WorldWideScience

Sample records for tense situation forcing

  1. A Tense Situation: Forcing Tumour Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    the lysyl oxidases (LOX) and the lysyl hydroxylases catalyse covalent intermolecular crosslinks between collagens and with elastin. LOX-mediated... lysyl oxidases in cancer — a prospect. J Cell Biochem 2007;101:1338–1354. [PubMed: 17471532] 34. Sivakumar P, Gupta S, Sarkar S, Sen S. Upregulation...of lysyl oxidase and MMPs during cardiac remodeling in human dilated cardiomyopathy. Mol Cell Biochem 2008;307:159–167. [PubMed: 17849172] 35. Avery NC

  2. Tense, Aspect and Cognitive Representation of Time,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    grammaticalized into the six basic tenses of English.2 The following is the list of basic tense structures: 1. SIMPLE PAST E,R S. 2. PAST PERFECT E.R.S 3...There are 24 possible SRE configurations seven of which get grammaticalized . Here I want to propose a principle of markcdness of SRE structures that... grammaticalize metrical properties such as the length of the duration in which a situation occurs, or the frequency of occurrence of a situation over a

  3. Processing of verb tense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Aleksandar Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing of Serbian inflected verbs was investigated in two lexical decision experiments. In the first experiment subjects were presented with five forms of future tense, while in the second experiment the same verbs were presented in three forms of present and future tense. The outcome of the first experiment indicates that processing of inflected verb is determined by the amount of information derived from the average probability per congruent personal pronoun of a particular verb form. This implies that the cognitive system is not sensitive to verb person per se, nor to the gender of congruent personal pronoun. Results of the second experiment show that for verb forms of different tenses, presented in the same experiment, the amount of information has to be additionally modulated by tense probability. Such an outcome speaks in favor of cognitive relevance of verb tense.

  4. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  5. Tense and Aspect in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990's the author cooperated with Carl Bache on a grammar of English. It turned out that the views they had previously arrived at individually on tense and aspect could be combined by operating with a fused system involving four ordered choices resulting in sixteen tense-aspect forms...

  6. Functional Convergence in the Tense, Evidentiality and Aspectual Systems of Quechua Spanish Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, I present an exploratory study on cross-linguistic interference among Quechua-Spanish bilingual children living in a language contact situation. The study focuses on convergence in the tense, aspectual and evidentiality systems of the two languages. While in Quechua past tense features are strongly linked to evidentiality in the…

  7. Reichenbach, Prior and Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we combine central insights of Prior and Reichenbach in the framework of hybrid tense logic. We do so in a way that overcomes a well-known defect of Reichenbach’s original tense schema, namely that it gives multiple representations to sentences in the Future perfect and the Future...

  8. Tense and Agreement in German Agrammatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzlaff, Michaela; Clahsen, Harald

    2004-01-01

    This study presents results from sentence-completion and grammaticality-judgment tasks with 7 German-speaking agrammatic aphasics and 7 age-matched control subjects examining tense and subject-verb agreement marking. For both experimental tasks, we found that the aphasics achieved high correctness scores for agreement, while tense marking was…

  9. [Stigma and Mental Health in Victims of Colombia's Internal Armed Conflict in Situation of Forced Displacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The prolonged sociopolitical phenomenon of Colombian violence generated a high number of victims, many of whom suffered a continual process of internal displacement and stigma-discrimination complex. To postulate possible mechanisms by which victims of Colombia's internal armed conflict in a situation of forced displacement were stigmatized and discriminated. Stigma affects mental health, not only because it represents a major stressor for discriminated individuals and groups, but also because it accounts for inequalities and inequities in health. Initially, as the victims of the internal armed conflict in situation of forced displacement were not considered as such, but as responsible for the situation. Thus, they had to cope with the social and economic inequalities, explained partially by low categorization or status that they received, possibly due to poor construction of social capital in the country. Also, victims of the internal armed conflict suffer from intersectional stigma and discrimination due to other characteristics such as gender, sexual orientation, ethnic-racial origin, or meeting criteria for a mental disorder. An active process of inclusive social development is required for the displaced victims of the armed conflict,in order to reduce multiple stigma and ensure their mental health. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. A video for teaching english tenses

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    Frida Unsiah

    2017-04-01

    Students of English Language Education Program in Faculty of Cultural Studies Universitas Brawijaya ideally master Grammar before taking the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan. However, the fact shows that they are still weak in Grammar especially tenses. Therefore, the researchers initiate to develop a video as a media to teach tenses. Objectively, by using video, students get better understanding on tenses so that they can communicate using English accurately and contextually. To develop the video, the researchers used ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation. First, the researchers analyzed the students’ learning need to determine the product that would be developed, in this case was a movie about English tenses. Then, the researchers developed a video as the product. The product then was validated by media expert who validated attractiveness, typography, audio, image, and usefulness and content expert and validated by a content expert who validated the language aspects and tenses of English used by the actors in the video dealing with the grammar content, pronunciation, and fluency performed by the actors. The result of validation shows that the video developed was considered good. Theoretically, it is appropriate to be used English Grammar classes. However, the media expert suggests that it still needs some improvement for the next development especially dealing with the synchronization between lips movement and sound on the scenes while the content expert suggests that the Grammar content of the video should focus on one tense only to provide more detailed concept of the tense.

  11. Tensed and non-tensed nominalization of the infinitive in Portuguese

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    Ana Maria Brito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This text presents an analysis of three types of nominalization of the infinitive in European Portuguese, characterized by distinct syntactic and semantic properties but all indicated by the presence of a determiner to the left of the infinitive. In the nominal infinitive, which has more nominal than verbal properties, a process is denoted, which is why culmination verbs are forbidden in most cases. In the literature it has also been stated that transitive verbs cannot be used as nominal infinitives. However, the presence of some aspectual modifiers that force a durative and unbounded process reading may allow the occurrence of these verbs. There is also the possibility of nominalizing a full infinitival clause, denoting a fact. Since this contains verbal and tensed properties, it may contain the inflected infinitive and in most cases involves the so called Aux-to-Comp movement, it is thus analyzed here as the nominalization of CP.

  12. Values of Present Perfect Tense and Past Simple Tense in Inquieta Compañía by Carlos Fuentes

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    Katja Seljak Adimora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the contrast between Present Perfect Tense and Past Simple Tense, both in theory and in the literary Hispanic American text Inquieta Compañía (2004 by Carlos Fuentes. The typical use of these tenses in Mexican Spanish, some exclusive and others shared with Peninsular Spanish, are presented. The author presents the frequency of these tenses in different Spanish dialects. Although Present Perfect Tense is less used than Past Simple Tense, in the Mexican dialect as well as in Peninsular Spanish, it is not disappearing, but its use is limited.

  13. Bilingual children's production of regular and irregular past tense morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, J.; de Bree, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the production of the Dutch past tense in Dutch-Hebrew bilingual children and investigated the effect of type of past tense allomorph (de versus te) and token frequency on productions of the past tense. Seven-year-old bilingual children (n=11) were compared with monolingual

  14. Sequence of tenses: playing with possibilities

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    Bohdan Ulašin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the sequence of tenses in Spanish, a phenomenon typical of the Romance languages. Our purpose is to systematize and formulate the rules of use by means of examples with graphical representations. We focus on such cases of use of the sequence of tenses where it is possible to apply a “double-access interpretation”, i. e. which allows the possibility of choosing between reference points: with the actual time (the moment of speech or with the main clause. This double interpretation is to be found in all three types of time relationships: simultaneousness, priority and posteriority. Some pairs differ semantically; others are used according to the preferences of the speaker with no change of meaning. Most examples are subordinate noun clauses, nonetheless we included examples of other types of clauses as well (e.g. relative, reason clauses. We also analyze the problem of the sequence of tenses where the main verb is in the conditional tense.

  15. Production of verb tenses in children with cochlear implants

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    Sokolovac Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of verb tenses leads to better language development of children with cochlear implants. The aim of this study was to assess the acquisition of verb tenses in children with cochlear implants. The sample included 60 children, aged from 9 to 15, with average intellectual abilities. The study group consisted of 30 patients with cochlear implants, with no additional disabilities. The control group consisted of 30 subjects with typical speech - language development and preserved hearing. The acquisition of basic tenses was assessed by 'Corpus for the Assessment of the Use of Tenses' (Dimić, 2003. Significant statistical differences were found in the use of the present tense in children with cochlear implants and hearing children (t=-4.385; p<0.001 as well as in the use of the past tense (t=-4.650; p<0.001, and the future tense (t=-4.269; p<0.001. There was also a significant difference in the use of irregular verb 'go' (t=-3.958; p<0.001, as well as in the combination of the present and the past tense (t=-5.806; p<0.001. The present tense was used correctly by most children with cochlear implants (70%, followed by the past tense (53%, and finally the future tense (23%. Children with cochlear implants, even after several years of re/habilitation, do not reach the grammatical development of children with normal hearing.

  16. Tense Usage in Selected Humanities and Science Dissertations

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    Geoffrey M. Maroko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Graduate students are usually not sure of the appropriate tense to use in each rhetorical section of their dissertations in their disciplines. Even style guides provide little information regarding tense usage in academic texts. This paper describes a study in which frequency and usage of types of tense were compared in selected dissertations from the humanities and sciences drawn from Kenyan Public Universities. It was found that graduate research students in both humanities and sciences preferred the simple present and simple past as primary tense forms. It also emerged that authors have to alternate verb tenses even in the same rhetorical section of a dissertation to achieve particular communicative purposes. Suggesting that choices for tense in dissertations are a function of the epistemology and ideology of the disciplines, the paper proposes a genre-based approach to teaching those preparing to write their dissertations.

  17. Aspects of cohesion, tense and pronoun usage in the discourse of the older language-impaired child

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    Hilary Berger

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the discourse of 5 language-impaired children and 5 children with no language impairment, aged approximately 9 years, were compared. A film and a story sequence were utilised to elicit narratives on which, measures of cohesion, tense and pronouns were appraised. Measures of cohesion refer  to the ability to indicate appropriately the relations of meaning with regard to situational context. Measures of tense include aspects of tense range and tense continuity. Measures of  pronouns refer  to the anaphoric use of  pronouns with non-ambiguous referents.  The group of language-impaired children was found  to be significantly poorer on measures of  cohesion and pronominal usage than the normal children, whereas a significant difference between the two groups was not revealed on measures of tense. Possible factors  accounting for  these findings  were discussed and implications for the diagnosis and therapy of the older language-impaired child were considered.

  18. Aspects of cohesion, tense and pronoun usage in the discourse of the older language-impaired child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Berger

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the discourse of 5 language-impaired children and 5 children with no language impairment, aged approximately 9 years, were compared. A film and a story sequence were utilised to elicit narratives on which, measures of cohesion, tense and pronouns were appraised. Measures of cohesion refer  to the ability to indicate appropriately the relations of meaning with regard to situational context. Measures of tense include aspects of tense range and tense continuity. Measures of  pronouns refer  to the anaphoric use of  pronouns with non-ambiguous referents.  The group of language-impaired children was found  to be significantly poorer on measures of  cohesion and pronominal usage than the normal children, whereas a significant difference between the two groups was not revealed on measures of tense. Possible factors  accounting for  these findings  were discussed and implications for the diagnosis and therapy of the older language-impaired child were considered.

  19. FURTHER NOTES FOR A CONTRASTIVE AND DIDACTIC APPROACH TO THE USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE VS. THE PAST TENSE

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    Constantin MANEA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Present Perfect Tense is a notable instance of the many quirks, “pitfalls” and inherent intricacies that can make the acquisition of English grammar quite a challenge, even with advanced students. Its dissimilarity from its possible counterparts in most European languages (including Romanian is patent. The present contribution continues the author’s preoccupation with such “False Friends” that teaching is called upon to overcome (at least, to an acceptable degree. Since the Present Perfect Tense closely incorporates tense and aspect information, while also being highly context-, and attitude-dependent, it requires conscious communicative adjustment on the part of the nonnative speaker, including the students of EFL. The grammatical category of Aspect often emerges as a linguistic “trap” for foreign learners of English, since, in Romanian, it is rendered unsystematically, mainly through specialized words, phrases, or derivational morphemes, being, in most cases, rather lexicalized (and comparatively syntax-dependent; in English aspect is a grammatical category mainly – and essentially – subordinated to the category of tense, and is usually taught as such. In this presentation, very much as in the previous one dealing with the Present Perfect and Past Tense, we considered that the most serious grammatical “trap” with respect to the use and definition of the two tenses under consideration is laid by the notion of perfectivity. The contribution presents the main tenses involved in the broader picture of the English tenses and verbal structures related, in a way or other, to the past – viz. the Past Tense Simple, the Past Tense Progressive, the Present Perfect Simple Tense, and the Present Perfect Progressive Tense –, as well as the main differences (in meaning, grammatical collocation and communicative implications between the Present Perfect Tense and the Past Tense. The author’s remarks could hopefully contribute to

  20. Tense over time: the longitudinal course of tense acquisition in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M L; Wexler, K; Hershberger, S

    1998-12-01

    Tense marking in English is relatively late appearing and is especially late for children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Little is known about the full course of acquisition for this set of morphemes. Because tense marking is a fundamental property of clause construction, it is central to current theories of morphosyntax and language acquisition. A longitudinal study is reported that encompasses the years of 2;6-8;9 years for typically developing children (N = 43) and 4;6-8;8 years for children with SLI (N = 21). The findings show that a diverse set of morphemes share the property of tense marking; that this set is not mastered until age 4 years in typically developing children and after 7 years for children with SLI; that acquisition shows linear and nonlinear components for both groups, in a typical S-shaped curve; and that nonsyntactic measures are not predictors of growth (including nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, and mother's education), whereas initial MLU does predict rate of acquisition. The findings are consistent with a model of Optional Infinitives (OI) for typically developing children (cf. Wexler, 1994, 1996) and Extended Optional Infinitives (EOI) for children with SLI. This model hypothesizes incomplete specification of features of tense that are represented in the grammar.

  1. Tense and modality in the nominal domain

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    Negin Ilkhanipour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well discussed in the literature that epistemic modals (Mod epis are base-generated higher than Tense (T, while non-epistemic/root modals (Mod root are base-generated lower than T, and that high modals are evaluated in the context of the speech event (i.e., with regard to the speaker at the speech time, whereas low modals are evaluated in the context of the VP event (with regard to an argument at the event time. In this study, looking with favour upon the presence of tense and modal functional projections in the nominal domain, and following the idea that adjectives are basegenerated in the specifiers of distinct functional projections, I argue that, similar to the structure of CPs, epistemic and root modal elements have different positions in DPs; epistemic adjectives appear in the specifier of Mod epis.NP above nominal tense (TNP, while root adjectives appear in the specifier of Mod root.NP below TNP, where nominal tense is the time of the existence or occurrence of the modified noun. With this aim in view, first, I show that the ambiguity of the adjective qæbli ‘previous’ is due to the two positions this adjective can occupy: the specifier of TNP and the specifier of ordinalP, where the adjective receives temporal and ordinal interpretations, respectively. Next, I explain that this structural ambiguity is observed when qæbli ‘previous’ cooccurs with root adjectives, such as qabel-e-ɁeɁtemad ‘reliable’. This suggests that the position of root adjectives is lower than TN, where it is interpreted with respect to the modified noun at the event time. With epistemic adjectives, such as Ɂehtemali ‘probable’, the adjective qæbli ‘previous’ is not ambiguous; it can be interpreted only as an ordinal modifier. This implies that the epistemic modal is higher than TN, where it is evaluated with regard to the speaker’s knowledge at the speech time. Thus, we see that the interaction of temporal and modal adjectives in DPs

  2. A.N. Prior’s Ideas on Tensed Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, David; Schärfe, Henrik; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    and existence. The focus is on Prior’s analysis of problems concerning the ontology of objects which exist for a limited time only. This work led him to some interesting ideas concerning tensed ontology. In particular, the paper discusses Prior’s own contribution to tensed ontology, which may be seen...

  3. Acoustic characteristics of clearly spoken English tense and lax vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Keith K W; Jongman, Allard; Wang, Yue; Sereno, Joan A

    2016-07-01

    Clearly produced vowels exhibit longer duration and more extreme spectral properties than plain, conversational vowels. These features also characterize tense relative to lax vowels. This study explored the interaction of clear-speech and tensity effects by comparing clear and plain productions of three English tense-lax vowel pairs (/i-ɪ/, /ɑ-ʌ/, /u-ʊ/ in /kVd/ words). Both temporal and spectral acoustic features were examined, including vowel duration, vowel-to-word duration ratio, formant frequency, and dynamic spectral characteristics. Results revealed that the tense-lax vowel difference was generally enhanced in clear relative to plain speech, but clear-speech modifications for tense and lax vowels showed a trade-off in the use of temporal and spectral cues. While plain-to-clear vowel lengthening was greater for tense than lax vowels, clear-speech modifications in spectral change were larger for lax than tense vowels. Moreover, peripheral tense vowels showed more consistent clear-speech modifications in the temporal than spectral domain. Presumably, articulatory constraints limit the spectral variation of these extreme vowels, so clear-speech modifications resort to temporal features and reserve the primary spectral features for tensity contrasts. These findings suggest that clear-speech and tensity interactions involve compensatory modifications in different acoustic domains.

  4. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...... was first suggested by Saul Kripke in a letter to A.N. Prior, dated September 3, 1958, and it is shown how the elaboration of the idea in the course of the correspondence was intimately intervowen with considerations of how to represent indeterminism and of the adequacy of tensed logic in light of special...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  5. VERB TENSE SYSTEMS OF INDONESIAN EFL LEARNERS

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    Endang Fauziati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Among aspect of studies on second language acquisition, IL is one of the most important one. To date research on IL features has provided benefits to the study of second language learning in particular to EFL classroom. The present study explored IL verb tense system to indicate present, past, and future events employed by Indonesian learners of English as a foreign language. Empirical data were 444 ill-formed utterances elicited through free compositions from the EFL learners. Error analysis and IL analysis were used as analytical tool for data analysis. The results indicate the students have developed their own grammatical system to express present, past, and future events. Whilst their IL system was typified by a number of non-targetlike variants, this study provides evidence of the systematicity of IL as well as a model of particular IL systems, i.e. Indonesian EFL learners.

  6. Past time reference in a language with optional tense

    OpenAIRE

    Bochnak, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze the verbal suffix -uŋil in Washo as an optional past tense. It is optional in the sense that it is not part of a paradigm of tenses, and morphologically tenseless clauses are also compatible with past time reference. Specifically, I claim that -uŋil is the morphological exponent of a tense feature [past], which presupposes that the reference time of the clause, denoted by a temporal pronoun, precedes the evaluation time. Meanwhile, morphologically tenseless clauses la...

  7. Selecting tense, aspect, and connecting words in language generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaasterland, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Dorr, B. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1995-12-31

    Generating language that reflects the temporal organization of represented knowledge requires a language generation model that integrates contemporary theories of tense and aspect, temporal representations, and methods to plan text. This paper presents a model that produces complex sentences that reflect temporal relations present in underlying temporal concepts. The main result of this work is the successful application of constrained linguistic theories of tense and aspect to a generator which produces meaningful event combinations and selects appropriate connecting words that relate them.

  8. INTERNET FORUM AS AN ENVIRONMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF MARRIED COUPLES FROM THE FAMILIES OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN A SITUATION OF FORCED SEPARATION

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    Gritsenko Valentina Vasilievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the psychological characteristics of communication of forum members concerning the situation of forced separation of married couples in a situation of labor migration. Practical relevance and novelty of the work is to identify opportunities of the Internet environment for psychological support for migrant workers’ families. Through the method of content analysis of materials of the Internet forums, the motives for applying for psychological support of family members to the participants of virtual communication in the situations of labor migration are identified, the reactions of the forum members on the suggested topics are analyzed. It is noted that the actuality of applying to the Internet resources often occurs at the stage of taking a decision of labor migration, rarely - at the stage of separation, as a rule, by the remaining partner. Most forum members assess a situation of going of one of the partners to work critically, describing negative scenarios. The article deals with coping strategies described on the forum which are estimated as the point of support, the expansion of psychological experience in a situation of forced separation. The examples of adaptive, not adaptive or relatively adaptive coping mechanisms implemented by the Forum members are given. The final conclusion of the article is an overview of possibility of communication in the Internet forums to search for effective strategies for coping with the situation of forced separation due to migration.

  9. The Significance of the Prior-Smart Correspondence for the Rise of Tense-Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, David

    2017-01-01

    relations under the scope of operators. When Prior, however, disclosed the invention of tense-logic to Smart, it is clear from the correspondence that Smart did not find Prior’s tensed operators convincing. Indeed, it turns out that Smart warned Prior against presenting tense-logic at the John Locke...... Lectures. Two questions are raised with regard to Smart’s warning: Why did Smart warn Prior against presenting tense-logic at the John Locke Lectures, and why was Prior’s tense-logic so well received? An argument is tentatively given based on the novelty of Prior’s tense-logical operators to account...

  10. The influence of Chinese context on attrition of English tense

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    Deng Huan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From psycholinguistic aspect, language learning not only requires acquisition and progression, but it also exists in attrition and regression. Within Chinese as a native language, the learning and living environment would directly affect the language input and contact for English as a foreign language (EFL learner. English tense is totally different from that of Chinese in terms of concept. Based on Inverse Hypothesis, the present thesis aims to take English tense as a breakthrough point in this diachronic research, as well as to reveal and analyze the variability of mastering tenses for EFL learners. Meanwhile, it also strives to validate the feasibility of slowing down the speed of language attrition by increasing the English input and contact. In Chinese context, how to resist attrition effectively and retain their acquired language abilities will yield a lot of benefits to language teaching and learning both for teachers and EFL learners.

  11. Analysis of Tense Interferential of Verbs in Old Narrative Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Zeighami; Mahmood Barati khansari; Hassan Ziyari

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One of the admirable methods to compose stories in Persian verse and prose, is the present Tense verbs in the meaning of past tense. This grammatical point has been hidden in the grammarian and stylist's point of view although it has been repeatedly mentioned in the texts and this point has been not mentioned in the grammatical books but some of the investigators and literati have pointed out it in their correction works. We mention their sayings: firstly, Allame Qazvini, doub...

  12. Making sense of irregular realisations of the past tense suffix in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptions in Northern Sotho textbooks of past tense formation and the many alternations of the past tense suffix have traditionally been based on the phonological environment to which *-ilê is affixed. Explanations were never offered as to why, within the same phonological environment, the past tense suffix could realise ...

  13. An Analysis of Tense Errors in the Written English of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates tense errors in the written English of selected science students of Gombe State University, Nigeria. The work identifies the level of students' competence in the use of the different tense forms in expression as well as the extent to which the problem of wrong use of tense affects the overall ability of the ...

  14. Tense Marking in the English Narrative Retells of Dual Language Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusewski, Svenja; Rojas, Raúl

    2017-07-26

    This longitudinal study investigated the emergence of English tense marking in young (Spanish-English) dual language learners (DLLs) over 4 consecutive academic semesters, addressing the need for longitudinal data on typical acquisition trajectories of English in DLL preschoolers. Language sample analysis was conducted on 139 English narrative retells elicited from 39 preschool-age (Spanish-English) DLLs (range = 39-65 months). Growth curve models captured within- and between-individual change in tense-marking accuracy over time. Tense-marking accuracy was indexed by the finite verb morphology composite and by 2 specifically developed adaptations. Individual tense markers were systematically described in terms of overall accuracy and specific error patterns. Tense-marking accuracy exhibited significant growth over time for each composite. Initially, irregular past-tense accuracy was higher than regular past-tense accuracy; over time, however, regular past-tense marking outpaced accuracy on irregular verbs. These findings suggest that young DLLs can achieve high tense-marking accuracy assuming 2 years of immersive exposure to English. Monitoring the growth in tense-marking accuracy over time and considering productive tense-marking errors as partially correct more precisely captured the emergence of English tense marking in this population with highly variable expressive language skills. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5176942.

  15. Epistemic Uncertainty: Turkish Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Comprehension of Tense and Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbay Duman, Tuba; Topbas, Seyhun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impairments in tense morphology are characteristic of English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Recent studies have investigated the role that aspect plays in the difficulties found in tense morphology. It has been suggested that children with SLI are less sensitive to aspect and its interaction with tense than…

  16. A contrastive morphological analysis of tense formation in Igbo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These areas of differences are predicted by contrastive analysis as constituting learning difficulties. This paper proffers solution to the perceived tense problem by advocating that teachers should be more attentive to their students' speeches and write-ups in order to immediately correct any error that might occur.

  17. Conditional and future tense impairment in non-fluent aphasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rofes, Adrià; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Martínez-Ferreiro, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background:Morphological errors of tense and agreement are salient in agrammatic aphasia. The PADILIH predicts impairments in discourse linking that translate to greater difficulties in referring to a past event time than to a future or a present event time. In Catalan, the Periphrastic conditional...

  18. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  19. Tense Usage Analysis in Verb Distribution in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This section of a four-part research project investigating the syntax of Brazilian Portuguese presents data concerning tense usage in verb distribution. The data are derived from the analysis of selected literary samples from representative and contemporary writers. The selection of authors and tabulation of data are also described. Materials…

  20. The Perfective Past Tense in Greek Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Nikolitsa; Clahsen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of a group of eight Greek-speaking adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) (aged 12.1-18.7) to handle the perfective past tense using an acceptability judgement task. The performance of the DS participants was compared with that of 16 typically-developing children whose chronological age was matched with the mental…

  1. A Neuroconstructivist Model of Past Tense Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Gert; Ruh, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    We present a neural network model of learning and processing the English past tense that is based on the notion that experience-dependent cortical development is a core aspect of cognitive development. During learning the model adds and removes units and connections to develop a task-specific final architecture. The model provides an integrated…

  2. 193 A Contrastive Morphological Analysis of Tense Formation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formation of tenses in these languages and immediately correct ... language problem. One of such efforts is the National Policy on. Education, which has encouraged the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction at the primary school level. ..... word, are referentially opaque, that is, it is impossible to refer to.

  3. Language in Consultation: The Effect of Affect and Verb Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel S.; Guiney, Meaghan C.; Barrett, Courtenay A.

    2017-01-01

    This study was an exploration of school consultation interactions between instructional consultants and consultees. Of specific interest was how consultants (n = 18) and consultees (n = 18) used verb tense and emotion words during the problem identification and analysis instructional consultation stage, similarities and differences in…

  4. Experiencing activation: energetic arousal and tense arousal are not mixtures of valence and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2002-12-01

    R. E. Thayer (1989) proposed 2 types of activation: energetic arousal (awake-tired) and tense arousal (tense-calm). This view has been challenged by claims that energetic arousal and tense arousal are mixtures of valence and a single activation dimension. The authors present a direct test of this hypothesis by computing the correlation between the residuals of energetic arousal and tense arousal after removing the shared variance with valence. Whereas the valence activation hypothesis predicts a strong positive correlation between the 2 residuals, the authors found that it was not significantly different from 0. This finding reaffirms the view of energetic arousal and tense arousal as 2 distinct types of activation.

  5. Past tense in the brain's time: Neurophysiological evidence for dual-route processing of past-tense verbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.; Pulvermüller, F.; Shtyrov, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A controversial issue in neuro- and psycholinguistics is whether regular past-tense forms of verbs are stored lexically or generated productively by the application of abstract combinatorial schemas, for example affixation rules. The success or failure of models in accounting for this particular

  6. Analysis of Tense Interferential of Verbs in Old Narrative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Barati khansari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the admirable methods to compose stories in Persian verse and prose, is the present Tense verbs in the meaning of past tense. This grammatical point has been hidden in the grammarian and stylist's point of view although it has been repeatedly mentioned in the texts and this point has been not mentioned in the grammatical books but some of the investigators and literati have pointed out it in their correction works. We mention their sayings: firstly, Allame Qazvini, doubtfully, mentions the interferential times of the verbs and inconsistencies of the Tenses in the correction of texts of Jahangoshaye – Joveini Book. He writes in the second footnote 2-3, that the verb Mikonam( I do is in the form of present Tense but its meaning is in the simple past Tense. As it has been observed, in the most old books the form of the verb is in the present tense but its meaning is in simple Tense ( Joveini, 1367, p. 357. Later, Fruzanfar in the correction of grammatical notes of ouhadoddin Kermani's Manaqeb, points to this point and counted it of the Eltefat Literary art ( Fruzanfar, 1347. P. 61 Mohammad Roushan informed this grammatical rule and he writes in the introduction of his book: the application of this kind of verb that is not on the basis of the dependent and independent verbs (Khagushi, 1361, p. 24. Yusofi in his correction on Bidpay Stories points to this grammatical point that it has been hidden of correctors of the book. Ha says that this grammatical point is the prose characteristic of the book. He adds that the characteristic includes in the present stories (Yusofi, 1364, p. 36. Finally, Dr. shfi'ee in his valuable notes on the Mateqol altei their mentions that this style of telling stories – the verb in the present Tense- is less in verse but the verbs in the same meaning and forms were used in old Persian as in the present time but there were inconsistence in the time and the form of the verbs in the past and the grammarians

  7. Analysis of Tense Interferential of Verbs in Old Narrative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Zeighami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the admirable methods to compose stories in Persian verse and prose, is the present Tense verbs in the meaning of past tense. This grammatical point has been hidden in the grammarian and stylist's point of view although it has been repeatedly mentioned in the texts and this point has been not mentioned in the grammatical books but some of the investigators and literati have pointed out it in their correction works. We mention their sayings: firstly, Allame Qazvini, doubtfully, mentions the interferential times of the verbs and inconsistencies of the Tenses in the correction of texts of Jahangoshaye – Joveini Book. He writes in the second footnote 2-3, that the verb Mikonam( I do is in the form of present Tense but its meaning is in the simple past Tense. As it has been observed, in the most old books the form of the verb is in the present tense but its meaning is in simple Tense ( Joveini, 1367, p. 357. Later, Fruzanfar in the correction of grammatical notes of ouhadoddin Kermani's Manaqeb, points to this point and counted it of the Eltefat Literary art ( Fruzanfar, 1347. P. 61 Mohammad Roushan informed this grammatical rule and he writes in the introduction of his book: the application of this kind of verb that is not on the basis of the dependent and independent verbs (Khagushi, 1361, p. 24. Yusofi in his correction on Bidpay Stories points to this grammatical point that it has been hidden of correctors of the book. Ha says that this grammatical point is the prose characteristic of the book. He adds that the characteristic includes in the present stories (Yusofi, 1364, p. 36. Finally, Dr. shfi'ee in his valuable notes on the Mateqol altei their mentions that this style of telling stories – the verb in the present Tense- is less in verse but the verbs in the same meaning and forms were used in old Persian as in the present time but there were inconsistence in the time and the form of the verbs in the past and

  8. A Particular Type of Present Perfect Tense in Shahnameh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharram Rezayati Kishekhaleh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Shahnameh, the precious and eternal epic poem of Ferdosi, in the ocean of Persian literature is a deep and immense sea. It is full of shining pearls of Iranian culture, that studying of them could be used by researchers of Persian language and literature for various dimensions of literary, historical, social, mythical, religious, and linguistics, etc. This subject allocates for little part of linguistic characteristics i.e. present perfect tense and its kinds. Initially the history of research was considered briefly then the patterns of structure of this verb were studying in the language of ancient Persian, middle Persian and Dari Persian. We eventually, according to samples from the Shahnameh, scattered notions of researchers and their adding up, describe a certain kind of present perfect tense which, its history of structure and application in addition to Soghdi, Khwarizmi and Pahlavi languages, could be recognized at some today Iranian dialects

  9. A Particular Type of Present Perfect Tense in Shahnameh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharram Rezayati Kishekhaleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Shahnameh, the precious and eternal epic poem of Ferdosi, in the ocean of Persian literature is a deep and immense sea. It is full of shining pearls of Iranian culture, that studying of them could be used by researchers of Persian language and literature for various dimensions of literary, historical, social, mythical, religious, and linguistics, etc. This subject allocates for little part of linguistic characteristics i.e. present perfect tense and its kinds. Initially the history of research was considered briefly then the patterns of structure of this verb were studying in the language of ancient Persian, middle Persian and Dari Persian. We eventually, according to samples from the Shahnameh, scattered notions of researchers and their adding up, describe a certain kind of present perfect tense which, its history of structure and application in addition to Soghdi, Khwarizmi and Pahlavi languages, could be recognized at some today Iranian dialects

  10. Age and the Tenses of Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective. People have a special capacity to live simultaneously in both chronological and biographical time. In this article, we examine reports of life satisfaction that span past, present, and future, considering how perceived changes in certain life domains are associated with overall perceived life trajectories. Methods. Analyses use men and women from the Midlife Development in the United States survey. We employ gender-stratified fixed effects regression models to examine the net effect of satisfaction with finances, partnerships/marriage, sex, contribution to others, work, health, and relationship with children on trajectories of overall life satisfaction. Results. Among men, partnership and financial satisfaction had the strongest association with life satisfaction. Women displayed a somewhat broader range of domains related to their trajectories of life satisfaction. Partnership was most important, but their sense of evolving life satisfaction was also tied to their relationship with their children, sexuality, work situation, contribution to others’ welfare, and financial situation. Discussion. We find several notable differences between men and women, but the most telling differences emerge among women themselves across chronological time. For women, partner satisfaction becomes considerably more important across the age groups, whereas sex, contribution to others, and relationships with children all decrease in their importance for overall life satisfaction. PMID:23704205

  11. Perfect and Imperfect Modals in Romance Some syntactic remarks on the Tense/Modality interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Soare

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the interplay between Tense-Aspect and Modality in Romanian and some Romance languages, in ambiguous sentences that exhibit what has been called “perfective raising”. It is observed that Romanian does not behave like French, for instance, inasmuch perfective forces actuality entailment on modals. I show that this contrast is connected to the structure of Romanian modal sentences: as commonly assumed in the literature, modal verbs in Romanian behave like lexical verbs with clausal complements; they have their own temporal-aspectual domain, which has to obey interpretive constraints. I propose that the ambiguity between root and epistemic readings in the perfective is the effect of two combined factors: perfective/imperfective Aspect and a high degree of grammaticalization of the modal (i.e. monoclausal structures for modals.

  12. The semantic contribution of the past tense morpheme kaan in Palestinian counterfactuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadil Karawani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning along the lines of Iatridou (2000, we argue in this paper that the Palestinian morpheme kaan that is normally used to express semantic past tense actually denotes Non-Actual Veridicality, i.e. including kaan states that the proposition it applies to is true in a different world-time pair than the pair consisting of the actual world and the time of utterance. This means that kaan can be used both as a tense marker (expressing past tense and as a mood marker (expressing counterfactuality. Given that every clause (with the possible exception of imperative clauses must be tensed, this entails that kaan, in the absence of any other tense marker, must receive a temporal interpretation; but if the sentence receives its tense interpretation from some other particle, kaan acts as a mood marker. In the remainder of the paper, several consequences of this proposal are discussed.

