WorldWideScience

Sample records for tenofovir-associated bone density

  1. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  2. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  3. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...... with BMD in the control group, whereas in the juvenile obese, only lean body mass was positively associated with BMD and smoking negatively associated with BMD. Our study supports that leptin is inversely associated with BMD and may play a direct role in the bone metabolism in nonobese and obese Danish...

  4. Spatial mapping of humeral head bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidousti, Hamidreza; Giles, Joshua W; Emery, Roger J H; Jeffers, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Short-stem humeral replacements achieve fixation by anchoring to the metaphyseal trabecular bone. Fixing the implant in high-density bone can provide strong fixation and reduce the risk of loosening. However, there is a lack of data mapping the bone density distribution in the proximal humerus. The aim of the study was to investigate the bone density in proximal humerus. Eight computed tomography scans of healthy cadaveric humeri were used to map bone density distribution in the humeral head. The proximal humeral head was divided into 12 slices parallel to the humeral anatomic neck. Each slice was then divided into 4 concentric circles. The slices below the anatomic neck, where short-stem implants have their fixation features, were further divided into radial sectors. The average bone density for each of these regions was calculated, and regions of interest were compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with significance set at P density was found to decrease from proximal to distal regions, with the majority of higher bone density proximal to the anatomic neck of the humerus (P density increases from central to peripheral regions, where cortical bone eventually occupies the space (P density distribution in the medial calcar region was also observed. This study indicates that it is advantageous with respect to implant fixation to preserve some bone above the anatomic neck and epiphyseal plate and to use the denser bone at the periphery. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HIV and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Patrick W G

    2010-02-01

    This review details the clinical aspects and pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV, discusses broad management issues and outlines areas in which our understanding of this condition is incomplete. Low BMD is prevalent in HIV-infected patients, with traditional risk factors, HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy all contributing. The role of specific antiretrovirals in the development of low BMD remains controversial, but most changes arise at either antiretroviral therapy initiation or switch. Further research is needed to clarify mechanisms underlying low BMD in HIV, whether low BMD will translate to increased fractures and to determine the correct therapeutic approach to low BMD in HIV, particularly in younger HIV-infected patients.

  6. Trabecular bone density in premenopausal rheumatoid arthritis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trabecular bone density in premenopausal rheumatoid arthritis patients. ... Objective. This study was undertaken to compare trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal rheumatoid arthritis. (RA) patients and normal ... Using Bayes' theorem, the prevalence of osteopenia in RA was found to be6%. Conclusion.

  7. Physical activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bones play an important structural role in the organism. They provide mobility, support, and protect the body, and the place where the storage essential minerals. Healthy bones have a crucial impact on the overall health of a person, and activities that promote health and preventive influence on the formation of bone disease are crucial in maintaining a strong and healthy skeletal system. Physical inactivity affects the decrease in function of bone, and the most common disease of bone osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder that results in low bone density and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that results in less bone density, and may lead to fracture. Physical activity is essential for bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. Based on available information, the best effect to maintain and stimulate the formation of bone mineral density is a combination of dynamic exercises with resistance training that engage multiple joints, large muscle groups, and have influence on the spine and hips. The results suggest that exercises with axial loading, such as running, jumping, and power exercise, promote the positive gains in bone mineral density. Therefore, training should focus on the adaptation of specific parts of the body that is most susceptible to injury, and should be sufficiently intense that exceeds the normal loads.

  8. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical “density” of the bone, which would be computed as mass per ... It forms part of the hip joint (at the acetabulum) and part of the knee joint, which is located above. There are four eminences, or protuberances, in the human ...

  9. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... predicts increased fracture risk independently of BMD. To date, no studies have investigated TBS in MS patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess bone quality in MS patients by TBS and to evaluate potential risk factors that may affect BMD and TBS in patients with MS. METHODS: Two hundred sixty MS patients were...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...

  10. Bone density in patients with chondromalacia patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Khazaeli, Shabnam; Hatami, Parta; Malekpour, Mahdi

    2010-06-01

    Chondromalacia of the patella is the most common cause of anterior knee pain in young women. The etiology of the disease is not well-understood but the initial lesion is a disorganization of collagenous structures. Since the disease is proposed to be due to generalized constitutional disturbance, we postulated that bony structures could also be involved. To investigate this hypothesis we measured the bone density of 286 patients with the diagnosis of chondromalacia of the patella during a 4-year period using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. We found a significant number of patients having low bone densities. This problem was more pronounced in men and in younger age groups. We suggest base-line bone density evaluation in all patients, treatment of osteopenia or osteoporosis in select patients and regular follow-ups using DXA.

  11. Exercise and Bone Density: Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Bonnick SL, Ben-Ezra V, Gench B, DiMarco NM. The effects of gymnastics training on bone mineral density. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise...effects of gymnastics training on bone mineral density. Med Sci Sports Ex- erc 1994;10:1220. 32. National Center for Health Statistics. 2010—The Healthy...Universityof Iowa,Ion City;1A The anteroveotral third ventriculat >egioD(AV3V)of the brain is important IDthe reg- u1a&o of body lluid balance. Lesioo

  12. [Bone Mineral Density in Yusho Health Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-05-01

    We examined the bone mineral density in Yusho patients. 460 subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone scans as part of the nationwide Yusho health examination in 2011. Serum levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were measured using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The average age was 64.0 years in women and 63.4 in men. About one-third (35%) of women (n = 89) had low bone mineral density (BMD), defined as a T-score less than 70, while only 4.9% of men (n = 10) had low BMD. Serum levels of several congeners were positively associated with Z-scores in simple regression analysis. Further multivariate linear regression analysis should be required in the future.

  13. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  14. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grund, Birgit; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Isaksson, Rachel L.; Shlay, Judith C.; Martinez, Esteban; Reiss, Peter; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Carr, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of anti retroviral therapy (ART) on bone mineral density (BMD) Design: Randomized comparison of continuous ART (viral suppression group; VS) with intermittent ART (drug conservation group; DC) Setting: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Australia, and Spain.

  15. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  16. Relation between Spongy Bone Density in the Maxilla and Skeletal Bone Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merheb, Joe; Temmerman, Andy; Coucke, Wim; Rasmusson, Lars; Kübler, Alexander; Thor, Andreas; Quirynen, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease affecting more than 300 million people worldwide and is responsible for numerous medical complications. This study aimed to investigate the relation between skeletal and maxillary bone density. Seventy-three patients were recruited and divided between group A (osteoporosis), group B (healthy, control), and group C (osteopenia) on the basis of a dual-energy x-ray absorptiomery (DXA) scan. These patients also received a CT scan on which bone density measurements were performed at five sites: maxilla midline, retromolar tuberosities, incisor, premolars, and molar regions. The bone density was lower in osteoporotic patients compared with the control patients. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the tuberosities showed the strongest correlations with the BMD of the hip and the spine (respectively, r = 0.50 and r = 0.61). The midline region showed moderate correlations with the hip (r = 0.47) and the spine (r = 0.46). For potential implant sites, the correlations with the BMD of the hip and spine were, however, small to insignificant. Based on measurements of bone density of the maxilla, it was possible to predict if the patient was osteoporotic or not with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 83%. The maxillary bone density of subjects with osteoporosis is significantly lower than that of healthy patients. Moreover, there is a direct correlation between the density of the skeleton and the density of some sites of the maxilla. Using measurements of maxillary bone density in order to predict skeletal bone density might be a useful tool for the screening of osteoporosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-12-07

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH(-) which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

  18. Space: The Final Frontier of Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    It is a medical requirement at NASA to evaluate the skeletal integrity of "long-duration" astronauts by measuring bone mineral density [BMD] with DXA technology. A long-duration mission is a spaceflight that is greater than 30 days but is typically the continuous 120-180 day missions aboard the International Space Station [ISS]. Not only does NASA use the BMD index to monitor fracture risk in this astronaut population, but these measures are also used to describe the effects of spaceflight, to certify skeletal health readiness for flight, to monitor the recovery of lost bone mass after return to earth, and to evaluate the efficacy of countermeasures to bone loss. However, despite the fact that DXA-based BMD is a widely-applied surrogate for bone strength that is grounded in an abundance of population-based fracture data, its applicability to the long-duration astronaut is limited. The cohort of long-duration astronauts is not the typical group for evaluating osteoporosis or determining age-related fracture risk. The cohort is young (bone loss besides the weightlessness of space. NASA is concerned about early onset osteoporosis in the astronaut exposed to long-duration spaceflight, especially since any detectable symptoms are likely to manifest after return to earth and perhaps years after space travel. This risk raises the question: is NASA doing enough now to mitigate a fracture event that may manifest later? This presentation will discuss the limitations and constraints to understanding skeletal changes due to prolonged spaceflight and the recommendations, by clinical experts in osteoporosis and BMD, to transition research technologies for clinical decision-making by NASA.

  19. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); J.H. Tobias (Jon); E.L. Duncan (Emma); D.M. Evans (David); J. Eriksson (Joel); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); U. Bergström (Ulrica); M. Kähönen (Mika); P.J. Leo (Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); M. Laaksonen (Marika); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); J. Viikari (Jorma); M. Ladouceur (Martin); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); R.L. Prince (Richard); H. Sievanen (Harri); W.D. Leslie (William); D. Mellström (Dan); J.A. Eisman (John); S. Movérare-Skrtic (Sofia); D. Goltzman (David); G.E. Hanley (Gillian); G. Jones (Graeme); B. St Pourcain (Beate); Y. Xiao (Yanling); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); G.D. Smith; I.R. Reid (Ian); S.M. Ring (Susan); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); J.P. Kemp (John); P. Danoy (Patrick); I. Sayers (Ian); S.G. Wilson (Scott); M. Nethander (Maria); E.V. McCloskey (Eugene); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); R. Eastell (Richard); T. Idzenga (Tim); T.D. Spector (Timothy); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); R. Brommage (Robert); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); M.A. Brown (Matthew); C. Ohlsson (Claes); J.B. Richards (Brent); M. Lorentzon (Mattias)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising

  20. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  1. A correlation exists between subchondral bone mineral density of the distal radius and systemic bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung Hwan; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Intraarticular distal radius fractures are common and risk articular congruity owing to disruption of the subchondral bone. Studies regarding microstructure and mechanical properties of the distal radius, however, focus only on the cortical and trabecular bones in the metaphysis and not on the subchondral bone. This study was conducted to (1) quantify the regional bone mineral density of the subchondral plate in the distal radius; (2) analyze the topographic distribution pattern of the subchondral bone mineral density; and (3) evaluate the correlation between the subchondral bone mineral density and the potentially related clinical factors of age, height, weight, BMI, systemic bone mineral densities, socio-occupational classification, and hand osteoarthritis grading. Eighty postmenopausal women with a mean age of 68 years (range, 52-88 years) were enrolled in this study. Digital images of the distal radii of the subjects were scanned by conventional CT and processed to provide the regional bone mineral density of the subchondral plate using a CT osteoabsorptiometry technique. The estimated subchondral bone mineral density was analyzed to evaluate the topographic pattern and its correlation with various clinical factors, including age, height, weight, BMI, degree of hand osteoarthritis, socio-occupational class, and systemic bone mineral density measured in the lumbar spine and hip. During topographic analysis of a densitometric map, a bicentric distribution of the subchondral bone mineral density was found. Among the clinical factors, only the systemic bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the femur neck and lumbar spine had a significant correlation with the subchondral bone mineral density of the distal radius. Systemic bone mineral density correlates substantially with the subchondral bone mineral density of the distal radius as a constitutional factor, whereas other local factors arising from the gravitational load or joint

  2. Evaluation of bone mineral density and bone metabolism in children with multiple bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałus, Izabela; Chlebna-Sokół, Danuta; Rusińska, Agnieszka; Jakubowska-Pietkiewicz, Elzbieta; Kulińska-Szukalska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out a comprehensive analysis of determinants of multiple bone fractures in children with regard to densitometric indices and markers of bone metabolism. The study involved 112 children aged 5-18 years, including 81 patients with a history of at least 3 bone fractures and 31 healthy patients in a control group. Total body and spinal DXA densitometry of the skeleton (DPX-L apparatus, Lunar) was carried out in all children. Laboratory assays comprised the determination of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium (in the serum and 24-hour urine collection), parathormone, liver metabolite of vitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of collagen type I (NTx). Mean values of DXA Z-score, both in total body and in spinal scans, were significantly lower in children with multiple fractures as compared to controls. In children with multiple fractures, there was a higher prevalence of hypercalciuria, hypermagnesuria and hyperphosphaturia. Decreased levels of the liver metabolite of vitamin D were observed in 20/81 (24.7%) patients in this group and in 6/31 controls. Other findings included a higher level of NTx in 38/75 (50.7%) patients with fractures, an increased activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in 29, and of osteocalcin in 12 patients. In this group, there was a significant negative correlation between biochemical bone turnover markers and low bone mass. Also, lower DXA Z-scores were found in children with higher urinary calcium excretion. 1. Decreased bone mineral density was the most frequent risk factor for bone fractures in children; it was found in about 2/3 of the patients with multiple bone fractures. 2. Accelerated bone turnover, and, particularly, increased bone resorption, indicates a derangement of bone metabolism in children with multiple fractures. 3. Repeated fractures during the body growth period are an indication for a quantitative evaluation of bone mass, calcium

  3. Distal femoral bone mineral density after total knee arthroplasty: a comparison with general bone mineral density.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, C. van; Oyen, W.J.G.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal femur may decrease after cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as a result of the stress shielding effect of the femoral component. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in BMD of the distal femur compared with those of the femoral necks

  4. Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female long-distance runners - A prospective comparative study of bone structure and menstrual function in adolescent female endurance athletes from five secondary schools in Pretoria.

  5. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chih Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients.

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Men - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Geler Külcü

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in men who attend to Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic. Patients and Medhods: 42 men were included into the study. They were evaluated in 3 groups according to their age (30-75; age between 30-45, 45-60 and over 60 yrs. BMD of lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femur neck were evaluated by using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Serum paratiroid hormone, osteocalcin, 25 (OH D3 vitamine levels and urinary deoxypridinoline levels were evaluated. Results: Mean age of the patients were 51.24±12.23 yrs in femur neck and in lumbar region, 70% and 15% of the patients between 60-75 yrs, 53% and 7% of the patients between 45-60 yrs and 23% and 8% of the patients between 30-45 yrs have osteoporosis, respectively. Between the groups femur neck BMD and L2-L4 BMD were significantly different (p=0.043 and p=0.008, respectively. Serum PTH levels were high and serum 25(OHD3 levels were low in all groups. There were no significant difference between the groups regarding bone turnover markers. Seven patients had osteoporotic fractures (6 vertebral, 1 hip. Correlation was found between fractures and L2-L4 BMD ( r=-0.322, p=0.043. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is common also in men, particularly in the middle and old ages. Routine analysis of blood biochemistry and DXA should be performed in adult men. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:1-5

  7. Variable Bone Density of Scaphoid: Importance of Subchondral Screw Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanstrom, Morgan M; Morse, Kyle W; Lipman, Joseph D; Hearns, Krystle A; Carlson, Michelle G

    2018-02-01

    Background  Ideal internal fixation of the scaphoid relies on adequate bone stock for screw purchase; so, knowledge of regional bone density of the scaphoid is crucial. Questions/Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional variations in scaphoid bone density. Materials and Methods  Three-dimensional CT models of fractured scaphoids were created and sectioned into proximal/distal segments and then into quadrants (volar/dorsal/radial/ulnar). Concentric shells in the proximal and distal pole were constructed in 2-mm increments moving from exterior to interior. Bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Results  Bone density of the distal scaphoid (453.2 ± 70.8 HU) was less than the proximal scaphoid (619.8 ± 124.2 HU). There was no difference in bone density between the four quadrants in either pole. In both the poles, the first subchondral shell was the densest. In both the proximal and distal poles, bone density decreased significantly in all three deeper shells. Conclusion  The proximal scaphoid had a greater density than the distal scaphoid. Within the poles, there was no difference in bone density between the quadrants. The subchondral 2-mm shell had the greatest density. Bone density dropped off significantly between the first and second shell in both the proximal and distal scaphoids. Clinical Relevance  In scaphoid fracture ORIF, optimal screw placement engages the subchondral 2-mm shell, especially in the distal pole, which has an overall lower bone density, and the second shell has only two-third the density of the first shell.

  8. Lifestyle correlates of low bone mineral density in Albanian women

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Kollcaku; Julia Kollcaku; Valbona Duraj; Teuta Backa; Argjend Tafaj

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the association of lifestyle/behavioral factors with low bone mineral density in Albanian women, a transitional country in the Western Balkans. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tirana city in 2010 including a population-based sample of 549 women aged 35 years and above (response rate: 92%). Low bone mineral density (osteopenia and/or osteoporosis defined as a bone mineral density T-score less than -1) was assessed with a bone ultra...

  9. Relationship between Biochemical Bone Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Phenylketonuria under Restricted Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Koura, Hala M.; Zaki, Sherif M.; Ismail, Nagwa A.; Salama, Emad E.; El Lebedy, Dalia H.; Effat, Laila K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of phenylketonuria (PKU) develops bone turnover impairment and low bone mineral density (BMD). Measurements of BMD re?ect only bone mineral status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Bone?markers?are a noninvasive tool useful for the assessment of bone formation and bone resorption processes. Our study was to assess the levels of bone markers in PKU in order to select a screen marker and detect the most specific marker which can be combined with BMD for appropriate follow u...

  10. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  12. Bone mineral density in mucopolysaccharidosis IVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyne Kubaski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, the only published reports of bone mineral density (BMD in MPS IV involve patients with MPS IVA; no reports exist describing BMD for MPS IVB. In this prospective study of BMD in three patients with MPS IVB, BMD was acquired by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA at whole body (WB, lumbar spine (LS, and lateral distal femur (LDF. Functional abilities, ambulatory status, medical history, and height z-score were evaluated. Three patients with MPS IVB (two females, aged 17.7, 31.4 and 31.7 years, were evaluated. Every patient was ambulatory and one sustained two fractures caused by trauma. Whole body and hip DXA scans were technically invalid in every patient due to the presence of prosthetic hip hardware. Lumbar spine was valid in only 1 patient due skeletal abnormalities, and was normal (Z-score of −0.8. The LDF was valid in every patient and was low at all three regions of interest: average LDF z-scores were −3.1 (range, −2.9 to −3.6, −2.3 (range, −2.0 to −2.5, and −2.1 (range, −2.0 to −2.3 for region 1–region 3, respectively. Patients with MPS IVB have low BMD of the lower extremities even with full-time ambulation. Routine body sites to measure by DXA were problematic; hip and WB were invalid due to artifact, and LS had limited utility. The LDF was the only body site consistently available on all patients. Patients did not experience low-energy fractures despite low BMD.

  13. Impact exercise and bone density in premenopausal women with below average bone density for age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen G; Walkley, Jeff W; Rich, Peter A

    2015-11-01

    To study the effects of two home-based impact exercise programs on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in adult premenopausal women with below average aBMD for age (negative Z-scores; 40.8 years; n = 107). Two unilateral impact exercise programs were employed, one targeting the total hip and lumbar spine (n = 42 pairs), the other the distal radius (n = 24 pairs) with some individuals performing both. Force plate data were used to establish exercise loading characteristics (peak loads, time to peak), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided bone data. Calcium intake, health and extraneous physical activity (PA) were determined by survey. Exercise for both hip and spine consisted of unilateral landings from adjustable steps (maximum height 63.5 cm) while impacts were delivered to the forearm by arresting falls against a wall. An exercise log was used to provide the exercise prescription, record each exercise bout and any injuries. Participants were randomly assigned to exercise or control groups and pair-matched (age, BMI, Z-score, aBMD). Compliance was calculated as the number of sessions completed divided by the total prescribed number (mean ~50 %). The programs delivered significant gains pre to post at each site compared with significant losses in controls (forearm: 3.9 vs -3.9 %; total hip: 2.0 vs -2.6 %; lumbar spine: 2.8 vs -2.9 % exercise and controls, respectively, all p exerciser lost bone at the target site regardless of compliance which was strongly correlated with bone gains (R (2) = 0.53-0.68, all p exercise provides an effective means of improving below average aBMD without supervision in this at risk population.

  14. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  15. Asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with low bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar Leite de Negreiros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF. It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD with a T-score 61 years.

  16. Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measu...

  17. Measurements of bone mineral density. Mineral density in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, M. [Klinicum Kassel, Kassel (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Raue, F. [Endocrine Practice, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Bone metabolism and thus bone remodelling and bone mineral content are profoundly influenced by many hormonal and metabolic factors. This review presents the state of the art procedures for bone mineral absorptiometry and examines the interactions of endocrine and metabolic diseases and bone mineral content. Preventive and therapeutic modalities of osteoporosis are discusses in this context.

  18. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus

    2015-01-01

    and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We...... compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone...... mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen...

  19. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  20. [Adipokines, body composition and bone mineral density in underweight children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Rowicka, Grazna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Gajewska, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    One of the important factors affecting bone health is body weight. Underweight children are predisposed to disturbances in bone metabolism, which may result in osteopenia and osteoporosis in later life. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between adipokines, bone metabolism, and anthropometric parameters in underweight prepubertal children. The study included 60 children aged 5-10 years. Among them, there were: 30 underweight children (BMI z-score ≤-1) and 30 normal-weight children (BMI z-score ). Body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, bone mass) and bone mineral density examination were performed by densitometry. Serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers and adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic methods. In underweight children we observed significantly lower fat mass (pbone mineral content (pbone mineral density both the total body (pbone resorption marker (CTX) was significantly higher than in normal-weight children (2.006±0.649 vs. 1.624±0.492 ng/ml, pbone turnover markers (OC, CTX) and between adiponectin and CTX. However, there was no correlation between fat mass and leptin concentration in this group of children. Low body weight in prepubertal period is related with an alteration in the adipokines profile and bone metabolism markers, resulting in a decrease in bone mineral density. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  1. Prediction of bone density around orthopedic implants delivering bisphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Terrier, Alexandre; Gauthier, O; Bouler, J-M; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2009-06-19

    The fixation of an orthopedic implant depends strongly upon its initial stability. Peri-implant bone may resorb shortly after the surgery. This resorption is directly followed by new bone formation and implants fixation strengthening, the so-called secondary fixation. If the initial stability is not reached, the resorption continues and the implant fixation weakens, which leads to implant loosening. Studies with rats and dogs have shown that a solution to prevent peri-implant resorption is to deliver bisphosphonate from the implant surface. The aims of the study were, first, to develop a model of bone remodeling around an implant delivering bisphosphonate, second, to predict the bisphosphonate dose that would induce the maximal peri-implant bone density, and third to verify in vivo that peri-implant bone density is maximal with the calculated dose. The model consists of a bone remodeling equation and a drug diffusion equation. The change in bone density is driven by a mechanical stimulus and a drug stimulus. The drug stimulus function and the other numerical parameters were identified from experimental data. The model predicted that a dose of 0.3 microg of zoledronate on the implant would induce a maximal bone density. Implants with 0.3 microg of zoledronate were then implanted in rat femurs for 3, 6 and 9 weeks. We measured that peri-implant bone density was 4% greater with the calculated dose compared to the dose empirically described as best. The approach presented in this paper could be used in the design and analysis processes of experiments in local delivery of drug such as bisphosphonate.

  2. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P children with rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  3. Influence of mastication and edentulism on mandibular bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsuan-Yu; Satpute, Devesh; Müftü, Ali; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Müftü, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that external loading due to daily activities, including mastication, speech and involuntary open-close cycles of the jaw contributes to the internal architecture of the mandible. A bone remodelling algorithm that regulates the bone density as a function of stress and loading cycles is incorporated into finite element analysis. A three-dimensional computational model is constructed on the basis of computerised tomography (CT) images of a human mandible. Masticatory muscle activation involved during clenching is modelled by static analysis using linear optimisation. Other loading conditions are approximated by imposing mandibular flexure. The simulations predict that mandibular bone density distribution results in a tubular structure similar to what is observed in the CT images. Such bone architecture is known to provide the bone optimum strength to resist bending and torsion during mastication while reducing the bone mass. The remodelling algorithm is used to simulate the influence of edentulism on mandibular bone loss. It is shown that depending on the location and number of missing teeth, up to one-third of the mandibular bone mass can be lost due to lack of adequate mechanical stimulation.

  4. Muscle density predicts changes in bone density and strength: a prospective study in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddu, D R; Farr, J N; Lee, V R; Blew, R M; Stump, C; Houtkooper, L; Lohman, T G; Going, S B

    2014-06-01

    We sought to determine whether muscle density, an index of skeletal muscle fat content, was predictive of 2-year changes in weight-bearing bone parameters in young girls. Two-year prospective data from 248 girls, aged 8-13 years at baseline. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to measure changes in bone strength indices (bone strength index [BSI, mg(2)/mm(4)] and strength-strain index [SSIp, mm(3)]) and volumetric bone mineral density [vBMD, mg/cm(3)] at distal metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions of the femur and tibia, as well as calf and thigh muscle density (mg/cm(3)), and muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA, mm(2)), indices of skeletal muscle fat content and muscle force production, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, greater gains in femur BSI (44%, Pmuscle density. Greater gains in tibial BSI (25%, Pcalf muscle density groups. Baseline muscle density is a significant predictor of changes in bone density and bone strength in young girls during a period of rapid skeletal development.

  5. Determinants of bone mineral density in obese premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Brick, Danielle J.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Harrington, Lindsey M.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Miller, Karen K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite being a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, obesity has been thought to protect against osteoporosis. However, recent studies have demonstrated a differential impact of specific fat compartments on bone mineral density (BMD) with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) having potential detrimental effects on BMD. Visceral obesity is also associated with dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to evalu...

  6. Coeliac disease and bone mineral density in adult female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorius, L R; Sweidan, W H; Purdie, D W; Steel, S A; Howey, S; Bennett, J R; Sutton, D R

    1995-11-01

    A cross sectional study was undertaken to examine the relationship between coeliac disease and bone mineral density. The 135 female coeliac patients registered on the database of the Department of Gastroenterology at Hull Royal Infirmary were approached by letter, advising them of a potential risk of osteoporosis and inviting them to undergo bone densitometry. A total of 81 registered women (60%) attended the Osteoporosis Laboratory, Princess Royal Hospital and underwent dual energy x ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck. Historical data relating to the time of diagnosis and adherence to a gluten free diet were obtained. A control group was selected from the local normal population and was first matched for height, weight, and menopausal status. Postmenopausal patients were then further matched to controls of equivalent menopausal age. In coeliac patients, bone mineral density expressed in g/cm2 as mean (SD) was significantly lower at the lumbar spine (1.076 (0.186)) than in the control group (1.155 (0.143), p coeliac patients were stratified by menopausal status, it was found that femoral neck bone mineral density was significantly below control values in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Spinal bone mineral density exhibited a significant decrement only in the postmenopausal group. The age at diagnosis of coeliac disease and adherence to a gluten free diet did not influence bone mineral density at either hip or spine. These results confirm coeliac patients' higher risk of osteopenia. Coeliac disease should be added to the list of medical conditions which constitute an indication for bone densitometry in order that the individual risk of osteoporosis related fracture may be determined.

  7. A postmenopausal osteoporotic woman losing bone mineral density despite bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai PSM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogues, with a strong affinity for bones. They inhibit bone resorption and are currently the first choice of treatment for osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates should be taken in a specific manner and for at least one year to be effective in the maintenance and improvement of bone mineral density (BMD, as well as for protection against fractures. We report a case of a postmenospausal osteoporotic woman who lost BMD despite being on bisphosphonate therapy for eight years, highlighting issues that a primary care doctor needs to address before deciding on the next best option.

  8. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... to the least relative influence of weight and stress loading because of migration of calcium to weight and stress-bearing areas. Since the effect of this migration could mask local osteoporotic bone loss, shoulder BMD measurement is likely to minimize false indicators of healthy bone in women with high BMI...

  9. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  10. The significance of HIV to bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Weis, Nina; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2017-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry scan should be considered in HIV-infected men ≥ 50 years and postmenopausal women. In case of osteoporosis, bisphosphonate treatment should follow guidelines for the general population. Future research should focus on pathogenesis and prevention of bone density loss in HIV.......The life expectancy in well-treated HIV-infected persons approaches that of the general population, but HIV-infected persons have a greater incidence of fractures and osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mineral density is observed primarily during the first 1-2 years of antiretroviral therapy. Dual X...

  11. Effect of Isokinetic Strength Training and Deconditioning on Bone Stiffness, Bone Density and Bone Turnover in Military-Aged Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herbert, William

    2001-01-01

    ...) subgroups, based on whole body bone density measurements. Subjects then are randomly assigned within NBD and LBD subgroups for concentric (n = 30 LBD, a = 30 NBD) and eccentric (n = 30 LBD, n = 30 NBD) exercise training...

  12. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is currently a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and medical expense worldwide. Aim: This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty ...

  13. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  14. Bone mineral density among elderly patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is one of the major extra-pulmonary manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which limits the physical activity. The present study was undertaken to study the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in the elderly COPD patients. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  15. Bone density and depression in premenopausal South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: It is posited that the effect of depression on BMD is dependent on the severity of depression. Conflicting evidence exists regarding this possible association. This study investigated the association between depression and low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: The hypothesis was investigated in a random ...

  16. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  17. Does walking exercise improve bone mineral density of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before and after the training program both groups had anthropometric measurements and blood analysis. Bone mass density also was evaluated by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) .Each walking session was 30 min walking between 50-75% of maximal age adjusted heart rate, 3 days per week for 2 months.

  18. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty postmenopausal women, who received raloxifene 60 mg with calcium 500 mg and 200 IU Vitamin D daily for 2 ...

  19. Quantitative assessment of interradicular bone density in the maxilla and mandible: implications in clinical orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Chugh, Tina; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V; Ameet V Revankar; Jain, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone density at the interradicular area plays an important role during orthodontic treatment. In view of this fact, the study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the bone density at the interradicular areas of the alveolar and basal bones of maxilla and mandible by computed tomography. Methods One hundred and nine computed tomographic images were randomly selected, and bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU) with bone mineral density software (Siemens VA20A_SP3A). Th...

  20. Bone Mineral Density and Biochemical Markers of Bone Metabolism in Women Engaging in Recreational Horseback Riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Alicja; Leszczynski, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    An increased occurrence of lifestyle-related diseases such as osteoporosis indicates the necessity for taking preventive action, including regularly engaging in physical activity. The aim of the study was to assess the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone turnover markers levels in young adult women engaging in recreational horseback riding and to determine the relationship between training characteristics and bone metabolism indices. The study involved 43 women: 23 equestrians and 20 age- and body mass index-matched controls. The hip and spine aBMD and serum levels of the bone turnover markers: osteocalcin and collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide were measured. No significant differences were found in somatic features, concentrations of bone turnover markers, or bone mass variables. Correlation analysis of the equestrian participants showed significant relationship between body mass and BMDL1-L4 (P bone mass and levels of bone metabolic indices between groups of women practicing horseback riding at the recreational level and subjects who do not participate in frequent systematic physical activity. No relationship between training characteristics and bone turnover markers were found.

  1. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  2. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  3. Quantitative assessment of interradicular bone density in the maxilla and mandible: implications in clinical orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Tina; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V; Revankar, Ameet V; Jain, Abhay K

    2013-10-20

    Bone density at the interradicular area plays an important role during orthodontic treatment. In view of this fact, the study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the bone density at the interradicular areas of the alveolar and basal bones of maxilla and mandible by computed tomography. One hundred and nine computed tomographic images were randomly selected, and bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU) with bone mineral density software (Siemens VA20A_SP3A). The sample consisted of 78 males (mean age 29.5 years, range 20 to 40 years) and 31 females (mean age 27.6 years, range 20 to 40 years). Cortical and cancellous bone density was measured at the interradicular areas at the alveolar and basal bone levels of the maxilla and mandible, and the data was subjected to statistical analysis for comparisons. The highest cortical bone density was observed between the second premolar and first molar at the alveolar bone level and between the first and second molars at the basal bone level in the maxilla. Maxillary tuberosity showed the least bone density. The density of the cortical bone was greater in the mandible than in the maxilla and showed a progressive increase from the incisor to the retromolar area. The basal bone showed a higher density thanthe alveolar bone. Different qualities of the bone were found in the anatomic regions studied, which confirms the importance of knowledge of site-specific bone tissue density to correlate with various clinical findings.

  4. Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in korean premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women.

  5. Relation between bone mineral density and coronary artery disease

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    Masoome Tohodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are the two important life threatening factors that cause morbidity and mortality. Previous studies had showed that bone mineral density is decreased with progression of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease is more common in the osteoporotic patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density and coronary artery stenosis in patients who underwent coronary angiography . Materials and Methods: In this study 197 patients (111female and 86 male that underwent coronary angiography and bone mineral densitometry were evaluated. According to angiographic data ,patients were divided to two group :first group had coronary stenosis in ≥50% in one or more major coronary arteries and second group with normal coronary artery or stenosis -1 as normal , T-score -1 to -2.5 as osteopenia, and T-score <-2.5 as osteoporosis were described. Finally the relationship between coronary artery stenosis and bone mineral density was evaluated by SPSS statistical software version 15 with using suitable statistical test. Results: The mean age of sample was 57±11.32. 33% of patients had osteoporosis in lumbar spine and 24.2% of them in femoral neck.Significant coronary artery stenosis were seen in 67.9% of patients. There were no significant difference between lumbar and hip bone mineral density in patients with significant coronary disease and subjects without coronary artery disease. Conclusion: There were no associations between coronary artery disease and osteoporosis. Further studies are recommended for confirmation of this relationship.

  6. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

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    Yan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other. Results: In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis

  7. CT-based bone density assessment for iliosacral screw trajectories

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    Andreas Schicho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sacroiliac screw placement is one standard treatment option for stabilization of posterior pelvic ring injuries encountering high intra- and inter-individual variations of bone stock quality as well as a vast variety and prevalence of sacral dysmorphism. An individual, easy-to-use preoperative bone stock quality estimation would be of high value for the surgeon. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 36 standard computed tomography datasets with the uninjured pelvic ring. Using a two-plane cross-referencing technique, we assessed the Hounsfield unit (HU mean values as well as standard deviation and minimum/maximum values within selected region of interests (ROIs at five key areas: os ilium left and right, massa lateralis of os sacrum left and right, and central vertebral body on levels S1 and S2. Results: Results showed no difference in mean HU at any ROI when comparing male and female data. For all ROIs set on S1 and S2, there was an age-related decline of HU with a calculated slope significantly different from zero. There was no statistical difference of slopes when comparing S1- and S2-level with respect to any distinct ROI. Comparison of levels S1 and S2 revealed differences at the vertebral body and at the right os ilium. The right and left massa lateralis of os sacrum had lower bone density than the center of the vertebral body, the right, or left os ilium on S1; right and left massa lateralis density did not differ significantly. On level S2, results were comparable with no difference of massa lateralis density. Conclusion: With our easy-to-use preoperative assessment of bone density of five key areas of sacroiliac screw anchoring we were able to find the lowest bone density in both the left and right massa lateralis on levels S1 and S2 with high inter- and intra-individual variations. Significantly lower bone density was found in the center of the vertebral bodies S2 in comparison to S1, which both are crucial for iliosacral

  8. Influence of obesity on bone density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Henyse G Valente da; Mendonça, Laura M C; Conceição, Flávia L; Zahar, Silvia E V; Farias, Maria Lucia F

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of obesity, age, and years since menopause on bone density. A retrospective analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) obtained from 588 women, 41 to 60 years, previously menopaused (1-10 years before). Positive influence of obesity was confirmed by the significant differences in BMD at lumbar spine, femoral neck (FN), and trochanter (TR) between the groups (p BMD at all sites (p = 0.000). Comparing patients within 1 to BMD was higher in the former at LS and FN (p Obese patients had a lower prevalence of osteoporosis at LS and FN (p = 0.009). Regression analysis identified BMI as the strongest determinant of FN and TR BMD, while YSM was the strongest determinant of LS BMD. The protective effect of obesity is overtaken by age and estradiol deficiency. We recommend that even obese postmenopausal women should be screened for osteoporosis.

  9. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is associated with low spinal bone density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Christensen, Finn; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt

    2013-01-01

    and degenerative spondylolisthesis patients. 81 patients older than 60 years, who underwent DXA-scanning of their lumbar spine one year after a lumbar spinal fusion procedure, were included. Radiographs were assessed for disc height, vertebral wedging, and osteophytosis. Pain was assessed using the Low Back Pain......Spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis share many symptoms and the same treatment, but their causes remain unclear. Bone mineral density has been suggested to play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in spinal bone density between spinal stenosis...... Rating Scale pain index. T-score of the lumbar spine was significantly lower among degenerative spondylolisthesis patients compared with spinal stenosis patients (-1.52 versus -0.52, P = 0.04). Thirty-nine percent of degenerative spondylolisthesis patients were classified as osteoporotic and further 30...

  10. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations.

  11. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L.; Ruff, Christopher B.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  12. Validation of quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of bone mineral density of several CT scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Steven L.; Stockham, Charles D.

    1992-06-01

    We have validated a pre-existing model for QCT evaluation of bone mineral density by scanning a commercial bone mineral density phantom on several CT scanners and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility of bone mineral density measurements on each. The model assumes that bone mineral density is a linear function of CT number of bone. Rather than imaging bone mineral density standards for calibration, we computed an `equivalent bone mineral density' for fat and muscle from the known linear relationship between bone mineral density and CT number to remove the dependence of bone mineral density on field non- uniformities caused by beam hardening and scattered radiation, positioning errors and quality control. The `equivalent bone mineral density' for fat and muscle were computed from spectral data and atomic composition of fat and tissue for a GE 9800 scanner. These were used to establish the true bone mineral density of two reference BMD standards used in the phantom and these in turn were used to measure the `equivalent bone mineral density' of fat and muscle on other CT scanners. Phantom measurements on several other CT scanners were used to compute the `equivalent bone mineral density' of the phantom inserts for those systems. Results from the Picker 1200, the Philips LX and the Siemens Somatom DR/H were compared with the results of the GE 9800.

  13. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  14. Bone mineral density in diabetes mellitus patients with and without a Charcot foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tomas M; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA).......To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA)....

  15. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  16. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

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    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  17. Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen John; Attenburrow, Don P [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-07

    In this study we have investigated the potential of optical techniques to monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) via changes in scattering coefficient. For each of five bone samples, diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients were measured over the wavelength range 520-960 nm using an integrating sphere and CCD spectrometer. These were converted into optical absorption and scattering coefficients using a Monte Carlo inversion procedure. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time in order to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. After full demineralization, the optical scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. From the observed degree of fluctuation of the measurements, we estimate that BMD could be measured with an accuracy of 7% if optical scattering can be measured with an accuracy of 10%. We also report preliminary measurements of bone scattering using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An inter-side variability of 3% is obtained on dry samples with and without overlying periosteum. These results suggest that minimally invasive techniques for measuring optical scattering, such as OCT, may have a role in monitoring regional changes in BMD. This could be an important advance in our understanding of bone remodelling and its relationship to osteoarthritis. Both the integrating sphere and OCT measurements also suggest that light transport in bone is spatially anisotropic. OCT was used to assess probability of obtaining results in vivo.

  18. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

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    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  19. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  20. Combination of Micronutrients for Bone (COMB Study: Bone Density after Micronutrient Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micronutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD. After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micronutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micronutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micronutrient protocol. This micronutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bisphosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy.

  1. Duck gait: Relationship to hip angle, bone ash, bone density, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Cara I; Rice, Meredith; Makagon, Maja M; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth meat birds, including ducks, undergo requires skeletal integrity; however, fast growth may not be conducive to adequate bone structure. A relationship likely exists between skeletal changes and duck mobility. Reduced mobility in meat ducks may have impacts on welfare and production. This study examined the relationships among gait score, bone parameters, and hip angle. Commercial Pekin ducks, ages 14 d (n = 100), 21 d (n = 100), and 32 d (n = 100) were weighed and gait scored with a 3-point gait score system by an observer as they walked over a Tekscan gait analysis system. Gait was scored as GS0, GS1, or GS2 with a score of GS0 defined as good walking ability and a score of GS2 as poorest walking ability. Ducks were humanely euthanized, full body scanned using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and the right femur and tibia were extracted. Leg bones were cleaned, measured, fat extracted, and ashed. QCT scans were rendered to create computerized 3D models where pelvic hip angles and bone density were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC MIXED with age and gait score in the model. Body weight increased with age, but within an age, body weight decreased as walking ability became worse (P bone width and length were observed as the ducks aged (P Bone density increased linearly with both age and gait score (P relationship between duck mobility and skeletal changes during growth. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Combination of Micronutrients for Bone (COMB) Study: Bone Density after Micronutrient Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Bouchard, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micronutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD). After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micronutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micronutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micronutrient protocol. This micronutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bisphosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy. PMID:22291722

  3. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbrandts, C.A.; Klaasen, R.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.W.; Gerlag, D.M.; van Eck-Smit, B.L.; Tak, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of anti-TNFalpha antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: /B> 50 patients with active RA (DAS28 >/= 3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously / 2 weeks) were

  4. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  5. Relationship between Biochemical Bone Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Phenylketonuria under Restricted Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hala M.; Zaki, Sherif M.; Ismail, Nagwa A.; Salama, Emad E.; El Lebedy, Dalia H.; Effat, Laila K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Most of phenylketonuria (PKU) develops bone turnover impairment and low bone mineral density (BMD). Measurements of BMD reflect only bone mineral status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Bone markers are a noninvasive tool useful for the assessment of bone formation and bone resorption processes. Our study was to assess the levels of bone markers in PKU in order to select a screen marker and detect the most specific marker which can be combined with BMD for appropriate follow up. Methods: Thirty three classic PKU patients were studied. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (CICP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) and Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were measured. Findings : Nineteen (57.6%) male and fourteen (42.4 %) female PKU patients were involved in the current study. Their mean age was 8.4±4.6 yrs and the age range 3-19 yrs. The control group consisted of twenty two (52.4%) males and twenty (47.6%) females. Their mean age was 8.5±3.3 yrs and th age range 2-17 yrs. Using the Z score values, there was a significant decrease of total BMC (TBMC-Z), BMD of the femoral neck BMD-FN-Z, BMD of lumbar vertebrae (BMD-L-Z), BMD-FN and DPD while RANKL increased. There was a negative correlation between CICP and TBMC and between CICP and BMD-L in these patients. Also, a negative correlation between ALP and TBMC and between ALP and BMD-L was observed. It was concluded that the ALP provides a good impression of the new bone formation in the PKU patients and it has a highly significant negative correlation with the many parameters of the bone mineral status beside the wide availability of inexpensive and simple methods. So a screening test and/or follow up for the PKU patients using ALP would be available. Once the level of ALP decrease is detected, one can combine it with BMD to explore the bone mineral

  6. Serum osteocalcin and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti Susanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since high bone turnover is associated with decreased bone mass, biochemical markers of bone remodeling, such as serum osteocalcin, may be used to assess osteoporosis and to predict fractures in elderly women, particulary those involving trabecular bone, and use of a combination of bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical markers may improve fracture prediction. The serum levels of osteocalcin constitute a specific biochemical parameter of bone formation. Compared to imaging techniques, assays for osteocalcin are safe, noninvasive and easily performed. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of serum osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women in South Jakarta from February to April 2010. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric characteristics, serum osteocalcin levels and BMD. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the left distal radius by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean serum osteocalcin was 28.99 ± 10.02 ng/ml. The Pearson correlation test on all subjects indicated a significant inverse correlation between serum osteocalcin and femoral neck BMD (r = - 0.29; p=0.034. By arranging the data into tertiles, a significant association was found in non-obese subjects between mean femoral neck BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.036. The Tukey posthoc multiple comparison test showed a significant mean difference in femoral neck BMD between the lowest and the highest tertiles of osteocalcin serum concentrations (p=0.028. Maintenance of body weight is important for maintaining BMD in postmenopausal women.

