and their combinations were used as input for model development and then were statistically evaluated by using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and support vector machine (SVM) techniques. Here, two common solutions for solving a multiclass classification problem were applied: (1) transformation to binary classification problem using a one-against-all (OAA) approach and (2) extension from binary classifiers to a single globally optimized multilabel classification model. In the OAA strategy, LDA, QDA, and SVM reached up to 97% in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for both the training and test sets. In extension from binary case, despite good performances by the SVM classification model, QDA and LDA provided better results up to 92% for RGB-grayscale-HSI color histograms and up to 93% for the HSI color map, respectively. In order to reduce the numbers of independent variables for modeling, a principle component analysis algorithm was used. Our results suggest that the proposed method is promising for the identification and classification of different types of motor oils.

  13. WORKER, a program for histogram manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolger, J.E.; Ellinger, H.; Moore, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    A set of programs is provided which may link to any user-written program, permitting dynamic creation of histograms as well as display, manipulation and transfer of histogrammed data. With wide flexibility, constants within the user's code may be set or monitored at any time during execution. (Auth.)

  14. Delineating Neural Structures of Developmental Human Brains with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain anatomy is characterized by dramatic structural changes during fetal development. It is extraordinarily complex and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Revealing detailed anatomy at different stages of brain development not only aids in understanding this highly ordered process, but also provides clues to detect abnormalities caused by genetic or environmental factors. However, anatomical studies of human brain development during the fetal period are surprisingly scarce and histology-based atlases have become available only recently. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures water diffusion to delineate the underlying neural structures. The high contrasts derived from DTI can be used to establish the brain atlas. With DTI tractography, coherent neural structures, such as white matter tracts, can be three-dimensionally reconstructed. The primary eigenvector of the diffusion tensor can be further explored to characterize microstructures in the cerebral wall of the developmental brains. In this mini-review, the application of DTI in order to reveal the structures of developmental fetal brains has been reviewed in the above-mentioned aspects. The fetal brain DTI provides a unique insight for delineating the neural structures in both macroscopic and microscopic levels. The resultant DTI database will provide structural guidance for the developmental study of human fetal brains in basic neuroscience, and reference standards for diagnostic radiology of premature newborns.

  15. Longitudinal study on diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion tensor tractography following spinal cord contusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Can; Rao, Jia-Sheng; Pei, Xiao-Jiao; Lei, Jian-Feng; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a potential technology has been used in spinal cord injury (SCI) studies, but the longitudinal evaluation of DTI parameters after SCI, and the correlation between DTI parameters and locomotor outcomes need to be defined. Adult Wistar rats (n = 6) underwent traumatic thoracic cord contusion by an NYU impactor. DTI and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan datasets were collected pre-SCI and 1, 3, 7, 14, and 84 days post-SCI. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) of the spinal cord was also generated. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and connection rate of fibers at the injury epicenter and at 5 mm rostral/caudal to the epicenter were calculated. The variations of these parameters after SCI were observed by one-way analysis of variance and the correlations between these parameters and motor function were explored by Pearson's correlation. FA at the epicenter decreased most remarkably on day 1 post-SCI (from 0.780 ± 0.012 to 0.330 ± 0.015), and continued to decrease slightly by day 3 post-SCI (0.313 ± 0.015), while other parameters decreased significantly over the first 3 days after SCI. DTT showed residual fibers concentrated on ventral and ventrolateral sides of the cord. Moreover, FA at the epicenter exhibited the strongest correlation (r = 0.887, p = 0.000) with the locomotion performance. FA was sensitive to degeneration in white matter and DTT could directly reflect the distribution of the residual white matter. Moreover, days 1 to 3 post-SCI may be the optimal time window for SCI examination and therapy.

  16. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.

    1977-10-01

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  17. Neurite density imaging versus imaging of microscopic anisotropy in diffusion MRI: A model comparison using spherical tensor encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Björn; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; Mårtensson, Johan; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C; Nilsson, Markus

    2017-02-15

    In diffusion MRI (dMRI), microscopic diffusion anisotropy can be obscured by orientation dispersion. Separation of these properties is of high importance, since it could allow dMRI to non-invasively probe elongated structures such as neurites (axons and dendrites). However, conventional dMRI, based on single diffusion encoding (SDE), entangles microscopic anisotropy and orientation dispersion with intra-voxel variance in isotropic diffusivity. SDE-based methods for estimating microscopic anisotropy, such as the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) method, must thus rely on model assumptions to disentangle these features. An alternative approach is to directly quantify microscopic anisotropy by the use of variable shape of the b-tensor. Along those lines, we here present the 'constrained diffusional variance decomposition' (CODIVIDE) method, which jointly analyzes data acquired with diffusion encoding applied in a single direction at a time (linear tensor encoding, LTE) and in all directions (spherical tensor encoding, STE). We then contrast the two approaches by comparing neurite density estimated using NODDI with microscopic anisotropy estimated using CODIVIDE. Data were acquired in healthy volunteers and in glioma patients. NODDI and CODIVIDE differed the most in gray matter and in gliomas, where NODDI detected a neurite fraction higher than expected from the level of microscopic diffusion anisotropy found with CODIVIDE. The discrepancies could be explained by the NODDI tortuosity assumption, which enforces a connection between the neurite density and the mean diffusivity of tissue. Our results suggest that this assumption is invalid, which leads to a NODDI neurite density that is inconsistent between LTE and STE data. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the NODDI assumptions result in parameter bias that precludes the use of NODDI to map neurite density. With CODIVIDE, we found high levels of microscopic anisotropy in white matter

  18. CHILA A comprehensive histogramming language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, W.T.; Biggerstaff, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A high level language, CHIL, has been developed for use in processing event-by-event experimental data at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) using PERKIN-ELMER 3230 computers. CHIL has been fully integrated into all software which supports on-line and off-line histogramming and off-line preprocessing. CHIL supports simple gates, free-form-gates (2-D regions of arbitrary shape), condition test and branch statements, bit-tests, loops, calls to up to three user supplied subroutines and histogram generating statements. Any combination of 1, 2, 3 or 4-D histograms (32 megachannels max) may be recorded at 16 or 32 bits/channel. User routines may intercept the data being processed and modify it as desired. The CPU-intensive part of the processing utilizes microcoded routines which enhance performance by about a factor of two

  19. CHIL - a comprehensive histogramming language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, W.T.; Biggerstaff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A high level language, CHIL, has been developed for use in processing event-by-event experimental data at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) using PERKIN-ELMER 3230 computers. CHIL has been fully integrated into all software which supports on-line and off-line histogramming and off-line preprocessing. CHIL supports simple gates, free-form-gates (2-D regions of arbitrary shape), condition test and branch statements, bit-tests, loops, calls to up to three user supplied subroutines and histogram generating statements. Any combination of 1, 2, 3 or 4-D histograms (32 megachannels max) may be recorded at 16 or 32 bits/channel. User routines may intercept the data being processed and modify it as desired. The CPU-intensive part of the processing utilizes microcoded routines which enhance performance by about a factor of two

  20. Assessment of diffusion tensor image quality across sites and vendors using the American College of Radiology head phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyue J; Seo, Youngseob; Babcock, Evelyn; Huang, Hao; Bluml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica; Holshouser, Barbara; Panigrahy, Ashok; Shaw, Dennis W W; Altman, Nolan; McColl, Roderick W; Rollins, Nancy K

    2016-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of assessing quality of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) from multiple sites and vendors using American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. Participating sites (Siemens (n = 2), GE (n= 2), and Philips (n = 4)) reached consensus on parameters for DTI and used the widely available ACR phantom. Tensor data were processed at one site. B0 and eddy current distortions were assessed using grid line displacement on phantom Slice 5; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured at the center and periphery of the b = 0 image; fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed using phantom Slice 7. Variations of acquisition parameters and deviations from specified sequence parameters were recorded. Nonlinear grid line distortion was higher with linear shimming and could be corrected using the 2nd order shimming. Following image registration, eddy current distortion was consistently smaller than acquisi-tion voxel size. SNR was consistently higher in the image periphery than center by a factor of 1.3-2.0. ROI-based FA ranged from 0.007 to 0.024. ROI-based MD ranged from 1.90 × 10-3 to 2.33 × 10-3 mm2/s (median = 2.04 × 10-3 mm2/s). Two sites had image void artifacts. The ACR phantom can be used to compare key qual-ity measures of diffusion images acquired from multiple vendors at multiple sites.

  1. Whole brain magnetization transfer histogram analysis of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving intrathecal methotrexate therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akira [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: yakira@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miki, Yukio [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: mikiy@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Souichi [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: sadachi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp (and others)

    2006-03-15

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the hypothesis that magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram analysis of the whole brain could detect early and subtle brain changes nonapparent on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Materials and methods: Subjects in this prospective study comprised 10 children with ALL (mean age, 6 years; range, 0-16 years). In addition to conventional MRI, magnetization transfer images were obtained before and after intrathecal and intravenous MTX therapy. MTR values were calculated and plotted as a histogram, and peak height and location were calculated. Differences in peak height and location between pre- and post-MTX therapy scans were statistically analyzed. Conventional MRI was evaluated for abnormal signal area in white matter. Results: MTR peak height was significantly lower on post-MTX therapy scans than on pre-MTX therapy scans (p = 0.002). No significant differences in peak location were identified between pre- and post-chemotherapy imaging. No abnormal signals were noted in white matter on either pre- or post-MTX therapy conventional MRI. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that MTR histogram analysis allows better detection of early and subtle brain changes in ALL patients who receive MTX therapy than conventional MRI.

  2. Examination of cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis using functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Helen M; Rajagopalan, Venkateswaran; Deluca, John; Das, Abhijit; Binder, Allison; Arjunan, Aparna; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Wylie, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of cognitive fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), looking specifically at the relationship between self-reported fatigue and objective measures of cognitive fatigue. In Experiment 1, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine where in the brain BOLD activity covaried with "state" fatigue, assessed during performance of a task designed to induce cognitive fatigue while in the scanner. In Experiment 2, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine where in the brain white matter damage correlated with increased "trait" fatigue in individuals with MS, assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) completed outside the scanning session. During the cognitively fatiguing task, the MS group had increased brain activity associated with fatigue in the caudate as compared with HCs. DTI findings revealed that reduced fractional anisotropy in the anterior internal capsule was associated with increased self-reported fatigue on the FSS. Results are discussed in terms of identifying a "fatigue-network" in MS.

  3. Examination of cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis using functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Genova

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the neural correlates of cognitive fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis (MS, looking specifically at the relationship between self-reported fatigue and objective measures of cognitive fatigue. In Experiment 1, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to examine where in the brain BOLD activity covaried with "state" fatigue, assessed during performance of a task designed to induce cognitive fatigue while in the scanner. In Experiment 2, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI was used to examine where in the brain white matter damage correlated with increased "trait" fatigue in individuals with MS, assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS completed outside the scanning session. During the cognitively fatiguing task, the MS group had increased brain activity associated with fatigue in the caudate as compared with HCs. DTI findings revealed that reduced fractional anisotropy in the anterior internal capsule was associated with increased self-reported fatigue on the FSS. Results are discussed in terms of identifying a "fatigue-network" in MS.

  4. Love songs, bird brains and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2010-08-01

    The song control system of songbirds displays a remarkable seasonal neuroplasticity in species in which song output also changes seasonally. Thus far, this song control system has been extensively analyzed by histological and electrophysiological methods. However, these approaches do not provide a global view of the brain and/or do not allow repeated measurements, which are necessary to establish causal correlations between alterations in neural substrate and behavior. Research has primarily been focused on the song nuclei themselves, largely neglecting their interconnections and other brain regions involved in seasonally changing behavior. In this review, we introduce and explore the song control system of songbirds as a natural model for brain plasticity. At the same time, we point out the added value of the songbird brain model for in vivo diffusion tensor techniques and its derivatives. A compilation of the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained thus far in this system demonstrates the usefulness of this in vivo method for studying brain plasticity. In particular, it is shown to be a perfect tool for long-term studies of morphological and cellular changes of specific brain circuits in different endocrine/photoperiod conditions. The method has been successfully applied to obtain quantitative measurements of seasonal changes of fiber tracts and nuclei from the song control system. In addition, outside the song control system, changes have been discerned in the optic chiasm and in an interhemispheric connection. DTI allows the detection of seasonal changes in a region analogous to the mammalian secondary auditory cortex and in regions of the 'social behavior network', an interconnected group of structures that controls multiple social behaviors, including aggression and courtship. DTI allows the demonstration, for the first time, that the songbird brain in its entirety exhibits an extreme seasonal plasticity which is not merely limited to the song control

  5. TENSOR MODELING BASED FOR AIRBORNE LiDAR DATA CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection and description is a key factor in classification of Earth observation data. In this paper a classification method based on tensor decomposition is proposed. First, multiple features are extracted from raw LiDAR point cloud, and raster LiDAR images are derived by accumulating features or the “raw” data attributes. Then, the feature rasters of LiDAR data are stored as a tensor, and tensor decomposition is used to select component features. This tensor representation could keep the initial spatial structure and insure the consideration of the neighborhood. Based on a small number of component features a k nearest neighborhood classification is applied.