  13. Bilingual children's acquisition of the past tense: a usage-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Nicoladis, Elena; Crago, Martha; Genesee, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Bilingual and monolingual children's (mean age=4;10) elicited production of the past tense in both English and French was examined in order to test predictions from Usage-Based theory regarding the sensitivity of children's acquisition rates to input factors such as variation in exposure time and the type/token frequency of morphosyntactic structures. Both bilingual and monolingual children were less accurate with irregular than regular past tense forms in both languages. Bilingual children, as a group, were less accurate than monolinguals with the English regular and irregular past tense, and with the French irregular past tense, but not with the French regular past tense. However, bilingual children were as accurate as monolinguals with the past tense in their language of greater exposure, except for English irregular verbs. It is argued that these results support the view that children's acquisition rates are sensitive to input factors, but with some qualifications.

  14. Interaction of negation with tense, modality and information structure in Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Horais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider the interaction of tense, mood and focus with negation in Standard Arabic. This interaction can be observed via marking the tense and mood of the sentence, or via selecting a particular type of tense, or being associated with Information Structure. Building on this fact, the current paper provides a unified analysis, in which negation in Arabic can be accounted for without a NegP projection.

  15. A Study on How to Teach Tense to Chinese Korean Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min

    2011-01-01

    Presently it is hard to find a thesis which have presented the teaching plan on how to teach the tense to Chinese learners on the spot of learning and even the textbooks in classes cover the subject of tense only in the medium or high level. The author considers that the learners' mistakes on the subject of tense are apt to be fossilized, if they…

  16. Rule-based learning of regular past tense in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of children with specific language impairment was used as a means to investigate whether a single- or dual-mechanism theory best conceptualizes the acquisition of English past tense. The dual-mechanism theory proposes that regular English past-tense forms are produced via a rule-based process whereas past-tense forms of irregular verbs are stored in the lexicon. Single-mechanism theories propose that both regular and irregular past-tense verbs are stored in the lexicon. Five 5-year-olds with specific language impairment received treatment for regular past tense. The children were tested on regular past-tense production and third-person singular "s" twice before treatment and once after treatment, at eight-week intervals. Treatment consisted of one-hour play-based sessions, once weekly, for eight weeks. Crucially, treatment focused on different lexical items from those in the test. Each child demonstrated significant improvement on the untreated past-tense test items after treatment, but no improvement on the untreated third-person singular "s". Generalization to untreated past-tense verbs could not be attributed to a frequency effect or to phonological similarity of trained and tested items. It is argued that the results are consistent with a dual-mechanism theory of past-tense inflection.

  17. Toward an engineering model for the aerodynamic forces acting on wind turbine blades in quasisteady standstill and blade installation situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim Christian; Skrzypinski, Witold Robert

    2016-01-01

    loading well. In some conditions the deviation of the predicted loadings can be quite significant, having a large influence on for instance the integral aerodynamic moments around the blade centre of mass; which is very important for single blade installation applications. The main features...... of these deviations, however, have a systematic behaviour on all force components, which in this paper is employed to formulate the first version of an engineering correction method to the crossflow principle applicable for wind turbine blades. The new correction model improves the agreement with CFD results...

  18. Orthopaedic management in a mega mass casualty situation. The Israel Defence Forces Field Hospital in Haiti following the January 2010 earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Lebel, Ehud; Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Benedict, Shaike; Gill, Amit; Lee, Evgeny; Pirotsky, Anatoly; Shirov, Taras; Blumberg, Nehemia

    2011-10-01

    Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) established a field hospital in Port au Prince. The hospital started operating 89 h after the earthquake. We describe the experience of the orthopaedic department in a field hospital operating in an extreme mass casualty situation. The hospital contained 4 operating table and 72 hospitalization beds. The orthopaedic department included 8 orthopaedic surgeons and 3 residents. 1111 patients were treated in the hospital, 1041 of them had adequate records for inclusion. 684 patients were admitted due to trauma with a total of 841 injuries. 320 patients sustained 360 fractures, 18 had joint dislocations and 22 patients were admitted after amputations. 207 patients suffered 315 soft tissue injuries. 221 patients were operated on under general or regional anaesthesia. External fixation was used for stabilization of 48 adult femoral shaft fractures, 24 open tibial fractures and 1 open humeral fracture. All none femoral closed fractures were treated non-operatively. 18 joint reductions and 23 amputations were performed. Appropriate planning, training, operational versatility, and adjustment of therapeutic guidelines according to a constantly changing situation, enabled us to deliver optimal care to the maximal number of patients, in an overwhelming mass trauma situation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the situation of the vacuum in FTU; Analisi della situazione del vuoto di FTU (Resoconto del lavoro svolto dalla task force)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandrini, C.; Angelini, B.; Apicella, M.L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pirani, S.; Zanza, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-01-01

    To analyze the situation of the vacuum in the FTU tokamak, on 22/5/96 was set up a task force to identify the problem(s) and to settle the operative and cleaning procedures. The main actions of the task force were: leak tests, automatic procedure to monitor on line the state of the machine vacuum and an exhaustive analysis of the work done before. The task force reviewed the outgassing measurements of the plastic materials inserted into the machine and was decided to repeat the test on the thermocouples. The results pointed out that the thermocouples are a practically infinite reservoir of water. The outcome of the task force was a set of new procedures and recommendations during both the operation of FTU and the shutdown periods. FTU is now operating at more acceptable plasma purity. [Italiano] Il 22/5/96 fu costituita una Task Force (TF) per analizzare le cause della `non pulizia` di FTU e per identificare le nuove procedure da seguire per la pulizia della camera da vuoto. Le azioni che la TF intraprese furono: leak tests, monitoraggio continuo dello stato del vuoto e revisione critica del lavoro fatto precedentemente. Vennero poi analizzate delle misure fatte a suo tempo sui materiali presenti nella camera da vuoto di FTU e, nel caso delle termocoppie, si decise di ripetere il test. Da questa seconda prova emerse che i cilindretti di queste termocoppie sono delle riserve inesauribili di acqua che vengono alimentate da ogni riapertura della macchina. Il lavoro della TF si concluse con una serie di procedure e raccomandazioni, da seguire prima di ogni riapertura della macchina e durante le campagne sperimentali a macchina fredda; tali procedure tengono conto del fatto che negli anni e` aumentata la quantita` di materiali plastici presenti nella camera da vuoto, soprattutto nei ports. FTU sta attualmente operando in condizioni piu` accettabili di pulizia della camera.

  20. Forced-choice decision-making in modified trolley dilemma situations: a virtual reality and eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Bunge, Andreas; Kaspar, Kai; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Based on the frameworks of dual-process theories, we examined the interplay between intuitive and controlled cognitive processes related to moral and social judgments. In a virtual reality (VR) setting we performed an experiment investigating the progression from fast, automatic decisions towards more controlled decisions over multiple trials in the context of a sacrificing scenario. We repeatedly exposed participants to a modified ten-to-one version and to three one-to-one versions of the trolley dilemma in VR and varied avatar properties, such as their gender and ethnicity, and their orientation in space. We also investigated the influence of arousing music on decisions. Our experiment replicated the behavioral pattern observed in studies using text versions of the trolley dilemma, thereby validating the use of virtual environments in research on moral judgments. Additionally, we found a general tendency towards sacrificing male individuals which correlated with socially desirable responding. As indicated by differences in response times, the ten-to-one version of the trolley dilemma seems to be faster to decide than decisions requiring comparisons based on specific avatar properties as a result of differing moral content. Building upon research on music-based emotion induction, we used music to induce emotional arousal on a physiological level as measured by pupil diameter. We found a specific temporal signature displaying a peak in arousal around the moment of decision. This signature occurs independently of the overall arousal level. Furthermore, we found context-dependent gaze durations during sacrificing decisions, leading participants to look prolonged at their victim if they had to choose between avatars differing in gender. Our study confirmed that moral decisions can be explained within the framework of dual-process theories and shows that pupillometric measurements are a promising tool for investigating affective responses in dilemma situations.

  1. Forced-choice decision-making in modified trolley dilemma situations: a virtual reality and eye tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eSkulmowski

    2014-12-01

    dilemma situations.

  2. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  3. The southern Hessen waste management task force - initial situation, objectives, state of development; Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft - Ausgangssituation, Zielsetzung und Entwicklungsstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.J. [Stadt Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994, the rural districts of Darmstadt-Dieburg, Bergstrasse, Odenwald and Gross-Gerau in southern Hessen and the town of Darmstadt concluded a cooperation agreement permitting them to meet the future demands of the technical code on municipal waste and the `Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz` (act concerning waste recycling and waste management). In order to formally prepare different forms of cooperation and to accompany corresponding preliminary investigations, the Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft (SAGA) was founded as a municipal task force. SAGA`s task is to debate common affairs in the waste management sector with a view to joint planning and joint facilities. In particular, the requirements of the technical code on municipal waste must be met. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1994 haben die suedhessischen Landkreise Darmstadt-Dieburg, Bergstrasse, Odenwald, Gross-Gerau sowie die Stadt Darmstadt beschlossen, bezueglich der kuenftigen Anforderung der TA Siedlungsabfall und des Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes zu kooperieren. Zur formellen Vorbereitung von verschiedenen dann auszufuehrenden Kooperationsformen und zur Begleitung entsprechender Voruntersuchungen wurde die Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft (SAGA) als Kommunale Arbeitsgemeinschaft gegruendet. Aufgabe der Kommunalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft ist es, gemeinsam beruehrende Angelegenheiten im Abfallbereich unter dem Gesichtspunkt gemeinsamer Planung und gemeinsamer Einrichtungen zu beraten. Hierbei sollen insbesondere die Vorgaben der TA Siedlungsabfall beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  4. Error Analysis of Present Simple Tense in the Interlanguage of Adult Arab English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses errors on present simple tense among adult Arab English language learners. It focuses on the error on 3sg "-s" (the third person singular present tense agreement morpheme "-s"). The learners are undergraduate adult Arabic speakers learning English as a foreign language. The study gathered data from…

  5. An evaluation of the provisions for the teaching of tenses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the provisions for the teaching of tenses in Integrated English Textbook series. ... Journal of Educational Foundations ... in their treatment, modality of treatment, voice, sequencing of the tenses and provision for curriculum spiral, formed the basis for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the text book.

  6. The Voice of Holland : Allograph Production in Written Dutch Past Tense Inflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, E.; van der Ven, S.; van der Maas, H.

    2017-01-01

    According to the Integration of Multiple Patterns hypothesis (IMP; Treiman & Kessler, 2014), the spelling difficulty of a word is affected by the number of cues converging on the correct answer. We tested this hypothesis in children’s regular past tense formation in Dutch. Past tenses are formed by

  7. The Voice of Holland: Allograph Production in Written Dutch Past Tense Inflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bree, Elise; van der Ven, Sanne; van der Maas, Han

    2017-01-01

    According to the Integration of Multiple Patterns hypothesis (IMP; Treiman & Kessler, 2014), the spelling difficulty of a word is affected by the number of cues converging on the correct answer. We tested this hypothesis in children's regular past tense formation in Dutch. Past tenses are formed by adding either-"de"…

  8. Production of Tense Morphology by Afrikaans-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Frenette; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To establish whether the predictions of the extended optional infinitive (EOI) hypothesis (Rice, Wexler, & Cleave, 1995) hold for the language of Afrikaans-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and whether tense marking is a possible clinical marker of SLI in Afrikaans. Method: Production of tense morphology was…

  9. Tense Marking and Spontaneous Speech Measures in Spanish Specific Language Impairment: A Discriminant Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, John; Baron, Alisa; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; De la Mora, Juliana; Cantu-Sanchez, Myriam; Flores, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the proposal that the tense deficit that has been demonstrated for children with specific language impairment (SLI) in other languages is also found in child Spanish and that low performance on tense-related measures can distinguish Spanish-speaking children with SLI from those without. Method: The authors evaluated evidence from…

  10. Quasiregularity and Its Discontents: The Legacy of the Past Tense Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Mark S.; Plaut, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Rumelhart and McClelland's chapter about learning the past tense created a degree of controversy extraordinary even in the adversarial culture of modern science. It also stimulated a vast amount of research that advanced the understanding of the past tense, inflectional morphology in English and other languages, the nature of linguistic…

  11. Past Tense Productivity in Dutch Children with and without SLI: The Role of Morphophonology and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Judith E.; De Bree, Elise H.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on morphophonology and frequency in past tense production. It was assessed whether Dutch five- and seven-year-old typically developing (TD) children and eight-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) produce the correct allomorph in regular, irregular, and novel past tense formation. Type frequency of the…

  12. Variable Production of English Past Tense Morphology: A Case Study of a Thai-Speaking Learner of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…

  13. The Role of Meaning in Past-Tense Inflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi-Rao, Shoba; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2009-01-01

    Although English verbs can be either regular (walk-walked) or irregular (sing-sang), “denominal verbs” that are derived from nouns, such as the use of the verb ring derived from the noun a ring, take the regular form even if they are homophonous with an existing irregular verb: The soldiers ringed the city rather than *The soldiers rang the city. Is this regularization due to a semantic difference from the usual verb, or is it due to the application of the default rule, namely VERB + -ed suffix? In Experiment 1, participants rated the semantic similarity of the extended senses of polysemous verbs and denominal verbs to their central senses. Experiment 2 examined the acceptability of the regular and irregular past-tenses of the different verbs. The results showed that all the denominal verbs were rated as more acceptable for the regular inflection than the same verbs used polysemously, even though the two were semantically equally similar to the central meaning. Thus, the derivation of the verb (nominal or verbal) determined the past-tense preference more than semantic variables, consistent with dual-route models of verb inflection. PMID:16839538

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON USING THE SITUATIONAL CRISIS COMMUNICATION THEORY IN THE CRISIS COMMUNICATION PLANNING ACTIVITIES OF ROMANIAN ARMED FORCES' INFORMATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS STRUCTURES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George David; Ion Chiciudean

    2013-01-01

    .... The Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) suggests focusing managerial efforts in organizations facing crisis situations on preserving reputation through the proper management of stakeholders' perceptions...

  15. Agriculture Students’ Ability to Write Past Tense at Taman Siswa University of Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Hayati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to describe the third semester agriculture students’ ability to write simple sentences using simple past tense at Taman Siswa University Padang. This research was limited in three sentence forms; affirmative, negative and interrogative. Descriptive research was used in this study where the population was the third semester agriculture students at Taman Siswa University of Padang. The total number of the sample was 63 students. The finding showed that the ability of the third semester agriculture students of Taman Siswa University of Padang to write simple sentences using simple past tense was moderate. It could be seen that 70.97% students have moderate ability. In detail the percentages of each of form sentence were; 64.52% have moderate ability to write simple sentences in simple past tense of (verbal affirmative, 74.20% have moderate ability to write simple sentences in simple past tense of (verbal negative sentences, and 77.42% have moderate ability to write simple sentences in simple past tense of (verbal interrogative sentences. Based on the research finding, it is suggested to the teachers to give more explanation about past tense and explain the usage of mechanics.  The students are suggested to learn more about past tense and use mechanics correctly.

  16. SISTEM PENDUKUNG PEMBELAJARAN TENSES UNTUK TINGKAT DASAR BERBASIS SISTEM PAKAR MENGGUNAKAN METODE FORWARD CHAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Chamidy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sistem pendukung pembelajaran tenses adalah suatu sistem pembelajaran terkomputerisasi yang dirancang untuk membantu seseorang dalam mendalami tenses. Tenses merupakan materi dasar dalam grammar yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan waktu kejadian memiliki struktur kata pembentuk kalimat yang berbeda-beda pada tiap penunjuk kejadiannya. Dari struktur kata pembentuk kalimat itulah sistem dapat membedakan tenses bentuk apa kalimat tersebut. Untuk membedakannya, sistem menggunakan metode forward chaining. Metode forward chaining adalah metode yang digunakan untuk mencari kesimpulan dari fakta-fakta yang terkumpul. Sistem kerja aplikasi ini adalah dengan memecah susunan kalimat menjadi kata kemudian dari kata tersebut oleh sistem akan dicari fakta-fakta dari kata tersebut. Fakta-fakta tersebut adalah jabatan berupa subjek, objek, verb dan lain sebagainya. Dari fakta-fakta tersebut, pada tahap akhir sistem akan mencari kecocokan antara fakta-fakta pembentuk kalimat dengan rumus pembentuk tenses. Dari hasil penelitian dengan memasukkan kalimat-kalimat yang memiliki struktur yang berbeda, aplikasi ini mampu mengenali bentuk tenses pada kalimat-kalimat tersebut. Hal ini mengacu pada hasil pengujian yang didapatkan persentase sebesar 96% dari 100 kalimat masukan. Kata Kunci : sistem pakar, forward chaining, tenses

  17. The Representation and Processing of Tense, Aspect & Voice across Verbal Elements in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    the reduced form ―hafta‖) and expresses an obligation as part of its idiomatic meaning as shown in example 12. 12. He has to (pres+act+must) give...distinct from the non-finite v-base form. We assume that every finite clause expresses a tense and voice feature and many finite clauses express an...present tense v-base form being distinct from the non-finite v-base form. We assume that every finite clause expresses a tense and voice feature and

  18. A neuroconstructivist model of past tense development and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Gert; Ruh, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    We present a neural network model of learning and processing the English past tense that is based on the notion that experience-dependent cortical development is a core aspect of cognitive development. During learning the model adds and removes units and connections to develop a task-specific final architecture. The model provides an integrated account of characteristic errors during learning the past tense, adult generalization to pseudoverbs, and dissociations between verbs observed after brain damage in aphasic patients. We put forward a theory of verb inflection in which a functional processing architecture develops through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and the structure of the environment, in this case, the statistical properties of verbs in the language. The outcome of this process is a structured processing system giving rise to graded dissociations between verbs that are easy and verbs that are hard to learn and process. In contrast to dual-mechanism accounts of inflection, we argue that describing dissociations as a dichotomy between regular and irregular verbs is a post hoc abstraction and is not linked to underlying processing mechanisms. We extend current single-mechanism accounts of inflection by highlighting the role of structural adaptation in development and in the formation of the adult processing system. In contrast to some single-mechanism accounts, we argue that the link between irregular inflection and verb semantics is not causal and that existing data can be explained on the basis of phonological representations alone. This work highlights the benefit of taking brain development seriously in theories of cognitive development. Copyright 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Past tense productivity in Dutch children with and without SLI: the role of morphophonology and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Judith E; De Bree, Elise H

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on morphophonology and frequency in past tense production. It was assessed whether Dutch five- and seven-year-old typically developing (TD) children and eight-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) produce the correct allomorph in regular, irregular, and novel past tense formation. Type frequency of the allomorph, token frequency and phonotactic probability (PP) of the novel verb form are considered. The results showed all groups were sensitive to the phonological cue. PP did not contribute to past tense inflection of novel verbs in any of the groups, but type frequency did in all three groups. Only the seven-year-old typically developing children relied on token frequency for inflection of regulars. The findings point to an important role of phonology and frequency in past tense acquisition for both TD children and children with SLI. We discuss how the SLI performance pattern relates to theories on SLI.

  20. Production of tense-lax contrast by Mandarin speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang

    2006-01-01

    The spectral and temporal characteristics of three English tense-lax vowel pairs [see text] produced by native Mandarin speakers are reported. The euclidean distance based on first and second formant frequencies (F1 and F2), the durational differences, as well as the perceptual judgment of the tense-lax vowel contrast were examined in the syllable level productions of 40 Mandarin speakers compared to 40 American English speakers. Results of the comparative analysis indicated that Mandarin speakers differed significantly from the American English speakers in distinguishing the English tense/lax contrast. The general pattern shown across the Mandarin subjects was one in which the temporal feature, rather than the spectral feature, was more indicative of the tense-lax contrast as compared to the American speakers. In addition, the perception for the tense-lax contrast produced by Mandarin speakers was less distinctive as compared to the American speakers. The phonetic influences of the Mandarin language on the production of English tense-lax vowels are discussed.

  1. On tense, aspect and negation markings in Ògbahù dialect of Ìgbò ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals that both Tense and Aspect exist as functional categories in gbahù dialect, contrary to earlier works on Ìgbò which claimed that Aspect rather than Tense is explicitly marked in Ìgbò. The -lV suffix clearly instantiates past tense in different constructions in gbahù. The study further reveals the existence of the ...

  2. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category...

  3. Past tense marking in the spontaneous speech of preschool children who do and do not stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jessica; Hall, Nancy E; Wagovich, Stacy A; Weber-Fox, Christine M; Ratner, Nan Bernstein

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify whether different patterns of errors exist in irregular past-tense verbs in children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Spontaneous language samples of thirty-one age- and gender-matched pairs of children (total N=62) between the ages of 24 months and 59 months were analyzed. Results indicated that children who do and do not stutter over-regularize irregular past-tense verbs (i.e., saying runned for ran) with comparable frequency. However, two nonsignificant trends which suggest possible intra-group differences were noted. First, irregular past tense verbs represented a greater portion of total verbs for CWS than for CWNS. Second, CWS appeared to double-mark (i.e., say ranned for ran) more often than CWNS. Results are discussed in light of theories about the acquisition of the irregular past-tense and about differences in language skills between CWS and CWNS. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (a) summarize previous findings about connections between stuttering and language in CWS and CWNS; (b) describe similarities and differences between irregular past-tense verb use and errors in CWS and CWNS; (c) discuss possible connections between the declarative-procedural model and stuttering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural correlates of covert and overt production of tense and agreement morphology: Evidence from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielar, Aneta; Milman, Lisa; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2011-03-01

    Most neuroimaging studies examining verb morphology have focused on verb tense, with fewer examining agreement morphology, and no previous fMRI studies have investigated distinctions between past and present tense inflection. However, models of language representation and processing suggest differences in where these inflections are instantiated in the phrase structure as well as differences in the linguistic functions they serve, suggesting unique neural networks for these forms. In addition, results of available neuroimaging studies of grammatical morphology vary considerably due to methodological differences. Some studies have used overt production tasks, whereas others have used covert tasks. In the present study we examined brain activation associated with past tense and present tense/agreement morphology under overt and covert production conditions in 13 healthy adults using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design. Production of verbs inflected for past tense (V + -ed) and present tense/agreement (V -s) was elicited using temporal adverbs (i.e. Yesterday, Nowadays). Results showed that in healthy adults inflecting both past tense and agreement morphology (compared to a verb stem production condition) recruited not only left inferior frontal structures, but also motor and premotor cortices, and posterior parietal regions. Activation also was observed in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and the cingulate gyrus. Past tense and present tense/agreement recruited partially overlapping tissue in these regions, with distinctions observed for the two forms in frontal and parietal brain areas. We also found that activation varied with task demands, with more extensive frontal activation noted in the overt compared to the covert verb inflection task. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the neural signatures for verb inflection differ from that for verb stems alone and involve a distributed frontal and parietal network of brain

  5. Situational Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Süttö, Marián

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on field of leadership, particularly situational leadership model by Hersey and Blanchard. Thesis is mostly theoretical framework aimed to offer the possibility for reader to get overview in leadership issues. Theoretical framework of the thesis is focused on leadership definition, the most important leadership theories in the past, and especially to situational leadership approach. The focus of this thesis is to get detailed insight in this model and therefore offer in...

  6. Comparing Tense Systems: the Primacy of the Pres/Past Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Borik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A way of improving on the description of the English tense system in Reichenbach [1947] is achieved by changing its matrix 3x3 design into a 2x2x2 set up, formed by 3 basic oppositions: • present vs. past • synchronous vs. posterior • incompleted vs. completed action The advantages of the binary system over the Reichenbachian ternary system are the following: • the binary system is completely compositional; • there is no tripartition between Past, Present and Future, but only the basic opposition between Past and Present remains. As we intend to show later, this is empirically supported by the Russian and Polish data; • some concrete problems, for instance, the ambiguity of past perfect with temporal adverbials or more then one configuration for the same tense form [Future Perfect [will have written] or Past Future tense [would write

  7. The Acquisition of Tense in English: Distinguishing Child Second Language from First Language and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Rice, Mabel L.; Crago, Martha; Marquis, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on a comparison of the use and knowledge of tense-marking morphemes in English by first language (L1), second language (L2), and specific language impairment (SLI) children. The objective of our research was to ascertain whether the L2 children's tense acquisition patterns were similar or dissimilar to those of the L1 and SLI…

  8. A Group of Indonesian Adult EFL Students' Mastery of Tenses and Aspects: Investigating the Internal and External Factors of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin; Salikin, Hairus

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed, firstly, to assess a group of Indonesian adult EFL students' mastery of tenses and aspects as part of their mastery of English grammar and, secondly, to identify if their experience of going through the instructional processes, their perceptions of and habits in studying English grammar shaped their mastery of tenses and aspects.…

  9. Past Tense Production in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment across Germanic Languages: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krok, Windi C.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which children with specific language impairment (SLI) across Germanic languages differ from their typically developing (TD) peers in the use of past tense morphology. Method: A systematic literature search identified empirical studies examining regular and/or irregular past tense production by English…

  10. L'anglophone et l'apprentissage du passe en francais (The French Past Tenses and the English Speaking Learner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Victoria

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties English speakers experience in using correctly the various tenses of the past in French, focusing particularly on the imperfect tense. Proposes a series of exercises based on contrastive analysis that gradually lead the learner to restructure his intuitive grammar. (MES)

  11. The problem of predestination: as a prelude to A. N. Prior's tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Per Frederik Vilhelm

    2012-01-01

    by examples discussed in this paper. A particularly important theme is the problem of predestination. This paper presents comprehensive evidence that this theme, which was Prior’s most important single preoccupation as a theological writer, was a most important source of inspiration for his development...... of tense logic. Via questions regarding divine foreknowledge and human free will, predestination was to motivate Prior as a logician to focus on time and tense. Whilst investigating this development, the paper also traces Prior’s parallel development from Calvinist Christian believer to a more agnostic...

  12. Clinical study on the therapeutic role of midodrine in non azotemic cirrhotic patients with tense ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Farid, S; AminAmin, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Midodrine is an α-agonist prodrug of desglymidodrine used for the management of hypotension. Midodrine has demonstrated usefulness in hepatorenal syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present work was to study the role of midodrine in patients with non-azotemic cirrhosis with tense...... ascites. METHODS: This prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study was conducted on 67 non azotemic inpatients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites (52 men and 15 women; age range, 45-72). One patient declined to participate in the study, 33 patients were randomly assigned to take...

  13. Production and processing asymmetries in the acquisition of tense morphology by sequential bilingual children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chondrogianni, Vicky; Marinis, Theodoros

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the production and online processing of English tense morphemes by sequential bilingual (L2) Turkish-speaking children with more than three years of exposure to English. Thirty-nine six- to nine-year-old L2 children and twenty-eight typically developing age-matched monolin......This study investigates the production and online processing of English tense morphemes by sequential bilingual (L2) Turkish-speaking children with more than three years of exposure to English. Thirty-nine six- to nine-year-old L2 children and twenty-eight typically developing age...

  14. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    everyday lives and the spaces we inhabit. Where email and the telephone have broken down barriers of geography, the relationship of technology with physical locations in people’s lives strengthens. From Occupy to the London riots and the Arab Spring, situated technologies offer new ways through which we......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... a plethora of different means for citizens to engage with planning issues within a plethora of different contexts and situations. The dissertation makes contributions of two kinds. Conceptually, it offers a richer understanding of what is implicated in the design of technologies for situated engagement...

  15. Situated communication:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    the power of mainstream images of "indian-ness" through a representation of Kumeyaay culture as living in the present San Diego county area of the U.S.  This case demonstrates the connection between ideology about Native Americans and the online responses which assert Kumeyaay identity as situated...

  16. Deep situationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejskova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    as a Slovak national with immigration experi- ence, a nominal outsider to both the country of research, Germany, and its immigrant subjects, the post-Soviet Russian-speaking migrants. Focusing on the production of time-spaces of proximity as a deeply situational process, I stress in particular the un...

  17. 157 On Tense, Aspect and Negation markings in Ògbahù Dialect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    grammatical categories in gbahù dialect of the Ìgbò language, one of the three major languages of Nigeria, ... grammatical categories (functors) are Tense, Aspect,. Negation and Agreement. The study reveals that both .... Negation is a process or construction in grammatical and semantic analysis that typically expresses the.

  18. The distribution of verb tenses and modals in journal articles' abstracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, this study also discusses the similarities and differences in the use of verb tenses and modals across the four different disciplines, i.e. Health Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Social Sciences. The study used a corpus taken from 100 abstracts of international journal articles. These journal articles ...

  19. Tense and aspect of performatives in isiXhosa | Andrason | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developed within the frames of cognitive linguistics and grammaticalisation theory, the present study analyses the relationship between the performative function in isiXhosa and its grammatical encoding in terms of tense and aspect. The evidence demonstrates that isiXhosa conforms to the cross-linguistically pervasive ...

  20. Why do children learn to say "Broke"? A model of learning the past tense without feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, NA; Anderson, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    Learning the English past tense is characterized by a U-shaped learning function for the irregular verbs. Existing cognitive models often rely on a sudden increase in vocabulary, a high token-frequency of regular verbs, and complicated schemes of feedback in order to model this phenomenon. All these

  1. The Use and Productivity of Past Tense Morphology in Specific Language Impairment: An Examination of Danish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rikke Vang; Hansson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors' primary goal was to investigate the potential of past tense inflection as a clinical marker of Danish specific language impairment (SLI). They also wished to test the predictions of the extended optional infinitive (EOI) account and processing based accounts of SLI on Danish. Method: Using sentence completion and sentence…

  2. Is Danish Difficult to Acquire? Evidence from Nordic Past-Tense Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…

  3. Modeling the learning of the English past tense with memory-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noord, Rik; Spenader, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the acquisition and final state of English past tense inflection has been an ongoing challenge since the mid-eighties. A number of rule-based and connectionist models have been proposed over the years, but the former usually have no explanation of how the rules are learned and the latter

  4. Differentiating SLI from ADHD Using Children's Sentence Recall and Production of Past Tense Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2005-01-01

    Measures of sentence recall and past tense marking were used to examine the similarities and differences between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with specific language impairment (SLI), and typically developing (TD) children. Both SLI and ADHD group means for sentence recall tasks were significantly lower…

  5. Children's Productions of the Affix -"ed" in Past Tense and Past Participle Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2003-01-01

    Children's productions of the affix -"ed" in past tense and past participle contexts (e.g., "the boy kicked the ball" vs. "the ball was kicked") were examined in spontaneous conversations and elicited productions. The performances of 7 children with specific language impairment (SLI) were compared with those of 2 control groups of typically…

  6. A contrastive analysis of mazandarani, farsi and english word order, verbs and tenses

    OpenAIRE

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Nasirahmadi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with contrasting three languages, namely English, Farsi (Persian), and Mazandarani (Tabari). The study followed two main goals: first, providing Mazandarani and Farsi teachers with pedagogical implications in teaching English as a foreign language (EFL); and second, taking a step toward preventing the Mazandarani (Mazani) language from gradual extinction. By comparing the word order, verbs, and tenses of the three aforementione...

  7. Tense Marking in the English Narrative Retells of Dual Language Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusewski, Svenja; Rojas, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study investigated the emergence of English tense marking in young (Spanish-English) dual language learners (DLLs) over 4 consecutive academic semesters, addressing the need for longitudinal data on typical acquisition trajectories of English in DLL preschoolers. Method: Language sample analysis was conducted on 139…

  8. Corrective feedback via e-mail on the correct use of past tense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrective feedback via e-mail on the correct use of past tense among Iranian EFL learners. ... South African Journal of Education ... Feedback strategy provides teachers with information on effective teaching and student comprehension, and encourages them to use technology in a way that reduces anxiety and facilitates ...

  9. Discovering Indicators of Successful Collaboration Using Tense: Automated Extraction of Patterns in Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kate; Kennedy-Clark, Shannon; Wheeler, Penny; Kelly, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for locating indicators of success within the data collected from complex learning environments, proposing an application of e-research to access learner processes and measure and track group progress. The technique combines automated extraction of tense and modality via parts-of-speech tagging with a visualisation…

  10. Towards a Common Language for the Discussion of Time Based on Prior’s Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ? This paper suggests that temporal logic, and in particular the hybrid logic corresponding to A.N. Prior’s 3rd grade of tense-logical involvement, may be useful as a precise conceptual basis of a common language for the formal discussion of time. The paper offers a general investigation of this suggestion...

  11. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch...... the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order...... to support his or her development. This study attempts to give an impulse to more international exchange of clinical terms applied in music therapy. The study was submitted as the first author’s master thesis in Music Therapy at the Aalborg University in Denmark. The second author supervised the process...

  12. Past Tense Production in Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment Across Germanic Languages: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krok, Windi C; Leonard, Laurence B

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the extent to which children with specific language impairment (SLI) across Germanic languages differ from their typically developing (TD) peers in the use of past tense morphology. A systematic literature search identified empirical studies examining regular and/or irregular past tense production by English and non-English Germanic-speaking children with SLI and their TD peers. Data from qualifying studies were extracted and converted to Hedges's g effect sizes. Seventeen English and 8 non-English Germanic studies met inclusionary criteria. Comparing children with SLI and their TD age-matched (TDA) peers resulted in large combined effect sizes for English and non-English Germanic regular and irregular past tense production. Comparisons between children with SLI and their TD younger (TDY) peers also revealed large combined effect sizes for English and non-English Germanic regular past tense production. Effect sizes for studies comparing SLI and TDY irregular past tense production were large for non-English Germanic-speaking children and moderate for English-speaking children. Results suggest that children with SLI across Germanic languages do indeed have more difficulty marking verbs for past tense than TDA and TDY peers. The findings suggest that the potential value of past tense production as a clinical marker of SLI may well extend beyond English.

  13. Systems Concepts for Integrated Air Defense of Multinational Mobile Crisis Reaction Forces (Concepts de systemes pour la defense aerienne integree de forces internationales mobiles d'intervention en situation de crise)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The meeting proceedings from this symposium on System Concepts for Integrated Air Defense of Multinational Mobile Crisis Reaction Forces was organized and sponsored by the Systems Concepts and Integration (SCI...

  14. The Language Situation in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xi

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial societies, forces associated with globalization operate along with local geopolitical changes. The complex and multifaceted interactions between local, national, and global forces may take different sociolinguistic shapes in postcolonial societies. This study provides an overview of the language situation in Macao. The Portuguese…

  15. Language development of bilingual children; The acquisition of tense and aspect in an Italian-Indonesian child: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Soriente

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of temporal expressions in a bilingual child acquiring two typologically distinct languages: Italian and Indonesian.  These languages differ from one another in the way tense and aspect are encoded and it is interesting to observe what kind of cross-linguistic influence one language system has on the other. Italian verbs are heavily inflected for person, number as well as for tense, aspect and mood, whereas, in Indonesian, the encoding of tense and aspect is lexical rather than morphological; moreover encoding is optional when the context is sufficiently clear. This means that tense and aspect in Indonesian is often marked pragmatically rather than grammatically. This paper considers the interference effects that result from simultaneously acquiring these two typologically distinct systems.