  7. Relationships between bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture of the distal radius and tibia with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccou, Julien; Edwards, Mark Hiley; Ward, Kate; Jameson, Karen; Moon, Rebecca; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus

    2015-09-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is associated with bone density loss and increased fracture risk, while low levels of alcohol consumption have been reported as beneficial in some studies. However, studies relating alcohol consumption to bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture, as assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), are lacking. Here we report an analysis from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, in which we studied associations between HR-pQCT measures at the distal radius and tibia and alcohol consumption in 376 participants (198 men and 178 women) aged 72.1-81.4 years. A total of 30 (15.2%), 90 (45.5%) and 78 (39.4%) men drank minimal/none (tibia. However, women that drank moderate/high alcohol had significantly higher trabecular vBMD (p=0.007), trabecular thickness (p=0.026), and trabecular number (p=0.042) and higher trabecular separation (p=0.026) at the distal radius than those that drank low alcohol. Our results suggest that alcohol consumption (low and moderate/high) may have a detrimental impact on bone health in men in both the cortical and trabecular compartments at the distal radius with similar results in women in the trabecular compartment between none/minimal alcohol and low alcohol at the distal tibia suggesting that avoidance of alcohol may be beneficial for bone health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Bone mineral density in healthy female adolescents according to age, bone age and pubertal breast stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto de Oliveria, Maria Regina; Cristiane da Silva, Carla; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Teixeira Fortes, Cristina Maria; Campos Capela, Renata; Santos Teixeira, Altamir; Carlos Dalmas, José; Lederer Goldberg, Tamara Beres

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner's criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe's test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. BMD (g·cm(-2)) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry.

  9. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-02-07

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  10. Bone mineral density in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; El-Hawy, Mahmoud Ahmed; El-Hefnawy, Sally Mohamed; Mohamed, Sanaa Mansour

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) and normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional case-control study carried out on 50 children: 25 cases of NS (16 steroid-sensitive [SSNS] and nine steroid-resistant [SRNS] under follow up in the pediatric nephrology unit of Menoufia University Hospital, which is tertiary care center, were compared to 25 healthy controls with matched age and sex. All of the participants were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory investigations (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen [BUN], phosphorus [P], total and ionized calcium [Ca], parathyroid hormone [PTH], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]). Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spinal region (L2-L4) in patients group using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and ionized Ca were significantly lower while, serum P, ALP, and PTH were higher in SSNS and SRNS cases than the controls. Osteopenia was documented by DXA scan in 11 patients (44%) and osteoporosis in two patients (8%). Fracture risk was mild in six (24%), moderate in two (8%), and marked in three (12%) of patients. Bone mineralization was negatively affected by steroid treatment in children with NS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone mineral density in children with recurrent bronchitis

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    Vertegel A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To define the L1-L4 lumbar spine and hips bone mineral density (BMD parameters in children with recurrent bronchitis (RB through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Materials and methods. The study involved 45 children with RB, aged 6 to 10 years, boys — 20, girls — 25. To measure used L1-L4 lumbar spine and hips bone mineral density (BMD with the assessment Z-score. The Z-score level in the range of 0.05, except for more frequent registration decreasing of the L4 lumbar spine BMD in boys than in girls (р<0.05. The average number of reduced BMD loci was higher among boys (р<0.05. Indicators DXA in 10 children who had clinically significant fracture history, characterized by a relative increase in the number of BMD reduced sites. In boys reducing of the BMD odds ratio was higher than girls in all areas of study, particularly from the L1-L4 spine. Conclusions. Children with RB, aged 6 to 10 years have a reduction of the L1-L4 lumbar spine and hips BMD without clinical manifestations of bone deficiency.

  12. Adipocytokines and bone mineral density in adolescent female athletes.

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    Gruodytė, R; Jürimäe, J; Cicchella, A; Stefanelli, C; Passariello, C; Jürimäe, T

    2010-12-01

     To evaluate the relationships of visfatin, adiponectin and leptin with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adolescent female athletes with different training patterns. This study involved 170 healthy 13-15-year-old girls divided into six groups based on activity: sport games (i.e. basketball, volleyball, badminton) (n=49), track sprint (n=24), rhythmic gymnastics (n=23), swimming (n=24), cross-country skiing (n=17) and sedentary controls (n=33). BMD and BMC at femoral neck and lumbar spine (L2-L4) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Visfatin, adiponectin, leptin, insulin and glucose were measured, and the insulin resistance index was calculated using homeostasis model assessment. There were no relationships found between visfatin concentrations and bone mineral parameters in adolescent female athletes or controls. Adiponectin was inversely correlated to BMD and BMC of femoral neck and lumbar spine (r=-0.47-0.62) in the swimmer group only, but after adjustments for age, height and body mass these associations disappeared. Leptin concentrations correlated with bone mineral parameters even after adjusting for age, height and body mass (r=0.42-0.63) in the gymnast group only. We may conclude that after adjustment, leptin is the only adipokine of those measured that correlates to femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and femoral neck BMC in the rhythmic gymnast group. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. Asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros, Caio Cesar Leite de; Berigo, Marina Guareschi; Dominoni, Robson Luiz; Vargas, Deisi Maria

    2016-04-01

    Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF). It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA) and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD) with a T-score physical examination. Densitometric variables were obtained by bone mineral densitometry and VFA (Explorer, Hollogic®). Vertebral fractures were classified according to the Genant criteria. Student's t, chi-square and logistic regression were performed for statistical analysis. AVFs occurred in 24.4% of the subjects. They were older compared to those without AVF (65±9.25 versus 60.1±8.66; p=0.005), and had a history of lowimpact fractures (38.24% versus 19.8%; OR 2.5; p=0.03). Half of the patients that reported steroid therapy had AVFs, compared to one fifth of those who did not use steroids (50% versus 21.49%; OR 3.6; p=0.01). Asymptomatic vertebral fractures were present in approximately one fourth of patients. The risk factors associated were history of low-impact fracture, use of steroids and age > 61 years.

  14. RESULTS OF BONE DENSITY RESEARCH IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA TREATED BY INHALED GLUCOCORTICOSTEROIDS

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    A.L. Kiseleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that asthma and its treatment could have negative impact on the bone tissue in adults. In childhood, bone is most sensitive to the influence of adverse factors. In the study 105 children with asthma and 700 healthy children were examined by bone ultrasonometry to reveal the relation of asthma and the treatment of inhaled glucocorticosteroids on bone density. The results of this study are demonstrated that the therapy with inhaled glucocorticosteroids have no adverse effects on the bone density. The reductions of bone density in children with asthma in some age groups are not associated with the severity of illness, age and therapy with inhaled glucocorticosteroids. Reduction of bone density is due to a way of life of children, the level of physical activity and consumption of dairy products. Key words: bone density, asthma, inhaled glucocorticosteroids, bone ultrasonometer, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:42-47

  15. [Bone mineral density, biochemical bone turnover markers and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Nah Mee; Shin, Hyunjeong; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cho, Yunjung; Jeon, Songi; Cho, Inhae

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score≤-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score≥0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score≥0) and low-BMD (Z-scoreexercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.

  16. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

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    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD, an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015 that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  17. Impact of small body weight on tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective cohort study of Japanese patients.

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    Takeshi Nishijima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment with tenofovir is sometimes associated with renal dysfunction. Limited information is available on this side effect in patients with small body weight, although the use of tenofovir will spread rapidly in Asia and Africa, where patients are likely to be of smaller body weight. METHODS: In a single-center cohort, Japanese patients with HIV infection who started tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction, defined as more than 25% decrement of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR from the baseline, was determined. The effects of small body weight and body mass index (BMI on tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction, respectively, were estimated in univariate and multivariate Cox hazards models as the primary exposure. Other possible risk factors were evaluated by univariate analysis and those found significant were entered into the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The median weight of 495 patients was 63 kg. Tenofovir-related renal dysfunction occurred in 97 (19.6% patients (incidence: 10.5 per 100 person-years. Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of tenofovir-related renal dysfunction was significantly associated with smaller body weight and BMI, respectively (per 5 kg decrement, HR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10-1.37; p<0.001(per 1 kg/m(2 decrement, HR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23; p = 0.001. Old age, high baseline eGFR, low serum creatinine, low CD4 count, high HIV viral load, concurrent nephrotoxic drugs, hepatitis C infection, and current smoking were also associated with tenofovir-related renal dysfunction. Multivariate analysis identified small body weight as a significant risk (adjusted HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27; p = 0.039, while small BMI had marginal significance (adjusted HR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.00-1.16; p = 0.058. CONCLUSION: The incidence of tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction in Japanese patients

  18. Bone Density Following Long Duration Space Flight and Recovery

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    Amin, Shreyasee; Achenbach, Sara J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Khosla, Sundeep; Sibonga, Jean

    2010-01-01

    At approx.12 months, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at most sites in men remained lower than would be predicted, raising concerns for long-term bone health consequences following space flight. Additional analyses based on longer follow-up are being conducted. Although the N is too small for definitive conclusions, women had lower rates of loss at load-bearing sites of the hip and spine immediately post-flight relative to men and smaller differences between observed vs. predicted BMD at most sites, both immediately and 12 months post-flight, relative to men. The role of other exposures/risk factors need to be explored to further understand these possible gender differences in BMD loss and recovery following long-duration space flight.

  19. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Kang-hua; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Hong; Luo, Wei; Xu, Wen-shuo; Tian, Jian; Lei, Guang-hua

    2011-06-11

    Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b). BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027) and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005) and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  20. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

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    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  1. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  2. Gonadal steroid-dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann M; Goldstein, David W; Hahn, Christopher W; Hirsch, Sarah C; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B; Taylor, Alexander P; Webb, Matthew L; Youngner, Jonathan M; Yu, Elaine W

    2016-03-01

    Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20-50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114. AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, NIH.

  3. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

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    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  4. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

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    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  5. Do bone mineral density, bone geometry and the functional muscle-bone unit explain bone fractures in healthy children and adolescents?

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    Beccard, Ralf; Land, Christof; Semler, Oliver; Fricke, Oliver; Remer, Thomas; Stabrey, Angelika; Schoenau, Eckhard

    2010-01-01

    Because the increasing fracture incidence has not been understood, the present study compares variables of the muscle-bone interaction to examine the hypothesis that an impaired adaptation of bone strength to muscle forces explains this phenomenon. The forearm of 220 individuals (mean age 11.1 ± 3.2 years; range 5.5-17.4 years) was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density, periosteal circumference, cortical area, strength strain index (SSI) and muscle area (MA) were measured at the distal and proximal radius of the non-dominant forearm. Maximum isometric grip force was measured by a dynamometer. The fracture history was evaluated by a questionnaire after a period of 5 ± 1.7 years. During the observational period at least one fracture appeared in 78 children and adolescents (35.5%). Individuals with and without fractures were not different in age, height, weight, and body mass index. Variables of bone mineral density, bone geometry and muscle force were not different between both groups. BMC, MA and SSI were dependent on age and sex. Fracture risk in healthy children and adolescents is not sufficiently explained by volumetric bone mineral density, the skeletal phenotype and indices of the functional muscle-bone unit. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

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    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  7. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors.

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    Twiss, J J; Waltman, N; Ott, C D; Gross, G J; Lindsey, A M; Moore, T E

    2001-06-01

    The overall purpose of this longitudinal 18-month study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this article is to describe the baseline bone mineral density (BMD) findings for 30 postmenopausal women and to compare these BMD findings to time since menopause, body mass index, and tamoxifen use. Baseline data of BMD findings for 30 postmenopausal women, who have had a variety of treatments including surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and or tamoxifen, and are enrolled in the 18-month longitudinal study. A demographic questionnaire and a three day dietary record were used to collect baseline data. Eighty percent of the women with breast cancer history had abnormal BMDs at baseline (t-scores below -1.00 SD). Thinner women showed a greater risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss at the spine and hip. These findings suggest the need for early BMD assessments and for aggressive health promotion intervention strategies that include a multifaceted protocol of drug therapy for bone remodeling, 1500 mg of daily calcium, 400 IU vitamin D and a strength weight training program that is implemented immediately following chemotherapy treatment and menopause in this high risk population of women.

  8. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  9. Mapping Bone Mineral Density Obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2017-01-01

    Methods for relating or mapping estimates of volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction (BVF) are outlined mathematically. The methods are based on definitions of bone properties, cited experimental studies and regression relations derived from them for trabecular bone in the proximal femur. Using an experimental range of values in the intertrochanteric region obtained from male and female human subjects, age 18 to 49, the BVF values calculated from four different methods were compared to the experimental average and numerical range. The BVF values computed from the conversion method used data from two sources. One source provided pre bed rest vBMD values in the intertrochanteric region from 24 bed rest subject who participated in a 70 day study. Another source contained preflight vBMD values from 18 astronauts who spent 4 to 6 months on the ISS. To aid the use of a mapping from BMD to BVF, the discussion includes how to formulate them for purpose of computational modeling. An application of the conversions would be used to aid in modeling of time varying changes in vBMD as it relates to changes in BVF via bone remodeling and/or modeling.

  10. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  11. Bone Density and Cortical Thickness in Normal, Osteopenic, and Osteoporotic Sacra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Richards

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear if a decrease in cancellous bone density or cortical bone thickness is related to sacral insufficiency fractures. We hypothesized that reduction in overall bone density leads to local reductions in bone density and cortical thickness in cadaveric sacra that match clinically observed fracture patterns in patients with sacral insufficiency fractures. We used quantitative computed tomography to measure cancellous density and cortical thickness in multiple areas of normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic sacra. Cancellous bone density was significantly lower in osteoporotic specimens in the central and anterior regions of the sacral ala compared with other regions of these specimens. Cortical thickness decreased uniformly in all regions of osteopenic and osteoporotic specimens. These results support our hypothesis that areas of the sacrum where sacral insufficiency fractures often occur have significantly larger decreases in cancellous bone density; however, they do not support the hypothesis that these areas have local reduction of cortical bone thickness.

  12. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  13. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Tânia; Wyon, Matthew; Maia, José; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Metsios, George S; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    While some authors report that dancers have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporosis, others have stressed the positive effects of dance training on developing healthy BMD. Given the existing controversy, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the best evidence-based information available in relation to female dancers. Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus) and two dance science journals (Journal of Dance Medicine and Science and Medical Problems of Performing Artists) were searched for relevant material using the keywords "dance", "ballet", "BMD", "bone density", "osteoporosis" and "female athlete triad syndrome". A total of 257 abstracts were screened using selected inclusion (studies involving bone measurements in dancers) and exclusion (editorials, opinion papers, chapters in books, narrative reviews and non-English language papers) criteria according to PRISMA guidelines. Following the above screening, a total of 108 abstracts were identified as potentially relevant. After the exclusion of conference proceedings, review papers, studies focusing only in male dancers and studies in which dancers' information were combined with other athletes, the eligible papers were subsequently assessed using the GRADE system and grouped according to: (1) prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, (2) incidence of low BMD and risk factors, (3) prevention/treatment of low BMD in dancers, and (4) other studies. Of the 257 abstracts that were initially screened, only 35 studies were finally considered. Only one of these 35 was of high quality, while the remaining 34 were of relatively low quality. Seven studies reported prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, 10 reported associated factors with no prevalence data, while one reported prevalence with no associated factors data. One study cited risk factors, while another one elaborated on the treatment of low BMD in dancers. The remaining 15 studies were classified as

  14. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  15. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  16. The relationship between breast density and bone mineral density in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckin, Berna; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Inal, Hasan Ali; Gulerman, Cavidan

    2017-06-01

    Estrogen is known to affect both mammographic breast density and bone mineral density (BMD), but there are inconsistent results about the association of these density measurements in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, there are scarce data on the relationship between breast density and BMD in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy. In this study, we examined the relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who were never hormone replacement therapy users. A total of 293 postmenopausal women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mammograms and BMD measurements for screening purposes were obtained. Assessment of mammographic breast density was performed by using breast imaging reporting and data system classification. The BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Grade 1 breast density was observed in 64 women (21.8 %), grade 2 in 113 women (38.6 %) and grades 3 and 4 in 116 (39.6 %) women. Breast density decreased with increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Meanwhile, no significant differences were detected in BMD measures of the hip (p = 0.14) and lumbar spine (p = 0.29) among the breast density categories. After adjusting for age and BMI, the differences in the mean BMD at the hip and lumbar spine across the breast density categories remained insignificant (p = 0.26 and 0.11, respectively). There is no evidence of a relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who had never used hormone replacement therapy.

  17. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bone mineral density and trabecular bone tissue quality in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are the two metabolic dise­ases with increased prevalence over last decades and a strong impact on the global morbidity and mortality have gained a status of major health threats worldwide. There is evidence that the higher body mass index (BMI values are associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD resulting in a site-specific protective effect for fragility fractures. On the other hand, higher BMI values increases incidence of falls and is associated with worse fractures consolidation. However, trabecular bone score (TBS indirectly explores bone quali­ty, independently of BMD. The aim of the study was to determine the connection between the BMD and TBS parameters in Ukrainian men suffering from obesity. Methods. We examined 396 men aged 40–89 years, by the BMI all the subjects were divided into 2 groups: Group A — with obesity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (n = 129 and Group B — without obesity and BMI < 30 kg/m2 (n = 267. The BMD of total body, lumbar spine at the site L1–L4, femur and forearm were measured by DXA (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. The TBS of L1–L4 was assessed by means of TBS iNsight (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France. Results. In general, obese men had a significantly higher BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, total body and ultradistal forearm (p < 0.001 in comparison with men without obesity. The TBS of L1–L4 was significantly lower in obese men compared to non-obese men (p < 0.001. The significant positive correlation between the fat mass and the BMD at different sites was observed. The correlation between the fat mass and TBS of L1–L4 was also significant, but negative. Conclusions. Obesity negatively affects the quality of trabecular bone, while bone mineral density was significantly higher.

  19. Bone density does not reflect mechanical properties in early-stage arthrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, CC; Hvid, I

    2001-01-01

    energy, and an increase in ultimate strain of arthrotic cancellous bone. Bone volume fraction, apparent density, apparent ash density, and collagen density were higher in cancellous bone with arthrosis, but no differences were found in tissue density, mineral and collagen concentrations between arthrotic...... cancellous bone and the 3 controls. None of the mechanical properties of arthrotic cancellous bone could be predicted by the physical/compositional properties measured. The increase in bone tissue in early-stage arthrotic cancellous bone did not make up for the loss of mechanical properties, which suggests......Subchondral cancellous bone specimens were removed from 10 human postmortem early-stage arthrotic proximal tibiae (mean age 73 (63-81) years) and 10 age- and gender-matched normal proximal tibiae. The early-stage arthrosis was confirmed histologically and the specimens were divided into 4 groups...

  20. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density in female swimmers during the time of peak bone mass attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Długołęcka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess bone mineral content and bone mineral density in girls practising swimming in the period of peak bone mass attainment in comparison to girls at the same age who are not actively involved in sports. This study involved girls from sports school specialising in swimming (n=41 aged 11-15 years, practising swimming (non-weight bearing activities, and girls at the same age not actively involved in sports (n=45. The current condition of bones was assessed based on the method of densitometry DEXA (lumbar spine L2-L4. Data on sports careers, including the length of training and training load, and hormonal status were collected using a diagnostic survey with an especially developed questionnaire. The quantitative composition of diet was determined based on 3 individual interviews on dietary intake in the last 24 hours preceding the test. Analysis of the results showed that the average values of the measured bone parameters were not different between the groups. However, we observed a trend of higher values in the control group. In the assessment of diet, we observed in both groups a deficiency in average calcium intake. Based on the results it can be concluded that the tested female swimmers were not at increased risk of developing osteopenia, when compared to girls not actively involved in sports.

  1. Low bone mineral density and high bone metabolism turnover in premenopausal women with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijević, Milan; Petronijević, Natasa; Ivković, Maja; Stefanović, Dusan; Radonjić, Nevena; Glisić, Branislava; Ristić, Gorica; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Paunović, Vladimir

    2008-03-01

    The majority of studies reporting decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with unipolar depression neglected sex and age differences and menopause as the most important risk factor for osteoporosis. We presumed that physically healthy premenopausal women with unipolar depression have decreased BMD and altered bone cell metabolism. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry, bone alkaline phosphatase sera activity, 5b-tartarate resistant acid phosphatase sera activity and urine N-terminal telopeptide were measured in 73 premenopausal women with unipolar depression and compared with 47 healthy, age- and osteoporosis risk factors-matched premenopausal women. The duration and severity of depression, hormonal status (cortisol, prolactin, parathormone, oestradiol), antidepressive treatment, and physical activity through whole and modified QUALEFFO-41 questionnaire were evaluated. The results were statistically elaborated by the chi-square test, Student's t-test for independent samples, one-way analysis of variance - ANOVA, one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Correlations were assessed by means of Pearson's coefficient. Patients with unipolar depression had significantly lower BMD, the decrease of which correlated only with the duration of depression. High bone metabolism turnover was found with a predomination of osteoresorption which, but not osteosynthesis, correlated with the severity of depression, estimated through Hamilton depression scores. Despite higher but not significant levels of cortisol in women with unipolar depression, the BMD decrease and high bone turnover seem not to be the consequence of hormonal changes or medical treatment. The significant correlations between physical activity and osteoresorption markers were found indicating possible underlying mechanism. Premenopausal women with unipolar depression have significantly lower BMD because of stimulated bone cell metabolism with predomination of osteoresorption process

  2. Bone mineral density in patients with treated Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatvedt, G D; Joyce, M; Evans, M; Clearwater, J; Reid, I R

    1999-01-01

    Some studies have reported low bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with Addison's disease, whereas others have found BMD to be normal. It is possible that over-replacement of corticosteroids and adrenal androgen deficiency may contribute to a reduction in BMD in these patients. The aims of this study were to examine BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in patients with treated Addison's disease at multiple skeletal sites and to investigate the relationships between these measurements and corticosteroid dose. Nineteen men, 3 premenopausal and 7 postmenopausal women with Addison's disease were studied and data from these patients were analyzed separately and as a group. The mean SEM age and duration of Addison's disease of the men were 44 +/- 3.8 years and 15 +/- 2.2 years, in the premenopausal women 40 +/- 2 years and 5 +/- 2.4 years, and in the postmenopausal women 68 +/- 4 years and 20 +/- 5 years, respectively. Eight men were unexpectedly hypogonadal (serum testosterone <13 nmol/l). BMD was expressed as a percent of values in normal controls (n = 418) adjusted for age, sex, ethnic origin, menopausal status and body weight. In the whole group (n = 29), mean BMD of the patients with Addison's disease was not different from normal at any site [mean (+/- SEM) lumbar spine 99.5% +/- 2.9%; femoral neck 99.3% +/- 2.5%; Ward's triangle 96.2% +/- 3.5%; trochanter 99.2% +/- 2.9%; radius 99.8% +/- 2.1%; total body 98.5% +/- 1.4%]. However, there was a wide range of bone densities, with some patients having a low BMD at multiple sites. Bone density was negatively correlated with current and cumulative corticosteroid dose per kilogram body weight and duration of Addison's disease. In conclusion, BMD in patients with Addison's disease is little different from normal, but may be lower in patients with disease of long duration and a high cumulative corticosteroid dose. Unexpected hypogonadism in men with Addison's disease is common.

  3. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  4. Loss of PiT-2 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mineral density and length in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Wallingford, Mary C; Borgeia, Suhaib; Cox, Timothy C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2018-01-01

    Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated. In order to decipher the role of PiT-2 in bone, we examined normal bone development, growth, and mineralization in global PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 deficiency resulted in reduced vertebral column, femur, and tibia length as well as mandibular dimensions. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that bone mineral density in the mandible, femur, and tibia were decreased, indicating that maintenance of bone function and structure is impaired in both craniofacial and long bones of PiT-2 deficient mice. Both cortical and trabecular thickness and mineral density were reduced in PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that PiT-2 is involved in normal bone development and growth and plays roles in cortical and trabecular bone metabolism feasibly by regulating local phosphate transport and mineralization processes in the bone. Further studies that evaluate bone cell-specific loss of PiT-2 are now warranted and may yield insight into complex mechanisms of bone development and growth, leading to identification of new therapeutic options for patients with bone diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, A.Z., E-mail: pollacka@mail.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mumford, S.L. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wactawski-Wende, J. [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  6. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  7. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  8. Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients

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    Hardes Jendrik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone mineral density (BMD accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4, both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years. Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2, calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3 and bone mineral content (BMC, g were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18, areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082 and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347 which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36, the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9 in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0 for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis

  9. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

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    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  10. Bone mineral density change during adjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric osteosarcoma

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    Ju Hyun Ahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeOsteoporosis is currently receiving particular attention as a sequela in survivors of childhood osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD changes during methotrexate-based chemotherapy in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma.MethodsNine patients with osteosarcoma were included in this retrospective study and compared with eight healthy controls. BMD of the lumbar spine and unaffected femur neck of patients was serially measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and just after chemotherapy and compared with controls.ResultsFour patients (44% showed decreased lumbar spine BMD and seven patients (78% showed decreased femur neck BMD, while all controls showed increased lumbar and femur BMD (P=0.024 and P=0.023. The femur neck BMD z-scores decreased from -0.49±1.14 to -1.63±1.50 (P=0.032. At the end of therapy, five patients (56% showed femur neck BMD z-scores below -2.0.ConclusionThe bone metabolism is disturbed during therapy in children with osteosarcoma, resulting in a reduced BMD with respect to healthy controls. Since a reduced BMD predisposes to osteoporosis, specific attention and therapeutic interventions should be considered.

  11. [Bone mineral density in juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña Simón, E; Bueno Lozano, G; Armadá Maresca, M I; Ruibal Francisco, J L; Fernández Pérez, C; Lozano Tonkin, C; Casado de Frías, E

    2000-06-01

    To determine bone mineral density (BMD) at axial and appendicular sites in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and evaluate its relationship with metabolic control and disease duration. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-1000) in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at the distal third forearm in 246 healthy non-diabetic children and adolescents (111 boys, 135 girls, aged 2.8-20.8 years) and in 45 diabetic patients (18 boys, 27 girls, aged 5.2-19.4 years). The results were expressed as the mean and standard deviation. The differences were tested by analysis of variance or Students t-test, as appropriate. The relationship between BMD and the remaining variables was studied by simple Pearsons coefficient and partial correlation coefficient. Significance was defined as p pubertal spurt. The greatest differences were found in males and in the trabecular bone. No relationship was found between metabolic control (mean glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin requirement) and duration of diabetes and the BMD in any region studied (p > 0.05). Pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus appear to constitute a population at risk of osteoporosis in adult-hood. Diagnosis of osteopenia diagnosis should be established according to densitometric criteria. In this study, metabolic control parameters and duration of diabetes did not enable predetermination of diabetic patients at risk of osteoporosis in adulthood.

  12. Bone mineral density (BMD) in obesity effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossain, V V; Rao, D S; Carella, M J; Divine, G; Rovner, D R

    1999-01-01

    It is generally believed that bone mineral density (BMD) is increased in obese subjects, but the effect of weight loss on BMD has not been well studied. Therefore, we evaluated BMD among 11 obese women (mean age 45.5 +/- 14.2 years) before and after weight loss achieved by ingesting an 800 calorie diet for 12 weeks. BMD measurements were made at baseline, 6 months and 1 year intervals. Urinary hydroxyproline:creatinine (H:Cr), calcium:creatinine (Ca:Cr) ratios were measured as indices of bone turnover. Mean weight at baseline was 103.8 +/- 15.8 kg and decreased to 83.2 +/- 12.2 at six months and was 85.8 +/- 14.2 kg at one year. Total body, hip and lumbar spine BMD were 1.12 +/- 0.07, .87 +/- 0.11, and 1.02 +/- 0.12 gm/cm2, respectively. Total body BMD was significantly lower at 12 months compared to baseline. No significant change was observed in BMD of the lumbar spine. There was also a significant decrease in hip BMD at six months and 12 months compared to baseline. H:Cr and Ca:Cr ratios did not change over time. We conclude that weight loss achieved by VLCD is accompanied by a statistically significant change in BMD, but the BMD remained in the normal range.

  13. Factors affecting bone mineral density in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Kwon; Kim, Ae Ryoung; Kim, On Yoo; Lee, Kilchan; Suh, Young Joo; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2012-12-01

    To clarify factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirty-five patients with CP participated in this study. Demographic data including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), subtype according to neuromotor type and topographical distribution, ambulatory function, and functional independence measure (FIM) were investigated. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the factors affecting BMD were analyzed. The BMD had no significant association with factors such as gender, age, and subtype in adults with CP. However, BMI was significantly correlated with the BMD of lumbar spine and femur (pbasic data, suggesting the importance of treatment including weight bearing exercise and gait training in adults with CP.

  14. Greater association of peak neuromuscular performance with cortical bone geometry, bone mass and bone strength than bone density: A study in 417 older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Blenk, Tilo; Bock, Oliver; Börst, Hendrikje; Kocakaya, Emine; Luhn, Franziska; Rantalainen, Timo; Rawer, Rainer; Tomasius, Frederike; Willnecker, Johannes; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated which aspects of neuromuscular performance are associated with bone mass, density, strength and geometry. 417 women aged 60-94years were examined. Countermovement jump, sit-to-stand test, grip strength, forearm and calf muscle cross-sectional area, areal bone mineral content and density (aBMC and aBMD) at the hip and lumbar spine via dual X-ray absorptiometry, and measures of volumetric vBMC and vBMD, bone geometry and section modulus at 4% and 66% of radius length and 4%, 38% and 66% of tibia length via peripheral quantitative computed tomography were performed. The first principal component of the neuromuscular variables was calculated to generate a summary neuromuscular variable. Percentage of total variance in bone parameters explained by the neuromuscular parameters was calculated. Step-wise regression was also performed. At all pQCT bone sites (radius, ulna, tibia, fibula), a greater percentage of total variance in measures of bone mass, cortical geometry and/or bone strength was explained by peak neuromuscular performance than for vBMD. Sit-to-stand performance did not relate strongly to bone parameters. No obvious differential in the explanatory power of neuromuscular performance was seen for DXA aBMC versus aBMD. In step-wise regression, bone mass, cortical morphology, and/or strength remained significant in relation to the first principal component of the neuromuscular variables. In no case was vBMD positively related to neuromuscular performance in the final step-wise regression models. Peak neuromuscular performance has a stronger relationship with leg and forearm bone mass and cortical geometry as well as proximal forearm section modulus than with vBMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Two Noninvasive Methods of Study of Bone Density in Women of Uzbek Population

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    D.Sh. Azizova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 40 women aged 50–60 years were examined by ultrasonic and X-ray densitometry to assess bone mineral density. For the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia and the administration of appropriate therapy it is necessary to measure bone density by X-ray densitometry. In order to identify groups at risk for disorders of bone mineral density in a large cohort of postmenopausal women, it is possible to use ultrasound densitometry.

  16. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density

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    F. Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in a sample of 32 patients with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (POI in comparison to reference groups of 25 pre- and 55 postmenopausal women. Hip (lumbar and spinal bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the three groups. The median age of POI patients at the time of diagnosis was 35 years (interquartile range: 27-37 years. The mean ± SD age of postmenopausal reference women (52.16 ± 3.65 years was higher than that of POI (46.28 ± 10.38 years and premenopausal women (43.96 ± 7.08; P = 0.001 at the time of BMD measurement. Twenty-seven (84.4% POI women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT at the time of the study. In the postmenopausal reference group, 30.4% were current users of HRT. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the POI group (1.050 ± 0.17 g/cm² compared to the age-matched premenopausal reference group (1.136 ± 0.12 g/cm²; P = 0.040. Moreover, 22 (68.7% POI women had low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis by World Health Organization criteria versus 47.3% of the postmenopausal reference group (P = 0.042. In conclusion, the present data indicate that BMD is significantly lower in patients with POI than in age-matched premenopausal women. Also, the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis is higher in POI women than in women after natural menopause. Early medical interventions are necessary to ensure that women with POI will maintain their bonemass.

  17. Determination of bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body using photon absorptiometry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanpalmer, Janos; Kullenberg, Ragnar [Departments of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg, (Sweden); Hansson, Tommy [Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg, (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    Dual-photon absorptiometry and triple-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to investigate the total bone mineral content and density as well as the trabecular bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body. Both anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) measurements were performed. By combining the two projections it was found that the mean trabecular bone mineral density for all 202 subjects included in the study was 52% (SD{+-}20%) of the total bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body. The mean trabecular bone mineral density as a fraction of the total vertebral body bone mineral density decreased as a function of age. The relative annual change in this fraction differed between males and females. It was also found that neither trabecular nor total bone mineral density differed significantly between male and female subjects aged 25-35 years, and bone mineral density (BMD), expressed in g/cm{sup 3}, showed no correlation to subject height, body weight or body mass index (BMI). Male and female individuals showed different rates of change of trabecular bone mineral density with age.

  18. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  19. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis: a cross-sectional study using DXA, HR-pQCT, and bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Shanbhoque, Vikram Vinod; Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (MF) is a severe chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, progressing towards a terminal stage with insufficient haematopoiesis and osteosclerotic manifestations. Whilst densitometry studies have showed MF patients to have elevated bone mineral density, data on bone geometry and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals.

  20. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels, bone geometry, and bone mineral density in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Marco; Coin, Alessandra; Manzato, Enzo; Sarti, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Bolzetta, Francesco; Imoscopi, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Giulia; Perissinotto, Egle; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D values and cortical/trabecular bone parameters in older adults has been incompletely explored. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone parameters for the tibia and radius using peripheral quantitative computed tomography in free-living healthy older adults. The study involved 134 older adults attending a twice-weekly low-intensity fitness program. In addition to clinical history and serum parameters, we assessed fat-free mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, total bone and cortical bone cross-sectional areas, and trabecular and cortical bone mineral density for the tibia and radius by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. After applying multivariate linear regression models, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass, and creatinine, the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone parameters was significant for total bone and cortical bone cross-sectional areas in the radius (partial R (2) = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively) and for trabecular bone mineral density and cortical bone cross-sectional area in the tibia (partial R (2) = 0.11 and 0.02, respectively). These findings support the idea that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone parameters are linked in older adults. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish whether vitamin D levels over time are associated with changes in these parameters.

  1. Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry in premenarcheal female athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournis, S; Michopoulou, E; Fatouros, I G; Paspati, I; Michalopoulou, M; Raptou, P; Leontsini, D; Avloniti, A; Krekoukia, M; Zouvelou, V; Galanos, A; Aggelousis, N; Kambas, A; Douroudos, I; Lyritis, G P; Taxildaris, K; Pappaioannou, N

    2010-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during growth exerts positive effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that long-term elite rhythmic gymnastics exerts positive effects on volumetric bone mineral density and geometry and to determine whether exercise-induced bone adaptation is associated with increased periosteal bone formation or medullary contraction using tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center. We studied 26 elite premenarcheal female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 23 female controls, aged 9-13 yr. We measured bone age, volumetric bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and polar stress strength index (SSIp) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the left tibia proximal to the distal metaphysis (trabecular) at 14, 38 (cortical), and 66% (muscle mass) from the distal end and bone turnover markers. The two groups were comparable according to height and chronological and bone age. After weight adjustment, cortical BMC, area, and thickness at 38% were significantly higher in RG (P < 0.005-0.001). Periosteal circumference, SSIp, and muscle area were higher in RG (P < 0.01-0.001). Muscle area was significantly associated with cortical BMC, area, and SSIp, whereas years of training showed positive association with cortical BMC, area, and thickness independent of chronological age. RG in premenarcheal girls may induce positive adaptations on the skeleton, especially in cortical bone. Increased duration of exercise is associated with a positive response of bone geometry.

  2. Impact of degenerative radiographic abnormalities and vertebral fractures on spinal bone density of women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Costa Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Measurements of bone density taken by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are the most accurate procedure for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This procedure has the disadvantage of measuring the density of all mineral components, including osteophytes, vascular and extra vertebral calcifications. These alterations can influence bone density results and densitometry interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To correlate radiography and densitometry findings from women with osteoporosis, analyzing the influence of degenerative processes and vertebral fractures on the evaluation of bone density. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Osteoporosis outpatients' clinic at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-six postmenopausal women presenting osteoporosis diagnosed by bone density. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by the technique of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, using a LUNAR-DPX densitometer. Fractures, osteophytes and aortic calcifications were evaluated by simple x-rays of the thoracic and lumbar spine. RESULTS: The x-rays confirmed vertebral fractures in 41.6%, osteophytes in 33.3% and calcifications of the aorta in 30.2%. The prevalence of fractures and aortic calcifications increased with age. The mean bone mineral density was 0.783g/cm² and the mean T-score was --3.47 DP. Neither fractures nor aortic calcifications had significant influence on bone mineral density (P = 0.36 and P = 0.09, respectively, despite the fractured vertebrae having greater bone mineral density (P < 0.02. Patients with lumbar spine osteophytes showed greater bone mineral density (P = 0.04. Osteophytosis was associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density after adjustment for fractures and aortic calcifications by multiple regression (P = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Osteophytes and lumbar spine fractures can overestimate bone density interpretation. The interpretation of densitometry

  3. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  4. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  5. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Density, Microarchitecture, and Estimated Bone Strength Assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2014-01-01

    Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture, and esti......Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture...... showed that KS patients had lower total vBMD and a compromised trabecular compartment with a reduced trabecular density and bone volume fraction at the tibia. The compromised trabecular network integrity attributable to a lower trabecular number with relative preservation of trabecular thickness...

  6. Trapezium Bone Density-A Comparison of Measurements by DXA and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breddam Mosegaard, Sebastian; Breddam Mosegaard, Kamille; Bouteldja, Nadia; Bæk Hansen, Torben; Stilling, Maiken

    2018-01-18

    Bone density may influence the primary fixation of cementless implants, and poor bone density may increase the risk of implant failure. Before deciding on using total joint replacement as treatment in osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint, it is valuable to determine the trapezium bone density. The aim of this study was to: (1) determine the correlation between measurements of bone mineral density of the trapezium obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans by a circumference method and a new inner-ellipse method; and (2) to compare those to measurements of bone density obtained by computerized tomography (CT)-scans in Hounsfield units (HU). We included 71 hands from 59 patients with a mean age of 59 years (43-77). All patients had Eaton-Glickel stage II-IV trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint osteoarthritis, were under evaluation for trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement, and underwent DXA and CT wrist scans. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.94) between DXA bone mineral density measures using the circumference and the inner-ellipse method. There was a moderate correlation between bone density measures obtained by DXA- and CT-scans with (r = 0.49) for the circumference method, and (r = 0.55) for the inner-ellipse method. DXA may be used in pre-operative evaluation of the trapezium bone quality, and the simpler DXA inner-ellipse measurement method can replace the DXA circumference method in estimation of bone density of the trapezium.

  7. Depo-Provera and bone density: what should you tell teen users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of use of Depo-Provera (DMPA) among long-term users on bone density in the US. Depo-Provera suppresses ovarian estradiol production, which maintains bone density by slowing bone resorption. Young women reach peak density of spinal bone about 16 years of age, and the greatest increase in bone density occurs during the first 2 years after menstruation begins. Depro-Provera is particularly attractive to teenagers. The manufacturer, Pharmacia and Upjohn of Kalamazoo, Michigan, conducted a multicenter longitudinal study among long-term users, but did not include adolescents. A retrospective study from New Zealand found a 7% bone density difference between DMPA users 25 and 51 years old and other premenopausal users. Similar findings were found in a Thailand study comparing DMPA users and users of IUDs and Norplant implants. The findings on bone density differences at one point in time are considered unreliable so far, because bone density is known to shift in response to various situations. For example, bone density declines during breast feeding, but returns to normal after weaning. Lactation is not considered a risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is recommended that clinicians recommend calcium supplements for adolescent DMPA users, because adolescents in general are not inclined to be big milk drinkers.

  8. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijbrandts, C A; Klaasen, R; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Gerlag, D M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; Tak, P P

    2009-03-01

    To explore the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 50 patients with active RA (DAS28> or =3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously/2 weeks) were included in an open label prospective study. All patients used stable methotrexate and were allowed to use prednisone (< or =10 mg/day). The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck was measured before and 1 year after start of treatment. Disease activity at baseline (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)) and disease duration were inversely correlated with femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD (p<0.05). Mean BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck remained unchanged after 1 year of adalimumab therapy (+0.3% and +0.3%, respectively). Of interest, a beneficial effect of prednisone on change in femur neck BMD was observed with a relative increase with prednisone use (+2.5%) compared to no concomitant prednisone use (-0.7%), (p = 0.015). In contrast to the progressive bone loss observed after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy, TNF blockade may result in an arrest of general bone loss. Consistent with previous observations, the data also suggest that the net effect of low-dose corticosteroids on BMD in RA may be beneficial, possibly resulting from their anti-inflammatory effects.