  6. Measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient in primary rectal tumors: is there a benefit in performing histogram analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeswijk, Miriam M; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Maas, Monique; Lahaye, Max J; Ayas, Z; Slenter, Jos M G M; Beets, Geerard L; Bakers, Frans C H; Beets-Tan, Regina G H

    2017-06-01

    The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is a potential prognostic imaging marker in rectal cancer. Typically, mean ADC values are used, derived from precise manual whole-volume tumor delineations by experts. The aim was first to explore whether non-precise circular delineation combined with histogram analysis can be a less cumbersome alternative to acquire similar ADC measurements and second to explore whether histogram analyses provide additional prognostic information. Thirty-seven patients who underwent a primary staging MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI; b0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000; 1.5 T) were included. Volumes-of-interest (VOIs) were drawn on b1000-DWI: (a) precise delineation, manually tracing tumor boundaries (2 expert readers), and (b) non-precise delineation, drawing circular VOIs with a wide margin around the tumor (2 non-experts). Mean ADC and histogram metrics (mean, min, max, median, SD, skewness, kurtosis, 5th-95th percentiles) were derived from the VOIs and delineation time was recorded. Measurements were compared between the two methods and correlated with prognostic outcome parameters. Median delineation time reduced from 47-165 s (precise) to 21-43 s (non-precise). The 45th percentile of the non-precise delineation showed the best correlation with the mean ADC from the precise delineation as the reference standard (ICC 0.71-0.75). None of the mean ADC or histogram parameters showed significant prognostic value; only the total tumor volume (VOI) was significantly larger in patients with positive clinical N stage and mesorectal fascia involvement. When performing non-precise tumor delineation, histogram analysis (in specific 45th ADC percentile) may be used as an alternative to obtain similar ADC values as with precise whole tumor delineation. Histogram analyses are not beneficial to obtain additional prognostic information.

  7. Spatial Mapping of Structural and Connectional Imaging Data for the Developing Human Brain with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Austin; Jeon, Tina; Sunkin, Susan M.; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sedmak, Goran; Sestan, Nenad; Lein, Ed S.; Huang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    During human brain development from fetal stage to adulthood, the white matter (WM) tracts undergo dramatic changes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a widely used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality, offers insight into the dynamic changes of WM fibers as these fibers can be noninvasively traced and three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed with DTI tractography. The DTI and conventional T1 weighted MRI images also provide sufficient cortical anatomical details for mapping the cortical regions of interests (ROIs). In this paper, we described basic concepts and methods of DTI techniques that can be used to trace major WM tracts noninvasively from fetal brain of 14 postconceptional weeks (pcw) to adult brain. We applied these techniques to acquire DTI data and trace, reconstruct and visualize major WM tracts during development. After categorizing major WM fiber bundles into five unique functional tract groups, namely limbic, brain stem, projection, commissural and association tracts, we revealed formation and maturation of these 3D reconstructed WM tracts of the developing human brain. The structural and connectional imaging data offered by DTI provides the anatomical backbone of transcriptional atlas of the developing human brain. PMID:25448302

  8. Spatial mapping of structural and connectional imaging data for the developing human brain with diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Austin; Jeon, Tina; Sunkin, Susan M; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sedmak, Goran; Sestan, Nenad; Lein, Ed S; Huang, Hao

    2015-02-01

    During human brain development from fetal stage to adulthood, the white matter (WM) tracts undergo dramatic changes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a widely used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality, offers insight into the dynamic changes of WM fibers as these fibers can be noninvasively traced and three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed with DTI tractography. The DTI and conventional T1 weighted MRI images also provide sufficient cortical anatomical details for mapping the cortical regions of interests (ROIs). In this paper, we described basic concepts and methods of DTI techniques that can be used to trace major WM tracts noninvasively from fetal brain of 14 postconceptional weeks (pcw) to adult brain. We applied these techniques to acquire DTI data and trace, reconstruct and visualize major WM tracts during development. After categorizing major WM fiber bundles into five unique functional tract groups, namely limbic, brain stem, projection, commissural and association tracts, we revealed formation and maturation of these 3D reconstructed WM tracts of the developing human brain. The structural and connectional imaging data offered by DTI provides the anatomical backbone of transcriptional atlas of the developing human brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging of partial intractable epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas de la Roque, Anne; Oppenheim, Catherine; Rodrigo, Sebastian; Meder, Jean-Francois; Chassoux, Francine; Devaux, Bertrand; Beuvon, Frederic; Daumas-Duport, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with partial intractable epilepsy. We used DTI (25 non-collinear directions) in 15 patients with a cortical lesion on conventional MRI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured in the internal capsule, and in the normal-appearing white matter (WM), adjacent tothe lesion, and away from the lesion, at a set distance of 2-3 cm. In each patient, increased or decreased FA measurements were those that varied from mirror values using an arbitrary 10% threshold. Over the whole population, ipsi- and contralateral FA measurements were also compared using a Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Over the whole population, FA was significantly reduced in the WM adjacent to and away from the lesion, whilst being normal in the internal capsule. FA was reduced by more than 10% in the WM adjacent to and distant from the lesion in 13 and 12 patients respectively. For nine of the ten patients for whom the surgical resection encompassed the limits of the lesion on conventional MRI, histological data showed WM alterations (gliosis, axonal loss, abnormal cells). DTI often reveals WM abnormalities that are undetected on conventional MRI in patients with partial intractable epilepsy. (orig.)

  10. Lorestan Bronze Plate Design Identification by Nondestructive Radiography Method and Image Processing by Means of Histogram Matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaghi, E.; Movafeghi, A.; Ahmadi, S.; Rokrok, B.; Mohammadzadeh, N.; Rastkhah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Radiography is known as one of the oldest and most widely used nondestructive testing techniques, where it introduces the most appreciated technique by producing images which are acting as unique fingerprint records of samples of interest. Among the interesting applications of radiography are archaeological and art applications. In this research, radiography was implemented for identification of a damaged art-historical material. The sample was a brass plate belonging to Iran cultural heritage. The estimated age of the plate was about 3500 years. The plate was discovered in Lorestan province, where it is generally called L orestan bronze . The plate was damaged seriously due to serious corrosion environmental attacks, and recognition of the sample was considered as the major problem. The simple radiography method was quite helpful for the plate determination but the method suffered from some major drawbacks due to contrast and thickness measurements. The thickness measurement and corrosion/erosion evaluation were the vital components of the inspection. The image processing techniques and precise thickness measurement method were added to the digitized radiographs. For the digital image processing, a histogram matching algorithm and an edge detection method were used. After all, the resulted image showed an enhanced quality image of the original traces of the hammered design. The results showed that a good experimental setup of radiography along with the image processing technique can give a high quality radiographic image which is able to be used effectively for the identification of art antiques. The human evaluation results also confirmed the ability of the proposed method with a high degree of certainty.

  11. Evaluation of breast cancer using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) histogram analysis: comparison with malignant status, histological subtype, and molecular prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gene Young; Moy, Linda; Kim, Sungheon G; Baete, Steven H; Moccaldi, Melanie; Babb, James S; Sodickson, Daniel K; Sigmund, Eric E

    2016-08-01

    To examine heterogeneous breast cancer through intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) histogram analysis. This HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved retrospective study included 62 patients (age 48.44 ± 11.14 years, 50 malignant lesions and 12 benign) who underwent contrast-enhanced 3 T breast MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM biomarkers of tissue diffusivity (Dt), perfusion fraction (fp), and pseudo-diffusivity (Dp) were calculated using voxel-based analysis for the whole lesion volume. Histogram analysis was performed to quantify tumour heterogeneity. Comparisons were made using Mann-Whitney tests between benign/malignant status, histological subtype, and molecular prognostic factor status while Spearman's rank correlation was used to characterize the association between imaging biomarkers and prognostic factor expression. The average values of the ADC and IVIM biomarkers, Dt and fp, showed significant differences between benign and malignant lesions. Additional significant differences were found in the histogram parameters among tumour subtypes and molecular prognostic factor status. IVIM histogram metrics, particularly fp and Dp, showed significant correlation with hormonal factor expression. Advanced diffusion imaging biomarkers show relationships with molecular prognostic factors and breast cancer malignancy. This analysis reveals novel diagnostic metrics that may explain some of the observed variability in treatment response among breast cancer patients. • Novel IVIM biomarkers characterize heterogeneous breast cancer. • Histogram analysis enables quantification of tumour heterogeneity. • IVIM biomarkers show relationships with breast cancer malignancy and molecular prognostic factors.

  12. Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jun Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy volunteers and 31 patients with lumbosacral stenosis. T2WI showed that the residual dural sac area was less than two-thirds that of the corresponding normal area in patients from L 3 to S 1 stenosis. On T1WI and T2WI, 74 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots from 31 patients showed compression changes. DTI showed thinning and distortion in 36 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (49% and abruption in 17 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (23%. Moreover, fractional anisotropy values were reduced in the lumbosacral spinal nerve roots of patients with lumbosacral stenosis. These findings suggest that DTI can objectively and quantitatively evaluate the severity of lumbosacral spinal nerve root compression.

  13. Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Yong; Fan, Zi-Wen; Li, Xin-Chun; Cao, Bing-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy volunteers and 31 patients with lumbosacral stenosis. T2WI showed that the residual dural sac area was less than two-thirds that of the corresponding normal area in patients from L3 to S1 stenosis. On T1WI and T2WI, 74 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots from 31 patients showed compression changes. DTI showed thinning and distortion in 36 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (49%) and abruption in 17 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (23%). Moreover, fractional anisotropy values were reduced in the lumbosacral spinal nerve roots of patients with lumbosacral stenosis. These findings suggest that DTI can objectively and quantitatively evaluate the severity of lumbosacral spinal nerve root compression.

  14. Control system of hexacopter using color histogram footprint and convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruliputra, R. N.; Darma, S.

    2017-07-01

    The development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has been growing rapidly in recent years. The use of logic thinking which is implemented into the program algorithms is needed to make a smart system. By using visual input from a camera, UAV is able to fly autonomously by detecting a target. However, some weaknesses arose as usage in the outdoor environment might change the target's color intensity. Color histogram footprint overcomes the problem because it divides color intensity into separate bins that make the detection tolerant to the slight change of color intensity. Template matching compare its detection result with a template of the reference image to determine the target position and use it to position the vehicle in the middle of the target with visual feedback control based on Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. Color histogram footprint method localizes the target by calculating the back projection of its histogram. It has an average success rate of 77 % from a distance of 1 meter. It can position itself in the middle of the target by using visual feedback control with an average positioning time of 73 seconds. After the hexacopter is in the middle of the target, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) classifies a number contained in the target image to determine a task depending on the classified number, either landing, yawing, or return to launch. The recognition result shows an optimum success rate of 99.2 %.

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis can evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict late xerostomia degree in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Guo, Tingting; Zheng, Huanhuan; Pan, Xia; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-19

    We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased ( P histogram parameters increased (all P histogram parameters. Early mean change rates for bilateral parotid SD and ADC max could predict late xerostomia degrees at seven months after radiotherapy (three months after time point 3) with AUC of 0.781 and 0.818 ( P = 0.014, 0.005, respectively). ADC histogram parameters were reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.830 - 0.999). ADC histogram analysis could be used to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage noninvasively, and predict late xerostomia degrees of NPC patients treated with radiotherapy.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging of the normal prostate at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerses, Bengi; Kabakci, Neslihan; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Firat, Zeynep; Bayram, Ali; Kovanlikaya, Ilhami; Ulud, Aziz M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the prostate and to determine normative fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of healthy prostate with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Thirty volunteers with a mean age of 28 (25-35) years were scanned with a 3-Tesla MRI (Intera Achieva; Philips, The Netherlands) system using a six-channel phased array coil. Initially, T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) axial images of the prostate were obtained. In two subjects, a millimetric hypointense signal change was detected in the peripheral zones on T2-weighted TSE images. These two subjects were excluded from the study. DTI with single-shot echo-planar imaging (ssEPI) was performed in the remaining 28 subjects. ADC and FA values were measured using the manufacturer supplied software by positioning 9-pixel ROIs on each zone. Differences between parameters of the central and peripheral zones were assessed. Mean ADC value of the central (1.220 ± 0.271 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) was found to be significantly lower when compared with the peripheral gland (1.610 ± 0.347 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P < 0.01). Mean FA of the central gland was significantly higher (0.26), compared with the peripheral gland (0.16) (P < 0.01). This study shows the feasibility of prostate DTI with a 3-Tesla MR system and the normative FA and ADC values of peripheral and central zones of the normal prostate. The results are compatible with the microstructural organization of the gland. (orig.)