  16. Language development of bilingual children; The acquisition of tense and aspect in an Italian-Indonesian child: A case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonia Soriente

    2013-01-01

    ...: Italian and Indonesian.  These languages differ from one another in the way tense and aspect are encoded and it is interesting to observe what kind of cross-linguistic influence one language system has on the...

  17. The Acquisition of Past Tense in English/Norwegian Bilingual Children Single versus Dual Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Jensvoll

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of three Norwegian/English bilingual siblings, their strategies for acquiring past tense of verbs in both languages were examined. Elicitation tests were performed in both languages and the children’s performance and error patterns were examined. These results were then compared to data from monolingual English and Norwegian speaking children. The results are discussed within the framework of the Single Mechanism Account Hypothesis, a Connectionist approach, and the Dual Mechanism Account Hypothesis, a Generative Approach. The current study suggests support for the Dual Mechanism Approach Hypothesis. It seems that the children in the current study did in fact create rules for past tense which they could apply by default.

  18. Using Adele’s “Someone Like You” to Teach Verbs Tenses and Passive Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Ariya Jati

    2014-01-01

    This  paper  is  about  how  to  use  Adele’s  “Someone  Like  You”  to teach tenses and passive forms. Adele’s song lyric was potentially used  in  an  English-as-a  Foreign  Language  (EFL)  classroom.  This study is to provide a practical alternative to the teaching of tenses and  passive  forms. The  teaching  is  performed  in  three  phases namely text  completion, verb  categorization, and  sentence construction. The teaching is expected the students to demonstrate their  receptive  an...

  19. A Study on the Completeness, Finite Verb Tense, and Voice of Coconut Research Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    muhartoyo, muhartoyo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract is a secondary source of scientific information which can help scientists to get the gist of relevant information needed for their study. Scientific article usually provides informative abstracts to facilitate readers to know the essential content of the article. The quality of an abstract depends on the accuracy and completeness of abstract components or elements. This research was intended to find out the completeness of abstract elements, finite verb tenses, and the voice of cocon...

  20. Measuring Change with Multiple Visual Analogue Scales: Application to Tense Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Vautier, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Although the visual analogue scale (VAS) may be useful for measuring change on subjective and potentially transient phenomena, there is concern about the reliability and construct validity of the associated measurement variables. The present study reports evidence for tau-equivalence of change scores associated with VASs designed for assessing tense arousal with synonymous indicators. This psychometric property allows an estimation of the truescore structure of the cro...

  1. A Study on The Completeness, Finite Verb Tense, and Voice of Coconut Research Abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    muhartoyo muhartoyo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract is a secondary source of scientific information which can help scientists to get the gist of relevant information needed for their study. Scientific article usually provides informative abstracts to facilitate readers to know the essential content of the article. The quality of an abstract depends on the accuracy and completeness of abstract components or elements. This research was intended to find out the completeness of abstract elements, finite verb tenses, and the voice of coconut research abstracts. A total of 34 abstracts from the last three-year issues of CORD journal were analyzed. The result of the analysis showed that there were two categories i.e. indicative abstracts (21% and comprehensives abstracts (79%. The most complete informative abstracts consisting of 5 elements accounted for 23%, the informative abstracts with four elements had the highest amount which was 41%, and the informative/comprehensive abstracts with three elements had the least amount which is 15%. It can be concluded that most informative/ comprehensive abstracts contain four elements which are background (introduction, objectives, methodology, and result. Four tenses are usually used in abstract writing; they are simple present, simple past, present and past perfect tense. Both active and passive voices are used in writing abstracts.

  2. Tense, Aspect and Case in Bantu and significance in Translation- The Case of Lulogooli Bible

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    Joyce Imali Wangia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tense and Aspect are morphological features and in some languages like English, they are marked mainly by inflection on the verb. In Bantu languages, the verbal element is characteristically conflated to mark tense and aspect and more often than not, the morphemes marking tense and aspect cannot be isolated. In many instances, they are tonally marked. Thus, a lexical verb may mark three or even more distinctions whose semantic realization is only through tonal variation. Similarly, Case realization is unique compared to for example English that marks possession on the noun and gender distinction on pronouns. This study will examine these features in Lulogooli, a Bantu language spoken in Western Kenya. Lulogooli has only two gender distinctions; male and female but does not use pronouns to mark them. This study proposes to sample data from the Lulogooli bible translation to show why and how improper use of these three grammatical categories leads to mistranslation. The analysis will also contribute to the significance of understanding language typology to translators so as to aid accuracy and effectiveness in translation. The study posits the significance of aspects of linguistic analysis to translation.

  3. INDICATORS OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH IN WOMEN-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS IN SITUATIONS OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF QUINDÍO.

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    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo, analizar el impacto psicosocial que el conflicto armado tiene en la salud mental individual y comunitaria de 30 mujeres cabeza de hogar en situación de desplazamiento forzado en el departamento del Quindío. Para ello se aplicó una ficha de caracterización, la cual indicó que el 53% de las mujeres desplazadas no siente que controla su vida emocional, un 90% no accede a redes de apoyo social y el 70% no cuenta con relaciones de comunicación positiva en la familia. Igualmente, muchas de ellas no tienen oportunidades educativas permanentes (70% considerándose excluidas y señaladas por la comunidad (47%. El estudio indicó que el 80% no ha solicitado asistencia psicológica y que un 67% piensa que la comunidad favorece el acceso a recursos y servicios por lo que su vida cultural y social es activa (70%.Abstract:This research aims to analyze the psychosocial impact caused by the armed conflict both on the individual and the community mental health of 30 women-headed households in a situation of displacement in the State of Quindío. For such a purpose, a characterization card was applied, which showed that 53% of displaced women are not able to control their emotional life, 90% do not have access to social support networks, and 70% do not have positive communication relations within the family. Also, many of them do not have permanent educational opportunities (70% considered themselves excluded and pointed at by the Community (47%. The study indicated that 80% did not request psychological assistance and 67% think that the community favors the access to resources and services, which makes their cultural and social life active (70%

  4. The Present Projects Past Behavior into the Future while the Past Projects Attitudes into the Future: How Verb Tense Moderates Predictors of Drinking Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera, Pilar; Muñoz, Dolores; Caballero, Amparo; Fernández, Itziar; Albarracín, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Three studies examined how the use of the present versus the past tense in recalling a past experience influences behavioral intentions. Experiment 1 revealed a stronger influence of past behaviors on drinking intentions when participants self-reported an episode of excessive drinking using the present tense. Correspondingly, there was a stronger influence of attitudes towards excessive drinking when participants self-reported the episode in the past tense. Experiments 2 and 3 liked this effe...

  5. Simultaneous anterior and posterior compression of the pelvic ring with external fixation using a pre-tensed curved bar: A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo-de-Llano, Alfonso; Perez-Blanca, Ana; Ezquerro, Francisco; Luna-González, Felipe

    2013-12-01

    External fixators continue to be essential tools in the urgent treatment of pelvic fractures for compression and stabilization of the pelvic ring. Current systems fail to produce simultaneous anterior and posterior compression. A modified application of an existing curved bar fixator is proposed using a specifically designed tensioner to pre-tense the bar prior to its connection to Schanz screws. Subsequent pre-tension release and elastic recovery of the bar could potentially compress the pelvis. The aim of this work was to determine if the modified application could produce greater simultaneous compression across the sacroiliac joint and the symphysis of an unstable fractured pelvis than the standard application without pretension. Six synthetic pelvis models with symphyseal and unilateral sacroiliac joints disruptions, simulating a Tile type C pelvic ring fracture, were used. Each specimen was stabilized using two 5mm×250mm supra-acetabular Schanz pins, a couple of open adjustable clamps and a semicircular carbon fibre rod applied without and with pre-tension. Two distances from bar to bone and three levels of pretension were compared. Each pelvis was tested with the six possible parameter combinations. Compressive forces at the disrupted joints were measured using pressure sensitive film sensors. The modified application produced forces significantly higher than the minimal compression achieved with standard application. At the sacroiliac joint, after pre-tension release, mean compressive forces measured ranged from 28.7 to 85.6N. The closest bar-to-bone distance always produced a significantly higher force; similarly, a significant increase in compression was found as the pre-tension level rose. At the symphysis, mean compressive forces between 35.3N and 49.0N were determined. No significant variations were seen with changes of any of the two factors analyzed To pre-tense a semi-circular bar before its use for external fixation of the fractured pelvis, is an

  6. A Group of Indonesian Adult EFL Students’ Mastery of Tenses and Aspects: Investigating the Internal and External Factors of Learning

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    - Muhlisin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed, firstly, to assess a group of Indonesian adult EFL students’ mastery of tenses and aspects as part of their mastery of English grammar and, secondly, to identify if their experience of going through the instructional processes, their perceptions of and habits in studying English grammar shaped their mastery of tenses and aspects. The data were collected through a grammar test and a semi-structured interview. As the study was conducted, the students were sitting in the fourth (last year of their study. Despite having such long instructional experience, however, the findings show that the mastery of tenses and aspects of majority of the students still fell into the “fail” category. Also, their having perception that studying English grammar is important apparently did not shape their mastery of tenses and aspects. What seemed influential as to shaping their mastery was much more related to their habits in studying, the modes of instruction they experienced, and the type of language samples they were exposed to, especially during the process of receiving grammar instruction in the classroom. Keywords: grammatical competence, mastery of tenses and aspects, English as a foreign language

  7. A contrastive-stylistic study into the tense distribution in English and Slovene fictional texts

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    Silvana Orel Kos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses contrastive and narratological issues of the unity vs. diversity of temporal spheres in fictional texts. It focuses on the presentation of mimetic discourse within the past time-sphere narrative, trying to establish the narrative or stylistic functions of the present and past time-sphere verb actions with respect to the role of the narrator or that of the character. the diegetic and mimetic functions of verb actions in certain temporal spheres, ie. tense usage in (free indirect discourse (free direct discourse, will be contrastively studied in original fictional texts and their translations, in both directions between english and Slovene. the character’s mimetic discourse may be presented through different narrative forms, spanning the report-control cline from the forms “in total control” of the character, ie. free direct discourse, to that “apparently in total control” of the narrator, ie. speech act and thought act report (cf. Leech and Short 1981: 324. in addition to the character’s verbal and mental responses, the study includes mediated instances of the character’s sensory responses, the basic formula thus being: He said that/thought that/saw that. Our contrastive analysis considers only fictional texts whose diegesis is rendered   in the narrative past tenses, as the english language system observes the sequence of tenses, while the Slovene language does not. the diegesis of a fictional text may be completely located in the present time-sphere, yet such texts do not present any major issues in terms of contrastive relevance for the studied language pair.

  8. On how Happy Polish Advanced EFL Learners Are with Happy-Tensing

    OpenAIRE

    Olender, Adam; Sypiańska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the production of happY vowel by advanced Polish learners of English. Although happY tensing has become a regular feature of mainstream RP, it is not explicitly taught at English philologies in Poland. There are few studies that deal with the analysis of the phonetic quality of happY by native speakers of English (Fabricius, 2002; Harrington, 2006), and we know of no published studies aimed at EFL learners. The study presented in this paper included 34 Polish ...

  9. Tense and plural formation in Welsh-English bilingual children with and without language impairment.

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    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; John, Nerys

    2018-01-12

    Grammatical morphology has been shown to be problematic for children with specific language impairment (SLI) or developmental language disorder (DLD). Most research on this topic comes from widely spoken languages, such as English. Despite Welsh being the most extensively spoken indigenous in the UK after English, and Wales being the only official bilingual country in the UK, our knowledge about the morphosyntactic areas of Welsh that may pose problems for Welsh-speaking children with SLI is limited. Currently, Welsh-speaking speech and language therapists (SLTs) are heavily reliant on the use of informally translated English assessments. This can inadvertently result in a failure to take aspects of Welsh morphosyntax into account that are critical for the assessment and treatment of Welsh-speaking children. This is the first study to examine how Welsh-English bilingual children of early school age with typical development (bi-TD) and with SLI (bi-SLI) perform on production tasks targeting verbal and nominal morphology in Welsh. We targeted areas of Welsh morphosyntax that could potentially be vulnerable for Welsh-speaking children with or at risk of language impairment, such as tense marking and plural formation, and assessed their diagnostic potential. Twenty-eight Welsh-dominant bilingual children participated in the study: 10 bi-SLI and 18 bi-TD. They were administered three elicitation tasks targeting the production of verbal (compound and synthetic past tense) and nominal (plural) morphology in Welsh. The bi-SLI children performed worse than their bi-TD peers across all three tasks. They produced more uninflected verbs in the elicited-production task and were less likely to be prompted to produce the synthetic past, which is a concatenating, low-frequency form of the past tense. They also over-regularized less in the context of plural nouns, and when they did, they opted for high-frequency suffixes. By focusing on aspects of morphosyntactic development which

  10. An Error Analysis on Using Simple Past Tense by Eleventh Years Students of the Ark Scholl Sidikalang

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Wandi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis entitled “An Error Analysis of Using Simple Past Tense By The Eleventh Year Students Of The Ark School Sidikalang”. The thesis describes the errors made by the eleventh year students in using past tense in writing recount text. The purposes of writing this thesis is to know the types of error and the causes of them. This research uses qualitative method. The population is the eleventh year students of The Ark School Sidikalang which consists of four classes, and totalling the popu...

  11. Production of subject-verb agreement, tense, mood, and negation in Italian agrammatic aphasia.

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    Valantis Fyndanis

    2015-05-01

    At the group level, the results of the agrammatic participants are not consistent with any of the hypotheses discussed here. Contrary to the TUH, participants performed better on tense than on mood. The DMH cannot explain the observed, selective impairment of categories involving inflectional alternations (tense/agreement>mood. Results do not support the TPH, as the higher the category in the syntactic hierarchy (Neg>T(future/past>M (Cinque, 1999; Zanuttini, 2001, the better the performance of agrammatic participants. Lastly, results are at odds with the IFIH, because negation (+integration processes is better preserved than agreement (-integration processes. Analogous results are observed at the individual level. None of the available hypotheses can account for the patterns of performance of all the agrammatic participants. Their results, together with the production results of other agrammatic speakers in the literature, show that all possible patterns can be observed in agrammatism, and that a unitary account of the disorder is unlikely to succeed. We suggest that subject-specific characteristics (e.g., site/type/volume of brain damage, type/severity of language impairment, education, age and language-specific properties of functional categories (e.g., syntactic hierarchy, interpretability/involvement of integration processes, frequency may interact in determining the way in which (morphosyntactic impairments manifest themselves across agrammatic speakers and languages.

  12. Text to Speech Berbasis Natural Language pada Aplikasi Pembelajaran Tenses Bahasa Inggris

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    Amak Yunus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bahasa adalah sebuah cara berkomunikasi secara sistematis dengan menggunakan suara atau simbol-simbol yang memiliki arti, yang diucapkan melalui mulut. Bahasa juga ditulis dengan mengikuti kaidah yang berlaku. Salah satu bahasa yang banyak digunakan di belahan dunia adalah Bahasa Inggris. Namun ada beberapa kendala apabila kita belajar kepada seorang guru atau instruktur. Waktu yang diberikan seorang guru, terbatas pada jam sekolah atau les saja. Bila siswa pulang sekolah atau les, maka yang bersangkutan harus belajar bahasa Inggris secara mandiri. Dari permasalahan di atas, muncul sebuah ide tentang bagaimana membuat sebuah penelitian yang berkaitan dengan pembuatan aplikasi yang mampu memberikan pengetahuan kepada siswa tentang bagaimana belajar bahasa Inggris secara mandiri baik dari perubahan kalimat postif menjadi kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya. Disamping itu, aplikasi ini juga mampu memberikan pengetahuan tentang bagaimana mengucapkan kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris. Pada intinya kontribusi yang dapat diperoleh dari hasil penelitian ini adalah pihak terkait dari tingkat SMP sampai dengan SMU/SMK, dapat menggunakan aplikasi text to speech berbasis natural language processing untuk mempelajari tenses pada bahasa Inggris. Aplikasi ini dapat memperdengarkan kalimat-kalimat pada bahasa inggris dan dapat menyusun kalimat tanya dan kalimat negatif berdasarkan kalimat positifnya dalam beberapa tenses bahasa Inggris. Kata Kunci : Natural language processing, Text to speech

  13. FUTURE TENSE IN TATAR DIALECT LANGUAGE TATAR TÜRKÇESİ AĞIZLARINDA GELECEK ZAMAN

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    Ferit YUSUPOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The plan of Future tense in Tatar dialect language is realized by forms with –yr/-ыр, –achak-ачак, -asy/-асы, –mak/-мак, –galak/-галак. Future tense with –yr/-ыр is represented in all dialects. Therefore it is the core element of the diasystem. For example, forms with –asy/-асы, –achak/–ачак, –mak/-мак, -galak/-галак are represented not in specific systems. For example, forms of Future tense with -asy/-асы, –achak/ –ачак are typical only for some subdialects of the middle (dialect of Kazan Tatars dialect. Nevertheless, these forms are the significant and distinctive features of them. Outside the Tatar dialect language system this isogloss contains Oguz languages.Isogloss of forms with –mak/-мак and –galak/-галак are located only in Baraba dialects. According to the usage the given forms of Future tense the Baraba dialect reveals the definite likeness with Kazakh language (forms with -–mak/-мак from one hand, and with the neighbor Siberian-Turkic languages (-galak/-галак from the other one.The only form of Future tense in Mishar dialect is the form with -yr/-ыр. Mishar dialect also keeps the strict sameness in conjugation of this form. In this case it brings together with other Kipchak languages. Tatar Türkçesi ağızlarında gelecek zaman anlamı -ır, -açaq, -ası, -maq, -ğalaq biçimlerinde gerçekleşir.-ır gelecek zaman biçimi bütün ağızlarda kullanılır ve bundan dolayı diyalektler sisteminin çekirdek unsurlarından sayılır. -ası, -açaq, -maq, -ğalaq biçimleri bütün özel sistemlerde de mevcut değildir. Mesela, -ası, -açak gelecek zaman biçimleri sadece Orta diyalektin bazı ağızları için hastır. Buna rağmen bu biçimler onun önemli tasnifî özelliklerinden sayılırlar.Tatar Türkçesinin diyalektler sisteminin dışında bu izoglos Oğuz dillerini kapsar. -maq, -ğalaq biçimlerinin izoglosu Baraba ağızlarında yer al

  14. Input Subject Diversity Accelerates the Growth of Tense and Agreement: Indirect Benefits from a Parent-Implemented Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Holt, Janet K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This follow-up study examined whether a parent intervention that increased the diversity of lexical noun phrase subjects in parent input and accelerated children's sentence diversity (Hadley et al., 2017) had indirect benefits on tense/agreement (T/A) morphemes in parent input and children's spontaneous speech. Method: Differences in…

  15. Developing the Lift and Shift Game to Introduce Tenses at the Initial Stage to Children as Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidah, Agustina Sri

    2016-01-01

    This research is begun by finding some information that some Primary schools' students, especially in the remote areas have difficulty in identifying tenses, even the simple models. From the students' scores in the pretest, it can be known that most of them were in the very poor category. The condition showed that most of the students did not…

  16. Comparing Generativist and Constructivist Accounts of the Use of the Past Tense Form in Early Child Japanese

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    Tatsumi, Tomoko; Pine, Julian M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated children's early use of verb inflection in Japanese by comparing a generativist account, which predicts that the past tense will have a special default-like status for the child during the early stages, with a constructivist input-driven account, which assumes that children's acquisition and use of inflectional forms…

  17. L1 French Learning of L2 Spanish Past Tenses: L1 Transfer versus Aspect and Interface Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenós-Pons, José; Ahern, Aoife; Gujarro-Fuentes, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the process of acquiring L2s that are closely related to the L1 through data on how adult French speakers learning L2 Spanish in a formal setting develop knowledge and use of past tenses in this L2. We consider the role of transfer and simplification in acquiring mental representations of the L2 grammar, specifically in the…

  18. Second Language Perception and Production of English Regular Past Tense: L1 Influence in Phonology and Morphosyntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of the influence from first language (L1) phonology and morphosyntax on second language (L2) production and perception of English regular past tense morphology. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.) [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC.…

  19. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

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    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  20. Strength of tensed and compressed concrete segments in crack spacing under short-term dynamic load

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    Galyautdinov Zaur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of model describing dynamic straining of reinforced concrete requires taking into account the basic aspects influencing the stress-strain state of structures. Strength of concrete segments in crack spacing is one of the crucial aspects that affect general strain behavior of reinforced concrete. Experimental results demonstrate significant change in strength of tensed and compressed concrete segments in crack spacing both under static and under dynamic loading. In this case, strength depends on tensile strain level and the slope angle of rebars towards the cracks direction. Existing theoretical and experimental studies estimate strength of concrete segments in crack spacing under static loading. The present work presents results of experimental and theoretical studies of dynamic strength of plates between cracks subjected to compression-tension. Experimental data was analyzed statistically; the dependences were suggested to describe dynamic strength of concrete segments depending on tensile strain level and slope angle of rebars to cracks direction.

  1. Employment in Perspective: The Negro Employment Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report analyzes recent developments in the labor-force status of blacks and examines their job situation relative to whites. The recent slowdown in economic activity has had serious repercussions for Negro workers although their situation has deteriorated less than in previous economic declines. Tables provide employment, unemployment, and…

  2. An examination of the associations among multiple memory systems, past tense, and vocabulary in typically developing 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A G; Kidd, Evan

    2012-08-01

    Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to typically developing children's past tense and lexical knowledge. Fifty-eight typically developing children approximately 5 years of age completed a battery of linguistic and nonlinguistic tasks, including tests of vocabulary, past tense production, and procedural and declarative memory. The results showed that declarative and procedural memory were not correlated with either regular or irregular past tense use. A significant correlation was observed between declarative memory and vocabulary. The results of the study were not consistent with the view that the declarative and procedural memory systems support children's use of the regular and irregular past tense. However, evidence was found suggesting that declarative memory supports vocabulary in this age group.

  3. The role of L1 phonology in L2 morphological production: L2 English past tense production by L1 Spanish, Mandarin, and Japanese Speakers.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer; Campos-Dintrans, Gonzalo; Rothman, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Manuscript. Published version in press (Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2017) This study considers the role of L1 phonological influence in L2 English past tense morphology production by native speakers of Spanish, Mandarin, and Japanese. While these L1s share similar phonological restrictions on consonant cluster formation needed for English past tense morphology, differences arise in L1 syntax (only Mandarin lacks syntactic past) and L1 prosodic structure (only Japanese has Engli...

  4. About Stressful Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situation for you right now? It can help to write down your thoughts. For example: My family just ... you feel, given your situation. It can help to write down your feelings, too. For example: I feel ...

  5. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

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    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  6. The role of Broca's area in regular past-tense morphology: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, Timothy; Larsen, Jary; Yang, Jennifer; Davies, Paul de Mornay; Dronkers, Nina; Swick, Diane

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that damage to anterior regions of the left hemisphere results in a dissociation in the perception and lexical activation of past-tense forms. Specifically, in a lexical-decision task in which past-tense primes immediately precede present-tense targets, such patients demonstrate significant priming for irregular verbs (spoke-speak), but, unlike control participants, fail to do so for regular verbs (looked-look). Here, this behavioral dissociation was first confirmed in a group of eleven patients with damage to the pars opercularis (BA 44) and pars triangularis (BA 45) of the left inferior frontal gyrus (i.e., Broca's area). Two conditions containing word-onset orthographic-phonological overlap (bead-bee, barge-bar) demonstrated that the disrupted regular-verb priming was accompanied by, and covaried with, disrupted ortho-phonological priming, regardless of whether prime stimuli contained the regular inflectional rhyme pattern. Further, the dissociation between impaired regular-verb and preserved irregular-verb priming was shown to be continuous rather than categorical; priming for weak-irregular verbs (spent-spend) was intermediate in size between that of regular verbs and strong verbs. Such continuous dissociations grounded in ortho-phonological relationships between present- and past-tense forms are predicted by single-system, connectionist approaches to inflectional morphology and not predicted by current dual-system, rule-based models. Event-related potential data demonstrated that N400 priming effects were intact for both regular and irregular verbs, suggesting that the absence of significant regular-verb priming in the response time data did not result from a disruption of lexical access, and may have stemmed instead from post-lexical events such as covert articulation, segmentation strategies, and/or cognitive control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Some Peculiarities of the Use of Perfect Tense Forms in the Narration of the Holy Martyrs Boris and Gleb

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    A.I. Kuzovenkova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with some results of the analysis of the perfect tense forms functioning in the copies of the Narration of the Holy Martyrs Boris and Gleb created in the 12th – 15th centuries. The relevance and urgency of this problem are determined by the ongoing debates on the semantic and functional status of this preterite. New data on representation of this verbal category in the above mentioned manuscript have been provided. The following texts have been in the focus of attention: the earliest extant copy of the Narration from the Assumption Collection of the 12th – 13th centuries; the copy of the second half of the 14th century from the Sylvester Codex; and the copy of the 15th century from the Book of Degrees of the Royal Genealogy. The complete set of examples of the perfect tense forms functioning has shown that the verbal form appeared in this literary manuscript due to the following reasons: 1 usage, as a rule, in the direct (or indirect discourse; 2 intention to avoid the homonymous forms of 2 and 3 person singular that occurred in the aorist paradigm; 3 interaction with present, imperative forms in the context. The later copies of the Narration reveal the expansion of the perfect tense forms usage, their penetration into the monologic narrative context. The conclusion on the stylistic nature of perfect tense forms as of an oral speech phenomenon has been made on the basis of the copies of the Narration that occurred at different times and the scientific literature on this problem.

  8. Using Adele’s “Someone Like You” to Teach Verbs Tenses and Passive Forms

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    Ariya Jati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This  paper  is  about  how  to  use  Adele’s  “Someone  Like  You”  to teach tenses and passive forms. Adele’s song lyric was potentially used  in  an  English-as-a  Foreign  Language  (EFL  classroom.  This study is to provide a practical alternative to the teaching of tenses and  passive  forms. The  teaching  is  performed  in  three  phases namely text  completion, verb  categorization, and  sentence construction. The teaching is expected the students to demonstrate their  receptive  and  productive  skills in  English  language  by  using the lyric. (By such a teaching, the students are expected to be able to demonstrate  their  receptive  and  productive  skills  in  English language by using the lyric.Makalah ini tentang penggunaan lirik “Someone Like You” karya Adele untuk mengajarkan kala dan bentuk pasif. Lirik lagu Adele tersebut  dapat  digunakan  di  dalam    kelas  dengan  bahasa  Inggris sebagai  bahasa  asing. Kajian  ini  untuk  memberikan  alternatif praktis  bagi  pengajaran  kala    dan  bentuk  pasif  bagi  mahasiswa EFL. Pengajaran dilakukan dalam tiga tahap, yaitu: pengisian teks, kategorisasi  kata  kerja, dan  penyusunan kalimat.  Pengajaran  ini diharapkan  dapat  memungkinkan  mahasiswa  menampilkan keterampilan  reseptif  dan  produktif  mereka  dalam  berbahasa Inggris melalui lirik tersebut.

  9. Effects of deafness on acoustic characteristics of American English tense/lax vowels in maternal speech to infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Dilley, Laura C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mothers exaggerate phonetic properties of infant-directed (ID) speech. However, these studies focused on a single acoustic dimension (frequency), whereas speech sounds are composed of multiple acoustic cues. Moreover, little is known about how mothers adjust phonetic properties of speech to children with hearing loss. This study examined mothers’ production of frequency and duration cues to the American English tense/lax vowel contrast in speech to profoundly deaf (N = 14) and normal-hearing (N = 14) infants, and to an adult experimenter. First and second formant frequencies and vowel duration of tense (/i/, /u/) and lax (/I/, /ʊ/) vowels were measured. Results demonstrated that for both infant groups mothers hyperarticulated the acoustic vowel space and increased vowel duration in ID speech relative to adult-directed speech. Mean F2 values were decreased for the /u/ vowel and increased for the /I/ vowel, and vowel duration was longer for the /i/, /u/, and /I/ vowels in ID speech. However, neither acoustic cue differed in speech to hearing-impaired or normal-hearing infants. These results suggest that both formant frequencies and vowel duration that differentiate American English tense/lx vowel contrasts are modified in ID speech regardless of the hearing status of the addressee. PMID:22894224

  10. A SURVEY OF STUDIES ON THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES IN NORTH SAMOYEDIC LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Klesment

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available There are too few devices in Samoyedic languages toexpress a completed/ accomplished action, so one of the ways to do it is justthe use of perfect and pluperfect. Samoyedic languages have no common markersfor moods and tenses, only a few of them occur in most of the languagesmentioned. The Samoyedic system of conjugation is mainly based on verbal nouns,its mood and temporal markers mostly coincide with participle and gerundmarkers. The Tundra Nenets perfect is formed by means of the participle markers, the pluperfect – by means of the compoundmarker . In Enetsthe marker -bi as indicates anearlier meaning of the perfective participle that has disappeared by now, thepluperfect is formed by means of the compound suffixes . In Nganasan the marker expresses the past, more exactly theperfective preterit. The perfect has the compound marker -bV (-hV­+ -tV . Both perfect and pluperfect are used widelyin the languages under observation, particularly in folkloristic texts. Theformation and the use of perfect and pluperfect are mostly similar. As far asthe Samoyedic participle marker -bVis concernd, then G. J. Ramstedt (1952 refers to the Turkic perfect-gerundmarker -p (-yp, -up and to theMongol preterit perfect marker -bai,-bei, -ba, -be.

  11. Cognition, Grammaticalization and Syntactic Change. The emergence of Compound Tenses in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical process of the grammaticalization of aver/ter ‘to have’ in compound tenses, since Portuguese is somewhat isolated among Romance languages in this respect. Our research has shown that the change in auer/ter, from indicating possession to acting as auxiliaries, involved a process of recategorization similar to that seen with the verbs “go”, “come” and “have” in some languages, sharing with them a fundamental characteristic: the fact that in one phase of the transition constructions developed which were capable of being interpreted in both ways (expressing both result and time. Thus, as in those languages, the process of recategorizing involves an intermediate step of structural ambiguity whereby a given construction can be interpreted in two different ways. We will try to clarify the gradual process of reanalysis of ter in the medieval period, based on a corpus of original juridical sources (13th – 16th centuries which we have transcribed, originating from a particularly important centre in medieval Portuguese culture, the monastery of Alcobaça (between Coimbra and Lisbon. The corpus consists of 153 original documents not only from the monastery but also from the outlying areas under its jurisdiction, dating from between 1289 and 1565.

  12. From Vitality to Vital Exhaustion and Other States of "Tense Tiredness": A New Biopsychosocial Risk Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Alan; Cohen, Randy

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is a common prodromal symptom for various medical conditions, including acute myocardial infarction. Fatigue is also the core component of vital exhaustion, which consists of a specific triad: excessive fatigue, increased irritability, and feelings of demoralization. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Frestad and Prescott present a meta-analysis of 16 studies, involving 53,337 participants, which found vital exhaustion to be associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and recurrent cardiac events among individuals with established CHD. After discussing methodological limitations of the studies included in this meta-analysis, we describe these findings in terms of a larger genre of risk that is biopsychosocial in origin and tied to two types of tiredness: "calm tiredness" and "tense tiredness." The former is regenerative, while the latter enhances disease risk. We propose that besides vital exhaustion, other symptoms of negative affect may combine with tiredness to produce increased clinical risk, such as the presence of depressed mood, an inability to relax or recover after work, and symptoms of burnout. We further propose that vital exhaustion can be considered as part of a larger paradigm, ranging from a positive state of vitality to a negative state of exhaustion of vitality. We conclude this editorial by emphasizing the importance of improving vitality and the need to clarify biobehavioral mechanisms that play a role in the association between vital exhaustion and adverse CHD outcomes. New interventions are needed that target reducing exhaustion and improving vitality for individuals at high risk of CHD.

  13. ERRORS IN THE USE OF ENGLISH TENSES ERRORES EN EL USO DE LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN INGLÉS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gloria Garrido

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an error analysis investigation carried out in Concepción, Chile, with a group of forty-eight native speakers of Spanish studying to become EFL teachers at Universidad San Sebastián. All participants were first year students who had studied English tenses and aspects for a year. The objectives of this investigation were the identification of students' errors regarding the use of tenses and aspects in English, the design of a hierarchy of difficulty and the explanation of main errors. According to the results obtained, after a year of formal instruction, students still showed problems with the correct use of English tenses and aspects. The main problem was accurately matching tenses and aspects to different contexts. Findings provide useful information to design remedial programmes to help students become successful in the use of English tenses and aspects.Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación basada en el análisis de errores realizada en Concepción, Chile, con un grupo de cuarenta y ocho hablantes de español que estudian Pedagogía en Inglés en la Universidad San Sebastián. Todos los participantes eran alumnos de primer año que habían estudiado tiempos verbales y aspectos del inglés durante un año. El trabajo tuvo como objetivos la identificación de errores en relación al uso de tiempos verbales y aspectos en inglés; el diseño de una jerarquía de dificultades y la explicación de los principales errores. De acuerdo con los resultados, después de un año, los alumnos presentan problemas con el uso correcto de los tiempos verbales y aspectos, siendo el uso de acuerdo al contexto el mayor problema. Los resultados de esta investigación entregan información para el diseño de programas que ayuden a los alumnos a usar con éxito los tiempos y aspectos del inglés.

  14. Os pretéritos mais-que-perfeito simples e imperfeito sob a ótica da iconicidade e da gramaticalização Pluperfect and imperfect tenses from the perspective of iconicity and grammaticalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Di Palma Back

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe-se a demonstrar que os pretéritos mais-que-perfeito simples e imperfeito do subjuntivo são formas que codificam várias funções em Língua Portuguesa. Parte-se da premissa de que não há relação categórica de um-para-um entre função e forma. Apresentamos, inicialmente, o princípio da iconicidade e os princípios de gramaticalização, com o propósito de, ao final deste artigo, mostrar que se aplicam aos dados sob análise. Na sequência, ilustramos a multifuncionalidade do pretérito mais-que-perfeito simples (em perspectiva diacrônica e do pretérito imperfeito do subjuntivo (em perspectiva sincrônica, considerando-se como motivações para essa multifuncionalidade as categorias Tempo e Modalidade. Os resultados apontam a Modalidade, pela generalização do traço irrealis, como fator que desencadeia mudanças tanto de tempo como de ponto de referência. Os pretéritos sob análise migram de passado com ponto de referência passado ao futuro: o mais-que-perfeito simples passa a codificar projeção futura e o imperfeito do subjuntivo, a codificar situações menos referenciais e menos factuais.This paper aims at demonstrating that preterit forms such as the pluperfect and the imperfect subjuntive tenses are forms that encode various functions in Portuguese. It is assumed that there is no categorical one-to-one relationship between form and function. Initially, iconicity and grammaticalization principles are presented in order to show how they function in relation to the data under analysis. Next, we illustrate the multifunctionality of the pluperfect (in diachronic perspective and the imperfect subjuntive tense (in synchronic perspective considering Time and Modality as the motivation for such multifunctionality. The results point to the generalization of the irrealis feature modality as a factor that triggers changes in both time and reference point. The tenses under review migrate from past with past

  15. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  16. Cranfield situation awareness scale :

    OpenAIRE

    Dennehy, K.