  9. Impact of pioglitazone on bone mineral density and bone marrow fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, L M; Lingvay, I; Yuan, Q; Li, X; Adams-Huet, B; Maalouf, N M

    2017-11-01

    Pioglitazone use is associated with an increased risk of fractures. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, pioglitazone use for 12 months was associated with a significant increase in bone marrow fat content at the femoral neck, accompanied by a significant decrease in total hip bone mineral density. The change in bone marrow fat with pioglitazone use was predominantly observed in female vs. male participants. Use of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone is associated with greater fracture incidence, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of pioglitazone treatment on femoral neck bone marrow (BM) fat content and on bone mineral density (BMD), and to establish if any correlation exists between the changes in these parameters. In this double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 42 obese volunteers with metabolic syndrome were randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/day) or matching placebo for 1 year. The following measurements were conducted at baseline and during the treatment: liver, pancreas, and femoral neck BM fat content (by magnetic resonance spectroscopy), BMD by DXA, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, and beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Results were available for 37 subjects who completed the baseline and 1-year evaluations. At 12 months, BM fat increased with pioglitazone (absolute change, +4.1%, p = 0.03), whereas BM fat content in the placebo group decreased non-significantly (-3.1%, p = 0.08) (p = 0.007 for the pioglitazone-placebo response difference). Total hip BMD declined in the pioglitazone group (-1.4%) and increased by 0.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.03 between groups). The change in total hip BMD was inversely and significantly correlated with the change in BM fat content (Spearman rho = -0.56, p = 0.01) in the pioglitazone group, but not within the placebo group (rho = -0.29, p = 0.24). Changes in BM fat with pioglitazone were predominantly

  10. Serum leptin, bone mineral density and the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Linjuan; Pan, Zhanpeng; Zeng, Yanjun

    2015-11-16

    Previously reported fracture rates in patients with spinal cord injury range from 1% to 20%. However, the exact role of spinal cord injury in bone metabolism has not yet been clarified. In order to investigate the effects of serum leptin and bone mineral density on the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury, 15 male SCI patients and 15 matched controls were involved in our study. The outcome indicated that at 4 and 8 weeks after bone fracture, callus production in patients with spinal cord injury was lower than that in controls. Besides, bone mineral density was significantly reduced at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, it was found that at each time point, patients with spinal cord injury had significantly higher serum leptin levels than controls and no association was found between serum leptin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae. Moreover, bone mineral density was positively correlated with bone formation in both of the groups. These findings suggest that in early phases i.e. week 4 and 8, fracture healing was impaired in patients with spinal cord injury and that various factors participated in the complicated healing process, such as hormonal and mechanical factors.

  11. Automated determination of bone age and bone mineral density in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Anink (Janneke); C.M. Nusman (Charlotte M.); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); R.R. van Rijn (Rick); M. Maas (Mario); M.A.J. van Rossum (Marion)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Chronic inflammation combined with glucocorticoid treatment and immobilization puts juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients at risk of impaired growth and reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Conventional methods for evaluating bone age and BMD are time-consuming or

  12. Bone density around the fixture after function of implant molar prosthesis using CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Hwang, In Taik; Jung, Byung Hyun; Kim, Jae Duk; Kang, Dong Wan [School of Dentistry, Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the significance of increased bone density according to whether bone grafts were applied using demographic data with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and to compare the bone densities between before and after implant prosthesis using the Hounsfield index. Thirty-six randomly selected computed tomography (CT) scans were used for the analysis. The same sites were evaluated digitally using the Hounsfield scale with V-Implant 2.0TM, and the results were compared with maxillary posterior bone graft. Statistical data analysis was carried out to determine the correlation between the recorded Hounsfield unit (HU) of the bone graft and implant prosthesis using a Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Matched-pairs test. The bone grafted maxillary posterior teeth showed an increase in the mean values from-157 HU to 387 HU, whereas non-grafted maxillary posterior teeth showed an increase from 62 HU to 342 HU. After implantation, the grafted and non-grafted groups showed significantly higher bone density than before implantation. However, the grafted group showed significantly more changes than the non-grafted group. Bone density measurements using CBCT might provide an objective assessment of the bone quality as well as the correlation between bone density (Hounsfield scale) and bone grafts in the maxillary molar area.

  13. Bone-Density Tests: When You Need Them - and When You Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They do not need the test. They should exercise regularly and get plenty of calcium and vitamin D. This is the best way to prevent bone loss. The bone scan has risks. A bone-density test gives out a small amount of radiation. ...

  14. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones...

  15. A study of bone mineral density in adults with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eimear M; Comiskey, Catherine M; Carroll, Aine M

    2009-07-01

    To examine prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among adults with disability, using World Health Organization diagnostic categories. Cross-sectional study. National Rehabilitation Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Patients (N=255; 178 men, 77 women) who were disabled for at least 3 months because of acquired brain injury, spinal cord injury, other neurologic condition, or lower-limb amputation. None. Laboratory investigations including intact parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), and sex hormones; and BMD of lumbar spine and at least 1 hip, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and expressed as T scores and z scores. Mean age +/- SD of participants was 48.7+/-15.6 years. Vitamin D deficiency, 25-OHD level 50 nmol/L or less, occurred in 154 (62.9%); insufficiency, a level between 51 and 72 nmol/L, occurred in 36 (14.7%). Based on T scores, 108 participants (42.4%) had osteopenia, and 60 (23.5%) had osteoporosis. A z score of -1 or less but more than -2 occurred in 76 (29.8%); a further 52 (20.4%) had a z score of -2 or less. On multiple linear regression analysis, ambulatory status and duration of disability were independent predictors of BMD at neck of femur (beta=.152, P=.007; beta=-.191, P=.001, respectively) and total proximal femur (beta=.170, P=.001; beta=-.216, Pdisability participating in rehabilitation, compared with the general young adult population. Duration since onset of disability and mobility status are independent predictors of BMD at the hip. Bone health monitoring should form part of the long-term follow-up in adults with newly acquired disabilities.

  16. Low bone mineral density in achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Kadono, Izumi; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH) are the most common form of short-limb skeletal dysplasias caused by activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling. Although decreased bone mass was reported in gain-of-function mutation in Fgfr3 mice, both disorders have never been described as osteoporotic. In the present study, we evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) in ACH and HCH patients. We measured spinal BMD (L1-L4) in 18 ACH and four HCH patients with an average age of 19.8 ± 7.5 years (range, 10-33 years). BMD Z-score in each individual was calculated for normalizing age and gender. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD was analyzed. Moreover, BMD and Z-score were compared between ACH patients and HCH patients. The average BMD of ACH/HCH patients was 0.805 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) (range, 0.554-1.056 g/cm(2) ), resulting in an average Z-score of -1.1 ± 0.8 (range, -2.4 to 0.6) of the standard value. A slightly positive correlation was observed between BMI and BMD (r = 0.45; P = 0.13). There was no significant difference in BMD and Z-score between ACH and HCH patients. Spinal BMD was reduced in ACH/HCH patients, and was mildly correlated with individual BMI. We should carefully monitor BMD and examine osteoporosis-related symptoms in adolescent and adult ACH/HCH patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Relationship between spine osteoarthritis, bone mineral density and bone turn over markers in post menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mansouri Laila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have observed an inverse relationship between osteoporosis and spinal osteoarthritis, the latter being considered as possibly delaying the development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine the association between individual radiographic features of spine degeneration, bone mineral density (BMD and bone-turn over markers. Methods It was a cross sectional study of 277 post menopausal women. BMD of all patients was assessed at the spine and hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral spinal radiographs were evaluated for features of disc degeneration. Each vertebral level from L1/2 to L4/5 was assessed for the presence and severity of osteophytes and disc space narrowing (DSN. For Bone turn-over markers, we assessed serum osteocalcin and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX. Linear regressions and partial correlation were used respectively to determine the association between each of disc degeneration features, BMD, and both CTX and osteocalcin. Results Mean age of patients was 58.7 ± 7.7 years. Eighty four patients (31.2% were osteoporotic and 88.44% had spine osteoarthritis. At all measured sites, there was an increase in BMD with increasing severity of disc narrowing while there was no association between severity of osteophytes and BMD. After adjustment for age and BMI, there was a significant negative correlation between CTX and DSN. However, no significant correlation was found between CTX and osteophytes and between osteocalcin and both osteophytes or DSN. Conclusion In post menopausal women the severity of disc narrowing, but not osteophytes, is associated with a generalized increase in BMD and a decreased rate of bone resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis, through DSN, has a protective effect against bone loss, mediated by a lower rate of bone resorption. However, spine BMD is not a relevant surrogate marker for

  18. Relationship between spine osteoarthritis, bone mineral density and bone turn over markers in post menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichchou, Linda; Allali, Fadoua; Rostom, Samira; Bennani, Loubna; Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Abourazzak, Fatima Z; Khazzani, Hamza; El Mansouri, Laila; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2010-08-08

    Several studies have observed an inverse relationship between osteoporosis and spinal osteoarthritis, the latter being considered as possibly delaying the development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine the association between individual radiographic features of spine degeneration, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone-turn over markers. It was a cross sectional study of 277 post menopausal women. BMD of all patients was assessed at the spine and hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral spinal radiographs were evaluated for features of disc degeneration. Each vertebral level from L1/2 to L4/5 was assessed for the presence and severity of osteophytes and disc space narrowing (DSN). For Bone turn-over markers, we assessed serum osteocalcin and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). Linear regressions and partial correlation were used respectively to determine the association between each of disc degeneration features, BMD, and both CTX and osteocalcin. Mean age of patients was 58.7 +/- 7.7 years. Eighty four patients (31.2%) were osteoporotic and 88.44% had spine osteoarthritis. At all measured sites, there was an increase in BMD with increasing severity of disc narrowing while there was no association between severity of osteophytes and BMD. After adjustment for age and BMI, there was a significant negative correlation between CTX and DSN. However, no significant correlation was found between CTX and osteophytes and between osteocalcin and both osteophytes or DSN. In post menopausal women the severity of disc narrowing, but not osteophytes, is associated with a generalized increase in BMD and a decreased rate of bone resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis, through DSN, has a protective effect against bone loss, mediated by a lower rate of bone resorption. However, spine BMD is not a relevant surrogate marker for the assessment of osteoporosis in the spine in patients with

  19. Alterations of bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with various grades of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S T W; Stracke, H; Lange, U; Klör, H U; Teichmann, J

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis to determine if increased severity of the disease would correlate with increased bone loss. Between October 1999 and September 2000, we investigated 42 patients with an average age of approximately 53 years suffering from chronic pancreatitis, as well as 20 healthy male controls with an average age of 49 years. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed on patients and controls, and serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (CICP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) and 25(OH) vitamin D(3), as well as fecal elastase 1 were also determined. The severity of chronic pancreatitis in patients was determined via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and assigned to 1 of 3 grades based on the Cambridge classification. BMD of patients with chronic pancreatitis was markedly decreased compared to controls (means in patients: DEXA lumbar vertebra anterior/posterior (LV ap) 96.8% +/- 4.2%, DEXA Ward's triangle (WARD) 92.2% +/- 5.2%; controls: DEXA LV ap 98.7% +/- 3.7%, DEXA WARD 97.1% +/- 3.1%; P vitmain D(3) and decreased BMD. This supports a connection between the inflammatory destruction of the pancreas (Cambridge classification), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (fecal elastase 1), altered levels of vitamin D metabolites, and loss of skeletal mass. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Derangements in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density in south Indian subjects on antiepileptic medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are reports describing the association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients with long-term anticonvulsant therapy, there are only limited Indian studies which have looked at this aspect. Objectives: This study was done to compare the prevalence of changes in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density (BMD in ambulant individuals on long-term anticonvulsant therapy with age- and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: There were 55 men (on medications for more than 6 months and age- and BMI-matched 53 controls. Drug history, dietary calcium intake (DCI, and duration of sunlight exposure were recorded. Bone mineral parameters and BMD were measured. Results: The control group had a significantly higher daily DCI with mean ± SD of 396 ± 91 mg versus 326 ± 101 mg (P = 0.007 and more sunlight exposure of 234 ± 81 vs 167 ± 69 min (P = 0.05. BMD at the femoral neck was significantly lower in cases (0.783 ± 0.105 g/cm 2 when compared to controls (0.819 ± 0.114 g/cm 2 . Majority of the patients (61% had low femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects with vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL between cases (n = 32 and controls (n = 37 (P = 0.234. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in both the groups in equal proportions, highlighting the existence of a high prevalence of this problem in India. Low femoral neck BMD found in cases may stress the need for supplementing calcium and treating vitamin D deficiency in this specific group. However, the benefit of such intervention has to be studied in a larger proportion of epileptic patients.

  1. Physical activity, body composition and bone density in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Fogelholm, M; Ottenheijm, R; Westerterp, K R

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) in female ballet dancers. Training history, Ca intake, body composition, total body BMD (TBMD) and site-specific BMD, and bone mineral content were described in twenty-four female ballet dancers (mean age 22.6 (SD 4.5) years). Training history was determined by questionnaires, Ca intake by 7 d dietary record, BMD and bone mineral content by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), total body water by 2H dilution, extracellular water by bromide dilution, body fat by underwater weighing (UWW; two-component model), DXA, and the four-component (4C) model. Dancers had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI 18.9 (SD 1.0) kg/m2) than controls (21.3 (SD 1.9) kg/m2), with significantly lower percentage body fat (17.4 (SD 3.9) v. 24.4 (SD 5.1)) but comparable fat-free mass. Mean TBMD (1.147 (SD 0.069) g/cm2) was significantly higher (6%) compared with that of a reference population. These high values could be attributed to the high BMD of legs and pelvis, the weight-bearing sites of the dancer's body. No relationship was found between age, start of ballet classes, period (years) of dancing, Ca intake, and BMD (total and site-specific). However, TBMD was positively related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to daily period (h) of training. Depending on the method used the percentage body fat ranged from 16.4 (by DXA) to 18.3 by the 4C model. These differences were significantly related to the TBMD. Percentage body fat by the different methods was not significantly different, except for DXA and 4C model. The present study showed that, despite the factors that have a negative effect on BMD, such as low body mass and late menarche, BMD in female ballet dancers was relatively high. These high values were probably caused by

  2. Increases in bone density during treatment of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Doppelt, S.H.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Segre, G.V.; Crowley, W.F. Jr. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

    1989-10-01

    To assess the effects of gonadal steroid replacement on bone density in men with osteoporosis due to severe hypogonadism, we measured cortical bone density in the distal radius by 125I photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone density in the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography in 21 men with isolated GnRH deficiency while serum testosterone levels were maintained in the normal adult male range for 12-31 months (mean +/- SE, 23.7 +/- 1.1). In men who initially had fused epiphyses (n = 15), cortical bone density increased from 0.71 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density did not change (116 +/- 9 compared with 119 +/- 7 mg/cm3). In men who initially had open epiphyses (n = 6), cortical bone density increased from 0.62 +/- 0.01 to 0.70 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density increased from 96 +/- 13 to 109 +/- 12 mg/cm3 (P less than 0.01). Cortical bone density increased 0.03 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 in men with fused epiphyses and 0.08 +/- 0.02 g/cm2 in men with open epiphyses (P less than 0.05). Despite these increases, neither cortical nor trabecular bone density returned to normal levels. Histomorphometric analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies demonstrated that most of the men had low turnover osteoporosis, although some men had normal to high turnover osteoporosis. We conclude that bone density increases during gonadal steroid replacement of GnRH-deficient men, particularly in men who are skeletally immature.

  3. Genetic and Dynamic Analysis of Murine Peak Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    the euthanasia , the femora were removed from each mice for determinations of dried bone weight, bone ALP and OC contents. Ground sections of tibiae of... Christian , J. C., Williams, C. J., Norton, J. A., and Johnston, C. C. J. Genetic determinants of bone mass in adult women: a reevaluation of the twin...model and the potential importance of gene interaction on heritability estimates, J Bone Miner Res. 6: 561-567, 1991. 6. Slemenda, C. W., Christian , J

  4. Epidemiologic studies on bone mineral density and fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Burger (Huibert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporosis is currently defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectnral deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. The burden of fractures is substantial, both in terms of

  5. Positive celiac disease serology and reduced bone mineral density in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Donald R; Leslie, William D

    2010-02-01

    Low bone density and osteoporosis have been demonstrated in celiac disease populations in Europe, South America and the United States. Serological testing with tissue transglutaminase (TTG) and immunoglobulin A endomysial (EMA) antibodies is highly specific for celiac disease, while antigliadin antibody (AGA) testing is less specific. To evaluate the association of celiac serology with reduced bone density in adult women. A clinical database containing all bone density testing data in the province of Manitoba was linked to a database containing all celiac serology data for the province. The study cohort consisted of 376 women older than 20 years of age with bone density measurements preceding initial celiac serology by six months or less. Bone density was assessed in relation to TTG/EMA and AGA seropositivity, and compared with seronegative controls in age-, height- and weight-adjusted models. There was significantly lower bone density in TTG/EMA seropositive women than with seronegative controls for all sites tested (lumbar spine, total hip, trochanter, femoral neck; all Pwomen also had a significantly higher prevalence of osteoporosis (67.7% versus 44.8%; Pwomen, but after excluding TTG/EMA seropositive women, isolated AGA seropositivity showed no significant association with any bone density measurements. TTG/EMA seropositivity was associated with lower bone density and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis compared with seronegative controls.

  6. Bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures: a genome-wide association study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Richards (Brent); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); M. Inouye (Michael); T. Pastinen; N. Soranzo (Nicole); S.G. Wilson (Scott); T. Andrew (Toby); M. Falchi (Mario); R. Gwilliam (Rhian); K.R. Ahmadi (Kourosh); A.M. Valdes; P.P. Arp (Pascal); P. Whittaker; D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); M. Jhamai (Mila); V. Kumanduri; M.J. Moorhouse (Michael); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A. Hofman (Albert); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); D.J. Hart; G. Zhai (Guangju); B.S. Kato; B.H. Mullin (Benjamin); F. Zhang (Feng); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Osteoporosis is diagnosed by the measurement of bone mineral density, which is a highly heritable and multifactorial trait. We aimed to identify genetic loci that are associated with bone mineral density. Methods: In this genome-wide association study, we identified the most

  7. Hypermineralization and High Osteocyte Lacunar Density in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V Bone Indicate Exuberant Primary Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Stéphane; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Glorieux, Francis H; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Marini, Joan C; Rauch, Frank

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to "classical" forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I to IV, caused by a mutation in COL1A1/A2, OI type V is due to a gain-of-function mutation in the IFITM5 gene, encoding the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5, or bone-restricted interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM)-like protein (BRIL). Its phenotype distinctly differs from OI types I to IV by absence of blue sclerae and dentinogenesis imperfecta, by the occurrence of ossification disorders such as hyperplastic callus and forearm interosseous membrane ossification. Little is known about the impact of the mutation on bone tissue/material level in untreated and bisphosphonate-treated patients. Therefore, investigations of transiliac bone biopsy samples from a cohort of OI type V children (n = 15, 8.7 ± 4 years old) untreated at baseline and a subset (n = 8) after pamidronate treatment (2.6 years in average) were performed. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) was used to determine bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) as well as osteocyte lacunar density. The BMDD of type V OI bone was distinctly shifted toward a higher degree of mineralization. The most frequently occurring calcium concentration (CaPeak) in cortical (Ct) and cancellous (Cn) bone was markedly increased (+11.5%, +10.4%, respectively, p V Ct and Cn bone (+171%, p V patients is hypermineralized, similar to other forms of OI. The elevated osteocyte lacunar density in connection with lack of regular bone lamellation points to an exuberant primary bone formation and an alteration of the bone remodeling process in OI type V. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Optimising exercise in post-menopausal women with low bone density

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maintaining neuromuscular function and bone density during aging is becoming more important in an aging society. These issues are of particular concern in older, post-menopausal, women with low bone density who are at an increased risk of bone fractures subsequent to falls. Design: This non-pharmacological randomised controlled interventional study examined the effect of whole-body vibration exercise (VIB) in comparison to coordination and balance training (BAL) on neuromuscul...

  9. Participation in High-Impact Sports Predicts Bone Mineral Density in Senior Olympic Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; FRANCIS, KIMBERLY; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

    2009-01-01

    Background: Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. Hypothesis: To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Game...

  10. Aberrant bone density in aging mice lacking the adenosine transporter ENT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hinton

    Full Text Available Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1 is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density.

  11. An Experimental Study of Radiographic Density of Alveolar Bone and Cortical Thickness of Mandible by Osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of the systemic osteoporosis on radiographic density of alveolar bone and cortical thickness of mandible. The bone mineral density values of lumbar and femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and T scores of lumbar, femur were obtained respectively. Radiographic densities of alveolar bones and panorama mandibular index (PMI, represents as cortical thickness) were analysed statistically according to age and T score variavles. The radiographic density of alveolar bone of maxillary molar showed significant difference by age and femur T group. That of mandibular molar showed significant difference between femur T group. Panorama mandibular index showed significant difference between age groups. The radiographic density of alvealar bones was more dependent on age femur T than lumbar T. Cortical thickness of mandible was correlated with increasing age.

  12. The Effect of Osteoporosis Risk Factors on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether osteoporosis (OP risk factors have any effect on bone mineral density in patients receiving OP treatment. Material and method: The study included 73 postmenopausal women with OP who had been using bisphosphonate treatment for one year, with at least one of either total lumbar or femoral neck T-score still <-2.5 and whose total lumbar and/or femoral neck T-scores showed no improvement compared to one year earlier. Demographic characteristics and OP risk factors were recorded. Mini-mental test (MMT, Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales were used in the evaluation of the cognitive status of patients. The assessed parameters of patients were compared with the current total lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results: Being underweight, illiteracy, high gravidity, inadequate calcium intake, and cognitive dysfunction were found to be effective on lumbar and femoral neck T- scores, while tea and coffee consumption, smoking status and the presence of additional comorbidity and drug use were found to be effective on femoral neck T-scores. Conclusion: Some OP risk factors may contribute to the ineffectiveness in patients receiving regular OP treatment who fail to show adequate response. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:44-50

  13. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in total body bone mineral density following a common bone health plan with two versions of a unique bone health supplement: a comparative effectiveness research study

    OpenAIRE

    Dapilmoto Monika; Keith Samuel C; Keith Patti L; Croft Harry A; Preuss Harry G; Michalek Joel E; Perricone Nicholas V; Leckie Robert B; Kaats Gilbert R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The US Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health suggests America's bone-health is in jeopardy and issued a "call to action" to develop bone-health plans that: (1) improve nutrition, (2) increase health literacy and, (3) increase physical activity. This study is a response to this call to action. Methods After signing an informed consent, 158 adults agreed to follow an open-label bone-health plan for six months after taking a DXA test of bone density, a 43-chemistry blood te...

  15. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Bone Mineral Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in Caucasian Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. A Cross-Sectional Study Using HR-pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Gudex, Claire; Ahrberg, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of fracture. We used high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to measure bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical and trabecular microarchitecture and estimated bone strength...... by finite element analysis (FEA) at the distal radius and tibia to assess bone characteristics beyond BMD that may contribute to the increased risk of fracture. Thirty-three Caucasian women with SLE (median age 48, range 21-64 years) and 99 controls (median age 45, range 21-64 years) were studied. Groups.......01), cortical area (-14 %, p bone volume fraction [(BV/TV); -17 %, p

  16. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels and bone mineral density (BMD in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64 with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml, confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively. Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041. Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH D at serum 25(OH D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  17. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  18. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jixing; Li, Ning; Gong, Xiaofeng; He, Liang

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D and bone turnover markers (BTMs) might have an effect on the occurrence of acute hip fracture, while the current results are conflicting. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between serum 25(OH)D, bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women with hip fracture. A total of 277 patients with hip fractures and 272 patients without fractures were included in this study. The serum 25(OH)D, bone formation markers, including N-terminal extension propeptide of type-I collagen (P1NP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin(OC), bone resorption markers, including C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-1), and bone mineral density were collected and analyzed. Women with hip fractures had significantly lower concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, higher concentrations of serum CTX-1, P1NP and OC, lower concentrations of femoral neck and total hip bone mineral density (Phip BMD (OR=0.141, 95%CI=0.034-0.577, P=0.006) were independent risk factors for hip fractures in postmenopausal women. The receiver operating characteristics curves showed that serum 25(OH)D had a good AUC value (0.830). In this study, lower concentrations of serum 25(OH)D and total hip bone mineral density were widely existed in Chinese postmenopausal women with hip fractures. Furthermore, bone resorption was more active than bone formation in senile postmenopausal women. Therefore, monitoring the alteration of serum CTX-1 in clinically might be useful for fracture prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrient intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral

  20. Associations of sex steroids with bone maturation, bone mineral density, bone geometry, and body composition: a cross-sectional study in healthy male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, S; Taes, Y; Fiers, T; Toye, K; Van Caenegem, E; Roggen, I; De Schepper, J; Kaufman, J-M

    2014-07-01

    Although both testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) are considered essential in the regulation of the male skeleton, there are few data concerning the relative contribution of T and E2 on bone mineral density (BMD), bone geometry, and bone maturation in healthy boys. The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between T and E2 and BMD, bone geometry, skeletal maturation, and body composition. This is a cross-sectional study in 199 healthy boys (aged 6-19 y). T and E2 were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Whole-body and lumbar areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone area, lean mass, and fat mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular (distal site) and cortical (proximal site) volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone geometry were assessed at the nondominant forearm and leg using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Skeletal age was determined by an X-ray of the left hand. T was positively associated with lean mass (P bone area (P bone age advancement (P bone maturation and aBMD and vBMD and negatively with endosteal circumference in healthy boys, whereas T is a determinant of lean mass and bone size. These findings underscore the important role of E2 in skeletal development in boys.

  1. Increase in physical activity after resurfacing hip arthroplasty is associated with calcar and acetabular bone mineral density changes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhardt, D.M.; Hannink, G.J.; Rijnders, T.; Susante, J.L. van

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bone preservation is an important advantage of the resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA) concept. We hypothesised that patients' increase in physical activity level after RHA would positively relate with periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) changes and thus facilitate bone preservation.

  2. Dietary Strontium Increases Bone Mineral Density in Intact Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model System for Bone Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  3. Effect of bone graft density on in vitro cell behavior with enamel matrix derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Richard J; Caluseru, Oana M; Guillemette, Vincent; Zhang, Yufeng; Buser, Daniel; Chandad, Fatiha; Sculean, Anton

    2015-09-01

    Bone replacement grafting materials play an important role in regenerative dentistry. Despite a large array of tested bone-grafting materials, little information is available comparing the effects of bone graft density on in vitro cell behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to compare the effects of cells seeded on bone grafts at low and high density in vitro for osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The response of osteoblasts to the presence of a growth factor (enamel matrix derivative, (EMD)) in combination with low (8 mg per well) or high (100 mg per well) bone grafts (BG; natural bone mineral, Bio-Oss®) density, was studied and compared for osteoblast cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation as assessed by real-time PCR. Standard tissue culture plastic was used as a control with and without EMD. The present study demonstrates that in vitro testing of bone-grafting materials is largely influenced by bone graft seeding density. Osteoblast adhesion was up to 50 % lower when cells were seeded on high-density BG when compared to low-density BG and control tissue culture plastic. Furthermore, proliferation was affected in a similar manner whereby cell proliferation on high-density BG (100 mg/well) was significantly increased when compared to that on low-density BG (8 mg/well). In contrast, cell differentiation was significantly increased on high-density BG as assessed by real-time PCR for markers collagen 1 (Col 1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OC) as well as alizarin red staining. The effects of EMD on osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation further demonstrated that the bone graft seeding density largely controls in vitro results. EMD significantly increased cell attachment only on high-density BG, whereas EMD was able to further stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts on control culture plastic and low-density BG when compared to high-density BG. The results

  4. Analogy of strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm and structural topology optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Gwun; Kim, Il Yong; Kwak, Byung Ban

    2009-01-01

    In bone-remodeling studies, it is believed that the morphology of bone is affected by its internal mechanical loads. From the 1970s, high computing power enabled quantitative studies in the simulation of bone remodeling or bone adaptation. Among them, Huiskes et al. (1987, "Adaptive Bone Remodeling Theory Applied to Prosthetic Design Analysis," J. Biomech. Eng., 20, pp. 1135-1150) proposed a strain energy density based approach to bone remodeling and used the apparent density for the characterization of internal bone morphology. The fundamental idea was that bone density would increase when strain (or strain energy density) is higher than a certain value and bone resorption would occur when the strain (or strain energy density) quantities are lower than the threshold. Several advanced algorithms were developed based on these studies in an attempt to more accurately simulate physiological bone-remodeling processes. As another approach, topology optimization originally devised in structural optimization has been also used in the computational simulation of the bone-remodeling process. The topology optimization method systematically and iteratively distributes material in a design domain, determining an optimal structure that minimizes an objective function. In this paper, we compared two seemingly different approaches in different fields-the strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm (biomechanical approach) and the compliance based structural topology optimization method (mechanical approach)-in terms of mathematical formulations, numerical difficulties, and behavior of their numerical solutions. Two numerical case studies were conducted to demonstrate their similarity and difference, and then the solution convergences were discussed quantitatively.

  5. Bone tissue density modification in treatment of shin pseudoarthrosis by transosseous compressive osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tishkov N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective is to detect bone mineral density along the shin according to «Esperanto» levels by Hounsfield's scale. Materials and methods. The analysis of density modification in 25 patients with pseudoarthrosis of tibia with predominant localization in a lower one-third of bone has been carried out. Results. By means of computed tomography it has been revealed that the bone tissue density of the tibia in the process of false joint union when using the compressive variant of combined transosseous osteosynthesis has changed according to the regularity reproducing phase character of the accumulation of mineral substances in the bone. Conclution. The growth of mineral density of the bone tissue during treatment spreads in the directions from proximal and distal metaepiphyses to the zone of pseudoarthrosis knitting

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea and bone mineral density in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Mariani,1 Daniela Fiore,1 Laura Varone,2 Sabrina Basciani,1 Agnese Persichetti,1 Mikiko Watanabe,1 Maurizio Saponara,3 Giovanni Spera,1 Costanzo Moretti,4 Lucio Gnessi11Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Audiology and Phonation, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of System Medicine, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology University of TorVergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital "San Giovanni Calibita" Rome, ItalyContext: Obesity and its co-morbidities may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a major complication of obesity. To date, the effects of OSA on BMD in obese patients have been poorly studied.Objective: To examine whether the severity of OSA independently correlates with BMD in obese patients.Methods: One hundred and fifteen obese subjects with OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5 events per hour were included in the study. BMD was measured at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, and representative measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammation (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen were also evaluated.Results: BMD did not differ among obese individuals regardless of OSA severity. Correlation coefficient analysis for all the covariates showed a lack of association between AHI and BMD that was strongly influenced by age and weight.Conclusion: Our study does not support an independent association between AHI and BMD in obese patients. Controlled studies involving a greater number of patients are warranted.Keywords: obesity, polysomnography, metabolic syndrome

  7. Association between bone mineral density and lumbar disc degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Sami; Leinonen, Ville; Rikkonen, Toni; Vainio, Pauli; Marttila, Jarkko; Honkanen, Risto; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Kröger, Heikki; Sirola, Joonas

    2014-12-01

    Higher vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) has been found to be related with lumbar disc degeneration (LDD), while relationship between femoral neck BMD and LDD remains controversial. The aim of our research was to study the relationship between LDD and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. The study population consisted of 168 postmenopausal women (aged 63.3-75.0 years, mean 68.6 years) from the prospective OSTPRE and OSTPRE-FPS study cohorts. The severity of LDD was graded from T2-weighted MRI images using the five-grade Pfirrmann classification. Four vertebral levels (L1-L4) were studied (total 672 discs). The association between lumbar BMD and Z-score and the severity of LDD was studied separately for each vertebral level with AN(C)OVA analysis, using potential confounders as covariates. Higher lumbar BMD and Z-score were associated with more severe LDD at all studied levels (L1-L4): between L4-L5 disc and L4 BMD (p=0.044) and L4 Z-score (p=0.052), between L2-L3 disc and L3 BMD (p=0.001) and at all other levels (p<0.001). The mean degeneration grade of the studied discs was associated with the mean L1-L4 BMD and Z-score (p<0.001). Statistical significance of any result did not alter after controlling for confounding factors. There was no significant association between femoral neck BMD and LDD. Higher lumbar BMD/Z-score were associated with more severe LDD. There was no significant association between femoral neck BMD and disc degeneration. Femoral neck BMD may be a more reliable measurement for diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with degenerative changes in the lumbar spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bone mineral density and inflammatory bowel disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, the association between disease severity and BMD in patients with IBD was evaluated. Associations between BMD and the Montreal classification, disease activity and drug therapy were also tested. A cross-sectional prevalence study with a comparison group was conducted. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were evaluated: 68 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, and 60 with Crohn's disease (CD. The control group consisted of 67 healthy subjects. All patients and controls had BMD measured and in IBD patients, current medications, hospitalization, and disease location, extent and phenotype, according to the Montreal classification, were recorded. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to evaluate categorical variables. In the CD group, most patients were diagnosed between 17–40 years of age. Ileocolonic and non-stricturing non-penetrating disease were the most frequent disease location and behavior, respectively. In UC patients, extensive colitis was the most frequent disease location. UC and CD patients were more likely to have osteopenia than controls (OR=14.93/OR=24.38, respectively. In the CD group, male patients, perianal disease, penetrating behavior and age at diagnosis >40 years were associated with low BMD. Taking azathioprine and infliximab also seemed to be associated with osteopenia. In the UC group, we observed an association between low BMD and male patients, left colitis, corticosteroid use and hospitalization. Disease activity was not associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis in CD and UC patients. Disease severity seems to be associated with osteopenia in IBD patients.

  9. Molecular mechanisms responsible for the impact of antiepileptic therapy on bone mineral density of epileptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zhidkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs may have a negative effect on bone tissue, by increasing the risk of fractures in epileptic patients compared to the general population. Many investigations have shown lower bone mineral density and a higher risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients taking traditional and novel AEDs. Multidrug therapy and the duration of AED intake are associated with the most significant risk for lower bone mineral density. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of action of different AEDs on bone tissue remain little studied.

  10. Decreased trabecular bone biomechanical competence, apparent density, IGF-II and IGFBP-5 content in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueland, Thor; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2002-01-01

    of these growth factors in relation to biomechanical properties in acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trabecular bone biomechanical competence (compression test), apparent density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography, pQCT), and bone matrix contents of calcium (HCl hydrolysis) and IGFs (guanidinium.......005), as was biomechanical competence (P bone was significantly increased in patients compared with controls. No significant differences were found in trabecular...... bone content of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or osteocalcin. However, IGF-II and IGFBP-5 content was decreased (P density in acromegaly, supporting previous observations...

  11. Forearm bone density in users of Depo-Provera as a contraceptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, L; Perrotti, M; Castro, S; Faúndes, D; Petta, C; Bedone, A

    1999-05-01

    To determine the influence of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on bone mineral density when used as a contraceptive method. Cross-sectional study. Academic tertiary-care hospital. Fifty premenopausal women who had used depot MPA as a contraceptive method for > or =1 year and 50 women who had never used hormonal contraceptive methods. Bone mineral density was evaluated at the midshaft and at the distal radius of the nondominant forearm using single x-ray absorptiometry. Bone mineral density. Bone mineral density at the midshaft of the forearm was lower in depot MPA users than in women who had never used hormonal contraceptive methods, but the difference was not statistically significant. At the distal portion, bone mineral density was significantly lower in the study group. The duration of depot MPA use was not related to bone mineral density. Women > or =35 years of age presented with a lower bone mineral density only at the distal portion of the forearm after the use of depot MPA for > or =1 year. However, this decrease was not related to the duration of depot MPA use. It is not possible to conclude that women who use depot MPA are at risk of osteoporosis.

  12. Bone mineral density in developing children with osteogenesis imperfecta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Dieke H. J.; Sakkers, Ralph J. B.; Pruijs, Hans E. H.; Joosse, Pieter; Castelein, René M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose - Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disorder of connective tissue caused by a defect in collagen type I synthesis. For bone, this includes fragility, low bone mass, and progressive skeletal deformities, which can result in various degrees of short stature. The

  13. Bone Density, Turnover, and Estimated Strength in Postmenopausal Women Treated With Odanacatib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Kim; Chapurlat, Roland; Cheung, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Context:Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor, increases spine and hip areal bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with low BMD and cortical thickness in ovariectomized monkeys.Objective:The objective of the study was to examine the impact of odanacatib on the trabecular and cortical...... and estimated strength at the hip (P bone mineral content, thickness, volume, and cross-sectional area also increased from baseline with odanacatib vs placebo (P ..., odanacatib decreased bone resorption, maintained bone formation, increased areal and volumetric BMD, and increased estimated bone strength at both the hip and spine....

  14. Does vitamin D supplementation improve bone density in vitamin D-deficient children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winzenberg, Tania; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our previous study-level (aggregate data) meta-analysis suggested that vitamin D supplements may be beneficial for bone density specifically in children with vitamin D deficiency. However, the misclassification of vitamin D status inherent in study-level data means that the results...... are not definitive and cannot provide an accurate assessment of the size of any effect. Therefore, we propose to undertake an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine whether the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone density in children differs according to baseline vitamin D status...... supplementation reporting bone density outcomes at least 6 months after the study commenced in children and adolescents (aged

  15. The Effect of Combined Exercise on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghasemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The best way to prevent osteoporosis, at old age is to prevent bone loss and at young age is trying to keep bones healthy, therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of combined exercise on bone mineral density of premenopausal females. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted among 20 premenopausal females between 40 and 45 years old, which were randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control groups in Hamadan city, during year 2016. The experimental group completed a 12-week combined exercise-training program (6 weeks in water and 6 weeks on land, three times a week and 70 minutes per session. Before and after the 12 weeks, femoral bone mineral density in all samples was measured by DEXA bone mineral densitometry. Data were analyzed with the SPSS 21 software using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent and paired t-test, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA. Results: Bone mineral density of femoral neck and total hip of the experimental group, had significant differences with corresponding areas of the control group (P <0.05. In other words, the results revealed that 12 weeks of combined exercise increases femoral bone mineral density in the experimental group with a significant decrease in the control group. Conclusions: According to the results, to prevent a decrease in bone mineral density during the menopausal period, combined exercises are recommended for females at this age.

  16. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  17. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas s/n., C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G. [Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria en Materiales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Universidad 3000, C.P. 04510, Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, C.P. 76230, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I. [Posgrado en Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  18. Relationship between chronological and bone ages and pubertal stage of breasts with bone biomarkers and bone mineral density in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Silva, Carla Cristiani; Moretto, Maria Regina; Biason, Talita Poli; Teixeira, Altamir Santos; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    To study bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent females according to five groups of chronological age (CA), bone age (BA), and breast development stage (B), and to correlate these parameters with plasma bone biomarkers (BB). This was a cross-sectional study performed in 101 healthy adolescent females between 10 and 20 years old. The study variables were: weight, height, body mass index (BMI), CA, B, BA, calcium intake, BMD, and BB. Osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide (S-CTx) were evaluated for BB. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD in lumbar spine, proximal femur, and total body increased with age, and the respective observed averages were: in CA1 (10 years old), 0.631, 0.692, 0.798 g/cm(2); in CA2 (11 to 12 years old), 0.698, 0.763, 0.840 g/cm(2); in CA3 (13 to 14 years old), 0.865, 0.889, 0.972 g/cm(2); in CA4 (15 to 16 years old), 0.902, 0.922, 1.013 g/cm(2); and in CA5 (17 to 19 years old), 0.944, 0.929, 1.35 g/cm(2). These results showed significant differences between 13 and 14 years of age (CA3) or when girls reached the B3 stage (0.709, 0.832, 0.867 g/cm(2)). The highest median concentrations of BB were between 10 and 12 years of age when adolescents were in the B2-B3 (p<0.001). Median BB concentrations decreased in advanced BA and B. BB concentrations were positively correlated with the peak height velocity and negatively correlated with BMD in the study sites. Increased BMD and BB concentrations were observed in B3. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Low bone mineral density in COPD patients related to worse lung function, low weight and decreased fat-free mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, A; de Greef, M.H.G.; Wijkstra, P.J.; Wempe, J

    Low bone mineral density is frequently seen in COPD patients. Advanced COPD, low BMI and muscle depletion are risk factors for developing low bone mineral density (BMD). Low bone mineral density is seen in 75% of the GOLD stage IV patients. Introduction We set out to investigate the prevalence of

  20. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  1. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT and Per2 knockout (KO mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001. Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression.

  2. [Assessment of mineral density of bone tissue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using ultrasonic osteometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskina, T A; Ushakov, A V

    2003-01-01

    To examine bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using echoosteometry (EOM), to analyze the speed of ultrasound bone conduction in patients with different variants of RA. The study included 122 patients with verified RA diagnosis (ARA, 1987) who had not previously taken glucocorticosteroids, basic drugs or antiosteoporosis therapy. Group 1 consisted of 48 women of reproductive age, group 2--of 46 postmenopausal women and group 3 of 28 male patients. EOM measured the speed of ultrasonic conduction in collar-bones and radii (Echoosteometer EOM-02). The speed of ultrasound conduction in collar-bones and radii in RA patients is slower than control. This shows bone density loss. EOM demonstrated correlations between ultrasound bone conduction and RA patients age, RA duration and x-ray stage of the disease.

  3. A Novel Portable Apparatus for Noninvasively Measuring Bone Density Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The bone loss associated with extended space missions in astronaut represents a serious health threat, both over the flight period and upon returning to...

  4. Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Młot-Michalska, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The influence of ingested coffee on bone mineral density (BMD) and the related risk of pathologic fractures is controversial. We decided to check if dialysis patients drinking coffee may have a BMD different from that of non coffee drinkers. We studied 30 dialysis patients (26 on hemodialysis, 4 on peritoneal dialysis). Group I (n = 11, 5 women) included patients who regularly drank at least 1 cup of coffee daily [dialysis duration: 29.1 months (range: 8.7- 59.6 months); age: 56.0 +/- 14.6 years]. Group II (n = 19, 13 women) consisted of patients who said that they were nondrinkers of coffee [dialysis duration: 15.2 months (range: 6.3 - 45.4 months); age: 56.3 +/- 19.8 years]. We examined BMD in all subjects in two sites (femoral neck and L2 - L4 lumbar region) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum parathyroid hormone, calcium-phosphate balance parameters, blood pH, serum markers of inflammation, bioimpedance records of body composition, and markers of nutrition were simultaneously evaluated. Compared with group II, group I showed significantly lower L2 -L4 parameters: BMD (0.906 +/- 0.236 g/cm2 vs. 1.172 +/- 0.227 g/cm2, p = 0.005), percent of peak BMD (78.4% +/- 18.9% vs. 98.4% +/- 17.0%, p = 0.006), percent of age norm (82.7% +/- 18.2% vs. 105.9% +/- 17.7% p = 0.002), T-score [-2.07 (range: -3.95 to 2.02) vs. -0.51 (range: -2.29 to 4.07), p = 0.020], and Z-score [-1.25 (range: -4.41 to 1.90) vs. 0.26 (range: -1.48 to 4.49), p = 0.006]. Serum albumin concentration was higher in group I [4.0 g/dL (range: 3.1 - 4.3 g/dL) vs. 3.3 g/dL (range: 2.9 - 4.4 g/dL), p = 0.020]. Our results suggest that regular coffee consumption may contribute to BMD loss in dialysis patients.