  17. Current contribution of diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of diffuse axonal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphine Centola Grassi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is the number one cause of death and morbidity among young adults. Moreover, survivors are frequently left with functional disabilities during the most productive years of their lives. One main aspect of TBI pathology is diffuse axonal injury, which is increasingly recognized due to its presence in 40% to 50% of all cases that require hospital admission. Diffuse axonal injury is defined as widespread axonal damage and is characterized by complete axotomy and secondary reactions due to overall axonopathy. These changes can be seen in neuroimaging studies as hemorrhagic focal areas and diffuse edema. However, the diffuse axonal injury findings are frequently under-recognized in conventional neuroimaging studies. In such scenarios, diffuse tensor imaging (DTI plays an important role because it provides further information on white matter integrity that is not obtained with standard magnetic resonance imaging sequences. Extensive reviews concerning the physics of DTI and its use in the context of TBI patients have been published, but these issues are still hazy for many allied-health professionals. Herein, we aim to review the current contribution of diverse state-of-the-art DTI analytical methods to the understanding of diffuse axonal injury pathophysiology and prognosis, to serve as a quick reference for those interested in planning new studies and who are involved in the care of TBI victims. For this purpose, a comprehensive search in Pubmed was performed using the following keywords: “traumatic brain injury”, “diffuse axonal injury”, and “diffusion tensor imaging”.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of normal lumbosacral plexus nerve by using diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yin; Wang Chuanbing; Liu Wei; Zong Min; Sa Rina; Shi Haibin; Wang Dehang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the lumbosacral plexus nerves by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and quantitatively evaluate them by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in healthy volunteers. Methods: A total of 60 healthy volunteers (30 males and 30 females) underwent DTI scanning. Mean FA values of the lumbosacral plexus nerves (both sides of lumbar roots L3 to S1, proximal and distal to the lumbar foraminal zone) were quantified. Differences among various segments of lumbar nerve roots were compared with ANOVA test and SNK test. Differences between two sides of the lumbar nerve roots at the same lumbar segment were compared with paired-samples t test. Differences between the proximal and the distal nerve to the the lumbar foraminal zone at the same lumbar segment were compared with paired-samples t test. The lumbosacral plexus nerve was visualized with tractography. Results: (1) The lumbosacral plexus nerve was clearly visualized with tractography. (2) Mean FA values of the lumbar nerve roots L3 to S1 were as followings: proximal to the left lumbar foraminal zone 0.202 ± 0.021, 0.201 ± 0.026, 0.201 ± 0.027, 0.191 ±0.016, distal to the left lumbar foraminal zone 0.222 ± 0.034, 0.250 ± 0.028, 0.203 ± 0.026, 0.183 ± 0.020, proximal to the right lumbar foraminal zone 0.200 ± 0.023, 0.202 ± 0.023, 0.205 ± 0.027, 0.191 ± 0.017, distal to the right lumbar foraminal zone 0.225 ± 0.032, 0.247 ± 0.027, 0.205 ± 0.033, 0.183 ± 0.021. Mean FA values were significantly different between the proximal nerve to the distal nerve in lumbar nerve roots L3, L4, S1 (t=-9.114-2.366, P<0.05), but not significantly different in L5 (P>0.05). Differences were not found between the right and left side nerves at the same lumbar segment (P>0.05). (3) The whole length of the lumbar roots nerve L3 to S1 can be visualized clearly by using DTT. Conclusions: Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography can show and provide quantitative information of human lumbosacral plexus nerves. DTI

  19. Design and implement of BESIII online histogramming software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Wang Liang; Liu Yingjie; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zhu Kejun; Zhao Jingwei

    2007-01-01

    The online histogramming software is an important part of the BESIII DAQ (Data Acquisition) system. This article introduces the main requirements and design of the online histogramming software and presents how to produce, transmit and gather histograms in the distributed environment in the current software implement. The article also illustrate one smart, simple and easy to expand way of setup with xml configure database. (authors)

  20. Strain histograms are equal to strain ratios in predicting malignancy in breast tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jonathan Frederik; Ewertsen, Caroline; Sletting, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether strain histograms are equal to strain ratios in predicting breast tumour malignancy and to see if either could be used to upgrade Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3 tumours for immediate biopsy. Methods: Ninety-nine breast tumours were examined using...

  1. A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analysis of asymptomatic Parkinson's disease-related G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Artzi, Moran; Mirelman, Anat; Jacob, Yael; Helmich, Rick C; van Nuenen, Bart F L; Gurevich, Tanya; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Marder, Karen; Bressman, Susan; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2014-05-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease have reduced gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy in both cortical and sub-cortical structures, yet changes in the pre-motor phase of the disease are unknown. A comprehensive imaging study using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging tract-based spatial statistics analysis was performed on 64 Ashkenazi Jewish asymptomatic first degree relatives of patients with Parkinson's disease (30 mutation carriers), who carry the G2019S mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene. No between-group differences in gray matter volume could be noted in either whole-brain or volume-of-interest analysis. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis did not identify group differences in white matter areas, and volume-of-interest analysis identified no differences in diffusivity parameters in Parkinson's disease-related structures. G2019S carriers do not manifest changes in gray matter volume or diffusivity parameters in Parkinson's disease-related structures prior to the appearance of motor symptoms. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  3. Multispectral histogram normalization contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, J. M.; Schwartz, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    A multispectral histogram normalization or decorrelation enhancement which achieves effective color composites by removing interband correlation is described. The enhancement procedure employs either linear or nonlinear transformations to equalize principal component variances. An additional rotation to any set of orthogonal coordinates is thus possible, while full histogram utilization is maintained by avoiding the reintroduction of correlation. For the three-dimensional case, the enhancement procedure may be implemented with a lookup table. An application of the enhancement to Landsat multispectral scanning imagery is presented.

  4. Mid-callosal plane determination using preferred directions from diffusion tensor images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, André L.; Rittner, Letícia; Lotufo, Roberto A.; Appenzeller, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The corpus callosum is the major brain structure responsible for inter{hemispheric communication between neurons. Many studies seek to relate corpus callosum attributes to patient characteristics, cerebral diseases and psychological disorders. Most of those studies rely on 2D analysis of the corpus callosum in the mid-sagittal plane. However, it is common to find conflicting results among studies, once many ignore methodological issues and define the mid-sagittal plane based on precary or invalid criteria with respect to the corpus callosum. In this work we propose a novel method to determine the mid-callosal plane using the corpus callosum internal preferred diffusion directions obtained from diffusion tensor images. This plane is analogous to the mid-sagittal plane, but intended to serve exclusively as the corpus callosum reference. Our method elucidates the great potential the directional information of the corpus callosum fibers have to indicate its own referential. Results from experiments with five image pairs from distinct subjects, obtained under the same conditions, demonstrate the method effectiveness to find the corpus callosum symmetric axis relative to the axial plane.

  5. Diffusion tensor MR microscopy of tissues with low diffusional anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajd, Franci; Mattea, Carlos; Stapf, Siegfried; Sersa, Igor

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging exploits preferential diffusional motion of water molecules residing within tissue compartments for assessment of tissue structural anisotropy. However, instrumentation and post-processing errors play an important role in determination of diffusion tensor elements. In the study, several experimental factors affecting accuracy of diffusion tensor determination were analyzed. Effects of signal-to-noise ratio and configuration of the applied diffusion-sensitizing gradients on fractional anisotropy bias were analyzed by means of numerical simulations. In addition, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance microscopy experiments were performed on a tap water phantom and bovine articular cartilage-on-bone samples to verify the simulation results. In both, the simulations and the experiments, the multivariate linear regression of the diffusion-tensor analysis yielded overestimated fractional anisotropy with low SNRs and with low numbers of applied diffusion-sensitizing gradients. An increase of the apparent fractional anisotropy due to unfavorable experimental conditions can be overcome by applying a larger number of diffusion sensitizing gradients with small values of the condition number of the transformation matrix. This is in particular relevant in magnetic resonance microscopy, where imaging gradients are high and the signal-to-noise ratio is low.

  6. Enhancement of image contrast in linacgram through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Shin, Hyun Kyo; Lee, Re Na

    2000-01-01

    Conventional radiation therapy portal images gives low contrast images. The purpose of this study was to enhance image contrast of a linacgram by developing a low--cost image processing method. Chest linacgram was obtained by irradiating humanoid phantom and scanned using Diagnostic-Pro scanner for image processing. Several types of scan method were used in scanning. These include optical density scan, histogram equalized scan, linear histogram based scan, linear histogram independent scan, linear optical density scan, logarithmic scan, and power square root scan. The histogram distribution of the scanned images were plotted and the ranges of the gray scale were compared among various scan types. The scanned images were then transformed to the gray window by pallette fitting method and the contrast of the reprocessed portal images were evaluated for image improvement. Portal images of patients were also taken at various anatomic sites and the images were processed by Gray Scale Expansion (GSE) method. The patient images were analyzed to examine the feasibility of using the GSE technique in clinic. The histogram distribution showed that minimum and maximum gray scale ranges of 3192 and 21940 were obtained when the image was scanned using logarithmic method and square root method, respectively. Out of 256 gray scale, only 7 to 30% of the steps were used. After expanding the gray scale to full range, contrast of the portal images were improved. Experiment performed with patient image showed that improved identification of organs were achieved by GSE in portal images of knee joint, head and neck, lung, and pelvis. Phantom study demonstrated that the GSE technique improved image contrast of a linacgram. This indicates that the decrease in image quality resulting from the dual exposure, could be improved by expanding the gray scale. As a result, the improved technique will make it possible to compare the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and simulation image for

  7. Improved dose–volume histogram estimates for radiopharmaceutical therapy by optimizing quantitative SPECT reconstruction parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lishui; Hobbs, Robert F; Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric C; Segars, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    In radiopharmaceutical therapy, an understanding of the dose distribution in normal and target tissues is important for optimizing treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry takes into account patient anatomy and the nonuniform uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in tissues. Dose–volume histograms (DVHs) provide a useful summary representation of the 3D dose distribution and have been widely used for external beam treatment planning. Reliable 3D dosimetry requires an accurate 3D radioactivity distribution as the input. However, activity distribution estimates from SPECT are corrupted by noise and partial volume effects (PVEs). In this work, we systematically investigated OS-EM based quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) image reconstruction in terms of its effect on DVHs estimates. A modified 3D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that incorporated a non-uniform kidney model and clinically realistic organ activities and biokinetics was used. Projections were generated using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation; noise effects were studied using 50 noise realizations with clinical count levels. Activity images were reconstructed using QSPECT with compensation for attenuation, scatter and collimator–detector response (CDR). Dose rate distributions were estimated by convolution of the activity image with a voxel S kernel. Cumulative DVHs were calculated from the phantom and QSPECT images and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. We found that noise, PVEs, and ringing artifacts due to CDR compensation all degraded histogram estimates. Low-pass filtering and early termination of the iterative process were needed to reduce the effects of noise and ringing artifacts on DVHs, but resulted in increased degradations due to PVEs. Large objects with few features, such as the liver, had more accurate histogram estimates and required fewer iterations and more smoothing for optimal results. Smaller objects with fine details, such as the kidneys, required more iterations and less

  8. Improved dose-volume histogram estimates for radiopharmaceutical therapy by optimizing quantitative SPECT reconstruction parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lishui; Hobbs, Robert F.; Segars, Paul W.; Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric C.

    2013-06-01

    In radiopharmaceutical therapy, an understanding of the dose distribution in normal and target tissues is important for optimizing treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry takes into account patient anatomy and the nonuniform uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in tissues. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) provide a useful summary representation of the 3D dose distribution and have been widely used for external beam treatment planning. Reliable 3D dosimetry requires an accurate 3D radioactivity distribution as the input. However, activity distribution estimates from SPECT are corrupted by noise and partial volume effects (PVEs). In this work, we systematically investigated OS-EM based quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) image reconstruction in terms of its effect on DVHs estimates. A modified 3D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that incorporated a non-uniform kidney model and clinically realistic organ activities and biokinetics was used. Projections were generated using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation; noise effects were studied using 50 noise realizations with clinical count levels. Activity images were reconstructed using QSPECT with compensation for attenuation, scatter and collimator-detector response (CDR). Dose rate distributions were estimated by convolution of the activity image with a voxel S kernel. Cumulative DVHs were calculated from the phantom and QSPECT images and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. We found that noise, PVEs, and ringing artifacts due to CDR compensation all degraded histogram estimates. Low-pass filtering and early termination of the iterative process were needed to reduce the effects of noise and ringing artifacts on DVHs, but resulted in increased degradations due to PVEs. Large objects with few features, such as the liver, had more accurate histogram estimates and required fewer iterations and more smoothing for optimal results. Smaller objects with fine details, such as the kidneys, required more iterations and less

  9. Subtracting and Fitting Histograms using Profile Likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    D'Almeida, F M L

    2008-01-01

    It is known that many interesting signals expected at LHC are of unknown shape and strongly contaminated by background events. These signals will be dif cult to detect during the rst years of LHC operation due to the initial low luminosity. In this work, one presents a method of subtracting histograms based on the pro le likelihood function when the background is previously estimated by Monte Carlo events and one has low statistics. Estimators for the signal in each bin of the histogram difference are calculated so as limits for the signals with 68.3% of Con dence Level in a low statistics case when one has a exponential background and a Gaussian signal. The method can also be used to t histograms when the signal shape is known. Our results show a good performance and avoid the problem of negative values when subtracting histograms.