    1997-01-01

    Training to enhance situation awareness depends upon having satisfactory quantitative methods for measuring situation awareness. Until the development of the Cranfield-SAS, there was no direct subjective rating scale to measure the situation awareness of student (ab initio) civil pilots (see appendix 4 for an overview of the measurement guidelines for an overview of the measurement guidelines for scale development). The development of the scale was part requirement for a Ph.D. at Cranfield Un...

  17. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  18. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  19. Teaching Grammar: The Use Of The English Auxiliary “BE” Present Tense Verb Among Malaysian Form 4 And Form5 Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jishvithaa.M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to explore the usage of the English Auxiliary “Be” Present Tense Verb, using corpus based method among Malaysian form 4 and form 5 students. This study is conducted by identifying and classifying the types of errors in the Auxiliary “Be” Present Tense verb in students’ compositions from the MCSAW corpus developed by (Mukundan&RezvaniKalajahi, 2013. 273 Form 5 sample essays and 295 Form 4 sample essays were taken from four different national schools where the schools were from four different states. The errors made in the written usage of the English Auxiliary “Be” Present Tense verb were evaluated and analyzed using the Wordsmith software version 4. The findings revealed that there are three types of errors which are the “Tense shift, Agreement and Misuse”. The results show that there were more errors made by the form 4s compared to the form 5s even though the difference of the frequencies of errors produced by both the levels were not of much difference. Therefore, the findings of this study can be used as a guide in enabling secondary school teachers to revise and be more prepared in their teaching instructions, materials and procedures. It will help teachers look into the possible remedial actions which could be taken into consideration to overcome the problems faced by Malaysian secondary school students in using the Auxiliary “Be” Present Tense verb.

  20. Emotionally-intense situations can result in rhabdomyolysis in McArdle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Stefen; Godfrey, Richard; Scalco, Renata S; Quinlivan, Ros M

    2014-10-07

    Despite the majority of patients with McArdle disease reporting symptoms including fatigue, cramps and episodes of myoglobinuria from early childhood, diagnosis is often delayed by several decades. Additionally, many individuals with rhabdomyolysis remain undiagnosed. The occurrence of symptoms during exercise, particularly isometric muscle contraction such as heavy lifting, is well known in McArdle disease. However, isometric muscle contraction that occurs with emotion is not recognised as exercise and may be missed as a trigger for rhabdomyolysis, potentially leading to a delay in diagnosis. Three patients are presented here, all with symptoms from childhood including episodes of rhabdomyolysis induced by tense emotional situations without physical exertion; two patients reported recurrent episodes while watching rather than playing football. The remaining patient developed rhabdomyolysis during a heated argument. These patients' histories emphasise the risk from sustained isometric muscle contraction that occurs in emotive situations for patients with McArdle disease. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Safety Domain Measurement for Vessels in an Overtaking Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Zhi Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine traffic engineering has been pushed to the limits due to a rising demand in the shipping business. Merchant ships are growing dramatically, both in numbers and in size. To keep pace with current developments, automation seems to be one viable option when it comes to keeping ships running with fewer seafarers available. The aim of this paper is to monitor a modern day mariners’ performance while working in a tense situation. The objective is to define the size of the safety domain whilst overtaking a vessel. The approach was to assess the ship's domain area within a 3 nm wide traffic separation scheme by using a ship handling simulator. From the simulation results, an overtaking domain was determined as 1.36 nm long and 0.4 nm wide. Safety domains in real-life situations were experienced on a much smaller scale compared to the previous findings. The working load for this particular operation is expected to be stressful and highly skilled orientated.

  2. A Situational Change Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Kotze, Robin

    1972-01-01

    The trainer or internal change agent in a firm undergoing an organizational development program may be instrumental in designing the implementation of a change strategy. Proposes a situational change typology which may be of use as a training instrument. (Author)

  3. Situational major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, R M; Klerman, G L; Andreasen, N C; Clayton, P J; Keller, M B

    1985-11-01

    Fifty-seven patients with situational major depression diagnosed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria were compared with 72 subjects with nonsituational major depression on demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables. The situational patients tended to be younger and had fewer prior episodes of depression and fewer hospitalizations. No differences were found in categories of life events, in overall clinical picture, in social supports, or in family history.

  4. Marking of verb tense in the English of preschool English-Mandarin bilingual children: evidence from language development profiles within subgroups on the Singapore English Action Picture Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Liow, Susan Rickard

    2016-01-01

    The phonological and morphosyntactic structures of English and Mandarin contrast maximally and an increasing number of bilinguals speak these two languages. Speech and language therapists need to understand bilingual development for children speaking these languages in order reliably to assess and provide intervention for this population. To examine the marking of verb tense in the English of two groups of bilingual pre-schoolers learning these languages in a multilingual setting where the main educational language is English. The main research question addressed was: are there differences in the rate and pattern of acquisition of verb-tense marking for English-language 1 children compared with Mandarin-language 1 children? Spoken language samples in English from 481 English-Mandarin bilingual children were elicited using a 10-item action picture test and analysed for each child's use of verb tense markers: present progressive '-ing', regular past tense '-ed', third-person singular '-s', and irregular past tense and irregular past-participle forms. For 4-6 year olds the use of inflectional markers by the different language dominance groups was compared statistically using non-parametric tests. This study provides further evidence that bilingual language development is not the same as monolingual language development. The results show that there are very different rates and patterns of verb-tense marking in English for English-language 1 and Mandarin-language 1 children. Furthermore, they show that bilingual language development in English in Singapore is not the same as monolingual language development in English, and that there are differences in development depending on language dominance. Valid and reliable assessment of bilingual children's language skills needs to consider the characteristics of all languages spoken, obtaining accurate information on language use over time and accurately establishing language dominance is essential in order to make a

  5. Seeking Sustainable Solutions in Protracted Refugee Situations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refugees in Africa are forced to fl ee their homelands because of ongoing conflicts, persecution and humanitarian crises in their countries. Refugees constitute one of Africa's most complex challenges, and in many regions protracted refugee situations (PRSs) have developed. This means that refugees have lived in host ...

  6. The role of age of acquisition on past tense generation in Spanish-English bilinguals: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Eric J; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2013-04-01

    At its most basic sense, the sensorimotor/emergentist (S/E) model suggests that early second language (L2) learning is preferentially reliant upon sensory and motor processes, while later L2 learning is accomplished by greater reliance on executive abilities. To investigate the S/E model using fMRI, neural correlates of L2 age of acquisition were examined by employing a past-tense generation task on 22 L2 proficient bilinguals. Early bilinguals preferentially recruited left hemisphere sensorimotor regions involved in motoric control and articulation. In contrast, later learners, to a greater degree, engaged regions involved in executive cognitive control and lexical access. The data support the notion that early L2 learners devote neural resources to motor control during lexical retrieval. In contrast, later L2 learners recruit executive control mechanisms to generate the past tense. These data are consistent with the S/E model of bilingual language learning, and serve as an extension of cognitive control theories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Dangling model in the construction of compound sentences with regard to verb tenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehravaran

    2016-02-01

    the mistakes of some of the grammars. This research project has for the first time introduced constructive models of compound sentences in a comprehensive research taking in to account the tense of the verbs. The primary question in this research project is which kind of sentences can be considered as compound and what is the constructive of such a sentence? When defining a compound sentences, grammarians either shave the same beliefs or differ in their ideas. But all grammarians agree to the fact that a compound sentences has more than one verb. Different definitions are due to different criteria adapted in constructing a compound sentences. To construct a noun, and adjective, a verb and a sentence we should take similar and precise criteria to our consideration. In the grammatical units of noun, adjectives, and verbs construction means connecting two or more parts that can convey one similar meaning and its parts are dependent upon one another.  In the construction of compound sentences there must be the same criteria so that its applications can be truly recognized and identified just like the previously mentioned grammatical units. The first step to arrive at a criterion in defining and identifying compound sentences, is to separate this discussion from connective sentences that are relate to each other with connectives are called connective sentences. But sentences which are constructed with dependent making connectives and their parts are dependent upon one another are called compound sentences. Therefore the signs of compound sentences with regard to constructions and the meaning of criterion are as follows: 1 They have more than one verb. 2 The consistence of two or more dependent phrases. 3 Phrases construct a complete sentences all together and convey one similar message. 4 One of the phrases is the main clause and the other one is the subordinate one. 5 The phrases or subordinate clauses can be related to one of the major parts and they can take a

  8. Planning as situated design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    and situated, too. In this presentation it will be argued that the investigation of systematic planning as conflictual cooperation will help us see that situated activity is not only based on the present conditions, but also relates them to events spread out in time and space, thereby opening up for another......It is common to associate situated activity with concrete, craftlike or manual activity here and now and to reserve theoretical and abstract thinking for activities like theoretical experimentation and systematic planning. Much work has gone into demonstrating that these activities are concrete...... understanding of theoretical thinking. Some material from the empirical research project developed with Klaus Nielsen on the design and engineering of a house will be presented. On this basis a conception of planning will be unfolded. It will be understood differently from the way it is understood...

  9. Personalizing situation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  10. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  11. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture...... of the 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  12. Leadership: Dispositional and Situational. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    block number) For over four decades, leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics... leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics (contexts), or some combination of...Situational 3 Leadership : Dispositional and Situational The person-situation debate has been a key issue in several areas of psychology and management

  13. Learning through Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why...

  14. Dealing with Problematic Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to outline a holistic answer to the following question: How to deal with problematic situations? A framework of a modern approach, a new meta-discipline, based on knowledge and experience from several other disciplines will be presented. We are focusing in those...

  15. Challenging Fieldwork Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Thomas; Østergaard Steenfeldt, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Researching two different work settings, police work and hospice care, the authors experienced a strange sense of discomfort in their bodies during their fieldwork when investigating professional training and work situations, especially in encounters with citizens and patients. In some of those...

  16. The Facilitative Role of L1 Influence in Tense-Aspect Marking: A Comparison of Hispanophone and Anglophone Learners of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Jesus; Collins, Laura

    2008-01-01

    English learners of French whose first language (L1) does not mark the perfective/imperfective distinction have shown verb semantic influence and an overall preference for perfective over imperfective in their use of second language (L2) tense-aspect markers. This study investigated whether learners whose L1 marks the perfective/imperfective…

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Therapy Based around Shape Coding to Develop the Use of Regular Past Tense Morphemes in Two Children with Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amit; Pring, Tim; Ebbels, Susan

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that difficulties with tense and agreement marking are a core feature of language impairment. Hence, studies are required that analyse the effectiveness of intervention in this area, including consideration of whether changes seen in therapy sessions generalize to spontaneous speech. This study assessed the effectiveness of…

  18. Tracking the Growth of Tense and Agreement in Children With Specific Language Impairment: Differences Between Measures of Accuracy, Diversity, and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B; Haebig, Eileen; Deevy, Patricia; Brown, Barbara

    2017-12-20

    Composite measures of children's use of tense and agreement morphology differ in their emphasis on accuracy, diversity, or productivity, yet little is known about how these different measures change over time. An understanding of these differences is especially important for the study of children with specific language impairment, given these children's extraordinary difficulty with this aspect of grammar. We computed 3 types of composite scores from spontaneous speech samples obtained from 17 preschoolers with specific language impairment before, during, and after their participation in a language intervention study. These measures were the Finite Verb Morphology Composite (a measure of accuracy), the Tense Marker Total (a measure of diversity), and the Productivity Score (a measure of productivity). The 3 measures differed in their growth trajectories. Sample size did not alter the linear or quadratic nature of growth of any composite, although it did affect the absolute values found for the Tense Marker Total and Productivity Score. Even when sample size is controlled, early growth can be seen in tense and agreement accuracy with relatively limited diversity and productivity, whereas later growth in diversity and productivity can occur with very little change in accuracy.

  19. An Investigation into the Tense/Aspect Preferences of Turkish Speakers of English and Native English Speakers in Their Oral Narration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Erdogan; Genc, Bilal

    2007-01-01

    The study of SLA began around the beginning of the 70s with the emergence of both theoretical and empirical studies. Undoubtedly, the acquisition of tense/aspect, besides other topics, has attracted much interest from researchers. This study investigated the use of telic and atelic verb forms in the oral production of Turkish speakers of English…

  20. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  1. Situating beyond the social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine Bønnelykke

    2016-01-01

    it is applied to contemporary Danish nursing education are introduced. One issue that has arisen is the analytical requirement for an educational program to be a homogeneous, singular, and social phenomenon thereby discounting the varied and different sites and materialities found within nursing education......Situated learning serves as an analytical framework for learning in a community of practice and has been widely used to understand the learning process that is entailed in becoming a nurse. Yet in this paper, the difficulties encountered with the original notion of situated learning once...... framework. I suggest the notion of multi-configured learning, which captures the heterogeneity and materiality encountered during ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish nursing school....

  2. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  3. Den retoriske situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen, som er skrevet på baggrund af et oplæg, som jeg holdt på  Årsmødet for Sektionen for Gymnasium og HF i Helsingør, oktober 2009, plæderer for anvendelsen af Lloyd F. Bitzers teori om den retoriske situation i retorikundervisningen i gymnasiet. I artiklen benytter jeg Bitzers teori som en...

  4. [Postural control depends on testing situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbanski, Stephan; Schmidtbleicher, Ditmar

    2010-09-01

    Most often postural control is evaluated in posturography, i. e. in a static testing condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations and differences between posturography and dynamic testing situations to get information about the informative value of static testing situations on dynamic conditions. 40 healthy subjects participated in this study (m=23; w=17; age: 23.8±2.9 years; height: 177.0±8.5 cm; weight: 71.5±10.5 kg). Subjects were tested on their ability to maintain postural stability on a force platform (posturography, static condition) and on a movable and instable plate (dynamic condition). Furthermore, we analyzed balance correcting responses to a standardised disturbance of postural stability. EMG-activity was recorded of the following muscles: m. tibialis anterior, m. gastrocnemius lateralis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, and m. erector spinae. Pearson's Correlations were used to examine the relationship between postural control in static and in dynamic testing situations. Student's t-tests were used to examine differences in several parameters between static and dynamic testing situations. Comparisons of postural control in static and in dynamic conditions lead to marginal correlations between performances in these test situations (r=-0.02 to r=0.45). Moreover, EMGactivity showed changes concerning quantitative parameters and coordination patterns. Regarding correlations and analyses of EMG-activity we hypothesised different postural control strategies depending on each testing situation. Therefore, postural control seems not to be a generalizable ability. These data suggest that there is doubt on the use of posturography in static condition to predict performance in dynamic situations that could induce falls in elderly people or injuries in athletes. It appears comprehensible that dynamic testing situations are more suitable.

  5. The use of tenses and moods, translation of fixed expressions, idioms, metaphorical phrasal constructs and changes in the Polish version of 'I dodici abati di Challant'. How to overcome the limitations of a linguistic system?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudio Salmeri

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on a few examples, such as the use of grammatical tenses and moods, differences in the syntax, and the problems of translating idiomatic and metaphoric expressions, the paper aims to compare...

  6. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the productions of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...... and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces. Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become...

  7. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, there is a century-old tradition of dwellings that can be adapted, rebuilt and recycled regardless of time and place. Functionalism broke with this tradition and created the function-determined dwelling, which was planned on the basis of functional analyses and analyses...... of the average family's lifestyle. These dwellings were ground-breaking when they were built, but today are clearly a product of their time. The reaction to functionalism and the postwar mass production gave rise to flexible dwelling with countless possibilities for room division. The housing of this period has...... for living. The suitable condition consists of the dwelling's ability for physical displacement, spatial changes that can suit changing life styles. The situational condition is the not defined, the unfinished and the transitory, which continuously challenges the imagination and calls for the experiment. Our...

  8. Management Re-situated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The purpose of this paper is to examine ways to situate management within philosophy, that is, ways to analyze the philosophical assumptions in management history, theory and practice. Since Burrell and Morgan suggested the idea that “all theories of organization are based upon philosophy...... of science“ (Burrell & Morgan, 1979:1), philosophical reflections in terms of a series of “isms” informed by different schools or paradigms (such as positivism, structuralism, phenomenology, critical theory, and so on and so forth) have been a central part of management studies. Thus, today, it has become...... common sense to categorize different approaches to management according to their assumptions of ontology, epistemology and methodology. My paper will argue first (1) that, although sometimes very abstract and obtuse writing that seems to owe more to competition among academics than to illumination...

  9. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  10. Sizing Up the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  11. Awareness Through Agility: Teenagers as a Model for Terrorist Development of Situational Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheffer, Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    .... Alternatively, the teenage communications model provides an evolutionary concept of operations for Allied forces to develop a highly flexible tactical situational awareness in urban environments...

  12. The Use of Armed Force, Weapons of Mass Destruction and the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Blix

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available At the present time we do not see any risk of major powers using armed force against each other. The relations between the great powers are not exactly relaxed, but they are also not tense. All pursue the market economy of various shapes and shades as their economic model. All are bent on pragmatism. After the end of the Cold War European countries do not see Russia as a military threat and many states in Europe are reorienting their armed forces from defense of their own territory to use in international peacekeeping or peace-enforcing operations.

  13. The present is a thing of the past: Possible linguistic motivations for the ‘present tense writing tradition’ in Afrikaans prose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Breed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There exists a long-standing tradition in Afrikaans creative writing to present narrative prose in the present tense, and not in the simple past as in English and Dutch. It is, however, difficult to prove the existence of such a tradition or to conduct a literature survey in order to determine the reasons for the origin and perpetuation of this tradition. This article firstly demonstrates from a creative writing perspective that the ‘present tense writing tradition’ does exist in Afrikaans. Secondly, two possible motivations for this tradition are proposed from a linguistic perspective. The goal of this article is not to question the validity of this tradition, but rather to open a discussion on the legitimacy of the tradition, as well as the implication it has for the writing, reading and interpretation of Afrikaans literary works.

  14. Reference and discursive roles of the verbal paradigm future tense (futuro simples do indicativo in Brazilian Portuguese in the narrative text Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blažka Müller Pograjc

    2017-12-01

    Although Budapest is a narrative text which is particularly marked by the verbal paradigms of the past series, in four text sequences seven occurrences of the future are present. Based on an analysis of these sequences, it could be claimed that the occurrence of the future tense signals that the narrative is oriented to the present sphere of the narrator, and thus to a moment of storytelling. By considering this transition, characterized also by the presence of the future tense marking the temporal values of ‘futurity’ and the modal values of ‘certainty’ and ‘non-realisation’, it can be observed that it occurs in the text sequences of Budapest within various narrative strategies. There is thus to be considered the transition from the narration to the description, the description in the descriptive sequence, and the dialogues in the dialogue fragment when the narrator uses the process of integrating the direct discourse of the protagonists in the narration.

  15. Factors affecting accuracy of past tense production in children with specific language impairment and their typically developing peers: the influence of verb transitivity, clause location, and sentence type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Amanda J

    2010-08-01

    The author examined the influence of sentence type, clause order, and verb transitivity on the accuracy of children's past tense productions. All groups of children, but especially children with specific language impairment (SLI), were predicted to decrease accuracy as linguistic complexity increased. The author elicited past tense productions in 2-clause sentences from 5- to 8-year-old children with SLI (n=14) and their typically developing peers (n=24). The target sentences varied in the type and obligatory nature of the second clause and the number of arguments. On average, 85% of the responses across all groups and sentence types contained 2 clauses. Fewer 2-clause sentences were produced in the complement clause condition than in the other conditions. Sentence type and clause order, but not argument structure, influenced use of past tense. Children with SLI had a similar but less accurate profile as compared with the age-matched group. The younger mean length of utterance (MLU)-matched group reflected decreased accuracy with each additional source of linguistic complexity. Increased syntactic difficulty decreases use of morphology for all children, supporting the hypothesis that processing demands influence morphological accuracy. MLU-matched children, but not children with SLI, were more affected by changes in linguistic complexity. Further work on age-related changes in sentence production is necessary.

  16. DEBATING ABOUT SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen CÎRSTEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the cirumstances of every day life which requires the need to adapt the leadership style. Leadership needs a lot of abilities and skills, including the capability to communicate. The paper deals with leader’s need of changing the style of leading as organizational circumstances change. The process is efficient only when the leaders and the followers have the right climate. The importance of this process is reflected in the productivity of the organization. As the economic climate changes the leadership style needs to be changed and also the style of communication throughout the leader coaches, coordinates, evaluates and supervises. Leadership is about organizing a group of people to achieve a goal. The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence, among others. This paper describes the styles of leadership which the leaders must use and switch when is needed in comparison with what leadership is about.

  17. Carsharing situation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing is becoming very popular in the western world as an effective method to contain rising prices of fuel and vehicles. It was brought about as a possible solution to the changing condition of growing economies and population where there is an increased need for travel but there is also a need for expense economizing. Due to its role in reducing fuel consumption, controlling pollution and traffic congestion, there is an increased usage of carsharing services as an alternative transportation option in big cities. Today, worldwide several different carsharing methods are being used. This paper examines the current situation of carsharing in the world and two initiatives for starting carsharing programs in Croatia. The main goal of this paper is to define what carsharing is, how successful it is in the world and if there is potential for it in Croatia. The most developed carsharing regions in the world are Western Europe and North America. In the last several years Asia, Australia and South America have started carsharing projects and have the biggest growth in members and vehicles. Carsharing is still not recognized in Croatia. There were a few initiatives for starting the program but they failed. In order to determine the possibility and potential of carsharing in Croatia it is necessary to conduct further market research.

  18. Solutions for Hot Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  19. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  20. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  1. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  2. The effectiveness of visual input enhancement on the noticing and L2 development of the Spanish past tense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Loewen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Textual manipulation is a common pedagogic tool used to emphasize specific features of a second language (L2 text, thereby facilitating noticing and, ideally, second language development. Visual input enhancement has been used to investigate the effects of highlighting specific grammatical structures in a text. The current study uses a quasi-experimental design to determine the extent to which textual manipulation increase (a learners’ perception of targeted forms and (b their knowledge of the forms. Input enhancement was used to highlight the Spanish preterit and imperfect verb forms and an eye tracker measured the frequency and duration of participants’ fixation on the targeted items. In addition, pretests and posttests of the Spanish past tense provided information about participants’ knowledge of the targeted forms. Results indicate that learners were aware of the highlighted grammatical forms in the text; however, there was no difference in the amount of attention between the enhanced and unenhanced groups. In addition, both groups improved in their knowledge of the L2 forms; however, again, there was no differential improvement between the two groups.

  3. Contrastive grammar and culture: the alternation of verbal forms in the interaction of tense, mood and aspect in translation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Guimarães Savedra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In studies based on the theme of languages in/of contact, the process of language acquisition is treated as a relative process, which involves many factors determined by the context of acquisition and of topical and dynamic uses of languages in different communicative environments. In these studies it is possible to identify that next to sociolinguistic and sociocultural factors, other factors established by structural and conceptual dimensions also emanate as relevant to the process of acquisition and use of languages. In this project we united the paradigm of the Sociolinguistics to the paradigm of the Contrastive Linguistics (Kontrastive Linguistik, more precisely of the Contrastive Grammar, in interaction with the Contrastive Culture (Kulturkontrastive Grammatik. The object of our study is the form and the functionality of verbal forms in German and Portuguese. The aim of this study is to identify and to analyze the choice of verbal forms in translations of contemporary literary texts in the pair of languages selected based on the alternation of these forms in the interaction of Tense, Mood and Aspect, with special attention to the verbal aspect and the distinction between grammatical aspect (Aspekt and lexical aspect (Aktionsart.

  4. Sharing Space Situational Awareness Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Commander, United States Strategic Command (CDRUSSTRATCOM) accepted responsibility for sharing space situational awareness (SSA) information/services with commercial & foreign entities from the US Air Force on 22 Dec 09 (formerly the Commercial & Foreign Entities Pilot Program). The requirement to share SSA services with non-US Government (USG) entities is derived from Title 10, United States Code, Section 2274 (2010) and is consistent with the new National Space Policy. US Strategic Command’s (USSTRATCOM’s) sharing of SSA services consists of basic services (Two-Line Elements, decay data and satellite catalog details) available on www.space-track.org and advanced services (conjunction assessment, launch support, etc) available with a signed agreement. USSTRATCOM has requested USG permission to enter into international agreements to enable SSA data exchange with our foreign partners. USSTRATCOM recently authorized Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC SPACE) to share Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs) with satellite owner/operators whose satellites have been identified as closely approaching another space object. CSMs contain vector and covariance data computed using Special Perturbations theory. To facilitate the utility of the CSMs, USSTRATCOM has and is hosting CSM Workshops to ensure satellite operators fully understand the data contained in the CSM in order to provide an informed recommendation to their leadership. As JFCC SPACE matures its ability to accept ephemeris data from a satellite operator, it will be necessary to automatically transfer that data from one security level to another. USSTRATCOM and Air Force Space Command are coordinating the integration of a cross domain solution that will allow JFCC SPACE to do just that. Finally, USSTRATCOM is also working with commercial and governmental organizations to develop an internationally-accepted conjunction assessment message. The United States Government (USG), specifically the

  5. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations....... The proposition of this article is that the methods that drive innovative processes, strengthening the creative culture, are necessary to manage complex situations in military contexts....

  6. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. This powerful technology will also find...

  7. Stress situations in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, M; Baylard, J F

    1994-01-01

    Several studies indicate that stress is inherently present in dental practice. The present study was conducted to help identify the factors underlying this stress and the relative contribution of each factor. A questionnaire presented participating dentists with 52 potentially-stressful situations related to dental practice. Respondents were asked to rate each situation on a five-point scale, using a range of responses that varied from "not stressful" to "exceedingly stressful," and "I don't know" to "not applicable." The present data are based on the ratings given by the 1,332 dentists practicing in Québec who answered the questionnaire (52 per cent). Ten situations received a mean score of greater than 3.0, and were therefore considered as above average stress-producing situations. The majority of these situations could be classified as being related either to dental procedures and office organization or to interpersonal relationships involving patients and/or office personnel. It was found that the older age groups showed significantly less stress for six of the 10 most stressful situations. This study has indicated the specific situations that most frequently lead to stress in dentists. The precise identification of these situations could lead to reduced stress through the elimination of its vague and insidious character. Furthermore, an understanding of the most common stress-causing situations allows the practitioner to take preventive measures to eliminate its damaging effects in the dental practice.

  8. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  9. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate

  10. Emergency situations; Les situations d'urgence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  11. VARIANTS OF PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE SUFFIX IN DIALECTS OF ANKARA ANKARA İLİ AĞIZLARINDA ŞİMDİKİ ZAMAN EKİNİN VARYANTLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan AKÇA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times there have been several variants in the present progressive tense suffix {-yor} in Turkey Turkish dialects due to various reasons. The mentioned phonetic variant in the present progressive tense suffix {-yor} is one of th e most frequently used criteria in the classification of Turkey Turkish dialects. So far there have been many studies on the variants of the present progressive tense suffix in Turkey Turkish dialects. In this article, first of all, the studies focusing on present progressive tense suffix in the classification of Turkey Turkish dialects will be stated and following that the variants of the present progressive suffix in dialects of Ankara will be examined. Türkiye Türkçesi ağızlarında {–yor} şimdiki zaman ekininin tarihî dönemlerden itibaren çeşitli sebeplerle pek çok varyantı oluşmuştur. {-yor} şimdiki zaman ekindeki söz konusu fonetik varyantlaşma, Türkiye Türkçesi ağızlarının sınıflandırılmasında en çok kullanılan ölçütlerden biridir. Bununla birlikte Türkiye Türkçesi Ağızlarında şimdiki zaman ekinin varyantlarıyla ilgili günümüze kadar pek çok çalışma yapılmıştır. Bu makalede ilk önce Türkiye Türkçesi ağızlarının sınıflandırılmasında şimdiki zaman ekinin esas alındığı çalışmalara değinilecek daha sonra Ankara ili ağızlarında {–yor} şimdiki zaman ekinin varyantları üzerinde durulacaktır.

  12. Experimental Research into the Phases of Acquisition of Korean Tense-Aspect: Focusing on the Progressive Marker '-ko issta' [in Korean

    OpenAIRE

    Yeon, Jaehoon; Brown, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    As part of a larger project into the acquisition of tense-aspect marking in Korean, this paper reports the findings of a piece of experimental research looking into “when” and “how” second language learners of Korean develop use of the progressive marker “ko issta”. The paper sets out to test the claims made by the aspect hypothesis (Shirai 1991, Andersen & Shirai 1996) regarding acquisition of progressive marking; namely that (1) progressive marking is acquired first on activity verbs and la...

  13. Form-focused instruction and the acquisition of tense by Dutch-speaking learners of English: Experimental studies into the effects of input practice and output practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ureel, J.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    What is the difference between ‘I have done a lot of work this morning’ and ‘I did a lot of work this morning?’ Are sentences such as ‘I have seen him yesterday’ and ‘Who has invented the telephone?’ grammatically correct in present-day English? These are a few examples of the challenges that learners and teachers of English as a second language face when acquiring and teaching tense in English in instructional settings (e.g., grammar classes). The concept of practice as a necessary component...

  14. Fiches pratiques: Systeme temporel du passe; Le Village, dossier langue (extraits); L'Inspecteur mene l'enquete; La ZUP (Practical Ideas: Temporal System of the Past Tense; The Village, Language File; The Inspector Leads the Investigation; The Urban Priority Zone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Bernard; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four instructional ideas for use in the French second-language classroom are described, including an exercise in the temporal aspect of French past tenses; part of a series on simulating a French village community; a verb tense drill set in the context of a murder mystery; and an exercise in current French street slang. (MSE)

  15. Predictive Situational Awareness Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Situational Awareness is the key element of performing safe and effective operations, and the space vehicle operations carried out by NASA is by no means an...

  16. Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, KA; Clarke, R.(Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America); Tilley, N

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention is the art and science of reducing opportunities for crime. Despite accumulating evidence of its value in reducing many different kinds of crime - such as burglary, fraud, robbery, car theft, child sexual abuse and even terrorism - little has previously been published about its role in reducing organised crimes. This collection of case studies, by a distinguished international group of researchers, fills this gap by documenting the application of a situational pre...

  17. MEDIA INFLUENCE ON OPERATIVE SITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail M. Ardavov

    2016-01-01

    The problems regarding the influence of the media on various aspects of society are viewed in the article. Historical facts of the media influence on large groups of people are given. Concerning the discussed problem views on the concept of operative situation are set out. Analysis of factors affecting the operative situation is given. Based on the analysis of publications devoted to the problem of the media influence on the processes in society, a generalization of areas of their impact on t...

  18. Structural basis for the antipolymer activity of Hb ζ2β(s)2 trapped in a tense conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safo, Martin K; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Schreiter, Eric R; Russell, J Eric

    2015-11-05

    The phenotypical severity of sickle-cell disease (SCD) can be mitigated by modifying mutant hemoglobin S (Hb S, Hb α2β(s)2) to contain embryonic ζ-globin in place of adult α-globin subunits (Hb ζ2β(s)2). Crystallographical analyses of liganded Hb ζζ2β(s)2, though, demonstrate a tense (T-state) quaternary structure that paradoxically predicts its participation in--rather than its exclusion from--pathological deoxyHb S polymers. We resolved this structure-function conundrum by examining the effects of α→ζ exchange on the characteristics of specific amino acids that mediate sickle polymer assembly. Superposition analyses of the β(s) subunits of T-state deoxyHb α2β(s)2 and T-state CO-liganded Hb ζ2β(s)2 reveal significant displacements of both mutant β(s)Val6 and conserved β-chain contact residues, predicting weakening of corresponding polymer-stabilizing interactions. Similar comparisons of the α- and ζ-globin subunits implicate four amino acids that are either repositioned or undergo non-conservative substitution, abrogating critical polymer contacts. CO-Hb ζ2β(s)2 additionally exhibits a unique trimer-of-heterotetramers crystal packing that is sustained by novel intermolecular interactions involving the pathological β(s)Val6, contrasting sharply with the classical double-stranded packing of deoxyHb S. Finally, the unusually large buried solvent-accessible surface area for CO-Hb ζ2β(s)2 suggests that it does not co-assemble with deoxyHb S in vivo. In sum, the antipolymer activities of Hb ζ2β(s)2 appear to arise from both repositioning and replacement of specific α- and β(s)-chain residues, favoring an alternate T-state solution structure that is excluded from pathological deoxyHb S polymers. These data account for the antipolymer activity of Hb ζ2β(s)2, and recommend the utility of SCD therapeutics that capitalize on α-globin exchange strategies.

  19. AN ERROR ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE OF THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP N 1 SUSUKAN REGENCY OF SEMARANG IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2003/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safudin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find out how far the errors of simple present tense produced bythe second year students of SMP N 1 Susukan. The research was conducted at State Junior High School (SMP N 1 Susukan, Regency of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The objects of this research were the eighth graders. This is quantitative research. The writer uses random sampling by lottery. There are about 75 students and the writer took 50% as the sample.The errors made by the students were divided into eight aspects. (1 Error in using auxiliary is 36.75%. (2 Error in using plural noun is 22.90%. (3 Error in using to be is (am, is, are, is 7.69%.(4 Error in adverb of manneris 4.27%. (5 Error in using verb in simple present tense is 4.78%. (6 Error in using possessive sentence 5.24%. (7 Error in using imperative sentence is 0.34%. (8 Error due to ignorant is 11.28%. Relating to those errors there should be the preventing efforts by the teachers such as providing lots of examples of English and Indonesian sentences so that the students have greater understanding about the difference of those languages.

  20. The situation in Italy; La situation en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-09-01

    Italy is the market leader for Autogas in Europe. It still has major potential for development in a context where environmental concerns are increasing, particularly in cities. Gianni Silvestrini, from the Italian Ministry of the Environment, outlined the situation in his country at the AEGPL Congress held in Prague. This article presents some extracts from his paper.

  1. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  2. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  3. Choosing Tense in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    seems to be the metaphor used in object languages (cf. [Traugott 781; Halliday (forthc.); [ Welmers 731 on African languages; and [Lakoff & Johnson 801... Welmers 73] Welmers , W. African Language Structures. UC Press, 1973. [Whitrow 80] Whitrow, G.J. S The Natural Philosophy of Time Oxford University...seriality 4 Truth condition 23 Ultan 78, 96 UNRESTRICTED 99 Use, and context 103 Vendler 37 Wachtel 71 Wekker 78. 80. 85. 92, 100. 121, 123 Welmers 51

  4. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  5. [Situational reactions in suicidologic practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrumova, A G; Vrono, E M

    1985-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the description of suicidal manifestations in mentally normal adolescents among typical behavioural disorders characteristic of situational reactions of this age. Three types of suicido-dangerous situational responses of adolescents were specified with regard to their age and auto-and heteaggressiveness ratio: reaction of deprivation, explosive reaction and reaction of auto-elimination. Suicidogenic conflicts were analyzed and spheres of age-specific suicidal conflicts were defined. It is advisable that outpatient management of mentally normal adolescents with a history of a suicidal attempt be conducted in a special room of presentive suicidological service.