  5. Recommendations for bone mineral density reporting in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoski, Kerry; Leslie, William D; Frame, Heather; Hodsman, Anthony; Josse, Robert G; Khan, Aliya; Lentle, Brian C; Lévesque, Jacques; Lyons, David J; Tarulli, Giuseppe; Brown, Jacques P

    2005-06-01

    To propose a set of recommendations for optimal bone mineral density (BMD) reporting in postmenopausal women and older men and to provide clinicians with both a BMD diagnostic category and a useful tool to assess an individual's risk of osteoporotic fracture. The current methods of BMD reporting were reviewed. In this document, we propose that an individual's 10-year absolute fracture risk, rather than BMD alone, be used for fracture risk categorization. Consequently, age, sex, BMD, fragility fracture history, and glucocorticoid use are the basis for the approach outlined in this document. An optimal BMD report as proposed in this document will provide clinicians with both a BMD diagnostic category and a useful tool to assess an individual's risk of osteoporotic fracture. A BMD report format, a checklist, and a patient questionnaire are meant to further encourage its use. All recommendations were developed using a consensus from clinicians and experts in the field of BMD testing and a standard method for the evaluation and citation of the supporting evidence. These recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary working group under the auspices of the Scientific Advisory Council of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada and the Canadian Association of Radiologists. BENEFITS, HARM, AND COSTS: Optimal BMD reports help the practitioner to assess an individual's risk for osteoporotic fracture and to decide whether medical therapy is warranted. The BMD report should include: patient identifiers. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner identifier. BMD results expressed in absolute values (g/cm2; 3 decimal places) and T-score (1 decimal place) for lumbar spine; proximal femur (total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter); and an alternate site (forearm BMD preferred: 1/3 radius, 33% radius or proximal radius) if either hip or spine is not valid. A statement about any limitations due to artifacts, if present. The fracture risk category (low, moderate, or high) as

  6. Genetic and Dynamic Analyses of Murine Peak Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    ELISA, by modifying a rat C-telopeptide ELISA developed earlier (Abstract # F226, ASBMR 1999), to measure bone resorption in mice serum. The ELISA...antibody epitope involves a region, which is similar in rat and mouse C-telopeptide sequence. In our ELISA, 10-20 pL of mice serum, 50 jtL of biotinylated C...calcium depletion causes hypocalcemia, which leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism , subsequently resulting in increased bone resorption. Conversely

  7. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  8. LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN BRAZILIAN PATIENTS AT DIAGNOSIS OF CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Timmermans Pires da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow bone mineral density is considered an extra-intestinal manifestation of celiac disease with reduced bone mass, increased bone fragility, and risk of fractures. Celiac disease is considered a condition at high risk for secondary osteoporosis and the evaluation of bone density is very important in the clinical management of these patients.ObjectiveThe present study aimed to investigate bone alterations in celiac patients from Curitiba, South Region of Brazil at diagnosis, correlating the findings with age and gender.MethodsPatients who were included in the study were attended to in a private office of the same physician from January 2009 to December 2013. The diagnosis of celiac disease was done through clinical, serological and histological findings. All data were collected from the medical charts of the patients. After the diagnosis of celiac disease, evaluation for low bone mineral density was requested by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. DEXA bone densitometer was used to estimate low bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femur.ResultsA total of 101 patients, 82 (81.2% female and 19 (18.8% male subjects, with mean age of 39.0±3.03 years were included. At celiac disease diagnosis, 36 (35.6% were younger than 30 years, 41 (40.6% were between 31 and 50 years, and 24 (23.8% were older than 50 years. Among the evaluated patients, 69 (68.3% presented low bone mineral density, being 47% with osteopenia and 32% with osteoporosis. Patients who were older than 51 years and diagnosed with celiac disease presented low bone mineral density in 83.3% (20/24 of the cases. As expected, age influenced significantly the low bone mineral density findings. Among women, low bone mineral density was present with high frequency (60% from 30 to 50 years. In patients diagnosed older than 60 years (n=8, all the women (n=5 and two of the three men had osteoporosis.ConclusionThis study demonstrated that 69% of Brazilian patients with celiac

  9. LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN BRAZILIAN PATIENTS AT DIAGNOSIS OF CELIAC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joyce Timmermans Pires da; Nisihara, Renato M; Kotze, Luís Roberto; Olandoski, Márcia; Kotze, Lorete Maria da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Low bone mineral density is considered an extra-intestinal manifestation of celiac disease with reduced bone mass, increased bone fragility, and risk of fractures. Celiac disease is considered a condition at high risk for secondary osteoporosis and the evaluation of bone density is very important in the clinical management of these patients. The present study aimed to investigate bone alterations in celiac patients from Curitiba, South Region of Brazil at diagnosis, correlating the findings with age and gender. Patients who were included in the study were attended to in a private office of the same physician from January 2009 to December 2013. The diagnosis of celiac disease was done through clinical, serological and histological findings. All data were collected from the medical charts of the patients. After the diagnosis of celiac disease, evaluation for low bone mineral density was requested by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). DEXA bone densitometer was used to estimate low bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femur. A total of 101 patients, 82 (81.2%) female and 19 (18.8%) male subjects, with mean age of 39.0±3.03 years were included. At celiac disease diagnosis, 36 (35.6%) were younger than 30 years, 41 (40.6%) were between 31 and 50 years, and 24 (23.8%) were older than 50 years. Among the evaluated patients, 69 (68.3%) presented low bone mineral density, being 47% with osteopenia and 32% with osteoporosis. Patients who were older than 51 years and diagnosed with celiac disease presented low bone mineral density in 83.3% (20/24) of the cases. As expected, age influenced significantly the low bone mineral density findings. Among women, low bone mineral density was present with high frequency (60%) from 30 to 50 years. In patients diagnosed older than 60 years (n=8), all the women (n=5) and two of the three men had osteoporosis. This study demonstrated that 69% of Brazilian patients with celiac disease at diagnosis had low bone mineral density

  10. A long-term study of bone mineral density in patients with phenylketonuria under diet therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Koura, Hala M.; Abdallah Ismail, Nagwa; Kamel, Ashraf F.; Ahmed, Azza M.; Saad-Hussein, Amal; Effat, Laila K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dietary control of classic phenylketonuria (PKU) needs restriction of natural proteins; adequate protein intake is achieved by adding low phenylalanine (phe) formulae. The adequacy of this diet for normal bone mineralization had not been sufficiently evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate and follow up bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with PKU within a 2-year time interval to assess the adequacy of a phenylalanine restricted diet for bone mineralization and to s...

  11. Quantitative evaluation of maxillary alveolar cortical bone thickness and density using computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiomoba, Henry; Sonis, Andrew; Yansane, Alfa; Friedland, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Primary stability is essential to the success of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) and heavily depends on the mechanical retention between OMIs and their supporting bone. Alveolar cortical bone commonly serves as the supporting bone for OMIs during treatment. The purposes of this study were to characterize alveolar cortical bone thickness and density in the maxilla and to explore patient factors that may significantly affect these bone properties. Sixty medical computed tomography scans of the maxilla were analyzed from a selected sample of patients seen at the Radiology Department of Boston Children's Hospital. Interradicular alveolar bone thickness and density were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm from the buccal and palatal alveolar bone crests using the Synapse 3D software (version 4.1; FUJIFILM Medical Systems USA, Stamford, Conn). Analyses were conducted with STATA /1C (version 12.0 for Windows; StataCorp, College Station, Tex) using multivariate mixed-effects regression models and paired t tests. Mean age and body mass index of the study sample were 17.88 years and 22.94 kg/m2, respectively. Cortical bone density and thickness significantly increased from the coronal (2 mm) to the apical (8 mm) regions of the alveolar bone (P bone was thickest (1 mm) and densest (1395 Hounsfield units) between the first and second molars. On the palatal side, the thickest bone (1.15 mm) was found between the canine and first premolar; it was similarly densest (1406 Hounsfield units) between the first premolar and canine, and between the first premolar and second premolar interradicular bones. On average, palatal cortical bone was thicker and denser compared with buccal; this difference was statistically significant (P maxillary region showing the greatest difference. Female subjects have significantly denser bone compared with male subjects; however, sex is not significantly associated with bone thickness. Body mass index and age are positively associated with bone

  12. Bone density and hemoglobin levels in older persons: results from the InCHIANTI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesari, M.; Pahor, M.; Lauretani, F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bartali, B.; Russo, R.; Cherubini, A.; Woodman, R.; Bandinelli, S.; Guralnik, J.M.; Ferrucci, L.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxemia has been recognized as a risk factor for bone loss. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of bone mass and density measures with anemia and hemoglobin levels in a large sample of older community-dwelling persons. The study is based on data from 950 participants

  13. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ...

  14. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD. The findings were published online in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Using bone density scans of the hip and lower spine, researchers measured the effects of two hormone replacement ...

  15. Running exercise for short duration increases bone mineral density of loaded long bones in young growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Yoshinobu; Nakajima, Arata; Fukuda, Satoshi; Goto, Sumio; Iida, Haruzo; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2009-10-01

    Running exercise is an effective therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis; however, appropriate duration of exercise has not been determined. We therefore investigated the effect of exercise duration on bone mineral density (BMD) and systemic bone metabolism using young growing rats. Fifteen 8-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to running load: control group (no running), short duration (30 min/day) and long duration (180 min/day), and animals ran on a treadmill 5 days per week over an 8-week period. BMD of the tibia was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and serum levels of tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a bone resorption marker and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a bone formation marker were measured to know whether the treadmill exercise would affect systemic bone metabolism. Short-duration running exercise (30 min/day) caused a significant increase in BMD of the metaphyseal trabecula (p exercise (180 min/day) significantly reduced BMD of the diaphyseal and metaphyseal cortex and that of the diaphyseal trabecula with a significant reduction of serum ALP levels and a significant increase in serum phosphorus. These findings suggest that short-duration exercise may increase BMD through suppression of bone resorption, whereas long-duration exercise may reduce BMD through suppression of bone formation. Exercising for short duration but not prolonged exercise is recommended to increase BMD of loaded long bones.

  16. Effects of Condensation on Peri-implant Bone Density and Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wu, Y; Perez, K C; Hyman, S; Brunski, J B; Tulu, U; Bao, C; Salmon, B; Helms, J A

    2017-04-01

    Bone condensation is thought to densify interfacial bone and thus improve implant primary stability, but scant data substantiate either claim. We developed a murine oral implant model to test these hypotheses. Osteotomies were created in healed maxillary extraction sites 1) by drilling or 2) by drilling followed by stepwise condensation with tapered osteotomes. Condensation increased interfacial bone density, as measured by a significant change in bone volume/total volume and trabecular spacing, but it simultaneously damaged the bone. On postimplant day 1, the condensed bone interface exhibited microfractures and osteoclast activity. Finite element modeling, mechanical testing, and immunohistochemical analyses at multiple time points throughout the osseointegration period demonstrated that condensation caused very high interfacial strains, marginal bone resorption, and no improvement in implant stability. Collectively, these multiscale analyses demonstrate that condensation does not positively contribute to implant stability.

  17. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......-deficient and healthy males, indicating identical bone turnover. The GH-deficient females, however, had significantly lower levels of bone markers compared to healthy females, indicating a reduced bone turnover. Oestrogen substitution of the GH-deficient females could explain this difference. CONCLUSIONS: Compared...

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......-deficient and healthy males, indicating identical bone turnover. The GH-deficient females, however, had significantly lower levels of bone markers compared to healthy females, indicating a reduced bone turnover. Oestrogen substitution of the GH-deficient females could explain this difference. CONCLUSIONS: Compared...

  19. Evaluation of bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cemlyn-Jones

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF have an increasing life span and osteoporosis has become a more recognised problem in these patients. The pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD in CF seems to be multifactorial and the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low BMD in a group of CF outpatients and to relate the findings with the variables studied.The study included 22 patients aged between 14 and 45 years (mean age 26.3. Two of the subjects were lung transplant patients. BMD was assessed by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN. This data was correlated with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD levels, BMI and the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.BMD (Z-score and T-score ranged from 0.6 to -6 and from 0.5 to -6.7 at LS; at FN the scores ranged from 0.6 to -3.9 and from 0.6 to -4.1. The mean serum 25-OHD concentration (12,57 ng/ml was at the low end of the normal range (10-60 ng/ml. On average patients did not present with malnutrition, however BMI ranged from 15.2 to 33.7 kg/m2. Lung function status was assessed by FEV1; 64% of patients had FEV1 below 80% and within this group four patients had a FEV1 under 40%.There was a positive correlation between low BMD and 25-OHD concentrations and also between BMD and FEV1. There was no linear correlation between BMD and BMI. Resumo: A esperança de vida dos doentes com fibrose quística (FQ tem vindo a aumentar, sendo mais frequente a identificação de osteoporose. A patogénese de uma baixa densidade mineral óssea (DMO na FQ parece ser multifactorial e o objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de baixa DMO num grupo de doentes com FQ e a sua correlação com outros parâmetros avaliados.O estudo incluiu 22 doentes com FQ com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 45 anos (média 26,3, dois dos quais transplantados pulmonares. A DMO foi avaliada por densitometria óssea ao nível da coluna lombar e do colo do f

  20. Bone mineral density in postmenarchal adolescent girls in the United States: associated biopsychosocial variables and bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Zeev; Gold, Melanie; Cromer, Barbara; Bruner, Ann; Stager, Margaret; Bachrach, Laura; Wolter, Kevin; Reid, Carol; Hertweck, Paige; Nelson, Anita; Nelson, Dorothy; Coupey, Susan; Johnson, Christine; Burkman, Ronald; Bone, Henry

    2007-01-01

    During adolescence, bone formation prevails over resorption, resulting in accumulation of 40% of peak bone mass throughout this time period. Although multiple studies have explored bone mass accrual during the early stages of puberty, less is known about factors that may influence bone accrual during later years of adolescence. In the present cross-sectional study we examined relationships among bone mineral density (BMD) and demographic factors, behavioral variables, and bone metabolism markers in postmenarchal adolescent girls. The population was comprised of 389 healthy postmenarchal adolescent girls aged 11-18 years, who were recruited into a prospective study of the effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on bone health in adolescents. At the baseline visit, investigators collected demographic, reproductive health, and lifestyle data, and performed a complete physical examination. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Before study initiation, BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and markers of bone metabolism (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [BAP], serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide [uNTX]) were measured. The baseline data from this study were analyzed to evaluate possible correlates of BMD in postmenarchal adolescent girls. Potential associations between BMD values and other parameters were assessed by analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Participants enrolled in the study had a mean (+/- SD) chronological age of 14.9 +/-1.7 years (range 11-18), mean gynecologic age of 39.9 +/-23.0 months (range 1-120) postmenarche, and mean BMI of 23.5 +/-4.6 kg/m(2) (range 16.0-42.2). Racial/ethnic distribution was 46% African American, 35% Caucasian, and 19% other races; 9% had previously been pregnant. Positive correlations were observed between lumbar spine BMD and chronological age (r = .301, p Bone accretion in the postmenarchal years continues

  1. Prior ankle fractures in postmenopausal women are associated with low areal bone mineral density and bone microstructure alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier, C; Chevalley, T; Herrmann, F R; Ferrari, S; Rizzoli, R

    2015-08-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis in postmenopausal women, prior ankle fractures were associated with lower areal bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone alterations compared to no fracture history. Compared to women with forearm fractures, microstructure alterations were of lower magnitude. These data suggest that ankle fractures are another manifestation of bone fragility. Whether ankle fractures represent fragility fractures associated with low areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and/or bone microstructure alterations remains unclear, in contrast to the well-recognised association between forearm fractures and osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate aBMD, vBMD and bone microstructure in postmenopausal women with prior ankle fracture in adulthood, compared with women without prior fracture or with women with prior forearm fractures, considered as typically of osteoporotic origin. In a cross-sectional analysis in the Geneva Retirees Cohort study, 63 women with ankle fracture and 59 with forearm fracture were compared to 433 women without fracture (mean age, 65 ± 1 years). aBMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; distal radius and tibia vBMD and bone microstructure were measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Compared with women without fracture, those with ankle fractures had lower aBMD, radius vBMD (-7.9%), trabecular density (-10.7%), number (-7.3%) and thickness (-4.6%) and higher trabecular spacing (+14.5%) (P Tibia trabecular variables were also altered. For 1 standard deviation decrease in total hip aBMD or radius trabecular density, odds ratios for ankle fractures were 2.2 and 1.6, respectively, vs 2.2 and 2.7 for forearm fracture, respectively (P ≤ 0.001 for all). Compared to women with forearm fractures, those with ankle fractures had similar spine and hip aBMD, but microstructure alterations of lower magnitude. Women with ankle

  2. The influence of ibandronate treatment on bone density and biochemical bone markers in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Ipach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is characterized by different signs including increased bone fragility, short stature, blue sclera, abnormal tooth growth and often secondary immobility. No curative therapy has been found for this rare disease up to now, and different pharmacological substances have been tried as treatment for severe forms of OI. Promising results were seen with intravenous bisphosphonates in the treatment of patients with OI. The aim of present study was to show the effect of intravenous ibandronate therapy on bone density and bone metabolism markers. We analyzed the data of 27 patients with the diagnosis of OI who were treated off-label with intravenous ibandronate. Ibandronate was administered by intravenous infusion every three months at a dosage of 0.3-2 mg. Bone turnover markers and bone density were measured before starting therapy and every three months during treatment. Bone density was measured by using an ultrasound imaging system providing an accurate image of the calcaneus and by evaluating broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA. Twenty-seven patients were treated with intravenous iban- dronate during the observation period. 18 were female. The mean age of all patients was 23.9 years ± 19.6 (range 4-63. Seventeen patients were categorized to have OI Type I, 5 patients to have OI Type III and 5 patients to have OI Type IV. There was a statistically significant decrease in total alkaline phosphatase (P<0.0001. We detected also a statistically significant decrease in the ratio urinary deoxypyridinoline/urinary creatinine (P=0.0048 and the ratio urinary pyridinoline/urinary creatinine (P<0.0001 respectively. There was also a statistically significant increase in serum magnesium (P=0.034 and BUA (P=0.0071. No statistically significant changes were seen for total serum calcium (P=0.16, the ratio of urine calcium/urine creatinine (P=0.29, alkaline phosphatase (isoform bone (P=0.3, procollagen-I-peptide (P=0.5, osteocalcin (P=0

  3. Low Bone Density and Bisphosphonate Use and the Risk of Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Megan; Taylor, Eric; Vaidya, Anand; Curhan, Gary

    2017-08-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated lower bone density in patients with kidney stones, but no longitudinal studies have evaluated kidney stone risk in individuals with low bone density. Small studies with short follow-up reported reduced 24-hour urine calcium excretion with bisphosphonate use. We examined history of low bone density and bisphosphonate use and the risk of incident kidney stone as well as the association with 24-hour calcium excretion. We conducted a prospective analysis of 96,092 women in the Nurses' Health Study II. We used Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for age, body mass index, thiazide use, fluid intake, supplemental calcium use, and dietary factors. We also conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2294 participants using multivariable linear regression to compare 24-hour urinary calcium excretion between participants with and without a history of low bone density, and among 458 participants with low bone density, with and without bisphosphonate use. We identified 2564 incident stones during 1,179,860 person-years of follow-up. The multivariable adjusted relative risk for an incident kidney stone for participants with history of low bone density compared with participants without was 1.39 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.20 to 1.62). Among participants with low bone density, the multivariable adjusted relative risk for an incident kidney stone for bisphosphonate users was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.98). In the cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour urine calcium excretion, the multivariable adjusted mean difference in 24-hour calcium was 10 mg/d (95% CI, 1 to 19) higher for participants with history of low bone density. However, among participants with history of low bone density, there was no association between bisphosphonate use and 24-hour calcium with multivariable adjusted mean difference in 24-hour calcium of -2 mg/d (95% CI, -25 to 20). Low bone density is an independent risk factor for incident kidney stone and is associated with

  4. Relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density in Bushehr population

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Amiri; Abbasali Keshtkar; Hamidreza Aghaie-Meybodi; Bagher Larijan; Iraj Nabipoor; Ramin Heshmat; Sara Madani; Arash Hossein-Nejad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tea consumption is common throughout the world, especially in Iran and it was known as the most common beverages. Several studies evaluated negative effect of coffee and relationship between its caffeine content with bone density. But relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density is less observed. Considering high amount of tea consumption and prevalence of osteoporosis in Iran, it is important to investigate this relationship.Materials and Method: Population study i...

  5. [Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa Junior, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  7. Obesity Impact Evaluated from Fat Percentage in Bone Mineral Density of Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Modesto, Jhomyr Dias; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze bone mineral density (BMD) values in adolescents and to assess obesity impact, measured through body fat #x2013;on this variable through the assessment by DEXA. Methodology A total of 318 males adolescents (12?17 years) were evaluated considering weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), fat and lean mass. BMD was assessed for the arms, legs, hips, and lumbar regions, as well as for total amount. Stratification of the nutritional status was determ...

  8. The relationship between adiposity and bone density in U.S. children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    G?llego Su?rez, Cecilia; Singer, Benjamin H.; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Lee, Joyce M.; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2017-01-01

    Objective In adults, obesity has been associated with several health outcomes including increased bone density. Our objective was to evaluate the association between percent body fat and fat mass with bone mineral density (BMD) in a nationally representative population of children and adolescents. Study design A total of 8,348 participants 8?18 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999?2006 had whole body DXA scans performed. We conducted linear regr...

  9. Relation between Obesity and Bone Mineral Density and Vertebral Fractures in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyong-chol; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Sei-Young; Im, Jee-Aee; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The traditional belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has been questioned. Recent epidemiologic studies show that body fat itself may be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome and the individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are also risk factors for low bone mineral density. Using a cross sectional study...

  10. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hideki Ito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art. Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063], while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223] and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]. Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents.

  11. Bone mineral density is reduced by telmisartan in male spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birocale, Antonio Marcos; Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; Takayama, Liliam; de Oliveira, José Martins; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-12-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker, and treadmill running were compared for their effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical properties of male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It was hypothesized that running (18m/min/60min/d) and telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) would have a positive effect on bone parameters. Three-month-old male SHRs were divided into three groups: sedentary (S), telmisartan (T), and exercise (E). At the end of an 8-week protocol, femur and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for bone mineral density and by the three-point bending test for biomechanical properties. Blood pressure in all groups was measured by a tail-cuff manometer. Telmisartan and treadmill running reduced blood pressure when compared to the sedentary group; however, telmisartan did not improve bone characteristics. Instead, it reduced BMD of femur total and lumbar vertebrae and worsened bone biomechanic properties. Treadmill running maintained bone characteristics and hence was effective in maintaining bone health. Results showed that telmisartan negatively affected bones suggesting that caution should be taken in possible therapeutic applications for protecting bone health in hypertensive conditions. More studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms through which telmisartan favors bone loss in this model. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. [A study of bone density and lifestyles of high school girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akisaka, M; Zakouji, H; Ariizumi, M

    1997-07-01

    To obtain basic data on the bone density of high school girls, the bone density of the right heel was measured in principle and their lifestyles were surveyed. The subjects were 142 girls (15-18 years, mean +/- SD = 16.5 +/- 0.8 years old) of a high school in Nagano Prefecture, who accepted our visiting bone health check. Bone density was measured with an 'Achilles' ultrasound bone-densitometer (Lunar Co.) and a self-registered questionnaire on their lifestyles was also employed in this study. The main results were as follows: 1. There were no significant correlations between Stiffness and, age, grade, bone fracture, family history, and regularity of menstruation. However, Stiffness significantly correlated to the age of menophania (r = -0.191, p = 0.002) 2. High school girls who belonged to a sports club had significantly higher bone density than other girls. Those who did-exercises which consist mainly of jumping, had significantly higher bone density than others who participated in running sports or did no exercise. There were also significant differences in the frequency of exercise and the duration of exercise. Moreover, those who had a regular exercise history had higher bone density than those who had no regular exercise history, and the mean Stiffness of the group that did exercises daily was higher than for those who did not. 3. There were no significant correlations between Stiffness and food intakes. There also were no significant difference for Stiffness concerning intake of calcium-containing food groups. Regarding the cause of weight loss of more than 2 kg/month, the mean Stiffness of the group with intense exercise was significantly higher than those in the no-weigh loss group and the group that had reduced dietary intake. 4. Regarding the relationships between bone density and the lifestyles of high school girls, a delayed age of menophania had a significantly decreasing effect on Stiffness, whereas three variables of regular exercise habits at

  13. Bone density of the midpalatal suture 7 months after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Silvia; Hothan, Thorsten; Hietschold, Volker; Schneider, Matthias; Harzer, Winfried; Tausche, Eve

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze changes in bone density of the midpalatal suture after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE) with the bone-borne Dresden Distractor (DD; ITU, Dresden, Germany) via computed tomography (CT) and to compare of preoperative surgical findings with a control group. Sixteen adult patients (mean age 24.5 years) underwent axial CT scans before and 7 months after SARPE. CT image fusion was performed for the midpalatal suture bone. Sixty-six controls (mean age 25.7 years) served for comparing age-related bone density. Bone structure and density were assessed in the coronal plane at the anterior, median, and posterior levels. Highest density was found in the posterior part (1046 Hounsfield units [HU]) before expansion. Seven months after SARPE, bone density was 48% (anterior), 53% (median), and 75% (posterior) compared with preoperative values. The control group showed fairly equal Hounsfield units (889 HU to 900 HU) in all parts. Seven months after SARPE, the midpalatal suture's density achieves just one half to three quarters of the pretreatment values. To maintain the resistance against forces from the unsplit posterior part, the retention time should be lengthened. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Degenerative lumbar listhesis and bone mineral density in elderly women. The study of osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, M T; Rubin, D A; San Valentin, R; Palermo, L; Kang, J D; Donaldson, W F; Nevitt, M; Cauley, J A

    1999-12-01

    A cross-sectional and prospective study. To investigate the association between lumbar listhesis in elderly white women and bone mineral density at the spine, hip, radius, and calcaneus. Several types of degenerative spinal changes have been found to be associated with high bone mineral density at the spine and other body sites. Lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine for 1400 elderly women enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures were digitized. Listhesis (antero and retro) was assessed at L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1. Bone mineral density was measured at the spine, hip, calcaneus, and the distal and proximal radius. After adjusting the data for age and body mass index, retrolisthesis at L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 was associated with mean spinal bone mineral density levels that were 9% to 13% higher compared with those levels in women with no listhesis (P anterolisthesis at L3-L4 was 12% higher (P anterolisthesis at that level. This study suggests that retrolisthesis, like other spinal degenerative diseases, is associated with increased spinal bone mineral density. Anterolisthesis, however, may involve a different etiology, because its association with bone mineral density varies by spinal level.

  15. Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G

    2017-03-01

    Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R2=0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):90-94.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Making Robots Mill Bone More Like Human Surgeons: Using Bone Density and Anatomic Information to Mill Safely and Efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Neal P; Fichera, Loris; Wellborn, Patrick S; Labadie, Robert F; Webster, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Surgeons and robots typically use different approaches for bone milling. Surgeons adjust their speed and tool incidence angle constantly, which enables them to efficiently mill porous bone. Surgeons also adjust milling parameters such as speed and depth of cut throughout the procedure based on proximity to sensitive structures like nerves and blood vessels. In this paper we use image-based bone density estimates and segmentations of vital anatomy to make a robot mill more like a surgeon and less like an industrial computer numeric controlled (CNC) milling machine. We produce patient-specific plans optimizing velocity and incidence angles for spherical cutting burrs. These plans are particularly useful in bones of variable density and porosity like the human temporal bone. They result in fast milling in non-critical areas, reducing overall procedure time, and lower forces near vital anatomy. We experimentally demonstrate the algorithm on temporal bone phantoms and show that it reduces mean forces near vital anatomy by 63% and peak forces by 50% in comparison to a CNC-type path, without adding time to the procedure.

  17. [Exercise and bone mineral density in old subjects: theorical and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    With age advancement, the decrease of bone mineral density is ineluctable. Physical exercise constitutes a physiological approach likely to attenuate or limit the effects of normal bone demineralization (i.e. not pathological) particularly in elderly subjects. Indeed, physical exercise induces mechanical constraints generating bone deformation which stimulates osteogenesis and favors bone remodelage. Physical activities achieved in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e.g. stretching, balance) do not stimulate (or very weakly) osteogenesis. The osteogenic function of aerobic training (e.g. walking, running) is effective only if the intensity of exercise is high (i.e. the impacts on the ground and thus the bone deformation) and that of strength training is effective only if the completed muscular contractions are dynamic and carried out with heavy loads. The calcium concentration increase is greater on the concave side than on the convex side for the bones which undergo strong mechanical pressures during exercise. Hence, it is advisable to vary the directions of mechanical constraints during physical activity to strengthen the resistance of the bone in all the plans. In order to obtain significant effects in terms of bone remodelage, the optimal duration of training programs should last at least 4 to 6 months. The osteogenic effects of regular exercise begin from 2-3 weekly sessions. The activation of osteogenesis by means of physical exercise is more difficult in aging women than in aging men because of hormonal factors that are not favorable in aging women. At last, regular exercise is fundamental not only to maintain bone mineral density but also to reduce the risk of bone fracture since there is a relationship between the bone mineral density and the risk of bone fracture.

  18. Longitudinal bone mineral content and density in Rett syndrome and their contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Amanda; Fyfe, Sue; Downs, Jenny; Woodhead, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Bone mass and density are low in females with Rett syndrome. This study used Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure annual changes in z-scores for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and total body in an Australian Rett syndrome cohort at baseline and then after three to four years. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated in the lumbar spine. Annual changes in lean tissue mass (LTM) and bone area (BA) were also assessed. The effects of age, genotype, mobility, menstrual status and epilepsy diagnosis on these parameters were also investigated. The baseline sample included 97 individuals who were representative of the total live Australian Rett syndrome population under 30years in 2005 (n=274). Of these 74 had a follow-up scan. Less than a quarter of females were able to walk on their own at follow-up. Bone area and LTM z-scores declined over the time between the baseline and follow-up scans. Mean height-standardised z-scores for the bone outcomes were obtained from multiple regression models. The lumbar spine showed a positive mean annual BMAD z-score change (0.08) and a marginal decrease in aBMD (-0.04). The mean z-score change per annum for those 'who could walk unaided' was more positive for LS BMAD (p=0.040). Total body BMD mean annual z-score change from baseline to follow-up was negative (-0.03). However this change was positive in those who had achieved menses prior to the study (0.03, p=0,040). Total body BMC showed the most negative change (-0.60), representing a decrease in bone mineral content over time. This normalised to a z-score change of 0.21 once adjusted for the reduced lean tissue mass mean z-score change (-0.21) and bone area mean z-score change (-0.14). Overall, the bone mineral content, bone mineral density, bone area and lean tissue mass z-scores for all outcome measures declined, with the TB BMC showing significant decreases. Weight, height and muscle mass appear to have

  19. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones...... are used to obtain a BMD estimate of the distal forearm, referred to as BMDDXR (from digital X-ray radiogrammetry, DXR). The measured dimensions for each bone are the cortical thickness and the outer width, in combination with an stimate of the cortical porosity. The short-term in vivo precision of BMDDXR...

  20. Participation in road cycling vs running is associated with lower bone mineral density in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, R Scott; Rogers, Robert; Ruebel, Meghan; Hinton, Pamela S

    2008-02-01

    The effects of regular non-weight-bearing (NWB) exercise on bone health are largely unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of participation in NWB sports on bone health in adult male recreational athletes. Male cyclists (NWB; n = 27) and runners (weight-bearing [WB]; n = 16) aged 20 to 59 years were recruited from the community. Whole-body and regional bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation and resorption markers, and hormones were measured in serum. Bone-loading history was estimated from a sports participation history questionnaire. Nutrient intake and current physical activity were estimated from 7-day written logs. The NWB athletes had significantly lower BMD of the whole body and spine than the WB athletes, despite having similar age, weight, body mass index, body composition, hormonal status, current activity level, and nutrient intakes. Sixty-three percent of NWB athletes had osteopenia of the spine or hip, compared with 19% of WB athletes. Cyclists were 7 times more likely to have osteopenia of the spine than runners, controlling for age, body weight, and bone-loading history. There were no group differences in serum markers of bone turnover. Based on the results of this study, current bone loading is an important determinant of whole-body and lumbar spine BMD. Therefore, bone-loading activity should be sustained during adulthood to maintain bone mass.

  1. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  2. Numerical estimation of bone density and elastic constants distribution in a human mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, J M; García-Aznar, J M; Domínguez, J; Doblaré, M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we try to predict the distribution of bone density and elastic constants in a human mandible, based on the stress level produced by mastication loads using a mathematical model of bone remodelling. These magnitudes are needed to build finite element models for the simulation of the mandible mechanical behavior. Such a model is intended for use in future studies of the stability of implant-supported dental prostheses. Various models of internal bone remodelling, both phenomenological and more recently mechanobiological, have been developed to determine the relation between bone density and the stress level that bone supports. Among the phenomenological models, there are only a few that are also able to reproduce the level of anisotropy. These latter have been successfully applied to long bones, primarily the femur. One of these models is here applied to the human mandible, whose corpus behaves as a long bone. The results of bone density distribution and level of anisotropy in different parts of the mandible have been compared with various clinical studies, with a reasonable level of agreement.

  3. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs

  4. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes with Stress Level, Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okbay Güneş, Aslı; Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Şen Demirdöğen, Ezgi; Erginöz, Ethem; Demir, Türkay; Kucur, Mine; Ercan, Oya

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used to assess eating disorders, depression, and anxiety. Psychiatric examinations were performed for binge eating disorders. In the Pearson's correlation test, a positive correlation was found between the 24-hour urinary cortisol level and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores (pEating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores were found to be significant contributors for urinary cortisol level (β=1.008, p=0.035; β=2.296, p=0.014, respectively). The femoral neck areal bone mineral density was found to be significantly higher in subjects who had binge eating disorder compared with those without binge eating disorder (p=0.049). Despite the lack of apparent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in our obese adolescents at the time of the study, our results suggest that disordered eating attitudes, and especially restrained eating attitudes, might be a source of stress. Therefore, studies in this area should continue.

  5. Assessing the Association between Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu N. Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD. The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we determined whether serum leptin levels were associated with whole-body BMD and bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, after adjusting for confounders including body fat distribution. We found an inverse association between leptin and bone density in those with peripheral lipoatrophy, defined objectively as 3 kg appendicular fat. This result suggests that fat distribution may modify the relationship between leptin and bone density.

  6. Serum Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in Hemodialysis Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays an important role in regulating appetite and energy expenditure. Our aim was to evaluate serum leptin level in hemodialysis (HD) patients with or without chronic liver disease (CLD) and study the relationship between serum leptin level and bone mineral ...

  7. Relationship between sex hormone levels, bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, subjects were excluded from the study if they had conditions affecting bone metabolism. Different biochemical parameters were assayed: Testosterone, Estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, Osteocalcin, vitamin D, crosslaps, intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ...

  8. Bone density and depression in premenopausal South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. There is conflicting evidence regarding depression as a potential risk factor for osteoporosis.1 High cortisol and pro- inflammatory cytokine concentrations are frequently associated with depression2-4 and may cause bone resorption by suppressing type I collagen production, up-regulating osteoclastogenesis ...

  9. A Rapid Clinical Perspective on Bone-Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce intestinal calcium absorption, increase RANKL and. CSF-1 production,18 decrease IGF-1 production, and diminish the osteoblastic cell population.19. • Thyroid hormone: Important for cartilage formation, especially during childhood. Also bolsters bone resorption and collagenase production during adulthood.20.

  10. Metabolic and Clinical Consequences of Hyperthyroidism on Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Jagoda; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1891, Von Recklinghausen first established the association between the development of osteoporosis in the presence of overt hyperthyroidism. Subsequent reports have demonstrated that BMD loss is common in frank hyperthyroidism, and, to a lesser extent, in subclinical presentations. With the introduction of antithyroid medication in the 1940s to control biochemical hyperthyroidism, the accompanying bone disease became less clinically apparent as hyperthyroidism was more successfully treated medically. Consequently, the impact of the above normal thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis may be presently underrecognized due to the widespread effective treatments. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism. The vast number of recent papers touching on this topic highlights the recognized impact of this common medical condition on bone health. Our focus in this review was to search for answers to the following questions. What is the mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on bone metabolism? What are the clinical consequences of hyperthyroidism on BMD and fracture risk? What differences are there between men and women with thyroid disease and how does menopause change the clinical outcomes? Lastly, we report how different treatments for hyperthyroidism benefit thyroid hormone-induced osteoporosis. PMID:23970897

  11. Bone mineral density abnormalities in HIV infected patients and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the occurrence of traditional risk factors associated with decreased BMD in the above populations (oral corticosteroid use, smoking, alcohol, previous bone fracture, body mass index and physical inactivity). Methods: This was a cross-sectional comparative group descriptive study of HIV positive adult patients on ...

  12. Changes in bone density and bone markers in rhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers: implications for puberty and leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, María Teresa; de la Piedra, Concepción; Barrios, Vicente; Garrido, Guadalupe; Argente, Jesús

    2004-10-01

    Our aim was to compare physical activity and biochemical markers with bone mineral acquisition in rhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers. Weight, height, body mass index, nutritional intake, bone age and menstrual histories were analyzed in nine rhythmic gymnasts, twelve ballet dancers and fourteen controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, hip and radius. Bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen I (PNIP) in serum and urinary alpha-isomer of the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (alpha-CTX) were measured. Bone age was delayed 2 years and mean age at menarche was 15+/-0.9 years in rhythmic gymnasts and 13.7+/-1 years in ballet dancers, compared with 12.5+/-1 years in controls. Trocanteric and femoral neck BMD was significantly higher in rhythmic gymnasts compared with ballet dancers and controls. Right forearm (non-loaded zone) BMD was significantly decreased in rhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers compared with controls. All subjects had normal bAP and PNIP levels, but the alpha-CTX/creatinine (Cr) ratio was increased in rhythmic gymnasts (Prhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers. Rhythmic gymnasts had a positive correlation between right forearm BMD and leptin levels (r=0.85, Prhythmic gymnasts could be partially explained by an increase in bone resorption. Serum leptin levels could be implicated in the pubertal delay and be a good marker of bone mass in these subjects.

  13. Automated measurement of bone-mineral-density (BMD) values of vertebral bones based on X-ray torso CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Hayashi, T; Chen, H; Hara, T; Yokoyama, R; Kanematsu, M; Hoshi, H; Fujita, H

    2009-01-01

    Bone is one of the most important anatomical structures in humans and osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Osteoporosis is a main target disease of bone, which can be detected by medical image techniques. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automated computer scheme to measure bone-mineral-density (BMD) values for vertebral trabecular bones. This scheme will aid osteoporosis diagnosis performed using computer tomography (CT) images. This scheme includes the following processing steps: segmentation of the bone region, recognition of the skeletal structures and measurement of the BMD value in vertebral trabecular bone of each vertebral body. The proposed scheme was applied to 20 X-ray torso CT cases to measure the BMD values for vertebral trabecular bones. The experimental results show that the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the BMD values measured by using the proposed method and those measured using a manual segmentation method were 6.93 mg/cm(3) and 6.82 mg/cm(3) respectively. The accuracy of the proposed scheme satisfied the requirement for a computer-aided system used in osteoporosis diagnosis.

  14. Greater yogurt consumption is associated with increased bone mineral density and physical function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, E; Molloy, A M; McNulty, H; Ward, M; McCarroll, K; Hoey, L; Hughes, C F; Cunningham, C; Strain, J J; Casey, M C

    2017-08-01

    In this cohort of community dwelling older adults (>60 years), we observed significant positive associations between the frequencies of yogurt intake with measures of bone density, bone biomarkers, and indicators of physical function. Improving yogurt intakes could be a valuable health strategy for maintaining bone health in older adults. The associations of yogurt intakes with bone health and frailty in older adults are not well documented. The aim was to investigate the association of yogurt intakes with bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomarkers, and physical function in 4310 Irish adults from the Trinity, Ulster, Department of Agriculture aging cohort study (TUDA). Bone measures included total hip, femoral neck, and vertebral BMD with bone biochemical markers. Physical function measures included Timed Up and Go (TUG), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in females were 3.1-3.9% higher among those with the highest yogurt intakes (n = 970) compared to the lowest (n = 1109; P function scores. These results suggest that improving yogurt intakes could be a valuable public health strategy for maintaining bone health in older adults.

  15. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...... of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...... children with biochemically and genetically verified XLH were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and to correct for the short stature (small bones), the BMAD of the spine and the femoral neck was evaluated. RESULTS: Z-scores of BMAD of the spine (mean (95 % CI); 2.0 (1.3-2.7); p ...

  16. Jus Tomat Meningkatkan Kepadatan Tulang Tikus Menopause (TOMATO JUICE INCREASE BONE DENSITY OF MENOPAUSE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women happened due to estrogen deficiency which leads imbalancebone-formation and bone-resorption process. Recently, phytoestrogen as an alternative hormon replacementtherapy in postmenopausal women could overcome estrogen deficiency. The objectives of this study was toevaluate the effect of tomato juice administration and combination of physical exercise on bone density inestrogen deficiency condition. Twenty eight postovarectomy female rats (Rattus novergicus were randomizedinto four experiment groups : the controlled group ( 2 mL aquades administration; the exercised group(swimming for 30 minutes, three times in one week, the tomato juice administration every day (44 mg/200g body weight, and the combination exercise and tomato juice administration. Four weeks after treatmentthe samples were collected from os femure for morphological examination. The intervention groups showeda significant difference in bone density with the control group (p<0.05. Bone density highest on the tomatojuice administration group. There is significant difference bone density between tomato juice administrationgroup and the combination group (p<0.05, but no significant difference between physical exercise groupand the combination group. Tomato juice showed an increasing bone density on estrogen deficiencycondition and the combination group have the same effect with the exercised group.