  10. DPAK and HPAK: a versatile display and histogramming package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logg, C.A.; Boyarski, A.M.; Cook, A.J.; Cottrell, R.L.A.; Sund, S.

    1979-07-01

    The features of a display and histogram package which requires a minimal number of subroutine calls in order to generate graphic output in many flavors on a variety of devices are described. Default options are preset to values that are generally most wanted, but the default values may be readily changed to the user's needs. The description falls naturally into two parts, namely, the set of routines (DPAK) for displaying data on some device, and the set of routines (HPAK) for generating histograms. HPAK provides a means of allocating memory for histograms, accumulating data into histograms, and subsequently displaying the hisotgrams via calls to the DPAK routines. Histograms and displays of either one or two independent variables can be made

  11. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates with Short-Term Myelopathy Outcome in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, Aditya; Rao, Avinash; Kurpad, Shekar N; Jirjis, Michael B; Eckardt, Gerald; Schmit, Brian D; Wang, Marjorie C

    2017-01-01

    To determine if spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging indexes correlate with short-term clinical outcome in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). A prospective consecutive cohort study was performed in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery for CSM. After obtaining informed consent, patients with CSM underwent preoperative T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of the cervical spine. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values at the level of maximum cord compression and at the noncompressed C1-2 level were calculated on axial images. We recorded the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale scores for all patients preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed to identify correlations between FA and clinical outcome scores. The study included 27 patients (mean age 54.5 years ± 1.9, 12 men). The mean postoperative changes in mJOA scale, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale scores were 0.9 ± 0.3, -6.0 ± 1.9, and 3.4 ± 1.9. The mean FA at the level of maximum compression was significantly lower than the mean FA at the C1-2 level (0.5 vs. 0.55, P = 0.01). FA was significantly correlated with change in mJOA scale score (Pearson r = -0.42, P = 0.02). FA was significantly correlated with the preoperative mJOA scale score (Pearson r = 0.65, P < 0.001). Preoperative FA at the level of maximum cord compression significantly correlates with the 3-month change in mJOA scale score among patients with CSM. FA was also significantly associated with preoperative mJOA scale score and is a potential biomarker for spinal cord dysfunction in CSM. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Reconstruction of white matter fibre tracts using diffusion kurtosis tensor imaging at 1.5T: Pre-surgical planning in patients with gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leote, Joao; Nunes, Rita G; Cerqueira, Luis; Loução, Ricardo; Ferreira, Hugo A

    2018-01-01

    Tractography studies for pre-surgical planning of primary brain tumors is typically done using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which cannot resolve crossing, kissing or highly angulated fibres. Tractography based on the estimation of the diffusion kurtosis (DK) tensor was recently demonstrated to enable tackling these limitations. However, its use in the clinical context at low 1.5T field has not yet been reported. To evaluate if the estimation of whole-brain tractography using the DK tensor is feasible for pre-surgical investigation of patients with brain tumors at 1.5T. Eight healthy subjects and 3 patients with brain tumors were scanned at 1.5T using a 12-channel head coil. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired with repetition/echo times of 5800/107 ms, 82 × 82 resolution, 3 × 3 × 3 mm 3 voxel size, b-values of 0, 1000, 2000 s/mm 2 and 64 gradient sensitising directions. Whole-brain tractography was estimated using the DK tensor and corticospinal tracts (CST) were isolated using regions-of-interest placed at the cerebral peduncles and motor gyrus. Tract size, DK metrics and CST deviation index (highest curvature point) were compared between healthy subjects and patients. Tract sizes did not differ between groups. The CST deviation index was significantly higher in patients compared to healthy subjects. Fractional anisotropy was significantly lower in patients, with higher mean kurtosis asymmetry index at the highest curvature point in patients. Corticospinal fibre bundles estimated using DK tensor in a 1.5T scanner presented similar properties in patients with brain gliomas as those reported in the literature using DTI-based tractography.

  13. Bayesian CP Factorization of Incomplete Tensors with Automatic Rank Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qibin; Zhang, Liqing; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization of incomplete data is a powerful technique for tensor completion through explicitly capturing the multilinear latent factors. The existing CP algorithms require the tensor rank to be manually specified, however, the determination of tensor rank remains a challenging problem especially for CP rank . In addition, existing approaches do not take into account uncertainty information of latent factors, as well as missing entries. To address these issues, we formulate CP factorization using a hierarchical probabilistic model and employ a fully Bayesian treatment by incorporating a sparsity-inducing prior over multiple latent factors and the appropriate hyperpriors over all hyperparameters, resulting in automatic rank determination. To learn the model, we develop an efficient deterministic Bayesian inference algorithm, which scales linearly with data size. Our method is characterized as a tuning parameter-free approach, which can effectively infer underlying multilinear factors with a low-rank constraint, while also providing predictive distributions over missing entries. Extensive simulations on synthetic data illustrate the intrinsic capability of our method to recover the ground-truth of CP rank and prevent the overfitting problem, even when a large amount of entries are missing. Moreover, the results from real-world applications, including image inpainting and facial image synthesis, demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for both tensor factorization and tensor completion in terms of predictive performance.

  14. Corticospinal tract degeneration and possible pathogenesis in ALS evaluated by MR diffusion tensor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, Merete; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Wiegell, Mette R.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) appears to be a powerful method to investigate the neuronal and axonal fibre distribution in the human brain. Changes in diffusion characteristics of water molecules in the white matter can be estimated as the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC...... significance. ADC was unchanged at the level of the corona radiata. FA was significantly reduced at the lowest level (pons), only tended to be reduced in the internal capsule, but was also unchanged in the corona radiata. CONCLUSIONS: Segmentation of the CST into three regions supports the hypothesis...

  15. Microstructural changes in thickened corpus callosum in children: contribution of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Kanavaki, Aikaterini; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Thickened corpus callosum is a rare finding and its pathophysiology is not well known. An anomalous supracallosal bundle has been depicted by fiber tracking in some cases but no diffusion tensor imaging metrics of thickened corpus callosum have been reported. To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in cases of thickened corpus callosum to help in understanding its clinical significance. During a 7-year period five children (ages 6 months to 15 years) with thickened corpus callosum were studied. We determined DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ1) and radial (λ2, λ3) diffusivity and performed 3-D fiber tracking reconstruction of the thickened corpus callosum. We compared our results with data from the literature and 24 age-matched controls. Brain abnormalities were seen in all cases. All children had at least three measurements of corpus callosum thickness above the 97th percentile according to age. In all children 3-D fiber tracking showed an anomalous supracallosal bundle and statistically significant decrease in FA (P = 0.003) and λ1 (P = 0.001) of the corpus callosum compared with controls, but no significant difference in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Thickened corpus callosum was associated with abnormal bundles, suggesting underlying axonal guidance abnormality. DTI metrics suggested abnormal fiber compactness and density, which may be associated with alterations in cognition. (orig.)

  16. Diffusion tensor MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1: expanding the knowledge of microstructural brain abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose R.L.; Muniz, Marcos P.; Souza, Antonio S.; Rocha, Antonio J. da; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny M.; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika C.

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary disease with a dominant autosomal pattern. In children and adolescents, it is frequently associated with the appearance of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the brain's white matter. MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to detect white matter abnormalities by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA). This study employed DTI to evaluate the relationship between FA patterns and the findings of T2 sequences, with the aim of improving our understanding of anatomical changes and microstructural brain abnormalities in individuals with NF1. Forty-four individuals with NF1 and 20 control subjects were evaluated. The comparative analysis of FA between NF1 and control groups was based on four predetermined anatomical regions of the brain hemispheres (basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, thalamus) and related the presence or absence of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the brain, which are called unidentified bright objects (UBOs). The FA values between the groups demonstrated statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for the cerebellum and thalamus in patients with NF1, independent of the occurrence of UBOs. Diffusion tensor MR imaging confirms the influence of UBOs in the decrease of FA values in this series of patients with NF1. Additionally, this technique allows the characterization of microstructural abnormalities even in some brain regions that appear normal in conventional MR sequences. (orig.)

  17. Histogram analysis of stretched-exponential and monoexponential diffusion-weighted imaging models for distinguishing low and intermediate/high gleason scores in prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiao H; Tang, Wei; Gao, Hong B; Zhou, Bing N; Zhou, Liang P

    2018-02-07

    Noninvasive measures to evaluate the aggressiveness of prostate carcinoma (PCa) may benefit patients. To assess the value of stretched-exponential and monoexponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for predicting the aggressiveness of PCa. Retrospective study. Seventy-five patients with PCa. 3T DWI examinations were performed using b-values of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 s/mm 2 . The research were based on entire-tumor histogram analysis and the reference standard was radical prostectomy. The correlation analysis was programmed with Spearman's rank-order analysis between the histogram variables and Gleason grade group (GG). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) regression was used to analyze the ability of these histogram variables to differentiate low-grade (LG) from intermediate/high-grade (HG) PCa. The percentiles and mean of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were correlated with GG (ρ: 0.414-0.593), while there was no significant relation among α value, skewnesses, and kurtosises with GG (ρ:0.034-0.323). HG tumors (ADC:484 ± 136, 592 ± 139, 670 ± 144, 788 ± 146, 895 ± 141 mm 2 /s; DDC: 410 ± 142, 532 ± 172, 666 ± 193, 786 ± 196, 914 ± 181 mm 2 /s) had lower values in the 10 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th percentiles and means than LG tumors (ADC: 644 ± 779, 737 ± 84, 836 ± 83, 919 ± 82, 997 ± 107 mm 2 /s; DDC: 552 ± 82, 680 ± 94, 829 ± 112, 931 ± 106, 1045 ± 100 mm 2 /s). However, there was no difference between LG and HG tumors in α value (0.671 ± 0.041 vs. 0.633 ± 0.114), kurtosises (ADC 0.09 vs. 0.086; DDC -0.033 vs. -0.317), or skewnesses (ADC -0.036 vs. 0.073; DDC -0.063 vs. 0.136). The above statistics were P Histogram variables of DDC and ADC may predict the aggressiveness of PCa, while α value does not. The abilities of ADC10 and DDC10 to discriminate LG from HG tumors were similar, and

  18. Comparison of two global digital algorithms for Minkowski tensor estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The geometry of real world objects can be described by Minkowski tensors. Algorithms have been suggested to approximate Minkowski tensors if only a binary image of the object is available. This paper presents implementations of two such algorithms. The theoretical convergence properties...... are confirmed by simulations on test sets, and recommendations for input arguments of the algorithms are given. For increasing resolutions, we obtain more accurate estimators for the Minkowski tensors. Digitisations of more complicated objects are shown to require higher resolutions....

  19. Steganalytic methods for the detection of histogram shifting data-hiding schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Lerch Hostalot, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, some steganalytic techniques designed to detect the existence of hidden messages using histogram shifting methods are presented. Firstly, some techniques to identify specific methods of histogram shifting, based on visible marks on the histogram or abnormal statistical distributions are suggested. Then, we present a general technique capable of detecting all histogram shifting techniques analyzed. This technique is based on the effect of histogram shifting methods on the "volat...

  20. Killing tensors and conformal Killing tensors from conformal Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Raffaele; Edgar, S Brian; Barnes, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition, we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate that it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors, and hence all the Killing tensors (which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors

  1. Tensors for physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the science of tensors in a didactic way. The various types and ranks of tensors and the physical basis is presented. Cartesian Tensors are needed for the description of directional phenomena in many branches of physics and for the characterization the anisotropy of material properties. The first sections of the book provide an introduction to the vector and tensor algebra and analysis, with applications to physics,  at undergraduate level. Second rank tensors, in particular their symmetries, are discussed in detail. Differentiation and integration of fields, including generalizations of the Stokes law and the Gauss theorem, are treated. The physics relevant for the applications in mechanics, quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and hydrodynamics is presented. The second part of the book is devoted to  tensors of any rank, at graduate level.  Special topics are irreducible, i.e. symmetric traceless tensors, isotropic tensors, multipole potential tensors, spin tensors, integration and spin-...

  2. [Comparison of film-screen combinations in contrast-detail diagram and with interactive image analysis. 3: Trimodal histograms of gray scale distribution in bar groups of lead pattern images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, G; Eichbaum, G; Stamm, G

    1998-05-01

    The following four screen film combinations were compared: a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film and c) two conventional green fluorescing screen film combinations. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m3) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analysis was performed using an Ibas system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a PbO photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an Ibas image matrix of 512 x 512 pixels with a spatial resolution of ca. 7 cycles/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 micron 2. Maxima in the histograms of a grouped bar pattern were estimated as mean values from the bar and gap regions ("mean value method"). They were used to calculate signal contrast, standard deviations of the means and scatter fraction. Comparing the histograms with respect to spatial resolution and kV setting a clear advantage of the UVR system becomes obvious. The quantitative analysis yielded a maximum spatial resolution of approx. 3 cycles/mm for the UVR system at 60 kV which decreased to half of this value at 117 kV caused by the increasing influence of scattered radiation. A ranking of screen-film systems with respect to image quality and dose requirement is presented. For its evaluation an interactive image analysis using the mean value method was found to be superior to signal/noise ratio measurements and visual analysis in respect to diagnostic relevance and saving of time.

  3. Infrared Small Moving Target Detection via Saliency Histogram and Geometrical Invariability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Wan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect both bright and dark small moving targets effectively in infrared (IR video sequences, a saliency histogram and geometrical invariability based method is presented in this paper. First, a saliency map that roughly highlights the salient regions of the original image is obtained by tuning its amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Then, a saliency histogram is constructed by means of averaging the accumulated saliency value of each gray level in the map, through which bins corresponding to bright target and dark target are assigned with large values in the histogram. Next, single-frame detection of candidate targets is accomplished by a binarized segmentation using an adaptive threshold, and their centroid coordinates with sub-pixel accuracy are calculated through a connected components labeling method as well as a gray-weighted criterion. Finally, considering the motion characteristics in consecutive frames, an inter-frame false alarm suppression method based on geometrical invariability is developed to improve the precision rate further. Quantitative analyses demonstrate the detecting precision of this proposed approach can be up to 97% and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves further verify our method outperforms other state-of-the-arts methods in both detection rate and false alarm rate.

  4. Altered Development of White Matter in Youth at High Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Amelia; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study white matter (WM) development in youth at high familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD). WM alterations are reported in youth and adults with BD. WM undergoes important maturational changes in adolescence. Age-related changes in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics in healthy…

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based morphometry study in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: relationships with motor disability

    OpenAIRE

    Thivard, Lionel; Pradat, Pierre‐François; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Lacomblez, Lucette; Dormont, Didier; Chiras, Jacques; Benali, Habib; Meininger, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of cortical and subcortical lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using, in combination, voxel based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM). We included 15 patients with definite or probable ALS and 25 healthy volunteers. Patients were assessed using the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R). In patients, reduced fractional anisotropy was found in bilateral corticospinal tra...

  6. Unstable Periodic Orbit Analysis of Histograms of Chaotic Time Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoldi, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Using the Lorenz equations, we have investigated whether unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) associated with a strange attractor may predict the occurrence of the robust sharp peaks in histograms of some experimental chaotic time series. Histograms with sharp peaks occur for the Lorenz parameter value r=60.0 but not for r=28.0 , and the sharp peaks for r=60.0 do not correspond to a histogram derived from any single UPO. However, we show that histograms derived from the time series of a non-Axiom-A chaotic system can be accurately predicted by an escape-time weighting of UPO histograms. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  7. Analysis of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of a normal cervical spinal cord in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang-Feng; Wang, Shou-Sen; Zheng, Zhao-Cong; Tian, Jun; Xue, Liang

    2017-05-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) shows great advantage in the diagnosis of brain diseases, including cervical spinal cord (CSC) disease. This study aims to obtain the normal values of the DTI parameters for a healthy population and to establish a baseline for CSC disease diagnosis using DTI. A total of 36 healthy adults were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the entire CSC using the Siemens 3.0 T MR System. Sagittal DTI acquisition was carried out with a single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence along 12 non-collinear directions. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were determined at different cervical levels using a region of interest (ROI) method, following which they were correlated with parameters, like age and sex. Further, diffusion tensor tracking (DTT) was carried out to reconstruct the white matter fiber bundles of the CSC. The full and complete fiber bundle structure of a normal CSC was confirmed in both the T2-weighted and DTI images. The FA and ADC values were significantly negatively correlated with each other and showed strongly negative and positive correlations with age, respectively, but not with sex. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the FA and the ADC values at different cervical levels. The DTI technique can act as an important supplement to the conventional MRI technique for CSC observation. Moreover, the FA and ADC values can be used as sensitive parameters in the DTI study on the CSC by taking the effects of age into consideration.

  8. Quantification of diffusion tensor imaging in normal white matter maturation of early childhood using an automated processing pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K B; Ramli, N; Tan, L K; Roziah, M; Rahmat, K; Ariffin, H

    2012-07-01

    The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas. Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction. DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued. DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data. Diffusion tensor imaging outperforms conventional MRI in depicting white matter maturation. • DTI will become an important clinical tool for diagnosing paediatric neurological diseases. • DTI appears especially helpful for developmental abnormalities, tumours and white matter disease. • An automated processing pipeline assists quantitative analysis of high throughput DTI data.

  9. Color and neighbor edge directional difference feature for image retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaobing Huang; Shengsheng Yu; Jingli Zhou; Hongwei Lu

    2005-01-01

    @@ A novel image feature termed neighbor edge directional difference unit histogram is proposed, in which the neighbor edge directional difference unit is defined and computed for every pixel in the image, and is used to generate the neighbor edge directional difference unit histogram. This histogram and color histogram are used as feature indexes to retrieve color image. The feature is invariant to image scaling and translation and has more powerful descriptive for the natural color images. Experimental results show that the feature can achieve better retrieval performance than other color-spatial features.

  10. A Tensor Statistical Model for Quantifying Dynamic Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kim, Minjeong; Yan, Jin; Wu, Guorong

    2017-06-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) has been widely investigated in many imaging-based neuroscience and clinical studies. Since functional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) signal is just an indirect reflection of brain activity, it is difficult to accurately quantify the FC strength only based on signal correlation. To address this limitation, we propose a learning-based tensor model to derive high sensitivity and specificity connectome biomarkers at the individual level from resting-state fMRI images. First, we propose a learning-based approach to estimate the intrinsic functional connectivity. In addition to the low level region-to-region signal correlation, latent module-to-module connection is also estimated and used to provide high level heuristics for measuring connectivity strength. Furthermore, sparsity constraint is employed to automatically remove the spurious connections, thus alleviating the issue of searching for optimal threshold. Second, we integrate our learning-based approach with the sliding-window technique to further reveal the dynamics of functional connectivity. Specifically, we stack the functional connectivity matrix within each sliding window and form a 3D tensor where the third dimension denotes for time. Then we obtain dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) for each individual subject by simultaneously estimating the within-sliding-window functional connectivity and characterizing the across-sliding-window temporal dynamics. Third, in order to enhance the robustness of the connectome patterns extracted from dFC, we extend the individual-based 3D tensors to a population-based 4D tensor (with the fourth dimension stands for the training subjects) and learn the statistics of connectome patterns via 4D tensor analysis. Since our 4D tensor model jointly (1) optimizes dFC for each training subject and (2) captures the principle connectome patterns, our statistical model gains more statistical power of representing new subject than current state

  11. The 1/ N Expansion of Tensor Models with Two Symmetric Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurau, Razvan

    2018-06-01

    It is well known that tensor models for a tensor with no symmetry admit a 1/ N expansion dominated by melonic graphs. This result relies crucially on identifying jackets, which are globally defined ribbon graphs embedded in the tensor graph. In contrast, no result of this kind has so far been established for symmetric tensors because global jackets do not exist. In this paper we introduce a new approach to the 1/ N expansion in tensor models adapted to symmetric tensors. In particular we do not use any global structure like the jackets. We prove that, for any rank D, a tensor model with two symmetric tensors and interactions the complete graph K D+1 admits a 1/ N expansion dominated by melonic graphs.

  12. 3D structure tensor analysis of light microscopy data for validating diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Cornea, Anda; Leigland, Lindsey A; Kohama, Steven G; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Kroenke, Christopher D

    2015-05-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (d-MRI) is a powerful non-invasive and non-destructive technique for characterizing brain tissue on the microscopic scale. However, the lack of validation of d-MRI by independent experimental means poses an obstacle to accurate interpretation of data acquired using this method. Recently, structure tensor analysis has been applied to light microscopy images, and this technique holds promise to be a powerful validation strategy for d-MRI. Advantages of this approach include its similarity to d-MRI in terms of averaging the effects of a large number of cellular structures, and its simplicity, which enables it to be implemented in a high-throughput manner. However, a drawback of previous implementations of this technique arises from it being restricted to 2D. As a result, structure tensor analyses have been limited to tissue sectioned in a direction orthogonal to the direction of interest. Here we describe the analytical framework for extending structure tensor analysis to 3D, and utilize the results to analyze serial image "stacks" acquired with confocal microscopy of rhesus macaque hippocampal tissue. Implementation of 3D structure tensor procedures requires removal of sources of anisotropy introduced in tissue preparation and confocal imaging. This is accomplished with image processing steps to mitigate the effects of anisotropic tissue shrinkage, and the effects of anisotropy in the point spread function (PSF). In order to address the latter confound, we describe procedures for measuring the dependence of PSF anisotropy on distance from the microscope objective within tissue. Prior to microscopy, ex vivo d-MRI measurements performed on the hippocampal tissue revealed three regions of tissue with mutually orthogonal directions of least restricted diffusion that correspond to CA1, alveus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. We demonstrate the ability of 3D structure tensor analysis to identify structure tensor orientations that

  13. Histogram analysis derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is more sensitive to reflect serological parameters in myositis than conventional ADC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hans Jonas; Emmer, Alexander; Kornhuber, Malte; Surov, Alexey

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the potential of being able to reflect histopathology architecture. A novel imaging approach, namely histogram analysis, is used to further characterize tissues on MRI. The aim of this study was to correlate histogram parameters derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with serological parameters in myositis. 16 patients with autoimmune myositis were included in this retrospective study. DWI was obtained on a 1.5 T scanner by using the b-values of 0 and 1000 s mm - 2 . Histogram analysis was performed as a whole muscle measurement by using a custom-made Matlab-based application. The following ADC histogram parameters were estimated: ADCmean, ADCmax, ADCmin, ADCmedian, ADCmode, and the following percentiles ADCp10, ADCp25, ADCp75, ADCp90, as well histogram parameters kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. In all patients, the blood sample was acquired within 3 days to the MRI. The following serological parameters were estimated: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and myoglobin. All patients were screened for Jo1-autobodies. Kurtosis correlated inversely with CRP (p = -0.55 and 0.03). Furthermore, ADCp10 and ADCp90 values tended to correlate with creatine kinase (p = -0.43, 0.11, and p = -0.42, = 0.12 respectively). In addition, ADCmean, p10, p25, median, mode, and entropy were different between Jo1-positive and Jo1-negative patients. ADC histogram parameters are sensitive for detection of muscle alterations in myositis patients. Advances in knowledge: This study identified that kurtosis derived from ADC maps is associated with CRP in myositis patients. Furthermore, several ADC histogram parameters are statistically different between Jo1-positive and Jo1-negative patients.

  14. OPERATOR NORM INEQUALITIES BETWEEN TENSOR UNFOLDINGS ON THE PARTITION LATTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaoyan; Duc, Khanh Dao; Fischer, Jonathan; Song, Yun S

    2017-05-01

    Interest in higher-order tensors has recently surged in data-intensive fields, with a wide range of applications including image processing, blind source separation, community detection, and feature extraction. A common paradigm in tensor-related algorithms advocates unfolding (or flattening) the tensor into a matrix and applying classical methods developed for matrices. Despite the popularity of such techniques, how the functional properties of a tensor changes upon unfolding is currently not well understood. In contrast to the body of existing work which has focused almost exclusively on matricizations, we here consider all possible unfoldings of an order- k tensor, which are in one-to-one correspondence with the set of partitions of {1, …, k }. We derive general inequalities between the l p -norms of arbitrary unfoldings defined on the partition lattice. In particular, we demonstrate how the spectral norm ( p = 2) of a tensor is bounded by that of its unfoldings, and obtain an improved upper bound on the ratio of the Frobenius norm to the spectral norm of an arbitrary tensor. For specially-structured tensors satisfying a generalized definition of orthogonal decomposability, we prove that the spectral norm remains invariant under specific subsets of unfolding operations.

  15. White Matter Compromise of Callosal and Subcortical Fiber Tracts in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Lincoln, Alan J.; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly viewed as a disorder of functional networks, highlighting the importance of investigating white matter and interregional connectivity. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter integrity for the whole brain and for corpus callosum, internal capsule, and middle…

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography in clinical neuro sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei, M.; Johansen-Berg, H.; Matthews, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly evolving MR technology has allowed better understanding of structure and function of the human brain. Diffusion weighted MRI was developed two decades ago and it is now well established in diagnosis of acute ischaemia in patients with stroke. Diffusion tensor MRI uses the same principles but takes a step further allowing US to measure magnitude of the diffusion along different directions. This lead to the development of diffusion tensor tractography, a technique by which major neural pathways in the living brain can be visualized. There is a growing interest in exploring possible use of these techniques in clinical neurology and psychiatry. This article aims to review the principles of this technique and recent discoveries which may help US to better understand neurological and psychiatric disorders

  17. The equivalent Histograms in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizarro Trigo, F.; Teijeira Garcia, M.; Zaballos Carrera, S.

    2013-01-01

    Is frequently abused of The tolerances established for organ at risk [1] in diagrams of standard fractionation (2Gy/session, 5 sessions per week) when applied to Dose-Volume histograms non-standard schema. The purpose of this work is to establish when this abuse may be more important and realize a transformation of fractionation non-standard of histograms dosis-volumen. Is exposed a case that can be useful to make clinical decisions. (Author)

  18. Inference of segmented color and texture description by tensor voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2004-06-01

    A robust synthesis method is proposed to automatically infer missing color and texture information from a damaged 2D image by (N)D tensor voting (N > 3). The same approach is generalized to range and 3D data in the presence of occlusion, missing data and noise. Our method translates texture information into an adaptive (N)D tensor, followed by a voting process that infers noniteratively the optimal color values in the (N)D texture space. A two-step method is proposed. First, we perform segmentation based on insufficient geometry, color, and texture information in the input, and extrapolate partitioning boundaries by either 2D or 3D tensor voting to generate a complete segmentation for the input. Missing colors are synthesized using (N)D tensor voting in each segment. Different feature scales in the input are automatically adapted by our tensor scale analysis. Results on a variety of difficult inputs demonstrate the effectiveness of our tensor voting approach.

  19. Value-at-risk estimation with fuzzy histograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, R.J.; Kaymak, U.

    2008-01-01

    Value at risk (VaR) is a measure for senior management that summarises the financial risk a company faces into one single number. In this paper, we consider the use of fuzzy histograms for quantifying the value-at-risk of a portfolio. It is shown that the use of fuzzy histograms provides a good

  20. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Schaefer, Anja; Dietzel, Matthias; Kaiser, Werner A.; Graessel, David; Gajda, Mieczyslaw; Camara, Oumar

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging has shown diagnostic value for differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) adds information about tissue microstructure by addressing diffusion direction. We have examined the diagnostic application of DTI of the breast. A total of 59 patients (71 lesions: 54 malignant, 17 benign) successfully underwent prospective echo planar imaging-DTI (EPI-DTI) (1.5 T). First, diffusion direction both of parenchyma as well as lesions was assessed on parametric maps. Subsequently, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured. Statistics included univariate (Mann-Whitney U test, receiver operating analysis) and multivariate (logistic regression analysis, LRA) tests. Main diffusion direction of parenchyma was anterior-posterior in the majority of cases (66.1%), whereas lesions (benign, malignant) showed no predominant diffusion direction in the majority of cases (23.9%). ADC values showed highest differences between benign and malignant lesions (P < 0.001) with resulting area under the curve (AUC) of 0.899. FA values were lower in benign (interquartile range, IR, 0.14-0.24) compared to malignant lesions (IR 0.21-0.35, P < 0.002) with an AUC of 0.751-0.770. Following LRA, FA did not prove to have incremental value for differential diagnosis over ADC values. Microanatomical differences between benign and malignant breast lesions as well as breast parenchyma can be visualized by using DTI. (orig.)

  1. Migration transformation of two-dimensional magnetic vector and tensor fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu; Wilson, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new method of rapid interpretation of magnetic vector and tensor field data, based on ideas of potential field migration which extends the general principles of seismic and electromagnetic migration to potential fields. 2-D potential field migration represents a direct integral...... to the downward continuation of a well-behaved analytical function. We present case studies for imaging of SQUID-based magnetic tensor data acquired over a magnetite skarn at Tallawang, Australia. The results obtained from magnetic tensor field migration agree very well with both Euler deconvolution and the known...

  2. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  3. An efficient method for tensor voting using steerable filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, E.M.; Almsick, van M.A.; Rongen, P.M.J.; Florack, L.M.J.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Leonardis, A.; Bischof, H; Pinz, A.

    2006-01-01

    In many image analysis applications there is a need to extract curves in noisy images. To achieve a more robust extraction, one can exploit correlations of oriented features over a spatial context in the image. Tensor voting is an existing technique to extract features in this way. In this paper, we

  4. Brain diffusion tensor MRI in systematic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costallat, Beatriz Lavras; Ferreira, Daniel Miranda; Lapa, Aline Tamires; Rittner, Letícia; Costallat, Lilian Tereza Lavras; Appenzeller, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) maps the brain's microstructure by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). This systematic review describes brain diffusion tensor Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).The literature was reviewed following the PRISMA guidelines and using the terms "lupus", "systemic lupus erythematosus", "SLE", "diffusion tensor imaging", "DTI", "white matter" (WM), "microstructural damage", "tractography", and "fractional anisotropy"; the search included articles published in English from January 2007 to April 2017. The subjects included in the study were selected according to the ACR criteria and included 195 SLE patients with neuropsychiatric manifestation (NPSLE), 299 without neuropsychiatric manifestation (non-NPSLE), and 423 healthy controls (HC). Most studies identified significantly reduced FA and increased MD values in several WM regions of both NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients compared to HC. Subclinical microstructural changes were observed in either regional areas or the entire brain in both the non-NPSLE and NPSLE groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of time-of-day on diffusivity measures of brain tissue derived from diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cibu; Sadeghi, Neda; Nayak, Amrita; Trefler, Aaron; Sarlls, Joelle; Baker, Chris I; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2018-06-01

    Diurnal fluctuations in MRI measures of structural and functional properties of the brain have been reported recently. These fluctuations may have a physiological origin, since they have been detected using different MRI modalities, and cannot be explained by factors that are typically known to confound MRI measures. While preliminary evidence suggests that measures of structural properties of the brain based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fluctuate as a function of time-of-day (TOD), the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Here, we used a longitudinal within-subjects design to investigate the impact of time-of-day on DTI measures. In addition to using the conventional monoexponential tensor model to assess TOD-related fluctuations, we used a dual compartment tensor model that allowed us to directly assess if any change in DTI measures is due to an increase in CSF/free-water volume fraction or due to an increase in water diffusivity within the parenchyma. Our results show that Trace or mean diffusivity, as measured using the conventional monoexponential tensor model tends to increase systematically from morning to afternoon scans at the interface of grey matter/CSF, most prominently in the major fissures and the sulci of the brain. Interestingly, in a recent study of the glymphatic system, these same regions were found to show late enhancement after intrathecal injection of a CSF contrast agent. The increase in Trace also impacts DTI measures of diffusivity such as radial and axial diffusivity, but does not affect fractional anisotropy. The dual compartment analysis revealed that the increase in diffusivity measures from PM to AM was driven by an increase in the volume fraction of CSF-like free-water. Taken together, our findings provide important insight into the likely physiological origins of diurnal fluctuations in MRI measurements of structural properties of the brain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Predicting pathologic tumor response to chemoradiotherapy with histogram distances characterizing longitudinal changes in 18F-FDG uptake patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shan; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Yongxue; Chen, Wengen; D’Souza, Warren D.; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A family of fluorine-18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) features based on histogram distances is proposed for predicting pathologic tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). These features describe the longitudinal change of FDG uptake distribution within a tumor. Methods: Twenty patients with esophageal cancer treated with CRT plus surgery were included in this study. All patients underwent PET/CT scans before (pre-) and after (post-) CRT. The two scans were first rigidly registered, and the original tumor sites were then manually delineated on the pre-PET/CT by an experienced nuclear medicine physician. Two histograms representing the FDG uptake distribution were extracted from the pre- and the registered post-PET images, respectively, both within the delineated tumor. Distances between the two histograms quantify longitudinal changes in FDG uptake distribution resulting from CRT, and thus are potential predictors of tumor response. A total of 19 histogram distances were examined and compared to both traditional PET response measures and Haralick texture features. Receiver operating characteristic analyses and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to assess their predictive ability. Results: Among all tested histogram distances, seven bin-to-bin and seven crossbin distances outperformed traditional PET response measures using maximum standardized uptake value (AUC = 0.70) or total lesion glycolysis (AUC = 0.80). The seven bin-to-bin distances were: L2 distance (AUC = 0.84), χ2 distance (AUC = 0.83), intersection distance (AUC = 0.82), cosine distance (AUC = 0.83), squared Euclidean distance (AUC = 0.83), L1 distance (AUC = 0.82), and Jeffrey distance (AUC = 0.82). The seven crossbin distances were: quadratic-chi distance (AUC = 0.89), earth mover distance (AUC = 0.86), fast earth mover distance (AUC = 0.86), diffusion distance (AUC = 0.88), Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance (AUC = 0.88), quadratic form distance

  7. A Whole-Tumor Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Maps for Differentiating Thymic Carcinoma from Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Xiao-Quan; Kong, Ling-Yan; Xu, Hai; Yu, Tong-Fu; Shi, Hai-Bin; Feng, Qing

    2018-01-01

    To assess the performance of a whole-tumor histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in differentiating thymic carcinoma from lymphoma, and compare it with that of a commonly used hot-spot region-of-interest (ROI)-based ADC measurement. Diffusion weighted imaging data of 15 patients with thymic carcinoma and 13 patients with lymphoma were retrospectively collected and processed with a mono-exponential model. ADC measurements were performed by using a histogram-based and hot-spot-ROI-based approach. In the histogram-based approach, the following parameters were generated: mean ADC (ADC mean ), median ADC (ADC median ), 10th and 90th percentile of ADC (ADC 10 and ADC 90 ), kurtosis, and skewness. The difference in ADCs between thymic carcinoma and lymphoma was compared using a t test. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to determine and compare the differentiating performance of ADCs. Lymphoma demonstrated significantly lower ADC mean , ADC median , ADC 10 , ADC 90 , and hot-spot-ROI-based mean ADC than those found in thymic carcinoma (all p values histogram analysis of ADC maps can improve the differentiating performance between thymic carcinoma and lymphoma.

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging of brain white matter in Huntington gene mutation individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Arb Saba

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the role of the involvement of white matter tracts in huntingtin gene mutation patients as a potential biomarker of the progression of the disease. Methods We evaluated 34 participants (11 symptomatic huntingtin gene mutation, 12 presymptomatic huntingtin gene mutation, and 11 controls. We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging, with measurement of fractional anisotropy. Results We observed a significant decrease of fractional anisotropy in the cortical spinal tracts, corona radiate, corpus callosum, external capsule, thalamic radiations, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus in the Huntington disease group compared to the control and presymptomatic groups. Reduction of fractional anisotropy is indicative of a degenerative process and axonal loss. There was no statistically significant difference between the presymptomatic and control groups. Conclusion White matter integrity is affected in huntingtin gene mutation symptomatic individuals, but other studies with larger samples are required to assess its usefulness in the progression of the neurodegenerative process.

  9. Determination of mouse skeletal muscle architecture using three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Anneriet M; Strijkers, Gustav J; Vilanova, Anna; Drost, Maarten R; Nicolay, Klaas

    2005-06-01

    Muscle architecture is the main determinant of the mechanical behavior of skeletal muscles. This study explored the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking to noninvasively determine the in vivo three-dimensional (3D) architecture of skeletal muscle in mouse hind leg. In six mice, the hindlimb was imaged with a diffusion-weighted (DW) 3D fast spin-echo (FSE) sequence followed by the acquisition of an exercise-induced, T(2)-enhanced data set. The data showed the expected fiber organization, from which the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), fiber length, and pennation angle for the tibialis anterior (TA) were obtained. The values of these parameters ranged from 5.4-9.1 mm(2), 5.8-7.8 mm, and 21-24 degrees , respectively, which is in agreement with values obtained previously with the use of invasive methods. This study shows that 3D DT acquisition and fiber tracking is feasible for the skeletal muscle of mice, and thus enables the quantitative determination of muscle architecture.

  10. LOW AND MEAN RADIATION DOSES IMPACT ON THE CEREBRAL TRACTS STRUCTURE OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT LIQUIDATORS IN THE REMOTE PERIOD (BASED ON ROUTINE AND DIFFUSION-TENSOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Levashkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate correlation between brain structural damages and radiation exposure level for the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators, routine and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging methods are efficient to visualize and evaluate those damages; it is also important to compare magnetic resonance imaging data of liquidators with results, received for people of the same age and the same stage of cerebral vascular disease (the discirculatory encephalopathy of I and II stage, but who did not participate in the Chernobyl accident liquidation and did not suffer from other liquidation factors and radiation catastrophe aftermaths. As a result, the Chernobyl accident liquidators group (49 subjects and group of control (50 subjects were examined with routine magnetic resonance imaging methods and standard protocols. In addition, the innovative method of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging was applied to examine 11 cerebral tracts, bilaterally (22 tracts in both hemispheres for every subject of the research. It was for the first time when diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging was applied to conduct visual analysis of polymorphic brain changes for the Chernobyl accident liquidators and special research conducted to find correlation between fractional anisotropy coefficient and radiation exposure for these patients. The results of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging indicated no statistically significant (p > 0,05 difference in the level of cerebral morphological changes and between average fraction anisotropy coefficient value in any cerebral tract for both sub-groups of liquidators with different level of irradiation: 28 subjects, who were exposed by low and very low radiation doses (0–100 micro-Sv, sub-group A and 21 subjects, who were exposed by mean radiation doses (100–1000 micro-Sv, sub-group B. However, comparing diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging results of control group and liquidators group

  11. Neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus revealed by cortical thickness analysis and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldhafeeri, Faten M [The University of Liverpool, Department of Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); King Khalid General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Radiology Department, Hafral-batin (Saudi Arabia); Mackenzie, Ian; Kay, Tony [Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Alghamdi, Jamaan [The University of Liverpool, Department of Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); King Abdul Aziz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Sluming, Vanessa [The University of Liverpool, Department of Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Tinnitus is a poorly understood auditory perception of sound in the absence of external stimuli. Convergent evidence proposes that tinnitus perception involves brain structural alterations as part of its pathophysiology. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural brain changes that might be associated with tinnitus-related stress and negative emotions. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated grey matter and white matter (WM) alterations by estimating cortical thickness measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in 14 tinnitus subjects and 14 age- and sex-matched non-tinnitus subjects. Significant cortical thickness reductions were found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), temporal lobe and limbic system in tinnitus subjects compared to non-tinnitus subjects. Tinnitus sufferers were found to have disrupted WM integrity in tracts involving connectivity of the PFC, temporal lobe, thalamus and limbic system. Our results suggest that such neural changes may represent neural origins for tinnitus or consequences of tinnitus and its associations. (orig.)

  12. Neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus revealed by cortical thickness analysis and diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldhafeeri, Faten M.; Mackenzie, Ian; Kay, Tony; Alghamdi, Jamaan; Sluming, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus is a poorly understood auditory perception of sound in the absence of external stimuli. Convergent evidence proposes that tinnitus perception involves brain structural alterations as part of its pathophysiology. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural brain changes that might be associated with tinnitus-related stress and negative emotions. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated grey matter and white matter (WM) alterations by estimating cortical thickness measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in 14 tinnitus subjects and 14 age- and sex-matched non-tinnitus subjects. Significant cortical thickness reductions were found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), temporal lobe and limbic system in tinnitus subjects compared to non-tinnitus subjects. Tinnitus sufferers were found to have disrupted WM integrity in tracts involving connectivity of the PFC, temporal lobe, thalamus and limbic system. Our results suggest that such neural changes may represent neural origins for tinnitus or consequences of tinnitus and its associations. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of mean rotation and strain-rate tensors by using stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Oktay; Meyer, Knud Erik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2005-01-01

    A technique is described for measuring the mean velocity gradient (rate-of-displacement) tensor by using a conventional stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) system. Planar measurement of the mean vorticity vector, rate-of-rotation and rate-of-strain tensors and the production of turbule...

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging--arcuate fasciculus and the importance for the neurosurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hana, Ardian; Dooms, Georges; Boecher-Schwarz, Hans; Hertel, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Tumors in eloquent areas of the brain like Broca or Wernicke might have disastrous consequences for patients. We intended to visualize the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and to demonstrate his relation with the corticospinal tract and the visual pathway using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We depicted between 2012 and 2014 the AF in 71 patients. Men and women of all ages were included. Eleven patients had postoperative controls also. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI-sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 × 200 mm(2), slice thickness 2mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 × 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 × 2 × 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI) and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-Value was 800 s/mm(2). Additional scanning time was less than 9 min. AF was portrayed in 63 patients bilaterally. In one glioblastoma patient it was impossible to visualize the left AF and in seven other patients we could not portray the right one. The lesions affected AF by disrupting or displacing the fibers. DTI might be a useful tool to portray AF. It is time-saving and can be used to preserve morbidity in patients with lesions in eloquent brain areas. It might give deeper insights of the white matter and the reorganization of AF-fibers postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging in schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin-Romero, Ramón; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Kumfor, Fiona; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Madre, Mercè; Maristany, Teresa; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L

    2017-01-01

    The profile of grey matter abnormalities and related white-matter pathology in schizoaffective disorder has only been studied to a limited extent. The aim of this study was to identify grey- and white-matter abnormalities in patients with schizoaffective disorder using complementary structural imaging techniques. Forty-five patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria and Research Diagnostic Criteria for schizoaffective disorder and 45 matched healthy controls underwent structural-T1 and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to enable surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses. Analyses were conducted to determine group differences in cortical volume, cortical thickness and surface area, as well as in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. At a threshold of p = 0.05 corrected, all measures revealed significant differences between patients and controls at the group level. Spatial overlap of abnormalities was observed across the various structural neuroimaging measures. In grey matter, patients with schizoaffective disorder showed abnormalities in the frontal and temporal lobes, striatum, fusiform, cuneus, precuneus, lingual and limbic regions. White-matter abnormalities were identified in tracts connecting these areas, including the corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle. The spatial overlap of abnormalities across the different imaging techniques suggests widespread and consistent brain pathology in schizoaffective disorder. The abnormalities were mainly detected in areas that have commonly been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia, and to some extent in bipolar disorder, which may explain the clinical and aetiological overlap in these disorders.

  16. A preliminary diffusional kurtosis imaging study of Parkinson disease: comparison with conventional diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamagata, Koji; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Yoshida, Mariko; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Taku; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Osamu [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Shimoji, Keigo [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a more sensitive technique than conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessing tissue microstructure. In particular, it quantifies the microstructural integrity of white matter, even in the presence of crossing fibers. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare how DKI and DTI show white matter alterations in Parkinson disease (PD). DKI scans were obtained with a 3-T magnetic resonance imager from 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy controls matched by age and sex. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to compare the mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps of the PD patient group and the control group. In addition, a region-of-interest analysis was performed for the area of the posterior corona radiata and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber crossing. FA values in the frontal white matter were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls. Reductions in MK occurred more extensively throughout the brain: in addition to frontal white matter, MK was lower in the parietal, occipital, and right temporal white matter. The MK value of the area of the posterior corona radiata and SLF fiber crossing was also lower in the PD group. DKI detects changes in the cerebral white matter of PD patients more sensitively than conventional DTI. In addition, DKI is useful for evaluating crossing fibers. By providing a sensitive index of brain pathology in PD, DKI may enable improved monitoring of disease progression. (orig.)

  17. Spline smoothing of histograms by linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    An algorithm for an approximating function to the frequency distribution is obtained from a sample of size n. To obtain the approximating function a histogram is made from the data. Next, Euclidean space approximations to the graph of the histogram using central B-splines as basis elements are obtained by linear programming. The approximating function has area one and is nonnegative.

  18. Correlation of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient with uterine cervical pathologic finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuning; Li, Hui; Chen, Ziqian; Ni, Ping; Zhong, Qun; Huang, Huijuan; Sandrasegaran, Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in characterizing pathologic features of cervical cancer and benign cervical lesions. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Seventy-three patients with cervical cancer (33-69 years old; 35 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB cervical cancer) and 38 patients (38-61 years old) with normal cervix or cervical benign lesions (control group) were enrolled. All patients underwent 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm(2). ADC values of the entire tumor in the patient group and the whole cervix volume in the control group were assessed. Mean ADC, median ADC, 25th and 75th percentiles of ADC, skewness, and kurtosis were calculated. Histogram parameters were compared between different pathologic features, as well as between stage IB cervical cancer and control groups. Mean ADC, median ADC, and 25th percentile of ADC were significantly higher for adenocarcinoma (p = 0.021, 0.006, and 0.004, respectively), and skewness was significantly higher for squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.011). Median ADC was statistically significantly higher for well or moderately differentiated tumors (p = 0.044), and skewness was statistically significantly higher for poorly differentiated tumors (p = 0.004). No statistically significant difference of ADC histogram was observed between lymphovascular space invasion subgroups. All histogram parameters differed significantly between stage IB cervical cancer and control groups (p histogram analysis may help to distinguish early-stage cervical cancer from normal cervix or cervical benign lesions and may be useful for evaluating the different pathologic features of cervical cancer.

  19. Introducing the Jacobian-volume-histogram of deforming organs: application to parotid shrinkage evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Calandrino, Riccardo; Liberini, Simone; Faggiano, Elena; Rizzo, Giovanna; Dell'Oca, Italo; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The Jacobian of the deformation field of elastic registration between images taken during radiotherapy is a measure of inter-fraction local deformation. The histogram of the Jacobian values (Jac) within an organ was introduced (JVH-Jacobian-volume-histogram) and first applied in quantifying parotid shrinkage. MVCTs of 32 patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy for head-neck cancers were collected. Parotid deformation was evaluated through elastic registration between MVCTs taken at the first and last fractions. Jac was calculated for each voxel of all parotids, and integral JVHs were calculated for each parotid; the correlation between the JVH and the planning dose-volume histogram (DVH) was investigated. On average, 82% (±17%) of the voxels shrinks (Jac 50% (Jac < 0.5). The best correlation between the DVH and the JVH was found between V10 and V15, and Jac < 0.4-0.6 (p < 0.01). The best constraint predicting a higher number of largely compressing voxels (Jac0.5<7.5%, median value) was V15 ≥ 75% (OR: 7.6, p = 0.002). Jac and the JVH are promising tools for scoring/modelling toxicity and for evaluating organ/contour variations with potential applications in adaptive radiotherapy.

  20. COMPARISON OF IMAGE ENHANCEMENT METHODS FOR CHROMOSOME KARYOTYPE IMAGE ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Made Sri Arsa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The chromosome is a set of DNA structure that carry information about our life. The information can be obtained through Karyotyping. The process requires a clear image so the chromosome can be evaluate well. Preprocessing have to be done on chromosome images that is image enhancement. The process starts with image background removing. The image will be cleaned background color. The next step is image enhancement. This paper compares several methods for image enhancement. We evaluate some method in image enhancement like Histogram Equalization (HE, Contrast-limiting Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE, Histogram Equalization with 3D Block Matching (HE+BM3D, and basic image enhancement, unsharp masking. We examine and discuss the best method for enhancing chromosome image. Therefore, to evaluate the methods, the original image was manipulated by the addition of some noise and blur. Peak Signal-to-noise Ratio (PSNR and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM are used to examine method performance. The output of enhancement method will be compared with result of Professional software for karyotyping analysis named Ikaros MetasystemT M . Based on experimental results, HE+BM3D method gets a stable result on both scenario noised and blur image.

  1. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  2. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Pedro Cunha; Franco,Marcelo Lemos Nunes; Thomaz,Ricardo de Lima; Patrocinio,Ana Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammo...

  3. Color and Contrast Enhancement by Controlled Piecewise Affine Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis Lisani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (HE. The proposed algorithm performs a piecewise affine transform of the intensity levels of a digital image such that the new cumulative distribution function will be approximately uniform (as with HE, but where the stretching of the range is locally controlled to avoid brutal noise enhancement. We call this algorithm Piecewise Affine Equalization (PAE. Several experiments show that, in general, the new algorithm improves HE results.

  4. Multiple histogram method and static Monte Carlo sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inda, M.A.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an approach to use multiple-histogram methods in combination with static, biased Monte Carlo simulations. To illustrate this, we computed the force-extension curve of an athermal polymer from multiple histograms constructed in a series of static Rosenbluth Monte Carlo simulations. From

  5. TOP-DRAWER, Histograms, Scatterplots, Curve-Smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaffee, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Description of program or function: TOP DRAWER produces histograms, scatterplots, data points with error bars and plots symbols, and curves passing through data points, with elaborate titles. It also does smoothing and calculates frequency distributions. There is little facility, however, for arithmetic manipulation. Because of its restricted applicability, TOP DRAWER can be controlled by a relatively simple set of commands, and this control is further simplified by the choice of reasonable default values for all parameters. Despite this emphasis on simplicity, TOP DRAWER plots are of exceptional quality and are suitable for publication. Input is normally from card-image records, although a set of subroutines is provided to accommodate FORTRAN calls. The program contains switches which can be set to generate code suitable for execution on IBM, DECX VAX, and PRIME computers

  6. Utility of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient maps obtained using 3.0T MRI for distinguishing uterine carcinosarcoma from endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Kozawa, Eito; Tanisaka, Megumi; Hasegawa, Kousei; Yasuda, Masanori; Sakai, Fumikazu

    2016-06-01

    We explored the role of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for discriminating uterine carcinosarcoma and endometrial carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated findings in 13 patients with uterine carcinosarcoma and 50 patients with endometrial carcinoma who underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (b = 0, 500, 1000 s/mm(2) ) at 3T with acquisition of corresponding ADC maps. We derived histogram data from regions of interest drawn on all slices of the ADC maps in which tumor was visualized, excluding areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in the tumor. We used the Mann-Whitney test to evaluate the capacity of histogram parameters (mean ADC value, 5th to 95th percentiles, skewness, kurtosis) to discriminate uterine carcinosarcoma and endometrial carcinoma and analyzed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the optimum threshold value for each parameter and its corresponding sensitivity and specificity. Carcinosarcomas demonstrated significantly higher mean vales of ADC, 95th, 90th, 75th, 50th, 25th percentiles and kurtosis than endometrial carcinomas (P Histogram analysis of ADC maps might be helpful for discriminating uterine carcinosarcomas and endometrial carcinomas. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1301-1307. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. AHIMSA - Ad hoc histogram information measure sensing algorithm for feature selection in the context of histogram inspired clustering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasarathy, B. V.

    1976-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for dimensionality reduction in the context of clustering techniques based on histogram analysis. The approach is based on an evaluation of the hills and valleys in the unidimensional histograms along the different features and provides an economical means of assessing the significance of the features in a nonparametric unsupervised data environment. The method has relevance to remote sensing applications.

  8. Multi-site study of diffusion metric variability: effects of site, vendor, field strength, and echo time on regions-of-interest and histogram-bin analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, K G; Chou, M-C; Preciado, R I; Gimi, B; Rollins, N K; Song, A; Turner, J; Mori, S

    2016-02-27

    It is now common for magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) based multi-site trials to include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of the protocol. It is also common for these sites to possess MR scanners of different manufacturers, different software and hardware, and different software licenses. These differences mean that scanners may not be able to acquire data with the same number of gradient amplitude values and number of available gradient directions. Variability can also occur in achievable b-values and minimum echo times. The challenge of a multi-site study then, is to create a common protocol by understanding and then minimizing the effects of scanner variability and identifying reliable and accurate diffusion metrics. This study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two diffusion metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA) using two common analyses (region-of-interest and mean-bin value of whole brain histograms). The goal of the study was to identify sources of variability in diffusion-sensitized imaging and their influence on commonly reported metrics. The results demonstrate that the site, vendor, field strength, and echo time all contribute to variability in FA and MD, though to different extent. We conclude that characterization of the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time is a worthwhile step in the construction of multi-center trials.

  9. The energy–momentum tensor(s in classical gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Blaschke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy–momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space–time. For the canonical energy–momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy–momentum tensor. The relationship with the Einstein–Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.

  10. Face recognition algorithm using extended vector quantization histogram features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Lee, Feifei; Wu, Xueqian; Chen, Qiu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a face recognition algorithm based on a combination of vector quantization (VQ) and Markov stationary features (MSF). The VQ algorithm has been shown to be an effective method for generating features; it extracts a codevector histogram as a facial feature representation for face recognition. Still, the VQ histogram features are unable to convey spatial structural information, which to some extent limits their usefulness in discrimination. To alleviate this limitation of VQ histograms, we utilize Markov stationary features (MSF) to extend the VQ histogram-based features so as to add spatial structural information. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm by achieving recognition results superior to those of several state-of-the-art methods on publicly available face databases.

  11. New MRI Markers for Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging and a Comparison with Medial Temporal Lobe Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerx, L.; Visser, P.J.; Verhey, F.; Aalten, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison to widely accepted medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy measurements. A systematic literature research was performed into DTI and MTL atrophy in AD and

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging of the spinal cord: a review Imagen de difusión tensora de la médula espinal: una revisión Imagem da medula espinal por tensor de difusão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Vedantam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a magnetic resonance technique capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of water molecule diffusion in various tissues. The use of DTI is being expanded to evaluate a variety of spinal cord disorders both for prognostication and to guide therapy. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on spinal cord DTI in both animal models and humans in different neurosurgical conditions. DTI of the spinal cord shows promise in traumatic spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and intramedullary tumors. However, scanning protocols and image processing need to be refined and standardized.La técnica de imagen por difusión tensora (DTI, Diffusion tensor imaging es una técnica de resonancia magnética que mide la magnitud y dirección de la difusión de moléculas de agua en varios tejidos. El uso de DTI se ha expandido para evaluar una variedad de disturbios de la columna vertebral tanto para pronóstico como para orientación de la terapia. La finalidad de este artículo es revisar la literatura sobre DTI de la médula espinal tanto en modelos animales como en humanos en diferentes condiciones neuroquirúrgicas. La DTI de la médula espinal se muestra promisora en las lesiones traumáticas de la médula, en la mielopatía espondilótica cervical y en los tumores intramedulares. Sin embargo, los protocolos de barrido y el procesamiento de imágenes necesitan ser refinados y estandarizados.O exame por imagem de ressonância magnética utilizando a técnica de tensores de difusão (DTI, Diffusion tensor imaging consegue medir a magnitude e direção da difusão de moléculas de água em vários tecidos. A DTI está começando a ser usada para avaliar uma série de patologias da medula espinal, tanto para prognósticos como para orientar o tratamento. O presente artigo revisa a literatura sobre DTI da medula espinhal, em modelos animais e humanos, em diferentes condições neurocirúrgicas. A

  13. MULTISCALE TENSOR ANISOTROPIC FILTERING OF FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY FOR DENOISING MICROVASCULATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, V B S; Pelapur, R; Glinskii, O V; Glinsky, V V; Huxley, V H; Palaniappan, K

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence microscopy images are contaminated by noise and improving image quality without blurring vascular structures by filtering is an important step in automatic image analysis. The application of interest here is to automatically extract the structural components of the microvascular system with accuracy from images acquired by fluorescence microscopy. A robust denoising process is necessary in order to extract accurate vascular morphology information. For this purpose, we propose a multiscale tensor with anisotropic diffusion model which progressively and adaptively updates the amount of smoothing while preserving vessel boundaries accurately. Based on a coherency enhancing flow with planar confidence measure and fused 3D structure information, our method integrates multiple scales for microvasculature preservation and noise removal membrane structures. Experimental results on simulated synthetic images and epifluorescence images show the advantage of our improvement over other related diffusion filters. We further show that the proposed multiscale integration approach improves denoising accuracy of different tensor diffusion methods to obtain better microvasculature segmentation.

  14. Machine assisted histogram classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, B.; Gaspar, C.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments under completion at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Monitoring the quality of the acquired data is important, because it allows the verification of the detector performance. Anomalies, such as missing values or unexpected distributions can be indicators of a malfunctioning detector, resulting in poor data quality. Spotting faulty or ageing components can be either done visually using instruments, such as the LHCb Histogram Presenter, or with the help of automated tools. In order to assist detector experts in handling the vast monitoring information resulting from the sheer size of the detector, we propose a graph based clustering tool combined with machine learning algorithm and demonstrate its use by processing histograms representing 2D hitmaps events. We prove the concept by detecting ion feedback events in the LHCb experiment's RICH subdetector.

  15. Machine assisted histogram classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyo, B; Somogyi, P [BME-IIT, H-1117 Budapest, Magyar tudosok koerutja 2. (Hungary); Gaspar, C, E-mail: Peter.Somogyi@cern.c [CERN-PH, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments under completion at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Monitoring the quality of the acquired data is important, because it allows the verification of the detector performance. Anomalies, such as missing values or unexpected distributions can be indicators of a malfunctioning detector, resulting in poor data quality. Spotting faulty or ageing components can be either done visually using instruments, such as the LHCb Histogram Presenter, or with the help of automated tools. In order to assist detector experts in handling the vast monitoring information resulting from the sheer size of the detector, we propose a graph based clustering tool combined with machine learning algorithm and demonstrate its use by processing histograms representing 2D hitmaps events. We prove the concept by detecting ion feedback events in the LHCb experiment's RICH subdetector.

  16. Long-term effects of radiation therapy on white matter of the corpus callosum: a diffusion tensor imaging study in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makola, Monwabisi [University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Douglas Ris, M. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Mahone, E.M. [Kennedy Krieger Institute, Department of Neuropsychology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yeates, Keith Owen [University of Calgary, Department of Psychology, Alberta Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, AB (Canada); Cecil, Kim M. [Imaging Research Center, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Neuroscience Graduate Program, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Despite improving survival rates, children are at risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral difficulties following the diagnosis and treatment of a brain tumor. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy have all been shown to impact the developing brain, especially the white matter. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of radiation therapy on white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, in pediatric brain tumor patients 2 years after the end of radiation treatment, while controlling for surgical interventions. We evaluated diffusion tensor imaging performed at two time points: a baseline 3 to 12 months after surgery and a follow-up approximately 2 years later in pediatric brain tumor patients. A region of interest analysis was performed within three regions of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor metrics were determined for participants (n=22) who underwent surgical tumor resection and radiation therapy and demographically matched with participants (n=22) who received surgical tumor resection only. Analysis revealed that 2 years after treatment, the radiation treated group exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy and significantly higher radial diffusivity within the body of the corpus callosum compared to the group that did not receive radiation. The findings indicate that pediatric brain tumor patients treated with radiation therapy may be at greater risk of experiencing long-term damage to the body of the corpus callosum than those treated with surgery alone. (orig.)

  17. Long-term effects of radiation therapy on white matter of the corpus callosum: a diffusion tensor imaging study in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makola, Monwabisi; Douglas Ris, M.; Mahone, E.M.; Yeates, Keith Owen; Cecil, Kim M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite improving survival rates, children are at risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral difficulties following the diagnosis and treatment of a brain tumor. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy have all been shown to impact the developing brain, especially the white matter. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of radiation therapy on white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, in pediatric brain tumor patients 2 years after the end of radiation treatment, while controlling for surgical interventions. We evaluated diffusion tensor imaging performed at two time points: a baseline 3 to 12 months after surgery and a follow-up approximately 2 years later in pediatric brain tumor patients. A region of interest analysis was performed within three regions of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor metrics were determined for participants (n=22) who underwent surgical tumor resection and radiation therapy and demographically matched with participants (n=22) who received surgical tumor resection only. Analysis revealed that 2 years after treatment, the radiation treated group exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy and significantly higher radial diffusivity within the body of the corpus callosum compared to the group that did not receive radiation. The findings indicate that pediatric brain tumor patients treated with radiation therapy may be at greater risk of experiencing long-term damage to the body of the corpus callosum than those treated with surgery alone. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging for hand and foot fibers location at the corona radiata: comparison with two lesion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon eLee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The corticospinal tract is the motor pathway in the human brain, and corona radiata is an important location to diagnose stroke. We detected hand and foot motor fiber tracts in the corona radiata to investigate accurate locations using diffusion tensor imaging and functional imaging. Ten right-handed normal volunteers participated in this study. We used a probabilistic tracking algorithm, a brain normalization method, and functional imaging results to set out ROIs. Moreover, our results were compared to previous results of lesion studies to confirm their accuracy and usefulness. The location measurements were performed in two index types; anteriority index on the basis of the anterior and posterior location of lateral ventricle, laterality index on the basis of the left and right location. The anteriority indices were 56.40/43.2 (hand/foot at the upper CR and lower CR 40.72/30.90 at the lower CR. The measurements of anteriority and laterality of motor fibers were represented as anteriority index 0.40/0.31 and laterality index 0.60/0.47 (hand/foot. Our results showed that the hand and foot fibers were in good agreements with previous lesion studies. This study and approaches can be used as a standard for diffusion tensor image combined with lesion location studies in patients who need rehabilitation or follow up.

  19. Parameterization of the Age-Dependent Whole Brain Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Marion; Nägele, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The distribution of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the brain can be used to characterize age effects and pathological changes of the brain tissue. The aim of this study was the parameterization of the whole brain ADC histogram by an advanced model with influence of age considered. Methods. Whole brain ADC histograms were calculated for all data and for seven age groups between 10 and 80 years. Modeling of the histograms was performed for two parts of the histogram separately: the brain tissue part was modeled by two Gaussian curves, while the remaining part was fitted by the sum of a Gaussian curve, a biexponential decay, and a straight line. Results. A consistent fitting of the histograms of all age groups was possible with the proposed model. Conclusions. This study confirms the strong dependence of the whole brain ADC histograms on the age of the examined subjects. The proposed model can be used to characterize changes of the whole brain ADC histogram in certain diseases under consideration of age effects. PMID:26609526

  20. Parameterization of the Age-Dependent Whole Brain Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Klose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The distribution of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values in the brain can be used to characterize age effects and pathological changes of the brain tissue. The aim of this study was the parameterization of the whole brain ADC histogram by an advanced model with influence of age considered. Methods. Whole brain ADC histograms were calculated for all data and for seven age groups between 10 and 80 years. Modeling of the histograms was performed for two parts of the histogram separately: the brain tissue part was modeled by two Gaussian curves, while the remaining part was fitted by the sum of a Gaussian curve, a biexponential decay, and a straight line. Results. A consistent fitting of the histograms of all age groups was possible with the proposed model. Conclusions. This study confirms the strong dependence of the whole brain ADC histograms on the age of the examined subjects. The proposed model can be used to characterize changes of the whole brain ADC histogram in certain diseases under consideration of age effects.

  1. The tensor distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, A D; Zhu, S; Zhan, L; McMahon, K; de Zubicaray, G I; Meredith, M; Wright, M J; Toga, A W; Thompson, P M

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitized gradients along a minimum of six directions, second-order