  6. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    ’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered......This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students...

  7. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  8. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  9. Situated Learning: Conceptualization and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Lakshmi; Johnson, Norman; Junglas, Iris; Ives, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A focus on the interaction between cognitive schemas and context in situ has been suggested as fundamental in organizational decision making and information interpretation. Past research suggests that the situation and the social interaction that occur during learning at the cognitive level consist of factors that affect the process, but the…

  10. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the

  11. Albanian: Basic Course. Basic Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The purpose of this volume is to provide the student with a vehicle for reviewing the grammar and vocabulary of Lessons 1-120 of "Albanian: Basic Course," and, with practice and the help of new words and idioms, increasing his fluency and scope of expression. The volume contains eleven units, each unit describing a situation, which in turn is…

  12. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  13. The use of tenses and moods, translation of fixed expressions, idioms, metaphorical phrasal constructs and changes in the Polish version of 'I dodici abati di Challant'. How to overcome the limitations of a linguistic system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Salmeri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of a novel written in Italian by Laura Mancinelli, 'The Twelve Abbots of Challant', and its translation into Polish prepared by Maciej Brzozowski. Focusing on a few examples, such as the use of grammatical tenses and moods, differences in the syntax, and the problems of translating idiomatic and metaphoric expressions, the paper aims to compare the author’s style with that of the translator. The task undertaken by the translator seems very hard indeed from the very beginning due to considerable differences between the Italian and Polish languages in the use of tenses and moods. While the Italian grammar uses four moods, eight simple and seven compound tenses, the frugal Polish grammar makes with just three modes, one compound and three simple tenses. The discussion will clearly illustrate that thanks to some modifications it was possible to translate and preserve the meaning and the spirit of the Italian grammar and style.

  14. Fiche pratique: Systeme temporel du passe II; Donne-moi la lune; FDM Frequence plus: Economie; Avec des photos (Practical Ideas: Temporal System of the Past Tense II; Give Me the Moon; FDM's "Economy"; With Photos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalen, Aurore; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four ideas for French language classroom activities include an exercise in the use of past tense in narrative, a children's vocabulary game, an introduction to the language of economics, and an activity combining self-expression and cultural awareness through photographs. (MSE)

  15. Nuclear situation in Japan; La situation du nucleaire au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  16. Situational Strength Cues from Social Sources at Work: Relative Importance and Mediated Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balca Alaybek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational strength is considered one of the most important situational forces at work because it can attenuate the personality–performance relationship. Although organizational scholars have studied the consequences of situational strength, they have paid little attention to its antecedents. To address this gap, the current study focused on situational strength cues from different social sources as antecedents of overall situational strength at work. Specifically, we examined how employees combine situational strength cues emanating from three social sources (i.e., coworkers, the immediate supervisor, and top management. Based on field theory, we hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from coworkers and immediate supervisors (i.e., proximal sources of situational strength on employees' perceptions of overall situational strength on the job would be greater than the effect of situational strength from the top management (i.e., the distal source of situational strength. We also hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from the distal source would be mediated by the effects of situational strength from the proximal sources. Data from 363 full-time employees were collected at two time points with a cross-lagged panel design. The former hypothesis was supported for one of the two situational strength facets studied. The latter hypothesis was fully supported.

  17. Forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at www.fco.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.

  18. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students......’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered....... The study implies that zoo visits can provide students with affective experiences, which can be a powerful way to stimulate students’ learning motivation....

  19. Situational Analysis of Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    STS inspired studies of engineering work practices provide new material for a richer understanding of engineering culture. However, the specific and strictly situated focus of many of these studies threatens to limit discussions of engineering practices to departmental and discrete institutional...... settings. This micro perspective potentially overlooks the inherent and overarching normativities that inform engineering culture. Furthermore, the micro perspective has difficulties in transgressing institutional boundaries in order to investigate the dynamics of cultural reproduction in engineering....... The paper will propose a research agenda that – inspired by George Marcus’ multi-sited ethnographic methodology (Marcus 1998) and Adele Clarke’s situational analysis (Clarke 2005) – analyze (and contrasts) engineering practices in diverse settings (e.g. engineering education and engineering work) in order...

  20. On viewing culture as situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Practicing technical communicators deal with culture as an integral part of language and communication practices. Yet, etic models of culture based on dimensions of culture related to values (i.e. Hofstede, Trompenaars, Edward T. Hall, Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck) are so abstract that they are difficult......, the cultural dimension of power distance from Hofstede helps technical communicators approach the notion of context, but cannot be directly operationalized in design decisions for translating a product manual. To undo the reversal of scope which renders etic dimensions of cultures difficult to operationalize...... participate in social action (Bazerman 1988 & Miller 1984, 1994). To begin to define culture as situation, I will engage the cultural systems perspective (Kampf & Kastberg 2005). This perspective is based on the interaction between norms of behaviour and context in which Hofstede situated his dimensions...

  1. A tutorial on situated learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancey, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The theory of situated learning claims that every idea and human action is a generalization, adapted to the ongoing environment, because what people see and what they do arise together. From this perspective, thinking is a physical skill. As we create names for things, shuffle around sentences in a paragraph, and interpret what our statements mean, every step is controlled not by reinstantiated grammars and previously constructed plans, but adaptively recoordinated from previous ways of seein...

  2. Cognitive empathy in conflict situations

    OpenAIRE

    Gauer, Florian; Kuzmics, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Two individuals are involved in a conflict situation in which preferences are ex ante uncertain. While they eventually learn their own preferences, they have to pay a small cost if they want to learn their opponent's preferences. We show that, for sufficiently small positive costs of information acquisition, in any Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the resulting game of incomplete information the probability of getting informed about the opponent's preferences is bounded away from zero and one.

  3. Let's dance--feel better! Mood changes following dancing in different situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowski, Marcin; Jankowski, Konrad S; Kołata, Daria

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined mood changes following dancing. Previous works suggested that contextual factors may influence affective states; it has been shown that changes in mood following competition differ from those following recreational exercise. The study has been conducted in Warsaw, Poland. Mood was assessed before and after dance activity in three groups of ballroom dancers: recreational (n = 32) and competitive (n = 38) dancers doing ordinary training and competitive dancers taking part in a dance competition (n = 35). We observed a moderately positive change in recreational dancers doing ordinary training; they reported higher energetic arousal (EA) and hedonic tone (HT) and lower tense arousal (TA) after dance activity. In comparison dancers taking part in a competition were higher on TA before dancing and felt less pleasure after dancing than recreational and competitive dancers doing ordinary training; HT, TA and EA moderately decreased during competition. In general, the current study suggests that dance can elicit changes in mood; however, situational context has to be taken into consideration when explaining the influence of dance on mood.

  4. Over-The-Horizon Amphibious Battlespace Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-29

    Commander Landing Force (CLF). Although initial development of these system was service orientated, a family of devices could be used -mut•ia1ly -and the...data they generate "shared" during amphibious operations. This " family " of systems is not integrated. Not all Navy shipboard systems are "talking... dinks " and for the most part only thought of as "communications" networks, rather than a potential battlespace situational awareness tool. The purpose of

  5. The Political Situation in Paraguay Two Years after the Coup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    regime is described and the role of the key actors analyzed. The report also summarizes the situation regarding the economy and Paraguay’s foreign...neglect of the plight of the lower class. With the political opening and emergence of other actors , its relative importance has diminished. It remains... Direccion Nacional de Narcoticos (DINAR) and a special joint task force of military and police, the Servicio Nacional AntidroQas (National Antidrug

  6. Personality and the Construal of Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Elysia Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The same situation may be perceived to have different qualities depending on who is making the assessment of the situation. Since situations have important implications for behavior, there is clearly value in pursuing an understanding of how people's perceptions of situations differ and what the predictors of these differences might be. However, few researchers have investigated this topic and none have examined its relationship to situations in a comprehensive manner. Following the developme...

  7. MR compatible strain gauge based force transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Hiske; Post, Marijn; Vaartjes, Koen; Hoogduin, Hans; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate brain activation during motor tasks accurately one must also measure output parameters such as muscle force or muscle activity. Especially in clinical situations where the force output can be compromised by changes at different levels of the motor system, it is essential to

  8. Steps towards a situational ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, P J

    1978-08-01

    The Australian Royal Commission on Human Relationships summarized the problems of adolescents and family planning by declaring there is a level of teenage sexual activity that cannot be ignored. Young single people have a low rate of effective contraception. Teenagers suffer a very high proportion of unwanted pregnancies and abortions. Placing the ethical questions in a contemporary social context enables society to face the issues in a practical, realistic fashion. Historically preserved traditions, like the taboo against premarital sex, are and will continue to be important in the bonding of families, individuals, and societies. A situational ethic applies to changes in the social fabric and addresses them. Society has changed from rural to urban, from agrarian to technological, from literacy to mass media, from superstitious knowledge of reproduction to scientific methods of birth control. The realities of change should be faced with a sense of ethics that is grounded in tradition and adjusted to the needs of the actual situation which is that too many teenagers have too many unwanted pregnancies. They can be helped.

  9. A traffic situation analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. For example embedded vision systems built into vehicles can be used as early warning systems, or stationary camera systems can modify the switching frequency of signals at intersections. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy - the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully understood by a vision system. We present steps towards such a traffic monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations, especially incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system is field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in an outdoor capable housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection software including license plate detection and recognition, one camera runs a complex pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG detection principle. As a supplement, all 3 cameras use additional optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. This work describes the foundation for all 3 different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehi1cles, license plates), and explains the system setup and its design.

  10. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T.

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. This position is founded upon continued government investment in research and development in space technology, which is clearly reflected in the Space Situational Awareness capabilities and the longevity of these missions. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by unresponsive and relatively expensive launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV). The EELV systems require an average of six to eight months from positioning on the launch table until liftoff. Access to space requires maintaining a robust space transportation capability, founded on a rigorous industrial and technology base. To assure access to space, the United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. Under the Air Force Policy Directive, the Air Force will establish, organize, employ, and sustain space forces necessary to execute the mission and functions assigned including rapid response to the National Command Authorities and the conduct of military operations across the spectrum of conflict. Air Force Space Command executes the majority of spacelift operations for DoD satellites and other government and commercial agencies. The

  11. ANT, tourism and situated globality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; van der Duim, René

    2015-01-01

    are used to define as the separate spheres of nature and culture. This paper explores and relates the central tenets of ANT in tourism with regard to the concept of the Anthropocene. It presents the ANT approach as a flat and object-oriented ontology and methodology and explores its potentials to carve out...... viable descriptions of the collective condition of humans and more-than-humans in the Anthropocene. Also and moving past a merely descriptive approach, it discusses it as a useful tool to engage with the situated globalities which come into being through the socio-spatial coupling of tourism...... and the Anthropocene through, as we propose improvisation, valuing and caring....

  12. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  13. Power restoration in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, B.R.; Mann, L.; Triantaphyllou, E.; Mahankali, S. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses a problem of assigning electric power repair crews and depots to various locations (cells) in a damaged area during emergency situations such as natural disasters. The problem takes into account the damage levels and consequent demand for various resources at different cells in the area, along with the capacity restrictions of the depots. Two mixed integer quadratic programming models - one for single resource and another for multiple resources allocation are presented in this paper. The objective is to locate the depots, and assigning the crews and other resources to depots to various cells, at a minimum cost. The problem is solved optimally for various dimensions of the problem (e.g., number of cells in the region, number of depots considered and the number of resources) for a limited instance. (UK)

  14. Situating forensic traces in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyermann, Céline; Ribaux, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Situating events and traces in time is an essential problem in investigations. To date, among the typical questions issued in forensic science, time has generally been unexplored. The reason for this can be traced to the complexity of the overall problem, addressed by several scientists in very limited projects usually stimulated by a specific case. Considering that such issues are recurrent and transcending the treatment of each trace separately, the formalisation of a framework to address dating issues in criminal investigation is undeniably needed. Through an iterative process consisting of extracting recurrent aspects discovered from the study of problems encountered by practitioners and reported in the literature, common mechanisms were extracted and provide understanding of underlying factors encountered in forensic practise. Three complementary approaches are thus highlighted and described to formalise a preliminary framework that can be applied for the dating of traces, objects, persons and indirectly events. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Innovative teaching in situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Audrey; Hogg, George; Ker, Jean

    2015-10-01

    In the UK the publication of the Health Select Committee Report highlighted the need to incorporate human factors training in health care education. In response there has been a rise in health care professional training in human factors, focusing on non-technical skills, such as teamwork, leadership and situational awareness. Using simulation and contextualised learning, we have developed a non-technical skills programme for undergraduate medical students that introduces situational awareness training in the first year. Early integration of human factors into the undergraduate programme can be built upon in a constructivist approach throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Initially no formal ethical approval was required as this was an integral part of the undergraduate teaching programme and did not involve patients; however, ethical approval was gained for the analyses of this session from the local University Research Ethics Committee. Approval included the information sheets and consent forms provided to students, which permitted use of data 'in future posters/publications/presentations'. Students were introduced to hazards and cues that they may find in clinical areas, encouraged to explore the simulated clinical areas gathering information, interpret their findings and then consider future states. There has been a rise in health care professional training in human factors, focusing on non-technical skills Initial feedback from both the students and the tutors involved has been positive. In addition, the opportunity for linking this to other non-technical skills developments in different clinical settings and in interprofessional settings is being considered. The next stage is to explore students' perceptions of this session and their learning through questionnaires and focus-group interviews before developing further. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cognitive dynamic logic algorithms for situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, L. I.; Ilin, R.

    2010-04-01

    Autonomous situational awareness (SA) requires an ability to learn situations. It is mathematically difficult because in every situation there are many objects nonessential for this situation. Moreover, most objects around are random, unrelated to understanding contexts and situations. We learn in early childhood to ignore these irrelevant objects effortlessly, usually we do not even notice their existence. Here we consider an agent that can recognize a large number of objects in the world; in each situation it observes many objects, while only few of them are relevant to the situation. Most of situations are collections of random objects containing no relevant objects, only few situations "make sense," they contain few objects, which are always present in these situations. The training data contains sufficient information to identify these situations. However, to discover this information all objects in all situations should be sorted out to find regularities. This "sorting out" is computationally complex; its combinatorial complexity exceeds by far all events in the Universe. The talk relates this combinatorial complexity to Gödelian limitations of logic. We describe dynamic logic (DL) that quickly learns essential regularities-relevant, repeatable objects and situations. DL is related to mechanisms of the brain-mind and we describe brain-imaging experiments that have demonstrated these relations.

  17. System dynamics modelling of situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the requirements for effective Command and Control is good situation awareness. As situation awareness is a complex phenomenon due to social and cognitive interaction factors, its modelling, prediction and calculation can be difficult...

  18. Diagnosing Educational Leadership Problems: A Situational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Philip E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses Situational Leadership Theory, a conceptual framework that can help managers improve their performance by varying their leadership style in various situations to fit the needs and capabilities of their subordinates. (JG)

  19. Situated Learning : Rethinking a Ubiquitous Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rod Pederson

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to unpack how the basic theory of situated learning is related to a wide array of theories that use the basic concept of situating knowledge as a central tenet. In doing so, the author suggests that a more inclusive theory of situated learning is warranted.

  20. Emergency situations in SMEs : Are entrepreneurs prepared?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, E.; Montfort, van K.; Masurel, E.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how entrepreneurs prepare for emergency situations in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. It identifies the characteristics of SMEs and the theory related to emergency situations and the preparations for such situations. It also provides a detailed

  1. Understanding the Situation in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-15

    provides situational awareness refinement in the visualization of the battlefield. "The staff helps the commander communicate his battlefield... technolgy that enable situational awareness and situational understanding cannot be decisive. Explain how to obtain analysis and judgment. In obtaining the...Experience is best gained through training. An Additional Study The Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences conducted an Infantry

  2. MAPPING A COMPLEX DECISIONAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin OGARCA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Any organization is confronted with a multitude of problems in a dynamic andcomplex environment. These problems can be independent, but, many times,they are interconnected. In this myriad of situations, it is difficult to identify thecausality relations between problems, which, logically, should also determinethe solving order. An organization is faced with a cash crisis, a substantialloss of clients, production equipment wear, poorly qualified personnel, andunsuitable products from a quality- related perspective. And in this context,what is the original problem, primary, and through its solving, the solution tothe other problems could be found? Is this the loss of clients, or cash crisis?Are we facing a cash crisis because the products are of poor quality anddon’t sell, or is it because we are facing a cash crisis we are unable to investin research- development, in order to increase product quality?We will try to find an answer to such dilemmas in this material. The problemis not a new one in the specialized literature. In the first part of the article wewill present a couple of previous solutions this problem has been given, andduring the second part we will propose a model derived from those known inthe specialized literature.

  3. Measuring the Evolutionarily Important Goals of Situations: Situational Affordances for Adaptive Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Nicolas A; Neel, Rebecca; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    .... This article introduces the Situational Affordances for Adaptive Problems (SAAP), a measure of situation characteristics that promotes or prevents the achievement of these evolutionarily important goals...

  4. Extreme situations due to gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Meneghel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the third Critical Paths Seminar, held in Porto Alegre/Brazil in 2011, whose focus was extreme situations of gender violence. The extreme situations are human rights violations that include femicide or murder motivated by the situation of gender; LGBT murders, human rights violations of ethnic and racial minorities, sexual exploitation, violence to women in vulnerable situations and other violence caused by gender. The meeting objective was given space to share experiences, reflect critically and build strategies for facing violence and extreme situations resulting from gender systems.

  5. Learning situation models in a smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdiczka, Oliver; Crowley, James L; Reignier, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning situation models for providing context-aware services. Context for modeling human behavior in a smart environment is represented by a situation model describing environment, users, and their activities. A framework for acquiring and evolving different layers of a situation model in a smart environment is proposed. Different learning methods are presented as part of this framework: role detection per entity, unsupervised extraction of situations from multimodal data, supervised learning of situation representations, and evolution of a predefined situation model with feedback. The situation model serves as frame and support for the different methods, permitting to stay in an intuitive declarative framework. The proposed methods have been integrated into a whole system for smart home environment. The implementation is detailed, and two evaluations are conducted in the smart home environment. The obtained results validate the proposed approach.

  6. Another Type of Bilingual Advantage? Tense-Mood-Aspect Frequency, Verb-Form Regularity and Context-Governed Choice in Bilingual vs. Monolingual Spanish Speakers with Agrammatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ann O'Connor Wells

    2014-04-01

    ser or estar in the present tense and do not result in a semantic change Participants: Six Spanish-speaking participants with agrammatism were tested. Three had been highly proficient bilingual Spanish-English speakers, while the other three were relatively monolingual Spanish speakers. All had suffered left-frontal strokes at least 6 months prior to this study (X= 3.4 years and were judged agrammatic (in both languages, for bilinguals based on the effortfulness of their spontaneous speech, short phrase-length, high substantive-word use, omission of functors, and relatively good comprehension. Twelve non-aphasic Spanish-English speakers served as controls, and were matched for language history, age, educational attainment, and relative socio-economic status. Results and Conclusions: In general, participants with agrammatism made markedly more errors on this task (X= 40% than control participants (X= 4%, thus reinforcing our finding that despite high frequency in daily usage, ser and estar are not resistant to agrammatism (O’Connor Wells, 2011; O’Connor, Obler & Goral, 2007. A mixed-effects logistic regression analysis of the bilingual vs. monolingual data, revealed a trend (p = 0.07 for the mean performance of the bilinguals with agrammatism (65% to be greater than that of the monolinguals (54%. Although the direction of their performance was the same, the bilinguals with agrammatism outperformed the monolingual ones on all three of our verb factors. These data are consistent with the possibility that bilingualism facilitates language performance among bilinguals in their first language.

  7. A STUDY OF ERRORS IN THE THIRD SINGULAR PRONOUNS OF SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE BY USING INTERLANGUAGE ANALYSIS AS AN APPROACH. A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Pandarangga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze factors contributing to errors made in learning English as a target language (TL. Employing a case study research, the participant was interviewed for approximately 30 minutes about daily activities and experiences in learning English. This research focuses in analysing the participant‟s use of third singular pronoun in simple present tense. The findings revealed that errors made by TL learners are mainly influenced by some factorsrelated to their TL‟s and native language‟s (NL knowledge, systems and rules. These factors are coexisted and interconnected in TL learners‟ minds. This is against Robert Lado‟s argument which mentioned that learner made errors in TL learning because of the interference from NL. The study provides pedagogical implications that TL teachers should perceive errors made by the learners as a sign of language learning and development; therefore they should not be discouraged to learn. Also, TL teachers should be aware of their very important roles to help, to guide and to lead the learners‟ progress in learning the TL. The future subsequent studies should consider of involving more sample size over a longer period of time as to obtain to a more generalized finding.

  8. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables between and within Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauthmann, John F; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1) What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels)? (2) Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies) could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3) How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment)? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks.

  9. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables Between and Within Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Rauthmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1 What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels? (2 Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3 How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks.

  10. Understanding the Colombian security situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossa, C.

    1997-05-05

    Colombia is notorious for its violence. Lack of security can be related to: irregular war, social decay and a weak state. High poverty levels lead to a lack of respect for the law. Thus, drug dealing and kidnapping have become prominent in Colombian society with little hope of redress. State weakness means that crime remains uncontrolled, and Maxist guerillas have been unopposed by state forces. This has given rise to vigilantism in the form of paramilitaries, who simply add to the lawlessness. So far the international coal industry has been selectively protected by government troops and policies but the general chaos in society is increasingly likely to penetrate even these heavily defended enclaves, as the fundamental problems in Colombian society are as present in the coal areas as in society at large. Presidential elections are in process. The new government will either have to tackle lawlessness throughout the country or the coal industry may have to withdraw as paramilitaries escalate violence in the coal districts. 1 tab.

  11. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  12. A Study of User's Acceptance on Situational Mashups in Situational Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angus F. M.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Situational awareness and mashups are two key factors influencing the success of situational language teaching. However, traditional situational language teaching cannot smoothly conduct relevant learning activities in changing learning context. This study developed a situational mashups system for detecting users' context and proposed a research…

  13. Force balancing in mammographic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branderhorst, W., E-mail: w.branderhorst@amc.nl; Groot, J. E. de; Lier, M. G. J. T. B. van; Grimbergen, C. A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam 1100 DD (Netherlands); Sigmascreening B.V., Meibergdreef 45, Amsterdam 1105 BA (Netherlands); Neeter, L. M. F. H.; Heeten, G. J. den [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam 1100 DD (Netherlands); Neeleman, C. [Sigmascreening B.V., Meibergdreef 45, Amsterdam 1105 BA (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: In mammography, the height of the image receptor is adjusted to the patient before compressing the breast. An inadequate height setting can result in an imbalance between the forces applied by the image receptor and the paddle, causing the clamped breast to be pushed up or down relative to the body during compression. This leads to unnecessary stretching of the skin and other tissues around the breast, which can make the imaging procedure more painful for the patient. The goal of this study was to implement a method to measure and minimize the force imbalance, and to assess its feasibility as an objective and reproducible method of setting the image receptor height. Methods: A trial was conducted consisting of 13 craniocaudal mammographic compressions on a silicone breast phantom, each with the image receptor positioned at a different height. The image receptor height was varied over a range of 12 cm. In each compression, the force exerted by the compression paddle was increased up to 140 N in steps of 10 N. In addition to the paddle force, the authors measured the force exerted by the image receptor and the reaction force exerted on the patient body by the ground. The trial was repeated 8 times, with the phantom remounted at a slightly different orientation and position between the trials. Results: For a given paddle force, the obtained results showed that there is always exactly one image receptor height that leads to a balance of the forces on the breast. For the breast phantom, deviating from this specific height increased the force imbalance by 9.4 ± 1.9 N/cm (6.7%) for 140 N paddle force, and by 7.1 ± 1.6 N/cm (17.8%) for 40 N paddle force. The results also show that in situations where the force exerted by the image receptor is not measured, the craniocaudal force imbalance can still be determined by positioning the patient on a weighing scale and observing the changes in displayed weight during the procedure. Conclusions: In mammographic breast

  14. Force balancing in mammographic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branderhorst, W; de Groot, J E; Neeter, L M F H; van Lier, M G J T B; Neeleman, C; den Heeten, G J; Grimbergen, C A

    2016-01-01

    In mammography, the height of the image receptor is adjusted to the patient before compressing the breast. An inadequate height setting can result in an imbalance between the forces applied by the image receptor and the paddle, causing the clamped breast to be pushed up or down relative to the body during compression. This leads to unnecessary stretching of the skin and other tissues around the breast, which can make the imaging procedure more painful for the patient. The goal of this study was to implement a method to measure and minimize the force imbalance, and to assess its feasibility as an objective and reproducible method of setting the image receptor height. A trial was conducted consisting of 13 craniocaudal mammographic compressions on a silicone breast phantom, each with the image receptor positioned at a different height. The image receptor height was varied over a range of 12 cm. In each compression, the force exerted by the compression paddle was increased up to 140 N in steps of 10 N. In addition to the paddle force, the authors measured the force exerted by the image receptor and the reaction force exerted on the patient body by the ground. The trial was repeated 8 times, with the phantom remounted at a slightly different orientation and position between the trials. For a given paddle force, the obtained results showed that there is always exactly one image receptor height that leads to a balance of the forces on the breast. For the breast phantom, deviating from this specific height increased the force imbalance by 9.4 ± 1.9 N/cm (6.7%) for 140 N paddle force, and by 7.1 ± 1.6 N/cm (17.8%) for 40 N paddle force. The results also show that in situations where the force exerted by the image receptor is not measured, the craniocaudal force imbalance can still be determined by positioning the patient on a weighing scale and observing the changes in displayed weight during the procedure. In mammographic breast compression, even small changes in the

  15. Managing and engineering in complex situations

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa-Poza, Andres

    2013-01-01

    With so many terms available to define the same thing, it would seem nearly irresponsible to introduce yet another term (complex situation) to describe a phenomenological state of such as a system. However, a complex situation infers both a broader meaning and imposes a different perspective. Complex in this context is dependent on understanding and reality rather than observer and knowledge.   Situation imposes a gestalt that cannot be characterized within a singular perspective that relegates paradox to a superior/subordinate hierarchy. This also infers that complex situation has no monotonic definition or each definition is by default incomplete. Therefore the perennial derivations for systems such as complex systems, system of systems, federation of systems is no longer a sufficient descriptor for complex situation.  Ergo system and its genealogy lack the constitution to define complex situations. The books' intent is to explore this pathology through a series of papers written by authors that work in ...

  16. Situative Space Tracking within Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surie, Dipak; Jäckel, Florian; Janlert, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking syste......-laboratory smart home environment where a global precision of 83.4% and a global recall of 88.6% were obtained.......This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking system...

  17. Reconsideration of the simulated work task situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reports on the initial study and the preliminary findings of how the concept of simulated work task situation is reported used in the research literature. The overall objective of the study is in a systematic manner to learn how and for what types of evaluations the concept...... is applied. In particular we are interested to learn whether the recommendations for how to apply simulated work task situations are followed. The preliminary findings indicate a need for clarifications of the recommendations of how to use simulated work task situations. Particularly with respect to ‘realism......’ of the simulated work task situations, which is emphasised through the need for tailoring of the simulated work task situations towards the group of study participant to ensure the depicted situations are realistic and interesting from the participants’ point of view. Likewise it seems that the recommendation...

  18. Forced Migration: Refugee Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joyceen S.

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that manifests in various contexts. This article describes the impact of the movement of large numbers of people in several African countries, producing a unique type of migrant—the refugee. We describe issues that refugee movements create on fragile health care systems, situations that precipitate refugee movements, certain human rights violations that are of particular concern such as gender based violence (GBV) and child soldiers, and lastly, implications for nursing practice and policy. We use examples from several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current literature, as well as the international experience of the authors, this article presents an overview of forced migration and discusses opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  19. Situated Cognition and Strategies for Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Díaz Barriga Arceo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the principles underlying situated cognition linked to the Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, which state that situated cognition is both a part and the result of activity, context and culture. It highlights the importance of mediation, the joint construction of meaning and the mechanism of adapted assistance. There are examples of instructional approaches which vary in cultural relevance and the type of social activity they elicit. It also presents a number of meaningful learning strategies based on situated experiential teaching (authentic problem solving, learning while in service, case studies, projects, situated simulation, among others. Finally, the paper deals with the potentiality of empowerment.

  20. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-06-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software development, but it is not directly applicable to other CS communities, especially those that deal with non-CS application areas. Nevertheless, situated learning can inform CS education by analyzing debates on curriculum and pedagogy within this framework. CS educators should closely examine professional CS communities of practice and design educational activities to model the actual activities of those communities.

  1. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  2. Temps migratoires en tension Tense times for immigration. The production and experiences of temporalities for migrant workers in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bret

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La kafala, système de garantie sur l’étranger propre au monde arabe, produit au Liban un environnement normatif très contraignant pour les migrants non arabes dont elle organise l’immigration : en très grande majorité des femmes, originaires du Sri Lanka et des Philippines, employées domestiques. Elle impose sa temporalité d’institution globale à la migration, et se confronte aux autres temporalités qui structurent l’espace migratoire : celles des individus mobiles, dont la carrière migratoire s’encastre dans la hiérarchie socio-économique de la situation de départ, ainsi que dans dans la hiérarchie des contextes d’accueil ; la temporalité des industries d’émigration, qui développent une rationalité clivée qui leur est propre. Dans cet article, nous souhaitons mettre en scène ces tensions du temps migratoire dans des temporalités en conflit, en évoquant la négativité des rapports sociaux qui en résulte et les contournements normatifs que les migrants et les autres acteurs de cette scène globalisée opèrent dans la poursuite de leurs objectifs.The kafala is a system of guarantee for immigrants in the Arab world. In Lebanon, it produces a highly restrictive regulatory environment for non-Arab migrants; this institution organizes the import of a vast majority of women from Sri Lanka and the Philippines to become domestic employees. It imposes its - as defined - global institution's temporality to migration. It conflicts with the other temporalities that shape the migratory space : temporalities of individuals on the move, whose careers fit into the hierarchy of socio-economic baseline and into the hierarchy between host countries; temporalities of migration industry, that develop a cleaved rationality of their own. In this paper, we want to present the contradiction of migration time and temporalities, in order to understand the resulting negative social relationships. We also study the normative

  3. Situational pressures on aviation decision making: goal seduction and situation aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Paletz, Susannah B F; Orasanu, Judith

    2009-06-01

    The context in which a decision is made can shape the decision process in important ways. Of particular interest here are 'strong' situations, that is, contexts where the situation itself exerts an influence on decision making. Borrowing concepts from field theory and approach/avoidance theory, this paper explores the influence of strong situations on pilot decision making. There were 28 pilots flying in Alaska who were interviewed using a critical incident technique where participants were asked to relate stories about challenging flying situations. A bottom-up qualitative analysis of reported social and psychological pressures revealed a range of types, including strong situations, which are described in this paper. Strong situations were mentioned in 67% of the interviews and included situations likely to motivate the pilot toward unsafe behavior (goal seduction) and situations likely to motivate the pilot away from safe behavior (situation aversion). Goal seduction situations included rescuing others, meeting a significant other, time-related constraints, financial pressures, and unspecified goal seduction; aversive situations included physical discomfort, not having maintenance or facilities for the airplane, and a lack of basic necessities (e.g., lodging) for the pilot. Goal seduction describes one broad, unspecified influence on pilot decision making, but situation aversion is also an important motivator for some pilots. Goal seduction and situation aversion may well underlie the phenomena of plan continuation errors, the tendency for pilots to continue despite evidence suggesting it is imprudent. This study suggests some specific factors that constrain decision making for pilots in challenging situations.

  4. Transversal light forces in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, M

    2003-01-01

    The transversal light force is a well established effect in atomic and molecular systems that are exposed to spatially inhomogeneous light fields. In this paper it is shown theoretically that in an excited semiconductor, containing an electron-hole plasma or excitons, a similar light force exists, if the semiconductor is exposed to an ultrashort spatially inhomogeneous light field. The analysis is based on the equations of motion for the Wigner distribution functions of charge carrier populations and interband polarizations. The results show that, while the light force on the electron-hole plasma or the excitons does exist, its effects on the kinetic behaviour of the electron-hole plasma or the excitons are different compared to the situation in an atomic or molecular system. A detailed analysis presented here traces this difference back to the principal differences between atoms and molecules on the one hand and electron-hole plasmas or excitons on the other hand.

  5. THE PRESENT TENSE FORMS IN THE TATAR DIALECT LANGUAGE TATAR ŞİVELERİNDE ŞİMDİKİ ZAMAN BİÇİMLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit YUSUPOV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The intricate system of the Present Tense form of Tatar dialectlanguage is analyzed in the article. Compared with the literary language,where the given temporal meaning is expressed only with the form – a, itis viewed through 6 synthetic forms and 2 analytical ones.Only the form with –a from all these forms is a consistent elementof all identified systems and therefore it comprises the core part of theTatar dialect language. The middle dialect (dialect of Kazan Tatars hasno special features and corresponds to the literal language according itsform. The third person singular in the Mishar dialect is formed by meansof the relict affix –dır. Dialects of Siberian Tatars are contradistinguishedto others with the exponent –tı, which finds its origins in the Old Turkicauxiliary verb “turur”.Each form of the Present Tense of the Tatar dialect language,besides semantic peculiarities, has its own separate expansion territoryand therefore they form different isoglosses in Tatar linguistic area. Yazıda tatar şive dilinde kullanılmakta olan şimdiki zamanbiçimleri sisteminden bahsedilmektedir. Şimdiki zaman anlamı tekbiçimle belirtilen edebi dilden farklı olarak şive dilinde altı basit ve ikibileşik biçim yardımıyla belirtilir.Bu biçimlerden sadece –a biçimi bütün özel sistemlerinkullanılması zorunlu olan unsurlarından sayılır ve bundan dolayı Tatardili şiveler sisteminin çekirdek kısmında yer alır. Orta şivede (Kazantatarları şivesinde bu biçim ek almaz ve edebî dildeki biçime benzer.Mişer şivesinde üçüncü tekil şahısta arkaik –dır ekini alır. SibiryaTatarları şivelerinde diğer şivelerden farklı olarak „turur‟ arkaik yardımcıfiilinin kalıntısı sayılan –tı ekini alır.Şivelerde kullanılmakta olan her şimdiki zaman biçimi anlamözelliklerinden başka ayrı yayılış alanlarına sahiptirler ve böylece Tatardil alanında çeşitli izoglosları meydana getirmektedirler. Orta

  6. The Effect of Two Traffic Situations on the Behavior and Performance of Cows in an Automatic Milking System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, G.G.N.; Ipema, A.H.; Stefanowska, J.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two cow traffic situations were tested sequentially in an automatic milking system (AMS) for effects on cow behavior, effective use of the barn, and milking capacity. The first situation was forced cow traffic: 63 cows had to pass through the AMS to go from the lying area to the feeding area. The

  7. Towards Situation-Oriented Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tin, Erkan; Akman, Varol; Ersan, Murat

    1995-01-01

    Recently, there have been some attempts towards developing programming languages based on situation theory. These languages employ situation-theoretic constructs with varying degrees of divergence from the ontology of the theory. In this paper, we review three of these programming languages.