  17. Bone mineral density and fracture risk in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botushanov, Nikolay P; Orbetzova, Maria M

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes affects an estimated 6-8% of the population worldwide. This widespread disorder is often associated with changes in bone health which are still little studied. To date, there has been no generally accepted definition of diabetic osteopathy. The changes in the bone mineral density, the bone turnover markers and frequency and type of fractures that occur in the two major clinical types of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) differ because they are associated with different pathogenetic mechanisms inducing these disorders. While it is reduction of the bone mineral density that most often occurs in type 1 diabetes, in type 2 diabetes various studies diagnose either a normal, reduced or increased bone mineral density in comparison with that of healthy controls. Both vertebral and non-vertebral fractures are found to have increased incidence in both types of diabetes which is attributed to, in addition to the changes in the mineral density of bones, a number of concomitant factors such as visual impairment, diabetic neuropathy, etc. There are studies demonstrating that women with type 1 diabetes are at a significantly higher risk of hip fractures (relative risk [RR]: 8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-64.4]) and for those with type 2 diabetes: (RR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.12-1.35]). The mortality rate in the first year after a patient sustains a fracture of the neck of the femur in men is about 36%, and in women--about 21%. The changes in the bone mineral density in diabetes are caused by a number of disorders--negative calcium balance, hypoinsulinemia, deteriorated renal function, increased production of advanced glycation end products, low peak bone mass, increased production of inflammatory cytokines, etc. Although there are differences in the quantitative changes of bone mineral density, patients with diabetes mellitus have a higher risk of sustaining specific types of fractures. It can be partially accounted for by the greater propensity to falling, as well as to the

  18. Age and gender effects on bone mass density variation: finite elements simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Ben Kahla, Rabeb; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha

    2017-04-01

    Bone remodeling is a physiological process by which bone constantly adapts its structure to changes in long-term loading manifested by interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. This process can be influenced by many local factors, via effects on bone cells differentiation and proliferation, which are produced by bone cells and act in a paracrine or autocrine way. The aim of the current work is to provide mechanobiological finite elements modeling coupling both cellular activities and mechanical behavior in order to investigate age and gender effects on bone remodeling evolution. A series of computational simulations have been performed on a 2D and 3D human proximal femur. An age- and gender-related impacts on bulk density alteration of trabecular bone have been noticed, and the major actors responsible of this phenomenon have been then discussed.

  19. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE WOMEN ASSESSED BY ULTRASOUND DESINTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marijanac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Physical activity has a positive effect on bone tissue, and it is recommended to prevent bone loss which comes with age. Methods: In purpose of determining bone mineral density in women who are physically active we examined 35 women divided into two groups – subjects who are premenopausal (n=20, 43.52 ± 7.56 years, and subjects who are postmenopausal (n=15, 55.89 ± 5.48. The subjects exercised Pilates method twice a week for one hour. Bone mineral density measurements were done by ultrasound densitometer „Sahara“ through the calcaneus. We get the data of the estimated bone density and T-score for right and left foot separate. Results: According to results premenopausal women have normal bone density, and postmenopausal values represent osteopenia, according to the WHO. There is no subjects who established osteoporosis. Discussion: Previous investigations have confirmed that physical activity is important for the preservation of the bone quality. Increasing steps, using simple everyday tasks, can prevent decrease in BMD in postmenopausal women (Muir et al., 2013, Ashe et al, 2008. There’s difference in the density of the calcaneus between physically active and those who are not, measured by ultrasound densitometry (Vainionpää et al, 2005. We use quantitative ultrasound densitometry to describe BMI of women who exercise Pilates and support the finding that physical activity is one of the ways that may prevent the BMD loss. These research was done as a part of long-term project entitled „Impact of physical activity of the working population“ which is co-financed by Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development.

  20. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  1. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  2. Caffeine enhances osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow hematopoietic cells and reduces bone mineral density in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing Hwa; Chen, Chinliang; Yang, Rong Sen; Yen, Yuan Peng; Yang, Ya Ting; Tsai, Chingmin

    2011-06-01

    Caffeine-containing beverage consumption has been associated with low bone mass and increased fracture risk in some, but not most, observational studies. The effects of caffeine on bone metabolism are still controversial. We investigated the effects of caffeine on the differentiation of bone progenitor cells and bone mineral density (BMD) by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Low-concentration caffeine (0.005-0.1 mM) did not affect the bone marrow cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity during osteoblast differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells, but it effectively enhanced the osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow hematopoietic cells and the bone resorption activity by pit formation assay. Moreover, caffeine effectively enhanced the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), but reduced the osteoprotegerin protein expressions in osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Caffeine could also increase the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression and prostaglandin (PG)E(2) production in cultured neonatal mouse calvariae. In animal study, BMD in lumbar vertebra, femur, or tibia was significantly lowered in growing rats supplemented with 0.2% caffeine in diets for 20 weeks compared with the control group. The calcium contents in tibia and femur of caffeine-treated rats were also lower than that in the control group. The osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells isolated from caffeine-treated rats was markedly enhanced as compared with the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that caffeine may reduce BMD in growing rats through the enhancement in osteoclastogenesis. Caffeine may possess the ability to enhance a COX-2/PGE(2) -regulated RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  3. Variations in bone density across the body of the immature human mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Erin F; Farella, Mauro; Hoffman, Jakobus; Kramer, Beverley

    2017-05-01

    During growth the mandible accommodates increases in biomechanical loading resulting from changes in the function of structures of the oral cavity. Biomechanical loads are thought to play an intricate and vital role in the modelling and remodelling of bone, with site-specific effects on bone mineral density. It is anticipated that the effects of this loading on bone mineral density are intensified during the functional transition from prenatal to postnatal stages. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate changes in bone mineral density across the body of the immature human mandible during the early stages of dental development. The study sample included 45 human mandibles, subdivided into three age groups: prenatal (30 gestational weeks to birth; n = 15); early postnatal (birth to 12 months; n = 18); and late postnatal (1-5 years; n = 12). Mandibles were scanned using X-ray micro-computed tomography. Eight landmarks were selected along the buccal/labial and lingual surfaces of each dental crypt for evaluation of the bone mineral density. Bone mineral density values were calculated using a reference standard and analysed using multivariate statistics. The bone mineral density of the lingual surface was found to be significantly higher (P ≤ 0.000) than that of the buccal/labial surface. Furthermore, bone mineral density in the alveolar region of the buccal/labial surface of the deciduous central incisor (P ≤ 0.001), the deciduous first molar (P ≤ 0.013) and lingual alveolar area of the deciduous second molar (P ≤ 0.032) were significantly greater in the early postnatal period than in the prenatal period. While changes in bone mineral density across the lingual surface were consistent with the progression of development and the biomechanical demand of the tongue as previously demonstrated, changes observed across the buccal/labial surface of the mandible appeared to accompany the advancing dental development. Thus, changes in bone mineral density across the

  4. Impact of severity, duration, and etiology of hyperthyroidism on bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Gawad Soma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by osteoporosis with higher incidence of fracture rates. The present work aimed to study bone status in hyperthyroidism and to elucidate the impact of severity, duration, and etiology of hyperthyroidism on biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD. Methods Fifty-two male patients with hyperthyroidism, 31 with Graves' disease (GD and 21 with toxic multinodular goiter (TNG, with an age ranging from 23 to 65 years were included, together with 25 healthy euthyroid men with matched age as a control group. In addition to full clinical examination, patients and controls were subjected to measurement of BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometery scanning of the lower half of the left radius. Also, some biochemical markers of bone turnover were done for all patients and controls. Results Biochemical markers of bone turnover: included serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, carboxy terminal telopeptide of type l collagen also, urinary deoxypyridinoline cross-links (DXP, urinary DXP/urinary creatinine ratio and urinary calcium/urinary creatinine ratio were significantly higher in patients with GD and TNG compared to controls (P 0.05. BMD was significantly lower in GD and TNG compared to controls, but the Z-score of BMD at the lower half of the left radius in patients with GD (-1.7 ± 0.5 SD was not significantly different from those with TNG (-1.6 ± 0.6 SD (>0.05. There was significant positive correlation between free T3 and free T4 with biochemical markers of bone turnover, but negative correlation between TSH and those biochemical markers of bone turnover. The duration of the thyrotoxic state positively correlated with the assessed bone turnover markers, but it is negatively correlated with the Z-score of BMD in the studied hyperthyroid patients (r = -0.68, P Conclusion Men with hyperthyroidism have significant bone loss with higher biochemical markers of bone

  5. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  6. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schündeln, Michael M; Marschke, Laura; Bauer, Jens J; Hauffa, Pia K; Schweiger, Bernd; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Lahner, Harald; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Kiewert, Cordula; Hauffa, Berthold P; Grasemann, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI), a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths. The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare) of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec) of the distal radius. The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 -L4: r = 0.73; P bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands.

  7. Genetic and Dyanmic Analysis of Murine Peak Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    atherosclerosis, obesity , type U diabetes, and osteoporosis. Until recently, mapping genes that underlie quantitative traits was not possible, but in the last...C, Braillon, P., Cochat, P., Meunier, P. J., and Delmas, P. D. Measurement of bone mineral content of the lumbar spine by DEXA in normal children ...Hypothosphatemia: a mouse model for human familial hypophosphatemic (vitamin D-resistant) rickets , Proc Natl Acad Sei USA. 73: 4667-4671, 1976. 18

  8. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Perimenopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Shariati-Sarabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The menopausal transition called perimenopause, happens after the reproductive years, and isspecified with irregular menstrual cycles, perimenopause symptoms and hormonal changes. Women going throughperi menopausal period are vulnerable to bone loss.Osteoporosis is one of the most common debilitating metabolic bone diseases ,especially in the women almostaround 50 years .This study was intended to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis amongstasymptomatic individuals during the menopause transition period.Methods: A total of 714 asymptomatic peri-menopausal female volunteers were recruited through a billboard invitationfor participation in the study. The subjects were selected based on already defined inclusion and exclusion criteria.The project, which was conducted between 2010 and 2014 was affiliated to the Educational and Therapeutic Center,Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD measured by DEXA (dual-energy X-rayabsorptiometry was carried out on two distinct sites, the proximal femur and the lumbar vertebrae from L1 to L4.Pertained data were analyzed.Results: The mean age of the subjects was 49.7±2.years. The overall prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosisin these peri-menopausal individuals were 37.6 % and 10% respectively. Thirty five point two percent of 714 womenpresented with osteopenia and eight percent of them have osteoporosis in the femoral neck, respectively. Nonetheless,BMD values at the lumbar spine indicated 41.6% and 12% of individual participants being affected by osteopenia andosteoporosis.Conclusion: In general osteopenia or osteoporosis, occurred in 48% of this study population, implying that specialattention is required for the bone health status of Iranian women who undergo menopause.

  9. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  10. Zinc deficiency reduces bone mineral density in the spine of young adult rats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryz, Natasha R; Weiler, Hope A; Taylor, Carla G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc deficiency initiated during adolescence on skeletal densitometry, serum markers of bone metabolism, femur minerals and morphometry in young adult rats. Ten-week-old male rats were fed a bone mineral density, serum osteocalcin and C-terminal peptides of type I collagen, serum zinc, femur zinc, calcium and phosphorus, and femur morphometry. Bone mineral density was 14% lower in the spine of 9ZD, but was not altered in the whole body, tibia or femur, or in any of the aforementioned sites in 9MZD, compared to 9CTL. When adjusted for size, spine bone mineral apparent density was still 8% lower in 9ZD than 9CTL. Serum osteocalcin, a marker for bone formation, was approximately 33% lower in 9ZD compared to both 9MZD and 9CTL. The 9ZD and 9MZD had 57% lower femur zinc and 56-88% lower serum zinc concentrations compared to 9CTL. These findings indicate that severe zinc deficiency initiated during adolescence may have important implications for future bone health, especially with regards to bone consolidation in the spine. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. GENETIC MARKERS OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jakovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: failure to maintain bone mass density is a major problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. CF is due to mutations in the CFTR gene and other genes may contribute to modifying the disease. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role in determining the variability of bone mass. Aim of the study: to analyse the association between polymorphic variants of genes considered to be risk factors of bone metabolism disturbances and decreased bone mineral density (BMD in children and adults with CF in R. Macedonia. Materials and methods: the study included 80 clinically stable CF patients (age range 5-36y, who regularly attended the CF center at the Pediatric Clinic in Skopje, Macedonia. Three candidate genes likely associated with BMD variability were studied: the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene, the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and the type I alpha I collagen (COLIA1 gene. A complete bone and CF evaluation was obtained for all patients: 55 had normal BMD (group 1, 17 were osteopenic (group 2 and 8 were osteoporotic (group 3. Results: Low bone mineral density (Z score < -1SD was found in 31.25% patients and in 10% of them BMD was below -2SD. Patients with low BMD had worse BMI, FEV1 and more severe symptoms of CF. No significant correlation was found between COLIA1 and VDR polymorphisms and BMD. Conclusion: There was no evidence that the genes under study may modulate bone phenotype in CF.

  12. Relationships between serum Omentin-1 levels and bone mineral density in older men with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation between serum Omentin-1 levels and the presence of osteoporosis in older men. Methods: Serum Omentin-1, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD were determined in 45 older men with osteoporosis or 45 older men without osteoporosis (65–70 years old. Results: Omentin-1 levels were increased in older men with osteoporosis, and the differences remained significant after controlling for fat mass. Omentin-1 was negatively correlated with BMD. In a multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, Omentin-1, lean mass, but not fat mass, were independent predictors of BMD for the combined group. Significant negative correlations between Omentin-1 and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and bone cross-linked N-telopeptides of type Ⅰ collagen (NTX were found. Omentin-1 was also independently associated with BMD and bone turnover markers in older men with osteoporosis and control groups that were considered separately. Conclusions: Omentin-1 is an independent predictor of BMD in older men with osteoporosis, and it is negatively correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. It is suggested that Omentin-1 may exert a negative effect on bone mass through the regulation of the osteoblast differentiation in the older men with osteoporosis. Keywords: Omentin-1, Bone mineral density, Osteoporosis

  13. The effects of treadmill exercise training on hip bone density and tibial bone geometry in stroke survivors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Marco Y C; Lau, Ricky W K

    2010-05-01

    Individuals with stroke often sustain bone loss on the hemiparetic side and are prone to fragility fractures. Exercise training may be a viable way to promote bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry in this population. This was a pilot study to evaluate the effects of a 6-month treadmill exercise program on hip BMD and tibial bone geometry in chronic stroke survivors. Twenty-one individuals with chronic stroke, with a mean age of 64.5 years and mean post-stroke duration of 8.3 years participated in the study. The treatment group underwent a treadmill gait exercise program (two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 months), whereas the control group participated in their usual self-selected activities in the community. The primary outcomes were hip BMD and bone geometry of the midshaft tibia on the paretic side, whereas the secondary outcomes were gait velocity, endurance, leg muscle strength, balance self-efficacy, and physical activity level. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the change in all outcome variables between the 2 groups after treatment. Significant between-group differences in change scores of tibial cortical thickness (P = .016), endurance ( P = .029), leg muscle strength on the paretic side (P exercise program induced a modest improvement in tibial bone geometry in individuals with chronic stroke. Further studies are required to explore the optimal training protocol for promoting favorable changes in bone parameters following stroke.

  14. Technical Note: Bone mineral density measurements of strontium-rich trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms using quantitative ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Bisma; Da Silva, Eric; Slatkovska, Luba; Cheung, Angela M; Tavakkoli, Jahan; Pejović-Milić, Ana

    2016-11-01

    Bone quantity, as determined by the current gold standard, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), through measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD), is subject to positive biases if bone strontium levels are high. This is of particular concern for populations administered strontium-based compounds for the treatment of osteoporosis. This study investigated the dependence of bone mineral density (BMD) determinations, and associated ultrasound-determined indices, obtained by quantitative ultrasound (QUS), on bone strontium content using a new generation of trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms. A new generation of bone-mimicking phantoms, consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and gelatin, was developed. Castor oil layers were included in these phantoms to create a multilayer bone-mimicking phantom. These phantoms were prepared using a bone mineral fraction consisting of varying strontium concentrations in the range of 0-2.5% mol/mol as strontium-substituted HA. The effect of varying bone strontium content on determined quality indices was evaluated based on determined speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and determined quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) for phantoms with varying BMD values and varying strontium concentration using two QUS systems: a clinical Sahara® system and an in-house research system with two identical transducers with center frequency of 1 MHz. The two QUS systems were also compared through a Bland-Altman analysis. Both the clinical system and the research QUS systems showed a strong dependency between BMD and BUA, indicating a potential for QUS to be used as a means of estimating BMD (p = 0.001). SOS was found to have no correlation to BMD (p = 0.546). There was no correlation observed between BUA and increasing bone strontium concentrations for the research (p = 0.749) and clinical (p = 0.609) QUS systems. Similarly, no dependency was observed between the SOS and bone strontium levels up to 2.5 mol/mol [Sr/(Sr+Ca)]% for

  15. Bone mineral density aspects in the femoral neck of hip fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerado, Enrique; Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon; Crespo, Pascual Vicente; Alaminos, Miguel; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria del Carmen; Campos, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people, due to neurological conditions and muscular atrophy, present a greater propensity to falls and thus are very susceptible to hip fractures. Other variables, such as osteoporosis, may also be related to the etiopathogenesis of hip fractures, although osteoporosis is in fact a concurrent disease, and merely a coadjutant cause. Nonetheless, osteoporosis can make fracture patterns more severe and interfere with osteosynthesis. Osteoporosis is the radiological image of osteopenia, a pathological concept meaning a smaller quantity of bone per unit of volume. The radiological expression of osteopenia is therefore that of bone tissue with a lower radiological density than normal. In the context of hip fractures, bone mineral density and bone architecture of the femoral neck together with protein expression profiles and cross-links of this anatomical area are of special interest which is reviewed in the current paper. Spatial variations in bone mineral density in the femoral neck were found in the literature with increased porosity from the periosteal to the endosteal region and also from the distal to the proximal part of the femoral neck. Furthermore, increased crystal size, increased cortical porosity, reduced osteocyte lacunar density and an increased Ca/P ratio associated with higher concentrations of Ca and P were described in hip fracture patients compared to control patients. Osteocalcin/collagen type 1 expression ratio and enzymatic cross-link content in high-density bone was found to be significantly lower in hip fractures compared to controls. In conclusion, further research in bone mineral density and associated parameters are of interest to deepen the understanding of osteoporotic hip fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. VARIANTS OF SPINE OSTEOSYNTESIS AT LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Usikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was done. In the first group (N=27 the polysegmental transpedicular screw fixation was applied. In the second group (N=20 we used short-level stabilization with additional augmentation of transpedicular screws by bone cement. The spinal stability, restoration of function, correction of spine's deformation and pain relief was same in both groups. But in the second group the results was achieved with less traumatization and time of rehabilitation of the patients.

  17. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    ) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...... sites (12%-13%, corresponding to about 1.0-1.5 SD), and extrapolation suggested reverse order of the rates of diminution thereafter (forearm > AP > LAT). When bone mineral content of the entire L3 vertebra (tBMC) was measured in vivo, AP tBMC could account for only 67% of the variation in LAT t...

  18. The relationship between bone mineral density and adipose tissue of postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, HwaMyeong Iisin christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and obesity due to changes in hormones. The relationship between osteoporosis and body weight is known, and its relation with body fat mass is discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density(BMD) changes of epicardial adipose tissue(EAT) and abdominal subcutaneous fat. The subjects of this study were 160 postmenopausal women who underwent BMD and echocardiography. The thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue was measured in three sections and the BMD were meassured according to the diagnostic criteria. The results of this study that age increase the risk of osteoporosis increases, and as the weight and BMI decrease, the risk of osteoporosis increases(p<0.05). The relationship between changes in bone mineral density and adipose tissue in postmenopausal women, increased epicardial adipose tissue was negatively correlated with the bone mineral density(p<0.05). conversely, increased abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was positively correlated with bone mineral density(p<0.05). In other words, the effect of bone mineral density on the location of adipose tissue was different. If Echocardiography is used to periodically examine changes in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue, it may be prevented before proceeding to osteoporosis.

  19. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts.

  20. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  1. Bone turnover, joint damage and bone mineral density in early rheumatoid arthritis treated with combination therapy including high-dose prednisolone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.C.; Boers, M.; Koppele, J.M. te; Laan, W.H. van der; Markusse, H.M.Geusens, P.; Linden, S. van der

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. Exploration of bone metabolism changes at different levels of disease activity, both with and without oral corticosteroid therapy, and prediction of changes in joint damage and bone density from the observed changes in markers of bone turnover. Methods. Data analysis from a randomized

  2. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  3. Reduced quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cournil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone status in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART is poorly documented in resource-limited settings. We compared bone mineral density between HIV-infected patients and control subjects from Dakar, Senegal. METHODS: A total of 207 (134 women and 73 men HIV-infected patients from an observational cohort in Dakar (ANRS 1215 and 207 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population were enrolled. Bone mineral density was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus, an alternative to the reference method (i.e. dual X-absorptiometry, often not available in resource-limited countries. RESULTS: Mean age was 47.0 (±8.5 years. Patients had received ART for a median duration of 8.8 years; 45% received a protease inhibitor and 27% tenofovir; 84% had undetectable viral load. Patients had lower body mass index (BMI than controls (23 versus 26 kg/m(2, P<0.001. In unadjusted analysis, QUS bone mineral density was lower in HIV-infected patients than in controls (difference: -0.36 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.59;-0.12, P = 0.003. Adjusting for BMI, physical activity, smoking and calcium intake attenuated the difference (-0.27, CI: -0.53;-0.002, P = 0.05. Differences in BMI between patients and controls explained a third of the difference in QUS bone mineral density. Among patients, BMI was independently associated with QUS bone mineral density (P<0.001. An association between undetectable viral load and QUS bone density was also suggested (β = 0.48, CI: 0.02;0.93; P = 0.04. No association between protease inhibitor or tenofovir use and QUS bone mineral density was found. CONCLUSION: Senegalese HIV-infected patients had reduced QUS bone mineral density in comparison with control subjects, in part related to their lower BMI. Further investigation is needed to clarify the clinical significance of these observations.

  4. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  5. A prospective follow up of age related changes in the subchondral bone density of the talus of healthy Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemanse, W; Müller-Gerbl, M; Jonkers, I; Sloten, J Vander; van Bree, H; Gielen, I

    2017-02-20

    During growth, the skeletal structures adapt to the increased loading conditions and mature to a fully-grown skeleton. Subchondral bone density reflects the effect of long-term joint loading and it is expected to change over time. The aim of this study was to describe the long-term changes in the density distribution of the subchondral bone of the talus of healthy Labrador Retrievers in a prospective study. The subchondral bone density distribution was evaluated using computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry (CTOAM). Visually, all joints showed very similar density distribution patterns. No significant differences in the topography of the density maxima were found between t1 and t2. The mean density, maximum density, and maximum area ratio (MAR) were significantly increased with increasing age. The subchondral bone density of the talus of healthy Labrador Retrievers increases with increasing age. It is likely an adaptive response of the subchondral bone due to increased joint loading during growth.

  6. OSTEOPOROSIS HEALTH BELIEF, KNOWLEDGE LEVEL AND RISK FACTORS IN INDIVIDUALS WHOSE BONE MINERAL DENSITY WAS REQUIRED

    OpenAIRE

    Gulpinar ASLAN; Dilek KILIC

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This descriptive-relational study aims to identify osteoporosıs health belief, knowledge level and risk factors in individuals whose bone mineral density was required. Method: Target population of the study was 110 men and 126 women aged 35 and over, who applied to Atatürk University Aziziye - Yakutiye Research Hospital Nuclear Medicine Center Bone Densitometer Unit between January 2010 and October 2010. No sampling was performed, the whole target population was involved in the study...

  7. Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance

    OpenAIRE

    Gast, Ulf; Belavy, Daniel; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Kusy, Krzysztof; Lexy, H; Rawer, R; Rittweger, Jörn; Winwood, Keith; Zielinski, Jacek; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Summary Individuals who are involved in explosive sport types, such as 100-m sprints and long jump, have greater bone density, leg muscle size, jumping height and grip strength than individuals involved in long-distance running. Introduction The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between different types of physical activity with bone, lean mass and neuromuscular performance in older individuals. Methods We examined short- (n050), middle- (n019) and lo...

  8. Association of Circulating Renin and Aldosterone With Osteocalcin and Bone Mineral Density in African Ancestry Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Allison L; Kammerer, Candace M; Pratt, J Howard; Bunker, Clareann H; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is associated with accelerated bone loss, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a key regulator of blood pressure. Although components of this system are expressed in human bone cells, studies in humans are sparse. Thus, we studied the association of circulating renin and aldosterone with osteocalcin and bone mineral density. We recruited 373 African ancestry family members without regard to health status from 6 probands (mean family size: 62 and relative pairs: 1687). Participants underwent a clinical examination, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomographic scans. Renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and osteocalcin were measured in fasting blood samples. Aldosterone/renin ratio was calculated as aldosterone concentration/renin activity. All models were analyzed using pedigree-based variance components methods. Full models included adjustment for age, sex, body composition, comorbidities, lifestyle factors, blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication. Higher renin activity was significantly associated with lower total osteocalcin and with higher trabecular bone mineral density (both Prenin activity and whole-body bone mineral density. There were no associations with aldosterone concentration in any model and results for aldosterone/renin ratio were similar to those for renin activity. This is the first study to report a significant association between renin activity and a marker of bone turnover and bone mineral density in generally healthy individuals. Also, there is evidence for significant genetic pleiotropy and, thus, there may be a shared biological mechanism underlying both the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and bone metabolism that is independent of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The diabetic paradox: Bone mineral density and fracture in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella Martínez, Sonsoles; Varo Cenarruzabeitia, Nerea; Escalada San Martin, Javier; Calleja Canelas, Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence and morbidity are increasing. Osteoporotic fractures are among the 'non-classical' complications of diabetes and been overlooked for a long time, maybe because of their complex diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The usual tools for preventing fragility fractures (such as the fracture risk assessment tool and bone densitometry) underestimate risk of fractures in type2 diabetic patients. New techniques, such as trabecular bone score or bone turnover markers, could be useful, but greater scientific evidence is required to recommend their use in clinical practice. The special characteristics of their pathophysiology result in decreased bone remodeling with normal or even increased bone mineral density, but with low quality. These changes lead to the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures without evidence of densitometric changes, which could be called 'the diabetic paradox'. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  11. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  12. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jikun [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Chen Laigao [BioImaging Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth RD, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Sandison, George A [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Liang Yun [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Xu, Lisa X [School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy)

  13. Altered auditory and vestibular functioning in individuals with low bone mineral density: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Jha, Raghav Hira; Gargeshwari, Aditi; Kumar, Prawin

    2018-01-01

    Alteration in the process of bone remodelling is associated with falls and fractures due to increased bone fragility and altered calcium functioning. The auditory system consists of skeletal structures and is, therefore, prone to getting affected by altered bone remodelling. In addition, the vestibule consists of huge volumes of calcium (CaCO3) in the form of otoconia crystals and alteration in functioning calcium levels could, therefore, result in vestibular symptoms. Thus, the present study aimed at compiling information from various studies on assessment of auditory or vestibular systems in individuals with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 1977 articles were searched using various databases and 19 full-length articles which reported auditory and vestibular outcomes in persons with low BMD were reviewed. An intricate relationship between altered BMD and audio-vestibular function was evident from the studies; nonetheless, how one aspect of hearing or balance affects the other is not clear. Significant effect of reduced bone mineral density could probably be due to the metabolic changes at the level of cochlea, secondary to alterations in BMD. One could also conclude that sympathetic remodelling is associated with vestibular problems in individual; however, whether vestibular problems lead to altered BMD cannot be ascertained with confidence. The studies reviewed in the article provide an evidence of possible involvement of hearing and vestibular system abnormalities in individuals with reduced bone mineral density. Hence, the assessment protocol for these individuals must include hearing and balance evaluation as mandatory for planning appropriate management.

  14. The outcome of bone mineral density measurements on patients referred from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia Inez; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Rosenzweig, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing and the general practitioner is integral to identifying these patients. It is, therefore, of interest to characterize the referral pattern of patients scheduled for determination of bone density by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning....... Altogether, 1551 scans from first-time referred women were analyzed with respect to normal bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia, and osteoporosis as the outcome, and the results were compared with age and body mass index (BMI). Using multiple regression analysis, risk estimates for osteoporosis were......) increased the predictive value considerably. A low BMI is a good indicator for referral of women less than 60 yr for measurements of bone density. Forty-five percent of the referred women from general practitioners had a normal BMD....

  15. Adiponectin Is a Candidate Biomarker of Lower Extremity Bone Density in Men With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Ashley L; Battaglino, Ricardo A.; Donovan, Jayne; Gagnon, David; Lazzari, Antonio A.; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major regulator of bone metabolism and in the general population obesity is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD). However, bone-fat interactions are multifactorial, and may involve pathways that influence both bone formation and resorption with competing effects on the skeleton. One such pathway involves adipocyte production of adipokines that regulate bone metabolism. In this study we determined the association between BMD, walking status, and circulating ad...

  16. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  17. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion...... % CI -3.3; -0.1, p = 0.04) compared to never/former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy supplemented with prednisolone was not associated with loss of BMD. Postmenopausal women gained bone mass, whereas current smokers lost bone mass....

  18. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  19. Cyclosporine-a and bone density around titanium implants: a histometric study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Eduardo Sakakura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cyclosporine A (CsA is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used to prevent organ transplantation rejection. It has been demonstrated that CsA may negatively affect osseointegration around dental implants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CsA administration on bone density around titanium dental implants. Materials and Methods: Fourteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups with seven animals each. The test group (CsA received daily subcutaneous injection of CsA (10mg/kg body weight and the control group (CTL received saline solution by the same route of administration. Three days after the beginning of immunosuppressive therapy, one machined dental implant (7.00 mm in lenght and 3.75 mm in diameter was inserted bilaterally at the region of the tibial methaphysis. After 4 and 8 weeks the animals were sacrificed and the histometrical procedures were performed to analyse the bone density around the first four threads of the coronal part of the implant. Results: A significant increase in the bone density was observed from the 4- to the 8 week-period in the control group (37.41% + 14.85 versus 58.23% + 16.38 – p < 0.01. In contrast, bone density consistently decreased in the test group overtime (46.31% + 17.38 versus 16.28 + 5.08 – p <0.05. In the 8-week period, there was a significant difference in bone density between the control and the test groups (58.23 + 16.38 eand16.28 + 5.08 – p= 0.001. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, long-term CsA administration may reduce bone density around titanium dental implants during the osseointegration process.

  20. Effects of exercise training on bone density in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, J A; Emery, C F; Madden, D J; Schniebolk, S; Riddle, M W; Cobb, F R; Higginbotham, M; Coleman, R E

    1991-11-01

    To determine the effects of up to 14 months of aerobic exercise on measures of bone density in older adults. Randomized controlled trial with subjects assigned to either an aerobic exercise condition, non-aerobic yoga, or a wait list non-exercise control group for 4 months. Aerobic fitness and bone density were evaluated in all subjects at baseline (Time 1) and after 4 months (Time 2). A semi-crossover design was utilized with all subjects completing 4 months of aerobic exercise, followed by another evaluation (Time 3). All subjects were then given the option of 6 additional months of aerobic exercise, after which they had a fourth evaluation (Time 4). An outpatient exercise rehabilitation facility at a large, major medical center. One-hundred-one healthy men (n = 50) and women (n = 51) over age 60 (Mean age = 67.0), recruited from the community. The exercise program included stretching, cycle ergometry, and walking three times per week for 60 minutes throughout the course of the study. Aerobic fitness (VO2max) as assessed by cycle ergometry, and bone density (bone mineral content) measured by single photon absorptiometry. Subjects achieved a 10%-15% increase in VO2max after 4 months of exercise training, and 1%-6% further improvement with additional training. Aerobic fitness was associated with significant increases in bone density in men, but not women, who maintained aerobic exercise for 14 months.

  1. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  2. Fat mass increase in 7-year-old children: more bone area but lower bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Magnusson, Kristjan Th; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2013-07-01

    The main aims of this study were, to evaluate what effect a change in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) has on bone parameters over 2 years' time, in 7-year-old school children and to see what effect fitness had on bone parameters in these children. A repeated-measures design study was conducted where children born in 1999 from six elementary schools in Reykjavik, Iceland were measured twice. All children attending second grade in these six schools were invited to participate. Three hundred twenty-one children were invited, 211 underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the age of seven, and 164 (78 %) of the 211 had DXA scans again 2 years later. Increase in both FM and LBM was associated with increased total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA). An increase in FM was more strongly positively associated with BA while an increase in LBM was more strongly associated with an increase in BMC. An increase in FM was negatively associated with change in bone mineral density (BMD), but an increase in LBM was positively associated with change in BMD. Fitness was positively associated with bone parameters when weight, height and sex were accounted for. The present results suggest that an increase in fat mass over 2 years is associated with an increase in BA and BMC, but a decrease in BMD in the whole body. An increase in LBM accrual, on the other hand, is positively associated with all bone parameters in the body. Fitness is associated with both BMC and BMD but not BA.

  3. Effect of Isokinetic Strength Training and Deconditioning on Bone Stiffness, Bone Density and Bone Turnover in Military-Aged Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herbert, William

    2001-01-01

    .... Female soldiers sustain twice the number of stress fractures compared to males. Exercise interventions for women are needed to promote military readiness in ways that enhance bone strength and reduce stress fractures...

  4. Increased densities and calcifications in the finger bones of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, A; Bruk, I; Laron, Z

    1976-06-01

    A feature of irregular calcifications and increased densities in the metaphyseal region of the fingers of the hand in adolescent children, occurring mostly in males, is described. These changes become evident at puberty and disappear with the closure of the epiphyses. The etiology of this feature does not appear to be related to a specific hormone. It may be the result of an imbalance between those hormones which cause the pubertal spurt, possibly combined with an irregularity of testosterone secretion.

  5. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and B...

  6. Osteoprotegerin autoantibodies do not predict low bone mineral density in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Brundin, Charlotte; Agardh, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with osteoporosis. The aim was to develop an immunoassay for OPG autoantibodies and test their diagnostic usefulness of identifying women general population with low bone mineral density. Included were 698 women at mean age 55.1 years (range 50.4-60.6) randomly selected from the general population. Measurement of wrist bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) was performed of the non-dominant wrist by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A T-score density. Measurements of OPG autoantibodies were carried by radiobinding assays. Cut-off levels for a positive value were determined from the deviation from normality in the distribution of 398 healthy blood donors representing the 99.7th percentile. Forty-five of the 698 (6.6%) women were IgG-OPG positive compared with 2 of 398 (0.5%) controls ( p  density between IgG-OPG positive (median 0.439 (range 0.315-0.547) g/cm 2 ) women and IgG-OPG negative (median 0.435 (range 0.176-0.652) g/cm 2 ) women ( p  = 0.3956). Furthermore, there was neither a correlation between IgG-OPG levels and bone mineral density (r s  = 0.1896; p  = 0.2068) nor T-score (r s  = 0.1889; p  = 0.2086). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of IgG-OPG for low bone mineral density were 5.7% and 92.9%, and positive and negative predictive values were 7.4% and 90.8%, respectively. Elevated OPG autoantibody levels do not predict low bone mineral density in middle-aged women selected from the general population.

  7. [Body composition and bone mineral density of prepubertal boys involved in different kinesiologic treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Borislav; Madić, Dejan; Milosević, Zoran; Maksimović, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Kovacev-Zavisić, Branka

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on the bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. The type, frequency, intensity, and duration of activity that best produce the desired increases in mass and strength of human bones have not yet been well determined. To examine the influence of different kinesiological treatments on body composition and bone mineral density we studied a group of prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. 90 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. The sport group consisted of 28 swimmers (aged 10.80.8) and 32 soccer players (aged 10.70.5), who had been training their chosen high-level sport activity for at least 1 year (8-12 h per week for swimmers, 10-15 h per week for soccer players). 30 boys (aged 11.2 +/- 0.7) doing 1.5 h per week of physical activity in school served as a control group. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and right calcaneus were done by ultrasound densitometer "Sahara". The body composition was assessed by Body Fat Analyser "BES 200 Z". There were significant differences between soccer players and control group as regards fat mass and bone mineral density (p<.01). Besides, significant differences were determined between a group of swimmers and control group as regads fat mass (p<.03), while the differences in bone mineral density were not very obvious (p<.67).

  8. Calcium intake and bone mineral density as an example of non-linearity and threshold analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, L P

    2015-04-01

    Non-linearity is a likely phenomenon in bone metabolism, but is often ignored in pertinent epidemiological studies. Using NHANES III data on calcium intake and bone mineral density, the most important non-linear methods are introduced and discussed. The results should motivate researchers to consider non-linearity in this field more frequently. Many relationships in bone metabolism and homeostasis are likely to follow non-linear patterns. Detailed dose-response analyses allowing for non-linear associations nonetheless remain scarce in this field. A detailed analysis of NHANES III data on dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density was used to demonstrate the application and some of the challenges of the most important dose-response methods, including LOESS, categorical analysis, fractional polynomials, restricted cubic splines, and segmented regression. The spline estimate suggested increasing bone mineral density up to a calcium intake of about 1 g/day and a plateau thereafter. In segmented regression, the break-point marking the beginning of the plateau was placed at an intake of 0.58 (95 % confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.82) g/day. Sensitivity analyses suggested a less curved dose-response in women. Knowing about the possibilities and limitations of non-linear dose-response approaches should encourage researchers to consider these methods more frequently in studies on bone health and disease. The example analysis suggested bone mineral density to reach a plateau slightly below current calcium intake recommendations, with fairly pronounced differences of the dose-response shape by sex and menopausal status.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  10. Vegetation Density, Root Architecture Model, and Hydrodynamic Simulation Rhizophora apiculata Bl. in Bone Bay, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswar Rustam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove is the only ecosistem that grows and develops in the coastal area. This study was conducted to analyze the mangrove forest vegetation to create a simulation of the root sistem of Rhizophora apiculata Bl. related to its ability in the process of hydrodynamic fluid of seawater in the Lompo village, District Awangpone, Bone Regency, South Sulawesi. Criteria that used as a model reference had minimum age approximately five years and minimum height of about 2 m. The variables that measure were height, diameter, and length of the roots. The parameters of the simulation are the average speed of sea level, the dynamic pressure of seawater, as well as drag coefficient of Gulf of Bone. Based on this research, vegetation area with highest density located at second kilometer, medium density located at first kilometer, and the lowest density located at third kilometer. The average velocity of seawater, the lowest is in the natural cropping pattern of highest density, meanwhile the highest is in the parallel cropping pattern of lowest density. Dynamic pressure, the lowest is in the natural cropping pattern of highest density, meanwhile the highest is in the parallel cropping pattern of lowest density. The drag coefficient, the highest is in the natural cropping pattern of highest density, meanwhile the lowest is in the parallel cropping pattern of lowest density. Keywords: drag coefficient, hydrodynamics, mangrove, Rhizophora apiculata Bl., simulation

  11. Methodological study for the determination the bone density of bovines in laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklauss, Dany Bruno Borella dos Santos; Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica

    2009-07-01

    Full text: There are diseases in vertebrates associated with the structure of bone tissue that directly affect the locomotor system of the animal. Being an endoskeleton, the diagnosis of these diseases becomes difficult in vivo. The characterization of the physical structure of the bone tissue of healthy animals becomes a major tool in the diagnosis comparison of live animals. Thus, the objective of this work is to determine the average value of the key physical properties of the bone structure used in the clinical diagnosis, such as: bone density, and mass attenuation coefficient of 59.6 keV photons of bone tissue and bovine and equine check variations in these values. The samples were provided by the pathology department of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny of Botucatu - Sao Paulo, which are of one male equine and one female bovine animals, using the radio and metacarpus. They were withdrawn ten samples in cuts of 10 cm over the bone. These samples were submitted to the wet method of immersion in water for the density, by the method of attenuation of gamma radiation of radioisotope {sup 241}Am, it is estimated the mass attenuation coefficient, and then were dried in the oven for determining the content moisture. (author)

  12. Bone density, ultrasound measurements and body composition in early ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, E; Michel, F; Wendling, D

    2001-08-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated bone density using both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques and examined the changes in body composition in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Seventy-one patients were compared with seventy-one sex- and age-matched controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated at the lumbar spine and femoral neck with a Lunar device. Total body measurements were also performed, giving BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body, and fat and lean masses. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound and stiffness were measured at the calcaneus using an Achilles ultrasound device. The patients had significantly lower lumbar spine, femoral neck and total body BMD as compared with controls (all P talalgia in AS did not influence the QUS values. These results confirm that AS patients have decreased BMD values at both the spine and femur, and also in total body measurements, reflecting a generalized bone loss. On the contrary, soft tissue composition does not seem to be influenced by the disease. QUS parameters were found to be similar between patients and controls, suggesting that the QUS method did not provide additive information to DEXA. As it is thought that QUS provides information about qualitative properties of bone, the normal results of QUS values in our patient series argue against modifications in AS bone micro-architecture.

  13. Bone mineral density and calcium metabolism in adolescents with beta-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, Azza A; El Kholy, Mohamed; Moustafa, Tarek; Elsedfy, Heba H

    2008-10-01

    Bone disease in thalassemia in the form of low bone mass remains a frequent, debilitating and poorly understood problem, even among well transfused and chelated pre-pubertal and adult patients. In this work we attempted to delineate calcium status and bone mineral density in a group of transfusion dependent thalassemic adolescents of both sexes. Bone mineral density (BMD) at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured in 40 adolescents with beta thalassemia major (TM) by DXA scanning and correlated to biochemical parameters including calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, bone alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-OH vitamin D as well as vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms at exon 2 (Fok1). Z-score of BMD at the lumbar spine (-3.3, +/-1.4) was significantly lower than at the femoral neck (-0.68, -/+1.3), (p=0.001). Serum ferritin and VDR genotype were related to BMD only at the femoral neck indicating that the factors determining the BMD at these 2 sites might be different. Seventy-five percent of patients had a low calcium level and hypoparathyroidism was present in 72.5% of patients. The low calcium level was probably caused by a combination of hypoparathyroidism and osteomalacia evidenced by elevated bone alkaline phosphatase presumably resulting from deficient calcium intake. To optimize BMD in TM, it is important to ensure adequate iron chelation and adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D.

  14. Site-Specific Variations in Bone Mineral Density under Systemic Conditions Inducing Osteoporosis in Minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Matthias C; Kowald, Jan; Estenfelder, Sven; Jung, Roland; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Eckelt, Uwe; Mai, Ronald; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Stroszczynski, Christian; Stadlinger, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. There is conflicting opinion about whether osteoporosis affects the alveolar bone of the jaws and whether it poses a risk to the osseointegration of dental implants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of systemic glucocorticoid administration on the jaw bone density of minipigs. Thirty-seven adult female minipigs were randomly divided into two groups. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to assess bone mineral density BMD of the lumbar spine as well as the mandible and maxilla, and blood was drawn. One group of minipigs initially received 1.0 mg prednisolone per kg body weight daily for 2 months. The dose was tapered to 0.5 mg per kg body weight per day thereafter. The animals in the other group served as controls and received placebo. QCT and blood analysis were repeated after 6 and 9 months. BMD was compared between the two groups by measuring Hounsfield units, and serum levels of several bone metabolic markers were also assessed. A decrease in BMD was observed in the jaws from baseline to 9 months. This was more pronounced in the prednisolone group. Statistically significant differences were reached for the mandible ( p < 0.001) and the maxilla ( p < 0.001). The administration of glucocorticoids reduced the BMD in the jaws of minipigs. The described model shows promise in the evaluation of osseointegration of dental implants in bone that is compromised by osteoporosis.