  8. Audience and Situational Context in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTourneau, Mark S.

    Audience and situational context, the latter defined as a pairing of time and place coordinates, have passed through stages of union, separation, and identification in the history of rhetoric. From Aristotle through Cicero and Quintilian to Hugh Blair and George Campbell, audience was a synecdoche for the situations of utterance that defined…

  9. Situational Influences on Reactions to Observed Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    Examines data on what situational factors influence people's desire to view violent television programming. Surveys research on the effects on viewer's behavior of the presence of other observers, the nature of the available target, situational features operating as retrieval cues, the viewers' interpretations of the violent scenes, and the…

  10. Cooperative Games arising from Information Sharing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Relations are established between information sharing (IS) situations and IS-games on one hand and information collecting (IC) situations and IC-games on the other hand. It is shown that IC-games can be obtained as convex combinations of so-called local games. Properties are described which IC-games

  11. Leadership in Sport: The Situational Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Situational leadership theory suggests that to reach maximum leadership effectiveness, the leader must adapt his/her behavior to different situations. For athletic coaches, this means that the amount of direction provided for students should increase or decrease according to the students' maturity levels. Applications of the theory are discussed.…

  12. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  13. Management by Grid Principles or Situationalism: Which?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane S.

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to resolve the leadership theory controversy between situationalism and the one-best-way approach. Indicates the validity of the latter and the lack of predictive value of the former. Results indicated administrators chose the 9,9 alternative and rejected situationally prescribed answers, reflecting a management by principles (behavioral…

  14. Hippocampal frequency shifts in different behavioural situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    1971-01-01

    Electrical activity of the dog's hippocampus was recorded in (a) an operant behaviour situation, and (b) a field situation by a radio-telemetering system. The dominant frequency of the theta rhythm shifted consistently from 4–5 c/sec to 6–7 c/sec when a dog (a) withdrew from a pedal after being

  15. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  16. Situating Gendered Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to situate the concept of gendered learning in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the results of two closely related, qualitative studies of apprenticeship learning in two major industrial companies in Denmark. Findings: The paper finds that the creation of a situated-gendered…

  17. Sexual Arousal, Situational Restrictiveness, and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodi, Ann

    1977-01-01

    Eighty male college freshmen participated in an experiment designed to investigate the hypothesis that enhanced arousal will facilitate subsequent aggressive behavior and that an increase in aggressive behavior will be more likely to occur in a setting of situational permissiveness rather than situational restrictiveness. (Editor)

  18. Situational Leadership: "Different Strokes for Different Folks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Kenneth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the Situational Leadership II model and the four leadership styles and four development levels identified as important components in the development of situational leadership in school administrators. The model is used to teach principals how to vary their leadership style to fit the responses and capacities of their teachers. (MD)

  19. Internal and external hazards inside the containment in case of an emergency situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhady, Amr [Atomic Energy Authoriy (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center

    2017-11-15

    The objective of this paper is to estimating radionuclide concentrations in air and radiological dose consequences to indoor workers in a containment of MTR open pool type reactor during emergency situations. A postulated core degradation accident causes fission products to release and the ventilation system will be converted automatically from the normal situation into emergency situation in order to purify the contaminated air by forcing it to pass through a group of filters. The study computes internal and external worker doses from inhalation and submersion in a finite cloud of contaminated air during the emergency mode. A radiological toolbox version 2 was used to evaluate the radiation dose levels inside the containment.

  20. Representation of Objective Situations in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Ye. Veraksa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the types of representations of objective situations, that is, situations which are defined independently of the subject, by certain external perceptible circumstances and social expectations or rules. The author distinguishes between three types of objective situations in which children act: normative, developing and ambiguous. For each of these types there is a corresponding form of representation: sign, dialectical and symbolic. Each form is a product of the subject's cognitive activity, at the core of which lie cognitive abilities — a system of culturally specific means and ways of using them. The paper outlines normative and stabilizing abilities, transformation abilities, and symbolic mediation abilities. They help categorize different objects and features, enable transformation of situations and provide possibilities for orientation in ambiguous situations

  1. Normalization and Personalization of Learning Situation: NPLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Abik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The personalization of learning is a major pedagogical challenge solicited by pedagogues and didacts. There are several projects about the production of personalizable learning situations such as Reload-LDE and Alfanet. These projects are interested in producing new standardized and personalizable learning situations. However, on the Web, an important number of learning situations exist. These situations are rich in information but don't consider all the characteristics of participants taking part in the learning, nor their technical environments. In this paper we suggest a help system that can transform an existing learning situation to another structure standardized and personalizable depending on the context of learning personalization that we have defined.

  2. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco-industrialism...

  3. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  4. [Mass casualty incident - special features of "threatening situations"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, Björn; Wurmb, Thomas; Josse, Florent; Helm, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Terrorist attacks or amok runs may cause "threatening situations" for emergency medical services (EMS), fire fighters and physicians. Cooperation with the police is of paramount importance. In order to minimize the risk to rescue personnel and affected persons, emergency medical care has to follow tactical principles. So, the strategy in such "threatening situations" is "Stop the bleeding and clear the scene". The police define three areas of danger: unsafe, partly safe and secure. Medical care in these areas follows the concept of Tactical Combat Casualty Care. While only police should act in the unsafe area, the EMS can operate in the partly safe area after appropriate arrangements. Safety may only be achieved in emergency departments, which have to be made to secure areas by certain measures.The task force "Tactical Medicine" of the Scientific Working Group Emergency Medicine of the German Association for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care describes in this article essential criteria for a coordinated approach in "threatening situations". Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Applying Resilience Promotion Training Among Special Forces Police Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersen, Judith P; Papazoglou, Konstantinos; Koskelainen, Mari; Nyman, Markku; Gustafsberg, Harri; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2015-01-01

    Police Special Forces (a.k.a. special weapons and tactics [SWAT]) officers are tasked with responding to the most critical situations, including incidents that require specialized skills and equipment beyond typical policing activities...

  6. Situational panic attacks in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Carrie M; Wong, Judy; Heimberg, Richard G; Blanco, Carlos; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Schneier, Franklin R

    2014-01-01

    Panic attacks (PAs) are common in many psychiatric disorders other than panic disorder, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD). PAs have been associated with increased severity, comorbidity, and impairment in many disorders; therefore, PAs can now be used as a descriptive specifier across all DSM-5 disorders. However, the clinical implications of PAs in SAD remain unclear. The aim of the present investigation was to examine demographic and clinical characteristics associated with SAD-related situational panic attacks in a large, representative epidemiological sample of individuals with SAD (N=1138). We compared individuals with SAD who did and did not endorse situational PAs in terms of demographic factors, fear/avoidance of social situations, distress, impairment, and diagnostic comorbidity. Being male, black, Asian, or over 65 years old was associated with a decreased likelihood of experiencing situational PAs, whereas being unemployed was associated with an increased likelihood. Individuals with situational PAs also exhibited greater fear and avoidance of social situations, impairment, coping-oriented substance use, treatment utilization, and concurrent and longitudinal psychiatric comorbidity. Consistent with most epidemiologic studies, the information collected relied on self-report, and not all participants were available for both waves of assessment. The present findings suggest that SAD-related situational PAs are associated with more severe and complex presentations of SAD. Implications for the assessment and treatment of SAD, as well as for the use of PAs as a descriptive specifier for SAD, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices.

  8. Toward a Situated Stance in Organizational Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Organizational Institutionalism is gradually embracing a more situated, actor-centered stance that is prompting empirical inquiry into how embedded actors respond to institutional complexity. French Pragmatist Sociology can contribute to this endeavor because it provides a situated, relational......, and practice-oriented framework for studying how actors negotiate and justify actions through shared moral “worlds” that are akin to institutional logics. French Pragmatist Sociology can help illuminate three questions that are key to a situated stance in Organizational Institutionalism: (a) How free...

  9. Child labour and forced marriage: Modern slavery in Nigeria | Aboh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seemingly buoyant economy of Nigeria notwithstanding, child labour, abuse, minor marriages, forced marriages and other social vices abound. While some researchers blame the situation on hardship engendered by corruption, greed and nepotism, others blame the situation on some cultures. Many more believe it is ...

  10. A improved Network Security Situation Awareness Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the situation of network security assessment performance fully and accurately, a new network security situation awareness model based on information fusion was proposed. Network security situation is the result of fusion three aspects evaluation. In terms of attack, to improve the accuracy of evaluation, a situation assessment method of DDoS attack based on the information of data packet was proposed. In terms of vulnerability, a improved Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS was raised and maked the assessment more comprehensive. In terms of node weights, the method of calculating the combined weights and optimizing the result by Sequence Quadratic Program (SQP algorithm which reduced the uncertainty of fusion was raised. To verify the validity and necessity of the method, a testing platform was built and used to test through evaluating 2000 DAPRA data sets. Experiments show that the method can improve the accuracy of evaluation results.

  11. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE AUDIT OF FINANCIAL SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Madalina, Salomia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a business world situated on a market that is becoming more and more active both on an international and national level, the audit of financial situations embodies a veritable varied research domain and with favorable advantages for the Romanian business society, as well as for the interest of the business society located outside the Romanian space.From the result of the auditing of financial situations of a entity, various information may be obtained which is used by different groups that present opinions, knowledge and divergent interests such as:managers, investors, financial creditors, commercial creditors, clients, suppliers, employees, the government and its institutions, bankers, financial analysts, the public, the business community and other entities who base themselves on the objectivity and integrity of the financial situations audited.

  12. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  13. Situational leadership and persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.

  14. Observations on the Alaska reindeer situation, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses various topics regarding the situation of Alaskan reindeer in 1968. The production of reindeer by Alaskan natives is discussed, including their...

  15. Issues of the Theory of Criminalistics Situations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snieguole Matuliene; Rolandas Kriksciunas

    2011-01-01

    ... theoretic meaning, purpose, function and practical application. In the present article, the authors examine the criminalistics situation--one of the most significant categories of the theory of criminalistics and crime investigation techniques...

  16. SPIN DEPENDENT FORCES IN QUARK MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, J.

    1985-01-01

    Qualitative understanding of hyperfine, spin-orbit, and tensor forces in systems of both light and heavy quarks is now available. The experimental situation leading to this understanding is reviewed, theoretical perspectives are given, and some suggestions for further study are made.

  17. Magnetic Force and Work: An Accessible Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Despite their physics instructors' arguments to the contrary, introductory students can observe situations in which there seems to be compelling evidence for magnetic force doing work. The counterarguments are often highly technical and require physics knowledge beyond the experience of novice students, however. A simple example is presented…

  18. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  19. Mental health: the current situation and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Rodríguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Information regarding the mental health situation, both at global and national levels, is updated. In the first place, the basic concepts and problems regarding mental health are presented. The burden of disease is also presented, bearing in mind that in developed countries deeper depression occupies second place and in developing countries comes fourth. On the other hand, depressive disorders represent 17% of DALYs. The mental health situation in Colombia is also presented, including its epi...

  20. Postural correlates of viewing painful situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eLelard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional context may play a crucial role in movement production. According to simulation theories, emotional states affect motor systems. The aim of this study was to compare postural responses assessed by posturography and electromyography when subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or a non-painful situation.Methods: Twenty-nine subjects (22.3 ± 3.7 years participated in this study. While standing quietly on a posturographic platform, they were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or non-painful situation. Displacement of the centre of pressure (COP, leg muscle electromyographic activity, heart rate, and electrodermal activity were assessed in response to painful and non-painful situations.Results:The anteroposterior path was shorter (p<0.05 when subjects imagined themselves in a painful situation (M = 148.0 ± 33.4 mm compared to a non-painful situation (158.2 ± 38.7 mm. Higher Tibialis Anterior (TA activity (RMS-TA = 3.38 ± 1.95 % vs 3.24 ± 1.85 %; p < 0.001 and higher variability of Soleus (SO activity (variation coefficient of RMS-SO = 13.5 ± 16.2 % vs M = 9.0% ± 7.2 %; p<0.05 were also observed in painful compared to non-painful situations. No significant changes were observed for other physiological data Conclusion: This study demonstrates that simulation of painful situations induces changes in postural control and leg muscle activation compared to non-painful situations, as increased stiffness was demonstrated in response to aversive pictures in accordance with previous results.

  1. Towards artificial situation awareness by autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    McAree, O.; Aitken, J M; Veres, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to artificial situation awareness for an autonomous vehicle operating in complex dynamic environments populated by other agents. A key aspect of situation awareness is the use of mental models to predict future states of the environment, allowing safe and rational routing decisions to be made. We present a technique for predicting future discrete state transitions (such as the commencement of a turn) by other agents, based upon an uncertain mental model. P...

  2. Action Based Object Separation with Situated Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Visual scene analysis can be augmented by proper manipulative actions like changing perspective or interacting with elements of the environment. They reveal some of the non-obvious (e.g. non-visual or visually ambiguous) intrinsic qualities of the scene's setting. A framing for actions is formalizable using situation semantics notification. This supports a non-classic view of perception: the perception of the situation is the action taken to inspect it, or is at least inseparably connected to...

  3. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  4. Situating adaptation: How governance challenges and perceptions of uncertainty influence adaptation in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carina Wyborn; Laurie Yung; Daniel Murphy; Daniel R. Williams

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation is situated within multiple, interacting social, political, and economic forces. Adaptation pathways envision adaptation as a continual pathway of change and response embedded within this broader sociopolitical context. Pathways emphasize that current decisions are both informed by past actions and shape the landscape of future options. This research...

  5. Knowledge of problem situations in physics: A comparison of good and poor novice problem solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G.M.

    1991-01-01

    In this study we examined models of problem situations in the memory of good and poor novice students. Subjects were shown very briefly descriptions of physics problems, and after each exposure they were asked to reconstruct the given problem. The short exposure time forces students to rely on

  6. The Situational Leadership Approach Effects on Employee Motivation in Multi-Generational Information Technology Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Thaddaeus

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the three generations comprising today's IT organizations to determine whether the Situational Leadership approach is effective in motivating this diverse work force to perform project-related tasks. Baby Boomer employees, Generation X employees, and Generation Y employees are the three generations actively employed in IT…

  7. Roughness in Surface Force Measurements: Extension of DLVO Theory To Describe the Forces between Hafnia Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Namsoon; Parsons, Drew F; Craig, Vincent S J

    2017-07-06

    The interaction between colloidal particles is commonly viewed through the lens of DLVO theory, whereby the interaction is described as the sum of the electrostatic and dispersion forces. For similar materials acting across a medium at pH values remote from the isoelectric point the theory typically involves an electrostatic repulsion that is overcome by dispersion forces at very small separations. However, the dominance of the dispersion forces at short separations is generally not seen in force measurements, with the exception of the interaction between mica surfaces. The discrepancy for silica surfaces has been attributed to hydration forces, but this does not explain the situation for titania surfaces where the dispersion forces are very much larger. Here, the interaction forces between very smooth hafnia surfaces have been measured using the colloid probe technique and the forces evaluated within the DLVO framework, including both hydration forces and the influence of roughness. The measured forces across a wide range of pH at different salt concentrations are well described with a single parameter for the surface roughness. These findings show that even small degrees of surface roughness significantly alter the form of the interaction force and therefore indicate that surface roughness needs to be included in the evaluation of surface forces between all surfaces that are not ideally smooth.

  8. Situational depression: validity of the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, R M

    1981-10-01

    The validity of the concept of situational (i.e. reactive) depression as distinct from other major depressive subtypes is examined in terms of psychosocial stressors, personality features, current symptomatology, and clinical course and follow-up. Thirty-eight patients with a recent onset of situational major depressive disorder (i.e. the disorder developed after an event or in a situation the diagnostician deemed likely to have contributed to the episode at that time) were compared with 68 non-situational major depressive patients. These patients were participants in the clinical studies of the NIMH-Clinical Research Branch Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of Depression. No significant differences between the two groups were found in the total number, content areas, or other categorizations of life events, experienced prior to onset. Some statistically significant differences in current symptomatology and in clinical course and follow-up measures were obtained, but there were none in personality traits. Implications of these results in relation to previously published reports are discussed and caution is recommended in the use of the term situational depression until more definitive data become available.

  9. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Gibson, Bradley S; McNerney, M Windy

    2014-01-01

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. This suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.

  10. Encoding Present Situations in Mandarin Chinese and isiXhosa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics ... In Mandarin, a current state is invariably described in terms of its relation with a previous state, i.e. whether it is contrastive to some previous state or if the state has some duration which includes the present moment. ... Keywords: Tense, Aspect, Bantu, Mandarin, Comparative Linguistics ...

  11. Community of practice and situated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ličen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of everyday life learning or situated learning is growing, and new models for interpretation and re- search are being developed in concordance with new knowledge concepts and theories of learning. The article brings an analysis of situated learning as a type of learning without a fixed structure which develops (transforms into an organized and structured learning form. The first part examines the concept of situated learning and the theoretical context of the model of communities of practice. The second part presents a comparative analysis of two models of situ- ated learning, action learning and the community of practice, as the forms which support transmission of information and knowledge and imply innovation development. Both models are rooted in the context of poststructuralist practice theory and transformative learning theories. Advantages and deficiencies of the analysed models direct the practical use of action learning or communities of practice.

  12. Situational leadership: a model for leading telecommuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Leigh Ann

    2005-11-01

    To describe a leadership model aimed at assisting health care leaders to incorporate situational leadership into their practice when leading telecommuters. Technological developments have grown in two areas, including medicine and communication, which have facilitated an enhanced information exchange in health care. These technological enhancements have allowed the health care arena to expand and improve its capabilities, including the delivery of health care and the information exchange among patients, providers and workers. Traditional leadership styles must be modified to respond to the needs of telecommuters. Situational leadership gives structured guidance to the nursing leader when managing telecommuters. Situational leadership has been used in the traditional work setting and can be used in the virtual workplace. The strategies and techniques used have to be modified for the telecommuter and must focus on increasing communication.

  13. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  14. Implementation synergies that exploit situational knowledge strategically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    This paper illustrates how strategic and situated forms of knowledge may increase capacity to implement energy strategies in local urban development projects. Through analysis of front runner implementation projects, we show that the involved planners utilize situational learning processes...... strategically to develop more viable implementation trajectories. These findings resonate well with relational and network orienteered research in contemporary planning theory. In the selected case studies, we can see that planners deliberately seek to extend traditional planning approaches, like e.......g. regulation, with broader context‐specific learning processes. In doing so, we argue that – what we call – an implementation synergy is established by interlacing different forms of situational knowledge with strategic knowledge about how to reach a desired energy target. In conclusion, the paper identifies...

  15. Renovating Situation Taxonomies: Exploring the Construction and Content of Fundamental Motive Situation Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Patrick J; Neel, Rebecca; Todd, Elysia; Funder, David

    2015-08-01

    The present work demonstrates a method for constructing theoretically based situational classifications and exploring their behavioral implications. Fundamental motives theory (FMT; Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, & Schaller, 2010; Kenrick, Neuberg, Griskevicius, Becker, & Schaller, 2010) proposes that humans have evolved seven specific social motives that would be differentially evoked by different situations. Experts in FMT used the Riverside Situational Q-sort (RSQ) to describe prototypic motive-relevant situations and the Riverside Behavioral Q-sort (RBQ) to construct templates representing predictions of how people would behave in them. A sample of 201 undergraduate participants used the RSQ to describe situations they had experienced within the past 24 hours, and they described their behavior in each situation using the RBQ. For both the RSQ and RBQ, self-protection and disease avoidance templates were highly similar to each other and different from mate-seeking and affiliation templates. Participants more often reported experiencing situations similar to the mate-seeking, affiliation, and kin care templates and less often reported experiencing situations similar to the self-protection and disease avoidance templates. Participants' reported behavior was consistent with expectations from FMT. This study illustrates how relations between situations and behavior can be illuminated through the use of theoretically derived templates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The Bonding Situation in Metalated Ylides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Lennart T; Andrada, Diego M; Frenking, Gernot; Gessner, Viktoria H

    2017-03-28

    Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out to study the electronic structure of metalated ylides particularly in comparison to their neutral analogues, the bisylides. A series of compounds of the general composition Ph3 P-C-L with L being either a neutral or an anionic ligand were analyzed and the impact of the nature of the substituent L and the total charge on the electronics and bonding situation was studied. The charge at the carbon atom as well as the dissociation energies, bond lengths, and Wiberg bond indices strongly depend on the nature of L. Here, not only the charge of the ligand but also the position of the charge within the ligand backbone plays an important role. Independent of the substitution pattern, the NBO analysis reveals the preference of unsymmetrical bonding situations (P=C-L or P-C=L) for almost all compounds. However, Lewis structures with two lone-pair orbitals at the central carbon atom are equally valid for the description of the bonding situation. This is confirmed by the pronounced lone-pair character of the frontier orbitals. Energy decomposition analysis mostly reveals the preference of several bonding situations, mostly with dative and ylidic electron-sharing bonds (e.g., P→C- -L). In general, the anionic systems show a higher preference of the ylidic bonding situations compared to the neutral analogues. However, in most of the cases different resonance structures have to be considered for the description of the "real" bonding situation. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Magnetic sensor nodes for enhanced situational awareness in urban settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, Hoke; Shelby, Richard; Mathis, Kevin; Dalichaouch, Yacine; Kumar, Sankaran

    2005-05-01

    Military forces conducting urban operations are in need of non-line-of-sight sensor technologies for enhanced situational awareness. Disposable sensors ought to be able to detect and track targets through walls and within rooms in a building and relay that information in real-time to the soldier. We have recently developed magnetic sensor nodes aimed towards low cost, small size, low power consumption, and wireless communication. The current design uses a three-axis thin-film magnetoresistive sensor for low bandwidth B-field monitoring of magnetic targets such as vehicles and weapons carried by personnel. These sensor nodes are battery operated and use IEEE 802.15.4 communication link for control and data transmission. Power consumption during signal acquisition and communication is approximately 300 mW per channel. We will present and discuss node array performance, future node development and sensor fusion concepts.

  19. Teachers' professional judgement in real teaching situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig; Daugbjerg, Peer; Sommer, Lise

    2017-01-01

    -prepared, well-rehearsed, and experience based. Disturbances, unexpected ruptures or deviations from plan demand that teachers improvise regarding which actions to carry out. The considerations the teachers make in these situations are not directly available for investigation. The actions can be conscious...... as well as unconscious and they are expressed bodily and verbally. The presentation will discuss methodological approach on how to investigate teachers' professional judgement. We will use video recordings of actual teaching situations to generate dialogue with the participating teachers. The dialogue...

  20. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  1. Designing to support situation awareness across distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    . The foundation for this framework is previous research in situation awareness and virtual reality, combined with our analysis of interviews with and observations of collaborating scientists. The framework suggests that situation awareness is comprised of contextual, task and process, and socio-emotional...... information. Research in virtual reality systems suggests control, sensory, distraction and realism attributes of technology contribute to a sense of presence [Presence 7 (1998) 225]. We suggest that consideration of these attributes with respect to contextual, task and process, and socio-emotional...

  2. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  3. Situational Strategies for Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control isn’t always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies—which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud— may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective, namely that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.—Sun Tzu, The Art of War PMID:26817725

  4. Exploring Situated Ambiguity in Students' Entrepreneurial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubberød, Elin; Pettersen, Inger Beate

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building on entrepreneurial learning research, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the students participating in foreign entrepreneurial education programmes can have realistic entrepreneurial learning experiences. This research addresses two specific questions: how situated ambiguity induced by a foreign culture may contribute to…

  5. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  6. A Situational Alignment Framework for PACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, Rogier; Batenburg, Ronald; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Ooijen, Peter; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Scheper, Wim

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of a study on an integrated situational alignment framework for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) labeled as PISA. Following the design research cycle, complementary validation methods and pilot cases were used to assess the proposed framework and its

  7. Effect of situation on mother infant interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.J.B.M.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that the early parent–infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother–infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables

  8. Psychosocial situation of seniors with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiserová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Kaiserová:Psychosocial situation of seniors with physical disability. Praha, PedF UK, 2011. Presented bachelor thesis deals with problems acquired physical disability in the adulthood and the old age and its impact on personality of individual. It also deals with problems of diabetes, its complications and syndrom of diabetic foot.

  9. Faculty Development Using the Situational Leadership Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The situational leadership model developed by Hersey and Blanchard is described, and the task-specific model is then applied to the four primary tasks of college faculty--teaching, research, community service, and institutional service. The model combines directive and supportive behavior as they are reflected in four distinctive leadership…

  10. Teaching Decision-Making Using Situational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Daniel W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the basic tenets of the Situational Leadership model, examines the steps of the Conflict Model for decision making, and presents a conceptual model that integrates the two. The integrated model aims to provide a systematic means for allowing individuals to learn how to participate in organizational decisions. (JDD)

  11. The Role of the Situation in Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Victor H.; Jago, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of…

  12. Locally Situated Digital Representation of Indigenous Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    representation based on experiences from a longitudinal community-centred research project in rural Africa. In a quest to shape design from a locally situated viewpoint, we co-design a 3D visualization of an African village with its inhabitants. Prior invisible local perspectives, as well as dominant designer...

  13. Situational Strategies for Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J

    2016-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies-which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud-may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective-namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Rethinking Situated and Embodied Social Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, W.; Looren De Jong, H.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore the scope of a Situated and Embodied Social Psychology (ESP). At first sight, social cognition seems embodied cognition par excellence. Social cognition is first and foremost a supra-individual, interactive, and dynamic process (Semin & Smith, 2013). Radical approaches

  15. The Sign Language Situation in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyst, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article gives a first overview of the sign language situation in Mali and its capital, Bamako, located in the West African Sahel. Mali is a highly multilingual country with a significant incidence of deafness, for which meningitis appears to be the main cause, coupled with limited access to adequate health care. In comparison to neighboring…

  16. African Tobacco Situational Analysis : Development Grants | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) is partnering with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) in the African Tobacco Situational Analyses (ATSA), an initiative to understand the critical determinants for tobacco control in Africa. This grant will allow up to 15 national teams or consortiums whose ...

  17. Assessing Vessel Traffic Service Operator Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes my study of situation awareness assessment of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators. VTS operators are the traffic controllers on the water. They are responsible for a safe and efficient handling of vessel traffic. They monitor traffic, provide information on request and

  18. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  19. Situating asynchronous voice in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bidwell, NJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available to be oriented by theory that contrasts the mental functions of oral and literate users, rather than by local practices in social situations. We describe designing an Audio Repository (AR) based on practices, priorities and phone-use in rural Africa. The AR...

  20. A situational alignment framework for PACS.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, R. van de; Batenburg, R.; Oudkerk, M.; Ooijen, P. van; Brinkkemper, S.; Scheper, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of a study on an integrated situational alignment framework for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) labeled as PISA. Following the design research cycle, complementary validation methods and pilot cases were used to assess the proposed framework and its

  1. Experiences with the Situation Approach in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Jurgen

    This paper relates the experiences of an early childhood professor from the Freie University of Berlin on a trip through East Asia to provide advice and assistance on the situational approach to preschool education. Impressions of the sociopolitical and educational environment and needs of Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and…

  2. Current situation of fish farming in Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Togo, fish farming is faced with several problems which oblige farmers to develop local production techniques that explain the low level of production. To assess the current situation, a survey was conducted to collect information on this activity in 91 Togolese fish farms located in the five regions of the country. The.

  3. Crisis Situations in Engineering Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muenzberg, Christopher; Hammer, Jens; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    and experts. Result of this research is a situation specific approach for crises. The evaluated methods are clustered considering the main steps of problem solving. Results indicate that TRIZ methods support especially the idea generation process with structured and detailed approaches....

  4. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  5. Stakeholders Perception of Current Health Education Situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    similarities to contemporary ideas on health strategies and on the importance of health improvement in developing countries .... perceptions of the various stakeholders' current health education situation under Ghana's HPC program. The purpose of the ..... of study should be interesting and of some value. Having dealt with ...

  6. Modelling remediation options for urban contamination situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Charnock, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact on a population from an event resulting in dispersal and deposition of radionuclides in an urban area could be significant, in terms of both the number of people affected and the economic costs of recovery. The use of computer models for assessment of urban contamination situations and...

  7. Situational interest in engineering design activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n=46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students’ interests were investigated by means...

  8. All in a day's work – variability in person-situation interactions in daily life situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    effect of persons’ situational concerns and intentions upon fluctuations in quality of experience. This paper will argue that the combination of findings (a) and (b) goes against the interpretation that persons merely “react” to situational features, and instead points to how subjective and agentic...

  9. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Serfass

    Full Text Available Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed.

  10. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  11. The swim force as a body force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Brady, John

    2015-11-01

    Net (as opposed to random) motion of active matter results from an average swim (or propulsive) force. It is shown that the average swim force acts like a body force - an internal body force [Yan and Brady, Soft Matter, DOI:10.1039/C5SM01318F]. As a result, the particle-pressure exerted on a container wall is the sum of the swim pressure [Takatori et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 028103] and the `weight' of the active particles. A continuum mechanical description is possible when variations occur on scales larger than the run length of the active particles and gives a Boltzmann-like distribution from a balance of the swim force and the swim pressure. Active particles may also display `action at a distance' and accumulate adjacent to (or be depleted from) a boundary without any external forces. In the momentum balance for the suspension - the mixture of active particles plus fluid - only external body forces appear.

  12. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  13. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.

  14. Endocrine and behavioural response of dog in stress situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Țurcanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visit to the veterinary doctor for different reasons constitutes an unpleasant/negative or perhaps stressed experience for the dog. The stress could modify the physiological function and mask the symptom of an illness, or make the dog aggressive (1. Aims: Comparing the endocrine and behavioral response of dogs during the visit to the veterinary hospital and during activities in other places that are not related to stress (workplace, park. Materials and Methods: Six dog were taken in consideration, as indicators of stress there were used urinary cortisol, and behavioral observations. Results: Five of six dogs got high values of urinary cortisol after the visit to the veterinary clinic comparing with the values obtained in working spaces/park – areas that were familiar for dogs. Behavioral data’s have indicated a hesitating behavior at the entrance of the clinic and also in the examination room for all dogs, but the levels of intensity range individually for each dog. The results of the „Clinic Dog Stress Scale” classify behavior of dogs in following categories: 1 dog had score of 1 point that means a calm, relaxed dog; 2 dogs-3 points that means a middle level of stress, the dog is tense but cooperative; 2 dogs got 4 points-very tense, difficult to maneuver, and one dog 5 points that means a high level of distress.. Conclusion: Studding behavior relating with stress and the endocrine response at the veterinary visit it has importance for animal, owner and veterinary doctor. There is also a correlation between the stress manifestation and urinary cortisol.

  15. Vulnerabilidad a infecciones de transmisión sexual y SIDA en mujeres en situación de desplazamiento forzado. Medellín, Colombia Vulnerabilidade a infecções de transmissão sexual e AIDS em mulheres em situação de deslocamento forçado. Medellín, Colômbia Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS vulnerability in women in forced displacement situation. Medellin, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulima López Torres

    2010-03-01

    of women who arrived to the city of Medellin (Colombia in forced displacement situation. Methodology: ethnographic qualitative study performed from April to August of 2008 in the city of Medellin. 23 women were interviewed in different health care providing institutions. Results: the abrupt change from their daily life, the social and family networks fragmentation, the gender status, and in some women the sexual violence before, during and after the displacement were related with a higher vulnerability to STD/HIV/AIDS in the studied population. Conclusions: the studied women vulnerability conditions belonging to this group of diseases began before the migration and were present during and after the displacement.

  16. Pleasure in decision-making situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasko Marta

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. Results In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III, including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect

  17. Pleasure in decision-making situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanac, Michel; Guillaume, Jacqueline; Balasko, Marta; Fleury, Adriana

    2002-05-29

    This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I) including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II) using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III), including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV) using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect responses corresponding to their highest hedonic

  18. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hofmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17 and professional clarinettists (N = 6 were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 x 2 x 2 design (register: low--high; tempo: slow--fast, dynamics: soft--loud. There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low--high of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions. The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (Fmean and peak force (Fmax were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (Fmean = 1.17 N, Fmax = 3.05 N compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g. guitar. Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (Fmean = 1.21 N.For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (Fmean = 0.54 N. Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  19. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alex; Goebl, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17) and professional clarinettists (N = 6) were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 × 2 × 2 design (register: low-high; tempo: slow-fast, dynamics: soft-loud). There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low-high) of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions). The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast) in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (F mean ) and peak force (F max ) were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (F mean = 1.17 N, F max = 3.05 N) compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g., guitar). Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (F mean = 1.21 N). For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (F mean = 0.54 N). Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  20. Situation Model for Situation-Aware Assistance of Dementia Patients in Outdoor Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Kristina; Koldrack, Philipp; Heine, Christina; Henkel, Ron; Martin, Mike; Teipel, Stefan; Kirste, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Dementia impairs spatial orientation and route planning, thus often affecting the patient's ability to move outdoors and maintain social activities. Situation-aware deliberative assistive technology devices (ATD) can substitute impaired cognitive function in order to maintain one's level of social activity. To build such a system, one needs domain knowledge about the patient's situation and needs. We call this collection of knowledge situation model. To construct a situation model for the outdoor mobility of people with dementia (PwD). The model serves two purposes: 1) as a knowledge base from which to build an ATD describing the mobility of PwD; and 2) as a codebook for the annotation of the recorded behavior. We perform systematic knowledge elicitation to obtain the relevant knowledge. The OBO Edit tool is used for implementing and validating the situation model. The model is evaluated by using it as a codebook for annotating the behavior of PwD during a mobility study and interrater agreement is computed. In addition, clinical experts perform manual evaluation and curation of the model. The situation model consists of 101 concepts with 11 relation types between them. The results from the annotation showed substantial overlapping between two annotators (Cohen's kappa of 0.61). The situation model is a first attempt to systematically collect and organize information related to the outdoor mobility of PwD for the purposes of situation-aware assistance. The model is the base for building an ATD able to provide situation-aware assistance and to potentially improve the quality of life of PwD.

  1. Situated learning - beyond apprenticeship and social constructionism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical and philosophical fundament of Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger’s theory of ’situated learning’. In Denmark, the theory has been categorized under as different paradigms as a theory of learning as ‘apprenticeship’ and as ‘social constructionism......’. This may seem as a theoretical discussion without any implications for an actual practice. But, as it will be argued in the paper, the perception of the theory has fundamental consequences for how it is considered to contribute to the understanding of learning and to analyses of learning in an actual...... context. The paper can, thus, be considered as not only a contribution to a narrow discussion of ‘situated learning’, but also to the wider discussion of how to conceptualize ‘learning’ as such. In addition, the paper discusses some of the analytical perspectives, which are at stake in some of the other...