  15. Influence of atrophic posterior maxilla ridge height on bone density and microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Monje, Florencio; González-García, Raúl; Suarez, Fernando; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; García-Nogales, Agustin; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence available on the influence of residual ridge height (RH) on bone density. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between the atrophic posterior RH in the maxilla and its bone density as determined by microcomputed tomography (μ-CT). Thirty-two subjects with atrophic posterior maxilla of residual RH bone core biopsy was thus obtained from the predetermined surgical site. Out of 32 biopsies, 27 were intact and sent for μ-CT analysis. A statistically significant positive correlation between bone volumetric fraction (BV/TV) and RH was identified (r = 0.417, p = .03). A statistically significant negative correlation between trabecular pattern factor and RH was also found (r = -0.415, p = .03). The rest of the morphometric parameters analyzed did not have any significant correlation to RH. BV/TV is potentially influenced by the residual bone height at the posterior maxilla. The lesser the RH, the lower the bone quantity and quality present. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Milk basic protein increases ghrelin secretion and bone mineral density in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chacrabati, Rakhi; Ono-Ohmachi, Aiko; Gong, Zhi; Ikenoya, Chika; Aizawa, Sayaka; Nara, Takayuki Y; Morita, Yoshikazu; Kato, Ken; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    Milk basic protein (MBP), a mixture of proteins isolated from bovine milk, is known to increase bone formation. Ghrelin, a stomach-derived peptide hormone, also has been reported to stimulate osteoblast formation. The aim of this study was to determine whether MBP-induced bone formation is mediated via ghrelin. MBP was chronically administered to mice in their drinking water for 3 wk, and body weight, water intake, and bone mineral density were measured. Additionally, plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b, and ghrelin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To examine the direct effect of MBP on ghrelin secretion, gastric tissue culture and primary mucosal cells were stimulated by MBP. The in vivo study of young, growing mice showed that chronic MBP intake for 3 wk increased the plasma ghrelin concentration and bone mineral density of the hind limb tibia. In vitro studies using minced rat gastric mucosa tissues and primary murine isolated gastric mucosal cells revealed that MBP stimulated ghrelin release in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MBP-induced ghrelin secretion was partly inhibited by adrenergic blockers. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which MBP directly acts on ghrelin secretion. Additionally, the elevated ghrelin level induced by MBP may act as a mediator for bone formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of obesity treatments on bone mineral density, bone turnover and fracture risk in adults with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Claudia; Pattinson, Andrea L; Fernando, Hamish A; Zibellini, Jessica; Seimon, Radhika V; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-12-01

    New evidence suggests that obesity is deleterious for bone health, and obesity treatments could potentially exacerbate this. This narrative review, largely based on recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, synthesizes the effects on bone of bariatric surgery, weight loss pharmaceuticals and dietary restriction. All three obesity treatments result in statistically significant reductions in hip bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in bone turnover relative to pre-treatment values, with the reductions in hip BMD being strongest for bariatric surgery, notably Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB, 8%-11% of pre-surgical values) and weakest for dietary restriction (1%-1.5% of pre-treatment values). Weight loss pharmaceuticals (orlistat or the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide) induced no greater changes from pre-treatment values than control, despite greater weight loss. There is suggestive evidence that liraglutide may increase bone mineral content (BMC) - but not BMD - and reduce fracture risk, but more research is required to clarify this. All three obesity treatments have variable effects on spine BMD, probably due to greater measurement error at this site in obesity, suggesting that future research in this field could focus on hip rather than spine BMD. Various mechanisms have been proposed for BMD loss with obesity treatments, notably reduced nutritional intake/absorption and insufficient exercise, and these are potential avenues for protection against bone loss. However, a pressing outstanding question is whether this BMD reduction contributes to increased fracture risk, as has been observed after RYGB, and whether any such increase in fracture risk outweighs the risks of staying obese (unlikely).

  18. Soft tissues, areal bone mineral density and hip geometry estimates in active young boys: the PRO-BONE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kelly; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Klentrou, Panagiota; Ubago-Guisado, Esther; De Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A; Moreno, Luis A; Gracia-Marco, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Soft tissues, such as fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM), play an important role in bone development but this is poorly understood in highly active youths. The objective of this study was to determine whether FM or LM is a stronger predictor of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and hip geometry estimates in a group of physically active boys after adjusting for height, chronological age, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), FM, and LM. Participants included 121 boys (13.1 ± 1.0 years) from the PRO-BONE study. Bone mineral content (BMC) and aBMD were measured at total body, femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and hip structural analysis was used to estimate bone geometry at the femoral neck. Body composition was assessed using DXA. The relationships of FM and LM with bone outcomes were analysed using simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that total body (less head) aBMD was significantly correlated with LM but not FM. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that FM, after accounting for height, age, MVPA and LM had no significant relationship with aBMD or hip geometry estimates, except for arms aBMD. By contrast, there were positive associations between LM and most aBMD and hip geometry estimates, after accounting height, age, MVPA and FM. The results of this study suggest that LM, and not FM, is the stronger predictor of aBMD and hip geometry estimates in physically active boys. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN17982776.

  19. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Exercise-induced rib stress fractures have been reported frequently in elite rowers during the past decade. The etiology of rib stress fractures is unclear, but low bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for stress fractures in weight-bearing bones. The present...... density may be a potential risk factor for the development of exercise-induced rib stress fractures in elite rowers....... a DEXA scanner. The RSF subjects showed significantly lower L2-L4 BMD: RSF: 1.22+/-0.05 g cm(-2) (mean+/-SEM) (median 1.19 g cm(-2), range 1.02-1.37 g cm(-2)) compared to C: 140+/-0.04 g cm(-2) (median 1.41 g cm(-2), range 1.27-1.57 g cm(-2)) (P=0.028). The present results suggest that low bone mineral...

  20. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates an association between phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) and self-reported passive smoking using data on 15,038 persons (aged 18-95 years), who underwent a BMD scan in the Danish KRAM study. BMD was significantly lower in persons exposed to long-term passive smoking...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...... and body fat percentage were measured and 96.7% (n = 15,038) of the participants answered a self-reported questionnaire with information on passive smoking, other lifestyle factors, education, etc. The association between passive smoking and BMD was examined using multiple linear regression analysis...

  1. Assessment of bone density in patients with scoliosis neuromuscular secondary to cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel Jacob Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bone mineral density in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study in which, in addition to bone densitometry, the anthropometric data of the patients were assessed. As inclusion criterion we adopted patients with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, wheelchair users, aged between 10 and 20 years and with neuromuscular scoliosis. RESULTS: We evaluated 31 patients, 20 female, whose average age was 14.2 years. The mean bone density was -3.2 standard deviation (Z-score, with mean biceps circumference of 19.4 cm, calf circumference 18.6 cm and BMI of 13.6 kg/m². CONCLUSION: There is a high incidence of osteoporosis in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

  2. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...... to healthy control subjects GH-deficient males had, in contrast to GH-deficient females, significantly reduced BMD and BMC. This obvious gender difference seems to be caused by the oestrogen substitution given to the females, compensating for the lack of GH, an effect testosterone does not seem to possess...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  3. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones...... are used to obtain a BMD estimate of the distal forearm, referred to as BMDDXR (from digital X-ray radiogrammetry, DXR). The measured dimensions for each bone are the cortical thickness and the outer width, in combination with an stimate of the cortical porosity. The short-term in vivo precision of BMDDXR...... was observed to be 0.60% in a clinical study of 24 women and the in vitro variation over 12 different radiological clinics was found to be 1% of the young normal BMDDXR level. In a cohort of 416 women BMDDXR was found to be closely correlated with BMD at the distal forearm measured by dual-energy X...

  4. Bone mineral density and microarchitecture in patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Shanbhogue, V V; Hansen, Stinus

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study of 45 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, we found no evidence of secondary osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythaemia vera (PV) are at increased risk of fractures but the underlying mechanisms have not been...... strength measures were highly similar in the two groups. Levels of bone turnover markers were within reference values in patients. CONCLUSION: These results reveal no evidence of secondary osteoporosis among patients with ET or PV. The mechanism behind the increased fracture risk in ET or PV patients...... settled. We conducted a study to assess bone mineral density, microarchitecture, estimated bone strength and global bone turnover in 45 patients with ET or PV. METHODS: Patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the hip and spine; high...

  5. Zoledronic acid initiated during the first year of androgen deprivation therapy increases bone mineral density in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christopher W; Huo, Dezheng; Demers, Laurence M; Beer, Tomasz M; Lacerna, Leo V

    2006-09-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fractures. Zoledronic acid protects against bone mineral density loss when initiated concurrently with androgen deprivation therapy. We evaluated the effect of zoledronic acid initiated subsequent to androgen deprivation therapy on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases who had received androgen deprivation therapy for 12 months or less were randomized to 4 mg zoledronic acid or placebo intravenously every 3 months for 1 year. Patients were stratified according to androgen deprivation therapy duration (less than 6 vs 6 to 12 months). The primary end point was the change in femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density in the 2 groups. The secondary end point was the change in serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urine N-telopeptide levels. Total hip bone mineral density was also measured. The 120 patients with prostate cancer received zoledronic acid (61) or placebo (59). Compared with placebo, zoledronic acid increased femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density yearly by 3.6% (p = 0.0004), 3.8% (p bone mineral density at these 3 sites were not differentiated according to androgen deprivation therapy duration. Additionally, mean bone specific alkaline phosphatase and N-telopeptide levels were decreased in the zoledronic acid group (each p bone mineral density and suppressed bone turnover markers in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases when initiated during year 1 of androgen deprivation therapy.

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Boys Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Kelly; Ramirez, Lucas; Gutierrez, Alan; Richardson, Wendy; Marti, C. Nathan; Potts, Amy; Shearer, Rebeca; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), nutritional status, biochemical markers, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in 4-8 year old boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with a group of age-matched, healthy boys without ASD. Boys with ASD had significantly lower spine BMD…

  7. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  8. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  9. Changes in hand and generalised bone mineral density in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guler-Yuksel, M.; Allaart, C.F.; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Y.P.; Bouwstra, J.K.; Groenendael, J.H.L.M.; Mallee, C.; Bois, de M.H.W.; Breedveld, F.C.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Lems, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the hands, hip and spine after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, in relation to antirheumatic and antiresorptive therapies and disease and demographic variables in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis ( RA). Methods: Changes in

  10. Positive Celiac Disease Serology and Reduced Bone Mineral Density in Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Duerksen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low bone density and osteoporosis have been demonstrated in celiac disease populations in Europe, South America and the United States. Serological testing with tissue transglutaminase (TTG and immunoglobulin A endomysial (EMA antibodies is highly specific for celiac disease, while antigliadin antibody (AGA testing is less specific.

  11. Bone mineral density in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with budesonide Turbuhaler (R)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnell, O; Pauwels, R; Lofdahl, CG; Laitinen, LA; Postma, DS; Pride, NB; Ohlsson, SV

    There is a need for studying the effects of long-term inhaled corticosteroid therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) and vertebral fracture rates in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients (n=912, mean age 52 yrs) with mild COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in one

  12. Dietary calcium and bone density in adolescent girls and young women in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Ando, S.; Charles, P.; Charzewska, J.; Rotily, M.; Väänänen, K.; Erp-Baart, A.M.J. van; Heikkinen, J.; Thomsen, J.; Maggiolini, M.; Deloraine, A.; Chabros, E.; Juvin, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake and radial bone density among young women, over the whole range of intake and at different levels of calcium intake. The study design was a cross-sectional, observational multicenter investigation in six

  13. Relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density in Bushehr population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Amiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea consumption is common throughout the world, especially in Iran and it was known as the most common beverages. Several studies evaluated negative effect of coffee and relationship between its caffeine content with bone density. But relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density is less observed. Considering high amount of tea consumption and prevalence of osteoporosis in Iran, it is important to investigate this relationship.Materials and Method: Population study includes 1125 subjects (aged 20- 72 years randomly selected by cluster sampling in Bushehr, who participated in general project of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The participants were categorized based on degree of tea consumption: high tea drinkers (more than 4 cups of tea per day and low tea drinkers (equal or less than 4 cups of tea per day.Results: In high tea drinkers, mean score for bone density was significantly higher in neck and total femur. But this difference in isolated groups (according to sex, age and both of them was not seen.Conclusion: The result of this study indicates on a direct relationship between tea drinking and increasing of bone mineral density. Moreover, it shows the prevalence of osteoporosis is lower in people who have a regular daily habit of tea consumption

  14. Low Bone Mineral Density, Regardless of HIV Status, in Men Who Have Sex With Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, M.L.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.N.M.; Stolte, I.G.; Prins, M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Reiss, P.; Prins, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported among men with primary or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To gain further insight into the contribution of HIV infection, we compared the BMD of 41 men who have sex with men (MSM) with primary HIV infection,

  15. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to establish a triage cut-off point or threshold for peripheral bone mineral density (BMD), applicable to black postmenopausal women, and that could be used as a screening method to differentiate between women with normal BMD, and those with possible central osteoporosis.

  16. Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); V. Forgetta (Vincenzo); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Rosello-Diez (Alberto); P.J. Leo (Paul); C.L. Dahia (Chitra L.); K.H. Park-Min (Kyung Hyun); J.H. Tobias (Jon); C. Kooperberg (Charles); A. Kleinman (Aaron); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); C. Uggla (Charlotta); D.S. Evans (Daniel); C. Nielson (Carrie); K. Walter (Klaudia); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); S. McCarthy (Shane); J. Eriksson (Joel); T. Kwan (Tony); M. Jhamai (Mila); K. Trajanoska (Katerina); Y. Memari (Yasin); J.L. Min (Josine L.); J. Huang (Jie); P. Danecek (Petr); B. Wilmot (Beth); R. Li (Rui); W.-C. Chou (Wen-Chi); L.E. Mokry (Lauren E.); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); M. Claussnitzer (Melina); C.-H. Cheng (Chia-Ho); W. Cheung (Warren); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); B. Ge (Bing); S.-H. Chen (Shu-Huang); K. Choi (Kunho); L. Oei (Ling); J. Fraser (James); R. Kraaij (Robert); M.A. Hibbs (Matthew A.); C.L. Gregson (Celia L.); D. Paquette (Denis); A. Hofman (Albert); C. Wibom (Carl); G.J. Tranah (Gregory); M. Marshall (Mhairi); B.B. Gardiner (Brooke B.); K. Cremin (Katie); P. Auer (Paul); L. Hsu (Li); S. Ring (Susan); J.Y. Tung (Joyce Y.); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A.W. Enneman (Anke); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); B. Melin (Beatrice); J.P. Kemp (John); C. Christiansen; I. Sayers (Ian); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); S. Calderari (Sophie); J. Van Rooij (Jeroen); C. Carlson (Chris); U. Peters (Ulrike); S. Berlivet (Soizik); J. Dostie (Josée); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.R. Williams (Stephen R.); C. Farber (Charles); D. Grinberg (Daniel); A.Z. LaCroix (Andrea); J. Haessler (Jeff); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Giulianini (Franco); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.A. Eisman (John); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); X. Nogues (Xavier); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); L.J. Launer (Lenore); V. Gudnason (Vilmunder); D. Mellström (Dan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); N. Amin (Najaf); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M. Karlsson (Magnus); O. Ljunggren (Östen); O. Svensson (Olle); G. Hallmans (Göran); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); S. Giroux (Sylvie); J. Bussière (Johanne); P.P. Arp (Pascal); F. Koromani (Fjorda); R.L. Prince (Richard L.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); A.P. Hermann (A. Pernille); J.-E.B. Jensen (Jens-Erik B.); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); K.T. Khaw; J. Reeve (Jonathan); M.M. Formosa (Melissa M.); A. Xuereb-Anastasi (Angela); K. Åkesson (Kristina); F.E. McGuigan; G. Garg (Gaurav); D. Olmos (David); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); J.A. Riancho (José); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); N. Alonso (Nerea); X. Jiang (Xi); D. Goltzman (David); T. Pastinen (Tomi); E. Grundberg (Elin); D. Gauguier (Dominique); E.S. Orwoll (Eric); D. Karasik (David); G.D. Smith; G.D. Smith; K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M.T. Maurano (Matthew T.); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); N. Soranzo (Nicole); R. Durbin (Richard); S.G. Wilson (Scott); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); D.A. Hinds (David A.); T.D. Spector (Timothy); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C.M.T. Greenwood (Celia); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); D.W. Rowe (David W.); C.A. Loomis (Cynthia A.); D.M. Evans (David M.); C.L. Ackert-Bicknell (Cheryl); A.L. Joyner (Alexandra L.); E.L. Duncan (Emma); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.B. Richards (Brent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures,

  17. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from Hologic...

  18. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone mineral density and postoperative migration of humeral head resurfacing implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Klebe, Thomas Martin; Døssing, Kaj Verner

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant migration, bone mineral density (BMD), length of glenohumeral offset (LGHO), and clinical results were compared for the Copeland (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Global C.A.P. (DePuy Int, Warsaw, IN, USA) humeral head resurfacing implants (HHRIs). METHODS: The study...

  19. Low bone mineral density, regardless of HIV status, in men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, Marlous L.; Vrouenraets, Saskia M. E.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Prins, Maria; Lips, Paul; Reiss, Peter; Prins, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported among men with primary or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To gain further insight into the contribution of HIV infection, we compared the BMD of 41 men who have sex with men (MSM) with primary HIV infection,

  20. Effects of mometasone, fluticasone, and montelukast on bone mineral density in adults with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maspero, Jorge; Backer, Vibeke; Yao, Ruji

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with bone mineral density (BMD) loss have not been characterized consistently. OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind study assessed effects of mometasone furoate (MF) administered via dry powder inhaler on BMD of patients with persistent...

  1. Analysis of bone mass density of lumbar spine zone of athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate T-Z scores of lumbar spine zone (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4) bone mass density (BMD) of elite active male athletes in different branches and to determine the differences between them. 42 healthy male athletes aged 18 - 25 competing in different branches (Taekwondo 12, wrestling 8, Judo ...

  2. Internal fixation for displaced fractures of the femoral neck - Does bone density affect clinical outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetveld, M. J.; Raaymakers, E. L. F. B.; van Eck-Smit, B. L.; van Walsum, A. D. P.; Luitse, J. S. K.

    2005-01-01

    The results of meta-analysis show a revision rate of 33% for internal fixation of displaced fractures of the femoral neck, mostly because of nonunion. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are highly prevalent in elderly patients. Bone density has been shown to correlate with the intrinsic stability of the

  3. Hyperinsulinemia and bone mineral density in an elderly population : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; VanDaele, PLA; Pols, HAP; Burger, H; Hofman, A; Birkenhager, JC; Lamberts, SWJ; Grobbee, DE

    We studied the association between insulin and glucose levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a population based study of 5931 elderly men and women, Serum insulin was measured 2 h after a nonfasting oral glucose load in subjects not using antidiabetes medication, BMD was measured by dual-energy

  4. Maternal Obesity, 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Concentration, and Bone Density in Breastfeeding Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Penfield-Cyr, Annie; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and bone density in mother-infant pairs. The study was a secondary analysis of 234 exclusively breastfeeding dyads who were recruited in the first postpartum month for a randomized controlled trial of maternal vs infant vitamin D supplementation. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD) were compared by BMI group. The adjusted association between maternal BMI and 25(OH)D and bone density was examined at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum. Obese breastfeeding women had lower 25(OH)D concentrations and higher BMD than lean women at all 3 time points (P  BMD at the same time points (β = 0.006 BMD z score; 95% CI 0.003, 0.01 at 1 month). Seventy-six percent of infants were vitamin D deficient at 1 month of age. Infants born to overweight and obese mothers had lower 25(OH)D concentrations than infants of lean mothers (P obesity is associated with lower maternal and infant serum 25(OH)D concentrations, which may impact infant bone density. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00412074. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.D.; Graham, J.; Farnell, D.J.J.; Harrison, E.J.; Jacobs, R.; Nicopoulou-Karyianni, K.; Lindh, C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Horner, K.; Devlin, H.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  6. BONE-DENSITY IN NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES-MELLITUS - THE ROTTERDAM STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDAELE, PLA; STOLK, RP; BURGER, H; ALGRA, D; GROBBEE, DE; HOFMAN, A; BIRKENHAGER, JC; POLS, HAP

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relation between noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and hip. Design: Population-based study with a cross-sectional survey, Setting: A district of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants: 5931 residents (2481 men, 3450

  7. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-15

    Sep 15, 2011 ... Original Research: Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of central osteoporosis. 79. 2012 Volume 17 No 2. JEMDSA remain significantly higher.11 Furthermore, in addition to an increased life expectancy (osteoporosis risk factor), lifestyle behaviours generally associated with.

  8. Selenium status is positively associated with bone mineral density in healthy aging European men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Beukhof (Carolien); M. Medici (Marco); A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); Birgit Hollenbach (B.); A. Hoeg (Antonia); W.E. Visser (Wil Edward); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); T.J. Visser (Theo); L. Schomburg (Lutz); R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status

  9. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown.

  10. Computerized determination of 3-D connectivity density in human iliac crest bone biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J.S.; Mosekilde, Li.; Barlach, J.

    1996-01-01

    Combining the physical disector principle with an algorithm for automatic non-linear alignment of disector pairs we have developed a software system for direct measurement of 3D connectivity densities in iliac crest bone biopsies. The method was applied to biopsies from 14 non-selected autopsy...

  11. Analysis of bone mass density of lumbar spine zone of athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... This study was carried out to evaluate T-Z scores of lumbar spine zone (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4) bone mass density (BMD) of elite active male athletes in different branches and to determine the differences between them. 42 healthy male athletes aged 18 - 25 competing in different branches (Taekwondo 12,.

  12. Relationships of muscle strength and bone mineral density in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-L; Lin, K-C; Wu, C-Y; Ke, J-Y; Wang, C-J; Chen, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The knee extensor strength, but not motor function, was related to aBMD. Thus, muscle strength, especially antigravity muscle strength, was more associated with aBMD in these children than motor function. Muscle strength is related to bone density in normal children. However, no studies have examined these relationships in ambulatory children with CP. This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and aBMD in ambulatory children with CP. Forty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP, aged 5-15 years, were classified into two groups based on Gross Motor Function Classification System levels: I (n = 28) and II (n = 20). Another 31 normal development (ND) children were recruited as the comparison group for the aBMD. Children with CP underwent assessments of growth, lumbar and distal femur aBMD, Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66), and muscle strength of knee extensor and flexor by isokinetic dynamometer. The distal femur aBMD, but not lumbar aBMD, was lower in children with CP than in ND children (p antigravity muscle strength, were more associated with the bone density of ambulatory children with CP than motor function. The data may allow clinicians for early identifying the ambulatory CP children of potential low bone density.

  13. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  14. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  15. Adipokines may mediate the relationship between resting metabolic rates and bone mineral densities in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, S; Mirzaei, K; Abdurahman, A A; Keshavarz, S A

    2017-05-01

    The researchers sought to test the possible link between resting metabolic rate and bone mineral density through four adipokines. Participants with lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) per kilogram demonstrated higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total T-score, and total Z-score. Omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR/kg of body weight and bone parameters. The previous results of studies regarding the links between obesity and bone health are controversial. For this reason, the researchers sought to test the possible link between RMR and BMD through the following four adipokines: vaspin, retinol binding protein 4, angiopoietin-like 6 (ANGPL6), and omentin-1. We enrolled 312 obese Iranian women (30 ≤ body mass index BMD, the participants were grouped based on RMR per body weight. Body composition, dietary intake, bone mineral density, and resting metabolic rate were assessed in all participants. Serum adipokine levels were quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Low levels of RMR/kg were strongly associated with higher weight, body mass index, fat mass, and visceral fat levels. In fact, participants with an RMR/kg of body weight obese (p BMD, total T-score, and total Z-score. Our results showed that omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR per kilogram of body weight and bone parameters (p BMD (p > 0.05). The inhibitory effect of omentin-1 on TNF-alpha seems to be able to reduce the amount of circulating leptin as adipokine, affecting energy expenditure and improving bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and controlled effect of RMR on BMD.

  16. Role of Fat and Bone Biomarkers in the Relationship Between Ethnicity and Bone Mineral Density in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace M F; Riandini, Tessa; Ng, Sheryl Hui Xian; Goh, Su Yen; Tan, Chuen Seng; Tai, E Shyong; Duque, Gustavo; Ng, Alvin Choon-Meng; Venkataraman, Kavita

    2017-10-20

    Osteoporosis is an important health issue for older adults, and has been relatively understudied in older men. This study aimed to examine ethnic differences in bone mineral density (BMD), and elucidate the role of bone turnover markers (BTMs), fat and fat biomarkers on these ethnic differences. BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, marrow fat at femoral neck, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue, bone and fat biomarkers were evaluated in 120 healthy men aged ≥ 60 years. Indians had higher BMD values compared to Chinese at the lumbar spine (β = 20.336, SE = 4.749, p fat composition and lifestyle choices. Marrow fat, VAT and adiponectin were independent predictors of BMD. However, these factors did not explain the lower BMD observed in older Chinese men. Our findings suggest that older Chinese men are at significant risk of osteoporotic fractures due to lower BMD. Fat appears to be a key factor associated with lower BMD, and warrants further longitudinal studies to elucidate the complex interactions between adipose tissue and bone strength.

  17. Serum sclerostin levels associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-ping; Lu, Fu-rong; Zhu, Rui; Shuai, Bo; Li, Cheng-gang; Wu, Man-xiang

    2013-07-01

    Sclerostin, expressed exclusively by osteocytes, is a negative regulator of bone formation. To gain insights into the action of sclerostin in postmenopausal osteoporosis, we evaluated serum sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women and investigated its possible associations with bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We detected serum sclerostin, and measured lumbar spine bone mineral density in 650 Chinese postmenopausal women. We also assessed serum levels of β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol. Serum sclerostin levels were lower in postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared with non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women ((38.79 ± 7.43) vs. (52.86 ± 6.69) pmol/L, P osteoporosis. There was no significant association of serum sclerostin with age, body mass index, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol (r = -0.004, P = 0.926; r = 0.067, P = 0.143; r = 0.063, P = 0.165; r = -0.045, P = 0.324; respectively). Sclerostin may be involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and may play a role in bone turnover.

  18. Discordant effect of body mass index on bone mineral density and speed of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagag Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased BMI may affect the determination of bone mineral density (BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and speed of sound (SOS measured across bones. Preliminary data suggest that axial SOS is less affected by soft tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI on BMD and SOS measured along bones. Methods We compared axial BMD determined by DXA with SOS along the phalanx, radius and tibia in 22 overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2, and 11 lean (BMI = 21 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion determined bone turnover. Results Mean femoral neck – but not lumbar spine BMD was higher in the overweight – as compared with the lean group (0.70 ± 0.82, -0.99 ± 0.52, P P Conclusions The high BMI of postmenopausal women may result in spuriously high BMD. SOS measured along bones may be a more appropriate means for evaluating bones of overweight women.

  19. EFFECTS OF TAEKWONDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Young Ho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bone fractures has increased in the current decade due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, or the amount of mineralized bone, is an important determinant of risk for bone fractures. Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Taekwondo, a Korean martial art, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of taekwondo training on the bone health of female high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to clarify the relationships between body weight and BMD in this sample. Thirty taekwondo players (TKD and 30 sedentary high school girls (CON voluntarily participated in the present study and were split into three groups by weight: light weight (L under 51 kg; middle weight (M between 51 and under 57 kg; and heavy weight (H over 57 kg. BMD was determined from dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, and percent body fat was measured by the skin-fold method. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were not significantly different between light, middle and heavy body weight groups. However, the average BMD in the TKD group was significantly greater than in the CON group for all lumbar spine regions (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest that taekwondo training during growth significantly improved bone health in all weight groups.

  20. Relationship of focal erosions, bone mineral density, and parathyroid hormone in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Maurizio; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frediani, Bruno; Iagnocco, Annamaria; LA Montagna, Giovanni; Minisola, Giovanni; Caminiti, Maurizio; Varenna, Massimo; Adami, Silvano

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relationship among focal bone erosions and bone mineral density (BMD), 25(OH) vitamin D (25OHD), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) values in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 1191 RA patients (1014 women, 177 men, mean age 58.9 ± 11.1 yrs) participating in a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Radiographic evidence of typical bony erosions on hands or forefeet was found in 64.1% of patients. In those with bone erosions as compared to those without, mean BMD Z score values were significantly lower at both the spine (-0.74 ± 1.19 vs -0.46 ± 1.31; p = 0.05) and the hip (-0.72 ± 1.07 vs -0.15 ± 1.23; p mineral metabolism factors (i.e., age, sex, menopause, disease duration, Disease Activity Score 28-joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire, activities of daily living, Steinbrocker functional state, glucocorticoid therapy, body weight, and bisphosphonate treatment). Our results suggest that the presence of bone erosions in RA correlates with low BMD levels and high PTH levels, and that these associations are independent of the degree of functional impairment and other common determinants of bone mass and mineral metabolism in adults with RA. These findings suggest that treatments to prevent bone loss or suppress PTH levels might positively affect the progression of bone erosions in RA.

  1. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  2. Bone tissue stiffness in the mandibular condyle is dependent on the direction and density of the cancellous structure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijden, T.M. van; Ruijven, L.J. van; Giesen, E.B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Variation in the apparent stiffness of cancellous bone is generally ascribed to variation in cancellous structure and density, while the bone tissue stiffness is assumed to be constant. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the bone tissue stiffness is dependent on the direction

  3. Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estrogen defi ciency after menopause leads to accelerated loss of bone mass. The aim of this study was to examine influence of physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: This prospective study included 100 postmenopausal women, ages between 50 and 65, living in Sarajevo area without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. To assess level of physical activity an International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form was used.Results: In the examination group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen deficit, level of physical activity was low in 52.00% female, and in 48.00% women level of physical activity was moderate. In the control group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen defi cit in 10.00% female level of physical activity was low, and in 90.00% female level of physical activity was moderate. The difference in levels of physical activity between the two groups was statistically significant, X2 test = 20.6, p <0.005.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that moderate physical activity has positive impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen defi ciency in menstrual history and has the potential to reduce rapid bone loss after menopause.

  4. Timing of low bone mineral density and predictors of bone mineral density trajectory in children on long-term warfarin: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, M L; Pullenayegum, E; Williams, S; Shammas, A; Stimec, J; Sochett, E; Marr, K; Brandão, L R

    2016-04-01

    We studied bone mineral density (BMD) of children exposed to long-term warfarin. BMD Z-scores ≤ -2.0 were estimated to occur in less than one fifth of the patients after 10 years of warfarin exposure, and BMI and growth hormone deficiency predicted BMD changes over time. These predictors can help identify high-risk patients. Children with chronic diseases are at increased risk of developing thrombosis, which may require long-term warfarin therapy. Warfarin could further jeopardize the bone health of a population already at risk for bone fragility. Our objective was to investigate the occurrence and timing of low bone mineral density (BMD) and the predictors that influence BMD trajectory in children receiving warfarin for >1 year. We analyzed the results of an institutional protocol that includes dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, with or without spinal X-rays and laboratory biomarkers, as required. Low BMD (age, sex, race, and height-for-age-Z-score adjusted BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0) was detected in 13 % (9/70) of the patients at some point during their follow-up; these patients were more likely to have complex underlying medical conditions and low body mass index (BMI) percentile. BMD Z-scores remained within normal range in 87 % of children. Survival analysis showed that the estimated 10-year abnormal BMD-free rate for the entire group was 81 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 69 to 93 %). Trajectory analysis revealed that BMI percentiles at baseline and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were associated with lower BMD Z-scores at the first assessment, whereas baseline BMI percentile was the only predictor of BMD Z-score over time. Our findings identified BMI and GHD as risk factors influencing BMD in children exposed to long-term warfarin, creating an opportunity for early detection and intervention in these patients.

  5. Deriving tissue density and elastic modulus from microCT bone scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David W; Lindsey, Derek P; Beaupre, Gary S

    2011-11-01

    Tissue level density and elastic modulus are intrinsic properties that can be used to quantify bone material and analyses incorporating those quantities have been used to evaluate bone on a macroscopic scale. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) technology has been used to construct tissue level finite element models to simulate macroscopic fracture strength, however, a single method for assigning voxel-specific tissue density and elastic modulus based on those data has not been universally accepted. One method prevalent in the literature utilizes an empirical relationship that derives tissue stiffness as a function of bone calcium content weight fraction. To derive calcium content weight fraction from microCT scans, a measure of tissue density is required and a constant value is traditionally used. However, experimental data suggest a non-trivial amount of tissue heterogeneity suggesting a constant tissue density may not be appropriate. A theoretical derivation for determining the relationship between voxel-specific tissue density and microCT scan data (i.e., microCT derived tissue mineral density (TMD), mgHA/cm(3)) and bone constituent properties is proposed. Constant model parameters used in the derivation include the density of water, ash, and organics (i.e., bone constituents) and the volume fraction of the organics constituent. The effect of incorporating the theoretically derived tissue density (instead of a constant value) in determining voxel-specific elastic modulus resulted in a maximum observed increase of 12GPa (5.9GPa versus 17.9GPa, for the constant value and derived tissue density formulations, respectively) for a measured TMD of 1.02gHA/cm(3). Average and bounding quantities for the four constant model parameters were defined from the literature and the influence of those values on the derived tissue density and elastic modulus relationships were also evaluated. The theoretical relationships of tissue density and elastic modulus, with the average

  6. Changes in Local Bone Density in Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Joseph J; McQuillan, Thomas J; Halilaj, Eni; Crisco, Joseph J; Weiss, Arnold-Peter; Patel, Tarpit; Kenney, Deborah; Ladd, Amy L

    2018-01-01

    Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) represents a major source of functional morbidity. The effects of early CMC OA on loading and use patterns potentially lead to changes in local bone density and microarchitecture. Hounsfield units (HU), a quantitative attenuation coefficient obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans, have been shown to be a reliable marker of bone density. We hypothesized that early CMC OA is associated with lower local bone density about the CMC joint as assessed by HU. We examined HU units from CT scans in 23 asymptomatic subjects and 91 patients with early CMC OA. The HU measurements were obtained within cancellous portions of the trapezium, capitate, first and third metacarpal bases, and distal radius. Linear regression models, with age and sex included as covariates, were used to assess the relationship between CMC OA and HU values at each anatomical site. Early OA patients had significantly lower HU than asymptomatic subjects within the trapezium (mean, 377 HU vs 436 HU) and first metacarpal bases (265 HU vs 324 HU). No significant group differences were noted at the capitate, third metacarpal, or distal radius. Male sex and younger age were associated with significantly higher HU at all the anatomical sites, except the first metacarpal base, where age had no significant effect. Subjects presenting with early CMC OA had significantly lower bone density as assessed with HU at the thumb CMC joint (trapezium and first metacarpal base). Early thumb CMC OA and discomfort may lead to diminished loading across the basal joint, producing focal disuse osteopenia. These findings in symptomatic early arthritis suggest a relationship between symptoms, functional use of the CMC joint, and local bone density. Diagnostic II. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Changes in bone mineral density of postmenopausal women in relation to the menstrual cycle length].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchev, E; Dimitrakova, E

    2010-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between the age of menarche, the length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding and fracture risk in the postmenopausal period. Evaluation of the menstrual cycle length and lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. We investigated three groups of postmenopausal women (each - n = 50). The first group included women with menstrual duration of 27 days during reproductive age, the second group included postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 28 days during the reproductive age, and the third group consisted of postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 30 days during reproductive age. The average age of women was 58.80 +/- 0.94 y. in the first group, 60.36 +/- 5.12 y. in the second group and -61.84 +/- 0.80 y. in the third group. Age, age of menarche, number of childbirths, length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding, and lumbar bone density were assessed and registered for each woman. We used DXA in a anterior-posterior projection to assess the bone density of the lumbar spine; the obtained results are shown in gram/cm2. The women from the third group, with average menstrual cycle length of 30 days, reach menopause at a significantly later age, have longer menstrual cycle and shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density, compared to the other two groups. The data from our research show that women with anamnesis for average normal menstrual cycle length of 30 days reach menopausal period at a significantly later age, have shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density compared to those with shorter menstrual cycle duration (27 and 28 days).

  8. Relation between obesity and bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in Korean postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Chol; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Sei-Young; Im, Jee-Aee; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2010-11-01

    The traditional belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has been questioned. Recent epidemiologic studies show that body fat itself may be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome and the individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are also risk factors for low bone mineral density. Using a cross sectional study design, we evaluated the associations between obesity or metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) or vertebral fracture. A total of 907 postmenopausal healthy female subjects, aged 60-79 years, were recruited from woman hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. BMD, vetebral fracture, bone markers, and body composition including body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, and waist circumference were measured. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total calcium intake, and total energy intake, waist circumference was negatively related to BMD of all sites (lumbar BMD p = 0.037, all sites of femur BMD p BMD of all sites (p BMD (p = 0.016), femoral neck BMD (p = 0.0335), and femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0082). Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was positively related to femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0366) and was lower in the control group than the fracture group (p = 0.011). In contrast to the effect favorable body weight on bone mineral density, high percentage body fat and waist circumference are related to low BMD and a vertebral fracture. Some components of metabolic syndrome were related to BMD and a vertebral fracture.

  9. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women.

  10. Mineral density and bone remodelling markers in patients with calcium lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; de Haro-Munoz, Tomas; Lopez-Leon, Victor M; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Ochoa-Hortal, Miguel Angel; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; Lahoz-Garcia, Clara; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Hypercalciuria is related with bone mineral density loss. This study demonstrates the relationship between recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and bone mineral density loss and their correlation with bone markers. • To show that a relationship exists between the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and calcium renal lithiasis and that bone remodelling markers correlate with changes in BMD. • It is possible that many cases hypercalciuria are related to the increase of bone turnover and the predominance of bone resorption phenomena. • The present study comprised a transversal investigation in three groups: group O, without lithiasis; group A, with a single episode of lithiasis; and group B, with relapsed calcium renal lithiasis. • An analysis was made of body mass index; abdominal X-ray and/or urography and renal ultrasonography; osteocalcin and β-crosslaps bone markers; calcium and citrate concentrations in the urine; and femur and spinal column bone densitometry. • The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficient. • Patients with relapsed calcium renal lithiasis present a greater BMD loss than those in the O or A groups. • Densitometry: T-score femur -0.2 group O, -0.5 group A, -1.2 group B (P= 0.001); T-score column -0.6 group O, -0.6 group A, -1.3 group B (P= 0.05). • A statistically significant negative correlation exists between values of β-crosslaps and T-score femur (R=-0.251; P= 0.009) and T-score column (R=-0.324; P= 0.001); thus, a higher concentration of β-crosslaps was accompanied by a lower value of the T-score and a greater loss of BMD. • A positive relationship is observed between β-crosslaps and osteocalcin (R= 0.611; P lithiasis. • Determination of bone remodelling markers (i.e. osteocalcin and β-crosslaps) facilitates the diagnosis of osteopaenia/osteoporosis in these patients. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  11. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (pperiodontitis with 2/3 alveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  12. Association of Protein Intake with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content among Elderly Women: The OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, M; Sirola, J; Mursu, J; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Erkkilä, A T

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high protein intakes are associated with lower bone mineral content (BMC). Previous studies yield conflicting results and thus far no studies have undertaken the interaction of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with protein intakes in relation to BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the associations of dietary total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with BMC and BMD and their changes. We tested also the interactions of protein intake with, obesity (BMI ≤30 vs. >30 kg/m2) and physical activity level (passive vs. active). Design/ Setting: Prospective cohort study (Osteoporosis Risk-Factor and Fracture-Prevention Study). Participants/measures: At the baseline, 554 women aged 65-72 years filled out a 3-day food record and a questionnaire covering data on lifestyle, physical activity, diseases, and medications. Intervention group received calcium 1000 mg/d and cholecalciferol 800 IU for 3 years. Control group received neither supplementation nor placebo. Bone density was measured at baseline and year 3, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between protein intake and BMD and BMC. In cross-sectional analyses energy-adjusted TP (P≤0·029) and AP (P≤0·045) but not PP (g/d) were negatively associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD and BMC. Women with TP≥1·2 g/kg/body weight (BW) (Ptrend≤0·009) had lower FN, lumbar spine (LS) and total BMD and BMC. In follow-up analysis, TP (g/kg/BW) was inversely associated with LS BMD and LS BMC. The detrimental associations were stronger in women with BMIassociated with LS BMD and FN BMC changes. This study suggests detrimental associations between protein intake and bone health. However, these negative associations maybe counteracted by BMI>30 kg/m2 and physical activity.

  13. Influence of Estrogen Receptor α Polymorphisms on Bone Density in Response to Habitual Exercise in Japanese Postmenopausal Women

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    Hiroyo Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor α (ERα is one of candidate genes for osteoporosis. This study examined the influence of ERα gene, PvuII, and XbaI genotypes on bone density of calcaneus in response to habitual exercise. ERα polymorphisms were detected using PvuII and XbaI restriction enzymes in 316 Japanese postmenopausal women. The bone density was significantly lower in the women carrying PP, pp, or xx genotype without habitual exercise than in the age-matched women without those genotypes. The women carrying Pp genotype without habitual exercise had normal bone density compared to those without Pp genotype. The women carrying PPxx or ppxx polymorphism without habitual exercise had low bone density compared to those with habitual exercise. Thus, the reduction of bone density was attenuated in the women carrying PPxx or ppxx with habitual exercise. In addition, habitual exercise was highly effective for the bone density in the women carrying xx homozygote. These findings indicate that analyses of XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of ERα may be useful to predict the effect of exercise on bone density, and habitual exercise attenuates the reduction of bone density in women with some genotypes.

  14. Bone mineral density, growth, pubertal development and other parameters in Brazilian children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwes, M.; Souza de Carvalho, T. F.; Cipolotti, R.; Gurgel, R. Q.; Ferrão, T. O.; Peters, M.; Agyemang, C.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratorial characteristics in children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia living in Northeast-Brazil, and to assess the role of radiography in diagnosing low BMD. Bone mineral density of

  15. Relation of bone mineral density and content to mineral content and density of the fat-free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E M; Prior, B M; Arngrimsson, S A; Modlesky, C M; Cureton, K J

    2001-11-01

    Differences in the mineral fraction of the fat-free mass (M(FFM)) and in the density of the FFM (D(FFM)) are often inferred from measures of bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD). We studied the relation of BMC and BMD to the M(FFM) and D(FFM) in a heterogeneous sample of 216 young men (n = 115) and women (n = 101), which included whites (n = 155) and blacks (n = 61) and collegiate athletes ( n = 132) and nonathletes (n = 84). Whole body BMC and BMD were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Hologic QDR-1000W, enhanced whole body analysis software, version 5.71). FFM was estimated using a four-component model from measures of body density by hydrostatic weighing, body water by deuterium dilution, and bone mineral by DXA. There was no significant relation of BMD to M(FFM) (r = 0.01) or D(FFM) (r = -0.06) or of BMC to M(FFM) (r = -0.11) and a significant, weak negative relation of BMC to D(FFM) (r = -0.14, P = 0.04) in all subjects. Significant low to moderate relationships of BMD or BMC to M(FFM) or D(FFM) were found within some gender-race-athletic status subgroups or when the effects of gender, race, and athletic status were held constant using multiple regression, but BMD and BMC explained only 10-17% of the variance in M(FFM) and 0-2% of the variance in D(FFM) in addition to that explained by the demographic variables. We conclude that there is not a significant positive relation of BMD and BMC to M(FFM) or D(FFM) in young adults and that BMC and BMD should not be used to infer differences in M(FFM) or D(FFM).

  16. Bone mineral content (bmc and bone mineral density (bmd in postmenopausal women formerly practising kayaking and fencing

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    B Raczyńska

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was aimed at answering the following questions: 1 Can a prolonged career in sports associated with considerable training loads, in conjunction with other osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present, affect the bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD of the former female athletes in their postmenopausal period of life?, and 2 How does the present lifestyle of the tested women, including physical activity and diet (calcium intake, influence the preservation of the optimal bone mass in these subjects? The postmenopausal subjects recruited to the present study included 15 former athletes (ten kayakers and five fencers and 11 women who never actively engaged in sports (control group. BMC (g and BMD (g/cm2 were densitometrically determined in the lumbar segment (L2-L4 of the spine, and the bone stiffness coefficient was ultrasonically determined in calcaneus. The effects of the osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present were estimated from individual replies to the questionnaire inquiries about the past career in sports, present physical activity, gonadal dysfunctions (dysmenorrhoea during the career and the present need for hormonal supplementary treatment, and the current dietary patterns. The results indicate that mean BMC and BMD values detected in the former athletes did not differ significant from those obtained in the non-athlete, control women: the BMC values equalled to 54.5±10.5, 52.6±14.6, and 46.5±3.2 g in the kayakers, the fencers, and the control women, respectively, while the respective BMD values were 1.05±0.45, 0.96±0.66, and 1.08±0.58 g/cm2. The questionnaire-based studies showed that neither the former female athletes nor the non-athlete controls exhibited in the past longer (i.e., lasting more than three months periods of hormonal disorders (amenorrhoea. As assessed from the dietary intake, only in the former fencers the diet covered the demand for calcium in 100%. In conclusion

  17. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    pQCT system from Stratec XCT Research. The mice were anesthetized using a solution of sterile water, ketamine (16.6 mg/mL), and xylazine (3.3 mg/mL). The...Trizol was added to each sample and ground until it became a finer powder. This fine bone powder were removed from the cold mortar using a sterile razor...were infertile while mice with deficiency in either midkine or PTN gene were able to produce similar number of offspring [27]. Another study has shown

  18. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

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    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  19. Effect of Denosumab on Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

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    A. Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of denosumab (Dmab on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of Dmab in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior was analyzed. This retrospective study included 425 postmenopausal women treated with Dmab for 1 year in clinical practice conditions in specialized centers from Argentina. Participants were also divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment into BP-naïve and BP-prior. A control group of patients treated with BP not switched to Dmab matched by sex, age, and body mass index was used. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with Dmab the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly decreased (23.36% and 43.97%, resp., as was the bone resorption marker s-CTX (69.61%. Significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip without differences between BP-naïve and BP-prior. A better BMD response was found in BP-prior group compared with BP treated patients not switched to Dmab. Conclusion. Dmab treatment increased BMD and decreased bone turnover markers in the whole group, with similar response in BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. A better BMD response in BP-prior patients versus BP treated patients not switched to Dmab was observed.

  20. Bone attenuation on routine chest CT correlates with bone mineral density on DXA in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romme, Elisabeth A P M; Murchison, John T; Phang, Kee F; Jansen, Frits H; Rutten, Erica P A; Wouters, Emiel F M; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Van Beek, Edwin J R; Macnee, William

    2012-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although primarily a disease of the lungs, is associated with extrapulmonary effects such as muscle weakness and osteoporosis. Fractures owing to osteoporosis cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with COPD. To prevent osteoporotic fractures, it is important to diagnose osteoporosis in an early stage and to start anti-osteoporotic therapy in at-risk patients. Because routine chest computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to assess the extent of emphysema and airways disease in patients with COPD, we investigated whether simple attenuation measurement of the thoracic spine on routine chest CT may provide useful information on bone health in patients with COPD. Fifty-eight patients with moderate to very severe COPD were included in our study. The average attenuation of thoracic vertebrae 4, 7, and 10 on chest CT was correlated with the lowest bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and lumbar spine (L(1) to L(4)) on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in patients with COPD. The inter- and intra-observer variabilities of the attenuation measurements were low as shown by Bland-Altman plots. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the average attenuation of the three thoracic vertebrae and the lowest BMD of the hip and lumbar spine was high (r = 0.827, p bone attenuation measured on routine chest CT correlated strongly with BMD assessed on DXA in patients with COPD. Routine chest CT may provide useful information on bone health in patients with COPD. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  1. A long-term study of bone mineral density in patients with phenylketonuria under diet therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hala M.; Abdallah Ismail, Nagwa; Kamel, Ashraf F.; Ahmed, Azza M; Saad-Hussein, Amal; Effat, Laila K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dietary control of classic phenylketonuria (PKU) needs restriction of natural proteins; adequate protein intake is achieved by adding low phenylalanine (phe) formulae. The adequacy of this diet for normal bone mineralization had not been sufficiently evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate and follow up bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with PKU within a 2-year time interval to assess the adequacy of a phenylalanine restricted diet for bone mineralization and to search for a possible relationship between BMD, dietary control and blood phenylalanine (phe) concentrations. Material and methods Thirty-two patients with classic PKU (3-19 years) were evaluated for their bone mineral status using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) both at the beginning (baseline) and the end (follow-up) of the study. Results Low BMD was detected in 31.25% at the start and in 6.25% of patients after 2 years follows-up. No relationship was found between BMD and the duration of diet compliance and phe level as well. Conclusions In this study the low BMD detected in our patients was both at baseline and follow-up independent of diet restriction. A yearly DEXA would be highly beneficial for early detection and treatment, thus preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures. We also suggest the importance of searching for new emerging therapies such as enzyme substitution or gene therapy as low protein diet compliance was not enough to maintain normal bone mineral density. PMID:22295034

  2. Changes in bone mineral density are correlated with bone markers and reductions in hot flush severity in postmenopausal women treated with bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John Christopher; Shi, Harry; Mirkin, Sebastian; Chines, Arkadi A

    2013-11-01

    A post hoc exploratory analysis was conducted to examine correlations between changes in bone density, bone markers, and hot flushes after the treatment of postmenopausal women with bazedoxifene (BZA)/conjugated estrogens (CE). In a 2-year phase 3 study, 3,397 postmenopausal women were randomized to BZA 10 mg/CE 0.45 mg, BZA 20 mg/CE 0.45 mg, BZA 40 mg/CE 0.45 mg, BZA 10 mg/CE 0.625 mg, BZA 20 mg/CE 0.625 mg, BZA 40 mg/CE 0.625 mg, raloxifene 60 mg, or placebo. In this analysis, bone density changes at 2 years were compared with baseline levels of the bone markers serum C-telopeptide and osteocalcin. Correlations between changes in bone density and changes in 12-week hot flush composite scores in symptomatic women were also analyzed. Treatment with BZA 20 mg/CE 0.45 mg or BZA 20 mg/CE 0.625 mg increased lumbar spine bone density more in women with higher bone resorption and formation, categorized by baseline levels of C-telopeptide and osteocalcin (P hot flush score at week 12 and percent changes in lumbar spine (r = -0.31, P = 0.006) and total hip (r = -0.23, P = 0.044) bone densities at month 24. With 2-year BZA/CE treatment, women with larger increases in lumbar spine and total hip densities also have higher baseline bone markers. Early reductions in hot flush score (12 wk) are predictive of long-term increases in bone density (24 mo).

  3. The prediction of cyclic proximal humerus fracture fixation failure by various bone density measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Peter; Grünwald, Leonard; Windolf, Markus

    2018-02-22

    Fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures has remained challenging, but may be improved by careful pre-operative planning. The aim of this study was to investigate how well the failure of locking plate fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures can be predicted by bone density measures assessed with currently available clinical imaging (realistic case) and a higher resolution and quality modality (theoretical best-case). Various density measures were correlated to experimentally assessed number of cycles to construct failure of plated unstable low-density proximal humerus fractures (N = 18). The influence of density evaluation technique was investigated by comparing local (peri-implant) versus global evaluation regions; HR-pQCT-based versus clinical QCT-based image data; ipsilateral versus contralateral side; and bone mineral content (BMC) versus bone mineral density (BMD). All investigated density measures were significantly correlated with the experimental cycles to failure. The best performing clinically feasible parameter was the QCT-based BMC of the contralateral articular cap region, providing significantly better correlation (R 2  = 0.53) compared to a previously proposed clinical density measure (R 2  = 0.30). BMC had consistently, but not significantly stronger correlations with failure than BMD. The overall best results were obtained with the ipsilateral HR-pQCT-based local BMC (R 2  = 0.74) that may be used for implant optimization. Strong correlations were found between the corresponding density measures of the two CT image sources, as well as between the two sides. Future studies should investigate if BMC of the contralateral articular cap region could provide improved prediction of clinical fixation failure compared to previously proposed measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

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    Cherkaoui Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT in carotid artery (CA and femoral artery (FA. Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33, Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30 and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28 while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in

  5. The relationships of irisin with bone mineral density and body composition in PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Lingling; Chen, Yuxin; Liu, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Our study aims to assay the irisin level and investigate the relationships of irisin level with body mass index (BMI), body composition and bone metabolism in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women. Fifty two PCOS and 39 control women were recruited. Serum sex hormone, fasting insulin and C-peptide were tested. Fasting serum irisin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body composition and bone mineral density were assayed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Polycystic ovary syndrome women showed different body compositions compared with controls. Serum irisin level of PCOS did not show significant difference compared with controls although it was decreased. The level of adiponectin in PCOS patients was significantly reduced. BMI had no correlation with irisin level. It indicated a positive correlation between serum irisin levels and bone mineral density in the control group and a negative correlation in the PCOS group after BMI and age adjusted. Furthermore, total lean mass has a significant effect on irisin concentration in the PCOS group. There are no correlations between adiponection and body compositions and bone mineral density in both groups. The abnormal body composition in PCOS may contribute to the circulation irisin. The crosstalk of irisin in different organs was found and may be related to disease development in PCOS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

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    Laurentiu Badescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and fat (%Fat in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (<0.05 in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX. Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (<0.001 in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis.

  7. Possible role of lymphocytes in glucocorticoid-induced increase in trabecular bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahnemo, Louise; Jochems, Caroline; Andersson, Annica; Engdahl, Cecilia; Ohlsson, Claes; Islander, Ulrika; Carlsten, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids is associated with osteoporosis. Many of the treated patients are postmenopausal women, who even without treatment have an increased risk of osteoporosis. Lymphocytes have been shown to play a role in postmenopausal and arthritis-induced osteoporosis, and they are targeted by glucocorticoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms behind effects of glucocorticoids on bone during health and menopause, focusing on lymphocytes. Female C57BL/6 or SCID mice were therefore sham-operated or ovariectomized and 2 weeks later treatment with dexamethasone (dex), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen, or vehicle was started and continued for 2.5 weeks. At the termination of experiments, femurs were phenotyped using peripheral quantitative computed tomography and high-resolution micro-computed tomography, and markers of bone turnover were analyzed in serum. T and B lymphocyte populations in bone marrow and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Dex-treated C57BL/6 mice had increased trabecular bone mineral density, but lower cortical content and thickness compared with vehicle-treated mice. The dex-treated mice also had lower levels of bone turnover markers and markedly decreased numbers of spleen T and B lymphocytes. In contrast, these effects could not be repeated when mice were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen. In addition, dex did not increase trabecular bone in ovariectomized SCID mice lacking functional T and B lymphocytes. In contrast to most literature, the results from this study indicate that treatment with dex increased trabecular bone density, which may indicate that this effect is associated with corticosteroid-induced alterations of the lymphocyte populations. © 2015 The authors.

  8. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsisi HF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hany Farid Eid Morsy Elsisi,1 Gihan Samir Mohamed Mousa,1 Mohamed Taher Mahmoud ELdesoky2 1Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/Respiratory Disorder and Geriatrics, 2Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Background and purpose: Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF or circuit weight training (CWT on short-run basis (after 12 weeks. Patients and methods: Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT (n=15 each group. The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4 and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05. But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. Keywords: magnetic field, circuit weight training, bone mineral density, elderly women, bone mineral content, bone mass

  9. Can Hip Fracture Prediction in Women be Estimated beyond Bone Mineral Density Measurement Alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geusens, Piet; van Geel, Tineke; van den Bergh, Joop

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of hip fractures is multifactorial and includes bone and fall-related factors. Low bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD-related and BMD-independent geometric components of bone strength, evaluated by hip strength analysis (HSA) and finite element analysis analyses on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, and ultrasound parameters are related to the presence and incidence of hip fracture. In addition, clinical risk factors contribute to the risk of hip fractures, independent of BMD. They are included in the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) case finding algorithm to estimate in the individual patient the 10-year risk of hip fracture, with and without BMD. Fall risks are not included in FRAX, but are included in other case finding tools, such as the Garvan algorithm, to predict the 5- and 10-year hip fracture risk. Hormones, cytokines, growth factors, markers of bone resorption and genetic background have been related to hip fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency is endemic worldwide and low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] predict hip fracture risk. In the context of hip fracture prevention calculation of absolute fracture risk using clinical risks, BMD, bone geometry and fall-related risks is feasible, but needs further refinement by integrating bone and fall-related risk factors into a single case finding algorithm for clinical use. PMID:22870438

  10. Bone mineral density deficits in childhood cancer survivors: Pathophysiology, prevalence, screening, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis later in life. However, most childhood cancer patients have multiple risk factors for bone mineral loss. Cancer itself, malnutrition, decreased physical activity during treatment, chemotherapeutic agents such as steroids, and radiotherapy cause bone mineral deficit. Furthermore, complications such as growth hormone deficiency and musculoskeletal deformity have negative effects on bone metabolism. Low bone mineral density is associated with fractures, skeletal deformity, pain, and substantial financial burden not only for childhood cancer survivors but also for public health care systems. Thus, it is important to monitor bone health in these patients and minimize their risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life.

  11. Lycopene intake facilitates the increase of bone mineral density in growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Takeda, Satoko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yoshida, Shigeki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Intake of the antioxidant lycopene has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and have beneficial effects on bone health. However, few in vivo studies have addressed these beneficial effects in growing female rodents or young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene intake on bone metabolism through circulating oxidative stress in growing female rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into 3 groups according to the lycopene content in their diet: 0, 50, and 100 ppm. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the tibial proximal metaphysis increased with lycopene content in a dose-dependent manner; the BMD in 100 ppm group was significantly higher than in the 0 ppm group. The urine deoxypyridinoline concentrations were significantly lower in the 50 and 100 ppm groups than in the 0 ppm group, and the serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in 100 ppm group than in the 0 ppm group. No difference in systemic oxidative stress level was observed; however, the oxidative stress level inversely correlated with the tibial BMD. Our findings suggested that lycopene intake facilitates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption, leading to an increase of BMD in growing female rats.

  12. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Total Knee Replacement in Women Over the Age of 65

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Myung Hoon; Won, Ye Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few reports on bone mineral density (BMD) changes of axial bones after total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint and its results are controversial. The purpose of our study was to measure the BMD changes of hip and spine in patients receiving TKR due to severe OA and to identify clinical factors relating BMD changes. Methods Among 66 female patients above 65 years old who underwent TKR due to severe OA and checked preoperative BMD, 5...

  13. Changes in total body bone mineral density following a common bone health plan with two versions of a unique bone health supplement: a comparative effectiveness research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapilmoto Monika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The US Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health suggests America's bone-health is in jeopardy and issued a "call to action" to develop bone-health plans that: (1 improve nutrition, (2 increase health literacy and, (3 increase physical activity. This study is a response to this call to action. Methods After signing an informed consent, 158 adults agreed to follow an open-label bone-health plan for six months after taking a DXA test of bone density, a 43-chemistry blood test panel and a quality of life inventory (AlgaeCal 1. Two weeks after the last subject completed, a second group of 58 was enrolled and followed the identical plan, but with a different bone-health supplement (AlgaeCal 2. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline bone mineral density (BMD or in variables related to BMD (age, sex, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, or fat-free mass. In both groups, no significant differences in BMD or related variables were found between volunteers and non-volunteers or between those who completed per protocol and those who were lost to attrition. Both groups experienced a significant positive mean annualized percent change (MAPC in BMD compared to expectation [AlgaeCal 1: 1.15%, p = 0.001; AlgaeCal 2: 2.79%, p = 0.001]. Both groups experienced a positive MAPC compared to baseline, but only AlgaeCal 2 experienced a significant change [AlgaeCal 1: 0.48%, p = 0.14; AlgaeCal 2: 2.18%, p p = 0.005. The MAPC contrast between compliant and partially compliant subjects was significant for both plans (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively. No clinically significant changes in a 43-panel blood chemistry test were found nor were there any changes in self-reported quality of life in either group. Conclusions Following The Plan for six months with either version of the bone health supplement was associated with significant increases in BMD as compared to expected and, in AlgaeCal 2, the increase from

  14. Two-Year Changes in Bone Density After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouxsein, Mary L.; Putman, Melissa S.; Monis, Elizabeth L.; Roy, Adam E.; Pratt, Janey S. A.; Butsch, W. Scott; Finkelstein, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bariatric surgery is increasingly popular but may lead to metabolic bone disease. Objective: The objective was to determine the rate of bone loss in the 24 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Design and Setting: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: The participants were adults with severe obesity, including 30 adults undergoing gastric bypass and 20 nonsurgical controls. Outcomes: We measured bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at 0, 12, and 24 months. BMD and bone microarchitecture were also assessed by high-resolution peripheral QCT, and estimated bone strength was calculated using microfinite element analysis. Results: Weight loss plateaued 6 months after gastric bypass but remained greater than controls at 24 months (−37 ± 3 vs −5 ± 3 kg [ mean ± SEM]; P bypass compared with nonsurgical controls, as assessed by QCT and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (P bypass. Cortical and trabecular BMD and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia deteriorated in the gastric bypass group throughout the 24 months, such that estimated bone strength was 9% lower than controls. The decline in BMD persisted beyond the first year, with rates of bone loss exceeding controls throughout the second year at all skeletal sites. Mean serum calcium, 25(OH)-vitamin D, and PTH were maintained within the normal range in both groups. Conclusions: Substantial bone loss occurs throughout the 24 months after gastric bypass despite weight stability in the second year. Although the benefits of gastric bypass surgery are well established, the potential for adverse effects on skeletal integrity remains an important concern. PMID:25646793

  15. Short-term administration of glucagon-like peptide-2. Effects on bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in short-bowel patients with no colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haderslev, K V; Jeppesen, P B; Hartmann, B

    2002-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a newly discovered intestinotrophic hormone. We have recently reported that a 5-week GLP-2 treatment improved the intestinal absorptive capacity of short-bowel patients with no colon. Additionally, GLP-2 treatment was associated with changes in body composition ...... that included a significant increase in total body bone mass. This article describes the effect of GLP-2 on spinal and hip bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in these patients....

  16. Age dependent mineral density in the bones of inhabitants of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Pashkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the age changes of mineral density in the lumbar vertebrae was carried out in 929 people (740 women and 189 men at the age of 20 to 87 years, living in Karelia. Bone mineral density was evaluated by dual xray absorptiometry. In the women and in the men the spine bone mineralization peak was seen at the age of 22. The peak mineral density values were 5 % lower in the men and 1.6 % in the women in comparison with the data of the densitometer base. Considerable decrease of the bone mineral density in the vertebrae in the women began at the age of 41–45 years, and in the men – at the age of 51–55 years. Demineralization of the vertebrae in 75 year old women was 20 %, in the men it was 11.1 %, and in 81–87 year old women – 25.2 %.

  17. ASSOCIATION OF MENSTRUAL FUNCTION WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY AMONGST PUNJABI UNIVERSITY FEMALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Kaushal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation being an inevitable part of a girl’s life and more so, an important indicator of normal physical, physiological and functional well-being. Female athlete who engages in high-intensity exercise is at risk as a consequence of the hormonal change, which results in menstrual dysfunction, subsequently; the athlete is at risk for compromised skeletal integrity. The objective of the study is to find the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction among female athletes of Punjabi University, Patiala, to assess the bone mineral density in female athletes and to examine the relationship of Bone Mineral Density with Menstrual dysfunction in female athletes. Methods: The present study evaluated the menstrual status and its association with Bone Mineral Density in 76 adolescent female athletes. Convenient random sampling was adopted to recruit athletes by inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result: The percentile analysis of menstrual dysfunction is found to be 59.3% Out of 59.3% population with menstrual dysfunction, 55.5 % have oligomenorrhea, 28.9% have amenorrhea, and 15.5% have polymenorrhea. In this study population, the mean age of menarche is 13.81. Out of 76 female athletes, 35 have normal BMD ranges whereas 41 are having lower BMD ranges. The association of bone mineral density was found to be non-significant with both stress fracture (X2 = 4.38, p= 0.3570, and epimenorrhea (X2 = 4.49, p = 0.3437. The analysis of Pearson's correlation coefficient (r suggested a negative association between menstrual function with Bone Mineral Density (-0.06292 at 0.05 levels. The result found to be statistically non-significant; therefore, any change in menstrual function is not associated with Bone mineral density. Conclusion: Common menstrual dysfunctions reported were: oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, amenorrhea, and amenorrhea. However, pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS and dysmenorrhea were specifically found to be very high in prevalence i.e. 94

  18. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover and inflammation in diabetes patients with or without a Charcot foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Charcot foot is a rare but severe complication to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. It is still unclear if an acute Charcot foot has long-term effects on the bone metabolism. To investigate this, we conducted a follow-up study to examine if a previously acute Charcot foot has...... any long-term effects on bone mineral density (BMD) or local or systemic bone metabolism. METHODS: An 8.5-year follow-up case-control study of 44 individuals with diabetes mellitus, 24 of whom also had acute or chronic Charcot foot at the baseline visit in 2005-2007, who were followed up in 2015......RANK-L/OPG ratio also significantly decreased from baseline to follow-up in the Charcot group (3.4 versus 0.5) (p = 0.009), but not in the control group (1.3 versus 1.1) (p = 0.302). CONCLUSION: We found that diabetes patients with an acute Charcot foot have an elevated fsRANK-L/OPG ratio, and that the level...

  19. Bone mineral density, osteocalcin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, Franco; Camozzi, Valentina; Tombolan, Valeria; Luisetto, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia and the relationships between osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP), and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). A group of 18 patients (median age 47, range 36-51) with uncomplicated IDDM (Group A) were matched by sex, age, and body mass index with 21 healthy control volunteers (Group B). All subjects underwent osteodensitometry with measurement of BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Osteopenia was present in 11 (61.1%) and 2 (9.5%) of Group A and B patients (P= 0.01), respectively. Both OC (28.4 +/- 16.4 versus 41.2 +/- 14.6 ng/mL; P= 0.005) and bALP (51.3 +/- 11.8 versus 61.7 +/- 10.6 U/L; P= 0.006) serum levels were significantly lower in patients with IDDM. BMD did not correlate with either OC or bALP. In conclusion, osteopenia is common among patients with IDDM, but the relationship between bone formation markers and BMD is still unclear.

  20. Effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density and bone turnover in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazim, Ibrahim A; Abdelrazak, Khaled M; Al-Kadi, Mohamed; Yehia, Amr H; Nusair, Bassam M Sami; Faza, Mohannad Abu

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Decreased bone turnover markers and increased lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) in raloxifene-treated women add further support to the idea that raloxifene is an effective well-tolerated option for treating Kuwaiti postmenopausal osteoporosis, suitable for long-term use. Osteoporosis is currently a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and medical expense worldwide, and it is important to investigate therapies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density and bone turnover in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women who were free of severe or chronically disabling conditions, had their last menstrual period at least 2 years before the beginning of the study, had a T score for femoral neck or lumbar spine BMD measurements ≤2.5, and were without fractures were included in this study. One hundred and seventy-six (176) women were included in this study and were divided into two groups; the first group (study) received raloxifene with calcium and vitamin D daily for 12 months, and the second group (control) received only calcium and vitamin D. BMD and bone metabolism markers were measured before and after treatment. One year after treatment, BMD of lumbar spine and total hip was significantly increased in study group (3.21 ± 5.4 and 1.62 ± 7.4, respectively) compared to controls (0.9 ± 3.8 and -0.8 ± 5.6, respectively); also, Ward's triangle and trochanter BMD was significantly increased in study group (4.84 ± 9.3 and 1.78 ± 8.5, respectively) compared to controls (1.53 ± 6.6 and -1. 4 ± 6.4, respectively). C-telopeptide was significantly decreased in study group (121 ± 7.8) compared to control group (1,480 ± 6.3); also, serum osteocalcin was significantly decreased in study group

  1. Vitamin B12 status is associated to bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women, but not in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, M.; Jong, N.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women

  2. A seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones, bone turnover and bone mineral density in early and mid-puberty girls - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljakainen, H.T.; Palssa, A.; Karkkainen, M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones to growing skeleton has not been established. We studied whether there exists a seasonal variation in calcitropic hormones, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone remodelling markers in early puberty girls. One hundred and ninety...

  3. Prevention of glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis with alendronate or alfacalcidol: relations of change in bone mineral density, bone markers, and calcium homeostasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.W.; Nijs, R.N. de; Lems, W.F.; Geusens, P.P.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Huisman, A.M.; Algra, A.; Buskens, E.; Hofbauer, L.C.; Oostveen, A.C.; Bruyn, G.A.W.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of changes in measures of bone turnover and changes in bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and total hip over 18 months in a double-blinded, randomized trial, comparing the effect of alfacalcidol (101 patients) versus alendronate (100 patients) on BMD in

  4. Bone mineral density in immigrants from southern China to Denmark. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Wang, S; Overgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Immigration from Japan to USA has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat in women. The effects of immigration between other geographical areas on bone mass and body composition are largely unknown, especially in men. In the present study, we measured bone mass and body...... composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-2000) in 73 healthy premenopausal women (age 35 +/- 8 years) and 69 men (age 40 +/- 12 years) who had immigrated from southern China to Denmark 2 months to 36 years ago. The BMD measurements (Total BMD, trunk BMD and leg BMD) were related positively...... to years since immigration (YSI) (R2 = 0.10-0.16, p women, but not in men. Fat distribution was related mainly to age in both premenopausal women and men (R2 = 0.16-0.26, p women (age 36 +/- 6 years). Chinese...

  5. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  6. Changes in bone density and turnover after alendronate or estrogen withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasnich, Richard D; Bagger, Yu Z; Hosking, David J

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover changes after therapy withdrawal in postmenopausal women treated with alendronate or estrogen-progestin. DESIGN: In this randomized, blinded, multinational, placebo-controlled trial, 1,609 healthy postmenopausal women ages 45 to 59...... were switched from alendronate to placebo, while remaining blinded to treatment assignment. The women taking estrogen-progestin in years 1 to 4 were followed off therapy in years 5 and 6. BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured. RESULTS: The treatment...... groups described in the current report represent 860 women at baseline; 481 women entered year 5, and 430 completed 6 years. BMD steadily decreased in the placebo group during all 6 years. In contrast, spine and hip BMD increased during the first 4 years in the groups receiving daily continuous...

  7. Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium and vitamin D and doing weight-bearing exercise such as walking, tennis, or dancing. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe medicines to prevent osteoporosis. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  8. Bone mineral density and lifestyle among female students aged 16-24 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgán, C; Dykes, A K; Samsioe, G

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate bone mineral density and bone turnover among female students aged 16-24 years in relation to lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity, as well as physiological factors, such as age, body weight, and menstrual pattern. Female college and university students (n = 218) were given a validated questionnaire with 34 questions concerning diet, recreational physical activity, alcohol, smoking, menstrual pattern, weight gain and loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using a heel bone scanner (DEXA). Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured in urine samples. The data were analyzed by linear regression and multiple regression analysis. The mean BMD was 0.568 g/cm2. Multiple regression showed that hormonal age was a better predictor of high BMD and low bone mineral turnover than chronological age. The best model predicting high BMD was composed of physical activity, regular menstruation, hormonal age and body weight. Smoking, alcohol consumption and current calcium intake did not contribute to the model. A negative association between BMD and DPD was found, indicating an enhanced bone remodeling. A correlation was found between DPD and hormonal age, chronological age, sugar intake and time with irregular menses. In multiple regression analysis, hormonal age, high sugar intake and weight loss were the factors best predicting DPD. BMD was positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle, including a physically active life and healthy dietary habits without dieting. Our study shows that hormonal age is a stronger BMD predictor than chronological age. Menstrual disturbances might be an indication of a risk for low BMD and might therefore be a reason for measuring BMD among young females.

  9. Site-Specific Variations in Bone Mineral Density under Systemic Conditions Inducing Osteoporosis in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Schulz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. There is conflicting opinion about whether osteoporosis affects the alveolar bone of the jaws and whether it poses a risk to the osseointegration of dental implants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of systemic glucocorticoid administration on the jaw bone density of minipigs. Thirty-seven adult female minipigs were randomly divided into two groups. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT was used to assess bone mineral density BMD of the lumbar spine as well as the mandible and maxilla, and blood was drawn. One group of minipigs initially received 1.0 mg prednisolone per kg body weight daily for 2 months. The dose was tapered to 0.5 mg per kg body weight per day thereafter. The animals in the other group served as controls and received placebo. QCT and blood analysis were repeated after 6 and 9 months. BMD was compared between the two groups by measuring Hounsfield units, and serum levels of several bone metabolic markers were also assessed. A decrease in BMD was observed in the jaws from baseline to 9 months. This was more pronounced in the prednisolone group. Statistically significant differences were reached for the mandible (p < 0.001 and the maxilla (p < 0.001. The administration of glucocorticoids reduced the BMD in the jaws of minipigs. The described model shows promise in the evaluation of osseointegration of dental implants in bone that is compromised by osteoporosis.

  10. Long-term outcome of bone mineral density in children who underwent a successful liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antiga, Lorenzo; Ballan, Donatella; Luisetto, Giovanni; Cillo, Umberto; Guariso, Graziella; Zancan, Lucia

    2004-09-27

    It has previously been shown that bone mineral density (BMD) during the first year after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in children with osteodystrophy increases remarkably and according to height. The effect of posttransplant factors possibly influencing bone mass in the long-term after a successful OLT in children is unknown. Eighteen patients (9 male), median age 13.3 (range 4.7-23.7) years, median time after OLT 8.3 (1.1-17.3) years were enrolled. Indications for OLT were biliary atresia (8), Alagille (3), hepatoblastoma (2), NonA-NonG acute liver failure (2), intrahepatic cholestasis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and cholesteryl-ester disease (1 each). At OLT, all were prepubertal and 12 were severely cholestatic. We recorded anthropometric data, immunosuppression, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), biochemical markers of bone metabolism, and liver function. Six children were on steroid therapy, eight were on cyclosporine, nine on tacrolimus. Median L1 to L4 spinal BMD was 0.720 (range 0.524-1.127) g/cm3, Z score -0.70 (-2.2- +2.1), height Z score -0.31 (-1.83- +1.96). Median bone mineral apparent density was 0.112 (0.084-0.142) (normal value 0.10-0.14) g/cm3. Median alanine aminotransferase level was 22 (range 11-79) IU/L, urinary free deoxypyridinolines 20.6 (7.1-62) nmol/mmol creatinine, osteocalcin 14 (2.3-45) microg/L, parathyroid hormone 51 (2-87) ng/L, Vitamin D3 67 (17-102) nmol/L. BMD after the first year from a successful pediatric liver transplantation is normal. Our study suggests that normal bone density in this setting is maintained for at least 1 decade.

  11. Effect of Paricalcitol on Bone Density After Kidney Transplantation: Analysis of 2 Transplant Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žilinská, Zuzana; Dedinská, Ivana; Breza, Ján; Laca, Ludovít

    2017-11-01

    The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of bone disease in patients with chronic kidney disease recommend periodic measurement of serum calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels after kidney transplantation, with the frequencies that will vary according to the severity of bone disease and graft function. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, is indicated in the prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of treatment with paricalcitol among our kidney transplant recipients. We monitored the effect of paricalcitol on bone density; the plasma levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus; and proteinuria and calciuria. Comparisons were made between these parameters before treatment and 12 months after treatment. Eighty-eight kidney transplant recipients with a mean age at the time of transplantation of 47.1 ± 10.5 years were receiving paricalcitol. On average, paricalcitol was included into the treatment for 48 months from transplantation (median, 27 months). The patients had significantly improved bone density (P < .001), significantly lower parathyroid hormone levels (P < .001), and significantly decreased proteinuria (P = .02) after 12 months of treatment. During the treatment with paricalcitol, the immunosuppressive therapy, dose of prednisone, body mass index, and vitamin D levels had not significantly changed. Nor had any significant change occurred to graft function. Paricalcitol is an effective therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant recipients.

  12. The relation between bone mineral density and lifestyle in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Mu Sik; Bae, Suk Hwan; KIm, Yong Kwon [Konyang University, Nonsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study was performed in order to identify the relation between bone nineral density and life styles of some of Korean colleague students. A total of 121 college students were assessed through bone mineral density test on femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA). The survey about their lifestyles with a self-rating questionnaire, was conducted from September 2014 to November 2014. SPSS 18.0 Program was used for those research data analyses such as the frequency analysis, the cross analysis. The percentage of the osteoporisis, osteopenia and normal groups were 0.0%, 24.8% and 75.2%. BMI, Regular menstrual cycle, Walking and Regular exercise in adolescence were positively related with T-score. But Using time of electronic devices was negative related with T-score. It can be concluded that desirable life style in time of college students and adolescence is important for their bone health. The necessity of preparing guideline for preventing bone disease in old age connected with the school curriculum should be recognized to the public and educational authorities.

  13. RECOVERY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FERTILITY IN A FORMER AMENORRHEIC ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate dietary intake and prolonged amenorrhea in women athletes can lead to bone loss, particularly at the spine, which may be irreversible. This report presents the case of a woman endurance runner, followed prospectively over 6 years after presenting with the female athlete triad. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, lumbar spine (LS, total hip and total body (TB BMD Z-scores were -2.2, -0.5 and -0.3 respectively. At 6 years, following a recovery plan of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, weight gain, improved dietary intake and reduced training load, the athlete regained menstrual function and BMD. LS, TB and hip BMD Z-scores improved to -0.6, -0.1 and 0.1 respectively. Restoration of fertility was indicated by pregnancy, following only 4 months of regular menstruation. This case report suggests that bone density and fertility may not be completely jeopardised in formerly amenorrheic and osteopenic athletes, providing recovery through diet, weight gain, and return of menstruation is achieved within the third decade. Longitudinal studies tracking bone changes in women with amenorrhea and low BMD are required and would have important implications for the treatment of the female athlete triad

  14. Bone Mineral Density During Total Contact Cast Immobilization for a Patient With Neuropathic (Charcot) Arthropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Mary K; Sinacore, David R; Fielder, Faye A; Johnson, Jeffrey E

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Diabetes mellitus (DM)-related neuropathic arthropathy of the foot is a destructive bone and joint process. The effect of cast immobilization and non–weight bearing on bone loss has not been well studied. The purpose of this case report is to describe the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus in the feet of a patient with acute neuropathic arthropathy during total contact cast immobilization. Case Description The patient was a 34-year-old woman with type 1 DM, renal failure requiring dialysis, and a 7-week duration of neuropathic arthropathy of the midfoot. Intervention included total contact casting and minimal to no weight bearing for 10 weeks, with transition to therapeutic footwear. Ultrasound-derived estimates of BMD were taken of both involved and uninvolved calcanei. Outcome Bone mineral density decreased for the involved foot (from 0.25 g/cm2 to 0.20 g/cm2) and increased for the uninvolved foot (from 0.27 g/cm2 to 0.31 g/cm2) during casting. Discussion The low initial BMD and further loss during casting suggest the need for transitional bracing and a well-monitored return to full activity to minimize the risk of recurrence and progression of foot deformity. PMID:15733049

  15. Facial bone density: effects of aging and impact on facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert B; Katzel, Evan B; Koltz, Peter F; Kahn, David M; Puzas, Edward J; Langstein, Howard N

    2012-11-01

    Facial bone aging has recently been described as primarily resulting from volume loss and morphologic changes to the orbit, midface, and mandible. The authors demonstrate how the facial skeleton bone mineral density (BMD) changes with age in both men and women and compare these changes to those of the axial skeleton. They also explore the aesthetic implications of such changes in bone density. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the facial bones and lumbar spine were obtained from 60 white subjects, 30 women and 30 men. There were 10 men and 10 women in each of 3 age categories: young (20-40 years), middle (41-60 years), and old (61+ years). The following measurements were obtained: lumbar spine BMD (average BMD of L1-L4 vertebrae), maxilla BMD (the average BMD of the right and left maxilla), and mandible BMD (the average BMD of the right and left mandibular ramus). The lumbar spine BMD decreased significantly for both sexes between the middle and old age groups. There was a significant decrease in the maxilla and mandible BMD for both sexes between the young and middle age groups. Our results suggest that the BMD of the face changes with age, similar to the axial skeleton. This change in BMD may contribute to the appearance of the aging face and potentially affect facial rejuvenation procedures.

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Children From Anthropological and Clinical Sciences: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manifold Bernadette M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD is a frequent topic of discussion in the clinical literature in relation to the bone health of both adults and children. However, in archaeological and/ or anthropological studies the role of BMD is often cited as a possible factor in the poor skeletal preservation which can lead to an under-representation of juvenile skeletal remains. During skeletal development and growth throughout childhood and adolescence changes take place in both the size and shape of bones and these changes also result in the increasing of mineral content. BMD can be affected by many factors, which include, age, genetics, sexual maturation, amount of physical activity and dietary calcium. This paper aims to review the clinical and anthropological literature on BMD and discuss the numerous methods of measurement and how the availability of certain methods such as Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and quantitative computed tomography (QCT can influence the study of bone density in archaeological skeletal collections and also the future potential for forensic anthropological studies.

  17. High bone density in adolescents with obesity is related to fat mass and serum leptin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B R; Belli, Dominique C; Puigdefabregas, Julie Wacker Bou; Rizzoli, René; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Beghetti, Maurice; McLin, Valérie A

    2014-06-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased bone mass, but the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We aimed to explore the relation between bone mineral density and factors known to influence bone formation in obese and lean adolescents. We recruited 24 obese and 25 lean adolescents in a case-control study. Total body bone mineral density (TB-BMD) z scores and body composition were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations. Physical activity (PA) level was quantified using accelerometer. TB-BMD z score was higher, whereas 25-OH-D and PA levels were lower in obese compared with lean subjects (TB-BMD z score 1.06 ± 0.96 vs 0.26 ± 0.91, P = 0.004; 25-OH-D 9.9 ± 6.4 vs 18.5 ± 7.4 ng mL, P BMD z score was not related to 25-OH-D or PA levels, but was positively correlated with leptin concentration and fat mass (P BMD was higher in adolescents with obesity and associated with higher serum leptin concentrations. Furthermore, adolescents with obesity have lower vitamin D serum concentrations than lean controls, probably owing to its distribution in adipose tissue.

  18. [Systemic bone mineral density versus clinical periodontal condition: cross-sectional study in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernanda Ferreira; Loureiro, Flávia Helen Furtado; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coêlho; Pereira, Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Ana Emília Figueiredo de

    2008-01-01

    To assess the systemic bone mineral density (BMD) and the periodontal situation in postmenopausal women, to understand the possible role of osteoporosis as a risk factor for periodontal disease. The sample was comprised of 47 postmenopausal women, divided into 3 groups: 14 patients with normal bones (G1), 17 with osteopenia (G2) and 16 patients with osteoporosis (G3). Data was obtained using bone mineral density (BMD), obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar area (L1-L4). Periodontal condition was evaluated by Gingival Index (GI), Plaque Index (PI) and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). Results were analyzed and submitted to statistical treatment, through the One Way ANOVA: (alpha=0.05) test and the Pearson's Correlation test (alpha=0.01). GI, PI and CAL variables did not disclose a significant difference in the periodontal situation of postmenopausal women A significant correlation between periodontal parameters GI, PI and CAL (p0.01). The periodontal situation of postmenopausal women does not depend on the systemic bone mass and there is no significant correlation between BMD and periodontal parameters. However, further longitudinal surveys are required to understand osteoporosis as a risk factor of periodontal disease.

  19. Digital subtraction radiography evaluation of longitudinal bone density changes around immediate loading implants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, L S; da Cunha, H A; Leles, C R; Mendonça, E F

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal quantitative changes in bone density around different implant loading protocols and implant surfaces measured by digital subtraction radiography (DSR). 12 patients received bilateral homologous standard and TiUnite® (Nobel Biocare, Kloten, Switzerland) single-tooth implants under 2 implant-loading protocols: immediate loading (8 patients, 16 implants, 12 maxillary) and conventional loading (4 patients, 8 implants, 4 maxillary). Standardized periapical radiographs were taken immediately after implant placement (baseline image) and at the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow ups. Radiographic images were digitized and submitted to digital subtraction using the DSR system® (Electro Medical System, Nyon, Switzerland), resulting in three subtracted images. Quantitative analysis of bone density was performed using Image Tool® software (University of Texas Health Science Centre, San Antonio, TX) to assess pixel value changes in five areas around the implants (crestal, subcrestal, medial third, apical-lateral and apical). Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that grey levels were significantly influenced by follow-up time and implant-loading protocol. A linear increase in grey levels was found for immediate loading (IML) implants and a significant decrease in grey levels was observed in the 12-month follow up for conventional loading implants. No effect of implant surface treatment was observed. In conclusion, IML protocol induced mineral bone gain around single-tooth implants after the first year under function for cases with favourable bone conditions.

  20. Correlation of insertion torques with bone mineral density from dental quantitative CT in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Andreas; Gahleitner, André; Holm, Anders; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Homolka, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between bone mineral density measured preoperatively with dental computed tomography (CT), and insertion torque of screw-shaped dental implants. In eight human mandibles obtained postmortem, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with dental quantitative CT (DQCT) and correlated with insertion torque values at 45 implant sites during insertion of screw-shaped dental implants (Brånemark System MKIII, Nobel Biocare, AB, Göteborg, Sweden). A significant correlation (r=0.86, Pbone height or position. The noninvasive assessment of BMD using a DQCT scan employing a low-dose protocol may be used to estimate expected primary stability depending on BMD, implant type and preparation procedure. These data may therefore help the surgeon to select the optimum implant position, implant type and operation technique.

  1. Cortical bone density is normal in prepubertal children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, but initially decreases during GH replacement due to early bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, R; Martin, D D; Schwarze, C P; Binder, G; Georgiadou, A; Ihle, J; Ranke, M B

    2003-11-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has revealed that GH- deficient adults gain in bone mineral density during GH therapy. Measurements of volumetric bone density (grams per cubic centimeter vs. grams per square centimeter) and structure, however, are achieved through peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). In 45 prepubertal GH-deficient children, we studied pQCT measurements before the start and for 12 months of GH treatment. Serum alkaline phosphatase (AP), procollagen I carboxyl-terminal propeptide (PICP), and deoxypyridinoline reflected bone metabolism status. Findings at the start of GH treatment were (mean SD score): bone area, -0.44; cortical density, -0.03; cortical area, -1.32; cortical thickness, -1.41; and marrow area, +0.66. At 12 months, cortical density had fallen to -0.73 (P < 0.001), whereas cortical area and thickness, and marrow area did not change. AP, PICP, and deoxypyridinoline increased significantly within the first 3 months (increase: AP, 66.5 U/liter; PICP, 72 microg/liter; DPD, 11.4 nmol/mmol creatinine). The pQCT showed that cortical density is not reduced in GH-deficient patients. Higher bone metabolism explains the lower cortical density after GH therapy commenced. Thus, the manifestation of GH deficiency is evidently similar in children and adults, and pQCT provides important information in addition to DEXA measurements, as DEXA does not take bone structure into account.

  2. [Biomechanical influences after implantation of a total hip endoprosthesis on the periprosthetic bone density around the cup].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layher, F; Babisch, J; Roth, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to prove how changes of the biomechanical joint load affect the distribution of the bone density around a cementless socket implant as the consequence of a total hip endoprosthesis (THEP). 43 patients with different diagnoses were treated with Duraloc cup implants. Using a known biomechanical model, the biomechanical situation, the changes of the joint load and their influence on the local bone density were determined. The periprosthetic bone was divided into three zones. By means of DEXA measurement on the 10th postoperative day as well as at 3 and 12 months after the implantation the change of periprosthetic bone density was analysed. Following THEP implantation the biomechanical parameters normalised. The mean biomechanical score (with a maximum of 12 points) increased significantly from 6.9 preoperatively to 9.7 postoperatively. Patients with dysplasia coxarthrosis showed the most significant improvement from 2.1 to 8.6 points. The periprosthetic bone density was reduced on an average of 14.4 %, with highest values after 3 months(- 9.5%). The zone- and the diagnosis-related analysis of bone density in combination with analysis of the biomechanical load showed normalised biomechanical parameters and harmonised values of bone density. A remarkable loss of bone was seen in regions with primary high values of bone density. These zones are the lateral cranial edge of the socket in patients with dysplasia coxarthrosis and patients with coxa valga as well as the zones from the lower socket entrance to the socket pole in patients with protrusio acetabuli. In order to ensure a long life-time of the artificial joint, treatment with a THEP of patients suffering from coxarthrosis should lead to a biomechanically optimal reconstruction of the hip joint. Preoperatively existing pathological deformities which, due to mechanical fail loading, lead to an unequal distribution of the bone density must be corrected in order to avoid higher loading

  3. The Impact of Training Load on Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Swimmers: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Maillane-Vanegas, Santiago; Lynch, Kyle R; Turi-Lynch, Bruna; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Araújo Fernandes, Romulo

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the mediating effect of muscle mass on the relationship between training load and bone density in adolescent swimmers. A cross-sectional study involving 87 control and 22 swimmers aged 10-19 years (overall sample: n = 109). Swimmers had a minimum of 1 year of competition in regional and national championships, and control adolescents reported 1 year without any organized sport. Bone density was the main outcome (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), which was measured in upper limbs, lower limbs, spine, and whole body. Monthly training load was the independent variable, while the mediation effect of lean soft tissue was assessed. Maturity offset, age, inflammation, and vitamin D intake were treated as covariates. Swimmers had lower bone density than controls; there was a significant and positive relationship between training load and muscle mass. In boys, training load presented a negative correlation with bone density in lower limbs [r = -.293; 95% confidence interval (CI), -.553 to -.034]. In girls, training load was negatively related to bone mineral density in lower limbs (r = .563; 95% CI, -.770 to -.356) and whole body (r = -.409; 95% CI, -.609 to -.209). Training load had a negative relationship on bone density of swimmers of both sexes, independently of the positive effect of lean soft tissue on bone density.

  4. Assessment of bone mineral density in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis: a cross-sectional long-term followup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Hassager, C; Lovell, D J

    1999-01-01

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD.......To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD....

  5. Distinct tissue mineral density in plate and rod-like trabeculae of human trabecular bone

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J.; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X. Tony; Guo, X. Edward

    2015-01-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various ...

  6. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    ) for a median of 287 weeks. In 38% of castration compared with 17% of bicalutamide patients, femoral neck Z-scores were risk of fracture) and T-scores were osteoporosis in white......The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8...

  7. The relationship between adipokines, body composition, and bone density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Sheryl F; Voelkel, Norbert F; McDermott, Michael T; Valdez, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data regarding the relationship between adipokines and bone mineral density (BMD) in this population is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine associations between the adipokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), leptin, adiponectin and resistin, body composition, and BMD in men with severe COPD. This was a cross-sectional study of men with severe COPD who visited the University of Colorado Hospital COPD Center. Bone density and parameters of body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-three men were included (mean age = 66 years, mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second = 32%). On bivariate analysis, there was no association between TNF-alpha and BMD. Parameters of body composition and serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were significantly associated with total hip and spine bone density. However, with partial correlation analysis, total body mass was the only independent predictor of total hip BMD, explaining approximately 50% of the variability. Overall, 18 out of 23 men enrolled (78%) had low bone density by T-score, and nine (39%) were classified as having osteoporosis. The men with osteoporosis had lower parameters of body composition, lower mean serum leptin concentrations, and a greater impairment in measures of lung function compared to the men without osteoporosis. We conclude that the effect of adipokines on BMD does not appear to be independent of body mass. However, larger studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between adipokines, body weight, and BMD in patients with COPD.

  8. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Mark J Bolland

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Design Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled tria...

  9. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8......) for a median of 287 weeks. In 38% of castration compared with 17% of bicalutamide patients, femoral neck Z-scores were Health Organization definition of osteoporosis in white...

  10. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saeed, Osama; Mohammed, Ahmed; Azizieh, Fawaz; Gupta, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Study Design This was designed as a retrospective study. Purpose We investigated the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and chronic lower back pain (LBP). Overview of Literature In spite of a large number of epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of LBP and BMD measurements completed separately in the general population, the relationship between the two has not been well documented. Methods The study included 171 patients with chronic LBP who underwent the BMD study. The contr...

  11. Epigenome-wide association of DNA methylation in whole blood with bone mineral density

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Morris; Tsai, Pei‐Chien; Joehanes, Roby; Zheng, Jie; Trajanoska, Katerina; Soerensen, Mette; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Castillo‐Fernandez, Juan Edgar; Frost, Morten; Spector, Tim D.; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental determinants of skeletal phenotypes such as bone mineral density (BMD) may converge through the epigenome, providing a tool to better understand osteoporosis pathophysiology. As the epigenetics of BMD have been largely unexplored in humans, we performed an epigenome wide association study (EWAS) of BMD. We undertook a large-scale BMD EWAS using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array to measure site-specific DNA methylation in up to 5,515 European descent individuals ...

  12. Distinct Tissue Mineral Density in Plate- and Rod-like Trabeculae of Human Trabecular Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X Tony; Guo, X Edward

    2015-09-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro-finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate- and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone but

  13. Impact of a gluten-free diet on bone mineral density in celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Lorete M S; Skare, Thelma; Vinholi, Antonella; Jurkonis, Leandro; Nisihara, Renato

    2016-02-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a metabolic bone illness that may complicate celiac disease (CD). It can lead to devastating consequences because of low bone mass and fragility fractures. To study the OP prevalence in a group of Brazilian patients with CD and the value of a gluten free diet (GFD). Retrospective study of celiac female patients from a single University Center followed with bone densitometries. Results from densitometry made at first visit were compared with a second study after a median time of 5 years. During this period, patients were submitted to a GFD according to orientations from special program training. Calcium and vitamin D were prescribed to those patients who did not reach the minimal daily requirement through diet. Forty-one celiac female patients, mean age 46.1 ± 14.8 years, were included. The prevalence of osteopenia at first visit was 56.1% and that of osteoporosis 29.2%. Osteoporosis was associated with longer disease duration (p = 0.01). The second densitometry was performed in a median time of 5 years (range 1 to 13 years) and disclosed 58.9% osteopenia and 28.2% osteoporosis. The GFD improved bone mass, mainly at (of) spine (comparison of T score with p = 0.03 and of bone mass in g/cm2 with p = 0.02), but it was not sufficient to reduce the number of osteopenic (p = 0.9) and osteoporotic patients (p = 0.4). During the follow up period 25% of osteoporotic patients developed low impact fractures. Bone health is notably impaired at baseline in CD patients, especially in those with a diagnostic delay. A GFD modestly improved bone mass density with low impact fractures occurring in one third of patients during the follow up period.

  14. Impact of a gluten-free diet on bone mineral density in celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorete M.S. Kotze

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis (OP is a metabolic bone illness that may complicate celiac disease (CD. It can lead to devastating consequences because of low bone mass and fragility fractures. Purpose: To study the OP prevalence in a group of Brazilian patients with CD and the value of a gluten free diet (GFD. Methods: Retrospective study of celiac female patients from a single University Center followed with bone densitometries. Results from densitometry made at first visit were compared with a second study after a median time of 5 years. During this period, patients were submitted to a GFD according to orientations from special program training. Calcium and vitamin D were prescribed to those patients who did not reach the minimal daily requirement through diet. Results: Forty-one celiac female patients, mean age 46.1 ± 14.8 years, were included. The prevalence of osteopenia at first visit was 56.1% and that of osteoporosis 29.2%. Osteoporosis was associated with longer disease duration (p = 0.01. The second densitometry was performed in a median time of 5 years (range 1 to 13 years and disclosed 58.9% osteopenia and 28.2% osteoporosis. The GFD improved bone mass, mainly at (of spine (comparison of T score with p = 0.03 and of bone mass in g/cm² with p = 0.02, but it was not sufficient to reduce the number of osteopenic (p = 0.9 and osteoporotic patients (p = 0.4. During the follow up period 25% of osteoporotic patients developed low impact fractures. Conclusion: Bone health is notably impaired at baseline in CD patients, especially in those with a diagnostic delay. A GFD modestly improved bone mass density with low impact fractures occurring in one third of patients during the follow up period.

  15. Bone mineral density and vitamin D status in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman-Monte, Tarek Carlos; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Vega-Vidal, Ana Leticia; Corzo, Patricia; Castro-Dominguez, F; Ojeda, F; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi

    2017-11-01

    Despite the improvement in the quality of life of patients with SLE due to scientific and technological advances, SLE remains a disease that over the years may produce irreversible damage to patients. Osteoporosis and secondary bone fractures are two of the major causes of irreparable injury in patients with SLE. Vitamin D insufficiency may play a vital role both in reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and in the appearance of fractures, although its mechanisms of action are still unclear. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to determine the prevalence and predictors of reduced vitamin D plasma levels, bone loss and the presence of fractures in SLE patients. Our review encompassed all English-language publications using Medline and EMBase electronic databases from their inception (1966 and 1980, respectively) to December 2016. We included all intervention studies and observational studies in which vitamin D plasma levels, BMD and bone loss were measured and applied to patients with SLE. Previous studies suggested an increase in bone loss and fracture in patients with SLE compared with general population and although there is a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the general population, previous studies had demonstrated lower vitamin D levels in patients with SLE compared to age-matched controls. The etiology of reduced bone mass and reduced vitamin D plasma levels in SLE is multifactorial and includes a variety of intrinsic factors related to the disease itself and treatment side effects. SLE patients are at risk for developing these two comorbidities (reduced vitamin D plasma levels and low BMD) and it is therefore essential to study, monitor, prevent and treat bone metabolism disorders in SLE patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation between sex hormone levels and bone metabolic markers and bone mineral density in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lian Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation of sex hormone levels and bone metabolic markers and bone mineral density in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: A total of 110 male patients with T2DM who were treated in Wuxi NO.2 People's Hospital from June 2015 to March 2016 were selected as the research subjects. All of the patients were assigned into the osteoporosis group (OP group, n=63 and normal bone mass group (NOP group, n=47 according to their bone mineral density. The following general parameters of the two groups were analyzed including age, body mass index, course of diabetes, fasting bloodglucose (FBG, 2 hour postprandial blood glucose (2hPBG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc, etc. Sex hormone levels such as estradiol (E2, progestone (P, testosterone (T, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL and bone metabolic indexes such as BGP, bone alkaline phosphates (BAP, blood calcium, serum phosphorus, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and bone mineral densities of L2-4 lumbar, femoral neck, trochanters and Ward’s triangle were analyzed. The correlation between sex hormone levels and bone metabolic markers and bone mineral density was analyzed. Results: Compared with patients in the NOP group, patients in the OP group were elder and had longer courses of the disease, lower body mass indexes, lower levels of E2 and T, higher levels of BGP and BAP, and lower bone mineral densities of L2-4 lumbar, femoral neck, trochanters and Ward’s triangle. The differences had statistically significant. There was no significant difference in FBG, 2hPBG, HbAlc, P, FSH, LH, PRL, blood calcium, serum phosphorus, urinary calcium/ creatinine ratio between the two groups. Partial correlation analysis showed that E2 and T were negatively correlated with BGP, BAP and urinarycalcium/creatinine ratio and were positively correlated with bone mineral densities of L2-4 lumbar, femoral neck, trochanters, Ward

  17. A comparison of bone mineral density in osteoporotic fracture of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keung Sik [Yonsei University Yong Dong Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-15

    There were some controversies about direct cause of hip fracture. We attempted to look at 40 osteoporotic proximal femur fractures in women over 50 years between March in 1999 and February in 2000. The bone density of the fracture group and the healthy 85 control group was measured by Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The result was compared using age matched paired T test. The results were as follows: The femoral neck fractures were 14 cases and the trochanteric fractures were 26 cases. Mean age at a fracture was 67.1 years in neck fracture group and 76.5 years in trochanteric fracture. In the control group, the bone density of both side of the proximal femur was measured and it showed statistically no difference between both sides in same person. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral fracture group comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in lumbar spine comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group. We concluded that the bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal femur and lumbar spine had decreased in hip fractures but that the bone mineral density and T-score % of the proximal femur were statistically lower than that of the lumbar spine. We suggest that measuring the bone mineral density of the proximal femur may reflect the weakness of the proximal femur more precisely than measuring the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine.

  18. Body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnagöl Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare whole and segmental body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players by playing positions. Forty collegiate American football players voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were categorized by playing positions into one of five categories i.e., defensive linemen, offensive linemen, defensive secondary players, offensive secondary players and receivers. Whole body composition and bone mineral density were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Offensive and defensive linemen had higher body mass, a body mass index, lean mass and a fat mass index compared to the remaining three positions and a higher lean mass index compared to offensive secondary players and receivers. Offensive linemen had a higher body fat percentage and lower values of upper to lower lean mass than offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers, and higher total mass to the lean mass ratio and fat mass to the lean mass ratio compared to the other players. Offensive linemen had a higher fat mass index and fat mass to the lean mass ratio than defensive linemen. However, in all other measures they were similar. Offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers were similar with respect to the measured variables. Bone mineral density of the players was within the normal range and no difference in lean mass was observed between the legs. In conclusion, findings of this study showed that the total and segmental body composition profile of collegiate American football players reflected the demands of particular playing positions.

  19. Relation Between Ghrelin Hormone Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Normal Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Naghiaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin hormone is a polypeptide with 28 amino acids that is secreted along the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in fundus of stomach. Some physiological functions of ghrelin include increase of appetite and food intake, energy balance, stimulation of growth hormone secretion and heart output and decrease in blood pressure. Recently, relation of ghrelin and bone mineral density has been considered. Methods: This descriptive study included 33 adult persons above 20 years of age. Bone mineral density was determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in femur and lumbar regions. T-score over than -1 was considered as normal case. Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA method. Results: The mean of age, body mass index and serum ghrelin were 40±10.6years, 27±3.6 kg/m² and 100.5±128 pg/ml, respectively. Correlation of ghrelin and variables was not statistically significant except weight (p=0.05. Conclusion: Range of serum ghrelin levels varies with age. In the present research, there was no relationship between ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in femur and lumbar regions. More studies with larger number of samples are proposed.

  20. Long-term vegetarian diet and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J F; Lan, S J; Yang, C Y; Wang, P W; Yao, W J; Su, L H; Hsieh, C C

    1997-03-01

    This study examined bone density among postmenopausal Buddhist nuns and female religious followers of Buddhism in southern Taiwan and related the measurements to subjects characteristics including age, body mass, physical activity, nutrient intake, and vegetarian practice. A total of 258 postmenopausal Taiwanese vegetarian women participated in the study. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-photon absorptimetry. BMD measurements were analyzed first as quantitative outcomes in multiple regression analyses and next as indicators of osteopenia status in logistic regression analyses. Among the independent variables examined, age inversely and body mass index positively correlated with both the spine and femoral neck BMD measurements. They were also significant predictors of the osteopenia status. Energy intake from protein was a significant correlate of lumbar spine BMD only. Other nutrients, including calcium and energy intake from nonprotein sources, did not correlate significantly with the two bone density parameters. Long-term practitioners of vegan vegetarian were found to be at a higher risk of exceeding lumbar spine fracture threshold (adjusted odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-5.96) and of being classified as having osteopenia of the femoral neck (3.94, 1.21-12.82). Identification of effective nutrition supplements may be necessary to improve BMD levels and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis among long-term female vegetarians.

  1. Evaluation of Clinical Decision Rules for Bone Mineral Density Testing among White Women

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    Michael E. Anders

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is a devastating, insidious disease that causes skeletal fragility. Half of women will suffer osteoporotic fractures during their lifetimes. Many fractures occur needlessly, because of inattentiveness to assessment, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. Study Purpose. Study Purpose. To evaluate the discriminatory performance of clinical decision rules to determine the need to undergo bone mineral density testing. Methods. A nationally representative sample from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey consisted of 14,060 subjects who completed surveys, physical examinations, laboratory tests, and bone mineral density exams. Multivariable linear regression tested the correlation of covariates that composed the clinical decision rules with bone mineral density. Results. Increased age and decreased weight were variables in the final regression models for each gender and race/ethnicity. Among the indices, the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, which is composed of age and weight, performed best for White women. Study Implications. These results have implications for the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool performed best and is inexpensive and the least time consuming to implement.

  2. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density, and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Kathy R; Orwoll, Eric S; Mason, Jill D; Cauley, Jane A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether fluoridation influences bone mineral density and fractures in older women. Design Multicentre prospective study on risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. Setting Four community based centres in the United States. Participants 9704 ambulatory women without bilateral hip replacements enrolled during 1986-8; 7129 provided information on exposure to fluoride. Main outcome measures Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, radius, and calcaneus plus incident fractures (fractures that occurred during the study) of vertebrae, hip, wrist, and humerus. Results Women were classified as exposed or not exposed or having unknown exposure to fluoride for each year from 1950 to 1994. Outcomes were compared in women with continuous exposure to fluoridated water for the past 20 years (n=3218) and women with no exposure during the past 20 years (n=2563). In women with continuous exposure mean bone mineral density was 2.6% higher at the femoral neck (0.017 g/cm2, Pfluoridated drinking water does not increase the risk of fracture. PMID:11021862

  3. Effects of stock density on the laying performance, blood parameter, corticosterone, litter quality, gas emission and bone mineral density of laying hens in floor pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H. K.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m2, were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m2. Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m2 stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m2 stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m2 elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens. PMID:27578881

  4. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Elmstahl, S. [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden); Bjellerup, P. [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden); Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Akesson, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  5. Change of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density with Age, and Correlation among Them in Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 勝紀

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the tendency of change of body composition and bone mineral density with age is imortant to evaluate health of adult female.Many croll-sectional studies have been carried out examining the change of body composition and bone mineral density with age.Few cross-sectional studies were reported statistically the tendency of change of them with age.Physique, body composition and bone mineral density (Speed of Sound:SOS) were measured in71 healthy Japanese women...

  6. Mitochondrial point mutation m.3243A > G associates with lower bone mineral density, thinner cortices and reduced bone strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jakob Høgild; Frederiksen, Anja Lisbeth; Hansen, Stinus Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with several clinical manifestations including diabetes, neurological disorders, renal and hepatic diseases and myopathy. While mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation in mouse models, effects......, total hip and femoral neck in cases. Mean lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck T-scores were -1.5, -1.3 and -1.6 in cases, respectively, and -0.8, -0.3 and -0.7 in controls (all p  G mutation was associated with lower bone mineral density, cortical but not trabecular density...... of alterations in mitochondrial function on bone remodelling and mass have not been investigated in humans. We recruited 45 carriers (29 females, 16 males) with the m.3243A > G mutation and healthy controls matched for gender, age, height and menopausal status. DXA and HRpQCT scans were performed, and bone...

  7. Association of QCT Bone Mineral Density and Bone Structure With Vertebral Fractures in Patients With Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggrefe, Jan; Giravent, Sarah; Thomsen, Felix; Peña, Jaime; Campbell, Graeme; Wulff, Asmus; Günther, Andreas; Heller, Martin; Glüer, Claus C

    2015-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used for staging osteolytic lesions and detecting fractures in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). In the OsteoLysis of Metastases and Plasmacell-infiltration Computed Tomography 2 study (OLyMP-CT) study we investigated whether patients with and without vertebral fractures show differences in bone mineral density (BMD) or microstructure that could be used to identify patients at risk for fracture. We evaluated whole-body CT scans in a group of 104 MM patients without visible osteolytic lesions using an underlying lightweight calibration phantom (Image Analysis Inc., Columbia, KY, USA). QCT software (StructuralInsight) was used for the assessment of BMD and bone structure of the T11 or T12 vertebral body. Age-adjusted standardized odds ratios (sORs) per SD change were derived from logistic regression analyses, and areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUCs) analyses were calculated. Forty-six of the 104 patients had prevalent vertebral fractures (24/60 men, 22/44 women). Patients with fractures were not significantly older than patients without fractures (mean ± SD, 64 ± 9.2 versus 62 ± 12.3 years; p = 0.4). Trabecular BMD in patients with fractures versus without fractures was 169 ± 41 versus 192 ± 51 mg/cc (AUC = 0.62 ± 0.06, sOR = 1.6 [1.1 to 2.5], p = 0.02). Microstructural variables achieved optimal discriminatory power at bone thresholds of 150 mg/cc. Best fracture discrimination for single microstructural variables was observed for trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) (AUC = 0.72 ± 0.05, sOR = 2.4 (1.5 to 3.9), p bone structure derived from routine CT scans permit discrimination of patients with and without vertebral fractures. Rarefaction of the trabecular network due to plasma cell infiltration and osteoporosis can be measured. Deterioration of microstructural measures appear to be of value for vertebral fracture risk assessment and may indicate

  8. Strong relationship between vitamin D status and bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; El Ghoch, Marwan; Viapiana, Ombretta; Ruocco, Antonella; Chignola, Elisa; Rossini, Maurizio; Giollo, Alessandro; Idolazzi, Luca; Adami, Silvano; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with impaired bone health and low bone mineral density (BMD) as a consequence of an inadequate peak bone mass in adolescence and bone loss in young adulthood. The vitamin D status with its implications for bone health in patients affected by AN has only been examined previously in small studies. To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and test the hypothesis that patients with AN and vitamin D deficiency might have worse bone metabolism and lower bone density as compared with AN with adequate vitamin D repletion. We analysed the vitamin D status and bone metabolism in a large cohort (n=89) of untreated patients affected by AN, with amenorrhoea. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in untreated patients with AN: 16.9% had 25OH vitamin D levels below 12 ng/ml, 36% below 20 ng/ml and 58.4% below 30 ng/ml. PTH values were higher and BMD at both femoral sites were lower in patients with vitamin D<20 ng/ml. Progressively higher values of BMD were observed by 4 ranks of 25 OH vitamin D values (severe deficiency: <12 ng/ml, deficiency: ≥12 ng/ml and <20 ng/ml, insufficiency: ≥20 and <30 ng/ml and normal: ≥30 ng/ml). In patients with severe vitamin D deficiency BMD at the hip were significantly lower than that measured in groups with values over 20 ng/ml (p<0.001 for trend). The level of significance did not change for values adjusted for BMI or body weight. We found a strong relationship between vitamin D status and hip BMD values with additional benefits for those with 25OHD levels above 20 ng/ml. Our results support the design of a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effect of vitamin D on BMD in patients with AN. The second point, whether 25OHD should be above 20 or 30 ng/ml remains a discussion point. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of diary food supplements on bone mineral density in teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, M J; Smart, E J; Gilchrist, N L; Frampton, C; Turner, J G; Hooke, E; March, R L; Maguire, P

    2000-12-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is largely genetically determined and this influence is most powerful in the period of rapid skeletal development in childhood and late adolescence but environmental factors such as exercise and dietary calcium intake may influence up to 20%. The aims of the study were to examine healthy late adolescent females for the effects and benefits of a high calcium intake from dairy product foods on bone mineral density, body composition, lipids and biochemistry. The secondary aim is determine whether a high intake of dairy product foods in the diet is acceptable for this age group long term. Ninety-one teenage girls who participated in a two-year randomised controlled study on the effect of dairy food supplementation on dietary patterns, body composition and bone density in post-pubertal teenage girls were approached one year after the cessation of the study to determine the effects of the cessation of dairy supplements on bone mineral density, dietary habits, biochemical markers, body composition and blood lipids. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were assessed at the hip, spine and total body. Anthropometric data were collected, and exercise, Tanner, dietary assessment, preference and compliance questionnaires were administered. Lipid profiles, hydroxyproline excretion and urinary calcium and sodium excretion measurements were performed. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups for height, weight, lean and fat mass. The supplemented group had significantly higher calcium, phosphorus and protein intake during the supplementation period (p supplementation finished. There were no significant differences in exercise level, preference or acceptability of dairy products or in the lipids and bone markers between baseline the end of supplementation and 1 year follow-up. There was a significant increase in trochanter (4.6%), lumbar spine (1.5%) and femoral neck (4.8%) BMD (p supplementation. There was an increase in bone

  10. The relationship between adipokines, body composition, and bone density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl F Vondracek

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl F Vondracek1, Norbert F Voelkel2, Michael T McDermott3, Connie Valdez11Department of Clinical Pharmacy; 3Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Victoria Johnson Center for Emphysema Research, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAAbstract: Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Data regarding the relationship between adipokines and bone mineral density (BMD in this population is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine associations between the adipokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, adiponectin and resistin, body composition, and BMD in men with severe COPD. This was a cross-sectional study of men with severe COPD who visited the University of Colorado Hospital COPD Center. Bone density and parameters of body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-three men were included (mean age = 66 years, mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second = 32%. On bivariate analysis, there was no association between TNF-α and BMD. Parameters of body composition and serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were significantly associated with total hip and spine bone density. However, with partial correlation analysis, total body mass was the only independent predictor of total hip BMD, explaining approximately 50% of the variability. Overall, 18 out of 23 men enrolled (78% had low bone density by T-score, and nine (39% were classified as having osteoporosis. The men with osteoporosis had lower parameters of body composition, lower mean serum leptin concentrations, and a greater impairment in measures of lung function compared to the men without osteoporosis. We conclude that the effect of adipokines on BMD does not appear to be independent of body mass. However, larger studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between adipokines

  11. The relationship between maternal and child bone density in Nigerian children with and without nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommersbach, T J; Fischer, P R; Pettifor, J M; Thacher, T D

    2018-02-27

    We found a positive relationship between bone density in Nigerian children with and without rickets and that of their mothers. After treatment, children with rickets had greater bone density than children without rickets, indicating that children genetically programmed to have greater bone density may have a higher risk of rickets. To determine the relationship between bone density in children with and without rickets and that of their mothers METHODS: Using an unmatched case-control design, forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured in 52 and 135 Nigerian children with and without rickets and their mothers, respectively. We performed multivariate linear regression analyses to assess the relationship between maternal and child aBMD Z-scores. Forearm aBMD Z-scores in children were associated with maternal aBMD Z-scores at metaphyseal (effect estimate 0.23; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.37) and diaphyseal (effect estimate 0.16; 0.01 to 0.30) sites, after adjustment for rickets in the child, child's age and sex, height-for-age Z-score, and weight-for-age Z-score. In the adjusted model, rickets was inversely associated with child's aBMD Z-score at the diaphyseal site only (- 0.45, - 0.65 to - 0.24). The positive relationship between maternal and child aBMD Z-scores was marginally greater in children with rickets (slope 0.56, r = 0.47) than without rickets (slope 0.19, r = 0.20) at the diaphyseal site only (P = 0.06 for interaction) but not at the metaphyseal site (slopes 0.35 and 0.30, respectively, P = 0.48). After treatment with calcium for 6 months, metaphyseal aBMD Z-scores were greater in children with treated rickets (effect estimate 0.26; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.49) than in those without rickets. In Nigerian children with and without rickets, forearm aBMD Z-scores were positively associated with maternal aBMD Z-scores. Active rickets in the child marginally modified the relationship at the diaphyseal site only. After treatment, children with

  12. [Effect of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on bone mineral density in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Hai; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Li, Shao-Feng; Li, Wen-Yuan; Xi, Hui-Rong; Yang, Fang-Fang; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2017-12-25

    To study effects of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone mineral density (BMD) in SD rats. Thirty SD rats weighted(110±10) and aged 1 month were randomly divided into control group and electromagnetic field group, 15 in each group. Normal control group of 50 Hz 0 mT density and sinusoidal electromagnetic field group of 50 Hz 1.8 mT were performed respectively with 1.5 h/d and weighted weight once a week, and observed food-intake. Rats were anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to detect bone density of whole body, and detected bone density of femur and vertebral body. Osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were detected by ELSA; weighted liver, kidney and uterus to calculate purtenance index, then detected pathologic results by HE. Compared with control group, there was no significant change in weight every week, food-intake every day; no obvious change of bone density of whole body at 2 and 4 weeks, however bone density of whole body, bone density of excised femur and vertebra were increased at 6 weeks. Expression of OC was increased, and TRACP 5b expression was decreased. No change of HE has been observed in liver, kidney and uterus and organic index. 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields could improve bone formation to decrease relevant factors of bone absorbs, to improve peak bone density of young rats, in further provide a basis for clinical research electromagnetic fields preventing osteoporosis foundation.

  13. Effect of body composition on bone mineral density in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Badri, Dalal; Rostom, Samira; Bouaddi, Ilham; Hassani, Asmae; Chkirate, Bouchra; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2014-01-01

    The link between bone mass and body composition is widely recognized, but only few works were selectively performed on subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of body composition on bone mineral density (BMD) in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Thirty three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were included in a cross-sectional study. The diagnosis of JIA was made according to the criteria of the International League of Association of Rheumatology (ILAR). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the ratio of weight/height(2)(kg/m(2)). Pubertal status was determined according to the Tanner criteria. Bone status, body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) were analyzed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at total body in (g/cm(2)). Total body fat tissue mass (FTM) and lean tissue mass (LTM) were also analyzed by DXA and expressed in kilograms. In children, low BMD was defined as a Z-score less than -2 and osteoporosis was defined as a Z-score less than -2 with a fracture history. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 Moroccan patients with JIA aged between 4 and 16 years, Fat mass was not related to bone density; in contrast, BMD was positively associated to LTM in total body(r = =0.41, p= 0.04) but not in lumbar spine (r = 0.29, p= 0.17). There exist significant correlation between BMC and BMD in total body (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). This study suggests that the LTM is a determining factor of the BMD during adolescence. Other studies with a broader sample would be useful to confirm this relation.

  14. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis

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    Roberta Vanacor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of low bone mass density in cystic fibrosis patients as well as to evaluate the factors associated with bone mass in such patients. Methods Bone mass density was measured by dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry of lumbar spine (L1-L4, in patients ≤19 years old, or lumbar spine and femur (total and neck in patients ≥20 years old. Evaluations of nutritional status, biochemical parameters, and lung function were performed. Medication data were obtained from medical records. Results Fifty-eight patients were included in the study (25 males/ 33 females, mean age 23.9 years (16-53years. The prevalence of bone mass below the expected range for age at any site was 20.7%. None of the subjects had history of fracture. Lumbar spine Z-score in cystic fibrosis patients correlated positively with body mass index (r= 0.3, p=0.001, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (% predicted (r=0.415, p=0.022. Mean lumbar spine Z-score was higher in women (p=0.001, in patients with no pancreatic insufficiency (p=0.032, and in patients with no hospitalization in the last 3 months (p=0.02. After multivariate analysis, body mass index (p= 0.001 and sex (p=0.001 were independently associated with Z-score in lumbar spine. Conclusion Low bone mass is a frequent problem in patients with CF, being independently associated with body mass index, and male sex.

  15. Effects of isoflavone and counter-resistance training on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

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    Fábio Lera Orsatti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the independent and additive effects of conter-resistance training (RT and soy isoflavone supplement (ISO on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in postmenopausal women. This study used a placebo-controlled, double-blinded (soy, randomized two (ISO vs. placebo x two (RT vs. no RT design. Eighty sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 45-70 years, were randomly assigned to one of four groups (71 completed a 9-month intervention: RT+ISO (n=15; no RT+ISO (n=20; RT+placebo (n=18; no RT+placebo (n=18. Participants randomized to ISO received 100mg/day/oral of soy isoflavone; and those to RT attended supervised counter-resistance training sessions at least twice a week. At baseline and 9-month, BMD was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Serum levels of C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX, osteocalcin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 were measured as boné turnover. ANOVA with time as the repeated measure and test t were used in the statistical analysis. After 9 months of intervention, neither ISO nor RT alone affected BMD at anysite or levels of CTX, osteocalcin, and IGF-1 (p>0.05. ISO and RT had no additive effects on BMD and bone turnover. RT groups showed significantly increased muscle strength (+35.2% (p=0.02. We found no additive effects of resistance training and soy isoflavone on bone mineral density or bone turnover in postmenopausal women after 9-months.

  16. Exstrophy bladder: Effect of sigmoid colocystoplasty on physical growth and bone mineral density

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    M Ragavan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims : Introduction of intestinal tissue in the urinary tract results in numerous metabolic changes. This study investigates the effects of augmentation sigmoid colocystoplasty on the physical growth and bone mineralization in bladder exstrophy patients. Materials and Methods : Physical growth, serum biochemistry and bone mineral density were assessed pre and post augmentation in 34 of 54 patients who were treated by staged sigmoid colocystoplasty for classical bladder exstrophy during the period 1985-2007. Physical growth was determined by comparing the height and weight for age with standard growth charts. Serum biochemistry included calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase levels. Bone mineral density (BMD was determined at the femoral head using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan at 15 ± 4.5 months after the augmentation. The DEXA scan findings were compared with 22 normal Indian children who served as controls and 18 unaugmented patients with bladder exstrophy. In 13 augmented patients, the DEXA scan could be repeated after an interval of six months. Results : The mean percentile height and weight were comparable in the pre and post-augmentation period with no statistically significant difference (P=0.135 for height and P=0.232 for weight. Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism also did not show any statistically significant changes after colocystoplasty. The BMD was 0.665 ± 0.062 g/cm 2 in the controls and 0.612 ± 0.10 g/cm 2 in the unaugmented bladder exstrophy patients. In the augmented patients, the BMD was 0.645 ± 0.175 g/cm 2 and six months later it was 0.657 ± 0.158 g/cm 2 . These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: In our study, no significant effects on the physical growth and bone mineral metabolism were observed in exstrophy bladder patients following sigmoid colocystoplasty.

  17. Early changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover and their relationship with bone mineral density changes after 24 months of treatment with teriparatide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumsohn, A; Marin, F; Nickelsen, T

    2011-01-01

    with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide and determined: (1) whether the response is associated with prior osteoporosis therapy, (2) which marker shows the best performance for detecting a response to therapy, and (3) the correlations between early changes in bone markers and subsequent bone mineral density (BMD......We report the changes in biochemical markers of bone formation during the first 6 months of teriparatide therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to previous antiresorptive treatment. Prior therapy does not adversely affect the response to teriparatide treatment. Similar bone...... markers levels are reached after 6 months of treatment. INTRODUCTION: The response of biochemical markers of bone turnover with teriparatide therapy in subjects who have previously received osteoporosis drugs is not fully elucidated. We examined biochemical markers of bone formation in women...

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRAINING VOLUME AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGES IN ELDERLY WOMEN

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    Juan José Rábade Espinosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Several studies have analyzed the relationship between physical activity and bone density. However, the prescription of exercise is not entirely clear as to the type, quantity and intensity. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the amount of exercise and changes in bone mineral density. Methods: Fifty-two women, members of the Municipal Program of Physical Activity for Seniors, voluntarily underwent two ultrasonographies of the calcaneus within a 6-month interval. During this period, all physical activity was recorded. Afterwards, a lineal correlation study was carried out between the amount of exercise and bone changes, expressed as T-Score variation, first in total number of participants and then in groups. Considering the average body weight obtained for all women, two groups were created ("light" 69 kg. Later, women who had participated in less than 72% of the targeted program were excluded from both groups, and the differences between the groups "light and trained" and "heavy and trained" were analyzed. To do so, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. Results: A significant relationship of r= -0.59 was found between the total amount of exercise and the T-Score variation in the group of women above 69 kg. Significant differences were found between the "light and trained" group and the "heavy and trained" group with respect to the variation of T-Score. Conclusion: The effect of exercise on bone mineral density is determined, somehow, by body weight. This interaction is due, possibly, to mechanical demands difference.

  19. Lipid profile, obesity and bone mineral density: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

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    Dennison, E M; Syddall, H E; Aihie Sayer, A; Martin, H J; Cooper, C

    2007-05-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) are positively correlated in several studies, but few data relate bone density, lipid profile and anthropometric measures. To investigate these relationships in a large, well-characterized cohort of men and women (The Hertfordshire Cohort Study). Men (n = 465) and women (n = 448) from Hertfordshire, UK were recruited. Information was available on demographic and lifestyle factors, anthropometric measurements, body fat percentage, fasting triglycerides, cholesterol (total, HDL, LDL), apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein (b); bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and total femur. BMD at the lumbar spine (males r = 0.15, p = 0.001; females r = 0.14, p = 0.003) and total femoral region (males r = 0.18, p = 0.0001; females r = 0.16, p = 0.0008) was related to serum triglyceride level, even after adjustment for waist-hip ratio, age, social class and lifestyle factors, but not if body fat percentage was substituted for waist-hip ratio in the regression model. Fasting HDL cholesterol level was related to lumbar spine BMD in women (r = -0.15, p = 0.001) and total femoral BMD in both sexes (males r = -0.15, p = 0.002; females r = -0.23, p BMD. In this cohort, relationships between lipid profile and BMD were robust to adjustment for one measure of central obesity (waist-hip ratio), but not total body fat. This broadly supports the idea that adiposity may confound the relationship between lipids and bone mass.

  20. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

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    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  1. Physical activity and bone: The importance of the various mechanical stimuli for bone mineral density. A review

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    Bente Morseth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported benefits of regular physical activity on bone mineral density (BMD. The effects of physical activity on BMD are primarily linked to the mechanisms of mechanical loading, but the understanding of the precise mechanism behind the association is incomplete. The aim of this paper was to review the main findings concerning sources and types of mechanical stimuli in relation to BMD. Mechanical forces that act on bone are generated from impact with the ground (ground-reaction forces and from skeletal muscle contractions (muscle forces or muscle-joint forces, but the relative importance of these two sources has not been elucidated. Both muscle-joint forces and gravitational forces seem to be able to induce bone adaptation independently, and there may be differences in the importance of loading sources at different skeletal sites. The nature of the stimuli is affected by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of the activity. The activity should be dynamic, not static, and the magnitude and rate of the stimuli should be high. In accordance with this, cross-sectional studies report highest BMD in athletes of high-impact activities such as dancing, soccer, volleyball, basketball, squash, speed skating, gymnastics, hockey, and step-aerobics. Endurance activities such as orienteering, skiing, and triathlon seem to be beneficial to a lesser degree, whereas low-impact activities such as swimming and cycling are associated with lower BMD than controls. Both the intensity and frequency of the activity should be varied and increased beyond the habitual level. Duration of the activity seems to be less important, and a few loading cycles seem to be sufficient.

  2. Association of bone mineral density, parameters of bone turnover, and body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulis, Georgios A; Minas, Markos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Vlychou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often develop osteoporosis. Many hormones regulate bone metabolism and body composition, and some of them are affected in COPD patients vs controls. In 46 COPD patients, we measured hip neck, total hip, lumbar spine, and whole-body T-score with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, parameters of body composition (body mass index [BMI], fat mass index [FMI], and fat-free mass index [FFMI]), and adiponectin, leptin, parathormone, osteocalcin, calcitonin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) serum levels and correlated them with COPD stage. Our results suggest that total hip bone mineral density (BMD) is affected by FFMI and COPD stage; lumbar spine BMD is affected by FMI and COPD stage; and whole-body BMD is affected by BMI, COPD stage, and leptin. Adiponectin, parathormone, osteocalcin, calcitonin, and IGF-I levels were not significantly correlated to BMD at any of the measured sites. Our findings are in agreement with the current literature in that a decline in lung function is correlated to a decline in BMD. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene-dietary fat interaction, bone mineral density and bone speed of sound in children: a twin study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ji; Wang, Youfa

    2015-03-01

    Dietary fat correlates with bone mineral density (BMD). We tested the association between fat intake and BMD, and tested if fat intake modified the degree of genetic influence on BMD and bone speed of sound (SOS). We included 622 twins aged 7-15 from South China. Data on anthropometry, dietary intake, BMD, and SOS were collected. Quantitative genetic analyses of structural equation models were fit using the Mx statistical package. The within-pair intraclass correlations for BMD in dizygotic twins were nearly half of that for monozygotic twins (intraclass correlations = 0.39 versus 0.70). The heritability of BMD and SOS were 71 and 79%. Phenotypic correlation between fat intake and SOS was significant (r = -0.19, p = 0.04). SOS was negatively correlated with fat intake in boys (r = -0.11, p = 0.05), but not in girls. Full Cholesky decomposition models showed SOS has a strong genetic correlation with fat intake (rA = -0.88, 95% confidence interval = -0.94, 0.01); the environmental correlation between fat intake and SOS was weak (rE = -0