  2. From Knowledge Transfer to Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    Innovation systems, ‘triple helix’, and similar expressions, are used to conceptualise the growing need for more integrated forms of co-operation between academia and other societal actors, such as governmental agencies and industry, in order to produce knowledge relevant for society. However......, developers and domain experts that form constituencies and where scientific knowledge is confronted by requirements, constraints and possibilities of the specific situation. In this context innovation of, or involving, ICT requires a significant amount of imagination, represents a relatively sharp break...... with established ways of doing things, and requires artful integration of different professional practices, communities, and technologies. We define these creative processes of co-development of work practices, organisations and technology as ‘situated innovation’....

  3. Situational Analysis and Engineering Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Studies of work practices of scientists and engineers inspired by Science and Technology Studies (STS) provide new material for a richer understanding of expert cultures and expert work practices. However, the specific and strictly situated focus of many of these studies threatens to limit...... discussions of work practices to departmental and discrete institutional settings. This micro perspective potentially overlooks the inherent and overarching normativities that inform expert culture and expert work practices. Furthermore, the micro perspective has difficulties in transgressing institutional...... boundaries in order to investigate the dynamics of cultural reproduction in expert work practices. The paper will propose a new research agenda that – inspired by George Marcus’ multi-sited ethnographic methodology (Marcus 1998) and Adele Clarke’s situational analysis (Clarke 2005) – analyze (and contrasts...

  4. Situated ethics in collaborative research with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    That research ethics are to be renegotiated with the respective participants throughout the research process is a demand strongly promoted throughout feminist research. Ethics are to be re-situated according to the concrete interrelationships, including the power relations and positionings in play......, the agendas, accountabilities and responsibilities at stake. Due to the insight that human beings are situated beings, who have limited possibilities for understanding their respective being in the world, it emerges that a collaborative and yet conflictual exploration of joint becomings is both...... an epistemological as well as an ontological necessity. The paper discusses how a renegotiation of ethics is particularly difficult whilst engaging in a project investigating everyday media experiences of young children (aged 3-6) at a German day care centre. Albeit the children were explicitly considered co-researchers...

  5. The role of the situation in leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Victor H; Jago, Arthur G

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of leadership. The most recent of these, contingency theories, is argued to be most consistent with existing evidence and most relevant to professional practice. The Vroom, Yetton, and Jago contingency models of participation in decision making are described in depth, and their work provides the basis for identifying 3 distinct ways in which situational or contextual variables are relevant to both research on and the practice of leadership. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

  6. The development of virtue through Situated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele BALDUZZI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to underline the educative potential of the teaching method called «Situated learning». Thanks to the introduction of Tablets and iPads into the school environment, teachers have more instruments (i.e. interactive slides, video and audio support, Internet based sources to let knowledge, abilities and skills grow into their students’ mind: this is «Situated learning». Although the learning potential of these new learning instruments is clear, there must be the support of the students’ and teachers’ qualities and virtues (in particular the virtue of sharing knowledge, otherwise the whole potential would be nullified anyway: students with no will to learn will not learn, with or without an iPad, and the same is for a teacher with no will to teach.

  7. Collaborative product development and situated knowledge contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Munksgaard, Kristin B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding how problem formulation, information search and division of work in new product development (NPD) activities is shaped by mind sets vested in organizations with diverging positions in the value chain and correspondingly...... situated knowledge contexts. The authors aim to focus on how this influences the marketability of new product ideas. Design/methodology/approach - The empirical data are derived from exploratory observation studies of NPD meetings and interviews of involved managers and specialists in three business dyads...... concerns the atmosphere of the relationship, involving emotions and attitudes of the actors involved from foregone exchange situations. Practical implications - For managers of NPD activities, the relationship between the knowledge contexts involved, the concept development outcomes and the marketability...

  8. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  9. Knowledge-based driver assistance systems traffic situation description and situation feature relevance

    CERN Document Server

    Huelsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of a traffic situation plays a major role in driving a vehicle. Interpretable information forms a basis for future projection, decision making and action performing, such as navigating, maneuvering and driving control. Michael Huelsen provides an ontology-based generic traffic situation description capable of supplying various advanced driver assistance systems with relevant information about the current traffic situation of a vehicle and its environment. These systems are enabled to perform reasonable actions and approach visionary goals such as injury and accident free driv

  10. Assessment of internal doses in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T.; Muikku, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Falk, R.; Johansson, J. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority - SSI (Sweden); Liland, A.; Thorshaug, S. [NRPA (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations was demonstrated after accidents in Brazil, Ukraine and other countries. Lately more and more concern has been expressed regarding malevolent use of radiation and radioactive materials. The scenarios for such use are more difficult to predict than for nuclear power plant or weapons accidents. Much of the results of the work done in the IRADES project can be adopted for use in various accidental situations involving radionuclides that are not addressed in this report. If an emergency situation occurs in only one or a few of the Nordic countries, experts from the other countries could be called upon to assist in monitoring. A big advantage is then our common platform. In the Nordic countries much work has been put down on quality assurance of measurements and on training of dose assessment calculations. Attention to this was addressed at the internal dosimetry course in October 2005. Nordic emergency preparedness exercises have so far not included training of direct measurements of people in the early phase of an emergency. The aim of the IRADES project was to improve the preparedness especially for thyroid measurements. The modest financial support did not enable the participants to make big efforts but certainly acted as a much appreciated reminder of the importance of being prepared also to handle situations with malevolent use of radioactive materials. It was left to each country to decide to which extent to improve the practical skills. There is still a need for detailed national implementation plans. Measurement strategies need to be developed in each country separately taking into account national regulations, local circumstances and resources. End users of the IRADES report are the radiation protection authorities. (au)

  11. Algeria. Energy situation 2004; Algerien. Energiewirtschaft 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The energy situation of Algeria is reviewed on the basis of selected data. This includes statistics on the country's national and international energy policy, energy sources, and electric power generation. Key data are presented on foreign trade. [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Algeriens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel angegeben.

  12. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership ...

  13. COMMUNICATION IN THE EMERGENCY SITUATIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Aurel GHIUȚĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is talking about communication use in emergency situations management from a marketing perspective. We have analyzed if this communication is different from the communication of a company with her publics; the legislation which provides the framework for this type of communication in Romania, when is applicable and who is in charge. As methodology we have utilized documentary research. We mention similarities and differences between this type of communication and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC.

  14. Situational Leadership And Diversity Management Coaching Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaudin G. Mujtaba; Jatuporn Sungkhawan

    2011-01-01

    Leadership and diversity management have been part of the work life since the beginning of formal organizations and a critical element of globalization. The authors provide an overview of situational leadership and link it to diversity management so the focus can remain on productivity rather than personalities and biases which are part of each society and individual. Based on personal training experiences of the authors, this conceptual and practical paper provides a model to link situationa...

  15. Big data for space situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Pugh, Mark; Sheaff, Carolyn; Raquepas, Joe; Rocci, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in big data (BD) have focused research on the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of data. These developments enable new opportunities in information management, visualization, machine learning, and information fusion that have potential implications for space situational awareness (SSA). In this paper, we explore some of these BD trends as applicable for SSA towards enhancing the space operating picture. The BD developments could increase in measures of performance and measures of effectiveness for future management of the space environment. The global SSA influences include resident space object (RSO) tracking and characterization, cyber protection, remote sensing, and information management. The local satellite awareness can benefit from space weather, health monitoring, and spectrum management for situation space understanding. One area in big data of importance to SSA is value - getting the correct data/information at the right time, which corresponds to SSA visualization for the operator. A SSA big data example is presented supporting disaster relief for space situation awareness, assessment, and understanding.

  16. Intuitive steering assistance in critical understeer situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Christoph; Schmidt, Mario; Sedlmayr, Martin; Pion, Olivier; Büyükyildiz, Görkem; Küçükay, Ferit

    2015-01-01

    To develop and verify a driver assistance function, working on the electric power steering of passenger cars, to support the driver on handling critical understeer situations. The main objectives of the so-called understeer assistance are reinforcing the driver's awareness of the driving conditions and giving support to handle the situation correctly without inducing irritation by abnormal steering behavior. The system was designed in consideration of psychological aspects of human decision making while operating a vehicle in unfamiliar understeer situations. Using a comparison of vehicle dynamics with a reference model computed in the car, the level of understeer is calculated. Depending on the understeer level, the steering wheel restoring torque is increased while a vibration is applied to the steering wheel at the same time. To verify the achievement of the objectives, the standard steering system is compared to the developed understeer assistance in an active driving study on a test track. Not only objective measurement data but also subjective ratings delivered by 63 unbiased participants were used. The subjects follow the offered steering recommendation by steering less when the assistance function is activated (Δγmax = 44.38°, p = 2.5°·10⁻³%). In the sequel, an enhanced vehicle reaction arises that is validated by analyzing the achieved maximum lateral offset (ΔSy,res = 0.16m, p = 0.07%). In addition, the evaluation of subjective ratings clearly indicates a better awareness of the understeer situation with the assistance function (χ= +0.44, p = 0.89%). Furthermore the subjects rate the understeer assistance better than the standard steering system (χ= +0.43, p = 3.03%). By measuring vehicle data and eliciting subjective opinions of the participants, the effectiveness regarding an improved handling of an understeering vehicle as well as the acceptance of the understeer assistance by the driver is confirmed. Larger subject groups and more realistic

  17. Impact of global forces and empowering situations on engineering education in 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, A.; Klaassen, R

    2016-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades the world around us has changed at a dizzying pace by the globalisation and digitalisation, the horizontalisation of the socio-economic world, and the blending of technical, economical and societal cultures. The ways we communicate, work, play, travel and do business

  18. [Effects of unstructured video exposure on EEG power in situations of forced attention and rest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan'ko, S G; Boĭtsova, Iu A; Kachalova, L M

    2011-01-01

    Group 1 (N = 30) and group 2 (N = 22) of healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. EEG registration took place while the examinees were in the resting states: with closed eyes; with opened eyes; with opened eyes and being under exposure to TV channel noises (white noise). Group 1 had also to fulfill a task to count randomly appearing symbols on a screen and group 2 had to fulfill a task to find an image in the noises. Averaged values of EEG power in each of the derivations in each of the derivations were calculated for an every examinee and for each of the states. The estimations were done in delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, gamma frequency bands. The received results demonstrate that exposure to unstructured non-informative video noise can lead to significant changes of EEG power in a variety of frequency bands which are most prominent in the band alpha2. The changes are topically widespread, reflecting systemic changes in corresponding brain mechanisms, but are much less intensive if compared to changes between resting states with opened and closed eyes.

  19. Developing a Common Metric for Evaluating Police Performance in Deadly Force Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    on Human Factors and Ergonomics Methods. CLC Press: Boca Raton, Fla.: 46-1 to 46-6. Crookall, Paul. (2006) “ RCMP and the Balanced Scorecard...Foundation. Pateman, Andrew J. and Geoff Gruson. (2004) “Creating Organizational Alignment at the RCMP with the Scorecard.” Balanced Scorecard Report, Sept

  20. Assessing the industry using Porter's five forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To develop a business and plan for the future, there is a need to assess the current situation. One way of doing this is to use Porter's five forces framework. This was the brainchild of Harvard Business School's Michael Porter and developed in 1979. Looking at the competitive intensity of an industry, the model assesses internal and external factors that act together to determine the direction of the business; taken together, this gives an indication of the attractiveness of the industry.

  1. Unfolding of globular polymers by external force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Samuel; Terentjev, Eugene M., E-mail: emt1000@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-14

    We examine the problem of a polymer chain, folded into a globule in poor solvent, subjected to a constant tensile force. Such a situation represents a Gibbs thermodynamic ensemble and is useful for analysing force-clamp atomic force microscopy measurements, now very common in molecular biophysics. Using a basic Flory mean-field theory, we account for surface interactions of monomers with solvent. Under an increasing tensile force, a first-order phase transition occurs from a compact globule to a fully extended chain, in an “all-or-nothing” unfolding event. This contrasts with the regime of imposed extension, first studied by Halperin and Zhulina [Europhys. Lett. 15, 417 (1991)], where there is a regime of coexistence of a partial globule with an extended chain segment. We relate the transition forces in this problem to the solvent quality and degree of polymerisation, and also find analytical expressions for the energy barriers present in the problem. Using these expressions, we analyse the kinetic problem of a force-ramp experiment and show that the force at which a globule ruptures depends on the rate of loading.

  2. Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jinwoo

    Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments

  3. Agent Based Modeling and Simulation of Pedestrian Crowds In Panic Situations

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    The increasing occurrence of panic stampedes during mass events has motivated studying the impact of panic on crowd dynamics and the simulation of pedestrian flows in panic situations. The lack of understanding of panic stampedes still causes hundreds of fatalities each year, not to mention the scarce methodical studies of panic behavior capable of envisaging such crowd dynamics. Under those circumstances, there are thousands of fatalities and twice that many of injuries every year caused be crowd stampede worldwide, despite the tremendous efforts of crowd control and massive numbers of safekeeping forces. Pedestrian crowd dynamics are generally predictable in high-density crowds where pedestrians cannot move freely and thus gives rise to self-propelling interactions between pedestrians. Although every pedestrian has personal preferences, the motion dynamics can be modeled as a social force in such crowds. These forces are representations of internal preferences and objectives to perform certain actions or movements. The corresponding forces can be controlled for each individual to represent a different variety of behaviors that can be associated with panic situations such as escaping danger, clustering, and pushing. In this thesis, we use an agent-based model of pedestrian behavior in panic situations to predict the collective human behavior in such crowd dynamics. The proposed simulations suggests a practical way to alleviate fatalities and minimize the evacuation time in panic situations. Moreover, we introduce contagious panic and pushing behavior, resulting in a more realistic crowd dynamics model. The proposed methodology describes the intensity and spread of panic for each individual as a function of distances between pedestrians.

  4. Analysis of a Contingency Model: Effects of Management Style and Situational Environment on Organizational Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Resources Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, 1979b. Hersey , P. and K. H. Blanchard. Management of Organizational Behaviors Utilizing Human Resources...of Management , 4(1): 7-26 (1961). Scott, W. Richard. "Effectiveness of Organizational Effec- tiveness Studies," in Paul S. Goodman, Johannes M...Dist SpecialL V ANALYSIS OF A CONTINGENCY MODEL, EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT STYLE AND SITUATIONAL ENVIRONMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS John M

  5. Applying Cognitive Fusion to Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, S.; Shaw, M.; Chan, M.

    With recent increases in capability and frequency of rocket launches from countries across the world, maintaining a state-of-the-art Space Situational Awareness model is all the more necessary. We propose a fusion of real-time, natural language processing capability provided by IBM cognitive services with ground-based sensor data of positions and trajectories of satellites in all earth orbits. We believe such insight provided by cognitive services could help determine context to missile launches, help predict when a satellite of interest could be in danger, either by accident or by intent, and could alert interested parties to the perceived threat. We seek to implement an improved Space Situational Awareness model by developing a dynamic factor graph model informed by the fusion of ground-based ”structured” sensor data with ”unstructured” data from the public domain, such as news articles, blogs, and social media, in real time. To this end, we employ IBM’s Cognitive services, specifically, Watson Discovery. Watson Discovery allows real-time natural language processing of text including entity extraction, keyword search, taxonomy classification, concept tagging, relation extraction, sentiment analysis, and emotion analysis. We present various scenarios that demonstrate the utility of this new Space Situational Awareness model, each of which combine past structured information with related open source data. We demonstrate that should the model come to estimate a satellite is ”of interest”, it will indicate it as so, based on the most pertinent data, such as a reading from a sensor or by information available online. We present and discuss the most recent iterations of the model for satellites currently available on Space-Track.org.

  6. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-12-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest and their expressed situational interest. One class of Finnish fourth-graders (N = 22, age 9-10 years) participated in a heat transfer lesson. The lesson encompassed an interactive demonstration with a thermal camera, teacher-led discussions and the conduct and presentation of a collaborative inquiry task. Pupils expressed their interest levels (scale: 1 = very boring, 5 = very interesting) by using an electronic response system called a 'clicker'. The measurement took place 15 times during the lesson, with 1 measurement being just a rehearsal. The lesson was video recorded, and visible aspects of interest at the measurement time points were analysed. Reported and observational data were compared. In most cases, the observations did not yield data compatible with the pupils' own evaluations, indicating that most pupils' expressed interest is not easily interpreted through observation of their facial expressions and behaviour. In general, the interest of the group as a whole seems to diminish during the lesson. We argue that in order to maintain and increase pupils' interest, their evaluations should be taken into account in lesson planning. Video-based research might also be further enriched and validated by employing the participants' own expressions. The clicker is a suitable means of collecting primary pupils' experiences concerning their interest levels.

  7. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  8. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...... out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients were randomised to targeted temperature management. Patients were randomised before NOK could be informed, and proxy consent was obtained as soon as possible. Written consent from NOK and GP were our study data. RESULTS: We obtained all legally required...

  9. Dangerous situations in a synchronized flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song

    2007-04-01

    This paper studies the dangerous situation (DS) in a synchronized flow model. The DS on the two branches of the fundamental diagram are investigated, respectively. It is shown that different relationship between DS probability and the density exists in the synchronized flow and in the jams. Moreover, we prove that there is no DS caused by non-stopped car although the model itself is a non-exclusion process. We classify the DS into four sub-types and study the probability of these four sub-types. The simulation result is consistent with the real traffic.

  10. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...... of the affected community. The new model for disaster management which comprises an integrated continuous risk reduction phase, calls for a cross-disciplinary approach which combines the known life-saving response methods with modern development practices. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Jan...

  11. Situational psychogenic anejaculation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Rajesh; Thangadurai, Packirisamy; Kuruvilla, Anju; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Anejaculation is an uncommon clinical entity that may result from a variety of causes, both organic and psychological. Psychogenic anejaculation is influenced by relationship, behavioral, and psychological factors. We present a clinical case of situational anejaculation, which was managed with a combination of techniques that addressed these factors including changes in masturbatory technique, improved marital communication and quality, and reduction of anxiety using cognitive behavioral techniques. It is suggested that the standard techniques of sex therapy be modified and tailored to manage the specific problems of the individual patient.

  12. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  13. Bringing the Psychology of Situations into Flow Research: Personality and Situation Characteristics as Predictors of Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaja Zager Kocjan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to extend the existing findings on environmental flow precursors by adopting the DIAMONDS taxonomy of psychologically meaningful situation characteristics as a comprehensive theoretical framework. It was hypothesized that an individual's perception of the flow-related situation, particularly the dimensions of duty, intellect and positivity, would represent a more powerful predictor of the intensity of flow as compared to his or her basic personality traits. The first sample consisted of 169 employees who had to focus on the most engaging work-related event they had experienced in the past three months. They rated the characteristics of that situation and estimated the intensity of their flow experience. The second sample consisted of 96 students who participated in a challenging group activity. After the activity, they filled-in the same questionnaires as the first sample. Participants from both samples also rated their basic personality traits. Despite differences in the settings and flow-related situations evaluated, the obtained findings were similar for the two samples studied. While the association between flow and personality was weak, the situation characteristics were more strongly related to flow. Although the two samples differed with respect to the mean levels of the flow-related situation characteristics, regression analyses yielded similar results, suggesting that the intensity of flow at work and in studying is most prominently determined by situation characteristics related to intellect and positivity. Stable personality characteristics, on the other hand, had low predictive power in explaining the intensity of flow.

  14. Pedagogical and conflict situations of teacher of physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechko O.M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of conflict situations.

  15. Assessing the Effect of Lexical Aspect and Grounding on the Acquisition of L2 Spanish Past Tense Morphology among L1 English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, Maximo Rafael

    2011-01-01

    The present study compares the relative effect of inherent lexical aspect and discursive grounding on the use of L2 Spanish Preterit and Imperfect. The study is based on the analysis of responses to a written 40-item discourse-based forced-choice task among 286 English-speaking learners of Spanish. The analysis of data (repeated measures ANOVA)…

  16. Forces in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-07-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF ANXIETY UPON NEGOTATION SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mihaela NICOLAU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes to distinguish some aspects related by the influence that the level of negotiator’sanxiety1 in the negotation situation, respective, in the used strategies and obtained results. Practical, this research paper willtry to prove if anxiety plays or not a role in the negotation process, and will be a study at the border of psy-social science andthe economic ones (because the communication and the negotiation domain itself can be approched under the psychologicalaspect, as well as under the economic one. Moreover, the negotiation is an important part of reallity, it is a part of our life.We negociate daily and over all, in different social context, and is situated on varius positions.We negociate the salary withthe boss or with our subaltern, the product’s and service’s price,a pleassent place in a resstaurant, a better room in an hotel,the children promissed roller skate and the bicycle, better work conditions in an workshop and the new collective contractwith the unions. We can’t obtain anything without negotiating.

  18. EOS situational data shared service mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, L.; Xu, Q.; Lan, C. Z.; Shi, Q. S.; Lu, W. J.; Wu, W. Q.

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of aerospace and remote sensing technology, various high-resolution Earth Observation Systems (EOS) are widely used in economic, social, military and other fields and playing an increasingly prominent role in the construction of Digital Earth and national strategic planning. The normal operation of the system is the premise of high quality data acquisition. Compared with the ground observation mode, EOS itself and the surrounding environment are more complex, and its operation control mainly depends on all kinds of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data acquisition and analysis. SSA data has more extensive sources, larger volume, stronger time-effectiveness and more complicated structure than traditional geographical spatial data. For effective data sharing and utilization, combined with the analysis of data types and structures, a SSA data sharing identity language SSDSML is designed based on the extensible mark-up language XML, which realizes a comprehensive description of satellites and their attributes, space environment, ground stations, etc. Then EOS situational data shared service mechanism is established and provides a powerful data support for the normal operation of the system.

  19. Financial Situation in Regional Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Viktorovna Chaika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to monitor the financial condition of energy supply organizations in regional management and development of energy infrastructure. This condition depends on economic factors, tariff regulation and budget subsidies. The article presents indicators of aggregated financial statistics on energy supply in the regions of Russia’s European North. For the purpose of comparative analysis, the author formed a comprehensive indicator of financial stability and evaluated trends in the dynamics of past due debt and profitability. The analysis shows the following sectoral and regional characteristics: the financial situation in the electric power sector is relatively stable, but it is unsatisfactory in heat supply; the increase in negative trends, such as the decrease in repayment ability, low and negative profitability, and the accumulation of considerable arrears. Financial instability becomes a system-wide characteristic of heat supply. It is necessary to introduce a multi-step process of financial recovery of the industry as a whole. In the first place, external factors such as poor repayment discipline, inefficient tariff regulation and insufficient provision of budget subsidies for tariff misbalances must be resolved; otherwise, they will further aggravate financial instability. Strategically, a stable financial situation in energy supply can be achieved only through technological modernization. Specific features of heat supply in northern regions make it impossible to rely only on tariff sources of investment; large-scale renovation requires governmental financial support and the creation of conditions for attracting private investment

  20. Modeling Being "Lost": Imperfect Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Being "lost" is an exemplar of imperfect Situation Awareness/Situation Understanding (SA/SU) -- information/knowledge that is uncertain, incomplete, and/or just wrong. Being "lost" may be a geo-spatial condition - not knowing/being wrong about where to go or how to get there. More broadly, being "lost" can serve as a metaphor for uncertainty and/or inaccuracy - not knowing/being wrong about how one fits into a larger world view, what one wants to do, or how to do it. This paper discusses using agent based modeling (ABM) to explore imperfect SA/SU, simulating geo-spatially "lost" intelligent agents trying to navigate in a virtual world. Each agent has a unique "mental map" -- its idiosyncratic view of its geo-spatial environment. Its decisions are based on this idiosyncratic view, but behavior outcomes are based on ground truth. Consequently, the rate and degree to which an agent's expectations diverge from ground truth provide measures of that agent's SA/SU.

  1. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be sent to...

  2. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be...

  3. Situating math word problems: the story matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Beilock, Sian L

    2010-02-01

    In two experiments, we explored how the situation model of a math story problem impacts math problem performance. Participants completed multiplication story problems in which a set of objects was associated with or dissociated from a protagonist, making them more or less accessible in memory during answer retrieval. On the basis of previous findings that the sum of two numbers interferes with retrieval of their product, the number of objects in the math problem was either highly interfering ("9" for 4 x 5) or less interfering ("8" for 4 x 5) for multiplication retrieval in the problem. Participants made more errors in problem solving when highly interfering numerical content was associated with the protagonist and, thus, foregrounded. Moreover, the lower one's working memory, the bigger this effect. In sum, small changes in the situation model of a math story problem can harm performance. These changes shift the balance of factors that influence math performance away from math knowledge and toward individual differences in general cognitive capacity.

  4. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Suphanchaimaj, Weraphan; Settasatien, Anuchar; Jinwong, Thanapong

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Thailand. The number of mortalities, morbidities and disabilities are huge, greatly affecting the individual victims, the families, society and the nation as a whole. To study the current situation regarding traffic injuries in Thailand. Retrospective study from multiple national data sources For over ten years, the annual death toll due to road accidents has been more than ten thousand Thais. The situation remains critical with a higher mortality and morbidity than many other low or middle income countries. Two-thirds of the victims were males: 80% were under 40 years of age. Most (80%) of the injured and dead were motorcyclists. The large number of traffic crashes, injuries, disabilities and deaths resulted in more than 168 thousand million Baht in economic losses in 2002. These losses are trending to increase. Traffic injuries are a persistent major public health concern primarily because of a lack of adherence to the use of safety restraints and obedience of traffic laws. The nation must not hesitate to increase efforts to address these problems, as they are costing life and limb of Thais every hour of every day, as well as adding a huge economic burden.

  5. 20 CFR 10.913 - In what situations will OWCP consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with his or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In what situations will OWCP consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency... incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation? (a...

  6. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  7. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  8. Trois familles, quatre forces

    CERN Multimedia

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le monde des particules tel que nous le connaissons aujourd'hui est constitue de trois familles de quatre membres. Ces particules sont collees les unes aux autres par des forces. Celles-ci, au nombre de quatre - gravitation, force forte, force electromagnetique et force faible -, sont " portees " par d'autres particules dont certaines sont a decouvrir (graviton) et d'autres deja identifiees (gluons, photons, bosons W et Z) (1/2 page).

  9. French Nuclear Forces,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-05

    International Defense Review, and Foreign Affairs have published articles treating various as- .1 pects of France’s Forces Nucleaires Strategiques(FNS...forces(La Force Nucleaire Strategique or FNS) consist of three systems similar to the American triad. France’s tactical nuclear forces(L’Arme... Nucleaire Tactique or ANT) include a variety of land- and carrier-based aircraft and a tactical missile--Pluton--deployed by the French Army. Thirty-four M

  10. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  11. STANDARDIZATION OF UNCERTAINTY SITUATIONS IN TRAINING MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Safontsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the description of modular structure of the academic discipline in accordance with the requirements of Federal State Educational Standards.Methods. The authors use the methods of standardization of the educational system that are based on educational theory quality measurement. As the process of learning does not depend on the perspective of the diagnostician, the objectification of the results has been achieved by using relative units, allowing the authors to compare the effectiveness of different stages of education quality assessment with quantitative methods. Furthermore, sampling method, correlation and comparative analysis of statistical significance of the obtained distributions have been used to exclude from analytical data the results that were not confirmed experimentally.Results. Statistical methods are presented in a complex, allowing the authors to receive experimental result at level of the statistical importance of psychological and pedagogical researches. According to ideas of the competence-based education and general theory of systems and educational qualimetry, it is shown that constructs of vocational training are problem, test and detailed designs included in structure of educational modules. Funds of estimated means have been used to measure the level of trainee’s competences: – problematic situation of uncertainty orientation for current control; – situations of test and project orientation for boundary control at the end of each module, intermediate control in the form of the exam held at the end of the semester, as well as state certification of control at the end of the study at the university. Validity of the degree of interest of the learning process, reliability of coincidences constructive reflection of students’ own achievements with independent project performance and efficiency as the ratio of the result obtained to the costs of implementing the target function of the educational

  12. Mechanotransduction: use the force(s)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paluch, Ewa K; Nelson, Celeste M; Biais, Nicolas; Fabry, Ben; Moeller, Jens; Pruitt, Beth L; Wollnik, Carina; Kudryasheva, Galina; Rehfeldt, Florian; Federle, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena...

  13. EFFECT OF BASIC SKILLS IN ANY SITUATION TESTS ACCURACY YOUNG PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artan R. Kryeziu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to establish the impact of basic motor skills in some situational accuracy tests in youth basketball game. In a sample of 60 tested age of 17 year + / - 6 months. We have applied eigjt variables to the tested persons, five of which are predicting, while the other three are criterion tests. Connectivity between motor variables is handled through the correlation of Pearson. The impact of variables predicting in those criteria used in regression analysis. Also significant importance is given to the introduction of connectivity between basic motor skills in several accuracy tests typical for the basketball game situations. Regarding the basic motor skills variables have attained significant coherence, however situational space test throwing the ball in the basket in the same direction and shooting the ball in the basket in the corner 450 degres no coherence with any test has been shown from the space of the appility of basic motor skills. Through regression analysis procedure we’ve reviewed the impact of basic motor skills in some situational accuracy tests. Treat analysis of criterion variables in those predicting we can say that accuracy to situational variables impact junior league players had explosive force. Therefore we can conclude that explosive strength is a quite important factor in the game between young basketball players, with there moving actions the playes can achive their goal of scoring points.

  14. A novel social situation and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, G E

    2000-06-01

    Although social isolation has been shown to have a negative long-term influence on feelings of loneliness, there has been no systematic investigation of situational influences on loneliness. The purpose of this study was to compare scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the loneliness which people feel prior to performing a novel task, with those on the same scale after engaging in the task. 31 college freshmen were divided into those working alone (n = 14) and those working in a group (n = 17). Those who performed the novel task within a group felt significantly less lonely after than prior to performing the task and reported less loneliness than the students who performed the same task in isolation. An important implication of this study is that group interaction may directly and immediately reduce the amount of loneliness individuals feel.

  15. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through......Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct...... reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator's task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools...

  16. A situated model of creative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    on three key concepts or learning principles which can take different forms in particular settings and social practices. These are respectively: (1) Immersion in the topic of interest, in traditions and in the subject matter, (2) Experimentation and inquiry learning and (3) Resistance from the material...... creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that there is a need to describe the concept of creative learning and to analyse its possible constituents. Accordingly, this presentation introduces an empirically based and theoretically informed model of a creative learning community. The model is based...... of interest. As a theoretical point of departure, this presentation will outline a situated model of creativity and learning, and following this, will introduce a model of creative learning. This presentation will include several empirical examples. In the final part, the model will be discussed in relation...

  17. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fear, helplessness, concerns and expectations of “being-in-the-world”. Conclusion: respect, understanding and care from the health team were fundamental for the adaptation and the confrontation demanded by the consequent suffering of the event.

  18. Knowledge Communication as Situated Strategic Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    in discourse communities.   Bazerman, (1988, p.10) states that "Writing is a social action; texts help organize social activities and social structure, and reading is a form of social participation..."   Working from Bazerman's definition of writing as social action, and combining it with Wenger's (1998......) definition for communities of practice which relies on participation and reification occurring in conjunction with written documents, we can understand Internet texts as reifications in an ongoing social action of producing knowledge.  In other words, we can see written aspects of knowledge communication...... as situated strategic action through which genres are (re)formed.  The medium of the Internet offers a space where the reification of this action can be observed, and its interactive potential offers academics insight into knowledge communication processes.  Thus, we propose that Bazerman's definition...

  19. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas

    2010-01-01

    Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system...... for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...

  20. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  1. [Applying situational leadership in emergency nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Grasiela; Galvão, Cristina Maria; Galvão, Maria Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the correspondence of opinions between nurses and nursing staff members who work at the emergency unit regarding the leadership style performed by nurses and the style nurses must adopt considering the maturity level of nursing staff members and the care provided at the unit. Situational Leadership was adopted as a theoretical reference framework. In order to achieve these goals, instruments were elaborated and applied to 24 research participants. Results demonstrated that the leadership style nurses most frequently perform was E3 (participating), and that nurses should adopt leadership style E4 (delegating) in view of the nursing staff's level of maturity, suggesting that staff members present a high level of maturity (M4).

  2. Situational Interest in Engineering Design Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderup Dohn, Niels

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n = 46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students' interests were investigated by means of a descriptive interpretative analysis of qualitative data from classroom observations and informal interviews. The analysis was complemented by a self-report survey to validate findings and determine prevalence. The analysis revealed four main sources of interest: designing inventions, trial-and-error experimentation, achieved functionality of invention, and collaboration. These sources differ in terms of stimuli factors, such as novelty, autonomy (choice), social involvement, self-generation of interest, and task goal orientation. The study shows that design tasks stimulated interest, but only to the extent that students were able to self-regulate their learning strategies.

  3. Situated Techno-Ethics in Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The continuous inclusion of new technologies in organizations challenges business ethics and creates new problematics in work life. Managers in particular are challenged insofar as they must learn how to adapt general technological hardware to local organizational needs and work habits. Based...... on new empirical research conducted in Danish health care organizations, it investigates how managers experience technologies and how these experiences affect their professional ethics; it asks: a) What kinds of ethics do managers consider when using new technologies? b) How are these ethics negotiated......? Using a techno-human practice approach—which takes into account both human and non-human entities as the basis of moral judgment—the new technologically-induced ethical dilemmas faced by managers are discussed. A typology of techno-ethics is introduced, which presents situated ways of engaging...

  4. Situational Awareness of Network System Roles (SANSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, Kelly M [ORNL; Reed, Joel W [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In a large enterprise it is difficult for cyber security analysts to know what services and roles every machine on the network is performing (e.g., file server, domain name server, email server). Using network flow data, already collected by most enterprises, we developed a proof-of-concept tool that discovers the roles of a system using both clustering and categorization techniques. The tool's role information would allow cyber analysts to detect consequential changes in the network, initiate incident response plans, and optimize their security posture. The results of this proof-of-concept tool proved to be quite accurate on three real data sets. We will present the algorithms used in the tool, describe the results of preliminary testing, provide visualizations of the results, and discuss areas for future work. Without this kind of situational awareness, cyber analysts cannot quickly diagnose an attack or prioritize remedial actions.

  5. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  6. Hypothetical conflict situations with friends and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with age and sex differences in preferred strategies of conflict resolution in friendship and peer relationships. The study was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. Conflict resolution strategies have been investigated by the method of hypothetical conflict situations. For the purposes of this research, we have created an instrument consisting of 20 hypothetical situations, with the following subjects of conflict: breaking the agreement, non-compliance with opinion differences, provocations, dishonesty and stubbornness. Conflict resolution strategies we examined were giving in, withdrawal, competition and problem solving. The results have shown that problem solving is the dominant strategy of adolescents in conflict with friends, while in peer conflicts they more often opt for competition. Age differences are reflected in the fact that older adolescents are more likely to choose problem solving than younger, whereas younger adolescents are more likely to choose a retreat (withdrawal strategy than older. Girls are more prone to choosing problem solving than boys, who, on the other hand, tend to withdraw more than girls. Also, gender of the other person in the conflict is proved to be important - in conflict with male peers, adolescents choose competition to a greater extent and withdraw to a minor extent, compared to when they are in conflict with female peers. The results have practical implications as well. In programs for teaching constructive conflict resolution that are designed for younger adolescents there should be more emphasis on empowerment and training for assertive behaviour. In addition, when teaching about constructive conflict resolution strategies, it is important to consider the gender of adolescents as well as the gender of the person with whom they are in conflict.

  7. Register as the Situational Variety of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya B. Boyeva-Omelechko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem discussed in the article is topical due to the interest of scientists to different types of language variations and especially registers or situational dialects treated by M.A.K. Halliday as use-related varieties of language or varieties used in a particular social setting. As discourse categorization is a very complex problem scholarly consensus has not been reached for the definitions of the term «register». The universal criteria for defining and discriminating registers have not been worked out either. The authors of the article give the review of scientific works devoted to the problem in question especially works by M.A.K. Halliday, R. Quirk, M. Joos, D. Hymes P. Trudgill, E.I. Belyaeva and others and analyze different definitions of the term «register», spectrums of registers and criteria for their discriminating. It enables the authors to come to the conclusion that only registers with the same field (religious, political, business etc. and mode (oral/written, dialogue/monologue can be compared. The difference lies in the sphere of tenor which depends on the degree of formality, distance of power and socio-psychological distance between speakers. The authors believe that it is also necessary to take into account the cooperative/ uncooperative character of conversation and para-verbal and non-verbal components of the speech situation. With this in mind they offer their definition of the register and describe main characteristics of registers in the sphere of oral communication.

  8. Employing Honeynets For Network Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barford, Paul; Chen, Yan; Goyal, Anup; Li, Zhichun; Paxson, Vern; Yegneswaran, Vinod

    Effective network security administration depends to a great extent on having accurate, concise, high-quality information about malicious activity in one’s network. Honeynets can potentially provide such detailed information, but the volume and diversity of this data can prove overwhelming. We explore ways to integrate honeypot data into daily network security monitoring with a goal of sufficiently classifying and summarizing the data to provide ongoing “situational awareness.” We present such a system, built using the Bro network intrusion detection system coupled with statistical analysis of numerous honeynet “events”, and discuss experiences drawn from many months of operation. In particular, we develop methodologies by which sites receiving such probes can infer—using purely local observation—information about the probing activity: What scanning strategies does the probing employ? Is this an attack that specifically targets the site, or is the site only incidentally probed as part of a larger, indiscriminant attack? One key aspect of this environment is its ability to provide insight into large-scale events. We look at the problem of accurately classifying botnet sweeps and worm outbreaks, which turns out to be difficult to grapple with due to the high dimensionality of such incidents. Using datasets collected during a number of these events, we explore the utility of several analysis methods, finding that when used together they show good potential for contributing towards effective situational awareness. Our analysis draws upon extensive honeynet data to explore the prevalence of different types of scanning, including properties, such as trend, uniformity, coordination, and darknet-avoidance. In addition, we design schemes to extrapolate the global properties of scanning events (e.g., total population and target scope) as inferred from the limited local view of a honeynet. Cross-validating with data from DShield shows that such inferences

  9. Interactive analysis of situational awareness metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Derek; Wall, Jim; Keyser, John

    2012-01-01

    Digital systems are employed to maintain situational awareness of people in various contexts including emergency response, disaster relief, and military operations. Because these systems are often operated in wireless environments and are used to support real-time decision making, the accuracy of the SA data provided is important to measure and evaluate in the development of new systems. Our work has been conducted in conjunction with analysts in the evaluation and performance comparison of different systems designed to provide a high degree of situational awareness in military operations. To this end, we defined temporal and spatial metrics for measuring the accuracy of the SA data provided by each system. In this paper we discuss the proposed temporal and spatial metrics for SA data and show how we provided these metrics in a linked coordinated multiple view environment that enabled the analysts we worked with to effectively perform several critical analysis tasks. The temporal metric is designed to help determine when network performance has a significant effect on SA data, and therefore identify specific time periods in which individuals were provided inaccurate position data for their peers. Temporal context can be used to determine the local or global nature of any SA data inaccuracy, and the spatial metric can then be used to identify geographic effects on network performance of the wireless system. We discuss the interactive software implementation of our metrics and show how this analysis capability enabled the analysts to evaluate the observed effects of network latency and system performance on SA data during an exercise.

  10. The sanitation situation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S

    1993-10-15

    In India, interviews with and observations of members of 100 households with a latrine were done in the towns of Satna and Khandwa, in Madhya Pradesh State, to examine the sanitation situation, to evaluate the maintenance and performance of the 2 pit pour-flush water seal (PF) latrines of poor households, and to recommend actions to improve the sanitation situation. The upper caste Hindus and Muslims tended to use the PF latrines, while the low caste Hindus tended not to use them. Few dry latrines existed in Satna. More than 75% of the households used the PF latrines, especially in Khandwa. The latrines generally were in disrepair, because more families did not receive either instruction or back-up latrine maintenance. Other apparent reasons for poor maintenance were limited water, illiteracy, limited knowledge of how the PF latrine works, poor construction, excreta adhering to the squatting pan, rain entering the leach pits through the squatting pan causing overflow of the pits contents, clogged outlets and Y-junctions, difficulty in emptying the pits, and collapsed brick drains. Children did not use the latrines in more than 50% of households were the latrines were used. Uncomfortable seats were the reason the children chose to defecate in the open. These findings led the author to recommend that the government adopt laws addressing sanitation in low-cost housing settlements, slums, and other areas. A PF latrine must be constructed for each new building. Dry or bucket latrines must be connected to sewers, if available. Leach pits must be constructed for converting latrines into PF latrines. There should be a ban on new dry or bucket latrines. The government should provide the local authorities the power to enforce these regulations. PF latrines should be free for the poor.

  11. In Defence of Situational Morality: Genetic, Dispositional and Situational Determinants of Children's Donating to Charity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Pannebakker, Fieke; Out, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that moral behaviour is largely situation-specific. Genetic make-up, neurobiological factors, attachment security and rearing experiences have only limited influence on individual differences in moral performance. Moral behaviour does not develop in a linear and cumulative fashion and individual morality is not stable across…

  12. Capillary force on a tilted cylinder: Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgodagan Acharige, Sébastien; Laurent, Justine; Steinberger, Audrey

    2017-11-01

    The capillary force in situations where the liquid meniscus is asymmetric, such as the one around a tilted object, has been hitherto barely investigated even though these situations are very common in practice. In particular, the capillary force exerted on a tilted object may depend on the dipping angle i. We investigate experimentally the capillary force that applies on a tilted cylinder as a function of its dipping angle i, using a home-built tilting Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) with custom made probes. A micrometric-size rod is glued at the end of an AFM cantilever of known stiffness, whose deflection is measured when the cylindrical probe is dipped in and retracted from reference liquids. We show that a torque correction is necessary to understand the measured deflection. We give the explicit expression of this correction as a function of the probes' geometrical parameters, so that its magnitude can be readily evaluated. The results are compatible with a vertical capillary force varying as 1/cosi, in agreement with a recent theoretical prediction. Finally, we discuss the accuracy of the method for measuring the surface tension times the cosine of the contact angle of the liquid on the probe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optical forces in nanorod metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Andrey A; Shalin, Alexander S; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2015-10-30

    Optomechanical manipulation of micro and nano-scale objects with laser beams finds use in a large span of multidisciplinary applications. Auxiliary nanostructuring could substantially improve performances of classical optical tweezers by means of spatial localization of objects and intensity required for trapping. Here we investigate a three-dimensional nanorod metamaterial platform, serving as an auxiliary tool for the optical manipulation, able to support and control near-field interactions and generate both steep and flat optical potential profiles. It was shown that the 'topological transition' from the elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion regime of the metamaterial, usually having a significant impact on various light-matter interaction processes, does not strongly affect the distribution of optical forces in the metamaterial. This effect is explained by the predominant near-fields contributions of the nanostructure to optomechanical interactions. Semi-analytical model, approximating the finite size nanoparticle by a point dipole and neglecting the mutual re-scattering between the particle and nanorod array, was found to be in a good agreement with full-wave numerical simulation. In-plane (perpendicular to the rods) trapping regime, saddle equilibrium points and optical puling forces (directed along the rods towards the light source), acting on a particle situated inside or at the nearby the metamaterial, were found.

  14. The situation of consultation practice in pathology in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usubütün, Alp; Balci, Serdar; Yörükoğlu, Kutsal

    2012-01-01

    .... There are no standards for consultations in Turkey. The standardization committee of the Federation of Turkish Pathology Societies has conducted a survey to detect the current situation, determine the problematic aspects, compare the situation...

  15. Creating effective leader’s through situational leadership approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mwai, Esther

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to discuss situational leadership model as an approach to leading followers, as well as help the student to understand ways to implement different leadership styles in practice. It shares a few tips on how to be a situational leader hence being effective and how to apply different leadership style on different situations. The theoretical framework focuses on explaining situational leadership model and the different leadership styles there is as well as matc...

  16. Clinical features of situational and nonsituational major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, R T; Levitt, A J; Bagby, R M; Regan, J J

    1993-01-01

    Clinical lore has long supported the subtype of situational or reactive depression. To date, however, there has been limited empirical research support for this subtype of major depression. We examined demographic, clinical and personality features of situational and nonsituational depression in 89 outpatients with unipolar nonpsychotic major depressive disorder. Situational depressives had a less recurrent course of illness and appeared to respond more completely to the antidepressant used for their current episode. Demographic and personality measures did not distinguish situational and nonsituational depression.

  17. Pedagogical and conflict situations of teacher of physical training

    OpenAIRE

    Pechko O.M.

    2011-01-01

    The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of confli...

  18. The Connection between Low Income, Weak Labour Force Attachment and Poor Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myriam Fortin

    2010-01-01

    Using 1994-2004 data from the National Population Health Survey, this paper sheds light on the health situation of working-age Canadians and tests the connection between low income, weak labour force...

  19. Liquid buckling in a practical situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumana; Das, Gargi; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Buckling of an oil filament is observed during the core annular flow of high viscous oil and water, when it encountered a sudden expansion in its flow path. Suitable mathematical equations have been suggested to predict the distance of initiation of buckling from the plane of area change and other characteristics of the deformed oil core. It is proposed that the initiation of buckling depends on the balance of inertial and viscous forces. The model predicts that as the oil flow rate increases, the fluid jet has to travel a larger distance from the plane of area change to initiate buckling. Frequency and radius of the buckled oil filament are also predicted from the model.

  20. The use of authentic situations in foreign language classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Asatryan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with communicative activity characterized by a wide variety of communicative situations. The key factor of successful teaching of a foreign language is the use of authentic linguistic material in communicative situations as much as possible close to real situations of communication.

  1. Taxonomies of situations from a trait psychological perspective. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, MA; De Raad, B

    1999-01-01

    In this article we review studies of situations and situation taxonomies from the perspective of trait psychology. Objections to trait psychology are discussed and several refutations are recapitulated The relation between traits and situations is analysed, as well as the affinity that both concepts

  2. Game theoretic analysis of maximum cooperative purchasing situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces maximum cooperative purchasing (MCP)-situations, a new class of cooperative purchasing situations. Next, an explicit alternative mathematical characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games is provided. The allocation of possible cost savings in MCP-situations, in

  3. [Mental health in situations of armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jorge; De La Torre, Alejandro; Miranda, Claudio T

    2002-12-01

    Mental health is a serious problem in Latin America where many communities have been directly affected by armed conflict, communities in which large population groups have been displaced or have sought refuge. Research studies and epidemiological statistics are summarized to emphasize the psychosocial consequences of traumatic events associated with armed conflict. In addition to specific psychological disorders, other more generalized are considered such as fear, affliction, diseases, social disorder, violence and psychoactive substance consumption. Finally, the main points of a mental health plan for emergency situations are described which include the following: (1) preliminary diagnosis, (2) increase, decentralize and strengthen mental health public services, (3) psychosocial attention to the prevailing disorders--with emphasis on childhood problems, (4) initiate training and use of non-specialized personnel, and (5) identification of special needs requiring attention by psychologists and psychiatrists. Other aspects emphasized were community education, training, social communication, community organization, social participation, interinstitutional coordination, flexibility, sustainability, and specific actions in accordance with local needs.

  4. Students’ Creativity: Problem Posing in Structured Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalina, I. K.; Amirudin, M.; Budiarto, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    This is a qualitative research concerning on students’ creativity on problem posing task. The study aimed at describing the students’ creative thinking ability to pose the mathematics problem in structured situations with varied condition of given problems. In order to find out the students’ creative thinking ability, an analysis of mathematics problem posing test based on fluency, novelty, and flexibility and interview was applied for categorizing students’ responses on that task. The data analysis used the quality of problem posing and categorized in 4 level of creativity. The results revealed from 29 secondary students grade 8, a student in CTL (Creative Thinking Level) 1 met the fluency. A student in CTL 2 met the novelty, while a student in CTL 3 met both fluency and novelty and no one in CTL 4. These results are affected by students’ mathematical experience. The findings of this study highlight that student’s problem posing creativity are dependent on their experience in mathematics learning and from the point of view of which students start to pose problem.

  5. Prostitution as a Psychiatric Situation: Ethical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiosavljević, Danijela; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Turza, Karel; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jeremić, Vida

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the morally controversial phenomenon of prostitution. As the basis for contemplating the prostitution issue the most important is revealing and understanding its primitive ethical root. For understanding its "soul", its essence, also important is comprehending sexual, "elementary thoughts" of mankind, through the relationship between prostitution and religious, social, political and spiritual life, and its nature as a reflection of the sexual-ethical concepts in different epochs and nations. We emphasize the connection between prostitution and psychiatry. Placing a special focus on importance of personality for deciding to become a prostitute, and by pulling it through a moral prism we define prostitution as a new medical situation. In favor of that, we stress the importance of the presence, position and role of psychiatrists within an indispensable multidisciplinary team, which is complementary despite its heterogeneousness, synergistically and simultaneously dealing with psychological, physical and social health-problems of women engaged in prostitution. We propose peer education as a way of promoting healthy and safer behaviors among the subculture of prostitutes, where we see another important role of psychiatrists in selecting/recruiting, training and motivating peer educators among them.

  6. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris; Khattab, Ahmad; Russell, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan

    2017-10-11

    We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects) and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  7. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL. In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  8. TB situation in Albania, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, H; Tafaj, S; Bardhi, D; Dilko, E; Aliko, A

    2009-01-01

    Albania, population 3.4 million. To describe DOTS (directly observed treatment-short course chemotherapy) implementation, treatment outcomes and epidemiological situation in Albania from 2001 to 2008. DOTS strategy was introduced in 2001 and gradually expanded. A retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes and epidemiological data on TB patients was analyzed for this period. DOTS was expanded to 76% of the country in 2008. Treatment success among new smear-positive patients ranged from 82% in 2001 to 86% in 2007. The incidence of TB in Albania decreased from 17 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2001 to 12/100,000 in 2008 and estimated case detection for smear positive cases improved from 42% in 2001 to 75% in 2007. The TB incidence has fallen progressively since DOTS was initiated. Treatment outcome was better in DOTS areas compared to Non-DOTS areas and overall treatment outcome was improved during DOTS implementation. Despite gradually, DOTS was successfully implemented and full expansion is necessary.

  9. Grounding explanations in evolving, diagnostic situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Leila J.; Cook, Richard I.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Certain fields of practice involve the management and control of complex dynamic systems. These include flight deck operations in commercial aviation, control of space systems, anesthetic management during surgery or chemical or nuclear process control. Fault diagnosis of these dynamic systems generally must occur with the monitored process on-line and in conjunction with maintaining system integrity.This research seeks to understand in more detail what it means for an intelligent system to function cooperatively, or as a 'team player' in complex, dynamic environments. The approach taken was to study human practitioners engaged in the management of a complex, dynamic process: anesthesiologists during neurosurgical operations. The investigation focused on understanding how team members cooperate in management and fault diagnosis and comparing this interaction to the situation with an Artificial Intelligence(AI) system that provides diagnoses and explanations. Of particular concern was to study the ways in which practitioners support one another in keeping aware of relevant information concerning the state of the monitored process and of the problem solving process.

  10. Current Economic Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Mirascic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current economic situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Beginning in the second half of 2008, macroeconomic conditions in B&H began precipitating a decline in economic activity. While the global financial crisis was among the factors contributing to this decline, it was far from the only factor. Problematic macroeconomic conditions were also a result of B&H’s own structural and political problems, caused largely by the shortcomings of a political entity comprising two autonomous entities. Due to such problems, the governments of B&H turned to the International Monetary Fund for assistance. This article analyzes the effects of the first two “stand by” arrangements made between the IMF and B&H and discusses implications for further, ongoing stand by arrangements made between the IMF and B&H. This paper also examines the lack of unified economic space between The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and The Republic of Srpska, which has resulted not only in ineffective monetary policy but also in different fiscal and taxation systems between the two entities. While various existing analyses claim that B&H has little hope of resolving its economic woes due to its current political and economic structure, this article offers solutions and measures that, if successfully implemented, would lead to more efficient recovery and self-sustainable economic growth.

  11. Australian Space Situational Awareness Capability Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, B.; Bessell, T.; Rutten, M.; Cheung, B.

    Australia is increasing its contribution to the global space situational awareness (SSA) problem by committing to acquire and operate SSA sensors. Over the last year, a series of collaborative SSA experiments have been undertaken to demonstrate the capabilities of Australian sensors. These experiments aimed to demonstrate how existing Australian sensors could perform in a surveillance of space role, prove passive radar’s capability to observe low earth orbit (LEO) satellites and perform SSA handoffs to optical sensors. The trials established a data sharing and communications protocol that bridged defence, academia, and industry partners. Geographically dispersed optical assets, including the Falcon telescope in Canberra, Raven telescopes in Exmouth (Western Australia) and Defence Science and Technology (DST) Telescopes in Adelaide (South Australia) collected on LEO satellites and established cueing protocols. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) located in Western Australia, demonstrated the capability of passive radar as an SSA asset after successfully observing LEO satellites based on reflected terrestrial radio signals. The combination of radar and optical SSA assets allows for the exploitation of each sensors unique advantages and locations across the Australian continent. This paper outlines the capabilities and diversity of Australian optical and radar sensors as demonstrated by field trials in 2016 and 2017. It suggests future potential for harnessing novel radar and optical integration techniques to supplement high-value assets such as the Space Surveillance Telescope as part of the Space Surveillance Network.

  12. Optimal Control Applications in Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Marcus J.

    There are currently more than 19,000 trackable objects in Earth orbit, 1,300 of which are active. With so many objects populating the space object catalog and new objects being added at an ever increasing rate, ensuring continued access to space is quickly becoming a cornerstone of national security policies. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) supports space operations, space flight safety, implementing international treaties and agreements, protecting of space capabilities, and protecting of national interests. With respect to objects in orbit, this entails determining their location, orientation, size, shape, status, purpose, current tasking, and future tasking. For active spacecraft capable of propulsion, the problem of determining these characteristics becomes significantly more difficult. Optimal control techniques can be applied to object correlation, maneuver detection, maneuver/spacecraft characterization, fuel usage estimation, operator priority inference, intercept capability characterization, and fuel-constrained range set determination. A detailed mapping between optimal control applications and SSA object characterization support is reviewed and related literature visited. Each SSA application will be addressed starting from first-principles using optimal control techniques. For each application, several examples of potential utility are given and discussed.

  13. Enabling GEODSS for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, S.

    2016-09-01

    The Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) System has been in operation since the mid-1980's. While GEODSS has been the Space Surveillance Network's (SSN's) workhorse in terms of deep space surveillance, it has not undergone a significant modernization since the 1990's. This means GEODSS continues to operate under a mostly obsolete, legacy data processing baseline. The System Program Office (SPO) responsible for GEODSS, SMC/SYGO, has a number of advanced Space Situational Awareness (SSA)-related efforts in progress, in the form of innovative optical capabilities, data processing algorithms, and hardware upgrades. Each of these efforts is in various stages of evaluation and acquisition. These advanced capabilities rely upon a modern computing environment in which to integrate, but GEODSS does not have one—yet. The SPO is also executing a Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) to modernize the various subsystems within GEODSS, along with a parallel effort to implement a complete, modern software re-architecture. The goal is to use a modern, service-based architecture to provide expedient integration as well as easier and more sustainable expansion. This presentation will describe these modernization efforts in more detail and discuss how adopting such modern paradigms and practices will help ensure the GEODSS system remains relevant and sustainable far beyond 2027.

  14. Human echolocation in different situations and rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkman, Bo N

    2017-05-01

    People, especially when blind, use echolocation to detect obstacles, orient themselves, and get an awareness of their environment. I and coworkers have, with mostly psychophysical methods, studied perceptual aspects of how people accomplish echolocation. Echolocation with long canes while walking was possible but difficult. The effects of the spectral composition of the emitted sounds had no effects. Sound recordings in anechoic and conference rooms from non-walking, static situations, later presented in a laboratory showed a better performance in an ordinary room with reflections, than in an anechoic room. We also found that there was a higher performance with longer sounding sounds than for short clicks. Among the difficulties for the blind are how to avoid masking of sounds. A few blind are exceptionally high performing. An "information-surplus principle" has been proposed. Various information sources are used, but repetition pitch seems more important than loudness for echolocation. Among other sources, timbre may also provide information. There may exist a time gap, acoustic gaze, for how blind people use clicks. It is likely also that there are at least two processes taking place in the hearing system when listening for echoes, one attuned to short sounds and one to long sounds.

  15. Present situation of refractories in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, P. (Magnesita S.A., (Brazil))

    1992-11-10

    This paper outlines the present situation of refractories in Brazil, particularly the use of refractories in the steel industry which is one of the major industries in this country. Brazil is the 8th largest steel producer in the world, and about 64% of all the production is exported. Because of increasing competitions in the world market, high-level production techniques are required, and active improvements of refractories are also being carried out. The specific consumption of refractories in 1 ton of steel has gradually decreased to produce high-quality refractories. In Brazil, 95% of all demand except for special items such as submerged nozzles and blast furnace carbon blocks can be provided domestically. It is characteristic that raw materials for refractories, such as magnesite, bauxite, and graphite can also be self-supporting. Compositions and physical properties of typical refractories used for various purposes in iron and steel manufactures including blast furnaces, torpedo cars, BOF converters, electric are furnaces, and electric arc ladles are described, and the direction toward their conversion into new materials is shown. Moreover, the trends of refractories for the cement industry and for nonferrous metals such as aluminum are introduced. 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Current situation of lipoprotein apheresis in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, U; Taseva, K; Fischer, S; Passauer, J; Bornstein, S R

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the situation pertinent to treatment via lipoprotein apheresis in the federal state of Saxony, Germany in 2010. In total, 119 predominately male patients were treated in 10 centers; the majority of the patients was older than the mean age of the general population. Several risk factors were present, particularly a familial predisposition and hypertension. All patients had experienced cardiovascular events and the majority was taking statins. Patient data from the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus in Dresden concurred with data derived from patients treated at nephrological practices. In the mean, patients attended the centers for about 6 years, the majority weekly. LDL cholesterol concentrations prior to apheresis were clearly higher than target levels; apheresis sessions decreased LDL cholesterol by 69%. Lipoprotein(a) levels could be measured in 75 patients and were effectively reduced by lipoprotein apheresis. In Saxony, 29 patients per 1 million inhabitants received lipoprotein apheresis, which is higher than the proportion of patients treated in Germany as a whole. The need for this extracorporeal treatment seems to be much greater than its current utilization. Among the patients only one homozygous patient with familial hypercholesterolemia was observed. Physicians should be actively informed about this therapeutic possibility to reduce the cardiovascular risk efficiently. The introduction of new drugs may alter the position of lipoprotein apheresis within the therapeutic spectrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced situational technologies applied to ship channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Michael A.; Wacker, Roger A.

    1997-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel ranks as America's number one port in foreign tonnage by welcoming more than 50,000 cargo ships and barges annually. Locally 196,000 jobs, 5.5 billion dollars in business revenue and 213 million dollars in taxes are generated. Unfortunately, 32 days of each year vessel traffic stops for hours due to fog causing an estimated 40- 100 million dollars loss as ships idly wait in the channel for weather to clear. In addition, poor visibility has contributed to past vessel collisions which have resulted in channel closure, and associated damage to property and the environment. Today's imaging technology for synthetic vision systems and enhanced situational awareness systems offers a new solution to this problem. Whereas, typically these systems have been targeted at aircraft landing systems the channel navigation application provides a peripheral ground based market. This paper describes two imaging solutions to the problem. One using an active 35 GHz scanning radar and the other using a 94 GHz passive millimeter wave camera.

  18. Situational leadership applied to the dissertation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsinger, James W

    2008-01-01

    For more than 40 years, concern has been expressed over the attrition rate of students in Ph.D. programs in American universities. Although there are a number of significant factors at work, attrition of doctoral students in sciences such as anatomy may lead to a dearth of trained teaching anatomists as well as research scientists in the anatomical sciences. Failure to complete the Ph.D. process including the dissertation carries a high cost, not only to the students who fail to complete their programs, but also to society at large due to the expenditure of scarce education resources. A variety of factors have been examined in the various studies, but two stands out of major interest for this article: student personality factors such as perseverance and the level of faculty mentoring/support to the students during the graduate education process. A new approach to providing faculty support based on the needs of the individual student is presented in this article. Situational Leadership(R) has been developed over the past 40 years by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard and their associates. This leadership model is unique in that when it is applied to the dissertation process, it requires the faculty member to determine the readiness level of the graduate student. Because each student is a unique individual, the faculty mentor assesses each student based on the specific task at hand in order to provide the appropriate style of mentorship each student requires.

  19. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....

  20. Measurement of Surface Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-16

    structural force is often observed on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. These forces are referred to in the literature as hydration and...47,481. One parameter, the effective molecular diffusivity in a pore (e.g., zeolite or polymer), has been indirectly related to transport limited rates...adhesion force (2 g.N) and a marked increase in rate of Fe(CN)6 -3 reduction. Both effects were ascribed to the more hydrophilic nature of the activated

  1. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  2. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  3. Recognition of risk situations based on endoscopic instrument tracking and knowledge based situation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Stefanie; Sudra, Gunther; Senemaud, Julien; Drentschew, Maximilian; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2008-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has gained significantly in importance over the last decade due to the numerous advantages on patient-side. The surgeon has to adapt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination, limited field of view and restricted mobility. To alleviate these constraints we propose to enhance the surgeon's capabilities by providing a context-aware assistance using augmented reality (AR) techniques. In order to generate a context-aware assistance it is necessary to recognize the current state of the intervention using intraoperatively gained sensor data and a model of the surgical intervention. In this paper we present the recognition of risk situations, the system warns the surgeon if an instrument gets too close to a risk structure. The context-aware assistance system starts with an image-based analysis to retrieve information from the endoscopic images. This information is classified and a semantic description is generated. The description is used to recognize the current state and launch an appropriate AR visualization. In detail we present an automatic vision-based instrument tracking to obtain the positions of the instruments. Situation recognition is performed using a knowledge representation based on a description logic system. Two augmented reality visualization programs are realized to warn the surgeon if a risk situation occurs.

  4. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  5. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  6. Reinvigorating the concept of situation in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Harry T

    2008-11-01

    The concept of situation has a long and venerable history in social psychology. The author argues that recent approaches to the concept of situation have confused certain important elements. Herein, the author proposes that attention to three of these elements will reinvigorate the concept of situation in social psychology: (a) that the analysis of situations should begin with their objective features; (b) that situations should be conceptualized as affordances; and (c) that the interpersonal core of situations, in particular the extent to which they are influenced by relationships, is the proper and most profitable focus for social psychology. These elements are consistent with recent developments in the study of situated social cognition and may help better define social psychology's position within the sciences.

  7. Alcohol misuse in patients attending a defence force general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of alcohol misuse in adult patients attending a defence force general practice clinic. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Methods: The setting is a military sickbay situated in the Cape Town metropolitan area, South Africa. Participants included all adult patients (>=18 years) ...

  8. Confinement, average forces, and the Ehrenfest theorem for a one ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The topics of confinement, average forces, and the Ehrenfest theorem are examined for a particle in one spatial dimension. Two specific cases are considered: A free particle moving on the entire real line, which is then permanently confined to a line segment or `a box' (this situation is achieved by taking the limit V 0 → ∞ in ...

  9. Rethinking Faraday's Law for Teaching Motional Electromotive Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    This study shows physicists' discussions on the meaning of Faraday's law where situations involving extended conductors or moving contact points are particularly troublesome. We raise questions to test students' difficulties in applying Faraday's law in motional electromotive force phenomena. We suggest the benefit of analysing these phenomena…

  10. Information Assurance within the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, John D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Department of Defense (DoD), a review of information assurance (IA) in the United States Air Force (USAF) in 2009, cyber security is jeopardized because of information loss. This situation has occurred in large part because of less than optimal training practices or adherence to training protocols. The purpose of this study was…

  11. Advanced Training of Labour Force: The USA Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushentsev, Artem

    2014-01-01

    The importance of professional development of labor force directly in the workplace has been proved. It's revealed that this is due not only to questions of advanced training, but also to the improvement of the situation on the labor market of unskilled groups of citizen. The current labor market recognizes the value and importance of people.…

  12. Final Report of the Open Source Software Licence Task Force

    CERN Document Server

    Fluckiger, François

    2012-01-01

    Following a proposal by the author of this report, the Heads of FP Department and IT Department, recognizing that the situation regarding Open Source Software licensing at CERN needed clarification, created the Open Source Licence Task Force (OSL Task Force) to formulate recommendations on which licence should be used for software developed at CERN. This document is the Main Volume of the final report of the OSL Task Force. It contains eight recommendations with their rationale. It is complemented by a separate Volume of Annexes and two operational notes (Instructions for Specifying the licence terms and Form to document OSL cases).

  13. Forces in yeast flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  14. ``Force-free'' electrophoresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, Ehud

    2006-03-01

    When a colloidal particle is exposed to an externally applied electric field, it acquires an electrophoretic velocity, resulting from fluid slip occurring across the Debye screening layer. When the field is uniformly applied, it is usually assumed that the net neutrality of the combined particle-layer system implies that the net electric force acting on it must vanish. This assumption of "force-free" phoretic motion has been employed extensively to describe electrophoresis in both unbounded and bounded fluid domains [J. L. Anderson, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 21, 61 (1989)]. A careful inspection reveals here that this intuitive premise may fail when the fluid domain is bounded, in which case a nonzero electric force (resembling dielectrophoretic forces in nonuniformly applied fields) may actually exist. Such forces (represented via surface integrals of Maxwell stresses) result in particle motion above and beyond the one driven by the phoretic slip mechanism. A positive demonstration for the existence of a such a force is provided for a standard sphere-wall configuration, where the applied field acts parallel to the wall. In that scenario, particle motion consists of a (familiar) slip-driven contribution parallel to the wall, together with a superimposed force-driven drift away from the wall. An analogy with pressure forces occurring at incompressible and inviscid potential flows is presented.

  15. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) ...

  16. Heisenberg equation for a nonrelativistic particle on a hypersurface: From the centripetal force to a curvature induced force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Lian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In classical mechanics, a nonrelativistic particle constrained on an N − 1 curved hypersurface embedded in N flat space experiences the centripetal force only. In quantum mechanics, the situation is totally different for the presence of the geometric potential. We demonstrate that the motion of the quantum particle is ”driven” by not only the centripetal force, but also a curvature induced force proportional to the Laplacian of the mean curvature, which is fundamental in the interface physics, causing curvature driven interface evolution.

  17. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. Methods: The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016. Results: Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012. Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32, three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M and Doctorate (PhD. The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2 jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Conclusion: Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity

  18. WOMEN SITUATION AT TEPEXILOTLA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pimentel-Aguilar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the years, rural women have been immerse in different situations that have condemn them to suffer bad treatments or discrimination, machist treatments, and lack of equity. However, in recent years, Mexican public politics are looking after the improvement of women quality of life, particularly in the last ten years. Implementing governmental actions to prevent different ways of discrimination towards women, looking for gender equity in the Mexican society. In particular, Tepexilotla is a community of the Mexican state of Veracruz, that despite of being so small village, is actively its development. Regarding gender, after four years of continuous work in the community, there are initiating changes in social and familiar relationships, because is getting each time more involved in the economical activities, such as agroecotourism. Specifically, these have been observed on relation to their participation in the agro-ecoturistic activity that has started to be a resource of employment and development in the town. As far as Tepexilotla has been received the training from “Colegio de Postgraduados” to design rural touristic routes that have encouraged this activity en this community (between other active-research and projects in that microregion. Between these projects, Rural turism emerged from a integral participative diagnostic (DIP to detect potential projects of the microregion, where the people from the community raise their interest to learn “touristic guides” habilities, because they were interested on showing prehispanic ruins as well as caves and ecological areas, that emerged as potential resources for development. In this way, the project borned to achieve agro-ecoturistic activities that help to potentialize the agricultural, ecological and touristic activities, with the gender perspective view, (considering both men and women. In this project, rural women are being carrying out a very active role, which is empowering

  19. Rabies and its present situation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Gh Nadalian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a dangerous infections disease which is highly fatal and zoonotic. The disease occurs in many countries of the world and in Iran, rabies is endemic and a major public health Problem. Most warm blooded animals are susceptible to rabies. It is transmitted by the bite of an infected animal to humans and other animals. The saliva of the sufferers is a rich source of rabies virus. Rabies is not seen in countries such as Scandinavia, Britain, Ireland, Scotland, Australia and New Zealand which is related to their geographical situation and being surrounded by water. But in countries like the United States of America, Canada, Europe and Iran the rabies is endemic. Dogs, wild carnivores especially wolves and foxes are the main transmitters of the disease. Rabies has been known approximately from the year 2300 BC with the dog considered as the main vector. Scientists like Avicenna and Sayyed Esmail Jorjani have described rabies. Louis Pasteur presented antirabies treatment and vaccinations in 1885. The Pasteur institute of Iran opened in 1920 and today there are more than 300 antirabies treatment centers in the country involved with the treatment rabies. More than 100000 persons each year in Iran are treated for rabies due to being bitten by animals especially dogs suspected of having rabies. According to the report of the Pasteur institute of Iran, 421 Positive cases of rabies of which 3 were human cases where recorded in the year 2001. These figures for 2002 to 2004 were 356 positive cases with 6 human cases, 314 positive cares with 10 human cases and 325 positive cases with 5 human cases respectively. On average, 6 human cases of rabies were recorded each year with all leading to death. Considering the increasing trend of animal bites and the number of animals and humans affected by rabies the responsible authorities including the National Veterinary Organization, Ministry of health, municipalities, Ministry of Interior and … must present

  20. Public health equity in refugee situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaning, Jennifer; Spiegel, Paul; Crisp, Jeff

    2011-05-16

    Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003.Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction.Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions.