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Sample records for tenerife northeast-atlantic ocean

  1. From silk to satellite: Half a century of ocean colour anomalies in the Northeast Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Pradhan, Yaswant; Lavender, Sam; Hoteit, Ibrahim; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail L.; Reid, Philip Chris; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in phytoplankton dynamics influence marine biogeochemical cycles, climate processes, and food webs, with substantial social and economic consequences. Large-scale estimation of phytoplankton biomass was possible via ocean colour measurements from two remote sensing satellites - the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS, 1979-1986) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, 1998-2010). Due to the large gap between the two satellite eras and differences in sensor characteristics, comparison of the absolute values retrieved from the two instruments remains challenging. Using a unique in situ ocean colour dataset that spans more than half a century, the two satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) eras are linked to assess concurrent changes in phytoplankton variability and bloom timing over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. Results from this unique re-analysis reflect a clear increasing pattern of Chl-a, a merging of the two seasonal phytoplankton blooms producing a longer growing season and higher seasonal biomass, since the mid-1980s. The broader climate plays a key role in Chl-a variability as the ocean colour anomalies parallel the oscillations of the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) since 1948. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. From silk to satellite: Half a century of ocean colour anomalies in the Northeast Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2014-04-23

    Changes in phytoplankton dynamics influence marine biogeochemical cycles, climate processes, and food webs, with substantial social and economic consequences. Large-scale estimation of phytoplankton biomass was possible via ocean colour measurements from two remote sensing satellites - the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS, 1979-1986) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, 1998-2010). Due to the large gap between the two satellite eras and differences in sensor characteristics, comparison of the absolute values retrieved from the two instruments remains challenging. Using a unique in situ ocean colour dataset that spans more than half a century, the two satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) eras are linked to assess concurrent changes in phytoplankton variability and bloom timing over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. Results from this unique re-analysis reflect a clear increasing pattern of Chl-a, a merging of the two seasonal phytoplankton blooms producing a longer growing season and higher seasonal biomass, since the mid-1980s. The broader climate plays a key role in Chl-a variability as the ocean colour anomalies parallel the oscillations of the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) since 1948. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Uranium Series Radionuclides in the Water Column of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F. P. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, namely {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and {sup 232}Th, were analysed in water samples from ocean vertical profiles in three major abyssal basins of the NE Atlantic (Porcupine, Iberia and Tejo Basins), from the surface to the deep sea water layer. Concentrations were determined in the dissolved and particulate phases. The profiles of uranium isotopes in the water column, mostly in dissolved phase, showed nearly homogenized concentrations with {sup 238}U averaging 37{+-}4 mBq/Land {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios averaging 1.13{+-}0.04, while {sup 226}Ra concentrations were 2-3 times higher in the bottom than at the ocean surface. {sup 230}Th activity concentrations were four orders of magnitude lower than {sup 234}U, confirming rapid Th scavenging from solution by the particulate matter. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in the soluble phase were much lower than dissolved {sup 226}Ra. Modelling the distribution of these radionuclides in the water column leads to an average residence time of dissolved {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the upper layer of 5 a and 1 a, respectively, and 0.6 a in the particulate phase for both radionuclides. In the deep water layer, soluble {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po mean residence times were 42{+-}20 a and 2 a, respectively. The calculated {sup 210}Pb deposition flux at the abyssal sea floor is comparable with the flux derived from the {sup 210}Pb-excess inventory measured in sediments, and about 100 Bq.m-2.a{sup -1}. The {sup 210}Pb atmospheric deposition flux at the ocean surface in this region was estimated at about 74 Bq.m{sup -2}a{sup -1} and the {sup 210}Pb sink in the Northeast Atlantic is discussed. (author)

  4. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  5. Centennial- to millennial-scale ice-ocean interactions in the subpolar northeast Atlantic 18-41 kyr ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, I. R.; Colmenero-Hidalgo, E.; Zahn, R.; Peck, V. L.; Hemming, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    In order to monitor the evolution of the British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) and its influence in surface ocean structure during marine isotopic stages (MIS) 2 and 3, we have analyzed the sediments recovered in core MD04-2829CQ (Rosemary Bank, north Rockall Trough, northeast Atlantic) dated between ˜41 and ˜18 ka B.P. Ice-rafted debris flux and composition, 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual hornblende grains, multispecies planktonic stable isotope records, planktonic foraminifera assemblage data and faunal-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) demonstrate a close interaction between BIIS dynamics and surface ocean structure and water properties in this region. The core location lies beneath the North Atlantic Current (NAC) and is ideal for monitoring the shifts in the position of its associated oceanic fronts, as recorded by faunal changes. These data reveal a succession of BIIS-sourced iceberg calving events related to low SST, usually synchronous with dramatic changes in the composition of the planktonic foraminifera assemblage and with variations in the stable isotope records of the taxa Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral coiling) and Globigerina bulloides. The pacing of the calving events, from typically Dansgaard-Oeschger millennial timescales during late MIS 3 to multicentennial cyclicity from ˜28 ka B.P., represents the build-up of the BIIS and its growing instability toward Heinrich Event (HE) 2 and the Last Glacial Maximum. Our data confirm the strong coupling between BIIS instabilities and the temperature and salinity of surface waters in the adjacent northeast Atlantic and demonstrate the BIIS's ability to modify the NAC on its flow toward the Nordic Seas. In contrast, subsurface water masses were less affected except during the Greenland stadials that contain HEs, when most intense water column reorganizations occurred simultaneously with the deposition of cream-colored carbonate sourced from the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  6. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a biomass, composition, and productivity along a temperature and stratification gradient in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.; Kulk, G.; Timmermans, K.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Kehoe, M.J.; Mojica, K.D.A.; Visser, R.J.W.; Rozema, P.D.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sea surface temperature (SST, > 10 m) and vertical density stratification, nutrient concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass, composition, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) specific absorption were assessed in spring and summer from latitudes 29 to 63° N in the northeast Atlantic

  7. Environmental change studies in the Caspian Sea and the north-east Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.; Oregioni, B.; GASTAUD, J.

    2002-01-01

    Caspian Sea and NE Atlantic water profiles were investigated for radionuclide content. Radionuclide data on the water samples collected in 1995 and 1996 in the Caspian Sea show a rapid exchange of water masses in the two deep basins (the Central and Southern Basins). The main source of radionuclides is global fallout. In the NE Atlantic Ocean elevated concentrations of 3 H and 4 C were observed at medium depths (2000-3000 m) which could be explained by high latitude injection processes. (author)

  8. Survey of polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the atmosphere over the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Vlahos, Penny; Harner, Tom; Peters, Andrew; Graustein, Margaret; Narayan, Julie

    2010-08-01

    High volume air sampling in Bermuda, Sable Island (Nova Scotia) and along a cruise track from the Gulf of Mexico to northeast coast of the USA, was carried out to assess air concentrations, particle-gas partitioning and transport of polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in this region. Samples were collected in the summer of 2007. Targeted compounds included the neutral PFCs: fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FOSEs). Among the FTOHs, 8:2 FTOH was dominant in all samples. Sum of the concentration of FTOHs (gas+particle phase) were higher in Bermuda (mean, 34 pg m -3) compared to Sable Island (mean, 16 pg m -3). In cruise samples, sum of FTOHs were highly variable (mean, 81 pg m -3) reflecting contributions from land-based sources in the northeast USA with concentrations reaching as high as 156 pg m -3. Among the FOSAs and FOSEs, MeFOSE was dominant in all samples. In Bermuda, levels of MeFOSE were exceptionally high (mean, 62 pg m -3), exceeding the FTOHs. Sable Island samples also exhibited the dominance of MeFOSE but at a lower concentration (mean, 15 pg m -3). MeFOSE air concentrations (pg m -3) in cruise samples ranged from 1.6 to 73 and were not linked to land-based sources. In fact high concentrations of MeFOSE observed in Bermuda were associated with air masses that originated over the Atlantic Ocean. The partitioning to particles for 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, MeFOSE and EtFOSE ranged from as high as 15 to 42% for cruise samples to 0.9 to 14% in Bermuda. This study provides key information for validating and developing partitioning and transport models for the PFCs.

  9. Hooded seal Cystophora cristata foraging areas in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean-Investigated using three complementary methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Vacquie-Garcia

    Full Text Available Identifying environmental characteristics that define the ecological niche of a species is essential to understanding how changes in physical conditions might affect its distribution and other aspects of its ecology. The present study used satellite relay data loggers (SRDLs to study habitat use by Northeast Atlantic hooded seals (N = 20; 9 adult females, 3 adult males, and 8 juveniles. Three different methods were used in combination to achieve maximum insight regarding key foraging areas for hooded seals in this region, which have decline by 85% in recent decades: 1 first passage time (FPT; 2 vertical transit rate and; 3 change in dive drift rate. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMM were applied to each method to determine whether specific habitat characteristics were associated with foraging. Separate models were run for the post-molting and the post-breeding seasons; sex and age classes were included in the GAMMs. All three methods highlighted a few common geographic areas as being important foraging zones; however, there were also some different areas identified by the different methods, which highlights the importance of using multiple indexes when analyzing tracking and diving data to study foraging behavior. Foraging occurred most commonly in relatively shallow areas with high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST, corresponding to continental shelf areas with Atlantic Water masses. All age and sex classes overlapped spatially to some extent, but the different age and sex groups showed differences in the bathymetry of their foraging areas as well as in their vertical use of the water column. When foraging, pups dove in the upper part of the water column in relatively deep areas. Adult females foraged relatively shallowly in deep water areas too, though in shallower areas than pups. Adult males foraged close to the bottom in shallower areas.

  10. Contrasting effects of temperature and winter mixing on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the carbonate system in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dumousseaud

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate change as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is expected to strongly affect the oceans, with shallower winter mixing and consequent reduction in primary production and oceanic carbon drawdown in low and mid-latitudinal oceanic regions. Here we test this hypothesis by examining the effects of cold and warm winters on the carbonate system in the surface waters of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean for the period between 2005 and 2007. Monthly observations were made between the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay using a ship of opportunity program. During the colder winter of 2005/2006, the maximum depth of the mixed layer reached up to 650 m in the Bay of Biscay, whilst during the warmer (by 2.6 ± 0.5 °C winter of 2006/2007 the mixed layer depth reached only 300 m. The inter-annual differences in late winter concentrations of nitrate (2.8 ± 1.1 μmol l−1 and dissolved inorganic carbon (22 ± 6 μmol kg−1, with higher concentrations at the end of the colder winter (2005/2006, led to differences in the dissolved oxygen anomaly and the chlorophyll α-fluorescence data for the subsequent growing season. In contrast to model predictions, the calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes (ranging from +3.7 to −4.8 mmol m−2 d−1 showed an increased oceanic CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay following the warmer winter of 2006/2007 associated with wind speed and sea surface temperature differences.

  11. Phytoplankton community structure in relation to vertical stratification along a north-south gradient in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojica, Kristina D. A.; van de Poll, Willem H.; Keheo, Michael; Huisman, Jef; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Buma, Anita G. J.; van der Woerd, Hans J.; Hahn-Woernle, L.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Brussaard, Corina P D

    Climate change is affecting the hydrodynamics of the world’s oceans. How these changes will influence the productivity, distribution and abundance of phytoplankton communities is an urgent research question. Here we provide a unique high-resolution mesoscale description of the phytoplankton

  12. Phytoplankton community structure in relation to vertical stratification along a north-south gradient in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojica, Kristina; van de Poll, Willem; Kehoe, Michael; Huisman, Jef; Timmermans, Klaas; Buma, Anita; van der Woerd, Hans J; Hahn-Woernle, Lisa; Dijkstra, Henk A; Brussaard, Corina

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is affecting the hydrodynamics of the world’s oceans. How these changes will influence the productivity, distribution and abundance of phytoplankton communities is an urgent research question. Here we provide a unique high-resolution mesoscale description of the phytoplankton

  13. Phytoplankton community structure in relation to vertical stratification along a north-south gradient in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojica, K.D.A.; van de Poll, W.H.; Kehoe, M.J.; Huisman, J.; Timmermans, K.R.; Buma, A.G.J.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Hahn-Woernle, L.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is affecting the hydrodynamics of the world's oceans. How these changes will influence the productivity, distribution and abundance of phytoplankton communities is an urgent research question. Here we provide a unique high-resolution mesoscale description of the phytoplankton

  14. Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, A.; Garijo, J. C.; Landeira, J. M.; Bordes, F.; Hernández-León, S.

    2015-05-01

    Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) in marine ecosystems is performed by zooplankton and micronekton, promoting a poorly accounted export of carbon to the deep ocean. Major efforts have been made to estimate carbon export due to gravitational flux and to a lesser extent, to migrant zooplankton. However, migratory flux by micronekton has been largely neglected in this context, due to its time-consuming and difficult sampling. In this paper, we evaluated gravitational and migratory flux due to the respiration of zooplankton and micronekton in the northeast subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Migratory flux was addressed by calculating the biomass of migrating components and measuring the electron transfer system (ETS) activity in zooplankton and dominant species representing micronekton (Euphausia gibboides, Sergia splendens and Lobianchia dofleini). Our results showed similar biomass in both components. The main taxa contributing to DVM within zooplankton were juvenile euphausiids, whereas micronekton were mainly dominated by fish, followed by adult euphausiids and decapods. The contribution to respiratory flux of zooplankton (3.4 ± 1.9 mg C m-2 d-1) was similar to that of micronekton (2.9 ± 1.0 mg C m-2 d-1). In summary, respiratory flux accounted for 53% (range 23-71) of the gravitational flux measured at 150 m depth (11.9 ± 5.8 mg C m-2 d-1). However, based on larger migratory ranges and gut clearance rates, micronekton are expected to be the dominant component that contributes to carbon export in deeper waters. Micronekton estimates in this paper as well as those in existing literature, although variable due to regional differences and difficulties in calculating their biomass, suggest that carbon fluxes driven by this community are important for future models of the biological carbon pump.

  15. Opportunistically recorded acoustic data support Northeast Atlantic mackerel expansion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, vander Jeroen; Fassler, S.M.M.; Stephens, D.; Readdy, Lisa; Scott, B.; Roel, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries independent monitoring of widely distributed pelagic fish species which conduct large seasonal migrations is logistically complex and expensive.One of the commercially most important examples of such a species in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is mackerel for which up to recently only an

  16. Seamount physiography and biology in the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Morato, T.; Kvile, K. Ø.; Taranto, G. H.; Tempera, F.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Hebbeln, D.; Menezes, G. M.; Wienberg, C.; Santos, R. S.; Pitcher, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic) and in the Medite...

  17. Seamount physiography and biology in North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    T. Morato; K. Ø. Kvile; G. H. Taranto; F. Tempera; B. E. Narayanaswamy; D. Hebbeln; G. Menezes; C. Wienberg; R. S. Santos; T. J. Pitcher

    2012-01-01

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in-situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (North-East Atlantic) and in Mediterran...

  18. Large eruption-triggered ocean-island landslide at Tenerife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, P; Branney, M; Storey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    An extensive debris-avalanche deposit has been discovered on Cañadas volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands). The onshore component of the 733 ± 3 ka Abona landslide deposit exposes classic block facies and mixed facies across 90 km2. Three lines of evidence together show that the avalanche was trigge......An extensive debris-avalanche deposit has been discovered on Cañadas volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands). The onshore component of the 733 ± 3 ka Abona landslide deposit exposes classic block facies and mixed facies across 90 km2. Three lines of evidence together show that the avalanche...... was triggered by an ignimbrite-forming explosive eruption: (1) the deposit is enclosed by phonolitic ignimbrites and is draped by a Plinian fallout layer, all within a single eruption unit; (2) it contains prismatic-jointed pumice blocks that were hot during landslide emplacement, indicated by chilled rims...... and breadcrust surfaces; (3) these blocks yield the same 40Ar/39Ar date as the associated ignimbrite and fall deposit. Landslide hummocks dammed surface water, forming ephemeral lakes perched on the volcano flank. Phonolite dome growth destabilized the southeast sector of a mid-Pleistocene Cañadas caldera wall...

  19. Seamount physiography and biology in the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Morato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea is large with around 557 and 101 seamount-like features, respectively. Similarly, seamounts occupy large areas of about 616 000 km2 in the OSPAR region and of about 89 500 km2 in the Mediterranean Sea. The presence of seamounts in the north-east Atlantic has been known since the late 19th century, but overall knowledge regarding seamount ecology and geology is still relatively poor. Only 37 seamounts in the OSPAR area (3.5% of all seamounts in the region, 22 in the Mediterranean Sea (9.2% of all seamounts in the region and 25 in the north-east Atlantic south of the OSPAR area have in situ information. Seamounts mapped in both areas are in general very heterogeneous, showing diverse geophysical characteristics. These differences will likely affect the biological diversity and production of resident and associated organisms.

  20. Anthropogenic Signatures of Lead in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiecka, D.; Gledhill, M.; Milne, A.; Achterberg, E. P.; Annett, A. L.; Atkinson, S.; Birchill, A.; Karstensen, J.; Lohan, M.; Mariez, C.; Middag, R.; Rolison, J. M.; Tanhua, T.; Ussher, S.; Connelly, D.

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in enhanced lead (Pb) emissions to the environment over the past century, mainly through the combustion of leaded gasoline. Here we present the first combined dissolved (DPb), labile (LpPb), and particulate (PPb) Pb data set from the Northeast Atlantic (Celtic Sea) since the phasing out of leaded gasoline in Europe. Concentrations of DPb in surface waters have decreased by fourfold over the last four decades. We demonstrate that anthropogenic Pb is transported from the Mediterranean Sea over long distances (>2,500 km). Benthic DPb fluxes exceeded the atmospheric Pb flux in the region, indicating the importance of sediments as a contemporary Pb source. A strong positive correlation between DPb, PPb, and LpPb indicates a dynamic equilibrium between the phases and the potential for particles to "buffer" the DPb pool. This study provides insights into Pb biogeochemical cycling and demonstrates the potential of Pb in constraining ocean circulation patterns.

  1. Volcanic and geochemical evolution of the Teno massif, Tenerife, Canary Islands: some repercussions of giant landslides on ocean island magmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Troll, Valentin R.; Walter, Thomas R.; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale, catastrophic mass wasting is a major process contributing to the dismantling of oceanic intraplate volcanoes. Recent studies, however, have highlighted a possible feedback relationship between flank collapse, or incipient instability, and subsequent episodes of structural rearrangement and/or renewed volcano growth. The Teno massif, located in northwestern Tenerife (Canary Islands), is a deeply eroded Miocene shield volcano that was built in four major eruptive phases punctuated ...

  2. Temporal Variations of Shallow Subtidal Meiofauna in Los Cristianos Bay (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Ne Atlantic Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Jorge; Brito, Maria del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    A subtidal meiofaunal assemblage in Los Cristianos Bay, Tenerife, Canary Islands was sampled from May 2000 to April 2001, at 3 m depth. Nematodes dominated overwhelmingly during the study period, ranging from 84.52% in May 2000 to 95.93% in October 2000. Copepods and polychaetes were the second and the third most abundant groups, respectively. Meiofaunal densities showed significant differences throughout the study period, with minimum abundances during the spring-summer months (May-July) and...

  3. Anthropogenic signatures of lead in the Northeast Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusiecka, D.; Gledhill, M.; Milne, A.; Achterberg, E.P.; Annett, A.L.; Atkinson, S.; Birchill, A.; Karstensen, J.; Lohan, M.; Mariez, C.; Middag, R.; Rolison, J.M.; Tanhua, T.; Ussher, S.; Connelly, D.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in enhanced lead (Pb) emissions to the environment over the past century, mainly through the combustion of leaded gasoline. Here we present the first combined dissolved (DPb), labile (LpPb), and particulate (PPb) Pb data set from the Northeast Atlantic (Celtic

  4. The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Juliet; Williamson, Christopher J; Smale, Dan A; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Mieszkowska, Nova; Santos, Rui; Cunliffe, Michael; Steinke, Michael; Yesson, Christopher; Anderson, Kathryn M; Asnaghi, Valentina; Brownlee, Colin; Burdett, Heidi L; Burrows, Michael T; Collins, Sinead; Donohue, Penelope J C; Harvey, Ben; Foggo, Andrew; Noisette, Fanny; Nunes, Joana; Ragazzola, Federica; Raven, John A; Schmidt, Daniela N; Suggett, David; Teichberg, Mirta; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    Seaweed and seagrass communities in the northeast Atlantic have been profoundly impacted by humans, and the rate of change is accelerating rapidly due to runaway CO2 emissions and mounting pressures on coastlines associated with human population growth and increased consumption of finite resources. Here, we predict how rapid warming and acidification are likely to affect benthic flora and coastal ecosystems of the northeast Atlantic in this century, based on global evidence from the literature as interpreted by the collective knowledge of the authorship. We predict that warming will kill off kelp forests in the south and that ocean acidification will remove maerl habitat in the north. Seagrasses will proliferate, and associated epiphytes switch from calcified algae to diatoms and filamentous species. Invasive species will thrive in niches liberated by loss of native species and spread via exponential development of artificial marine structures. Combined impacts of seawater warming, ocean acidification, and increased storminess may replace structurally diverse seaweed canopies, with associated calcified and noncalcified flora, with simple habitats dominated by noncalcified, turf-forming seaweeds.

  5. Distribution, abundance and habitat use of deep diving cetaceans in the North-East Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Emer; Cañadas, Ana; Macleod, Kelly; Santos, M. Begoña; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Uriarte, Ainhize; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Vázquez, José Antonio; Hammond, Philip S.

    2017-07-01

    In spite of their oceanic habitat, deep diving cetacean species have been found to be affected by anthropogenic activities, with potential population impacts of high intensity sounds generated by naval research and oil prospecting receiving the most attention. Improving the knowledge of the distribution and abundance of this poorly known group is an essential prerequisite to inform mitigation strategies seeking to minimize their spatial and temporal overlap with human activities. We provide for the first time abundance estimates for five deep diving cetacean species (sperm whale, long-finned pilot whale, northern bottlenose whale, Cuvier's beaked whale and Sowerby's beaked whale) using data from three dedicated cetacean sighting surveys that covered the oceanic and shelf waters of the North-East Atlantic. Density surface modelling was used to obtain model-based estimates of abundance and to explore the physical and biological characteristics of the habitat used by these species. Distribution of all species was found to be significantly related to depth, distance from the 2000m depth contour, the contour index (a measure of variability in the seabed) and sea surface temperature. Predicted distribution maps also suggest that there is little spatial overlap between these species. Our results represent the best abundance estimates for deep-diving whales in the North-East Atlantic, predict areas of high density during summer and constitute important baseline information to guide future risk assessments of human activities on these species, evaluate potential spatial and temporal trends and inform EU Directives and future conservation efforts.

  6. Reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales (Rhodophyta in two macroalgal communities from Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polifrone, Milena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea, was analysed seasonally for a period of one year in two localities on the West coast of Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain. Considerations are provided on sex ratio, maximum length and branch order of uprights and on the length of the thalli for each sexual and asexual phase of the Canary Islands populations. The three species were characterized by a high percentage of tetrasporophytes, while female and male gametophytes have been observed only in little proportion. Only G. canariense showed gametophytes in all seasons while the occurrence of gametophytes in G. arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea demonstrated a clear seasonality.

    La fenología reproductiva de tres especies de Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea, ha sido analizada estacionalmente por un periodo de un año en dos localidades de la costa este de Tenerife (Oceano Atlántico, Islas Canarias, España. Se realizan consideraciones sobre sex ratio, longitud máxima y orden de ramificación de los ramets y se aporta información sobre la longitud del talo por cada fase sexual y asexual de las poblaciones canarias. Las tres especies se caracterizan por presentar un elevado porcentaje de tetrasporofitos, mientras que los gametofitos masculinos y femeninos han sido observados en proporciones reducidas. Sólo G. canariense presenta gametofitos en todas las estaciones, mientras que en G. arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea demostraban una clara estacionalidad.

  7. Temporal Variations of Shallow Subtidal Meiofauna in Los Cristianos Bay (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Ne Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Riera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A subtidal meiofaunal assemblage in Los Cristianos Bay, Tenerife, Canary Islands was sampled from May 2000 to April 2001, at 3 m depth. Nematodes dominated overwhelmingly during the study period, ranging from 84.52% in May 2000 to 95.93% in October 2000. Copepods and polychaetes were the second and the third most abundant groups, respectively. Meiofaunal densities showed significant differences throughout the study period, with minimum abundances during the spring-summer months (May-July and highest densities in winter (January and February. This seasonality is mainly due to the temporal variations of the most abundant species (nematodes Daptonema hirsutum and Pomponema sedecima, with differences in meiofauna species composition and abundance during May and June 2000 as compared to the remaining months of the study period. Environmental variables partly explained meiofaunal community structure, being the sedimentary type of very fine sands the most important, jointly with other variables, such as nitrogen and organic matter content.

  8. Advective and diapycnal diffusive oceanic flux in Tenerife - La Gomera Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Díaz, A.; Rodriguez-Santana, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, M.; Machín, F.; García-Weil, L.

    2012-04-01

    During the year 2008, using the commercial passenger ship Volcán de Tauce of the Naviera Armas company several months, it was possible to obtain vertical profiles of temperature from expandable bathythermograph probes in eight stations across the Tenerife - La Gomera channel. With these data of temperature we have been estimated vertical sections of potential density and geostrophic transport with high spatial and temporal resolution (5 nm between stations, and one- two months between cruises). The seasonal variability obtained for the geostrophic transport in this channel shows important differences with others Canary Islands channels. From potential density and geostrophic velocity data we estimated the vertical diffusion coefficients and diapycnal diffusive fluxes, using a parameterization that depends of Richardson gradient number. In the center of the channel and close to La Gomera Island, we found higher values for these diffusive fluxes. Convergence and divergence of these fluxes requires further study so that we can draw conclusions about its impact on the distribution of nutrients in the study area and its impact in marine ecosystems. This work is being used in research projects TRAMIC and PROMECA.

  9. A millennium of north-east Atlantic cod juvenile growth trajectories inferred from archaeological otoliths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir

    Full Text Available Archaeological excavations of historical fishing sites across the North Atlantic have recovered high quantities of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua bones. In the current study we use Atlantic cod otoliths from archaeological excavations of a historical fishing sites in north-west Iceland, dated to AD 970 -AD 1910 to examine historical growth trajectories of cod. No large scale growth variations or shifts in growth patterns were observed in the current chronologies, supporting the stability of historical Atlantic cod growth trajectories. The most significant variation in growth patterns was consistent with those that have been observed in recent times, for example, reduced early juvenile growth during periods of colder ocean temperature. The current results represent a high resolution chronological record of north-east Atlantic cod growth, greatly increasing the prior temporal range of such data, thereby providing a valuable baseline for a broad range of studies on Atlantic cod growth.

  10. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  11. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  12. The Mediterranean Water content in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Angela; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Neves, Filipe

    2014-05-01

    Distribution of the Mediterranean Water (MW) in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic [20-50o N, 5-40o W] was studied using Optimum Multiparameter analysis (OMP) applied to the World Ocean Atlas (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/) and MEDTRANS climatologies (http://co.fc.ul.pt/en/). The areas of influence of water masses in the study region were obtained from literature and from analysis of individual TS-diagrams. The analysis permitted to divide the water column between 500 to 2000 m into 5 vertical layers. The boundaries of the layers separated different expected sets of the dominant water masses; their depth varied across the study region. For the OMP we used the following water masses: the central fraction of the North Atlantic Central Water (H), the lower fraction of the North Atlantic Central Water (NACWl), the Mediterranean Water (MW), the Sub-Artic Intermediate Water (SAIW), the modified Antarctic Intermediate Water (AA), the Labrador Sea Water (LSW) and the upper fraction of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADWu). The characteristics of the water masses were obtained from Perez et al. (2001), Alvarez et al. (2004) and Barbero et al. (2010), taken at the places where the water masses entered the study region. For each of the layers and each of the grid-points OMP was applied for estimation of the percentage of the each of the water masses in the observed mixture. The analysis of sensitivity of the results to the definition of water mass proprieties showed that their percentages were derived within the average error of 10%. The percentages of water masses obtained in this study compared well with the previous OMP results at some individual sections across our region (Hinrichsen and Tomczak, 1993; Alvarez et al., 2004 and Barbero et al., 2010). In this work we specifically focused on distribution of the MW. The results showed that the MW reached its maximum of 50% at 1200 m depth in the Gulf of Cadiz. The percentage decreased to about 40% along the Iberian continental

  13. Thrust-wrench interference tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz (Africa-Iberia plate boundary in the North-East Atlantic): Insights from analog models

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte , João ,; Rosas , Filipe ,; Terrinha , Pedro; Gutscher , Marc-André ,; Malavielle , Jacques; Silva , Sonia; Matias , Luis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In the Gulf of Cadiz key segment of the Africa-Iberia plate boundary (North-East Atlantic ocean), three main different modes of tectonic interference between a recently identified wrench system (SWIM) and the Gulf of Cadiz Accretionary Wedge (GCAW) were tested through analog sand-box modeling: a) An active accretionary wedge on top of a pre-existent inactive basement fault; b) An active strike-slip fault cutting a previously formed, inactive, accretionary wedge; and c)...

  14. Improving the implementation of marine monitoring in the northeast Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, W R

    2018-03-01

    Marine monitoring in the northeast Atlantic is delivered within identifiable monitoring themes, established through time and defined by the geographical area and policy drivers they serve, the sampling methodologies they use, their assessment methodologies, their funding and governance structures and the people or organisations involved in their implementation. Within a monitoring theme, essential components for effective monitoring are governance, strategy and work plan, sampling protocols, quality assurance, and data and assessment structures. This simple framework is used to analyse two monitoring theme case studies; national ecosystem health monitoring, and regional fish stock monitoring. Such essential component analyses, within marine monitoring themes, can help improve monitoring implementation by identifying gaps and overlaps. Once monitoring themes are recognised, explicitly defined and streamlined, travel towards integrated monitoring may be made easier as the current lack of clarity in thematic marine monitoring implementation is one barrier to integration at both national and regional scales. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Contourite drift off Madeira Island (Northeast Atlantic) and implications to Cenozoic bottom-current circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Cristina; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Madureira, Pedro; Quartau, Rui; Magalhães, Vitor; Carrara, Gabriela; Santos de Campos, Aldino; Brandão, Filipe; Tomás Vázquez, Juan; Somoza, Luis

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades several works have been carried out on the morphosedimentary processes driven by bottom-currents in several continental margins and abyssal plains worldwide. However these processes still remain poorly understood on deep-water settings and particularly around oceanic islands. This study is focused on the offshore of Madeira Island (Portugal), which is located in the Northeast Atlantic at about 700 km west of NW Africa. The interpretation of a newly acquired dataset, composed of multibeam bathymetry, Parasound echosounder profiles and multichannel seismic reflection profiles, allowed to identify a giant (about 385 km long and over than 175 km wide) plastered contourite drift, called the "Madeira Drift", developing along the lower slope of the Madeira plateau. It formed on top of a major erosional unconformity that truncates the underlying pelagic deposits, which drape over faulted blocks of Cretaceous oceanic crust. The Madeira Drift is composed of three main regional seismic units showing a predominant aggradational stacking pattern, without evidence of major lateral migration thought time. Its internal configuration indicates that it was build-up by a northwards flowing deep bottom current. These characteristics suggests that an almost persistent and stable water mass has been responsible for its edification trough time. While the precise age of this contourite drift is undetermined, some chronostratigraphic constraints can be determined based upon published works regarding seafloor magnetic anomalies (e.g. Bird et al., 2007), DSDP Site 136drilling data (Hayes et al., 1978). Attending to this, we propose that the possible onset of Madeira Drift must have occurred after Late Cretaceous, within the tertiary period, and quite probably in the Late Eocene / Eocene-Oligocene transition. Based on them is commonly accepted that an enhanced proto-Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) started to circulate at that time we considered this water mass as the

  16. The NE Rift of Tenerife: towards a model on the origin and evolution of ocean island rifts; La dorsal NE de Tenerife: hacia un modelo del origen y evolucion de los rifts de islas oceanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carracedo, J. C.; Guillou, H.; Rodriguez Badiola, E.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, A.; Peris, R.; Troll, V.; Wiesmaier, S.; Delcamp, A.; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    The NE Rift of Tenerife is an excellent example of a persistent, recurrent rift, providing important evidence of the origin and dynamics of these major volcanic features. The rift developed in three successive, intense and relatively short eruptive stages (a few hundred ka), separated by longer periods of quiescence or reduced activity: A Miocene stage (7266 {+-}156 ka), apparently extending the central Miocene shield of Tenerife towards the Anaga massif; an Upper Pliocene stage (2710{+-} 58 ka) and the latest stage, with the main eruptive phase in the Pleistocene. Detailed geological (GIS) mapping, geomagnetic reversal mapping and stratigraphic correlation, and radioisotopic (K/Ar) dating of volcanic formations allowed the reconstruction of the latest period of rift activity. In the early phases of this stage the majority of the eruptions grouped tightly along the axis of the rift and show reverse polarity (corresponding to the Matuyama chron). Dykes are of normal and reverse polarities. In the final phase of activity, eruptions are more disperse and lavas and dykes are consistently of normal polarity (Brunhes chron). Volcanic units of normal polarity crossed by dykes of normal and reverse polarities yield ages apparently compatible with normal subchrons (M-B Precursor and Jaramillo) in the Upper Matuyama chron. Three lateral collapses successively mass-wasted the rift: The Micheque collapse, completely concealed by subsequent nested volcanism, and the Guimar and La Orotava collapses, that are only partially filled. Time occurrence of collapses in the NE rift apparently coincides with glacial stages, suggesting that giant landslides may be finally triggered by sea level chan-ges during glaciations. Pre-collapse and nested volcanism is predominantly basaltic, except in the Micheque collapse, where magmas evolved towards intermediate and felsic (trachytic) compositions. Rifts in the Canary Islands are long-lasting, recurrent features, probably related to primordial

  17. Wave Extremes in the Northeast Atlantic from Ensemble Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Aarnes, Ole Johan; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Carrasco, Ana; Saetra, Øyvind

    2013-10-01

    A method for estimating return values from ensembles of forecasts at advanced lead times is presented. Return values of significant wave height in the North-East Atlantic, the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea are computed from archived +240-h forecasts of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system (EPS) from 1999 to 2009. We make three assumptions: First, each forecast is representative of a six-hour interval and collectively the data set is then comparable to a time period of 226 years. Second, the model climate matches the observed distribution, which we confirm by comparing with buoy data. Third, the ensemble members are sufficiently uncorrelated to be considered independent realizations of the model climate. We find anomaly correlations of 0.20, but peak events (>P97) are entirely uncorrelated. By comparing return values from individual members with return values of subsamples of the data set we also find that the estimates follow the same distribution and appear unaffected by correlations in the ensemble. The annual mean and variance over the 11-year archived period exhibit no significant departures from stationarity compared with a recent reforecast, i.e., there is no spurious trend due to model upgrades. EPS yields significantly higher return values than ERA-40 and ERA-Interim and is in good agreement with the high-resolution hindcast NORA10, except in the lee of unresolved islands where EPS overestimates and in enclosed seas where it is biased low. Confidence intervals are half the width of those found for ERA-Interim due to the magnitude of the data set.

  18. Uranium-thorium disequilibrium in north-east Atlantic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Leon Vintro, L.; Mitchell, P.I.; Bally de Bois, P.; Boust, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report and compare the concentrations of 234 Th and 238 U measured in surface and subsurface waters collected in the course of a sampling campaign in the north east Atlantic in June-July 1998. Dissolved 234 Th concentrations in surface waters ranged from 5 to 20 Bq m -3 , showing a large deficiency relative to 238 U concentrations (typically 42 Bq m -3 ). This disequilibrium is indicative of active 234 Th scavenging from surface waters. Observed 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios, together with corresponding 234 Th particulate concentrations, were used to calculate mean residence times for 234 Th with respect to scavenging onto particles (τ diss ) and subsequent removal from surface waters (τ part ). Residence times in the range 5-30 days were determined for τ diss and 4-18 days for τ part (n=14). In addition, ultrafiltration experiments at six stations in the course of the same expedition revealed that in north-east Atlantic surface waters a significant fraction (46±17%; n=6) of the thorium in the (operationally-defined) dissolved phase ( 234 Th is rapidly absorbed by colloidal particles, which then aggregate, albeit at a slower rate, into larger filterable particles. In essence, colloids act as intermediaries in the transition from the fully dissolved to the filter-retained (>0.45 μm) phase. Thus, the time (τ c ) for fully dissolved 234 Th to appear in the filter-retained fraction is dependent on the rate of colloidal aggregation. Here, we determined τ c values in the range 3-17 days

  19. Challenges of achieving Good Environmental Status in the Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystem services is dependent on achieving and maintaining an adequate ecosystem state to prevent undue deterioration. Within the European Union, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires member states to achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS, specified in terms of 11 descriptors. We analyzed the complexity of social-ecological factors to identify common critical issues that are likely to influence the achievement of GEnS in the Northeast Atlantic (NEA more broadly, using three case studies. A conceptual model developed using a soft systems approach highlights the complexity of social and ecological phenomena that influence, and are likely to continue to influence, the state of ecosystems in the NEA. The development of the conceptual model raised four issues that complicate the implementation of the MSFD, the majority of which arose in the Pressures and State sections of the model: variability in the system, cumulative effects, ecosystem resilience, and conflicting policy targets. The achievement of GEnS targets for the marine environment requires the recognition and negotiation of trade-offs across a broad policy landscape involving a wide variety of stakeholders in the public and private sectors. Furthermore, potential cumulative effects may introduce uncertainty, particularly in selecting appropriate management measures. There also are endogenous pressures that society cannot control. This uncertainty is even more obvious when variability within the system, e.g., climate change, is accounted for. Also, questions related to the resilience of the affected ecosystem to specific pressures must be raised, despite a lack of current knowledge. Achieving good management and reaching GEnS require multidisciplinary assessments. The soft systems approach provides one mechanism for bringing multidisciplinary information together to look at the problems in a different light.

  20. Biological, physical, nutrients, sediment, and other data from sediment sampler-grab, bottle, and CTD casts in the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific Ocean, Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and Southern Oceans as part of the Long Term Monitoring East-West Flower Garden Banks project from 08 January 1995 to 08 April 1998 (NODC Accession 0001155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, physical, nutrients, sediment, and other data were collected using sediment sampler-grab, bottle and CTD casts in the Arabian Sea, North/South Pacific...

  1. Bioenergetics modeling of the annual consumption of zooplankton by pelagic fish feeding in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachiller, Eneko; Utne, Kjell Rong; Jansen, Teunis

    2018-01-01

    The present study uses bioenergetics modeling to estimate the annual consumption of the main zooplankton groups by some of the most commercially important planktivorous fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic, namely Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesi......The present study uses bioenergetics modeling to estimate the annual consumption of the main zooplankton groups by some of the most commercially important planktivorous fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic, namely Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting...

  2. A new carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia robertballardi sp. nov. (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) from two Northeast Atlantic seamounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristobo, J.; Rios, P.; Pomponi, S.A.; Xavier, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) are a particularly interesting group of species typically occurring in deep-sea habitats. In this study a new species, Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) robertballardi sp. nov., is described from specimens collected on two large north-east Atlantic seamounts

  3. Quantifying the influence of geography and environment on the northeast Atlantic mackerel spawning distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunel, Thomas; Damme, Van Cindy J.G.; Samson, Melvin; Dickey-Collas, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the northeast Atlantic have shown changes in distribution at certain times of the year, which have impacted their exploitation and management. In this study, mackerel spawning habitat over 21 recent years was characterised using generalised additive modelling, based on

  4. Seamount ecology and dynamics: A multidisciplinary data set from repeated surveys at different seamounts in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean (2003 - 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, C.; Christiansen, B.; Denda, A.; George, K. H.; Kaufmann, M.; Maranhão, M.; Martin, B.; Metzger, T.; Peine, F.; Schuster, A.; Springer, B.; Stefanowitsch, B.; Turnewitsch, R.; Wehrmann, H.

    2016-02-01

    Seamounts are amongst the most common physiographic open ocean systems, but remoteness and geographic complexity have limited the number of integrated and multidisciplinary seamount surveys in the past. As a consequence, important aspects of seamount ecology and dynamics remain poorly studied. Here we present a multi-parameter data set from individual and repeated seamount surveys conducted at different sites in the Northeast Atlantic and Eastern Mediterranean between 2003 and 2013. The main objective of these surveys was to establish a collection of ecosystem relevant descriptors and to develop a better understanding of seamount ecosystem composition and variability in different dynamical and bio-geographic environments. Measurements were conducted at four seamounts in the Northeast Atlantic (Ampère, Sedlo, Seine, Senghor) and two seamounts in the Eastern Mediterranean (Anaximenes, Eratosthenes). The data set comprises records from a total number of 11 cruises including physical oceanography (temperature, salinity, pressure, currents), biology (phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthos) and biogeochemistry (sedimentary particle dynamics, carbon flux). The resulting multi-disciplinary data collection provides a unique opportunity for comparative studies of seamount ecosystem structure and dynamics between different physical, biological and biogeochemical regimes

  5. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  6. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no dedicated recruitment survey data available in support of the assessment of the abundance and distribution of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus), one of the most widespread and commercially important fish stocks in the North Atlantic. This is despite the f......, showing that the most important nursery areas are around Ireland, north and west of Scotland, in the northern North Sea north of 598Nand, to some extent, also in the Bay of Biscay....

  7. Dykes and structures of the NE rift of Tenerife, Canary Islands: a record of stabilisation and destabilisation of ocean island rift zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcamp, A.; Troll, V. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Carracedo, J. C.; Petronis, M. S.; Pérez-Torrado, F. J.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-07-01

    Many oceanic island rift zones are associated with lateral sector collapses, and several models have been proposed to explain this link. The North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) of Tenerife Island, Spain offers an opportunity to explore this relationship, as three successive collapses are located on both sides of the rift. We have carried out a systematic and detailed mapping campaign on the rift zone, including analysis of about 400 dykes. We recorded dyke morphology, thickness, composition, internal textural features and orientation to provide a catalogue of the characteristics of rift zone dykes. Dykes were intruded along the rift, but also radiate from several nodes along the rift and form en échelon sets along the walls of collapse scars. A striking characteristic of the dykes along the collapse scars is that they dip away from rift or embayment axes and are oblique to the collapse walls. This dyke pattern is consistent with the lateral spreading of the sectors long before the collapse events. The slump sides would create the necessary strike-slip movement to promote en échelon dyke patterns. The spreading flank would probably involve a basal decollement. Lateral flank spreading could have been generated by the intense intrusive activity along the rift but sectorial spreading in turn focused intrusive activity and allowed the development of deep intra-volcanic intrusive complexes. With continued magma supply, spreading caused temporary stabilisation of the rift by reducing slopes and relaxing stress. However, as magmatic intrusion persisted, a critical point was reached, beyond which further intrusion led to large-scale flank failure and sector collapse. During the early stages of growth, the rift could have been influenced by regional stress/strain fields and by pre-existing oceanic structures, but its later and mature development probably depended largely on the local volcanic and magmatic stress/strain fields that are effectively controlled by the rift zone growth

  8. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cáceres

    Full Text Available Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E. Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2-5 µm and >5 µm and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11-1.60 d(-1, especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15-1.29 d(-1, suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres.

  9. Phytoplankton Growth and Microzooplankton Grazing in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos; Taboada, Fernando González; Höfer, Juan; Anadón, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E). Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2–5 µm and >5 µm) and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11–1.60 d−1), especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15–1.29 d−1), suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres. PMID:23935946

  10. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Hermida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the following parasites were selected as biological tags for the identification of blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo stocks in the northeast Atlantic: Diphterostomum vividum (Digenea: Zoogonidae, Anisakis simplex s.l., A. physeteris, Anisakis sp. PB-2010 (Nematoda: Anisakidae, and Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae. These parasite species point to the existence of three blackspot seabream stocks in the northeast Atlantic: one in the Azores region (ICES Area X, one in continental Portuguese shelf/slope waters (ICES Area IXa, and one in the waters around Madeira (sub-area 1.2 of FAO 34, central-eastern Atlantic.

  11. Stirring of the northeast Atlantic spring bloom: A Lagrangian analysis based on multisatellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehahn, Y.; D'Ovidio, F.; LéVy, M.; Heifetz, E.

    2007-08-01

    The effect of the geostrophic stirring on phytoplankton variability during the northeast Atlantic spring bloom is studied by analyzing satellite derived surface chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, and sea surface height. The calculation of unstable manifolds is used as a diagnostic of the transport properties of the geostrophic velocity field (calculated from the sea surface height). We identify two mechanisms by which the geostrophic velocity field acts on chlorophyll patterns. The first mechanism is a direct effect of the horizontal transport on already formed chlorophyll. By acting as "sticking" transport barriers, the unstable manifolds are shown to (1) modulate the fronts of already formed phytoplankton in lobular structures, (2) create spiralling chlorophyll anomalies within eddies, and (3) produce chlorophyll filaments. The second mechanism is an indirect effect on in situ chlorophyll production mediated by nutrient upwelling. Supported by a recent study on the vertical velocities of the northeast Atlantic (Legal et al., 2006), we argue that the horizontal unstable manifolds also shape the filamentary, vertical velocity cells, and hence the patterns of in situ produced chlorophyll through submesoscale vertical nutrient injection.

  12. Density regulation in Northeast Atlantic fish populations: Density dependence is stronger in recruitment than in somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fabian; Ricard, Daniel; Heino, Mikko

    2018-05-01

    Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance remains unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and comparing density dependence in growth and recruitment over a large set of fish populations. We fitted density-dependent models to time-series data on population size, recruitment and age-specific weight from commercially exploited fish populations in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Data were standardized to enable a direct comparison within and among populations, and estimated parameters were used to quantify the impact of density regulation on population biomass. Statistically significant density dependence in recruitment was detected in a large proportion of populations (70%), whereas for density dependence in somatic growth the prevalence of density dependence depended heavily on the method (26% and 69%). Despite age-dependent variability, the density dependence in recruitment was consistently stronger among age groups and between alternative approaches that use weight-at-age or weight increments to assess growth. Estimates of density-dependent reduction in biomass underlined these results: 97% of populations with statistically significant parameters for growth and recruitment showed a larger impact of density-dependent recruitment on population biomass. The results reaffirm the importance of density-dependent recruitment in marine fishes, yet they also show that density dependence in somatic growth is not uncommon. Furthermore, the results are important from an applied perspective because density dependence in somatic growth affects productivity and

  13. Consumer interest in social sustainability issues of whitefish from capture fisheries in the north-east Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, Linda J.L.; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Berentsen, Paul B.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.; Bokkers, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    Capture fisheries in the north-east Atlantic account for approximately 10% of all fish consumed from capture fisheries globally. The literature shows that consumers show considerable interest in social sustainability of products in general and of fish specifically. This interest, however, has not

  14. Modelled spatial and seasonal distribution of Blue Whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) larvae in the North-East Atlantic (1951 to 2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou, http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126439) is a small mesopelagic planktivorous gadoid found throughout the North-East Atlantic. This data contains the results of a model-based analysis of larvae captured by the Continuous Plankton...

  15. Building a knowledge base for management of a new fishery: Boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines recent collaborative efforts by fisheries scientists and representatives from the pelagic fishing industry in Europe to generate a knowledge base to support management of a new fishery for boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic. The forms of knowledge used and produced

  16. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS ROBERT G. BRADLEY using BT and XBT casts in the NE/NW Atlantic Ocean and other seas from 03 May 1988 to 31 May 1988 (NODC Accession 8800213)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS ROBERT G. BRADLEY in the Northwest / Northeast Atlantic Ocean, Arabian...

  17. Sexual dimorphism in size, age, maturation, and growth characteristics of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Coad, Julie Olivia; Farrell, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in size, age, maturation, and growth characteristics of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1729–1735.Boarfish (Capros aper) have, in recent years, become of increasing commercial importance due to their apparent increase...... stock with sexual dimorphism, where females are, on average, larger than males. No seasonal effects occur in size distribution and sex ratio, indicating that females and males stay together in shoals throughout the year. Females become increasingly dominant in abundance at larger sizes and older ages...... in abundance in the Northeast Atlantic. This study presents detailed biological information relevant to understanding stock structure and dynamics. Boarfish are a long-lived species that reach a maximum age of >30 years. The size distribution is skewed towards larger sizes, as expected from an unexploited...

  18. Economic gains from introducing international ITQs - the case of the mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Fitzpatrick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a balance between fishing capacity and fishing opportunities is one of the major challenges in European fisheries. One way to achieve this is to introduce individual tradable quotas or similar management measures. In several mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic...... that the gross cash flow can be improved by 21% by allowing the mackerel and herring quotas to be traded internationally in the Northeast Atlantic. This rent gain arises mainly from increased productivity by allowing tradability between areas and fleets. The analysis also shows that the Danish pelagic fleet...... will gain from increasing its share of mackerel and herring quotas, whereas the Irish fleets are incentivised to sell quota, if individual quotas are allowed to be traded among countries. This result is in line with the qualitative analyses that show that Irish fishermen targeting herring in the Celtic Sea...

  19. Preliminary observations on the benthic marine algae of the Gorringe seabank (northeast Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittley, Ian; da Silva Vaz Álvaro, Nuno Miguel; de Melo Azevedo Neto, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Examination of marine samples collected in 2006 from the Gettysburg and Ormonde seamounts on the Gorringe seabank southwest of Portugal has revealed 29 benthic Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta), and Rhodophyta that were identified provisionally to genus and to species. Combining lists for the present and a previous expedition brings the total of algae thus far recorded to 48. The brown alga Zonaria tournefourtii and the red alga Cryptopleura ramosa were the most abundant species in the present collections. The kelp Laminaria ochroleuca was present only in the Gettysburg samples while Saccorhiza polyschides was observed only on the Ormonde seamount. Comparisons with the benthic marine algae recorded on seamounts in the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago show features in common, notably kelp forests of L. ochroleuca at depths below 30 m and Z. tournefortii dominance in shallower waters.

  20. Observations of inertial oscillations affected by mesoscale activity in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-González, B.; Hormazábal, S.; Rodríguez-Santana, A.; Cisneros-Aguirre, J.; Martínez-Marrero, A.

    2012-04-01

    Observations of surface drifters launched over the continental slope of Portugal (Bay of Setúbal) are analyzed with the Rotary Wavelet Spectrum Method to study the contribution of mesoscale activity to near-inertial variability. Drifter data used here are part of the MREA04 (Maritime Rapid Environmental Assessment 2004) sea trial carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) off the west coast of Portugal. Altimetry data from AVISO on a 1/3° Mercator grid are used to compute vertical relative vorticity (ζ) maps and track near-inertial variability along the drifter records. Subsequently, the local Coriolis (f) and effective Coriolis (feff = f + 1/2ζ) frequencies are estimated for every drifter position. In this work we take a special interest in the area of Cape St. Vicent where a remarkable blue shift of near-inertial oscillations is observed in association with a cyclonic eddy migrating northward along the Portuguese coast. Results of the Rotary Wavelet Method highlight the consistency of near-inertial variability observed in the drifter records with the subinertial geostrophic activity computed with altimetry data.

  1. Uniform climate development between the subtropical and subpolar Northeast Atlantic across marine isotope stage 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Helmke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Proxy records from a core site off Northwest Africa were generated and compared with data from the subpolar Northeast Atlantic to unravel some main climatic features of interglacial marine isotope stage (MIS 11 (423–362 ka. The records point to an almost 25 kyr lasting full interglacial period during stage 11 that was preceded by a considerably long glacial-interglacial transition (Termination V. Off NW Africa, a strong reduction of terrestrially derived iron input is noted after 420 ka suggesting a pronounced increase in continental humidity and vegetation cover over Northwest Africa. In analogy to the Holocene climate of the region, this early wet phase of MIS 11 was likely associated with enhanced influence of the West African monsoon system on the Saharan-Sahel region which led to both a reduction in trade wind intensity off NW Africa and the formation of sapropel S11 in the Mediterranean Sea. A detailed comparison with data from the subpolar North Atlantic indicates a remarkable coherent timing for the main environmental changes in both regions giving evidence for strong interglacial climate connection between the low and high latitude North Atlantic. Although our records of MIS 11 compare well with the Holocene in terms of some major climate characteristics there are distinct differences in the temporal evolution of each peak warm interval. This suggests that care should be taken when using MIS 11 as analogue to forecast future interglacial conditions.

  2. The uptake of macroplastic & microplastic by demersal & pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic around Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fionn; Russell, Marie; Ewins, Ciaran; Quinn, Brian

    2017-09-15

    This study reports plastic ingestion in various fish found from coastal and offshore sites in Scottish marine waters. Coastal samples consisted of three demersal flatfish species (n=128) collected from the East and West coasts of Scotland. Offshore samples consisted of 5 pelagic species and 4 demersal species (n=84) collected from the Northeast Atlantic. From the coastal fish sampled, 47.7% of the gastrointestinal tracts contained macroplastic and microplastic. Of the 84 pelagic and demersal offshore fish, only 2 (2.4%) individuals from different species had ingested plastic identified as a clear polystyrene fibre and a black polyamide fibre. The average number of plastic items found per fish from all locations that had ingested plastic was 1.8 (±1.7) with polyamide (65.3%), polyethylene terephthalate (14.4%) and acrylic (14.4%) being the three most commonly found plastics. This study adds to the existing data on macroplastic and microplastic ingestion in fish species. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How well does the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) sample zooplankton? A comparison with the Longhurst Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR) in the northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; John, Eurgain H.; Irigoien, Xabier; Harris, Roger P.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2004-09-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey has collected data on basin-scale zooplankton abundance in the North Atlantic since the 1930s. These data have been used in many studies to elucidate seasonal patterns and long-term change in plankton populations, as well as more recently to validate ecosystem models. There has, however, been relatively little comparison of the data from the CPR with that from other samplers. In this study we compare zooplankton abundance estimated from the CPR in the northeast Atlantic with near-surface samples collected by a Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR) at Ocean Weather Station India (59°N, 19°W) between 1971 and 1975. Comparisons were made for six common copepods in the region: Acartia clausi, Calanus finmarchicus, Euchaeta norvegica, Metridia lucens, Oithona sp., and Pleuromamma robusta. Seasonal cycles based on CPR data were similar to those recorded by the LHPR. Differences in absolute abundances were apparent, however, with the CPR underestimating abundances by a factor of between 5 and 40, with the exception of A. clausi. Active avoidance by zooplankton is thought to be responsible. This avoidance is species specific, so that care must be taken describing communities, as the CPR emphasises those species that are preferentially caught, a problem common to many plankton samplers.

  4. Decadal variability of extreme wave height representing storm severity in the northeast Atlantic and North Sea since the foundation of the Royal Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, H.; Taylor, P. H.; Gibson, R.

    2016-09-01

    Long-term estimation of extreme wave height remains a key challenge because of the short duration of available wave data, and also because of the possible impact of climate variability on ocean waves. Here, we analyse storm-based statistics to obtain estimates of extreme wave height at locations in the northeast Atlantic and North Sea using the NORA10 wave hindcast (1958-2011), and use a 5 year sliding window to examine temporal variability. The decadal variability is correlated to the North Atlantic oscillation and other atmospheric modes, using a six-term predictor model incorporating the climate indices and their Hilbert transforms. This allows reconstruction of the historic extreme climate back to 1661, using a combination of known and proxy climate indices. Significant decadal variability primarily driven by the North Atlantic oscillation is observed, and this should be considered for the long-term survivability of offshore structures and marine renewable energy devices. The analysis on wave climate reconstruction reveals that the variation of the mean, 99th percentile and extreme wave climates over decadal time scales for locations close to the dominant storm tracks in the open North Atlantic are comparable, whereas the wave climates for the rest of the locations including the North Sea are rather different.

  5. Role of the circulation on the anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the North-East Atlantic: A climatological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, L. I.; Pérez, F. F.; Gilcoto, M.; Velo, A.; Padín, A.; Rosón, G.

    2018-02-01

    Climatology-based storage rate of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant, referred to year 2000) in the North-East Atlantic (53 ± 9 kmol s-1, 0.020 ± 0.003 Pg-C yr-1) is described on annual mean terms. Cant advection (32 ± 14 kmol s-1) occurs mostly in the upper 1800 m and contributes to 60% of the Cant storage rate. The Azores and Portugal Currents act as 'Cant streams' importing 389 ± 90 kmol s-1, most of which recirculates southwards with the Canary Current (-214 ± 34 kmol s-1). The Azores Counter Current (-79 ± 36 kmol s-1) and the northward-flowing Mediterranean Water advective branch (-31 ± 12 kmol s-1) comprise secondary Cant export routes. By means of Cant transport decomposition, we find horizontal circulation to represent 11% of the Cant storage rate, while overturning circulation is the main driver (48% of the Cant storage rate). Within the domain of this study, overturning circulation is a key mechanism by which Cant in the upper layer (0-500 dbar) is drawdown (74 ± 14 kmol s-1) to intermediate levels (500-2000 dbar), and entrained (37 ± 7 kmol s-1) into the Mediterranean Outflow Water to form Mediterranean Water. This newly formed water mass partly exports Cant to the North Atlantic at a rate of -39 ± 9 kmol s-1 and partly contributes to the Cant storage in the North-East Atlantic (with up to 0.015 ± 0.006 Pg-C yr-1). Closing the Cant budget, 40% of the Cant storage in the North-East Atlantic is attributable to anthropogenic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere (21 ± 10 kmol s-1).

  6. The wave climate of the Northeast Atlantic over the period 1955-1994: the WASA wave hindcast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Rosenthal, W.; Stawarz, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik; Carretero, J.C.; Gomez, M.; Lozano, I.; Serrano, O. [Programa de Clima Maritimo (Puertos del Estado), Madrid (Spain); Reistad, M. [Det Norske Meteorologiske Inst., Bergen (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The European project ``waves and storms in the North Atlantic`` (WASA) has been set up to prove, or to disprove, hypotheses of a worsening storm and wave climate in the Northeast Atlantic and adjacent seas in the present century. A major obstacle for assessing changes in storm and wave conditions are inhomogeneities in the observational records, both in the local observations and in the analysed products, which usually produce an artificial increase of extreme winds and waves. Therefore, changes in the wave climate were assessed with a state-of-the-art wave model using wind analyses. Within the scope of the WASA project, a 40 year reconstruction (1955-1994) of the wave climate in the North Atlantic was completed using the WAM wave model. The input wind fields were assumed to be reasonably homogeneous with time in the area south of 70 N and east of 20 W, and it was expected that the hindcast wave data would reliably describe the space-time evolution of wave conditions in this area. The results of the hindcast experiment are presented in this article. The main conclusion was that the wave climate in most of the Northeast Atlantic and in the North Sea has undergone significant variations on time scales of decades. Part of variability was found to be related to the North Atlantic oscillation. As a general result we noted an increase of the maximum annual significant wave height over the last 40 years of about 5 to 10 cm/year for large parts of the Northeast Atlantic, north of the North Sea. There was also a slight increase of probabilities of high waves derived from conventional extreme value statistics in northwest approaches to the North Sea. Similar trends of the extreme waves were found in a scenario of future wave climate at a time of doubled C0{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere. (orig.) 28 refs.

  7. Dominance of unicellular cyanobacteria in the diazotrophic community in the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agawin, N.S.R.; Benavides, M.; Busquets, A.; Ferriol, P.; Stal, L.J.; Aristegui, J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The horizontal and vertical distribution of representatives of diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacteria was investigated in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (28.87 to 42.00°N; 9.01 to 20.02°W). Samples from stations encompassing different water conditions (from oceanic oligotrophic

  8. Dominance of unicellular cyanobacteria in the diazotrophic community in the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agawin, N.S.R.; Benavides, M.; Busquets, A.; Ferriol, P.; Stal, L.J.; Arístegui, J.

    2014-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of representatives of diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacteria was investigated in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (28.87 to 42.00°N; 9.01 to 20.02°W). Samples from stations encompassing different water conditions (from oceanic oligotrophic waters to

  9. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  10. The distribution and biochemical composition of biogenic particles across the subtropical Front in June 1993 (Azores-Madeira region, Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Vezzulli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected in the north-east Atlantic Ocean between the Azores and Madeira (33°N-36°N and 24°W-26°W during the Oceanographic Cruise SEMAPHORE in June 1993. Temperature, salinity, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate and particulate organic matter (organic carbon, organic nitrogen, carbohydrates, proteins and phytopigment were investigated in the water column to a depth of 2000 m. The presence of the subtropical front (STF separating warmer more saline Western Atlantic Water (WAW from colder and fresher Eastern Atlantic Water (EAW in the upper 100 m, and a tongue of salt water arising from the influence of Mediterranean Water (MW at a depth of 1000 m, were well identified by the physical and chemical parameters. POC and PON concentrations, in the surface layer (0-100 m, ranged between 23.3-64.5 and 2.9-9.1 µg l-1 respectively, while concentration between 12.4-30.5 and 1.1-4.0 µg l-1 prevailed below the thermocline (100-2000 m. The very low POC and PON concentrations together with the low nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations confirmed the oligotrophic nature of the Azores-Madeira region. Statistical analysis was carried out to investigate the difference in the quantity and quality of POM between water masses. Regression analysis showed a high correlation between POC and PON but the slopes and intercepts of the regression lines did not differ significantly between WAW and EAW. In contrast, an examination of vertical profiles as well as mean integrated values of biochemical variables in the upper 100 m suggest a difference in the quantity and quality of biogenic particles between the water masses. WAW showed the lowest integrated concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, particulate protein and particulate carbohydrate. In contrast, frontal stations showed the highest values while EAW stations showed intermediate values. All these results, coupled with the occurrence of the highest POC

  11. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of H. lanceolatus from H. immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that A. tobianus differs from A. marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and H. lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common DNA barcoding

  12. Nr 470 - Report on the behalf of the Commission of foreign affairs, defence and armed forces on the bill project authorizing the approval of amendments of appendices II and III to the OSPAR convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic related to the storage of carbon dioxide fluxes in geological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichi, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This report first discusses the necessity to protect the marine environment of the north-east Atlantic Ocean. It briefly recalls the content and objectives of the OSPAR convention, and outlines the need of a permanent update of this convention to take measures of struggle against climate change into account. Notably, two amendments introduced the interdiction of storage of carbon dioxide fluxes. It highlights the need to protect the Arctic Ocean area. In a second part, the report discusses the emergence of a new technique for the storage of CO 2 (the injection in geological structures), and shows that this technique complies with the objective of struggle against climate change. However, the authors also mention the worrying potential risk for the ecosystem, and the fact that this technique should complement but not replace other measures against climate change

  13. Offshore Energy Mapping for Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean: MARINA PLATFORM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, G.; Galanis, G.; Spyrou, C.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Athanasiadis, P.

    2012-04-01

    Deep offshore ocean energy mapping requires detailed modeling of the wind, wave, tidal and ocean circulation estimations. It requires also detailed mapping of the associated extremes. An important issue in such work is the co-generation of energy (generation of wind, wave, tides, currents) in order to design platforms on an efficient way. For example wind and wave fields exhibit significant phase differences and therefore the produced energy from both sources together requires special analysis. The other two sources namely tides and currents have different temporal scales from the previous two. Another important issue is related to the estimation of the environmental frequencies in order to avoid structural problems. These are issues studied at the framework of the FP7 project MARINA PLATFORM. The main objective of the project is to develop deep water structures that can exploit the energy from wind, wave, tidal and ocean current energy sources. In particular, a primary goal will be the establishment of a set of equitable and transparent criteria for the evaluation of multi-purpose platforms for marine renewable energy. Using these criteria, a novel system set of design and optimisation tools will be produced addressing new platform design, component engineering, risk assessment, spatial planning, platform-related grid connection concepts, all focussed on system integration and reducing costs. The University of Athens group is in charge for estimation and mapping of wind, wave, tidal and ocean current resources, estimate available energy potential, map extreme event characteristics and provide any additional environmental parameter required.

  14. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbutt, P.A.; Dickson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Within the terms of the Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Wastes, NEA is requested to assess the suitability of dumping sites proposed by Participating countries and to keep under review those previously thought suitable. The aim of this volume is to provide a further interim description of the North-East Atlantic dumpsite itself. Quantities of known wastes dumpings are summarized. A review of the available data on sediment distribution in the area is presented. The flow field at the site is described so that an experiment to determine the influence on the deep flow of large scale topographic features at the dumpsite. The tide gauge results are briefly presented. The state of knowledge of the hydrographic and chemical conditions prior to 1977 is reviewed; recent results are added. The results of the radioactivity determination in the surface layer (3cm thick) of box cored sediments and the vertical radioactivity profiles are presented in tables. Some results on adsorption and geochemical partitioning of long-lived radionuclides on dumpsite sediments are briefly reviewed. Biological studies have been undertaken: concentration of radionuclides in biological materials, radiation effects on the dumpsite fauna. A dose-limit (critical group) calculation model is presented. Collective dose commitment and mass transfer are briefly discussed. The concentration of radionuclides in sediments and some organisms of the Bay of Biscay has been evaluated. Some isopycnal data for the eastern Atlantic, windstress and stratification are briefly mentioned

  15. Review of the continued suitability of the dumping site for radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    Under the terms of the Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste, NEA is requested to assess, in consultation with the Environment Committee, the suitability of dumping sites proposed by the national authorities of Participating countries and to keep under review those previously considered suitable. Since 1974 radioactive waste sea dumping operations have been carried out in a single site located in the North-East Atlantic region. To fulfil the objectives of the Council Decision, an international group of oceanographic and radiation protection experts was convened by NEA in November 1979 to undertake a review of the continued suitability of the dumping site, taking into account the relevant provisions of the London Dumping Convention and the IAEA Definition and Recommendations for the purposes of the Convention. The results of the review are contained in this Report. The Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy confirmed in April 1980 that, on the basis of the review, the existing site was suitable for continued dumping of radioactive waste for the next five years, under the conditions specified by the Group of Experts in their conclusions and recommendations. At the same time, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy agreed on the need for developing a co-ordinated site-specific scientific programme to increase current knowledge of the processes controlling the transfert of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that future assessments can be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data

  16. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the floral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae, a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds which executed frontal functional floral visits in which they touched the parts of the fl owers. Visits of Plebeia flavocincta, Plebeia sp., Trigona spinipes and Euglossa cordata (bees and Talides sergestu and Strymon ziba (butterflies were also recorded. In addition, two ants (Hymenoptera, Insecta, Formicidae were identifi ed in activity on the fl oral scapes and flowers of the studied bromeliad. The suggestion is made in the study that the A. constantinii is pollinated by hummingbirds since these birds executed direct frontal visits to the fl owers, touching reproductive structures. The identification of pollen on the bodies of bees and butterflies, as well as the contact executed by visitors, with the stigma of the visited flowers, offered an indication that these species may exert an influence as secondary pollinators of Aechmea constantinii.

  17. Towards ecosystem based management and monitoring of the deep Mediterranean, North-East Atlantic and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grehan, Anthony J.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Savini, Alessandra; Yesson, Chris

    2017-11-01

    The deep sea covers 65% of the earth's surface and 95% of the biosphere but only a very small fraction (less than 0.0001%) of this has been explored (Rogers et al., 2015; Taylor and Roterman, 2017). However, current knowledge indicates that the deep ocean is characterized by a high level of biodiversity and by the presence of important biological and non-renewable resources. As well as vast flat and muddy plains, the topography of the deep ocean contains a variety of complex and heterogeneous seafloor features, such as canyons, seamounts, cold seeps, hydrothermal vents and biogenic (deep-water coral) reefs and sponge bioherms that harbour an unquantified and diverse array of organisms. The deep sea, despite its remoteness, provides a variety of supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural, ecosystem goods and services (Thurber et al., 2014). The recent push for 'Blue Growth', to unlock the potential of seas and oceans (European Commission, 2017) has increased the focus on the potential to exploit resources in the deep-sea and consequently the need for improved management (Thurber et al., 2014).

  18. MtDNA and nuclear data reveal patterns of low genetic differentiation for the isopods Stenosoma lancifer and Stenosoma acuminatum, with low dispersal ability along the northeast Atlantic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for a general lack of genetic differentiation of intertidal invertebrate assemblages in the North Atlantic, based on mtDNA sequence variation, has been interpreted as resulting from recent colonization following the Last Glacial Maximum. In the present study, the phylogeographic patterns of one nuclear and one mtDNA gene fragments of two isopods, Stenosoma lancifer (Miers, 1881 and Stenosoma acuminatum Leach, 1814, from the northeast Atlantic were investigated. These organisms have direct development, which makes them poor dispersers, and are therefore expected to maintain signatures of past historical events in their genomes. Lack of genetic structure, significant deviations from neutrality and star-like haplotype networks have been observed for both mtDNA and nuclear markers of S. lancifer, as well as for the mtDNA of S. acuminatum. No sequence variation was observed for the nuclear gene fragment of S. acuminatum. These results suggest a scenario of recent colonization and demographic expansion and/or high population connectivity driven by ocean currents and sporadic long-distance dispersal through rafting.

  19. Report of the independent review of disposal of radioactive waste in the northeast Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, F.G.T.; Clark, R.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews the scientific evidence, including the environmental implications, relevant to the safety of disposal of radioactive waste at 'the designated North Atlantic site'. It falls under the headings: aims and background; the nature of the problem (what is pollution; what is radiation; radioactive half-life; radioactivity in the sea; hazards of radioactivity; transfer mechanisms from sea to man; standards for radiation exposure to man); past and present practices (the London Dumping Convention; the OECD mechanism; sources and composition of the waste; structure of responsibility; authorisation; practical arrangements; packaging; present practices by other countries); the oceanography of the dump site (location; topography; biology; currents and water circulation; dilution and adsorption on to sediments); estimation of doses (why modelling; modelling techniques; the waste package model; models of dispersion in the ocean; a box model of ocean dispersion; a model of transfer through a food chain; dose assessment); alternatives (land-based alternatives; sea-based alternatives; storage); discussion (reliability of assessment; public acceptability of perceived risk; collective doses); conclusions (hazard to health; present scientific evidence; future dumping; storage; future research and monitoring; public and social factors; buoyant materials); recommendations. (U.K.)

  20. Microbial Functioning and Community Structure Variability in the Mesopelagic and Epipelagic Waters of the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltar, F.; Aristegui, J.; Gasol, J.M.; Herndl, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the regional distribution of bulk heterotrophic prokaryotic activity (leucine incorporation) and selected single-cell parameters (cell viability and nucleic acid content) as parameters for microbial functioning, as well as bacterial and archaeal community structure in the epipelagic (0

  1. Abyssal aggregations of Kolga hyalina Danielssen and Koren (Echinodermata: Holothurioidea) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, D. S. M.; Hansen, B.

    1982-07-01

    Kolga hyalina Danielssen and Koren has been found in dense numbers between 2755 and 4080 m in the Porcupine Seabight. All of the specimens were small and of a similar size at any one station. The narrow size distributions were typical of the species over a wide geographic area and size range. Gonadial development is evident in the smallest specimens examined (3 mm long). The life-history traits of K. hyalina are discussed in relation to its association with the unstable environment of the Gollum Channel system. The dispersion pattern of K. hyalina changed temporally and, to a lesser extent, spatially. In some cases dense aggregations were formed. Taxonomic details are also presented.

  2. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a biomass, composition, and productivity along a temperature and stratification gradient in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W. H.; Kulk, G.; Timmermans, K. R.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; van der Woerd, H. J.; Kehoe, M. J.; Mojica, K. D. A.; Visser, R. J. W.; Rozema, P. D.; Buma, A. G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sea surface temperature (SST, > 10 m) and vertical density stratification, nutrient concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass, composition, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) specific absorption were assessed in spring and summer from latitudes 29 to 63 degrees N in the northeast

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle and marine environment. Behavior of the Rhone river effluents in the mediterranean sea and of wastes dumped in the northeast atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmasson, S.

    1998-01-01

    has been the subject of studies especially as regards the biological compartment. Indeed, the occurrence in abyssal waters of a very motile fauna, i.e. fish (Coryphaenoides armatus) and amphipods (Eurythenes gryllus), able to undertake important vertical migrations into the water column, represents a possible pathway towards the surface for the dumped radionuclides. The ignorance as regards populations inhabiting this site has led to a study of the population structure for the amphipod Eurythenes gryllus. This species is cosmopolite since it is found at all the latitudes in the world ocean both in bathyal and abyssal waters. Well known for its necrophagy and ability to consume baits, it is supposed to feed on carcasses. However, study of a natural radionuclide, i.e. 210 Po, in this species has shown that it is possible that it feeds also on particle fluxes. In order to verify the validity of the data used for the modelling of the radiological assessment of these operations, in situ labelling experiments have been realized on these amphipods as well as on polychaetes from food labelled with radionuclides characterizing the dumped wastes. Though these results are still too few to acknowledge this validity, as expected from studies on coastal species the transfer factors food-organisms are quite low. Analyses carried out for surveillance purposes both on the fish Coryphaenoides armatus and the amphipod Eurythenes gryllus show that in these deep waters the main source of man-made radioactivity is the global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear testing carried out mainly in the sixties. A transfer via the particle fluxes is necessary to explain the concentrations found for 3 H, 137 Cs, 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu. However, 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu isotopic ratios in some fish samples suggest and influence from the dumped wastes and underline the possible part taken by these necrophagous organisms in the dispersion of radionuclides released form the low and intermediate level

  4. THE FRENCH TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AND NORTHEAST ATLANTIC: CENALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hébert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CENALT (CENtre d’ALerte aux Tsunamis is responsible for the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC. The CENALT is established in the framework of the Unesco/IOC/ICG/NEAMTWS. Its objective is to transmit a warning message in less than fifteen minutes for any events that could trigger a tsunami in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the North- Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The data collected from French installations and from institutions of European and North African countries is processed with software that permits early epicenter location of seismic events and measurements of expected tsunami impacts on the shore. On-duty analysts revise interactively all the generated information and use references of historical tsunami and earthquake databases - as well as computed tsunami scenarios – in order to disseminate the more comprehensive message possible.

  5. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Bachiller

    Full Text Available The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS herring (Clupea harengus, blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou and Northeast Atlantic (NEA mackerel (Scomber scombrus are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of

  6. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  7. Role of EPS, Dispersant and Nutrients on the Microbial Response and MOS Formation in the Subarctic Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gutierrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the formation of marine oil snow (MOS, its associated microbial community, the factors influencing its formation, and the microbial response to crude oil in surface waters of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC. The FSC is a subarctic region that is hydrodynamically complex located in the northeast Atlantic where oil extraction is currently occurring and where exploration is likely to expand into its deeper waters (>500 m. A major oil spill in this region may mirror the aftermath that ensued following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, where the massive influx of Macondo crude oil triggered the formation of copious quantities of rapidly sinking MOS and successional blooms of opportunistic oil-degrading bacteria. In laboratory experiments, we simulated environmental conditions in sea surface waters of the FSC using water collected from this site during the winter of 2015. We demonstrated that the presence of dispersant triggers the formation of MOS, and that nutrient amendments magnify this. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed the enrichment on MOS of associated oil-degrading (Cycloclasticus, Thalassolituus, Marinobacter and EPS-producing (Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Alteromonas bacteria, and included major representation by Psychrobacter and Cobetia with putative oil-degrading/EPS-producing qualities. The formation of marine snow, in the absence of crude oil and dispersant, in seawater amended with nutrients alone indicated that the de novo synthesis of bacterial EPS is a key factor in MOS formation, and the glycoprotein composition of the MOS aggregates confirmed that its amorphous biopolymeric matrix was of microbial (likely bacterial origin. The presence of dispersants and crude oil with/without nutrients resulted in distinct microbial responses marked by intermittent, and in some cases short-lived, blooms of opportunistic heterotrophs, principally obligate hydrocarbonoclastic (Alcanivorax

  8. White-faced storm-petrels Pelagodroma marina predated by gulls as biological monitors of plastic pollution in the pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, Ricardo; Menezes, Dilia; Santos, Carolina Jardim; Catry, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is rapidly growing and is a source of major concern. Seabirds often ingest plastic debris and are increasingly used as biological monitors of plastic pollution. However, virtually no studies have assessed plastics in seabirds in the deep subtropical North Atlantic. We investigated whether remains of white-faced storm-petrels (WFSP) present in gull pellets could be used for biomonitoring. We analysed 263 pellets and 79.0% of these contained plastic debris originating in the digestive tract of WFSP. Pellets with no bird prey did not contain plastics. Most debris were fragments (83.6%) with fewer plastic pellets (8.2%). Light-coloured plastics predominated (71.0%) and the most frequent polymer was HDPE (73.0%). Stable isotopes in toe-nails of WFSP containing many versus no plastics did not differ, indicating no individual specialisation leading to differential plastic ingestion. We suggest WFSP in pellets are highly suitable to monitor the little known pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic. - Highlights: • Plastics in gull pellets reflect contamination of their avian prey. • 79% of white-faced storm petrels in the Northeast Atlantic contain plastics. • Gull pellets are suitable to monitor the little known subtropical NE Atlantic.

  9. Using satellite data for monitoring temperature conditions in fishing areas of the Northeast Atlantic for improving prognosis of fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, G.; Borisov, V.; Bogdanov, M.; Bulatova, T.

    2012-04-01

    The attempt to establish the relationship between current temperature conditions in fishing areas of the Northeast Atlantic (The Norwegian and Barents Seas) and the management of capelin fishery was made. The capelin stock depends on abundance of its predators, as well as on hydrological and climatic conditions, which affect the spawning success, the egg hatching, duration and direction of the larval drift, availability of micro and macrozooplankton food to capelin at its various life stages. Taking into account all these points and importance of capelin for Norwegian and Russian fisheries, we can easily understand an heightened interest in cause of the observed variations in capelin stocks. We are still inclined to see hydrology as the driving force of these variations. Hydrological conditions in concrete year influence on capelin directly, as well as its prey stocks and predators, which, in their turn, affect capelin. The sea surface temperature (SST) is the most suitable index of annual and seasonal variations in hydrological conditions. The temperature data were derived from satellite monitoring basically. Continuous long-term database on the sea surface temperature (SST) comprising results of regional satellite monitoring (the NOAA satellite data) is used to resolve several applied problems particularly for prognosis of fish recruitment strenght. The maps of SST were created with the satellite data, as well as information of vessels, buoies and coastal stations. Here we use the maps of SST in fishing areas of the Norwegian and Barents Seas to clarify impact which duration of warm and cold seasons has on successful survival of capelin during its first year of life. The identified relation between onset of these seasons and their duration can allow us to forecast strength of the next capelin year-classes. Seasonal dynamics of heat content water in areas of young capelin presence were analyzed by the time when the 5°C isotherm passed the 35°E meridian (from the

  10. Quantifying changes in abundance, biomass and spatial distribution of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Nordic Seas from 2007 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøttestad, Leif; Utne, Kjell Rong; Óskarsson, Gudmundur .J.

    2016-01-01

    The Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is a widely distributed pelagic fish species that plays a key role in the marine ecosystem. In recent years, there has been a large fishery targeting mackerel in the NEA. At the same time as the geographic range of the mackerel fishery has...... on coordinated and standardized swept-area surface trawling in July–August from IESSNS increased from 1.96 million t [relative standard error (RSE) ¼ 30.35%] in 2007 to 8.77 million t (RSE ¼ 7.95%) in 2014. Simultaneously, the mackerel stock expanded its geographic range during the feeding season from 1......%). Furthermore, evaluation of the performance of the estimated abundance indices by age for this time-series, based on internal consistency and catch curves, suggest that the abundance indices of ages 3–12 track the temporal variation in abundance reasonably, and thus is applicable for stock assessments...

  11. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ferreira Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are recognised as an excellent source of information on the distribution of their hosts. Here, the macroparasite fauna of 20 species of Pleuronectiformes belonging to five different families and inhabiting the Portuguese coast was investigated and compared with that known in four other areas (the North Sea, north Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Northwest African coast in order to determine (1 their zoogeographical pattern and (2 the role of the Portuguese coast as an intermediate biogeographic province. Macroparasites infecting Pleuronectiformes sampled along the Portuguese coast were collected using standard parasitological techniques, whereas data on those in the other four areas were obtained from the literature, rendering a total of 73 macroparasite species. Both sets of data were then compiled in a presence/absence matrix. Hosts and macroparasites were placed into zoogeographical categories according to their known distribution, and patterns were evaluated using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The zoogeography of hosts and parasites was not entirely concordant, although that of endoparasites was generally consistent with the patterns for marine free-living species. On the other hand, only specific ectoparasites truly mirrored the distribution of their hosts. These differences reflect the importance of host ecology and dispersal and environmental factors on the patterns revealed. The Portuguese coast seems to play a significant role in the distribution of Pleuronectiformes’ parasites along the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, due to its transitional character and to the sympatric occurrence of related hosts, both promoting the acquisition of new parasite species or the maintenance of historical host-parasite relationships.

  12. sol y playa: el caso de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Díaz Armas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo del vino tiene una concepción distinta en un destino masivo de sol y playa. En este caso el enoturismo convive con ese modelo turístico y es un producto complementario que favorece la diversificación en la oferta actual. El turismo del vino puede complementar la ya existente oferta turística, con lo que las regiones, turísticas y a la vez viníferas, podrían apoyarse en las experiencias y conocimiento del vino por parte del visitante y utilizarlas como hecho diferencial competitivo frente a otros destinos de sol y playa que no poseen esta particularidad. Con ello además se favorecerá el lanzamiento del producto turístico del vino, pues la demanda latente ya esta en las zonas turísticas que rodean el área vinícola. En este sentido, una vez que se descubren las motivaciones para acudir al destino Tenerife, se localiza un mercado sensible a la ruta del vino Tacoronte-Acentejo en el asentamiento turístico del Puerto de la Cruz (una de las principales zonas turísticas de Tenerife. Así, tras conocer los beneficios buscados por el visitante del Puerto de la Cruz, se ha contrastado la existencia de dos segmentos latentes que pueden ser atraídos hacia la oferta actual de la ruta del vino en Tacoronte-Acentejo, al verificar que persiguen, además del clima y el sol y playa (principales motivaciones para viajar al destino Tenerife, otros beneficios que son susceptibles de ser ofertados por la ruta del vino.

  13. Radiological assessment of the impact on human populations and the environment of the 1949 to 1982 dumping of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the deep North-East Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.; Menard, F.

    1990-12-01

    A thorough radiological assessment of the impact of the 1949 to 1982 dumping of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste in the deep North-East Atlantic is performed with the numerical compartmental REJMAR model. The calculations include the assessment of the dose equivalent to the individuals of a theoretical critical group through a large set of pathways, and the collective dose to mankind through the ingestion pathways. The complete dumping performed in the deep North-East Atlantic is taken into account. The assumptions of biological short-circuit through marin food chains are tested. The order of magnitude of the dose delivered to marine organisms living near the dumping site is assessed [fr

  14. White-faced storm-petrels Pelagodroma marina predated by gulls as biological monitors of plastic pollution in the pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Ricardo; Menezes, Dilia; Santos, Carolina Jardim; Catry, Paulo

    2016-11-15

    Marine plastic pollution is rapidly growing and is a source of major concern. Seabirds often ingest plastic debris and are increasingly used as biological monitors of plastic pollution. However, virtually no studies have assessed plastics in seabirds in the deep subtropical North Atlantic. We investigated whether remains of white-faced storm-petrels (WFSP) present in gull pellets could be used for biomonitoring. We analysed 263 pellets and 79.0% of these contained plastic debris originating in the digestive tract of WFSP. Pellets with no bird prey did not contain plastics. Most debris were fragments (83.6%) with fewer plastic pellets (8.2%). Light-coloured plastics predominated (71.0%) and the most frequent polymer was HDPE (73.0%). Stable isotopes in toe-nails of WFSP containing many versus no plastics did not differ, indicating no individual specialisation leading to differential plastic ingestion. We suggest WFSP in pellets are highly suitable to monitor the little known pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The STELLA Robotic Observatory on Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G. Strassmeier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC inaugurated the robotic telescopes STELLA-I and STELLA-II (STELLar Activity on Tenerife on May 18, 2006. The observatory is located on the Izaña ridge at an elevation of 2400 m near the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. STELLA consists of two 1.2 m alt-az telescopes. One telescope fiber feeds a bench-mounted high-resolution echelle spectrograph while the other telescope feeds a wide-field imaging photometer. Both scopes work autonomously by means of artificial intelligence. Not only that the telescopes are automated, but the entire observatory operates like a robot, and does not require any human presence on site.

  16. Tuna and dolphin associations in the North-east Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.; Lepoint, G.; Loizeau, V.; Debacker, V.; Dauby, P.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotope ( 13 C/ 12 C and 15 N/ 14 N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the North-east Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tuna muscles display higher δ 15 N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 vs. 10.3%o and 10.4%o, respectively) which reflects their higher trophic level nutrition. Higher δ 13 C are found in common (-18.4%o) and striped dolphin (-18.1%o) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3%o) probably in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) vs. 5 mg kg -1 DW). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their δ 15 N and δ 13 C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches probably based on different squid inputs in their diet

  17. Spatial transferability of habitat suitability models of Nephrops norvegicus among fished areas in the Northeast Atlantic: sufficiently stable for marine resource conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lauria

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution and habitat associations of species in relation to the environment is essential for their management and conservation. Habitat suitability models are useful in quantifying species-environment relationships and predicting species distribution patterns. Little is known, however, about the stability and performance of habitat suitability models when projected into new areas (spatial transferability and how this can inform resource management. The aims of this study were to model habitat suitability of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus in five fished areas of the Northeast Atlantic (Aran ground, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Scotland Inshore and Fladen ground, and to test for spatial transferability of habitat models among multiple regions. Nephrops burrow density was modelled using generalised additive models (GAMs with predictors selected from four environmental variables (depth, slope, sediment and rugosity. Models were evaluated and tested for spatial transferability among areas. The optimum models (lowest AICc for different areas always included depth and sediment as predictors. Burrow densities were generally greater at depth and in finer sediments, but relationships for individual areas were sometimes more complex. Aside from an inclusion of depth and sediment, the optimum models differed between fished areas. When it came to tests of spatial transferability, however, most of the models were able to predict Nephrops density in other areas. Furthermore, transferability was not dependent on use of the optimum models since competing models were also able to achieve a similar level of transferability to new areas. A degree of decoupling between model 'fitting' performance and spatial transferability supports the use of simpler models when extrapolating habitat suitability maps to different areas. Differences in the form and performance of models from different areas may supply further information on the processes

  18. Deep-water scleractinian corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from 2010-2011 INDEMARES expeditions to the Galicia Bank (Spain, northeast Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, Alvaro

    2017-11-23

    During surveys in the Galicia Bank (northeastern Atlantic) in the years 2010-2011 (INDEMARES project), 25 species of scleractinian corals corals were collected in a depth interval of 744-1764 m. Most interesting species are described and depicted. Additionally, species list and remarks are given for the 23 species dredged in the bank during the 1987 SEAMOUNT 1 expedition at 675-1125 m depth.From a literature review and new records from Galicia Bank given herein, 31 species of scleractinian corals are known from this seamount in a depth interval of 614-1764 m depth. Six are colonial and 25 solitary, with 17 occurring on hard bottoms and 14 on soft bottoms. Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata are the most widely distributed species in both number of stations and depth range of specimens collected alive. Some species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the northeastern Atlantic. Javania pseudoalabastra is first documented for the Iberian Peninsula and Spanish faunas. Thrypticotrochus sp. is first collected from the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Characterizing rainfall in the Tenerife island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Sierra, Javier; del Jesus, Manuel; Losada Rodriguez, Inigo

    2017-04-01

    In many locations, rainfall data are collected through networks of meteorological stations. The data collection process is nowadays automated in many places, leading to the development of big databases of rainfall data covering extensive areas of territory. However, managers, decision makers and engineering consultants tend not to extract most of the information contained in these databases due to the lack of specific software tools for their exploitation. Here we present the modeling and development effort put in place in the Tenerife island in order to develop MENSEI-L, a software tool capable of automatically analyzing a complete rainfall database to simplify the extraction of information from observations. MENSEI-L makes use of weather type information derived from atmospheric conditions to separate the complete time series into homogeneous groups where statistical distributions are fitted. Normal and extreme regimes are obtained in this manner. MENSEI-L is also able to complete missing data in the time series and to generate synthetic stations by using Kriging techniques. These techniques also serve to generate the spatial regimes of precipitation, both normal and extreme ones. MENSEI-L makes use of weather type information to also provide a stochastic three-day probability forecast for rainfall.

  20. Wave and offshore wind potential for the island of Tenerife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veigas, M.; Iglesias, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The island aims to reduce its carbon footprint by developing renewable energy. • The substantial wave and offshore wind resources around the island are examined. • One area is appropriate for installing a hybrid wave–offshore wind farm. - Abstract: The island of Tenerife, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in the Atlantic Ocean, aims to be energy self-sufficient in order to reduce its carbon footprint. To accomplish this goal it should develop the renewable sources, in particular wave and offshore wind energy. The objectives of this work are twofold; (i) to characterize the wave and offshore wind power distribution around the island and (ii) to determine which offshore area is best suited for their exploitation, taking into account the resource and other conditioning factors such as the bathymetry, distance to the coastline and ports, and offshore zoning. To carry out this research, hindcast wave and wind data obtained with numerical models are used alongside observations from meteorological stations. One area, in the vicinity of Puerto de la Cruz, is identified as having great potential for installing a hybrid floating wave–wind farm. Both resources are characterized for the area selected: the wave resource in terms of wave directions, significant wave heights and energy periods; the offshore wind resource in terms of directions and speeds in addition to the seasonality for the both resources. It is found that most of the wave resource is provided by N and NNW waves with significant wave heights between 1.5 m and 3.0 m and energy periods between 10 s and 14 s. It follows that the Wave Energy Converters deployed in the area should have maximum efficiency in those ranges. As for the offshore wind resource, most of the energy corresponds to NNE and NE winds with speeds between 9 and 14 m s −1 , which should be taken into account when selecting the offshore wind turbines

  1. Monitoring diffuse degassing in monogenetic volcanic field during seismic-volcanic unrest: the case of Tenerife North-West Rift Zone (NWRZ), Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E.; Botelho, A. H.; Regnier, G. S. G.; Rodríguez, F.; Alonso Cótchico, M.; Melián, G.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tenerife North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ) is the most active volcano of the oceanic active volcanic island of Tenerife and the scenario of three historical eruptions (Boca Cangrejo S. XVI, Arenas Negras 1706 and Chinyero 1909). Since no visible degassing (fumaroles, etc.) at Tenerife NWRZ occurs, a geochemical monitoring program at Tenerife NWRZ was established mainly consisting on performing soil CO2 efflux surveys (50 surveys since 2000) to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of soil CO2 efflux measurements and the diffuse CO2 emission rate. To do so, about 340 sampling sites were selected for each survey to obtain a homogeneous distribution after taking into consideration the local geology, structure, and accessibility. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were performed in situ by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared sensor following the accumulation chamber method. The soil CO2 efflux values of the 2017 survey ranged from non-detectable to 46.6 g m-2 d-1. Statistical-graphical analysis of the 2017 data show two different geochemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 93.3% and 1.9% of the total data, respectively. The geometric means of the B and P populations are 2.4 and 19.1 g m-2 d-1, respectively. Most of the area showed B values while the P values were mainly observed at the N-W side of the volcanic rift. To estimate the diffuse CO2 emission in metric tons per day released from Tenerife NWRZ (75 km2) for the 2017 survey, we ran about 100 sGs simulations. The estimated 2017 diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere by the Tenerife NWRZ volcano was 297 ± 13 t d-1. This 2017 diffuse CO2 emission rate value is relatively higher than the estimated background value (144 t d-1) and falls within the estimated background range (72 - 321 t d-1) observed for Tenerife NWRZ volcano during the 2000-2017 period. The observed temporal variation in the diffuse CO2 degassing output during this period does not seem to be driven by external

  2. CTD data from the northeast Atlantic Ocean 22 deg N - 33 deg N, 19 deg W - 24 deg W, July 1983 during RRS DISCOVERY Cruises 138, 139

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.; Manning, A.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents lists and graphs of CTD data obtained aboard RRS Discovery during July 1983. A series of approximately 27 stations were made in the vicinity of 32 deg 30' N 20 deg W, 150 miles West of Madeira, in support of an experiment to investigate the benthic boundary layer on the lower continental rise (in water depths approximately 4000 to 5000 m). South of this location stations were occupied along longitude 24 deg W culminating in a series on the lower continental rise near 23 deg N. All CTD data were reconciled with reversing thermometer observations and with measurements of salinity and dissolved oxygen derived from samples. (author)

  3. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  4. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  5. Morphometric analysis of cinder cones on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): results and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doniz Paez, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied morphometric to the cinder cones of Tenerife. The technical morphometric allows to establish simple models of morphology, and size to the most frequent volcanoes of Tenerife's mafic volcanism. The obtained classification allow to distinguish four morphological types of scoria cones and three size groups, which is also extended to other volcanic regions. (Author) 5 refs.

  6. Archaeoastronomy and sacred places in Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J. J.; Esteban, C.; Febles, J. V.; Belmonte, J. A.

    For the last few years the authors have been investigating (with work still in progress) several archaeological sites of the indigenous culture of the island of Tenerife, in search of possible astronomical connections, be these of a calendric or religious nature. Of these sites, the authors will concentrate, within their archaeological context, on those containing small channels and carved "basins" (or "hollows") and interpreted as probable cultic sites. The present work constitutes and initial approach to the contrasting of different aspects, such as location, celestial horizon, morphology, the visibility of Mount Teide and burials.

  7. Itinerarios didácticos por la isla de Tenerife

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Ramírez, María Carmen; Javier Dóniz-Páez; González Cárdenas, Elena; Gosálvez, Rafael U.; Becerra-Ramírez, Rafael; Escobar Lahoz, Estela

    2013-01-01

    Con la elaboración de esta guía de Itinerarios Didácticos por la isla de Tenerife pretendemos contribuir a un mayor conocimiento de las características geográficas de un espacio dominado por las formas y formaciones volcánicas que caracterizan un paisaje fuertemente modificado por la actividad humana. El hombre convive y usa lo que los volcanes le ofrecen, tradicionalmente como soporte de sus cultivos o de su actividad ganadera,y modernamente como base de la industria turística. Los itiner...

  8. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest doi: 10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n4p29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the fl oral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae, a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds which executed frontal functional fl oral visits in which they touched the reproductive parts of the fl owers. Visits of Plebeia fl avocincta, Plebeia sp., Trigona spinipes and Euglossa cordata (bees and Talides sergestu and Strymon ziba (butterfl ies were also recorded. In addition, two ants (Hymenoptera, Insecta, Formicidae were identifi ed in activity on the fl oral scapes and fl owers of the studied bromeliad. The suggestion is made in the study that the A. constantinii is pollinated by hummingbirds since these birds executed direct frontal visits to the fl owers, touching reproductive structures. The identifi cation of pollen on the bodies of bees and butterfl ies, as well as the contact executed by visitors, with the stigma of the visited fl owers, offered an indication that these species may exert an infl uence as secondary pollinators of Aechmea constantinii.

  9. A Characterization of the Diffuse Galactic Emissions at Large Angular Scales Using the Tenerife Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Macías-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    diffuse emission in the range from 20 to 60 GHz. To discriminate between different models of AME, low frequency microwave data from 10 to 20 GHz are needed. We present here a reanalysis of published and unpublished Tenerife data from 10 to 33 GHz at large angular scales (from 5 to 15 degrees. We cross-correlate the Tenerife data to templates of the main galactic diffuse emissions: synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust. We find evidence of dust-correlated emission in the Tenerife data that could be explained as spinning dust grain emission.

  10. Radioactive content in groundwater in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Perez, M.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Rodriguez-Perestelo, N.; Catalan-Acosta, A.; Fernandez- De Aldecoa, J. C.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-01-01

    At present the groundwater in Tenerife is still the main resource to meet the demands of all kinds. Currently, due to the salt content, groundwater is treated using reversible electrodialysis desalination systems before drinking it. (Author)

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle and marine environment. Behavior of the Rhone river effluents in the mediterranean sea and of wastes dumped in the northeast atlantic; Cycle du combustible nucleaire et milieu marin. Devenir des effluents rhodaniens en mediterranee et des dechets immerges en atlantique nord-est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmasson, S

    1998-07-01

    waste in the North-East Atlantic has been the subject of studies especially as regards the biological compartment. Indeed, the occurrence in abyssal waters of a very motile fauna, i.e. fish (Coryphaenoides armatus) and amphipods (Eurythenes gryllus), able to undertake important vertical migrations into the water column, represents a possible pathway towards the surface for the dumped radionuclides. The ignorance as regards populations inhabiting this site has led to a study of the population structure for the amphipod Eurythenes gryllus. This species is cosmopolite since it is found at all the latitudes in the world ocean both in bathyal and abyssal waters. Well known for its necrophagy and ability to consume baits, it is supposed to feed on carcasses. However, study of a natural radionuclide, i.e. {sup 210}Po, in this species has shown that it is possible that it feeds also on particle fluxes. In order to verify the validity of the data used for the modelling of the radiological assessment of these operations, in situ labelling experiments have been realized on these amphipods as well as on polychaetes from food labelled with radionuclides characterizing the dumped wastes. Though these results are still too few to acknowledge this validity, as expected from studies on coastal species the transfer factors food-organisms are quite low. Analyses carried out for surveillance purposes both on the fish Coryphaenoides armatus and the amphipod Eurythenes gryllus show that in these deep waters the main source of man-made radioactivity is the global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear testing carried out mainly in the sixties. A transfer via the particle fluxes is necessary to explain the concentrations found for {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239+240}Pu. However, {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu isotopic ratios in some fish samples suggest and influence from the dumped wastes and underline the possible part taken by these necrophagous organisms in the dispersion of

  12. Trends in water reuse. The case of Tenerife; Tendencias en la reutilizacion de aguas. El caso de Tenerife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Diaz, S. N.

    2003-07-01

    In this work a bibliographic review on the general situation of water resources in the world is presented, emphasizing especially the problematic which appears in arid and semi-arid regions due to the scarcity of the liquid element. Water reuse, for different purposes, is an interesting alternative which enables to mitigate, al least partially, the lack of water resources. >From this point of view, in this work a summarized vision of the most frequent applications of reclaimed water reuse is given, as well as the trends observed. At the same time, information on the particular case of Tenerife is supplied, where a planed water reuse system exists, which reuses reclaimed domestic water for crop irrigation. In the paper the reuse scheme is described, and information on the system performance is given, collected through several research works which have been carried out during the last years. (Author) 24 refs.

  13. Bird communities in two oceanic island forests fragmented by roads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although most studies on road effects on birds have been conducted on continental grounds, road fragmentation on oceanic islands is often heavier. We assessed variation in bird communities near (≤ 25 m) and far (>100 m) from forest roads dividing laurel and pine forests on Tenerife, Canary Islands. Line transects were ...

  14. Radon Exposures in the Caves of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinza-Molina, C.; Alcaide, J.M.; Rodriques-Bethencourt, R.; Hernandez-Armas, J.

    1999-01-01

    There are more than a hundred volcanic caves and pits of various lengths on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The results are presented of atmospheric radon measurements performed in three of these caves and in three pits. One of the caves selected, El Viento Cave, is nearly 20 km in length and is the longest volcanic tube in the Canarian archipelago and the second longest in the world. The measurements were performed over two distinct periods during the year using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations range between 0.3 and 8 kBq.m -3 , the maximum value corresponds to a site located at 1850 m from the mouth of El Viento Cave. Possible touristic development of these caves has been taken into account in estimating the effective doses for visitors and guides (considered separately). The values obtained range from 0.3 to 100 μSv per visit for visitors. The largest effective dose would correspond to that for guides at 41 mSv.y -1 in the Viento Cave. This result would make protection against radiological hazards obligatory if the cave were to be developed as a site for tourism. (author)

  15. STELLA: 10 years of robotic observations on Tenerife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael; Granzer, Thomas; Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2016-07-01

    STELLA is a robotic observatory on Tenerife housing two 1.2m robotic telescopes. One telescope is fibre-feeding a high-resolution (R=55,000) échelle spectrograph (SES), while the other telescope is equipped with a visible wide- field (FOV=22' x 22') imaging instrument (WiFSIP). Robotic observations started mid 2006, and the primary scientific driver is monitoring of stellar-activity related phenomena. The STELLA Control System (SCS) software package was originally tailored to the STELLA roll-off style building and high-resolution spectroscopy, but was extended over the years to support the wide-field imager, an off-axis guider for the imager, separate acquisition telescopes, classical domes, and targets-of-opportunity. The SCS allows for unattended, off-line operation of the observatory, targets can be uploaded at any time and are selected based on merit-functions in real-time (dispatch scheduling). We report on the current status of the observatory and the current capabilities of the SCS.

  16. SPREADING OF ANTARCTIC BOTTOM WATER IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Morozov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the transport of bottom water from its source region in the Weddell Sea through the abyssal channels of the Atlantic Ocean. The research brings together the recent observations and historical data. A strong flow of Antarctic Bottom Water through the Vema Channel is analyzed. The mean speed of the flow is 30 cm/s. A temperature increase was found in the deep Vema Channel, which has been observed for 30 years already. The flow of bottom water in the northern part of the Brazil Basin splits. Part of the water flows through the Romanche and Chain fracture zones. The other part flows to the North American Basin. Part of the latter flow propagates through the Vema Fracture Zone into the Northeast Atlantic. The properties of bottom water in the Kane Gap and Discovery Gap are also analyzed.

  17. Ocean currents and acoustic backscatter data from shipboard ADCP measurements at three North Atlantic seamounts between 2004 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mohn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Seamounts are amongst the most common physiographic structures of the deep-ocean landscape, but remoteness and geographic complexity have limited the systematic collection of integrated and multidisciplinary data in the past. Consequently, important aspects of seamount ecology and dynamics remain poorly studied. We present a data collection of ocean currents and raw acoustic backscatter from shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP measurements during six cruises between 2004 and 2015 in the tropical and subtropical Northeast Atlantic to narrow this gap. Measurements were conducted at seamount locations between the island of Madeira and the Portuguese mainland (Ampère, Seine Seamount, as well as east of the Cape Verde archipelago (Senghor Seamount. The dataset includes two-minute ensemble averaged continuous velocity and backscatter profiles, supplemented by spatially gridded maps for each velocity component, error velocity and local bathymetry. The dataset is freely available from the digital data library PANGAEA at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.883193. Keywords: Seamounts, Northeast Atlantic, Shipboard ADCP, CODAS processing, DIVA gridding

  18. Dataciones radiometricas (14C y K/Ar del Teide y el Rift noroeste, Tenerife, Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen, A.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Teide volcano, the highest volcano on earth (3,718 m a.s.l., > 7 km high after Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea in the Hawaiian Islands, forms a volcanic complex in the centre of the island of Tenerife. Its most recent eruptive activity (last 20 Ka is associated with the very active NW branch of the 120" triple rift system of the island. Most of the eruptions of Tenerife during the past 20 Ka have occurred along these volcanic features, frequently in the production of extensive mafic and felsic lava flows, many of which reached the coast, crossing what is now one of the most densely populated areas of Tenerife and of any oceanic island in the world. However, despite numerous previous studies, very important basic geological information is still lacking, in particular dating of these flows to construct a geochronological framework for the evolution of the Teide-NW rift system, and a scientifically based, much needed volcanic hazard assessment. New carbon- 14 ages, obtained via coupled mass spectrometry (other in progress, provide important time constraints on the evoliition of Teide's volcanic system, the frequency and distribution of its eruptions, and associated volcanic hazards. Most of the eruptions are not related to the Teide stratovolcano, which apparently had only one eruption in the last 20 Ka about 1,240 f 60 years BP (between 1,287 CAL years BP and 1,007 CAL years BP, corresponding to a time interval between the VI1 and X centuries, 663 years AD to 943 years AD, but to the Pico Viejo volcano (17,570 f 150 years BP, flank parasitic vents (Mña. Abejera upper vent, 5,170 f 110 years BP; Mña. Abejera lower vent, 4,790 f 70 years BP; Mña. de La Angostura early, 2,420 f 70 years BP; Mña. La Angostura late, 2,010 f 60 years BP and Roques Blancos, 1,790 f 60 years BP and the NW rift (Mña. Chío, 3,620 f 70 years BP. Although the volcanic activity during the past 20 Ka involved at least 7 voluminous phonolitic flank vents in the northem, more

  19. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  20. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment

  1. A new species of Sarcodictyon (Anthozoa: Stolonifera) from Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.; Nuñez, J.

    1992-01-01

    A new species of Stolonifera, Sarcodictyon canariensis, from Tenerife, Canary Islands, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by its large size, the form of its sclerites and internal anatomy. The material was collected at a depth of 95-130 m in the community of Dendrophyllia ramea

  2. Phytoseiid mites of the Canary Islands (Acari, Phytoseiidae. II. Tenerife and La Gomera Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferragut, F.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiid mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae inhabiting plants in natural ecosystems from Tenerife and La Gomera islands (Canary Islands have been studied. Surveys were conducted from 1997 to 2002. Eleven species were collected, one of them being reported for the first time from the Canary Islands and six of them reported for the first time from Tenerife and La Gomera islands. Euseius machadoi n. sp. collected from woody plants in the Canarian laurisilva is proposed as a new species.

    En muestreos realizados desde 1997 hasta 2002 se ha estudiado la fauna de ácaros fitoseidos (Acari, Phytoseiidae asociada a plantas de ecosistemas naturales de las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera (Islas Canarias. Se han recolectado un total de 11 especies, siendo una de ellas citada por vez primera en las islas Canarias y seis de ellas citadas por primera vez en las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera. Euseius machadoi n. sp., recolectado en plantas leñosas de la laurisilva canaria, se propone como una nueva especie.

  3. The recent seismicity of Teide volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, L.; Albert, G. W.; Calvert, M. M.; Gray, A.; Vidic, C.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; García-Hernández, R.; Perez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tenerife is an active volcanic island which experienced several eruptions of moderate intensity in historical times, and few explosive eruptions in the Holocene. The increasing population density and the consistent number of tourists are constantly raising the volcanic risk of the island.On 02/10/2016 a remarkable swarm of long-period events was recorded and was interpreted as the effect of a transient massive fluid discharge episode occurring within the deep hydrothermal system of Teide volcano. Actually, since Oct. 2016, the hydrothermal system of the volcano underwent a progressive pressurization, testified by the marked variation of different geochemical parameters. The most striking observation is the increase in the diffuse CO2 emission from the summit crater of Teide volcano which started increasing from a background value of about 20 tons/day and reaching a peak of 175 tons/day in Feb. 2017.The pressurization process has been accompanied by an increase in the volcano-tectonic seismicity of. Teide volcano, recorded by the Red Sísmica Canaria, managed by Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN). The network began its full operativity in Nov. 2016 and currently consists of 15 broadband seismic stations. Since Nov. 2016 the network detected more than 100 small magnitude earthquakes, located beneath Teide volcano at depths usually ranging between 5 and 15 km. On January 6th 2017 a M=2.5 earthquake was recorded in the area, being one of the strongest ever recorded since decades. Most of the events show typical features of the microseismicity of hydrothermal systems: high spatial and temporal clustering and similar waveforms of individual events which often are overlapped.We present the spatial and temporal distribution of the seismicity of Teide volcano since Nov. 2016, comparing it also with the past seismicity of the volcano. Furthermore we analyze the statistical properties of the numerous swarms recorded until now with the aid of a template

  4. Ocean currents and acoustic backscatter data from shipboard ADCP measurements at three North Atlantic seamounts between 2004 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Christian; Denda, Anneke; Christiansen, Svenja; Kaufmann, Manfred; Peine, Florian; Springer, Barbara; Turnewitsch, Robert; Christiansen, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Seamounts are amongst the most common physiographic structures of the deep-ocean landscape, but remoteness and geographic complexity have limited the systematic collection of integrated and multidisciplinary data in the past. Consequently, important aspects of seamount ecology and dynamics remain poorly studied. We present a data collection of ocean currents and raw acoustic backscatter from shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements during six cruises between 2004 and 2015 in the tropical and subtropical Northeast Atlantic to narrow this gap. Measurements were conducted at seamount locations between the island of Madeira and the Portuguese mainland (Ampère, Seine Seamount), as well as east of the Cape Verde archipelago (Senghor Seamount). The dataset includes two-minute ensemble averaged continuous velocity and backscatter profiles, supplemented by spatially gridded maps for each velocity component, error velocity and local bathymetry. The dataset is freely available from the digital data library PANGAEA at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.883193.

  5. Mass, nutrient and oxygen budgets for the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Maze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The northeast Atlantic is a key horizontal and vertical crossroads region for the meridional overturning circulation, but basic nutrient and oxygen fluxes are still poorly constrained by observations in the region. A surface to bottom northeast Atlantic Ocean budget for mass, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate and oxygen is determined using an optimization method based on three surveys of the OVIDE transect (from Greenland to Portugal completed with the World Ocean Atlas 2009. Budgets are derived for two communicating boxes representing the northeastern European basin (NEEB and the Irminger Sea.

    For the NEEB (Irminger box, it is found that 30% of the mass import (export across the OVIDE section reach (originate from the Nordic Seas, while 70% are redistributed between both boxes through the Reykjanes Ridge (9.3 ± 0.7 × 109 kg s−1.

    Net biological source/sink terms of nitrate point to both the Irminger and NEEB boxes as net organic matter production sites (consuming nitrate at a rate of –7.8 ± 6.5 kmol s−1 and –8.4 ± 6.6 kmol s−1, respectively. Using a standard Redfield ratio of C : N = 106 : 16, nitrate consumption rates indicate that about 40 TgC yr−1 of carbon is fixed by organic matter production between the OVIDE transect and the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Nutrient fluxes also induce a net biological production of oxygen of 73 ± 60 kmol s−1 and 79 ± 62 kmol s−1 in the Irminger and NEEB boxes, which points to the region as being autotrophic.

    The abiotic air–sea oxygen flux leads to an oceanic oxygen uptake in the two regions (264 ± 66 kmol s−1 in the north and 443 ± 70 kmol s−1 in the south. The abiotic flux is partitioned into a mixing and a thermal component. It is found that the Irminger Sea oceanic oxygen uptake is driven by an air–sea heat flux cooling increasing the ocean surface

  6. Participatory Multi-Criteria Assessment of Forest Planning Policies in Conflicting Situations: The Case of Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Acosta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest planning should involve the participation of stakeholder communities in the decision-making process. This participation can help avoid the possible rejection of new planning measures. In this paper, the decision-making process to implement regulations on the use of forest tracks on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain is analyzed. In recent years, the number of people using the island’s forest environments has notably increased, leading to conflicts between different users of the tracks; as a result, the Island Council of Tenerife is working on regulating these pathways. This paper describes the framing analysis, design, and implementation of a participatory multi-criteria approach to explore, together with stakeholders, the best policy alternatives related to forest planning and management issues of forest track use. To do this, a set of tools has been developed, consisting of institutional analysis, participatory methods, and multi-criteria assessment techniques.

  7. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, J.; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, B.; Pecková, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2011), 225-231 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neoparamoeba * Diadema aff. antillarum * SSU rDNA phylogeny * Tenerife Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2011

  8. The project of installing a ZIMPOL_3 polarimeter at GREGOR in Tenerife

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Bianda; Renzo Ramelli; Jan Olof Stenflo; Svetlana Berdyugina; Daniel Gisler; Ivan Defilippis; Nazaret Bello Gonzáles

    2013-01-01

    A project of collaboration between Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik KIS and Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno IRSOL includes the installation of a ZIMPOL_3 high resolution polarimeter at the 1.5 meter aperture solar telescope GREGOR in Tenerife. Important scientific topics are expected to be investigated in particular in the case of events showing faint amplitude polarization signatures like scattering polarization effects and the Hanle effect. This project has also a technical importance...

  9. Comparative analysis of proposals for the planning of the aggregate industry on the island of Tenerife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HernAndez-Duran, G.; Arranz-Gonzalez, C.; Vega-Panizo, R. de la

    2016-07-01

    The island of Tenerife is a territory with numerous protected natural areas and other areas which also deserve environmental protection, due to their ecological and landscape richness and values. According to current planning regulations, the aggregate mining industry is limited to a number of areas called extractive zones. The delimitation of such areas has some flaws and inconsistencies from the environmental point of view and from the consideration of the productive capacity of mining resources. This paper shows two models for environmental planning applied to the extractive activity for aggregates for the island of Tenerife, which could serve as alternatives to the current planning model: a model called zoned and another designated as zone- concentrated. These models provide improvements as far as respect for environmental values are concerned and are based on knowledge of the spatial distribution of geological materials. The conclusion is that this knowledge of the distribution of the potential mineral resources in the territory is the key to achieving the effective integration of mining in land-use planning, and to safeguard in the best possible way the mineral resources from the activities that may compromise their future availability. The applied methods could be extended to other territories, particularly islands, where it is very possible that there are similar problems to those that are occurring in Tenerife. (Author)

  10. Arrival of radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Pérez, M.; Ramos-López, R.; Perestelo, Nayra R.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Bustos, J.J.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Hernández-Armas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two weeks after the accident at the Fukushima-Daichi nuclear power plant, 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activities were measured in two different stations located in Tenerife (Canary Islands), situated at 300 (FIMERALL) and 2400 (IZAÑA) m.a.s.l, respectively. Peak measured activity concentrations were: 1.851 mBq/m3 (131I); 0.408 mBq/m3 (137Cs) and 0.382 mBq/m3 (134Cs). The activities measured at the FIMERALL station were always higher than at IZAÑA station, suggesting that the radioactive plume arrived to the island associated with low altitude air masses. Simulations of potential dispersion of the radioactive cloud (137Cs) after the nuclear accident in reactor Fukushima I show that radioactive pollution reached remote regions such as the Canary Islands in the Eastern subtropical North Atlantic. The corresponding effective dose to the local population was 1.17 nSv, a value less than one millionth of the annual limit for the general public. Therefore, there was no risk to public health. - Highlights: ► Arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife following the accident of Fukushima. ► The atmospheric concentration of radionuclides was always higher at low altitude. ► After reaching the peak concentration a sharp decrease of radionuclides was observed. ► Air mass forward trajectory analysis confirms the potential arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife.

  11. Reconstructing Past Seasonal to Multicentennial-Scale Variability in the NE Atlantic Ocean Using the Long-Lived Marine Bivalve Mollusk Glycymeris glycymeris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, D. J.; Hall, I. R.; Slater, S. M.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Sayer, M. D. J.

    2017-11-01

    The lack of long-term, highly resolved (annual to subannual) and absolutely dated baseline records of marine variability extending beyond the instrumental period (last 50-100 years) hinders our ability to develop a comprehensive understanding of the role the ocean plays in the climate system. Specifically, without such records, it remains difficult to fully quantify the range of natural climate variability mediated by the ocean and to robustly attribute recent changes to anthropogenic or natural drivers. Here we present a 211 year (1799-2010 C.E.; all dates hereafter are Common Era) seawater temperature (SWT) reconstruction from the northeast Atlantic Ocean derived from absolutely dated, annually resolved, oxygen isotope ratios recorded in the shell carbonate (δ18Oshell) of the long-lived marine bivalve mollusk Glycymeris glycymeris. The annual record was calibrated using subannually resolved δ18Oshell values drilled from multiple shells covering the instrumental period. Calibration verification statistics and spatial correlation analyses indicate that the δ18Oshell record contains significant skill at reconstructing Northeast Atlantic Ocean mean summer SWT variability associated with changes in subpolar gyre dynamics and the North Atlantic Current. Reconciling differences between the δ18Oshell data and corresponding growth increment width chronology demonstrates that 68% of the variability in G. glycymeris shell growth can be explained by the combined influence of biological productivity and SWT variability. These data suggest that G. glycymeris can provide seasonal to multicentennial absolutely dated baseline records of past marine variability that will lead to the development of a quantitative understanding of the role the marine environment plays in the global climate system.

  12. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  13. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  14. Changes in infiltration rate into Andisols for change of use (Tenerife, Canary I.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neris, J.; Fuentes, J.; Dorta, M. A.; Jimenez, C.; Tejedor, M.

    2009-01-01

    The volcanic island of Tenerife (Canary Islands) has a wide variety of Andisols which have formed on recent pyroclast materials (Udands, Ustands, Xerands and Vitrands. The Udands are situated on the nor then side of the island, at heights where condensation of the trade winds occurs (900-1600m), while the Ustands are also located mostly on this side, albeit at a lower attitudinal strip. Under natural conditions, these soils present favourable physical properties, with high structural stability and resistance to water erosion. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Obstetric Violence, Another Form of Violence Against Women. The Tenerife Case

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ramos, Paulo Adrían; Aguilera Ávila, Laura

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionThe subject of this study is Obstetric Violence (OV). OV is understood as the different ways in which pregnant women, or those who are going into labor, are controlled and oppressed. OV may be considered as another type of gender-based violence because its aim is to control and oppress women. Additionally, OV could be considered as institutional and symbolic violence.ObjectivesThe aim of this study is to discover whether new mothers in Tenerife are being subject to Obstetric Viole...

  16. Energía de oleaje en la isla de Tenerife

    OpenAIRE

    Imaz Gómez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto es realizar todos los estudios necesarios para la construcción de la primera fase de un parque de dispositivos de extracción de energía undimotriz que permita obtener información fiable y necesaria sobre el comportamiento de los dispositivos en grupo y poder ver si el rendimiento es el esperado para posteriormente realizar las otras dos fases con el fin de abastecer a la ciudad de Puerto de la Cruz, situada en el norte de la isla de Tenerife. Actualmente las energía...

  17. Quantification of Fog Water Collection in Three Locations of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos; Guerra, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of fog water collection obtained with cylindrical fog gauges at three locations on the northern side of Tenerife island (Spain): La Esperanza (1093 m a.s.l.), Taborno (1015 m a.s.l.), and El Gaitero (1747 m a.s.l.). Concomitant meteorological variables were also measured. We show that fog precipitation was more frequent than rainfall. However, the volumes and frequency of daily fog water collection varied among the three studied sites, usually not exceeding 10–40 L d−1/...

  18. Indications for solar influence on radon signal in the subsurface of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinitz, G.; Piatibratova, O.; Martin-Luis, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Radon at two locations in Tenerife is investigated. The MM-0 site is located in a bunker near Teide volcano. Daily radon (DR) signals are dominated by a 12-hour (S2) periodicity. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of day-time and night-time series results in a day-night differentiation, which does not occur in the coeval temperature and pressure. This indicates that the radon system is directly affected by the rotation of Earth around its axis, and not via the pressure and/or temperature pattern. San Fernando sites are in an underground gallery, located at 2.1 and 3 km from the entrance. Alpha and gamma time series show DR signals having an S1 and a strong S2 periodicity. Sidebands occur around the S1 periodicity. The lower sideband is close to 0.9972696 cycles per day (CPD; = sidereal frequency) and the upper sideband at a symmetric frequency above. They reflect a driver containing two waveforms having periodicities of rotation of Earth around its axis and around the Sun that influences radon in a non-linear fashion, leading to the sidebands around the S1 periodicity. Observation in Tenerife of sidebands and day-night phenomena substantiates the notion that the periodic components in the diurnal and annual frequency band of radon time series are due to the influence of a component in solar radiation. (authors)

  19. On the detectability of Teide volcano magma chambers (Tenerife, Canary Islands) with magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Varas, Perla; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Perez, Nemesio

    2018-01-01

    Tenerife has been the subject of numerous studies covering a wide range of fields. Many studies have been focused on characterising the magmatic plumbing system. Even so, a controversy still exists regarding the location and size of the current magma chambers. Several magnetotelluric (MT) surveys have been carried out in the island, but no conductivity anomalies associated with the chambers have been detected. We report the results of a set of tests conducted against the 3-D resistivity model of the island, to determine the characteristics of the detectable chambers with the MT data. The most remarkable results indicate that the MT dataset is incompatible with a large-scale mafic reservoir located at shallower depths than 8 km b.s.l. However, shallower phonolitic chambers smaller than 3 × 3 × 1 km3 could be undetected by the existing MT sites and new data should be acquired to confirm or not their existence. This new information is essential in volcanic islands like Tenerife, since many volcanic hazards are related to the size and depth of the sources of magma. Additionally, a joint interpretation of the obtained results together with other information is summarised in a hypothetical model, allowing us to better understand the internal structure of the island.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. A health-sanitary evaluation of lacteal desserts for consumption in Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, R; Hardisson, A; Arias, A; Sierra, A

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of lacteal desserts in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is notably high. However, there are no legal standards in Spain regarding microbiological quality. For this reason, we have decided that it would be of interest to carry out a health-sanitary study of these products, with the aim of discovering their microbial content. 330 samples of lacteal desserts on sale in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife have undergone analysis. They have been divided into three groups: cream caramel (egg and vanilla) (80), mousse (60) and the third group, known as "other desserts", which includes custard and the rest of lacteal desserts not included in the previous groupings (190). Neither E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., nor Staphylococcus aureus have been detected in any of the samples analysed. In spite of the fact that the results obtained do not reflect high microbiological contamination, we consider it necessary to lay down legal standards, with reference values, for these lacteal products, which will guarantee good microbiological quality.

  1. Impact of Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Storage in Isolated Systems: The Case of Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramírez Díaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated regions are highly dependent on fossil fuels. The use of endogenous sources and the improvement in energy efficiency in all of the consumption activities are the two main ways to reduce the dependence of petroleum-derived fuels. Tenerife offers an excellent renewable resource (hours of sun and wind. However, the massive development of these technologies could cause important operational problems within the electric power grids, because of the small size of the system. In this paper, we explore the option of coupling an electric vehicle fleet as a distributed energy storage system to increase the participation of renewables in an isolated power system, i.e., Tenerife Island. A model simulator has been used to evaluate five key outputs, that is the renewable share, the energy spilled, the CO2 emissions, the levelized cost of generating electricity and fuel dependence, under alternative scenarios. Comparing to the current situation, combining a gradual renewable installed capacity and the introduction of an electric vehicle fleet using alternative charging strategies, a total of 30 different scenarios have been evaluated. Results shows that the impact of 50,000 electric vehicles would increase the renewable share in the electricity mix of the island up to 30%, reduce CO2 emissions by 27%, the total cost of electric generation by 6% and the oil internal market by 16%.

  2. El centro histórico de la villa de Candelaria (Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián López García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Candelaria destaca en Tenerife con un alto grado de significación por el protagonismo que tuvo en algunos episodios notables de la isla. La Aparición de la imagen de la Virgen en estas tierras del menceyato de Güimar constituyo una singular página de Ia etapa de contactos entre la cultura guanche y los primeros evangelizadores de Canarias, circunstancia que derivará en la particular devoción que el pueblo tinerfeño y canario dispensará a esta advocación mariana a través de los siglos. Si se le compara con otros centros históricos tinerfeños, Candelaria contrasta con ellos por la modestia de su núcleo. En sus orígenes, pasó por varias vicisitudes durante los siglos XV y XVI, para comenzar a consolidarse a partir de las centurias del XVII y XVIII. Una serie de espacios e inmuebles formarán parte de su constante histórica y atestiguarán este pasado, entre ellos destacan la Cueva de los Camellos, la Cueva de Achbinico- San Blas, Convento de Dominicos, Basílica de Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, plaza de los peregrinos, Casa del Cabildo, Iglesia de Santa Ana, etc.Candelaria stands out within Tenerife for its leading role in some of the most outstanding episodes of the Island. The appearance of Virgin Mary within the lands of the Güimar "menceyato", was a singularly important episode in the period of contact between "guanche" culture and the first wave of evangelists that arrived in the Canaries. This circumstance led to the particularly strong devotion felt throughout the Centuries by the inhabitants of Tencrife, as well as by canarians in general, to the worship of Virgin Mary. In contrast to other historical centres in Tenerife, Candelaria has a small core, which started to consolidate from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries onwards. A series of public spaces and buildings stand witness to thi spast; standing out amongst them are the Camel's Cave, the Cave of Achbinico-San Blas, the Convent of the Dorninicans, the Basilica

  3. Radioactive content in groundwater in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands); Contenido radioactivo en aguas en aguas subterraneas de la Isla de Tenerifie (Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Perez, M.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Rodriguez-Perestelo, N.; Catalan-Acosta, A.; Fernandez- De Aldecoa, J. C.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    At present the groundwater in Tenerife is still the main resource to meet the demands of all kinds. Currently, due to the salt content, groundwater is treated using reversible electrodialysis desalination systems before drinking it. (Author)

  4. Anomalous changes of diffuse CO_{2} emission and seismic activity at Teide volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Rubén; Melián, Gladys; D'Auria, Luca; Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Padilla, Germán D.; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Barrancos, José; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Pérez, Aarón; Calvo, David; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Tenerife (2034 km2) is the largest of the Canary Islands and hosts four main active volcanic edifices: three volcanic rifts and a central volcanic complex, Las Cañadas, which is characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. Laying inside Las Cañadas a twin stratovolcanoes system, Pico Viejo and Teide, has been developed. Although there are no visible gas emanations along the volcanic rifts of Tenerife, the existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system beneath Teide volcano is suggested by the occurrence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around the summit cone of Teide. Soil CO2 efflux surveys have been performed at the summit crater of Teide volcano since 1999, to determine the diffuse CO2 emission from the summit crater and to evaluate the temporal variations of CO2 efflux and their relationships with seismic-volcanic activity. Soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature have been always measured at the same 38 observation sites homogeneously distributed within an area of about 6,972 m2 inside the summit crater. Soil CO2 diffuse effluxes were estimated according to the accumulation chamber method by means of a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) LICOR-820 CO2 analyzer. Historical seismic activity in Tenerife has been characterized by low- to moderate-magnitude events (M de Canarias (INVOLCAN) registered an earthquake of M 2.5 located in the vertical of Teide volcano with a depth of 6.6 km. It was the strongest earthquake located inside Cañadas caldera since 2004. Between October 11 and December 13, 2016, a continuous increase on the diffuse CO2 emission was registered, from 21.3 ± 2.0 to 101.7 ± 20.7 t d-1, suggesting the occurrence of future increase in the seismic-volcanic activity. In fact, this precursory signal preceded the occurrence of the 2.5 seismic event and no significant horizontal and vertical displacements were registered by the Canary GPS network belonged to INVOLCAN. This seismic event was

  5. Photosynthetic response and zonation of three species of Gelidiales from Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domíguez-Álvarez, S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Gelidiales (Gelidium arbuscula, Gelidium canariense and Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyta were selected due to their abundance in the marine lower intertidal of the north coast of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, to assess, using PAM fluorescence, the importance of irradiance and exposure to air on vertical distribution. We compared tolerance to emersion by air-drying fronds under simulated emersion, and results suggest that recovery of photosynthesis after emersion plays a major role in the vertical distribution of these three species. Morphological traits such as clumped fronds explain the higher tolerances, and reduced water loss of the species upper on the shore. Local differences between sites may be related to slight differences in the light regime related to topography.

    Se han seleccionado tres especies de Gelidiales (Gelidium arbuscula, Gelidium canariense y Pterocladiella capillacea que son abundantes en los niveles inferiores del intermareal de la costa N de Tenerife para establecer, utilizando fluorescencia tipo PAM, la importancia de la cantidad de luz y la exposición al aire en su zonación vertical. Se ha comparado la tolerancia a la emersión en frondes expuestas al aire, y los resultados sugieren que la capacidad de recuperación de la fotosíntesis tras la emersión tiene un papel fundamental en la explicación de la posición vertical de estas tres especies. Además, características morfológicas como el apelotonamiento de las frondes pueden coadyuvar a la mayor tolerancia, al reducir la pérdida de agua en emersión en las especies de niveles más altos. Las variaciones entre sitios se pueden deber a desigualdades locales en la cantidad de luz provocadas por diferencias topográficas.

  6. Consideraciones en torno a los sistemas productivos de las sociedades prehistóricas canarias: los modelos de Tenerife y Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Velasco Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan diversos aspectos de los sistemas productivos aborígenes de Tenerife y Gran Canaria y su incidencia en la organización socioeconómica de ambas formaciones.In this paper we aim to analyse some aspects about aborigine productive systems of Tenerife and Gran Canaria and their incidence in the socioeconomic organisation of these communities.

  7. Diversity hotspots of the laurel forest on Tenerife, Canary Islands: a phylogeographic study of Laurus and Ixanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzin, Anja; Thiv, Mike; Koch, Marcus A

    2016-09-01

    Macaronesian laurel forest is among the worldwide hotspots of threatened biodiversity. With increasing evidence that woodland composition on the Canary Islands changed dramatically during the last few thousand years, the aim of this study was to find evidence for substantial recent population dynamics of two representative species from laurel forest. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to evaluate fine-scaled genetic variation of the paradigmatic tree Laurus novocanariensis (Lauraceae) and a long-lived herbaceous gentian from core laurel forest, Ixanthus viscosus (Gentianaceae), on Tenerife. Bioclimatic variables were analysed to study the respective climate niches. A chloroplast DNA screening was performed to evaluate additional genetic variation. Genetic diversity of the laurel tree showed severe geographic partitioning. On Tenerife, fine-scaled Bayesian clustering of genetic variation revealed a western and an eastern gene pool, separated by a zone of high admixture and with a third major gene pool. Compared with genetic clusters found on the other Canary Islands, the East-West differentiation on Tenerife seems to be more recent than differentiation between islands. This is substantiated by the finding of extremly low levels of chloroplast DNA-based polymorphisms. Ixanthus showed no geographic structuring of genetic variation. Genetic data from Tenerife indicate contemporary gene flow and dispersal on a micro/local scale rather than reflecting an old and relic woodland history. In particular for Laurus, it is shown that this species occupies a broad bioclimatic niche. This is not correlated with its respective distribution of genetic variation, therefore indicating its large potential for contemporary rapid and effective colonization. Ixanthus is more specialized to humid conditions and is mostly found in the natural Monteverde húmedo vegetation types, but even for this species indications for long-term persistence in the respective

  8. Automatic earthquake detection and classification with continuous hidden Markov models: a possible tool for monitoring Las Canadas caldera in Tenerife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyreuther, Moritz; Wassermann, Joachim [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (Geophys. Observatory), Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, D-80333 (Germany); Carniel, Roberto [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio Universitat Degli Studi di Udine, I-33100 (Italy)], E-mail: roberto.carniel@uniud.it

    2008-10-01

    A possible interaction of (volcano-) tectonic earthquakes with the continuous seismic noise recorded in the volcanic island of Tenerife was recently suggested, but existing catalogues seem to be far from being self consistent, calling for the development of automatic detection and classification algorithms. In this work we propose the adoption of a methodology based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), widely used already in other fields, such as speech classification.

  9. Accumulating pollutants in conifer needles on an Atlantic island - A case study with Pinus canariensis on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausz, Michael; Trummer, Walter; Goessler, Walter; Wonisch, Astrid; Grill, Dieter; Naumann, Simone; Jimenez, Maria Soledad; Morales, Domingo

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of potential pollutant elements Na, Cl, and S were investigated in needles of Pinus canariensis grown at 55 field plots in Tenerife. Microelement concentrations (including heavy metals) were measured at a subset of 18 plots. Na and Cl concentrations were high at low elevations (up to 8 mg g -1 Cl and 5.5 mg g -1 Na). Na/Cl ratio close to standard seawater indicated sea spray influence up to 1200 m a.s.l. Only at few plots, sulphur concentrations indicated possible pollutant impact. Cluster and correlation analyses identified a related group of V, As, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Al, possibly related to traffic exhaust aggregated with soil particles. Mainly north-eastern, lower elevated plots were exposed to those immissions, but metal concentrations were generally low compared to data from other studies. In conclusion, seawater and soil particles explained most of the element distribution pattern in pine needles in Tenerife, but strong indications for some effect of local sources of air pollutants were detected. - Pollutant concentrations in pine needles indicate moderate local impact of sulphur, particulate matter, and sea sprays at lower elevation plots in Tenerife

  10. Laurel forest recovery during 20 years in an abandoned firebreak in Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón Arévalo, José; Dolores Peraza, María; Álvarez, Carlos; Bermúdez, Alfredo; Domingo Delgado, Juan; Gallardo, Antonio; María Fernández-Palacios, José

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the recovery of the structure and species composition of a laurel forest in an abandoned firebreak in the Rural Park of Anaga, Tenerife (Canary Islands). We statistically compared values of species richness, density and biovolume between 23 plots in the firebreak and six control plots in natural forest near the firebreak. We evaluated changes in species composition with detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) based on densities and biovolume. Biovolume is increasing significantly along the successional gradient (from 1990 to 2004) but remains less than the values in control plots. Stem densities were significantly lower in control plots than in 2004 plots. Species richness was significantly higher in control plots than in 2004 plots (although there were no differences in values obtained between the first sampling period 6 years after abandonment, and the second sampling 20 years after abandonment). Changes in species richness are significant, but all species present in control plots are also found in the firebreak plots. DCA based on biovolume significantly discriminated control plots from firebreak plots in 1990 (for axis I). Results suggest recovery to a laurel forest is occurring, although more time will be required to reach control plot density and biovolume values. The low intensity of disturbance and a well-conserved forest adjacent to the firebreak favour the recovery of species inside the firebreak. We advise eliminating suckers from all small trees (leaving the bigger stems) to accelerate succession to a vegetation structure similar to that found surrounding the firebreak.

  11. Unusual Vermamoeba Vermiformis Strain Isolated from Snow in Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Reyes-Batlle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. Thermophilic amoebae are among the most common FLA in water bodies, being Vermamoeba vermiformis one of the most common species reported worldwide from these sources. Interestingly, V. vermiformis has often been reported to survive at high temperatures and osmotic pressure worldwide.Materials and Methods: In this study, snow samples were collected from Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands during the winter season of 2014. The samples were culture on non nutrient agar plates and checked daily for the presence of FLA. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in the plates incubated at room temperature and 37ºC.Results: Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirmed that the isolated strain belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species.Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolation from such an inusual habitat (low temperatures and high altitude and the first report of these species in the Canary islands.

  12. Molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from domestic dogs in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Wagner, Carolina; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes two cases of Acanthamoeba infections (keratitis and ascites/peritonitis) in small breed domestic dogs in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. In both cases, amoebic trophozoites were observed under the inverted microscope and isolated from the infected tissues and/or fluids, without detecting the presence of other viral, fungal or bacterial pathogens. Amoebae were isolated using 2 % non-nutrient agar plates and axenified for further biochemical and molecular analyses. Osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays revealed that both isolates were able to grow up to 37 °C and 1 M of mannitol and were thus considered as potentially pathogenic. Moreover, the strains were classified as highly cytotoxic as they cause more than 75 % of toxicity when incubated with two eukaryotic cell lines. In order to classify the strains at the molecular level, the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was amplified and sequenced, revealing that both isolates belonged to genotype T4. In both cases, owners of the animals did not allow any further studies or follow-up and therefore the current status of these animals is unknown. Furthermore, the isolation of these pathogenic amoebae should raise awareness with the veterinary community locally and worldwide.

  13. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  14. Quantification of Fog Water Collection in Three Locations of Tenerife (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Ritter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of fog water collection obtained with cylindrical fog gauges at three locations on the northern side of Tenerife island (Spain: La Esperanza (1093 m a.s.l., Taborno (1015 m a.s.l., and El Gaitero (1747 m a.s.l.. Concomitant meteorological variables were also measured. We show that fog precipitation was more frequent than rainfall. However, the volumes and frequency of daily fog water collection varied among the three studied sites, usually not exceeding 10–40 L d−1/m2 of collecting surface. In La Esperanza, fog water harvesting occurred frequently, but was considerably lower than in the other two locations. However, while in Taborno fog water collection episodes were distributed throughout the period, in El Gaitero these were mainly concentrated in two periods, during autumn and winter 2012–2013. The study of the relationships between daily fog water yields and the averages of meteorological variables did not show any clear trend, but it suggested that the greater volumes of collected fog water were logically associated with higher wind speeds and lower solar radiation conditions. Fog water collection in La Esperanza and in Taborno typically occurred within a similar temperature interval (7.5–12.5 °C, while in El Gaitero the phenomenon was associated with a lower temperature range (2.5–10 °C.

  15. Waste Water reuse in Tenerife. Equipment to improve water quality for agriculture use; Reutilizacion de aguas depuradas en la Isla de Tenerife. Instalaciones para la mejora de la calidad para uso agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, E.; Delgado, S.; Renz, O.; Gonzalez, A.

    1999-06-01

    In this work it is briefly shown the infrastructure of reclaimed water reuse for agriculture in Tenerife (Canary Islands-Spain). The problems dealing with the lack of water resources in the island and the growth of reclaimed water demand are explained. It is also commented the invetment done in the actual infrastructure, analizing the more economically important items. This work compares the price of reclaimed water with the price of the conventional irrigation water. Finally, the process of waste water desalination down to the required salinity is shortly explained and the cost of it is also evaluated. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. Unraveling biocomplexity of Northeast Atlantic herring stocks using SNP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Limborg, Morten; Helyar, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) exhibit biocomplexity, with widespread, geographically explicit populations that perform long‐range migration to common feeding and wintering areas, where they are exploited by fisheries. This means that exploited stocks do not describe discrete units, thereby c...... and spatial dynamics applicable to stock assessment methods, as well as presenting a traceability tool for certification of herring and herring products...

  17. The distribution of glacial erratics in the Northeast Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, Q.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed study of all the available information on glacial erratics has been carried out. This has included an examination of 288 dredge hauls, 1164 sediment cores and 176 camera runs. Sufficient data have now been collected to provide an estimate of the impact risk of a point projectile with a glacial erratic, down to oxygen isotope stage 5 (127,000 years) in three areas of the North East Atlantic. 1. Porcupine seabight (50 deg N, 14 deg W) 0.460%; 2. King's Trough Flank (42 deg N, 24 deg W) 0.502%; 3. Great Meteor East (31 deg N, 25 deg W) 0.015%. These estimates are for all erratics larger than 1.5 cm diameter and apply only down to oxygen isotope stage 5. If estimates are required at greater depths than this, it is proposed that a detailed study of a long core should be undertaken. (author)

  18. El Cine durante la Primera Guerra Mundia a través de las páginas del diario El Progreso de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Betancor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el tratamiento in­formativo dado a las películas cinematográfi­cas en las páginas del periódico El Progreso de Santa Cruz de Tenerife durante la Primera Guerra Mundial. Además, recoge los princi­pales acontecimientos cinematográficos que tuvieron lugar en Tenerife en este momento y su repercusión en este diario. Investiga el papel de los anuncios publicitarios de los loca­les de exhibición, editados en este periódico, que mostraron al público de la Isla estas obras de arte del cine mudo. Asimismo, describe los estrenos más destacados del incipiente cine español y los documentales realizados por los ejércitos británico y francés y exhibidas en las salas de proyección de Tenerife durante esta etapa.This article analyses the informative treatment given to the films on the pages of the newspaper El Progreso of Santa Cruz de Tenerife during the First World War. Besides, it collects the principal movie events that took place in Tenerife in this time and its repercus­sion on this diary. It investigates the role of the advertisements of the movie houses, edited in this journal, that showed these masterpieces of the silent film era. Likewise it describes the most outstanding releases of the incipient Spa­nish cinema and the documentary films made by the British and French Armies and exhibited in the cinemas of Tenerife in this moment.

  19. Cycles of selected elements in the frame of Globalization and Global Change in the environment of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidak, Markus O.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Schöler, Heinfried; Trieloff, Mario; Kober, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    The Laurel Forest is an important and sensitive ecosystem with particular element cycling mechanisms. On Tenerife the distribution is straitened to some parts in the north, north-west and northeast. The NE trade wind ensures a permanently humid climate in the north. Major urban and industrial development is centred on Tenerife, and as a touristy hotspot the Island is exposed to heavy air traffic. Furthermore, the short distance to the African coastline and, therefore, to the Sahara, contribute a regular influence of African Dust emissions. In summary, Laurel Forest is exposed to different climatic conditions, variations in lithology and soils, and aerosols caused by local anthropogenic emissions, Saharan dust, and sea spray. The present study aims to understand geogenic and anthropogenic element transports of K, P, N, and organic components between soils and Laurel Forest. In addition, the element contribution from the aerosols such as the Sahara dust has to be quantified to understand the rock - soil - vegetation coupling system. The Sahara dust as one of the important aerosols has been studied by various researchers (Bustos et al., 1998; Rodrıguez, 1999; Torres et al., 2001; Viana et al., 2002). Viana et al.,(2002) quantified the impacts of African dust outbreaks for Tenerife and Gran Canaria, after the interpretation of the PM10 (thoracis particulate matter) from nineteen air quality monitoring stations. Three types of African dust contributions were identified and characterized (winter, summer and autumn-winter dust outbreaks). Collected samples with and without African dust influence proved that: (a) for the intensive winter African dust outbreaks (daily PM10 levels up to 191 mg/m3) at least 76% of the bulk PM10 levels may be attributable to dust load, whereas the anthropogenic input accounts for only 3-14% and (b) SiO2, Al2O3, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, V, Mn and Ba concentrations are excellent tracers of African origin (Viana et al., 2002).

  20. 40Ar/39Ar stratigraphy of pyroclastic units from the Cañadas Volcanic Edifice (Tenerife, Canary Islands) and their bearing on the structural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Huertas Coronel, María José; Arnaud, N.; Ancochea Soto, Eumenio; Cantagrel, Jean Marie; Fúster Casas, José María

    2002-01-01

    Many felsic pyroclastic units of various types are exposed in different sectors of Tenerife. New 40Ar/39Ar determinations allow them to be placed more precisely in the general volcano-stratigraphic succession. According to geographic distribution, stratigraphic position and isotopic ages, four main pyroclastic phases may be identified. The first, San Juan de la Rambla phase (2.1 Ma), is only known in the north of Tenerife in the Tigaiga massif. The second, Adeje phase (1.8–1.5 Ma), is most co...

  1. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: Concept and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Enrique, E-mail: villae@unican.es; Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; Fuente, Luisa de la; Artal, Eduardo; Mediavilla, Ángel [Departamento Ingeniería de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Plaza de la Ciencia s/n, Santander 39005 (Spain); Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, Avda. Los Castros s/n, Santander 39005 (Spain); Hoyland, Roger [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna 38205 (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  2. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: Concept and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; Fuente, Luisa de la; Artal, Eduardo; Mediavilla, Ángel; Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J.; Hoyland, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching

  3. Check-list of interstitial polychaetes from intertidal and shallow subtidal soft bottoms of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; Núñez, Jorge; Carmen Brito, María del

    2010-01-01

    A check-list of polychaete species from two stations on the south coast of Tenerife (Los Abrigos and Los Cristianos) at two different tidal levels, intertidal and shallow subtidal (3 m depth) is presented. A total of 47 species were collected, the hesionid Microphthalmus pseudoaberrans Campoy & Viéitez, 1982 and the spionids Rhynchospio glutaea (Ehlers, 1897) and Spio filicornis (O.F. Müller, 1776) being the most abundant. With 18 species the family Syllidae is the most diverse, followed b...

  4. PROPUESTA DE ITINERARIO GEOTURÍSTICO URBANO EN GARACHICO (TENERIFE, CANARIAS, ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fco. Javier Dóniz-Páez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En los destinos maduros de sol y playa los nuevos productos y experiencias turísticas son una realidad actual y necesaria. El geoturismo urbano es un producto de turismo muy novedoso que consiste en explotar turísticamente el relieve presente dentro de las ciudades tanto en afloramientos naturales como en los diferentes elementos del patrimonio cultural tangible inmueble. El objetivo de este artículo es diseñar y proponer un itinerario de geoturismo urbano con base espacial por el casco histórico de Garachico (Tenerife, Canarias, España, asociado directa e indirectamente con la erupción volcánica de 1706 y que contribuya a diversificar su oferta turística polarizada en sus atractivos históricos. Para ello la metodología utilizada consistió en el inventario, caracterización y valoración del patrimonio geológico-geomorfológico presente en los diferentes geomorfositios y en el patrimonio cultural tangible inmueble del casco histórico de la ciudad. Se seleccionaron catorce recursos naturales y culturales vinculados con la geodiversidad de Garachico. En función de la variedad de recursos inventariados, de las posibilidades que ofrece y de su distribución geográfica, el itinerario propuesto en formato de ruta abierta recorre los catorce atractivos seleccionados a lo largo de unos 2 km de longitud y de tres horas de duración.

  5. Un Análisis de La App Turística Tenerife Accesible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakson Renner Rodrigues Soares

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El turismo es una actividad económica que tiene un importante impacto en la balanza comercial española. No debería ser privativo y se nota que cada vez más las barreras de acceso a las infraestructuras a personas con necesidades especiales son derribadas. Quiere sean los transportes, las infraestructuras hoteleras o de restauración, al igual que museos o hasta mismo las playas, todos los elementos que conforman la actividad turística vienen se tornando cada vez más accesibles. Entendemos esa accesibilidad como las facilidades que personas con alguna necesidad especial (movilidad reducida, discapacidad visual o auditiva puedan gozar del mismo espacio que cualquiera otro turista. Ese estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la existencia de aplicativos para móviles de destinos turísticos que consideran alguna de las necesidades especiales de los individuos. Para eso, fueron analizadas las más de 200 APPS presentadas por Seggitur en la Guía APPS turísticas 2016. Segundo Segittur (2016, p.2 “las nuevas tecnologías se han puesto definitivamente al servicio del turista”. Pero ellas piensan verdaderamente en todos los turistas? Encontramos que de todas las APPS que constan en el informe, solo una está desarrollada para el público que tiene necesidades especiales: Tenerife Accesible. Ella trabaja cuestiones de la imagen del destino turístico enfocando su actuación a las necesidades de este público. Además, hemos encontrado que el destino utiliza el deporte como un reclamo de atracción para este segmento. Con todo, en este documento se podrán encontrar las relaciones innovación, turismo y deportes accesibles.

  6. Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands : The case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocherens, Herve; Michaux, Jacques; Talavera, Francisco Garcia; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Fossil bone collagen (14)C dating and delta(13)C and delta(15)N isotopic measurements of the rodent Canariomys bravoi from Tenerife (Canary Islands.. Spain) were used to test two different hypotheses about the causes of extinctions of endemic vertebrates on islands. climate versus humans. For the

  7. Evolutive and regressive soil sequences for characterization of soils in laurel forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Asterio Guerra-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation processes have achieved the recognition of a global environmental problem in recent years. It has been suggested by various international forums and organizations that in order to adequately establish methods to combat land degradation, it is necessary to evaluate this degradation locally and at a detailed scale. The evaluation of soil degradation of natural ecosystems at a detailed scale requires the definition of standards to which to compare this degradation. To define these standards and properly handle the processes that give rise to variations in soil quality and degradation, it is necessary to establish in some detail the pedogenic processes that have or have not taken place in a particular area and which lead to the formation of a mature soil. A mature soil should be considered as standard in these situations and, therefore, a non-degraded soil. This paper presents the possible evolutive and regressive sequences of soil, and provides some examples of using this methodology to evaluate the degradation of the same in the Monteverde of the island of Tenerife. It also presents some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of climacic mature soils, degraded soils and low quality soils, and examines their similarities and differences in this bioclimatic environment and on different parent materials. Thus it is observed that the main processes of degradation in these areas are related to plant cover modifications that lead to the decreasing protection of the soil surface, which results in the long term, in the onset of degradation processes such as water erosion, biological degradation, loss of andic properties, compaction and sealing and crusting surface, loss of water retention capacity, illuviation, etc. Climacic soils that can be found in areas of steep lava flows are Leptosols, while gently sloping areas are Cambisols and Andosols. On pyroclastic materials there are vitric Andosols and andic Andosols according to

  8. Structural controls on diffuse degassing in the Las Cañadas caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, I.; Soriano, C.; Martí, J.; Pérez, N.

    2003-04-01

    The Las Cañadas caldera is an elliptical depression located in the central part of the Tenerife Island. The active Teide stratovolcano stands in the centre of the depression, which is limited to the south by the caldera wall, up to 500 m high above the caldera floor. Mapping most of the caldera wall at 1:5000 has provided new insights on its stratigraphy, structure, and geological evolution. Three major ENE-WSW normal faults have been mapped on the caldera wall in the area comprised between El Llano de Ucanca and Los Azulejos, where an intense hydrothermal alteration affects the lower stratigraphic levels of the caldera wall. Hydrothermal alteration is rather distinctive in this area, showing bluish to greenish colours. Most of the phonolitic cone sheets and radial dykes of the caldera wall do not show distinctive hydrothermal features, as do show the phonolitic pyroclastic rocks and lavas of the lower parts of the caldera wall. This suggests the main episodes of dyke intrusion in the Las Cañadas caldera postdate hydrothermal alteration. ENE-WSW normal faults involve dyke swarms and rocks of the upper stratigraphic levels of the caldera wall, and show displacements of up to 100 m. Unfortunately the upper possible age of these faults is poorly constrained since no contact relationship has been observed between fault planes and the rocks of the uppermost stratigraphic levels of the caldera wall. The rocks of the caldera wall adjacent to the faults are intensely fractured at the macro and mesoscale. In addition to field mapping, a soil gas survey was carried out at the caldera depression. Soil CO2 efflux and H2 concentration were measured reaching values of 12 gm-2d-1 and 4 ppmV, respectively. Spatial distribution of these species showed that positive anomalies coincide with the surface expression of the three major faults and their adjacent intensely fractured zone. The high CO2 and H2 values and their coincidence with major normal faults suggests that degassing in

  9. How to define nativeness in vagile organisms: lessons from the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, S; Vanderpoorten, A; Patiño, J; Werner, O; González-Mancebo, J M; Ros, R M

    2015-09-01

    The distinction between native and introduced biotas presents unique challenges that culminate in organisms with high long-distance dispersal capacities in a rapidly changing world. Bryophytes, in particular, exhibit large distribution ranges, and some species can truly be qualified as cosmopolitan. Cosmopolitan species, however, typically occur in disturbed environments, raising the question of their nativeness throughout their range. Here, we employ genetic data to address the question of the origin of the cosmopolitan, weedy moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife. The genetic diversity of B. argenteum on Tenerife was comparable to that found in continental areas due to recurrent colonisation events, erasing any signature of a bottleneck that would be expected in the case of a recent colonisation event. The molecular dating analyses indicated that the first colonisation of the island took place more than 100,000 years ago, i.e. well before the first human settlements. Furthermore, the significant signal for isolation-by-distance found in B. argenteum within Tenerife points to the substantial role of genetic drift in establishing the observed patterns of genetic variation. Together, the results support the hypothesis that B. argenteum is native on Tenerife; although the existence of haplotypes shared between Tenerife and continental areas suggests that more recent, potentially man-mediated introduction also took place. While defining nativeness in organisms that are not deliberately introduced, and wherein the fossil record is extremely scarce, is an exceedingly challenging task, our results suggest that population genetic analyses can represent a useful tool to help distinguish native from alien populations. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Human-induced hybridization among congeneric endemic plants on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Lachmuth, S.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; den Nijs, J.C.M.; Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Endemic genera on oceanic islands often evolved striking morphological and ecological differences among species, with weak postzygotic reproductive isolation. Human activities can lead to increased connectivity and can thereby promote secondary contact and hybridization between previously isolated

  11. Management of dumping of packaged low-level wastes in the deep ocean with emphasis on the North East Atlantic dump site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    The following aspects are discussed: radiological principles as applied to disposal to the environment; international regulations; historical dumping practices; assessment of the Northeast Atlantic dump site; IAEA generic studies; and implications of issues on US needs and policies

  12. On the application of Hidden Markov Model and Bayesian Belief Network to seismic noise at Las Canadas Caldera, Tenerife, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero Oliveros, Anggi [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine (Italy); Departamento de Ciencias de La Tierra, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Carniel, Roberto [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine (Italy)], E-mail: roberto.carniel@uniud.it; Tarraga, Marta [Departamento de Volcanologia, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Aspinall, Willy [Aspinall and Associates, 5 Woodside Close, Beaconsfield, Bucks (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    The Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex situated in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has recently shown signs of unrest, long after its last eruptive episode at Chinyero in 1909, and the last explosive episode which happened at Montana Blanca, 2000 years ago. In this paper we study the seismicity of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex recorded between May and December 2004, in order to show the applicability of tools such as Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Belief Networks which can be used to build a structure for evaluating the probability of given eruptive or volcano-related scenarios. The results support the existence of a bidirectional relationship between volcano-tectonic events and the background seismic noise - in particular its frequency content. This in turn suggests that the two phenomena can be related to one unique process influencing their generation.

  13. Event recognition by detrended fluctuation analysis: An application to Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex, Tenerife, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pin, Enrico; Carniel, Roberto; Tarraga, Marta

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate the application of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to seismic data recorded in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during the month of July 2004, in a phase of possible unrest of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. Tectonic events recorded in the area are recognized and located by the Spanish national agency Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and their catalogue is the only currently available dataset, whose completeness unfortunately suffers from the strong presence of anthropogenic noise. In this paper we propose the use of DFA to help to automatically identify events. The evaluation of this case study proves DFA to be a promising tool to be used for rapidly screening large seismic datasets and highlighting time windows with the potential presence of discrete events

  14. On the application of Hidden Markov Model and Bayesian Belief Network to seismic noise at Las Canadas Caldera, Tenerife, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Oliveros, Anggi; Carniel, Roberto; Tarraga, Marta; Aspinall, Willy

    2008-01-01

    The Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex situated in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has recently shown signs of unrest, long after its last eruptive episode at Chinyero in 1909, and the last explosive episode which happened at Montana Blanca, 2000 years ago. In this paper we study the seismicity of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex recorded between May and December 2004, in order to show the applicability of tools such as Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Belief Networks which can be used to build a structure for evaluating the probability of given eruptive or volcano-related scenarios. The results support the existence of a bidirectional relationship between volcano-tectonic events and the background seismic noise - in particular its frequency content. This in turn suggests that the two phenomena can be related to one unique process influencing their generation

  15. Polarimetric receiver in the forty gigahertz band: new instrument for the Q-U-I joint Tenerife experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Mediavilla, Ángel; Artal, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the analysis, design and characterization of a polarimetric receiver developed for covering the 35 to 47 GHz frequency band in the new instrument aimed at completing the ground-based Q-U-I Joint Tenerife Experiment. This experiment is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background. The described high frequency instrument is a HEMT-based array composed of 29 pixels. A thorough analysis of the behaviour of the proposed receiver, based on electronic phase switching, is presented for a noise-like linearly polarized input signal, obtaining simultaneously I, Q and U Stokes parameters of the input signal. Wideband subsystems are designed, assembled and characterized for the polarimeter. Their performances are described showing appropriate results within the 35-to-47 GHz frequency band. Functionality tests are performed at room and cryogenic temperatures with adequate results for both temperature conditions, which validate the receiver concept and performance.

  16. Tipo de cultivos y procesos de escorrentía en Las Llanadas, Los Realejos (Tenerife, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Dóniz Páez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza 16 cárcavas efímeras en campos de cultivo en el norte de Tenerife (Las Llanadastras lluvias intensas caídas en noviembre de 2009. Se estudiaron “gullies” en parcelas con diferentestipos de cultivo: maíz, cereal, papas y sin cultivo. Se observó que las cárcavas presentan diferenciasmorfológicas y de tamaño en relación con el tipo de cultivo sobre el que se han generado, por lo quelas parcelas con maíz son más vulnerables a los procesos de erosión, mientras que la de cereal son lasmenos. Sin embargo, también se aprecia que la desaparición de elementos tradicionales en los camposde cultivo (zanjas, muros de piedras, etc. son los máximos responsables de la formación y la mayorincidencia de las cárcavas por lluvias torrenciales. Por tanto, es necesario que los agricultores vuelvana recuperar, y así se ha constatado, los elementos tradicionales que progresivamente han ido desapareciendode los campos de cultivo.In this work 16 ephemeral gullies of the north of Tenerife (Las Llanadas are studied. These gullies arelocated in agricultural land (corn, cereal, potatoes and without cultivations and they were formedfor torrential rains. The gullies possesses different size and morphologies according to cultivationstype. However, the elimination of traditional elements in the agricultural fields, they have provokedbigger effect of the torrential rains.

  17. 238U-230Th-226Ra systematics applied to the active oceanic volcanism. Constraints on the duration and processes of magmas formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claude-Ivana, Ch.

    1997-02-01

    The development of a new precise analytical technique for measuring radioactive disequilibria by TIMS has enabled to put constraints on both the extend and time scale of incompatible element fractionation during magma formation in oceanic islands. Three different settings have been studied: the Grande Comore volcanoes (Comores archipelago), Tenerife and Lanzarote volcanism (Canary islands) and four islands within the Azores: Sao Miguel, Terceira, Pico and Faial islands. The Comores and Canaries archipelagoes are both lying on an old thick oceanic lithosphere. The detailed case in Grande Comore shows evidence for a process of interaction of the Comore plume with the underlying lithosphere. In the Canaries, the lithosphere also contributes to lava formation either during the differentiation (in Tenerife) or during mantle melting (in Lanzarote). Within the Azores, U-series measurements reveal large geochemical and isotopic variations between the different islands that we interpret as reflecting heterogeneities in the Azore plume. In particular, the U-Th fractionation in Sao Miguel volcanics is though to result from melting of an hydrous sediment-bearing mantle. The magma transit times have been found to be very short (1000 yr) in all the basaltic series. This very rapid migration of the melts is an evidence for the absence of large magma chamber and for processes of fracturing during melt transports. However, this model does not apply in the case of the very evolved volcanic series in Tenerife island (Canaries) where transit times of c.a. 100000 yr indicate the presence of a large magmatic reservoir. (author)

  18. La dorsal NE de Tenerife: hacia un modelo del origen y evolución de los rifts de islas oceánicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcamp, A.

    2009-06-01

    primordial, plume-related fractures acting throughout the entire growth of the islands. Basaltic volcanism forms the bulk of the islands and rift zones. However, collapses of the flanks of the rifts disrupt their established fissural feeding system, frequently favouring magma accumulation and residence at shallow emplacements, leading to differentiation of magmas, and intermediate to felsic nested eruptions. Rifts and their collapse may therefore act as an important factor in providing petrological variability to oceanic volcanoes. Conversely, the possibility exists that the presence of important felsic volcanism may indicate lateral collapses in oceanic shields and ridge-like volcanoes, even if they are concealed by post-collapse volcanism or partially mass-wasted by erosion.El Rift NE de Tenerife, conocido localmente como la Dorsal de La Esperanza, es un excelente ejem plo de un rift persistente y recurrente. Su estudio ha aportado evidencias significativas del origen y diná mica de este tipo de estructuras volcánicas. Los rifts son posiblemente las estructuras más relevantes en la geología de las islas volcánicas oceánicas: 1. Controlan, tal vez desde su inicio, la construcción de los edificios insulares; 2. Son elementos sustanciales en la configuración (forma y topografía de estas islas; 3. Dan origen a sus principales formas del relieve y el paisaje; 4. Al concentrar la actividad eruptiva, son asimismo estructuras cruciales en la distribución del riesgo volcánico; 5. Condicionan la distribución de recursos naturales básicos, como el agua subterránea. En las Canarias están muy bien representados tanto los rifts típicos de los estadios juveniles de desarrollo en escudo, como los más tardíos, correspondientes a las fases de rejuvenecimiento post-ero sivo. El Rift NE es un buen ejemplo de este último tipo de rifts. El Rift NE se ha desarrollado en tres etapas diferentes separadas por periodos más largos de quiescencia o actividad reducida. La primera

  19. Caracterización morfoscópica de los materiales piroclásticos sálicos del sur de Tenerife (Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, J. J.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several morphological aspects of volcanic ash grains from southern Tenerife are studied by S.E.M. Important variations in vesiculation, fracture and wheathering of pyroclasts are observed. It's possible to characterize diferent types of deposits (pyroclastic falIs, pyroclastic flow, surges, etc. in function of the pumice fragments surface.En este trabajo se estudian mediante M.E.B. (Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido diversos aspectos morfológicos de granos de cenizas volcánicas del sur de Tenerife. Son observadas importantes variaciones en la vesiculación, fracturación y alteraciones de los piroclastos. Es posible caracterizar distintos tipos de depósitos (piroclastos de caída, coladas piroclásticas, surges, etc. en función de las características superficiales de los fragmentos pumíticos.

  20. El Cine durante la Primera Guerra Mundia a través de las páginas del diario El Progreso de Tenerife

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Betancor

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el tratamiento in­formativo dado a las películas cinematográfi­cas en las páginas del periódico El Progreso de Santa Cruz de Tenerife durante la Primera Guerra Mundial. Además, recoge los princi­pales acontecimientos cinematográficos que tuvieron lugar en Tenerife en este momento y su repercusión en este diario. Investiga el papel de los anuncios publicitarios de los loca­les de exhibición, editados en este periódico, que mostraron al público de la Isla estas obras de ar...

  1. Pre-eruptive conditions of the phonolitic magma from the El Abrigo caldera-forming eruption (Las Canadas caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, J; Andujar, J; Costa, F; Wolff, J A; Carroll, M R

    2008-01-01

    We have performed phase equilibrium experiments to determine the pre-eruptive conditions of the largest phonolitic caldera-forming eruption (∼20 km3 of DRE) that occurred on Tenerife (Canary Islands). The Abrigo ignimbrite was erupted during the last caldera-forming episode (ca. 190 ka), from the Canadas caldera. Comparison of the natural and experimental phase proportions and compositions indicates that the phonolite at the roof of the Abrigo magma reservoir was at 130 ± 50 MPa (corresponding to ca. 4 - 5 km below the surface), 825 ± 25 oC, with 3 ± 1 wt% dissolved H2O and fO2 at the Ni-NiO buffer ? 1 log unit. This shows that the magma that produced the largest ignimbrite on Tenerife was stored at relatively shallow depths but was water-undersaturated, and its eruption was probably triggered by input of fresh mafic magma.

  2. Pre-eruptive conditions of the phonolitic magma from the El Abrigo caldera-forming eruption (Las Canadas caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, J; Andujar, J; Costa, F [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, C/ Lluis Sole I Sabaris, s/n Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Wolff, J A [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2812 (United States); Carroll, M R [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Via Gentile III da Varano, Universita di Camerino, 62032 MC (Italy)], E-mail: jawolff@mail.wsu.edu, E-mail: Michael.carroll@unicam.it

    2008-10-01

    We have performed phase equilibrium experiments to determine the pre-eruptive conditions of the largest phonolitic caldera-forming eruption ({approx}20 km3 of DRE) that occurred on Tenerife (Canary Islands). The Abrigo ignimbrite was erupted during the last caldera-forming episode (ca. 190 ka), from the Canadas caldera. Comparison of the natural and experimental phase proportions and compositions indicates that the phonolite at the roof of the Abrigo magma reservoir was at 130 {+-} 50 MPa (corresponding to ca. 4 - 5 km below the surface), 825 {+-} 25 oC, with 3 {+-} 1 wt% dissolved H2O and fO2 at the Ni-NiO buffer ? 1 log unit. This shows that the magma that produced the largest ignimbrite on Tenerife was stored at relatively shallow depths but was water-undersaturated, and its eruption was probably triggered by input of fresh mafic magma.

  3. The impact of training in solution-focused brief therapy on professional beliefs, practices and burnout of child protection workers in Tenerife island

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Machín, Antonio; Beyebach, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a large-scale research project on the child protection services in Tenerife, Spain. In Study 1, the professional beliefs and practices of 152 child protection workers, as measured by a Professional Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire (Medina & Beyebach, 2010), were correlated with their scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). Higher scores in a variety of deficit-based beliefs and practices were associated with highe...

  4. Potencialidad e integración del “turismo del vino” en un destino de sol y playa: el caso de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Armas, Ricardo J.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism wine is different in massive sun and sand destination. In this case the winery lives with this tourism model and is a complementary product that promotes diversification in the current destination. Tourism wine can complement the existing tourism offer. The regions could rely on the experience and knowledge of wine by the visitor and use them as fact differential competitive with other destinations that do not have this feature. It also should promote the launch of the wine tourism because the potential demand is in the tourist areas, next to the wine area. Once we discover the motivations to came to Tenerife destination, we located a sensitive market to the wine route Tacoronte-Acentejo. This market is in Puerto de la Cruz (one of the major tourist areas of Tenerife, because the analysis of benefits sought of visitors from Puerto de la Cruz, has contrasted the existence of two segments that can be attracted to the current wine route, Tacoronte-Acentejo. This segment wants, in addition to the climate and the sun and sand (main motivations for travel destination Tenerife, other benefits that are likely to be offered by the wine route.

  5. Ocean Acidification | Smithsonian Ocean Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor ocean is affected. Such a relatively quick change in ocean chemistry doesn't give marine life, which

  6. Soil CO2 efflux measurement network by means of closed static chambers to monitor volcanic activity at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonte, Cecilia; García-Merino, Marta; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; García-Hernández, Rubén; Pérez, Aaron; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Tenerife (2304 km2) is the largest of the Canary Islands and has developed a central volcanic complex (Cañadas edifice), that started to grow about 3.5 My ago. Coeval with the construction of the Cañadas edifice, shield basaltic volcanism continued until the present along three rift zones oriented NW-SE, NE-SW and NS (hereinafter referred as NW, NE and NS respectively). Main volcanic historical activity has occurred along de NW and NE rift-zones, although summit cone of Teide volcano, in central volcanic complex, is the only area of the island where surface geothermal manifestations are visible. Uprising of deep-seated gases occurs along the aforementioned volcanic structures causing diffuse emissions at the surface environment of the rift-zones. In the last 20 years, there has been considerable interest in the study of diffuse degassing as a powerful tool in volcano monitoring programs. Diffuse degassing studies are even more important volcanic surveillance tool at those volcanic areas where visible manifestations of volcanic gases are absent. Historically, soil gas and diffuse degassing surveys in volcanic environments have focused mainly on CO2 because it is, after water vapor, the most abundant gas dissolved in magma. One of the most popular methods used to determine CO2 fluxes in soil sciences is based on the absorption of CO2 through an alkaline medium, in its solid or liquid form, followed by gravimetric, conductivity, or titration analyses. In the summer of 2016, a network of 31 closed static chambers was installed, covering the three main structural zones of Tenerife (NE, NW and NS) as well as Cañadas Caldera with volcanic surveillance porpoises. 50 cc of 0.1N KOH solution is placed inside the chamber to absorb the CO2 released from the soil. The solution is replaced weekly and the trapped CO2 is then analyzed at the laboratory by titration. The are expressed as weekly integrated CO2 efflux values. The CO2 efflux values ranged from 3.2 to 12.9 gṡm-2

  7. Non-controlled biogenic emissions to the atmosphere from Lazareto landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Dácil; Lima, R Noemí; Hernández, Pedro A; Pérez, Nemesio M

    2008-01-01

    [corrected] Historically, landfills have been the simplest form of eliminating urban solid waste with the minimum cost. They have been the most usual method for discarding solid waste. However, landfills are considered authentic biochemical reactors that introduce large amounts of contaminants into the environment in the form of gas and leachates. The dynamics of generation and the movement of gas in landfills depend on the input and output parameters, as well as on the structure of the landfill and the kind of waste. The input parameters include water introduced through natural or artificial processes, the characteristics of the urban solid waste, and the input of atmospheric air. The main output parameters for these biochemical reactors include the gases and the leachates that are potentially pollutants for the environment. Control systems are designed and installed to minimize the impact on the environment. However, these systems are not perfect and a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as Non-controlled emission. In this paper, the results of the Non-controlled biogenic gas emissions from the Lazareto landfill in Tenerife, Canary Islands, are presented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of CH4 and CO2 in the soil gas of the landfill cover, the CH4 and CO2 efflux from the surface of the landfill and, finally, to compare these parameters with other similar landfills. In this way, a better understanding of the process that controls biogenic gas emissions in landfills is expected. A Non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of 281 sampling sites was carried out during February and March, 2002. The sampling sites were selected in order to obtain a well-distributed sampling grid. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site on the surface landfill together with soil gas collection and ground temperatures at a depth of 30

  8. Deformation in volcanic areas: a numerical approach for their prediction in Teide volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands); Deformaciones en areas volcanicas: una aproximacin numerica para su prediccion en el volcan Teide (Tenerife, Islas Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charco, M.; Galan del Sastre, P.

    2011-07-01

    Active volcanic areas study comprises both, observation of physical changes in the natural media and the interpretation of such changes. Nowadays, the application of spatial geodetic techniques, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) or InSAR (Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar), for deformation understanding in volcanic areas, revolutionizes our view of this geodetic signals. Deformation of the Earth's surface reflects tectonic, magmatic and hydrothermal processes at depth. In this way, the prediction of volcanic deformation through physical modelling provides a link between the observation and depth interior processes that could be crucial for volcanic hazards assessment. In this work, we develop a numerical model for elastic deformation study. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is used for the implementation of the numerical model. FEM allows to take into account different morphology, structural characteristics and the mechanical heterogeneities of the medium. Numerical simulations of deformation in Tenerife (Canary Islands) taking into account different medium hypothesis allow us to conclude that the accuracy of the predictions depends on how well the natural system is described. (Author) 22 refs.

  9. Ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershott, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  10. Propuesta de rutas de geoturismo urbano en Icod de Los Vinos (Tenerife, Islas Canarias, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Dóniz-Páez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En los destinos maduros de sol y playa los nuevos productos y experiencias turísticas son una realidad palpable. El geoturismo urbano se presenta como un producto de turismo muy novedoso que consiste en explotar turísticamente el relieve presente dentro de las ciudades. Este artículo propone diferentes rutas de geoturismo urbano en el municipio de Icod de Los Vinos (Tenerife, Canarias, España a partir del inventario, caracterización y valoración del patrimonio geomorfológico presente en los diferentes geomorfositios y en el patrimonio cultural tangible inmueble. Se han seleccionado doce recursos naturales y culturales vinculados con la geodiversidad de Icod de los Vinos. En función de la variedad de recursos inventariados y de las posibilidades que ofrece esta nueva modalidad de ocio turístico, los itinerarios propuestos responden a tres rasgos principales: el tiempo geológico, la temática geológica y geomorfológica, y la espacial.

  11. Linguistic Decipherment of the Lettering on the (Original Carving of the Virgin of Candelaria from Tenerife (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Jara Vera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The wooden carving of Our Lady of Candelaria, discovered in the municipality of the same name on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands during the first half of the fifteenth century, had nearly two hundred letters of the Latin alphabet inscribed on her garments. Unfortunately the original carving disappeared after the storm that took place in 1826. Once the original letters on the first image were discovered by means of analysing both textual and artistic documentation and sources, we conclude that the text is archaic-Berber language used by the islanders, Insular-Amazigh, which no longer exists in the present day. Having discussed lexical, morphological, syntactic and phonetic aspects of this archaic language, as well as conducted a semantic analysis of the carving both from the native aboriginal perspective and the Christian one, we expound here our proposal of the meaning of the letters engraved on the Marian carving of Candelaria from its lexical voices and roots of their Berber and Insular-Amazigh languages, with the previous proposed solutions.

  12. Subsidence and current strain patterns on Tenerife Island (Canary Archipelago, Spain) derived from continuous GNSS time series (2008-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alzola, A.; Martí, J.; García-Yeguas, A.; Gil, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present the current crustal deformation model of Tenerife Island derived from daily CGPS time series processing (2008-2015). Our results include the position time series, a global velocity estimation and the current crustal deformation on the island in terms of strain tensors. We detect a measurable subsidence of 1.5-2 mm/yr. in the proximities of the Cañadas-Teide-Pico Viejo (CTPV) complex. These values are higher in the central part of the complex and could be explained by a lateral spreading of the elastic lithosphere combined with the effect of the drastic descent of the water table in the island experienced during recent decades. The results show that the Anaga massif is stable in both its horizontal and vertical components. The strain tensor analysis shows a 70 nstrain/yr. E-W compression in the central complex, perpendicular to the 2004 sismo-volcanic area, and 50 nstrain/yr. SW-NE extension towards the Northeast ridge. The residual velocity and strain patterns coincide with a decline in volcanic activity since the 2004 unrest.

  13. A GIS-based methodology for the estimation of potential volcanic damage and its application to Tenerife Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, C.; Felpeto, A.; Martí, J.; Carniel, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a GIS-based methodology to estimate damages produced by volcanic eruptions. The methodology is constituted by four parts: definition and simulation of eruptive scenarios, exposure analysis, vulnerability assessment and estimation of expected damages. Multi-hazard eruptive scenarios are defined for the Teide-Pico Viejo active volcanic complex, and simulated through the VORIS tool. The exposure analysis identifies the elements exposed to the hazard at stake and focuses on the relevant assets for the study area. The vulnerability analysis is based on previous studies on the built environment and complemented with the analysis of transportation and urban infrastructures. Damage assessment is performed associating a qualitative damage rating to each combination of hazard and vulnerability. This operation consists in a GIS-based overlap, performed for each hazardous phenomenon considered and for each element. The methodology is then automated into a GIS-based tool using an ArcGIS® program. Given the eruptive scenarios and the characteristics of the exposed elements, the tool produces expected damage maps. The tool is applied to the Icod Valley (North of Tenerife Island) which is likely to be affected by volcanic phenomena in case of eruption from both the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex and North-West basaltic rift. Results are thematic maps of vulnerability and damage that can be displayed at different levels of detail, depending on the user preferences. The aim of the tool is to facilitate territorial planning and risk management in active volcanic areas.

  14. Object-oriented image analysis and change detection of land-use on Tenerife related to socio-economic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    The island Tenerife is characterized by an increasing tourism, which causes an enormous change of the socio-economic situation and a rural exodus. This development leads - beside for example sociocultural issues - to fallow land, decreasing settlements, land wasting etc., as well as to an economic and ecological problem. This causes to a growing interest in geoecological aspects and to an increasing demand for an adequate monitoring database. In order to study the change of land use and land cover, the technology of remote sensing (LANDSAT 3 MSS and 7 ETM+, orthophotos) and geographical information systems were used to analyze the spatial pattern and its spatial temporal changes of land use from end of the 70s to the present in different scales. Because of the heterogeneous landscape and the unsatisfactory experience with pixel-based classification of the same area, object-oriented image analysis techniques have been applied to classify the remote sensed data. A post-classification application was implemented to detect spatial and categorical land use and land cover changes, which have been clipped with the socio-economic data within GIS to derive the driving forces of the changes and their variability in time and space.

  15. Tree Species Composition and Structure near Road Borders in the Laurel Forest of Anaga (Tenerife – Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Negrín

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the main causes of species extinction. Closely linked to urbanization are road systems, which are a source of biotic and abiotic effects on the surrounding landscape. The continued existence of these corridors results in enormous human activity (Forman & Alexander, 1998. In particular, roads sharply define and fragment forest ecosystems leading to changes in plant species composition and vegetation structure from road border to the surrounding interior. This paper assesses border effects on tree species richness and composition in the laurel forest of Anaga, Tenerife, Spain. Effects of anthropogenic corridors on vegetation differed among the study sites. Multivariate analysis revealed that species composition is more related to the sampling site than to the effect of the corridor, while for density, significant differences were found between the road border and forest interior but not as a regular pattern. This suggests that main corridor disturbances regarding tree basal area is limited to the immediate road edge in the laurel forest, while for species composition, no significant differences were found.

  16. Processing of radon time series in underground environments: Implications for volcanic surveillance in the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinas, Ronaldo; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Soler, Vicente; Martin-Luis, Maria C.; Quesada, Maria L.; Nuez, Julio de la

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of temporal and spatial variations in the flux of soil gases across the soil-air interface is a useful tool to study geo-dynamical processes associated with volcanic and/or seismic activity. However, many of these variations are induced by external variables, such as temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall and other meteorological variables. In an attempt to filter out non-endogenous variations in the emissions of gases, the optimal choice of the monitoring sites with numerical filtering techniques based on multi-variate and frequency domain analysis of the time series for gaseous emissions were combined, in the case of radon ( 222 Rn). Monitoring sites are located in underground galleries in the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Since the effect of wind, rainfall and temperature variations are very small inside galleries, a first natural filtering process of external parameters in the emissions of gases was achieved. This new approach has been successfully tested and as a result, the background level for radon emissions at various locations has been defined, by which correlations between gaseous emissions and the volcanic and/or seismic activity could be carried out

  17. [Exposure to persistent and non-persistent pesticides in a non-occupationally exposed population in Tenerife Island (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Luzardo, Octavio P; García, Carlos Pérez; Zumbado, Manuel; Yanes, Carmen; Trujillo-Martín, María del Mar; Boada Fernández del Campo, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to non-persistent pesticides (NPPs) is of concern because these substances have been associated with chronic diseases. However, few studies have addressed chronic exposure to NPPs in Spanish populations. We determined the presence of 24 pesticide residues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 363 serum samples obtained from non-occupationally exposed adults from Tenerife island in 2007. Most of the samples (99.45%) showed detectable residues (6 ± 2 pesticides per sample). The most frequently detected pesticides were pyrethrins (96.1%), organophosphates (93.9%) and organochlorines (92.3%). The neurotoxicants bifenthrin and malathion were detected in 81% of the samples and hexachlorobenzene DDT and buprofezin in more than 50%. Malation, an "environmental obesogen", was detected in 82%, and "endocrine disrupter" pesticides were present in 97.2% of the samples. Because there is clear, continuous and inadvertent exposure to NPPs that may be inducing adverse effects on human health, NPPs should be included in biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from TOWERS in the NE Atlantic (limit-180 W) from 06 June 1986 to 29 August 1986 (NODC Accession 8600378)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from the TOWERS in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, South China Sea, Philippine Sea, and...

  19. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-05-01

    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  20. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO_{2} degassing at the Tenerife North-South Rift Zone (NSRZ) volcano (Canary Islands) during the period 2002-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; McCollum, John J. K.; Orland, Elijah D. M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán D.; Calvo, David; Amonte, Cecilia; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Subaerial volcanic activity on Tenerife (2034 km2), the largest island of the Canary archipelago, started 14 My ago and 4 volcanic eruptions have occurred in historical times during the last 300 years. The main volcano-structural and geomorphological features of Tenerife are (i) the central volcanic complex, nowadays formed by Las Cañadas caldera, a volcanic depression measuring 16×9 km that resulted from multiple vertical collapses and partially filled by post-caldera volcanic products and (ii) the triple junction-shaped rift system, formed by numerous aligned monogenetic cones. Up to 297 mafic monogenetic cones have been recognized on Tenerife, and they represent the most common eruptive activity occurring on the island during the last 1 My (Dóniz et al., 2008). The North-South Rift Zone (NSRZ) of Tenerife comprises at least 139 cones. The main structural characteristic of the NSRZ of the island is an apparent absence of a distinct ridge, and a fan shaped distribution of monogenetic cones. Since there are currently no visible gas emissions at the NSRZ, diffuse degassing surveys have become an important geochemical tool for the surveillance of this volcanic system. Five diffuse CO2 degassing surveys have been carried out at NSRZ of Tenerife since 2002, the last one in the summer period of 2016, to evaluate the spatio-temporal variations of CO2 degassing as a volcanic surveillance tool for the NSRZ of Tenerife. At each survey, around 600 sampling sites were selected to cover homogenously the study area (325 km2) using the accumulation chamber method. The diffuse CO2 output ranged from 78 to 707 t/d in the study period, with the highest emission rate measured in 2015. The backgroung emission rate was estimated in 300 t/d. The last results the soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 24.7 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution map, constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure, showed the highest CO2 values as multiple

  1. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  2. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  3. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2016-01-01

    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...... of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also reaffirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity....

  4. La Universidad de La Laguna en la construcción territorial de la conurbación capitalina de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Manuel Zapata Hernández

    2007-11-01

    Este trabajo se plantea como un ejercicio de reflexión acerca del papel que ha desempeñado la Universidad en la construcción territorial de la conurbación capitalina de Tenerife, asunto que puede ser objeto de investigaciones posteriores realizadas con mayor profundidad, enfatizando las características de la relación que se produce entre el centro superior y la ciudad. Esta primera aproximación presenta una perspectiva crítica, pero también propositiva, basado en que la Universidad constituye un extraordinario recurso y factor de desarrollo local.

  5. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsmann, J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Camacho, A G; Fernandez, J [Instituto de Astronomia y Geodesia (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria, Pza. de Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); MartI, J [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole SabarIs s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Wooller, L; Rymer, H [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); GarcIa, A [Department of Volcanology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: j.gottsmann@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-10-01

    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  6. [Characterization of the atmospheric environment in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain: 2000-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Villarrubia, Elena; García Pérez, M Dolores; Peral Pérez, Nieves; Ballester Díez, Ferrán; Iñiguez Fernández, Carmen; Pita Toledo, M Luisa

    2008-01-01

    The island factor in the cities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, their meteorology and the proximity to the African Continent that originates the natural particulate matter transport over the islands, cause some specific features in their air quality. The aim of this paper is to characterize the air pollution from 2000 to 2004 as exposure indicator of both cities inhabitants. 24 hour daily average variables of PM10, PM2,5, NO2, SO2 and O3 , 8 hours daily maxima moving averages of O3 y CO and 1 hour maxima of SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM10 y PM2,5 were calculated. Daily levels of coarse particles were obtained subtracting PM2,5 from PM10. African dust events were identified. In Sta. Cruz de Tf daily means of SO2 (14.0 microg/m(3)N) and ozone levels (44.4 microg/m(3)N ) were higher than Las Palmas de GC levels (8.0 y 28.3 microg/m(3)N). Daily means of NO2 in Las Palmas de GC: 45.8 microg/m(3)N where higher than Sta. Cruz de Tf levels: 30.3 microg/m(3)N. Due to African dust outbreaks, some days in both cities exceeded 600 microg/m(3) of PM10 and 200 of PM2.5 24-h average. The air quality patterns were characterized by very high levels of African dust outbreaks that affect all PM size fractions. Different O3 seasonality exists respect European cities in addition to an urban-industrial ambient air in Sta. Cruz de TF and clearly urban in Las Palmas de GC. These results have to be considered in order to lay the foundations to suitable surveillance systems, analyse the potential impact on the Canary Islands citizens health and to get conclusions.

  7. Diffuse CO2 degassing monitoring for the volcanic surveillance of Tenerife North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) volcano, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F.; Thomas, G. E.; Wong, T.; García, E.; Melián, G.; Padron, E.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Hernández, P. A.; Perez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    The North East Rift zone of Tenerife Island (NERZ, 210 km2) is one of the three major volcanic rift-zones of the island. The most recent eruptive activity along the NERZ took place in the 1704-1705 period with eruptions of Siete Fuentes, Fasnia and Arafo volcanoes. Since fumarolic activity is nowadays absent at the NERZ, soil CO2 degassing monitoring represent a potential geochemical tool for its volcanic surveillance. The aim of this study is to report the results of the last CO2 efflux survey performed in June 2017, with 658 sampling sites. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of the NERZ were performed by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) following the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission, soil CO2 efflux spatial distribution maps were constructed using Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) as interpolation method. The diffuse CO2 emission values ranged between 0 - 41.1 g m-2 d-1. The probability plot technique applied to the data allowed to distinguish two different geochemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 81.8% and 18.2% of the total data, respectively, with geometric means of 3.9 and 15.0 g m-2 d-1, respectively. The average map constructed with 100 equiprobable simulations showed an emission rate of 1,361±35 t d-1. This value relatively higher than the background average of CO2 emission estimated on 415 t d-1 and slightly higher than the background range of 148 t d-1 (-1σ) and 1,189 t d-1 (+1σ) observed at the NERZ. This study reinforces the importance of performing soil CO2 efflux surveys as an effective surveillance volcanic tool in the NERZ.

  8. Diffuse CO2 flux emissions from the soil in Las Cañadas caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter; Liuzzo, Marco; Longo, Manfredi; Pecoraino, Giovannella

    2014-05-01

    Starting in April 2004, unusual seismic activity was observed in the interior of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) with much evidence pointing to a reawakening of volcanic activity. During this seismic crisis, several events were felt by the population. Since then, a dense multiparametric monitoring network has been deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). In the framework of this volcanic surveillance project, several geochemical studies have been accomplished. Measurements of diffuse CO2 flux from the soil have been carried out in some zones inside Las Cañadas caldera. This study has been performed during three different field campaigns in November 2012 and June and November 2013. The studied area includes two different zones known as Roques de García and Los Azulejos. Since several authors have reported the existence of fractures and faults all along both structures, the objectives of this work were to find anomalous CO2 fluxes from the soil and preferential degassing areas, identify possible hidden faults and study the origin of gas emanations in order to detect the presence of magmatic sources. More than 600 sampling sites have been measured with the accumulation chamber method in an area of about 1 km2. Soil gas has been sampled in points where high CO2 fluxes were detected for the determination of chemical and isotopic composition. The results of the gas prospection confirm the existence of CO2 degassing in the area. Some anomalous fluxes have been measured along previously inferred volcano-tectonic structures. The highest anomalies were found in Los Azulejos with values up to 1774 g/m2.d. Chemical analysis did not reveal significant concentrations of magmatic or geothermal gases except CO2. The latter showed concentrations at 50 cm depth within the soils up to 48% and a C-isotopic composition between -4.72 and -3.67 o indicating a prevailing magmatic origin.

  9. Are both sympatric species Ilex perado and Ilex canariensis secretly hybridizing? Indication from nuclear markers collected in Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manen Jean-François

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-specific and intra-individual polymorphism is frequently observed in nuclear markers of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae and discrepancy between plastid and nuclear phylogenies is the rule in this genus. These observations suggest that inter-specific plastid or/and nuclear introgression played an important role in the process of evolution of Ilex. With the aim of a precise understanding of the evolution of this genus, two distantly related sympatric species collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands, I. perado and I. canariensis, were studied in detail. Introgression between these two species was previously never reported. One plastid marker (the atpB-rbcL spacer and two nuclear markers, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and the nuclear encoded plastid glutamine synthetase (nepGS were analyzed for 13 and 27 individuals of I. perado and I. canariensis, respectively. Results The plastid marker is intra-specifically constant and correlated with species identity. On the other hand, whereas the nuclear markers are conserved in I. perado, they are highly polymorphic in I. canariensis. The presence of pseudogenes and recombination in ITS sequences of I. canariensis explain this polymorphism. Ancestral sequence polymorphism with incomplete lineage sorting, or past or recent hybridization with an unknown species could explain this polymorphism, not resolved by concerted evolution. However, as already reported for many other plants, past or recent introgression of an alien genotype seem the most probable explanation for such a tremendous polymorphism. Conclusions Data do not allow the determination with certitude of the putative species introgressing I. canariensis, but I. perado is suspected. The introgression would be unilateral, with I. perado as the male donor, and the paternal sequences would be rapidly converted in highly divergent and consequently unidentifiable pseudogenes. At least, this study allows the establishment of

  10. Las tipologías arquitectónicas en el centro histórico de Garachico. Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián A. Hernández Guitérrez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo formó parte, en su día, de la memoria documental presentada en el documento oficial Plan Especial de Protec­ción del Conjunto Histórico de Garachico, que firmó el arquitecto Vicente de Andrés Mosque­ra bajo la tutela de la empresa Gesplan SAU. En el mismo se desarrollan las tipo­logías arquitectónicas presentes en la Villa y Puerto de esta localidad del norte de la isla de Tenerife. El interés del mismo está en la valoración monumental que se hace de la arquitectura construida a lo largo de la exis­tencia de este núcleo urbano, sin despreciar ningún tipo de elemento, que conforma uno de los centros históricos más ricos, desde la pers­pectiva patrimonial, de las Islas Canarias.The present article formed, in its day, part of the documental history presented in the official document of the Special Plan of the Protection of Garachico´s Historial Heritage, which was signed by the architect Vicente de Andrés Mosquera under the tutorage of the firm Gesplan SAU. In this article, architectural typologies can be appreciated in the town and harbour of this locality in the north of the island of Te­nerife.The principal interest in this place is the wholehearted appreciation of the value of the architecture developed throughout the exis­tence of this town, whilst never overlooking any type of element which shapes one of the richests historic centres of the Canary Islands.

  11. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  12. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L

    2011-01-01

    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  14. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gröger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO_{2} degassing at the N-S volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during 2002-2015 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mar; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Barrancos, José; Rodríguez, Fátima; Melián, Gladys; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria Island, is the only one with a central volcanic complex that started to grow at about 3.5 Ma. Nowadays the central complex is formed by Las Cañadas caldera, a volcanic depression measuring 16×9 km that resulted from multiple vertical collapses and was partially filled by post-caldera volcanic products. Up to 297 mafic monogenetic cones have been recognized on Tenerife, and they represent the most common eruptive activity occurring on the island during the last 1 Ma (Dóniz et al., 2008). Most of the monogenetic cones are aligned following a triple junction-shaped rift system, as result of inflation produced by the concentration of emission vents and dykes in bands at 120o to one another as a result of minimum stress fracturing of the crust by a mantle upwelling. The main structural characteristic of the southern volcanic rift (N-S) of the island is an apparent absence of a distinct ridge, and a fan shaped distribution of monogenetic cones. Four main volcanic successions in the southern volcanic rift zone of Tenerife, temporally separated by longer periods (˜70 - 250 ka) without volcanic activity, have been identified (Kröchert and Buchner, 2008). Since there are currently no visible gas emissions at the N-S rift, diffuse degassing surveys have become an important geochemical tool for the surveillance of this volcanic system. We report here the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the N-S rift of Tenerife, performed using the accumulation chamber method in the summer period of 2015. The objectives of the surveys were: (i) to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area and (ii) to evaluate occasional CO2 efflux surveys as a volcanic surveillance tool for the N-S rift of Tenerife. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 31.7 g m-2 d-1. A spatial distribution map, constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure, did not show an

  16. {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra systematics applied to the active oceanic volcanism. Constraints on the duration and processes of magmas formation; Systematique {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra appliquee au volcanisme actif oceanique. Contraintes sur la duree et les processus de formation des magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claude-Ivana, Ch

    1997-02-01

    The development of a new precise analytical technique for measuring radioactive disequilibria by TIMS has enabled to put constraints on both the extend and time scale of incompatible element fractionation during magma formation in oceanic islands. Three different settings have been studied: the Grande Comore volcanoes (Comores archipelago), Tenerife and Lanzarote volcanism (Canary islands) and four islands within the Azores: Sao Miguel, Terceira, Pico and Faial islands. The Comores and Canaries archipelagoes are both lying on an old thick oceanic lithosphere. The detailed case in Grande Comore shows evidence for a process of interaction of the Comore plume with the underlying lithosphere. In the Canaries, the lithosphere also contributes to lava formation either during the differentiation (in Tenerife) or during mantle melting (in Lanzarote). Within the Azores, U-series measurements reveal large geochemical and isotopic variations between the different islands that we interpret as reflecting heterogeneities in the Azore plume. In particular, the U-Th fractionation in Sao Miguel volcanics is though to result from melting of an hydrous sediment-bearing mantle. The magma transit times have been found to be very short (1000 yr) in all the basaltic series. This very rapid migration of the melts is an evidence for the absence of large magma chamber and for processes of fracturing during melt transports. However, this model does not apply in the case of the very evolved volcanic series in Tenerife island (Canaries) where transit times of c.a. 100000 yr indicate the presence of a large magmatic reservoir. (author)

  17. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The sector covers the energy exploitation of all energy flows specifically supplied by the seas and oceans. At present, most efforts in both research and development and in experimental implementation are concentrated on tidal currents and wave power. 90% of today worldwide ocean energy production is represented by a single site: the Rance Tidal Power Plant. Ocean energies must face up two challenges: progress has to be made in finalizing and perfecting technologies and costs must be brought under control. (A.L.B.)

  18. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  19. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  20. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  1. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  2. Ocean Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brevik, Roy Schjølberg; Jordheim, Nikolai; Martinsen, John Christian; Labori, Aleksander; Torjul, Aleksander Lelis

    2017-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i Internasjonal Markedsføring fra ESADE i Spania, 2017 In this thesis we were going to answer the problem definition “which segments in the Spanish market should Ocean Quality target”. By doing so we started to collect data from secondary sources in order to find information about the industry Ocean Quality are operating in. After conducting the secondary research, we still lacked essential information about the existing competition in the aquaculture industry o...

  3. Programa de detección precoz de la Diabetes Tipo 2 en el Cabildo Insular de Tenerife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Reyes González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La Promoción de la Salud en el Lugar de Trabajo se ha convertido en un pilar fundamental para el personal sanitario del Servicio de Prevención Propio del Excmo. Cabildo Insular de Tenerife como instrumento para capacitar a los empleados en el cuidado de su salud. Para ello, y vistos los datos epidemiológicos de la Diabetes Mellitus en Canarias, donde se estima que la prevalencia es del 6,5% en la población de 30 - 64 años, se elaboró y ejecutó el programa denominado. Día Mundial de la Diabetes: ¿Sabes si tienes azúcar?, con el lema “Más vale Pre-venir que No-venir”. Éste consistió en la medición de la glucemia capilar, la realización del Test de Findrisk (que valora el riesgo de padecer diabetes tipo 2 a lo largo de la vida y en la entrega de información sobre prevención y tratamiento de la diabetes, todo ello con el objetivo de dar a conocer y sensibilizar sobre esta “epidemia” a todos los empleados y de detectar sujetos con cifras alteradas de glucosa en sangre para su posterior derivación y control y realizar un seguimiento en nuestras consultas de aquellos empleados que obtuvieron en el Test un resultado de riesgo alto o muy alto. Objetivos principales: Dar a conocer la diabetes a los empleados del Cabildo Insular de Tenerife. Sensibilizar de la magnitud del problema de salud pública que supone la diabetes en Canarias. Sensibilizar sobre la importancia de la educación para la salud como instrumento de prevención y de detección precoz de la diabetes. Comparar los datos obtenidos de glucemia alterada en las analíticas de los reconocimientos médicos de vigilancia de la salud frente a los datos obtenidos en el Programa de Día Mundial de la Diabetes. Detección precoz de la Diabetes tipo 2 mediante: - La derivación a Atención Primaria de Salud de aquellos empleados con cifras alteradas de glucosa para estudio y tratamiento, si procede y seguimiento de los mismos por parte del personal sanitario del servicio de

  4. A Biogeographic Assessment of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Kriged Predictive Map of Zooplankton Samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton communities have been well studied in the northeast Atlantic (Sherman et al., 1983) and on Georges Bank within the Gulf of Maine (Bigelow, 1927; Davis,...

  5. CAS (CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SOCIETY) PARAMETER CODES and Other Data from EVERGREEN From NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 19860501 to 19860519 (NODC Accession 9100094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set in this accession contains 100 stations of hydrographic data collected in the northeast Atlantic, south of the Azores, aboard R/V ENDEAVOR, cruise #143....

  6. A Biogeographic Assessment of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Kriged Probability Map of Zooplankton Samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton communities have been well studied in the northeast Atlantic (Sherman et al., 1983) and on Georges Bank within the Gulf of Maine (Bigelow, 1927; Davis,...

  7. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  8. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  9. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: jmorales@ull.es; Diaz, F. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez, S. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time.

  10. Effect of fly ash from a fuel oil power station on heavy metal content of wild plants at Tenerife island, the Canarian archipelago, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.E.; Fernandez, M.; Iglesias, E.; Perez, N.; Snelling, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy metal analysis have been carried out in wild plants around a Power Station located at the southeastern area of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The concentrations of Fe, Ni, and V in the leaves and terminal stems of three wild plants (Euphorbia obtusifolia, Kleinia neriifolia, and Plocama pendula) which were collected during the spring of 1988 are reported from four different allotments. These sampling sites were located at distances of 0.4, 1, 1, 25, and 34 km from the Electric Generating Facility, and at elevations of 60, 120, 180 and 60 m, respectively. Results show a potential contamination of vanadium in E. obtusifolia and P. pendula plants located close to the Power Station, probably due to dry deposition on fly ash in the surrounding area. The levels of iron and nickel concentrations in the same type of plants did not show any geographical relationship with respect to the location of the Power Station. 19 refs., 4 figs

  11. Las trayectorias de vida de los jóvenes de Santa Cruz de Tenerife en tiempos de crisis: una aproximación cualitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomer Betancor Nuez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, producto de un proyecto financiado por la Fundación Cajacanariasy la Asociación Cultural TuSantaCruz, analiza las perspectivas juveniles acerca de la realidad social, política y económica que marcan las diferentes trayectorias de vida de la juventud que habita en Santa Cruz de Tenerife. El uso del concepto de joven que hacemos en este trabajo es más abierto de lo habitual, pues concebimos que la juventud es una categoría social atravesada por cuestiones como el origen social, el nivel de estudios y la clase social, por lo que no es un colectivo caracterizado únicamente por un aspecto biológico-generacional.  La metodología utilizada es de tipo cualitativa, concretamente  se ha empleado la técnica denominada grupos de discusión.

  12. 100 años del nacimiento de la Psicología Comparada en Tenerife (I: W. Köhler y la Casa Amarilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Álvarez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está motivado por la celebración de los 100 años del nacimiento de la psicología comparada actual y de la primatología en nuestro país. En 1913 Alemania instala en Tenerife la primera estación primatológica del mundo. Unos meses más tarde, en 1914, Wolfgang Köhler comienza allí sus experimentos sobre la cognición de los chimpancés y la resolución de problemas. Dichos trabajos dieron lugar a la consolidación (y nacimiento, para muchos de la Psicología de la Gestalt, siendo sus investigaciones clásicas en la historia de la disciplina. En este artículo se describe cómo fue posible tal evento.

  13. 100 años del nacimiento de la Psicología Comparada en Tenerife (I): W. Köhler y la Casa Amarilla

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos J. Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo está motivado por la celebración de los 100 años del nacimiento de la psicología comparada actual y de la primatología en nuestro país. En 1913 Alemania instala en Tenerife la primera estación primatológica del mundo. Unos meses más tarde, en 1914, Wolfgang Köhler comienza allí sus experimentos sobre la cognición de los chimpancés y la resolución de problemas. Dichos trabajos dieron lugar a la consolidación (y nacimiento, para muchos) de la Psicología de la Gestalt, siend...

  14. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  15. Ocean energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, R.H.; Justus, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  16. Proceedings of oceans '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Oceans '91 Conference. Topics addressed include: ocean energy conversion, marine communications and navigation, ocean wave energy conversion, environmental modeling, global climate change, ocean minerals technology, oil spill technology, and submersible vehicles

  17. Ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubelet, Helene; Veyre, Philippe; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-09-01

    This brief publication first recalls and outlines that ocean acidification is expected to increase, and will result in severe ecological impacts (more fragile coral reefs, migration of species, and so on), and therefore social and economic impacts. This issue is particularly important for France who possesses the second exclusive maritime area in the world. The various impacts of ocean acidification on living species is described, notably for phytoplankton, coral reefs, algae, molluscs, and fishes. Social and economic impacts are also briefly presented: tourism, protection against risks (notably by coral reefs), shellfish aquaculture and fishing. Issues to be addressed by scientific research are evoked: interaction between elements of an ecosystem and between different ecosystems, multi-stress effects all along organism lifetime, vulnerability and adaptability of human societies

  18. Ozonization of reclaimed wastewater and effects on particulate matter and disinfection. Reuse perspectives for irrigation in Tenerife (Spain); Ozonizacion del agua residual depurada y sus efectos sobre la materia particulada y desinfeccion. Perspectivas para su posterior uso en el riego agricola en Tenerife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Gomez, L. E.; Diaz Gonzalez, F.; Abreu Acosta, N.; Martin Delgado, M.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.

    2006-07-01

    In this work a study on the feasibility of ozonization as a disinfection and organic matter removal method was carried out on reclaimed wastewater for crop irrigation in the South of Tenerife. three different O{sub 3} doses were applied to reclaimed wastewater: 10, 15 and 20 g/m''3. The highest total suspended solids (TSS) removal obtained was 44%, with both 15 and 20 mg/l O{sub 3}. However, a direct relationship between the O{sub 3} dose applied and the reduction of faecal coliforms has been found, achieving a complete removal with the O{sub 3} dose of 20 mg/l. (Author) 17 refs.

  19. LA ARQUEOLOGÍA HISTÓRICA EN CANARIAS. EL YACIMIENTO SEPULCRAL DE LA IGLESIA DE NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA CONCEPCIÓN DE SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE (Historical archaeology in the Canaries. The burial site of the church of Our Lady of the Conception in Santa Cruz de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Arnay de la Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio revisamos la situación actual de la Arqueología Histórica en las Islas Canarias, disciplina que, a diferencia de la americana, estaba poco desarrollada en las islas hasta hace unos 20 años. El reciente estudio de yacimientos históricos importantes ha modificado esta situación. Como ejemplo, comentamos algunos resultados derivados de la excavación de la iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, en cuyo subsuelo se enterró a la población de Santa Cruz de Tenerife durante siglos. Pese a la pobre preservación de los esqueletos, ha sido posible inferir hábitos dietéticos, estado nutricional, exposición a tóxicos, y realizar estudios de DNA mitocondrial. El material recuperado (cerámica, pipas, crucifijos y adornos varios permite establecer estrechas relaciones con la colonización española del Nuevo Mundo. ENGLISH: This study includes an updated review of the current status of Historical Archaeology in the Canary Islands. Traditionally, in contrast with the situation in America, archaeological activity was devoted to studies on the prehistoric remains of population. In the last 20 years, excavation of some important historical sites has allowed the development of Historical Archaeology. As an example, we comment some results obtained from the excavation of the floor of the church of Our Lady of the Conception, where the deads of Santa Cruz de Tenerife were interred during centuries. Despite the poor preservation of the skeletons, it has been possible to infer dietary habits, toxic exposure, nutritional status and genetic lineages (mitochondrial DNA. Smoking pipes, ceramics and adornments associated with interments show a high similitude with those from colonial sites of the New World.

  20. Planet Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  1. A potencialidade das redes sociais na promoção de destinos turísticos: O caso de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wichels

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As redes sociais, poderosas plataformas de relacionamento, captação e fidelização de clientes, nomeadamente o TripAdvisor, o Facebook e o Instagram ou a Blogosfera, estão a influenciar novos comportamentos do consumidor, obrigando a novas práticas em comunicação turística. Frente a esta realidade, as estratégias e ferramentas de comunicação e marketing tradicionais dos destinos turísticos mostram-se menos efetivas e a mudança envolve não só o como e quando se comunica, mas também o quê. Neste artigo analisamos, enquanto estudo de caso, a estratégia de comunicação e redes sociais de Tenerife. Como estará a reagir um dos destinos mais consolidados do mundo, à mudança de paradigma em comunicação turística?

  2. LA INFLUENCIA DE LOS FACTORES TOPOCLIMÁTICOS EN LA ORGANIZACIÓN GEOGRÁFICA DE LOS SABINARES DE ANAGA (TENERIFE, ISLAS CANARIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Luis González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian los efectos de los factores topoclimáticos sobre las dos muestras mejor conservadas de la vegetación termófila de la isla de Tenerife: el sabinar de Afur y el de la Punta de Anaga. El análisis se realiza a dos escalas espaciales: comarcal y local. La primera permite mostrar las diferencias entre los dos emplazamientos; mientras que a través de la segunda se ponen de manifiesto las variaciones internas en cada uno de ellos. Las variaciones locales de altitud y orientación dan lugar a cambios florísticos y fisionómicos que aparecen reflejados en los inventarios de campo realizados. Por la mayor diversidad de combinaciones de factores ambientales, en Afur se localiza la muestra de sabinar más rica y compleja. Los análisis a escala local demuestran que los contrastes de orientación pueden llegar a ser más importantes que los provocados por los gradientes climáticos verticales.

  3. Increased water use efficiency does not prevent growth decline of Pinus canariensis in a semi-arid treeline ecotone in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Patricia; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matysssek, Rainer; Jimenez, Maria S; Gonzalez-Rodríguez, Agueda M; Oberhuber, Walter; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsic water-use efficiency of Pinus canariensis (Sweet ex Spreng.) growing at a semi-arid treeline has increased during the past 37 years. Tree-ring width by contrast has declined, likely caused by reduced stomatal conductance due to increasing aridity. Rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration ( C a ) has been related to tree growth enhancement accompanied by increasing intrinsic water-use-efficiency (iWUE). Nevertheless, the extent of rising C a on long-term changes in iWUE and growth has remained poorly understood to date in Mediterranean treeline ecosystems. This study aimed to examine radial growth and physiological responses of P. canariensis in relation to rising C a and increasing aridity at treeline in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. We evaluated temporal changes in secondary growth (tree-ring width; TRW) and tree ring stable C isotope signature for assessing iWUE from 1975 through 2011. Precipitation was the main factor controlling secondary growth. Over the last 36 years P. canariensis showed a decline in TRW at enhanced iWUE, likely caused by reduced stomatal conductance due to increasing aridity. Our results indicate that increasing aridity has overridden the potential CO 2 fertilization on tree growth of P. canariensis at its upper distribution limit.

  4. Quantification of ozone uptake at the stand level in a Pinus canariensis forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands: An approach based on sap flow measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, Gerhard [Division of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at; Luis, Vanessa C. [Department of Plant Biology, Plant Physiology, University of La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, E-38207 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cuevas, Emilio [Izana Atmospheric Observatory, National Institute of Meteorology, La Marina, E-38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    Ozone uptake was studied in a pine forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands, an ecotone with strong seasonal changes in climate. Ambient ozone concentration showed a pronounced seasonal course with high concentrations during the dry and warm period and low concentrations during the wet and cold season. Ozone uptake by contrast showed no clear seasonal trend. This is because canopy conductance significantly decreased with soil water availability and vapour pressure deficit. Mean daily ozone uptake averaged 1.9 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} during the wet and cold season, and 1.5 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} during the warm and dry period. The corresponding daily mean ambient ozone concentrations were 42 and 51 nl l{sup -1}, respectively. Thus we conclude that in Mediterranean type forest ecosystems the flux based approach is more capable for risk assessment than an external, concentration based approach. - Sap flow measurements can be used for estimating ozone uptake at the stand level and for parameterisation of O{sub 3} uptake models.

  5. Quantification of ozone uptake at the stand level in a Pinus canariensis forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands: An approach based on sap flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Luis, Vanessa C.; Cuevas, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    Ozone uptake was studied in a pine forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands, an ecotone with strong seasonal changes in climate. Ambient ozone concentration showed a pronounced seasonal course with high concentrations during the dry and warm period and low concentrations during the wet and cold season. Ozone uptake by contrast showed no clear seasonal trend. This is because canopy conductance significantly decreased with soil water availability and vapour pressure deficit. Mean daily ozone uptake averaged 1.9 nmol m -2 s -1 during the wet and cold season, and 1.5 nmol m -2 s -1 during the warm and dry period. The corresponding daily mean ambient ozone concentrations were 42 and 51 nl l -1 , respectively. Thus we conclude that in Mediterranean type forest ecosystems the flux based approach is more capable for risk assessment than an external, concentration based approach. - Sap flow measurements can be used for estimating ozone uptake at the stand level and for parameterisation of O 3 uptake models

  6. The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic individuals in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, M Gabriela; Rancel, Fernando; Coronado-Alvarez, Nieves M; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2008-11-01

    Pathogenic strains of the genus Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The prevalence of this infection has risen in the past 20 years, mainly due to the increase in number of contact lens wearers. In this study, the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in a risk group constituted by asymptomatic contact lens wearers from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, was evaluated. Contact lenses and contact lens cases were analysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates. The isolates' genotypes were also determined after rDNA sequencing. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains was subsequently established using previously described molecular and biochemical assays, which allowed the selection of three strains with high pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these isolates against two standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine, was analysed. As the three selected strains were sensitive to chlorhexidine, its activity and IC(50) were evaluated. Chlorhexidine was found to be active against these strains and the obtained IC(50) values were compared to the concentrations of this drug present in contact lens maintenance solutions. It was observed that the measured IC(50) was higher than the concentration found in these maintenance solutions. Therefore, the ineffectiveness of chlorhexidine-containing contact lens maintenance solutions against potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba is demonstrated in this study.

  7. Changes in Al and Fe associated with amorphous soil minerals over one year after a wildfire at Pico Cho Marcial (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Notario

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous-linked Al, Fe and Si were determined both in burned and unburnt soil samples after a wildfire close to Pico Cho Marcial (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain that affected 7.1 ha of high mountain Teide broom scrub along four successive samplings held in September 2003 (three months after the wildfire, February 2004, June 2004 and October 2004. Soils in the area are Lithic Xerorthents, with a scarcely developed AC-type profile. The chemical elements under study were extracted using selective dissolutions (0.2M acid ammonium oxalate and 0.1N sodium pyrophosphate, and determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The average contents of total amorphous Al (oxalate-extractable and organo-metallic complexes-bound Al (pyrophosphate extractable were significantly higher in burned samples along the study. Also, the oxalate-extractable Al varied significantly along the different samplings, and so consequently did the Alp:Alox ratio. A progressive decrease in the Al:Si ratio in allophanes was also found throughout the study period. No differences were found for oxalate-extractable Fe, either between sample groups or samplings, which was also applicable to the (Alox+0.5Feox percentage.

  8. Raman-IR vibrational and XRD characterization of ancient and modern mineralogy from volcanic eruption in Tenerife Island: Implication for Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Lalla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed vibrational Raman-IR spectroscopic and diffractional analyses have been performed on basalts from two locations from Tenerife Island: (1 the Arenas Negras volcano which belongs to the historical eruption not showing visible alteration and (2 Pillow Lavas zone from Anaga Massif which shows a clearly fluid-rock interaction caused by submarine alteration. These places have been extensively studied due to its similarity with the surface of Mars. The analysis is based on the mineral detection of selected samples by a Micro-Raman study of the materials. The complementary techniques have confirmed the mineralogy detected by the Raman measurement. The results show a volcanic environment behavior with primary phases like olivine, pyroxene, and feldspar/plagioclase. Moreover, the presence of accessory minerals or secondary mineralization like phosphate, iron oxides, zeolite or carbonates shows the alteration processes on each outcrop. The variation in the crystallinity and amorphous phases is related to fluid-rock interaction caused by hydrothermal episodes and external weathering processes, which shows several analogies with the ancient volcanic activity from Mars.

  9. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  10. Photographic prospection of the NEA dumpsite in the Northeast Atlantic: quantitative distribution of epibenthic megafauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, M.; Coic, D.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed analysis of the photographic material enabled to identify various epibenthic megafauna taxa and to distinguish six low-level waste containers. The studies confirm that for different environments, different strategies of distribution exist depending on species and trophic behaviour. The population structures reflect the heterogeneity of the environmental factors (probably the particles in the nepheloid layer, the currents and the topography rather than the apparently relatively homogenous water-sediment interface). The size of the various clumps will soon be estimated by more sophisticated analyses. The study of the quantitative distribution of the megafauna has led to develop and refine an environmental computer data base, a necessary step for any quantitative analyses of the ecosystem. General distribution characteristics are already known. However these data will also serve for other ecological studies as the study of the spatial distribution of all dumpsite epibenthic megafauna and of the corresponding trophic organization

  11. Microplastics Baseline Surveys at the Water Surface and in Sediments of the North-East Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Thomas; van der Meulen, Myra; Devriese, Lisa; Leslie, H.A.; Huvet, Arnaud; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Microplastic contamination was determined in sediments of the Southern North Sea and floating at the sea surface of NorthWest Europe. Floating concentrations ranged between 0 and 1.5 microplastic/m3, whereas microplastic concentrations in sediments ranged between 0 and 3,146 particles/kg dry weight

  12. Microplastics Baseline Surveys at the Water Surface and in Sediments of the North-East Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microplastic contamination was determined in sediments of the Southern North Sea and floating at the sea surface of North West Europe. Floating concentrations ranged between 0 and 1.5 microplastic/m3, whereas microplastic concentrations in sediments ranged between 0 and 3,146 particles/kg dry weight sediment. In sediments, mainly fibers and spheres were found, whereas at the sea surface fragments were dominant. At the sea surface, concentrations of microplastics are lower and more variable than in sediments, meaning that larger sample sizes and water volumes are required to find detectable concentrations. We have calculated the widths of the confidence intervals (CI for different sample sizes, to give a first indication of the necessary sample size for a microplastic survey at the water surface. Higher concentrations of floating microplastics were found near estuaries. In sediments, estuaries and areas with a high organic carbon content were likely hotspots. Standardization of monitoring methods within marine regions is recommended to compare and assess microplastics pollution over time.

  13. Evidence for the bioerosion of deep-water corals by echinoids in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Angela; Rocha, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations of echinoids interacting with deep-sea coral are common in the deep-sea, but paradoxically the deep-sea literature is devoid of reports of bioerosion by extant echinoids. Here we present evidence of contemporary bioerosion of cold-water coral by four species of deep-sea echinoids, Gracilechinus elegans, Gracilechinus alexandri, Cidaris cidaris, and Araeosoma fenestratum, showing that they actively predate on the living framework of reef building corals, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, in the NE Atlantic. Echinoid specimens were collected in six canyons located in the Bay of Biscay, France and two canyons on the north side of the Porcupine Bank and Goban Spur, Ireland. A total of 44 live specimens from the four taxa (9 of G. elegans, 4 of G. alexandri, 21 of C. cidaris and 10 of A. fenestratum) showed recent ingestion of the coral infrastructure. Upon dissection, live coral skeleton was observed encased in a thick mucus layer within the gastrointestinal tract of G. elegans and G. alexandri while both live and dead coral fragments were found in C. cidaris and A. fenestratum. Echinoid bioerosion limits the growth of shallow-water reefs. Our observations suggest that echinoids may also play an important role in the ecology of deep-water coral reefs.

  14. Feeding ecology of the deep-sea lanternshark Etmopterus pusillus (Elasmobranchii: Etmopteridae in the northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Xavier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the first description of the feeding ecology of the smooth lanternshark Etmopterus pusillus based on stomach contents of specimens caught as bycatch in the Algarve (southern Portugal with bottom trawling and bottom longline. The diet of E. pusillus consists mainly of fish (dry weight (% W=87.1%; frequency of occurrence (%FO=28.6%; number (%N=30.3%, crustaceans (%W=7.7%; %FO=36.7%; %N=3.4% and cephalopods (%W=4.7%; %FO=11.3%; %N=11.1%. The diet did not vary between sexes. Ontogenic changes were detected: crustaceans decreased in importance as the sharks increased in size and fish became dominant in the diet of adults. Combining two fishing methods provided broad information on the diet of E. pusillus, as bottom trawling caught smaller specimens and longlines caught larger individuals. E. pusillus feeds mainly on non-commercial species, and therefore does not compete directly with commercial fisheries. Finally, E. pusillus feeds in various parts of the water column and thus it can access a wide range of prey; however, this also means that it can be caught by both gears, making it more vulnerable in terms of conservation.

  15. Quantifying the influence of geography and environment on the northeast Atlantic mackerel spawning distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunel, Thomas; van Damme, Cindy J. G.; Samson, Melvin

    2018-01-01

    on spatial egg density data collected every third year during targeted ichthyoplankton surveys. Mackerel spawning distribution was found to depend primarily on geographical variables (coordinates and bottom depth), with preferred spawning locations on the shelf-edge from the north of the Iberian peninsula...

  16. Identifying blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) stock structure in the Northeast Atlantic by otolith shape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahe, Kélig; Oudard, Clémence; Mille, Tiphaine

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic using 1693 samples from mature fish collected between 37°N and 75°N and 20°W and 25°E. The results indicated two stocks located north and south of ICES Divisions VIa and VIb (54°5N to 60°5N, 4°W to 11°W). The central area corresponds to the spawning area west of Scotland. Sampling year effects...

  17. Interactions between sediment chemistry and frenulate pogonophores (Annelida) in the north-east Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.; Lamont, P.; Harvey, R.

    2008-08-01

    The small frenulate pogonophores (Annelida: Pogonophora a.k.a. Siboglinidae) typically inhabit muddy sediments on the continental slope, although a few species occur near hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. We present data on the distribution and habitat characteristics of several species on the European continental shelf and slope from 48°N to 75°N and show how the animals interact with the chemistry of the sediments. The environments inhabited include: shallow (30 m), organic-rich, fjord sediments; slope sediments (1000-2200 m) and methane seeps at 330 m depth. All the species studied obtain nutrition from endosymbiotic bacteria. They take up reduced sulphur species, or in one case, methane, through the posterior parts of their tubes buried in the anoxic sediment. We conclude that most species undertake sulphide 'mining', a mechanism previously demonstrated in the bivalves Lucinoma borealis and Thyasira sarsi. These pogonophores participate in the sulphur cycle and effectively lower the sulphide content of the sediments. Our results show that the abundance of frenulate pogonophores increases with increasing sedimentation and with decreasing abundance of other benthos, particularly bioturbating organisms. The maximum sustainable carrying capacity of non-seep sediments for frenulate pogonophores is limited by the rate of sulphate reduction.

  18. The history of a northeast atlantic salt lens of mediterranean origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armi, L.; Hebert, D.; Ruddick, B.; Price, J.; Richardson, L.; Rossby, T.

    1989-01-01

    Coherent, subsurface, mesoscale vortices called meddies are occasionally formed as salty water flows out from the mediterranean Sea into the North Atlantic. The life history of meddies is of interest to oceanographers for at least two different reasons. The first is to observe and assess their role in the lateral dispersion of heat and salt. A second reason for studying meddy is that it may be viewed as an isolated deep water laboratory with its own dynamics, whose mixing behaviour over an extended period of time may be compared with the estimated changes from smaller scale processes

  19. Major Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Bacterioplankton Metabolism in the Northeast Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltar, F.; Reinthaler, T.; Herndl, G.J.; Pinhassi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide have the potential to alter metabolic rates of marine prokaryotes, ultimately impacting the cycling and bioavailability of nutrients and carbon. We studied the influence of H2O2 on prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) and extracellular

  20. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Opening of the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Duncan, Robert A.; Swisher, III, Carl C.

    2007-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to a sudden release of carbon dioxide and/or methane. 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show that the Danish Ash-17 deposit, which overlies the PETM by about 450,000 years in the Atlantic, and the Skraenterne Formation Tuff, representing ...

  1. Reservoir quality of intrabasalt volcaniclastic units onshore Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province, northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólavsdóttir, Jana; Andersen, Morten Sparre; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene and Eocene strata in the western part of the FaroeShetland Basin contain abundant volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Recently, hydrocarbon discoveries have been made in reservoirs of siliciclastic origin in intra- and post-volcanic strata in the central Faroe-Shetland Basin that show....... Onshore samples are used as Faroese offshore volcaniclastic intervals are represented by a few confidential samples where the stratigraphic level is uncertain. The onshore samples have been taken from 29 geotechnical (made related to tunnel building, etc.) and 2 scientific (made related to research of the geology...

  2. Major effect of hydrogen peroxide on bacterioplankton metabolism in the Northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Baltar

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide have the potential to alter metabolic rates of marine prokaryotes, ultimately impacting the cycling and bioavailability of nutrients and carbon. We studied the influence of H2O2 on prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP and extracellular enzymatic activities (i.e., β-glucosidase [BGase], leucine aminopeptidase [LAPase] and alkaline phosphatase [APase] in the subtropical Atlantic. With increasing concentrations of H2O2 in the range of 100-1000 nM, LAPase, APase and BGase were reduced by up to 11, 23 and 62%, respectively, in the different water layers. Incubation experiments with subsurface waters revealed a strong inhibition of all measured enzymatic activities upon H2O2 amendments in the range of 10-500 nM after 24 h. H2O2 additions also reduced prokaryotic heterotrophic production by 36-100% compared to the rapid increases in production rates occurring in the unamended controls. Our results indicate that oxidative stress caused by H2O2 affects prokaryotic growth and hydrolysis of specific components of the organic matter pool. Thus, we suggest that oxidative stress may have important consequences on marine carbon and energy fluxes.

  3. Social sustainability of cod and haddock fisheries in the northeast Atlantic: what issues are important?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the sustainability of capture fisheries has focused more on environmental and economic sustainability than on social sustainability. To assess social sustainability, first relevant and important social sustainability issues need to be identified. The objective of this study was to

  4. New contribution to the reproductive features of bluemouth Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus from northeast Atlantic (Azores Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mendonça

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes and identifies the macroscopic and corresponding microscopic changes of the gonads of an important commercial fish species, Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus, from Azores Archipelago. The new contribution relates the macroscopic scale with the histological stages. The annual changes in the gonad, together with the analysis of the monthly gonadosomatic indices, and complementary observations with scanning electron microscopy, allow us to conclude that the females are internally inseminated between July and November and spawn between January and March. There is a separation between female and male reproductive cycles. The overall sex-ratio observed was 1:1, but seasonal and length related differences were observed. This suggests differences and changes in availability, probably related to the annual reproductive cycle and changes in feeding behaviour

  5. Geochemical study of two obsidian production centers in the Prehistory of Tenerife: El Tabonal de los Guanches (Icod de los Vinos and el Tabonal Negro (Las Cañadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Gómez, Cristo M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The obsidian production is one of the work processes that allow a good characterization of the Guanches, first inhabitants of Tenerife (Canary Islands. On this occasion, addresses the geochemical study of the volcanic flows where the main obsidian sources of the Aboriginal of Tenerife are located: The Tabonal de Los Guanches (Icod de Los Vinos and the Tabonal Negro, Mña. Blanca (Las Cañadas del Teide characterized as Production Centres. The aim is to establish the compositional differences between the two in order to trace the distribution of their lithic productions in the island territory and recognize the pattern of supply that was put into practice.

    La producción obsidiánica es uno de los procesos de trabajo que mejor permite la caracterización social de los guanches, primeros habitantes de Tenerife (Canarias. En esta ocasión se aborda el estudio geoquímico de las coladas en las que se ubican sus principales fuentes de aprovisionamiento de obsidiana: El Tabonal de Los Guanches (Icod de los Vinos y El Tabonal Negro en Mña. Blanca (Las Cañadas del Teide, consideradas desde el punto de vista arqueológico como Centros de Producción. El objetivo es establecer las diferencias composicionales entre ambas para poder rastrear la distribución de sus respectivas producciones líticas en el territorio insular y reconocer el modelo de suministro que se puso en práctica.

  6. Ocean Prediction Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Weather Analysis & Forecasts of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis

  7. Graben structure in the Las Cañadas edifice (Tenerife, Canary Islands): implications for active degassing and insights on the caldera formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Inés; Soriano, Carles; Martí, Joan; Pérez, Nemesio

    2005-06-01

    A graben structure has been identified at the western area of the Las Cañadas caldera wall, here referred as the Los Azulejos Graben. This graben is 1 km wide and is bounded by two major normal faults trending NE-SW, the Los Azulejos Fault and the Ucanca Fault. The graben was active for at least 0.5 Ma, from the end of the Ucanca Fm to the end of the Guajara Fm, and before the collapse of the Las Cañadas edifice that formed the western caldera. A right-lateral transtension regime operated in the graben as suggested by small fault orientations and kinematics. The prolongation of the NE rift zone of Tenerife to the Cañadas edifice is the most likely volcano-tectonic scenario for the graben. In this context, inflation of phonolitic shallow magma chambers may have produced reverse faults and reactivation of normal faults. An intense and widespread hydrothermal alteration, here called Azulejos-type, occurred mainly before the graben formation, while a fault-related hydrothermal alteration occurred during and after the graben. Diffuse carbon dioxide and hydrogen degassing in and around the Las Cañadas caldera show relatively enriched values along a NE-SW trend suggesting that faults in the Los Azulejos Graben act as a pathway for deep-seated gases to the surface. Diffuse degassing and hydrothermalism indicate that the graben area has been a zone of intense fluid circulation during the evolution of the Las Cañadas edifice.

  8. Current vegetation status in the area of potential laurisilva from the Monte del Agua - Erjos watershed (Tenerife, Spain after the 2007 wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Arozena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of Pinus canariensis to support the effect of the fire and the fact that great part of the fires happened in Canaries have concerned to forests of this species in the last decades explain the focus put in the study about fires of the pinegrove. However, few works were done on the fire in the Canarian laurel forest. The fire of August 2007 in Tenerife affected a sector of the potential area of laurel forest, in the west of the island, and provided the opportunity of an approximation to the knowledge of the way in which the fire concerns this type of forest. The study area has a mosaic of different plant communities ecologically and floristically related to the laurel forest: a structured forest, dominated by evergreen broadleaf species, Erica arborea scrubs and old fields at different stages of recolonization after the abandonment of crops, as well as small areas with Pinus canariensis and Pinus radiata plantations. Through analysis of the floristic composition, of the vegetation physiognomy and the post-fire reproduction systems by species in forest and bush areas, a very active regeneration has been found in all situations. The importance of "self-succession" as a process of regeneration is remarkable, with a domination of the asexual reproduction in the forest areas and the combination of this one with the sexual one in those of the bushes formations. So, in the same way that happens with other types of vegetation, has been observed that the reaction of the laurel forest is very related with the features of the vegetation pre-fire, at least when the fire does not concern the soil, as in this case.

  9. Magma mixing in the 1100 AD Montaña Reventada composite lava flow, Tenerife, Canary Islands: interaction between rift zone and central volcano plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmaier, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Troll, V. R.; Carracedo, J. C.; Chadwick, J. P.; Chew, D. M.

    2011-09-01

    Zoned eruption deposits commonly show a lower felsic and an upper mafic member, thought to reflect eruption from large, stratified magma chambers. In contrast, the Montaña Reventada composite flow (Tenerife) consists of a lower basanite and a much thicker upper phonolite. A sharp interface separates basanite and phonolite, and chilled margins at this contact indicate the basanite was still hot upon emplacement of the phonolite, i.e. the two magmas erupted in quick succession. Four types of mafic to intermediate inclusions are found in the phonolite. Inclusion textures comprise foamy quenched ones, others with chilled margins and yet others that are physically mingled, reflecting progressive mixing with a decreasing temperature contrast between the end-members. Analysis of basanite, phonolite and inclusions for majors, traces and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes show the inclusions to be derived from binary mixing of basanite and phonolite end-members in ratios of 2:1 to 4:1. Although, basanite and phonolite magmas were in direct contact, contrasting 206Pb/204Pb ratios show that they are genetically distinct (19.7193(21)-19.7418(31) vs. 19.7671(18)-19.7807(23), respectively). We argue that the Montaña Reventada basanite and phonolite first met just prior to eruption and had limited interaction time only. Montaña Reventada erupted from the transition zone between two plumbing systems, the phonolitic Teide-Pico Viejo complex and the basanitic Northwest rift zone. A rift zone basanite dyke most likely intersected the previously emplaced phonolite magma chamber. This led to eruption of geochemically and texturally unaffected basanite, with the inclusion-rich phonolite subsequently following into the established conduit.

  10. Los paisajes actuales y del pasado de un espacio de montaña volcánica: la Reserva Natural Especial del Chinyero (Tenerife, Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Beltán Yanes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Especial del Chinyero se localiza al noroeste de Tenerife a una altitud entre 600 y 1.550 msnm. Este espacio protegido ofrece hoy un excepcional paisaje natural integrado por volcanes recientes e históricos de morfología estromboliana, colonizados por bosques de pino canario. Sin embargo, en la reserva se descubren huellas de otros paisajes del pasado que respondían a una original convivencia de la población con los volcanes y bosques de este sector. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo el estudio del paisaje de este paraje natural con el fin de identificar y caracterizar los rasgos de su fisonomía actual, pero también recuperar otros paisajes olvidados de estas montañas. Hoy las prioridades en su protección y gestión sólo se fundamentan en sus valores naturales La restauración de estas antiguas fisonomías desvelará el importante contenido cultural que además poseen estos paisajes, pues constituían el mejor reflejo de lo que era un apro- vechamiento racional de los escasos recursos naturales. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio del paisaje a través del análisis de la relación espacial de sus componentes y la importancia relativa de éstos en la configuración de una imagen exclusiva de la montaña canaria, prestando especial énfasis en su evolución.

  11. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  12. New insights into ocean tide loading corrections on tidal gravity data in Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoso, J.; Benavent, M.; Bos, M. S.; Montesinos, F. G.

    2009-04-01

    The Canary Islands are an interesting area to investigate ocean tides loading effects due to the complex coastline of the islands and the varying bathymetry. We present here the quality of five recent global oceanic tidal models, GOT00.2, GOT4.7, FES2004, TPXO.7.1 and AG2006, by comparing their predicted ocean tide loading values with results from tidal gravity observations made on three islands, Lanzarote, Tenerife and El Hierro, for the four harmonic constituents O1, K1, M2 and S2. In order to improve the accuracy of the loading corrections on the gravity tide measurements, we have used the high resolution regional oceanic model CIAM2 to supplement the global models considered here. This regional model has been obtained by assimilating TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry at crossovers and along-track points and tide gauge observations into a hydrodynamic model. The model has a 5'Ã-5' resolution and covers the area between the coordinates 26°.5N to 30°.0N and 19°.0W to 12°.5W. The gravity tide observing sites have been occupied by three different LaCoste&Romberg (LCR) spring gravimeters during different periods of observation. We considered here the most recent gravity tide observations made with LCR Graviton-EG1194 in El Hierro Island, for a period of 6 months during 2008. In the case of Tenerife and Lanzarote sites we have used observation periods of 6 months and 8 years with LCR-G665 and LCR-G434 gravimeters, respectively. The last two sites have been revisited in order to improve the previous tidal analysis results. Thus, the gravity ocean tide loading corrections, based on the five global ocean tide models supplemented with the regional model CIAM2 allowed us to review the normalization factors (scale factor and phase lag) of both two gravimeters. Also, we investigated the discrepancies of the corrected gravimetric factors with the DDW elastic and inelastic non hydrostatic body tide model (Dehant et al., 1999). The lowest values are found for inelastic model in the

  13. The EuroSITES network: Integrating and enhancing fixed-point open ocean observatories around Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; EuroSITES Consortium

    2010-05-01

    EuroSITES is a 3 year (2008-2011) EU collaborative project (3.5MEuro) with the objective to integrate and enhance the nine existing open ocean fixed point observatories around Europe (www.eurosites.info). These observatories are primarily composed of full depth moorings and make multidisciplinary in situ observations within the water column as the European contribution to the global array OceanSITES (www.oceansites.org). In the first 18 months, all 9 observatories have been active and integration has been significant through the maintenance and enhancement of observatory hardware. Highlights include the enhancement of observatories with sensors to measure O2, pCO2, chlorophyll, and nitrate in near real-time from the upper 1000 m. In addition, some seafloor missions are also actively supported. These include seafloor platforms currently deployed in the Mediterranean, one for tsunami detection and one to monitor fluid flow related to seismic activity and slope stability. Upcoming seafloor science missions in 2010 include monitoring benthic biological communities and associated biogeochemistry as indicators of climate change in both the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. EuroSITES also promotes the development of innovative sensors and samplers in order to progress capability to measure climate-relevant properties of the ocean. These include further developing current technologies for autonomous long-term monitoring of oxygen consumption in the mesopelagic, pH and mesozooplankton abundance. Many of these science missions are directly related to complementary activities in other European projects such as EPOCA, HYPOX and ESONET. In 2010 a direct collaboration including in situ field work will take place between ESONET and EuroSITES. The demonstration mission MODOO (funded by ESONET) will be implemented in 2010 at the EuroSITES PAP observatory. Field work will include deployment of a seafloor lander system with various sensors which will send data to shore in real

  14. Estudio vulcanológico y qeoquímico del maar de la Caldera del Rey. Tenerife (Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradas Herrero, A.

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a cartographic, morphological, geochemical and petrographic study is made of the ''Caldera del Rey". The "Caldera del Rey" is a volcanic structure formed by two overlapping maars, The second one (maar that was formed is of greaten dimensions and destroyed part of the first one, Both maars erupted throught a possible fracture N 35 E, which is one of the directions with regional importance in the Archipelago. The eruption, which was very explosive, has been thought to be due in part to the great importance of the gaseous phase of the salic magma and also to the steam produced during the interaction of the magma with underground water. This explosivity can be clearly seen in the cleaf resalte cul out in the "Serie Basáltica Antigua" to some extent penetrated and fragmented by the eruption, The phreatomagmatic character of the eruption is evident because of the existence of accretionary lapilli. The materials emitted are exc1usively of aerial projection: agglomerates, tuffs cinerites. There was no flow of lava. ' Some of the fragments of tuffs as cinerites and pumice are comagmatic. These correspond to salic trachytic phonolitic rocks, which represent one of the last stages of differentiation of the alkaline oceanic magmas. The geochemical character of the materials of the "Caldera del Rey" is characteristic and can be easily distinguished from other nearly salic deposits formed in different cycles.

    En este trabajo se hace el estudio cartográfico, morfológico, petrográfico y geoquímico de la Caldera del Rey. La Caldera del Reyes un edificio volcánico formado por dos maars imbricados. El que se formó en segundo lugar es de mayores dimensiones y destruyó en parte el primero. Ambos aprovecharon para hacer erupción una posible fractura de dirección N 35'"E, de importancia regional en el Archipiélago. La erupción fue de una gran explosividad, que se supone debida, en parte, a la gran importancia de la fase gaseosa del

  15. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  16. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  17. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  18. People and Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

  19. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  20. Ocean Robotic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Oscar [Rutgers University

    2012-05-23

    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  1. Ocean Uses: California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  2. Ethane ocean on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  3. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  4. Ocean Disposal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1972, Congress enacted the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) to prohibit the dumping of material into...

  5. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  6. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  7. Ocean Acidification Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  8. An investigation of the physiology and potential role of components of the deep ocean bacterial community (of the NE Atlantic) by enrichments carried out under minimal environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Simon T.; McCarthy, David M.; Patching, John W.; Fleming, Gerard T. A.

    2012-03-01

    Samples of deep-ocean water (3170 m) taken from the Rockall Trough (North-East Atlantic) were incubated for one-month at atmospheric and in-situ pressure (31 MPa), at 4 °C and in the absence and presence of added nutrients. Prokaryotic abundance (direct cell counts) increased by at least 28-fold in enrichments without added nutrients. However, the magnitude of increase in abundance was less for incubations carried out at in-situ pressure (131-181-fold) than those incubations at surface pressure (163-1714-fold increase in abundance). Changes in the prokaryotic community profile as a result of one-month incubation were measured by means of Denaturing Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of extracted 16S rDNA. The profiles of post-incubation samples incubated at in-situ pressure were separated from all other profiles as were those of unpressurised samples with added nutrients. The behaviour (fitness) of individual community members (Operational Taxonomic Units: OTUs) was determined on the basis of change in relative DGGE band intensities between pre- and post-incubation samples. Of twenty-one OTUs examined, six were fitter when incubated in the presence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure and one of these was advantaged when grown in the absence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure. These represented autochthonous and active members of the deep-ocean prokaryotic community. In contrast, seven OTUs were disadvantaged when grown under in-situ pressure and were indicative surface-derived allochtonous microorganisms. A further two OTUs came to dominance in incubations with added nutrients (pressurised and unpressurised) and similar to the previous category were probably surface-derived microorganisms. A single OTU showed characteristics of piezophilic and oliogrophic behaviour and four OTUs were disadvantaged under all incubation conditions examined. The twenty-one DGGE bands were sequenced and the bacterial communities were dominated by Gamma proteobactria and to a

  9. Non-Controlled Biogenic Emission of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 from Lazareto's Landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, D.; Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2002-12-01

    Landfills are important sources of contaminant gases to the surrounding environment and a significant amount of them could be released to the atmosphere through the surface environment in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission of landfill gases. CH4 and CO2 are major components in landfill gases and other gas species are only present in minor amounts. Trace compounds include both inorganic and a large number of volatile organic components. The goal of this study is to evaluate the non-controlled biogenic emission of inorganic toxic gases from Lazareto's landfill. Which is located in the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, with a population of about 150,000, and is used as a Palm tree park. Lazareto's landfill has an extension of 0.22 Km2 and it is not operative since 1980. A non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of 281 sampling sites was carried out from February tod March, 2002. Surface CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according with the accumulation chamber method. Surface CO2 efflux ranged from negligible values up to 30,600 gm-2d-1. At each sampling site, surface landfill gas samples were collected at 40 cm depth using a metallic soil probe. These gas samples were analyzed within 24 hours for major and inorganic toxic gas species by means of microGC and specific electrochemical sensors. The highest concentrations of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 were 3, 20, 2,227, 0.010 ppmV, respectively. Non-controlled biogenic emission rate of CO, H2S, NH3, and Hg0 were estimated by multiplying the observed surface CO2 efflux times (Inorganic Toxic Gas)i/CO2 weight ratio at each sampling site, respectively. The highest surface inorganic toxic gas efllux rates were 699 gm-2d-1 for NH3, 81, 431 and 4 mgm-2d-1 for CO, H2S and Hg0, respectively. Taking into consideration the spatial distribution of the inorganic toxic gas efflux values as well as the extension of the landfill, the non-controlled biogenic emission of CO, H2S, NH3

  10. Caracterización del ambiente atmosférico en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y Santa Cruz de Tenerife. 2000 a 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena López Villarrubia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El carácter insular de las ciudades de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y Santa Cruz de Tenerife, su meteorología y la proximidad del continente africano que favorece la llegada de material particulado de origen natural sobre las islas, determinan unas especificidades en su calidad del aire. El objetivo de este artículo es la caracterización de la contaminación atmosférica durante los años 2000 a 2004 como indicador de exposición de los habitantes de estas dos ciudades. Métodos: Se elaboraron los siguientes indicadores de contaminación: promedios de 24 horas de PM10, PM2,5, NO2, SO2 y O3; máximo de las 17 medias móviles octohorarias diarias de O3 y CO; máximo horario diario de SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM10 y PM2,5. También se calcularon los niveles de la moda gruesa de partículas, como la diferencia entre los valores de PM10 y PM2,5 (PM10-2,5. Se identificaron episodios de intrusión africana. Resultados: En Sta Cruz de TF los promedios de SO2 (14ug/m3N y de O3 (44,4 ug/m3N fueron superiores respecto a los de Las Palmas de GC (8 y 28,3 ug/m3N. Los promedios de NO2 en Las Palmas de GC: 45,8 ug/m3N fueron superiores a los de Sta. Cruz de TF: 30,3 ug/m3N. Debido a las intrusiones africanas, algunos días superaron los 600 ug/m3 de PM10 y los 200 de PM2.5 en ambas ciudades. Conclusiones: Se identifica un patrón de calidad del aire con episodios de polvo mineral africano que en superficie afecta a todas las fracciones granulométricas, una estacionalidad diferente a las ciudades europeas respecto al ozono, así como un patrón de contaminación urbano-industrial en Sta. Cruz de Tf y netamente urbano en Las Palmas de GC. Se hace necesario tener en cuenta estos resultados para analizar su posible impacto sobre la salud de los ciudadanos de las Islas Canarias y establecer sistemas adecuados de vigilancia.

  11. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  12. Changing eruptive styles and textural features from phreatomagmatic to strombolian activity of basaltic littoral cones: Los Erales cinder cone, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gould, R.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Montaña Los Erales is a 70 m high Quaternary cinder cone in the Bandas del Sur region, south Tenerife. Field observations on excavated sections and SEM analysis of tephra samples from the cone suggest that the eruption style of this vent changed progressively from an initial hydrovolcanic phase, through a transitional stage, to one that was entirely strombolian. Clast sizes increase from ≤1 cm angular lapilli in hydrovolcanic samples to 15 cm bombs in strombolian samples. Vesicles also increase in size from 0.5 mm to 1.2 mm, becoming more rounded in the strombolian samples. Palagonitization, extensive in the hydrovolcanic deposits, becomes less noticeable in strombolian deposits. To investigate the causes for and the nature of these changes in eruptive style, products from each major unit were analysed for their morphology, using scanning electron microscopy with both SE and BSE imaging as tephra morphologies are known to reflect the eruptive regime and degree of explosivity at the time of eruption. SEM imaging of hydrovolcanic samples illustrate angular fragments that have been rapidly quenched and contain high levels of palagonitisation and zeolitisation, whereas strombolian samples appear to be less altered and display larger clast sizes and vesicles. Our results confirm that the initial phase of activity was largely driven by magma-water (coolant interaction, where magma may have interacted with a lens of fresh ground or surface water, causing intense fragmentation of the magma. With proceeding eruptive activity the water became exhausted, giving rise to an entirely strombolian eruptive style. Additionally, fossil diatoms were found in hydrovolcanic samples, further emphasising the influence of a, probably fluvial, water source during the early phase of emplacement.La Montaña de Los Erales es un cono de cínder del Cuaternario de 70 m de altura situado en la zona de las Bandas del Sur, en el litoral meridional de la isla de

  13. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  14. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojica, K.D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how changes in vertical stratification affect autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial communities along a meridional gradient in the Atlantic Ocean. The Northeast Atlantic Ocean is a key area in global ocean circulation and a important sink for

  15. Análisis del riesgo volcánico asociado al flujo de lavas en Tenerife (Islas Canarias: escenarios previsibles para una futura erupción en la isla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Machín, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic eruptions in the Canarian Archipelago are a consequence of their origin and evolution, in response to hotspot activity. Therefore, the probability that eruptive phenomena will occur is greater in the western islands (Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro, the closest to the hotspot vertex, where hundreds of eruptions have been localized in the last 20.000 years. By contrast, in La Gomera (presently in the volcanic repose stage and in the easterly islands of Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (the most distant and oldest, in the post-erosive stage of development, few eruptions, if any, have taken place during this period. Rift structures known as «dorsals» have been defined in the more active westerly islands, where the greater part of the recent volcanic activity has been concentrated. Objective data therefore exist that permit the assessment and zonification of eruptive hazards in the archipelago. In this work the assessment of volcanic hazards in the island of Tenerife is presented, whichare concentrated in the volcanic system formed by the central edifice of Mt. Teide and the Northwest Rift. Numerous radiometric datings (14C and K/Ar and the preparation of detailed digitalized and georeferenced geological mapping (GIS have permitted an initia1 analysis and assessment of the volcanic hazards in this island, which presents the greatest risk of eruptions because of the number of recent eruptions and their complexity, in addition to demographic density.La distribución en el tiempo y el espacio de las erupciones volcánicas en el Archipiélago Canario es consecuencia de su origen y evolución, como respuesta a la actividad de un punto caliente. Por consiguiente, la probabilidad de ocurrencia de fenómenos eruptivos es mayor en las islas occidentales (Tenerife, La Palma y El Hierro, las más próximas a la vertical del punto caliente, donde se han localizado centenares de erupciones en los

  16. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  17. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.

  18. Ejecta from Ocean Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulations of deep-ocean impact provide some limits on the size of a projectile that will not mix with the ocean floor during a deep-ocean impact. For a vertical impact at asteroidal velocities (approx. 20 km/s), mixing is only likely when the projectile diameter is greater than 112 of the water depth. For oblique impacts, even larger projectiles will not mix with ocean floor silicates. Given the typical water depths of 4 to 5 km in deep-ocean basins, asteroidal projectiles with diameters as large as 2 or 3 km may commonly produce silicate ejecta that is composed only of meteoritic materials and seawater salts. However, the compressed water column beneath the projectile can still disrupt and shock metamorphose the ocean floor. Therefore, production of a separate, terrestrial ejecta component is not ruled out in the most extreme case. With increasing projectile size (or energy) relative to water depths, there must be a gradation between oceanic impacts and more conventional continental impacts. Given that 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceanic lithosphere and 500 m projectiles impact the Earth on 10(exp 5) y timescales, there must be hundreds of oceanic impact deposits in the sediment record awaiting discovery.

  19. Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickwood, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

  20. Production, partitioning and stoichiometry of organic matter under variable nutrient supply during mesocosm experiments in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. S. Franz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-deficient waters in the ocean, generally referred to as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ, are expected to expand as a consequence of global climate change. Poor oxygenation is promoting microbial loss of inorganic nitrogen (N and increasing release of sediment-bound phosphate (P into the water column. These intermediate water masses, nutrient-loaded but with an N deficit relative to the canonical N:P Redfield ratio of 16:1, are transported via coastal upwelling into the euphotic zone. To test the impact of nutrient supply and nutrient stoichiometry on production, partitioning and elemental composition of dissolved (DOC, DON, DOP and particulate (POC, PON, POP organic matter, three nutrient enrichment experiments were conducted with natural microbial communities in shipboard mesocosms, during research cruises in the tropical waters of the southeast Pacific and the northeast Atlantic. Maximum accumulation of POC and PON was observed under high N supply conditions, indicating that primary production was controlled by N availability. The stoichiometry of microbial biomass was unaffected by nutrient N:P supply during exponential growth under nutrient saturation, while it was highly variable under conditions of nutrient limitation and closely correlated to the N:P supply ratio, although PON:POP of accumulated biomass generally exceeded the supply ratio. Microbial N:P composition was constrained by a general lower limit of 5:1. Channelling of assimilated P into DOP appears to be the mechanism responsible for the consistent offset of cellular stoichiometry relative to inorganic nutrient supply and nutrient drawdown, as DOP build-up was observed to intensify under decreasing N:P supply. Low nutrient N:P conditions in coastal upwelling areas overlying O2-deficient waters seem to represent a net source for DOP, which may stimulate growth of diazotrophic phytoplankton. These results demonstrate that microbial nutrient assimilation and

  1. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  2. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  3. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  4. Communicating Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  5. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  6. Ocean acidification postcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  7. 78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, June to July, 2013 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  8. Oceans and Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  9. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  10. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  11. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 222 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  12. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  13. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  14. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  15. IODE OceanTeacher

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M.; Pikula, L.; Reed, G.

    2002-01-01

    The OceanTeacher website and CD-ROM publication have proven to be powerful and flexible tools for marine data and information management training. There are two segments of OceanTeacher: marine data management and marine information management. The IODE trainers have created an encyclopedic Resource Kit covering all aspects of the subjects. Through continual updates, the Kit provides the latest versions of popular public-domain software, documentation for global and regional datasets, docu...

  16. Modeling of oceanic vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman-Roisin, B.

    Following on a tradition of biannual meetings, the 5th Colloquium on the Modeling of Oceanic Vortices was held May 21-23, 1990, at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. The colloquium series, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, is intended to gather oceanographers who contribute to our understanding of oceanic mesoscale vortices via analytical, numerical and experimental modeling techniques.

  17. Wind Generated Ocean Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)......Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)...

  18. The Ocean: Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  19. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  20. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  1. Situación escolar de Tenerife en 1816-1818, de acuerdo con el informe Persiva-Villanueva realizado para la Real Audiencia en cumplimiento de Real Orden comunicada por Puig Samper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José SANTOS PUERTO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los procesos de escolarización de las Islas Canarias, iniciados a finales del Antiguo Régimen, son hoy poco y mal conocidos. La información educativa de la época de Fernando VII es particularmente deficiente, en parte debido a la desaparición de la documentación y a la quema de archivos, pero también como consecuencia de la poca rigurosidad de algunos trabajos dedicados a esa temática.En este estudio intentamos contribuir a mejor conocer la situación escolar de Tenerife en las primeras décadas del siglo XIX, de acuerdo con el informe elaborado en 1818 por el ilustrado marqués de Villanueva del Prado para la Real Audiencia de Las Palmas, que lo había solicitado a instancias de José María Puig Samper, presidente de la comisión encargada desde 1815 de elaborar un Plan de escuelas de primeras letras del Reino.La investigación, de carácter local, tiene no obstante una indudable importancia a nivel de Estado, ya que en la actualidad también es escasa la información educativa nacional relacionada con aquel Plan de escuelas iniciado por la comisión presidida por Puig Samper.ABSTRACT: The history of schooling in the Canary Islands, which began at the end of the historical period known as the Ancien Régime, is a little known and heretofore badly explained process. Information on education is particularly inadequate for the reign of Fernando VII, as a result of the disappearance of documents and the burning of the archives, but also as a consequence of the lack of thoroughness of some studies devoted to that topic.In this article we attempt to contribute to better knowledge of the educational situation in Tenerife during the early decades of the 19th century, dealing with the report that was drawn up in 1818 by the erudite Marquis of Villanueva del Prado for the Real Audiencia of Las Palmas, which had asked for it at the request of José María Puig Samper, president of the Commission which had the responsibility, since 1815

  2. Situación escolar de Tenerife en 1816-1818, de acuerdo con el informe Persiva-Villanueva realizado para la Real Audiencia en cumplimiento de Real Orden comunicada por Puig Samper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José SANTOS PUERTO

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los procesos de escolarización de las Islas Canarias, iniciados a finales del Antiguo Régimen, son hoy poco y mal conocidos. La información educativa de la época de Fernando VII es particularmente deficiente, en parte debido a la desaparición de la documentación y a la quema de archivos, pero también como consecuencia de la poca rigurosidad de algunos trabajos dedicados a esa temática.En este estudio intentamos contribuir a mejor conocer la situación escolar de Tenerife en las primeras décadas del siglo XIX, de acuerdo con el informe elaborado en 1818 por el ilustrado marqués de Villanueva del Prado para la Real Audiencia de Las Palmas, que lo había solicitado a instancias de José María Puig Samper, presidente de la comisión encargada desde 1815 de elaborar un Plan de escuelas de primeras letras del Reino.La investigación, de carácter local, tiene no obstante una indudable importancia a nivel de Estado, ya que en la actualidad también es escasa la información educativa nacional relacionada con aquel Plan de escuelas iniciado por la comisión presidida por Puig Samper.ABSTRACT: The history of schooling in the Canary Islands, which began at the end of the historical period known as the Ancien Régime, is a little known and heretofore badly explained process. Information on education is particularly inadequate for the reign of Fernando VII, as a result of the disappearance of documents and the burning of the archives, but also as a consequence of the lack of thoroughness of some studies devoted to that topic.In this article we attempt to contribute to better knowledge of the educational situation in Tenerife during the early decades of the 19th century, dealing with the report that was drawn up in 1818 by the erudite Marquis of Villanueva del Prado for the Real Audiencia of Las Palmas, which had asked for it at the request of José María Puig Samper, president of the Commission which had the responsibility, since 1815

  3. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic

  4. Ocean Physicochemistry versus Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Góralski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    It is the dwindling ocean productivity which leaves dissolved carbon dioxide in the seawater. Its solubility is diminished by the rise in ocean water temperature (by one degree Celsius since 1910, according to IPCC). Excess carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, while its growing concentration in seawater leads to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification leading to lowering pH of surface ocean water remains an unsolved problem of science. My today’s lecture will mark an attempt at ...

  5. Red ocean vs blue ocean strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Λαΐνος, Ιάσονας

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the strategies that a company can adopt in order to get a competitive advantage over its rivals, and thus be successful (Red Ocean Strategies). We also tried to explain what actually entrepreneurship is, to be able to understand why the corporate strategies are formed as they do, and why companies are choosing to follow them. The following project is a part of our master thesis that we will present for the University of Piraeus for the MBA-TQM master department. The thesis...

  6. The ocean planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    The Blue Planet is 70% water, and all but 3% of it is salt water. Life on earth first evolved in the primordial soup of ancient seas, and though today's seas provide 99% of all living space on the planet, little is known about the world's oceans. However, the fact that the greatest threats to the integrity of our oceans come from land-based activities is becoming clear. Humankind is in the process of annihilating the coastal and ocean ecosystems and the wealth of biodiversity they harbor. Mounting population and development pressures have taken a grim toll on coastal and ocean resources. The trend arising from such growth is the chronic overexploitation of marine resources, whereby rapidly expanding coastal populations and the growth of cities have contributed to a rising tide of pollution in nearly all of the world's seas. This crisis is made worse by government inaction and a frustrating inability to enforce existing coastal and ocean management regulations. Such inability is mainly because concerned areas contain so many different types of regulations and involve so many levels of government, that rational planning and coordination of efforts are rendered impossible. Concerted efforts are needed by national governments and the international community to start preserving the ultimate source of all life on earth.

  7. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East-Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.R.; Gurbutt, P.A.; Kershaw, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The NEA Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (CRESP) related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was started in 1981 following a recommendation of the Group of experts convened every five years by NEA to review the continued suitability of the dumping site for radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic. The objective of CRESP is to increase the available scientific data base related to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dump site and elaborate a site specific model of the transfers of radionuclides to human populations. Volume one of the ''Interim Oceanographic Description of the North-East Atlantic Site for the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' was published in early 1983. It was an attempt to identify remaining gaps in current knowledge of conditions at the site and relate these conditions to the physical environment of the North-East Atlantic Ocean as a whole. The amount of data obtained by the CRESP Programme is now sufficient to justify publication of this second volume. Scientists present results of research which is of direct relevance to a better assessment of the impact from dumping radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic, in particular an evaluation of the potential radiation doses to man. These two volumes represent part of the scientific contribution of the CRESP Programme to the 1985 Review of the Continued Suitability of the North-East Atlantic dump site

  8. Current status of deepwater oil spill modelling in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Northeast Atlantic, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Alejandro; O'Hara Murray, Rory; Berx, Barbara; Turrell, William R; Beegle-Krause, C J; Inall, Mark; Sherwin, Toby; Siddorn, John; Wakelin, Sarah; Vlasenko, Vasyl; Hole, Lars R; Dagestad, Knut Frode; Rees, John; Short, Lucy; Rønningen, Petter; Main, Charlotte E; Legrand, Sebastien; Gutierrez, Tony; Witte, Ursula; Mulanaphy, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    As oil reserves in established basins become depleted, exploration and production moves towards relatively unexploited areas, such as deep waters off the continental shelf. The Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC, NE Atlantic) and adjacent areas have been subject to increased focus by the oil industry. In addition to extreme depths, metocean conditions in this region characterise an environment with high waves and strong winds, strong currents, complex circulation patterns, sharp density gradients, and large small- and mesoscale variability. These conditions pose operational challenges to oil spill response and question the suitability of current oil spill modelling frameworks (oil spill models and their forcing data) to adequately simulate the behaviour of a potential oil spill in the area. This article reviews the state of knowledge relevant to deepwater oil spill modelling for the FSC area and identifies knowledge gaps and research priorities. Our analysis should be relevant to other areas of complex oceanography. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying the European fossil fuel plumes in the atmosphere over the Northeast Atlantic Region through isotopic observations and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August......Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August...

  10. Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) romani n. sp (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) in notacanthid fishes from the Northeast Atlantic and Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Isbert, W.; Esteban Montero, F.; Carrasson, M.; González-Solís, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2015), s. 35-47 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ribosomal dna * marine fishes * pisces * sea * Ascaridoidea * Sciaenidae * morphology * tornquist * parasites * Mexico Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2015

  11. Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the Pechora Sea in the context of contemporary population structure of Northeast Atlantic walruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Lydersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    F-ST analyses based on microsatellites revealed low but significant genetic differences between walruses from the PEC and SVA-FJL groups, which was supported by mtDNA analysis. F-ST was not significant for all sampling years, indicating a temporal effect or male-biased gene flow. Extended Bayesian...

  12. Long-term changes in deep-water fish populations in the northeast Atlantic: a deeper reaching effect of fisheries?

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, D.M.; Collins, M.A.; Gordon, J.D.M.; Zuur, A.F.; Priede, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    A severe scarcity of life history and population data for deep-water fishes is a major impediment to successful fisheries management. Long-term data for non-target species and those living deeper than the fishing grounds are particularly rare. We analysed a unique dataset of scientific trawls made from 1977 to 1989 and from 1997 to 2002, at depths from 800 to 4800 m. Over this time, overall fish abundance fell significantly at all depths from 800 to 2500 m, considerably deeper than the maximu...

  13. Ocean acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornuelle, Bruce D; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was proposed in 1979 by Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch as an analogue to x-ray computed axial tomography for the oceans. The oceans are opaque to most electromagnetic radiation, but there is a strong acoustic waveguide, and sound can propagate for 10 Mm and more with distinct multiply-refracted ray paths. Transmitting broadband pulses in the ocean leads to a set of impulsive arrivals at the receiver which characterize the impulse response of the sound channel. The peaks observed at the receiver are assumed to represent the arrival of energy traveling along geometric ray paths. These paths can be distinguished by arrival time, and by arrival angle when a vertical array of receivers is available. Changes in ray arrival time can be used to infer changes in ocean structure. Ray travel time measurements have been a mainstay of long-range acoustic measurements, but the strong sensitivity of ray paths to range-dependent sound speed perturbations makes the ray sampling functions uncertain in real cases. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. Ray theory is an infinite-frequency approximation, and its eikonal equation has nonlinearities not found in the acoustic wave equation. We build on recent seismology results (kernels for body wave arrivals in the earth) to characterize the kernel for converting sound speed change in the ocean to travel time changes using more complete propagation physics. Wave-theoretic finite frequency kernels may show less sensitivity to small-scale sound speed structure.

  14. ¿Desaparecerán los Tour Operadores? El papel de los intermediarios en la distribución turística: Análisis del caso de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Flores Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años diversos autores han planteado el fin de la intermediación turística. Dado que Internet permite la comunicación efectiva entre proveedores de servicios turísticos y clientes geográficamente distantes, cada vez sería menor el porcentaje de personas que recurrirían a intermediarios para organizar sus viajes. Otros autores afirman que el impacto de las nuevas tecnologías puede no ser la desintermediación, sino el cambio en la intermediación, en función de factores como la cercanía cultural entre turista y destino. En este trabajo se ha analizado el caso de Tenerife (España y se ha encontrado que el uso de los intermediarios aún sigue siendo ampliamente mayoritario. Por ello, se plantea que factores asociados a la estructura de los mercados turísticos, frecuentemente poco considerados, pueden estar influyendo en la configuración de la distribución turística.

  15. EL ABSENTISMO ESCOLAR EN EL MUNICIPIO DE CANDELARIA, TENERIFE, ISLAS CANARIAS (ESPAÑA. RESULTADOS DE UN ESTUDIO INTERDISCIPLINAR DESDE LA PRAXIS DE LA EDUCACIÓN Y EL TRABAJO SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Herrera Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza los resultados de un estudio sobre la evolución de la incidencia y prevalencia del absentismo escolar en el municipio de Candelaria, Tenerife, Islas Canarias, España, entre los cursos académicos 2008-2011. La relevancia de éste se centra en determinar las variables moduladoras que inciden en la progresión a un nivel micro y macrosistémico del absentismo escolar en este territorio, sin perder de vista el enfoque de género. Asimismo, se arrojan un conjunto de resultados globales, de cara a articular y fortalecer un auténtico diagnóstico psico-socioeducativo, que permita ante la detección de conductas absentistas, activar el protocolo de actuación implementado en esta corporación local, el cual se viene desarrollando en el marco del Programa de Prevención del Absentismo Escolar a nivel municipal. Todo ello, contribuye en la intervención psicosocio-comunitaria a implicar de forma activa y con una visión proactiva a los diferentes actores sociales inmersos en el ámbito socioeducativo, destacando con mayor énfasis, el papel que han de jugar en tan compleja, pero a la vez necesaria tarea, las familias, los docentes y los Servicios Sociales Municipales.

  16. SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

    2009-04-01

    SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data

  17. An Ocean of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Doug

    2010-01-01

    For more than one hundred years teachers have paddled beside the great ocean of mathematical adventure. Between them they have taught millions of young people. A few have dived in and kept swimming, some have lingered on the shore playing in pools, but most have dipped their toes in and run like heck in the other direction never to return. There…

  18. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    roughly 28°S. The second is the Hawaiian Island Chain, extending to Midway Island at 28°N, 177°W and finally the Emperor Seamount chain running due...dimension array centered near Ascension. The climatology ocean (WOA09) showed very little seasonal dependence or change from the geodesic and this is

  19. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.

    2015-01-01

    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to

  20. Power from Ocean Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  1. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  2. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  3. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  4. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  5. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  6. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  7. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  8. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  9. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  10. ocean_city_md.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  12. Energy from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role energy from rivers and oceans may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of using energy from rivers and oceans, hydropower assessment including resources, technology and costs, and environmental and regulatory issues, ocean thermal energy conversion including technology and costs and environmental issues, tidal power, and wave power

  13. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and planes...

  14. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  15. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  16. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  17. The Volvo Ocean Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 (www.volvooceanadventure.org). Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  18. Open ocean tide modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Two trends evident in global tidal modelling since the first GEOP conference in 1972 are described. The first centers on the incorporation of terms for ocean loading and gravitational self attraction into Laplace's tidal equations. The second centers on a better understanding of the problem of near resonant modelling and the need for realistic maps of tidal elevation for use by geodesists and geophysicists. Although new models still show significant differences, especially in the South Atlantic, there are significant similarities in many of the world's oceans. This allows suggestions to be made for future locations for bottom pressure gauge measurements. Where available, estimates of M2 tidal dissipation from the new models are significantly lower than estimates from previous models.

  19. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  20. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  1. Ocean Bottom Seismic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    EPR, the Clipperton and Orozco fracture zones , and along the coast of Mexico, were recorded for a two month period using ocean bottom seismometers...67. Tuthill, J.D., Lewis, B.R., and Garmany, J.D., 1981, Stonely waves, Lopez Island noise, and deep sea noise from I to 5 hz, Marine Geophysical...Patrol Pell Marine Science Library d/o Coast Guard R & D Center University of Rhode Island Avery Point Narragansett Bay Campus Groton, CT 06340

  2. Fishing for opinions: Stakeholder views on MSFD implementation in European Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, A.; Jouanneau, C.; Koss, R.; Raakjaer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholder participation is vital when introducing and implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) at any scale. This paper presents the results of a survey covering four European Regional Seas (Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean) aimed to collect stakeholders¿

  3. Turbines in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-10-01

    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  4. Species-environment interactions changed by introduced herbivores in an oceanic high-mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí, Jaume; López-Darias, Marta; Pérez, Antonio J; Nogales, Manuel; Traveset, Anna

    2017-01-05

    Summit areas of oceanic islands constitute some of the most isolated ecosystems on earth, highly vulnerable to climate change and introduced species. Within the unique high-elevation communities of Tenerife (Canary Islands), reproductive success and thus long-term survival of species may depend on environmental suitability as well as threat by introduced herbivores. By experimentally modifying the endemic and vulnerable species Viola cheiranthifolia along its entire altitudinal occurrence range, we studied plant performance, autofertility, pollen limitation and visitation rate and the interactive effect of grazing by non-native rabbits on them. We assessed the grazing effects by recording (1) the proportion of consumed plants and flowers along the gradient, (2) comparing fitness traits of herbivore-excluded plants along the gradient, and (3) comparing fitness traits, autofertility and pollen limitation between plants excluded from herbivores with unexcluded plants at the same locality. Our results showed that V. cheiranthifolia performance is mainly affected by inter-annual and microhabitat variability along the gradient, especially in the lowest edge. Despite the increasingly adverse environmental conditions, the plant showed no pollen limitation with elevation, which is attributed to the increase in autofertility levels (≥ 50% of reproductive output) and decrease in competition for pollinators at higher elevations. Plant fitness is, however, extremely reduced owing to the presence of non-native rabbits in the area (consuming more than 75% of the individuals in some localities), which in turn change plant trait-environment interactions along the gradient. Taken together, these findings indicate that the elevational variation found on plant performance results from the combined action of non-native rabbits with the microhabitat variability, exerting intricate ecological influences that threaten the survival of this violet species. Published by Oxford University

  5. Ocean Observations of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Don

    2016-01-01

    The ocean influences climate by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of climate change by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use change.Here I summarize the observational evidence of change in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale changes relevant to climate. These include: changes in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional changes in ocean salinity and their link to changes in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and change of ocean current patterns relevant to climate, observations of sea level change and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical changes in the ocean, including ocean acidification.

  6. Springer handbook of ocean engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Xiros, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The handbook is the definitive reference for the interdisciplinary field that is ocean engineering. It integrates the coverage of fundamental and applied material and encompasses a diverse spectrum of systems, concepts and operations in the maritime environment, as well as providing a comprehensive update on contemporary, leading-edge ocean technologies. Coverage includes but is not limited to; an overview of ocean science, ocean signals and instrumentation, coastal structures, developments in ocean energy technologies, and ocean vehicles and automation. The handbook will be of interest to practitioners in a range of offshore industries and naval establishments as well as academic researchers and graduate students in ocean, coastal, offshore, and marine engineering and naval architecture.

  7. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  8. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  9. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  10. Open ocean pelago-benthic coupling: cyanobacteria as tracers of sedimenting salp faeces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, Olaf; Lochte, Karin

    1993-04-01

    Coupling between surface water plankton and abyssal benthos was investigated during a mass development of salps ( Salpa fusiformis) in the Northeast Atlantic. Cyanobacteria numbers and composition of photosynthetic pigments were determined in faeces of captured salps from surface waters, sediment trap material, detritus from plankton hauls, surface sediments from 4500-4800 m depth and Holothurian gut contents. Cyanobacteria were found in all samples containing salp faeces and also in the guts of deep-sea Holothuria. The ratio between zeaxanthin (typical of cyanobacteria) and sum of chlorophyll a pigments was higher in samples from the deep sea when compared to fresh salp faeces, indicating that this carotenoid persisted longer in the sedimenting material than total chlorophyll a pigments. The microscopic and chemical observations allowed us to trace sedimenting salp faeces from the epipelagial to the abyssal benthos, and demonstrated their role as a fast and direct link between both systems. Cyanobacteria may provide a simple tracer for sedimenting phytodetritus.

  11. Monitoring of ocean storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    It has been proposed that atmospheric CO2 accumulation could be slowed by capture of CO2 from point sources and subsequent storage of that CO2 in the ocean. If applied, such sequestration efforts would need to be monitored for compliance, effectiveness, and unintended consequences. Aboveground inspection and monitoring of facilities and practices, combined with ocean observations, could assure compliance with ocean sequestration guidelines and regulations. Ocean observations could be made using a variety of sensors mounted on moorings or underwater gliders. Long-term effectiveness and leakage to the atmosphere must be estimated from models, since on large spatial scales it will be impossible to observationally distinguish carbon stored by a project from variable concentrations of background carbon. Furthermore, the ocean naturally would absorb roughly 80% of fossil fuel CO2 released to the atmosphere within a millennium. This means that most of the CO2 sequestered in the ocean that leaks out to the atmosphere will be reabsorbed by the ocean. However, there is no observational way to distinguish remaining carbon from reabsorbed carbon. The science of monitoring unintended consequences in the deep ocean interior is at a primitive state. Little is understood about ecosystems of the deep ocean interior; and even less is understood about how those ecosystems would respond to added CO2. High priority research objectives should be (1) to improve our understanding of the natural ecosystems of the deep ocean, and (2) to improve our understanding of the response of these ecosystems to increased oceanic CO2 concentrations and decreased ocean pH.

  12. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...

  13. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  14. Ocean bottom seismometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, William A., Jr.

    Seismometers have been placed on the ocean bottom for about 45 years, beginning with the work of Ewing and Vine [1938], and their current use to measure signals from earthquakes and explosions constitutes an important research method for seismological studies. Approximately 20 research groups are active in the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Japan, Canada, and the United States. A review of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) instrument characteristics and OBS scientific studies may be found in Whitmarsh and Lilwall [1984]. OBS instrumentation is also important for land seismology. The recording systems that have been developed have been generally more sophisticated than those available for land use, and several modern land seismic recording systems are based on OBS recording system designs.The instrumentation developed for OBS work was the topic of a meeting held at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in July 1982. This article will discuss the state of the art of OBS Technology, some of the problems remaining to be solved, and some of the solutions proposed and implemented by OBS scientists and engineers. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of existing instrumentation.

  15. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  16. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C

    1996-01-01

    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  17. Riding the ocean waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yemm, Richard

    2000-01-01

    It is claimed that important developments over the past five years mean that there will be a range of competing pre-commercial wave-energy systems by 2002. The generation costs should be on a par with biomass schemes and offshore wind systems. The environmental advantages of wave energy are extolled. Ocean Power Delivery (OPD) have produced a set of criteria to be satisfied for a successful wave power scheme and these are listed. OPD is responsible for the snake-like Pelamis device which is a semi-submerged articulated series of cylindrical sections connected through hinged joints. How the wave-induced movement of the hinges is used to generate electricity is explained. The system is easily installed and can be completely removed at the end of its life

  18. The Ocean deserts:salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their

    KAUST Repository

    Carton, Jim

    2011-04-09

    The Ocean deserts: salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their relationship to climate variability The high salinity near surface pools of the subtropical oceans are the oceanic deserts, with high levels of evaporation and low levels of precip

  19. Aplicación del método captura-recaptura en la evaluación del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de la enfermedad meningocócica en Tenerife (1999-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Izquierdo Carreño

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La vigilancia de la Enfermedad Meningocócica en Canarias es fundamentalmente pasiva, sirviéndose del circuito habitual de las Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria. El objetivo de este trabajo incluye describir los atributos cualitativos y cuantitativos del sistema y evaluar la exhaustividad mediante el sistema de captura-recaptura de tres fuentes de información. Métodos:El estudio abarca los años 1999-2001 en Tenerife. La información se obtuvo de tres fuentes: el Sistema de las Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria, los Laboratorios de Microbiología y el Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos hospitalario. Se aplicaron los Protocolos de Evaluación de un Sistema de Vigilancia de los Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, de Atlanta. Para la estimación del número de casos se usó un modelo log-linear. Los cálculos de la exhaustividad y los intervalos de confianza al 95% se realizaron en el paquete estadístico SPSS10. Resultados:La sensibilidad del sistema resultó ser del 84,9% y el valor predictivo positivo del 80,4%. El retraso en la notificación (oportunidad osciló entre los 0,5 y 13 días, con una mediana de 3 días. La aceptabilidad global del sistema ha sido del 76,64%. El valor de la exhaustividad fue del 98,1%. Conclusiones: La vigilancia de esta enfermedad es buena, con una sensibilidad que hablaría de un buen nivel de declaración, reafirmada por la exhaustividad. Aunque el valor predictivo positivo es alto, podría apuntar hacia la rápida instauración de tratamiento antibiótico que impediría la confirmación microbiológica. El sistema es oportuno, permitiendo la rápida adopción de medidas de intervención.

  20. Aplicación del método captura-recaptura en la evaluación del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de la enfermedad meningocócica en Tenerife (1999-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo Carreño Ana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La vigilancia de la Enfermedad Meningocócica en Canarias es fundamentalmente pasiva, sirviéndose del circuito habitual de las Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria. El objetivo de este trabajo incluye describir los atributos cualitativos y cuantitativos del sistema y evaluar la exhaustividad mediante el sistema de captura-recaptura de tres fuentes de información. Métodos: El estudio abarca los años 1999-2001 en Tenerife. La información se obtuvo de tres fuentes: el Sistema de las Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria, los Laboratorios de Microbiología y el Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos hospitalario. Se aplicaron los Protocolos de Evaluación de un Sistema de Vigilancia de los Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, de Atlanta. Para la estimación del número de casos se usó un modelo log-linear. Los cálculos de la exhaustividad y los intervalos de confianza al 95% se realizaron en el paquete estadístico SPSS10. Resultados: La sensibilidad del sistema resultó ser del 84,9% y el valor predictivo positivo del 80,4%. El retraso en la notificación (oportunidad osciló entre los 0,5 y 13 días, con una mediana de 3 días. La aceptabilidad global del sistema ha sido del 76,64%. El valor de la exhaustividad fue del 98,1%. Conclusiones: La vigilancia de esta enfermedad es buena, con una sensibilidad que hablaría de un buen nivel de declaración, reafirmada por la exhaustividad. Aunque el valor predictivo positivo es alto, podría apuntar hacia la rápida instauración de tratamiento antibiótico que impediría la confirmación microbiológica. El sistema es oportuno, permitiendo la rápida adopción de medidas de intervención.

  1. Bringing an Ocean to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Mark W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a school program in which two sixth-grade science classes researched, created, and put together an ocean museum targeted at kindergarten through eighth graders who are geographically distanced from the ocean. Details the process for investigating topical areas, organizing teams of students, researching, writing, creating displays, and…

  2. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  3. Environmental science: Oceans lose oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen is essential to most life in the ocean. An analysis shows that oxygen levels have declined by 2% in the global ocean over the past five decades, probably causing habitat loss for many fish and invertebrate species. See Letter p.335

  4. Economics of ocean ranching: experiences, outlook and theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ragnar Arnason

    2001-01-01

    "The author distinguishes between ocean fish farming and ocean ranching. The distinguishing characteristic of ocean ranching is that the released species are unassisted once released into the ocean...

  5. Ocean Uses: Oregon and Washington (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  6. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  7. Gravity Field Atlas of the S. Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Gravity Field Atlas of the Southern Ocean from GEOSAT is MGG Report 7. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because...

  8. NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GODAS dataset is a real-time ocean analysis and a reanalysis. It is used for monitoring, retrospective analysis as well as for providing oceanic initial...

  9. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  10. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) 3-day, daily forecast at approximately 9-km (1/12-degree)...

  11. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  12. Estudio espectroscópico y DRX de afloramientos terrestres volcánicos en la isla de Tenerife como posibles análogos de la geología marciana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalla, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several volcanic outcrops from Tenerife Island (Las Cañadas Caldera, historical volcanism and Gu.imar-Malpaís outcrop has been selected as a potential terrestrial analog for Mars, regarding the Martian mineralogy and its volcanic characteristic. Diverse alteration processes, including weathering and hydrothermal alteration have been detected in these volcanics environments, which could be considered as part of a model for the primitive volcanic activity of Mars. The selected materials have been measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results show the primary mineralogy comprises on olivine, pyroxene and feldspar. Also, a wide variety of alterational materials, including oxides, clay minerals and carbonates have been detected. The results have proven to be a starting point to develop research focused to the development of science instrumentation for planetary exploration in volcanic environments. The instrumentation used was primarily through twin prototypes applied in space exploration such as XRD (on board at the NASA-MSL-Curiosity mission, Mössbauer spectroscopy (on board at the NASA-MER mission and the future Raman instrument on ESA mission -ExoMars. In addition, the detected mineralogy is consistent with results reported on Mars. The Raman spectral analisys methods, characterization and identification, have been applied, where the analysis of the Raman profiles are extremely useful to clarify the geochemical origin of the mineral species. On the other hand, the results obtained by Raman have been confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.Se ha llevado a cabo una selección de varios afloramientos volcánicos en la Isla de Tenerife (La Caldera de las Cañadas, vulcanismo histórico y la zona del Malpaís de Gu.imar como posibles análogos terrestres de Marte, considerando los procesos volcánicos ocurridos durante algunas de las etapas geológicas del planeta rojo. En la selección de las

  13. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  14. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama; Yeh, Xiyang; Brantner, Gerald; Soe, Brian; Kim, Boyeon; Ganguly, Shameek; Stuart, Hannah; Wang, Shiquan; Cutkosky, Mark; Edsinger, Aaron; Mullins, Phillip; Barham, Mitchell; Voolstra, Christian R.; Salama, Khaled N.; L'Hour, Michel; Creuze, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  15. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama

    2016-11-11

    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  16. 12. Oceans and coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paden, M.; Seligman, D.; Weber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The trends of the past 20 years show increasing coastal pollution, accelerated destruction of coastal marine habitats, and, in many areas, a declining catch of marine fish species that have been affected by overfishing and pollution. Stopping land-based pollution, especially pollutants from runoff, requires entering a new political arena, contesting powerful interests in agriculture and industry, and dealing with a nearly worldwide economic framework that allows land-based pollutant sources to dispose of their wastes in waterways at no direct cost. The paper discusses these topics under the following headings: pollution trends (nutrient pollution, human health problems, toxic chemical pollution); coastal habitat destruction (coral reef bleaching, threats to the ocean's surface); fisheries trends; aquaculture; a regional approach to preventing pollution [trends in marine pollution control, upstream activities that pollute coastal waters (logging, agriculture, dam construction and irrigation, cities and industry, air pollution)], vulnerability of coastal waters to pollution, coordinating pollution control (linking the land and the water), case studies of watershed/coastal management (Phuket Province, Thailand; the Chesapeake Bay; the Mediterranean)

  17. Radioactivity in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    While the revised ''Definition and Recommendations'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) restricts the dumping of the radioactive wastes that exceed specified concentration/mass limits, the acceptance of the concept of applying the release rate limits as developed by the IAEA provides a rational basis for further considering the emplacement of radioactive wastes in seabed as an attractive and acceptable alternative to terrestrial geological repositories. The technical basis for the present radiological assessment is on release rate limits and not on dumping rates. However, to meet the present requirements of the London Convention, it is necessary to express to Definition in terms of the concentration in a single site and the assumed upper limit on mass dumping rate at a single site of 100,000 tons/year with the added proviso of release rate limits for the finite ocean volume of 10 17 m 3 . This results in the concentration limits of a) 1 Ci/ton for α-emitters but limited to 10 -1 Ci/ton 226 Ra and supported 210 Po; b) 10 2 Ci/ton for β/γ-emitters with half-lives of at least 0.5 yr (excluding 3 H) and the mixtures of β/γ-emitters of unknown half-lives; and c) 10 6 Ci/ton for 3 H and the β/γ-emitters with half-lives less than 0.5 yr. (Yamashita, S.)

  18. Chaotic advection in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshel' , Konstantin V; Prants, Sergei V [V.I. Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far-Eastern Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-30

    The problem of chaotic advection of passive scalars in the ocean and its topological, dynamical, and fractal properties are considered from the standpoint of the theory of dynamical systems. Analytic and numerical results on Lagrangian transport and mixing in kinematic and dynamic chaotic advection models are described for meandering jet currents, topographical eddies in a barotropic ocean, and a two-layer baroclinic ocean. Laboratory experiments on hydrodynamic flows in rotating tanks as an imitation of geophysical chaotic advection are described. Perspectives of a dynamical system approach in physical oceanography are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. The ocean sampling day consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate...... the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our...

  20. Oceanic ferromanganese deposits: Future resources and past-ocean recorders

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Nair, R.R.; Parthiban, G.; Pattan, J.N.

    decades following the Mero's publication witnessed global "Nodule Rush". The technological leaders of those years like US, Germany, Japan, France, New-Zealand, and USSR have conducted major scientific expeditions to the Central Pacific to map...-Mn-(Cu+Ni+Co) in ferromanganese deposits from the Central Indian Ocean (Source: Jauhari, 1987). OCEANIC FERROMANGANESE DEPOSITS 45 DISTRIBUTION The nodules occur invariably in almost all the deep-sea basins witnessing low sedimentation rates. But abundant ore grade deposits...

  1. Operational Ocean Modelling with the Harvard Ocean Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV2008 A417 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) dr. F.P.A. Lam dr. ir. M.W. Schouten dr. L.A. te Raa...area of theory and implementation of numerical schemes and parameterizations, ocean models have grown from experimental tools to full-blown ocean...sound propagation through mesoscale features using 3-D coupled mode theory , Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA. 1992. [9] Robinson

  2. Oceanic Precondition and Evolution of the Indian Ocean Dipole Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Ueki, I.; Hase, H.; Mizuno, K.

    2008-12-01

    Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is one of the interannual climate variability in the Indian Ocean, associated with the negative (positive) SST anomaly in the eastern (western) equatorial region developing during boreal summer/autumn seasons. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been deploying TRITON buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean since October 2001. Details of subsurface ocean conditions associated with IOD events were observed by the mooring buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In the 2006 IOD event, large-scale sea surface signals in the tropical Indian Ocean associated with the positive IOD started in August 2006, and the anomalous conditions continued until December 2006. Data from the mooring buoys, however, captured the first appearance of the negative temperature anomaly at the thermocline depth with strong westward current anomalies in May 2006, about three months earlier than the development of the surface signatures. Similar appearance of negative temperature anomalies in the subsurface were also observed in 2007 and 2008, while the amplitude, the timing, and the relation to the surface layer were different among the events. The implications of the subsurface conditions for the occurrences of these IOD events are discussed.

  3. ONR Ocean Wave Dynamics Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    In anticipation of the start (in Fiscal Year 1988) of a new Office of Naval Research (ONR) Accelerated Research Initiative (ARI) on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics, a workshop was held August 5-7, 1986, at Woods Hole, Mass., to discuss new ideas and directions of research. This new ARI on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics is a 5-year effort that is organized by the ONR Physical Oceanography Program in cooperation with the ONR Fluid Mechanics Program and the Physical Oceanography Branch at the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA). The central theme is improvement of our understanding of the basic physics and dynamics of surface wave phenomena, with emphasis on the following areas: precise air-sea coupling mechanisms,dynamics of nonlinear wave-wave interaction under realistic environmental conditions,wave breaking and dissipation of energy,interaction between surface waves and upper ocean boundary layer dynamics, andsurface statistical and boundary layer coherent structures.

  4. Oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.

    This volume is an outcome of the presentation of selected 74 papers at the International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Indian Ocean held at National Institute of Oceanography during January 1991. The unique physical setting of the northern...

  5. Ocean tides for satellite geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Spherical harmonic tidal solutions have been obtained at the frequencies of the 32 largest luni-solar tides using prior theory of the author. That theory was developed for turbulent, nonglobal, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing realistic bathymetry and linearized bottom friction; the oceans satisfy no-flow boundary conditions at coastlines. In this theory the eddy viscosity and bottom drag coefficients are treated as spatially uniform. Comparison of the predicted degree-2 components of the Mf, P1, and M2 tides with those from numerical and satellite-based tide models allows the ocean friction parameters to be estimated at long and short periods. Using the 32 tide solutions, the frequency dependence of tidal admittance is investigated, and the validity of sideband tide models used in satellite orbit analysis is examined. The implications of admittance variability for oceanic resonances are also explored.

  6. Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus (DOTS Plus) is a planning tool implemented at the ZOA, ZAN, and ZNY ARTCCs. It is utilized by Traffic Management Unit (TMU) personnel...

  7. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  8. Directional spectrum of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Gouveia, A; Nagarajan, R.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...

  9. Laboratory Models of Ocean Circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitehead, John

    1997-01-01

    ...). The subsequent studies were then split into two separate experiments involving convection in the two types of configurations which are likely to produce the very coldest water in the oceans, one...

  10. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L

    2012-02-10

    Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.

  11. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  12. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  13. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  14. Smithsonian Ocean Portal | Find Your Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor life. These two are in the middle of a courtship. VIEW ARCHIVE Ocean Optimism Success Stories in Ocean

  15. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  16. Ocean eddies and climate predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtman, Ben P; Perlin, Natalie; Siqueira, Leo

    2017-12-01

    A suite of coupled climate model simulations and experiments are used to examine how resolved mesoscale ocean features affect aspects of climate variability, air-sea interactions, and predictability. In combination with control simulations, experiments with the interactive ensemble coupling strategy are used to further amplify the role of the oceanic mesoscale field and the associated air-sea feedbacks and predictability. The basic intent of the interactive ensemble coupling strategy is to reduce the atmospheric noise at the air-sea interface, allowing an assessment of how noise affects the variability, and in this case, it is also used to diagnose predictability from the perspective of signal-to-noise ratios. The climate variability is assessed from the perspective of sea surface temperature (SST) variance ratios, and it is shown that, unsurprisingly, mesoscale variability significantly increases SST variance. Perhaps surprising is the fact that the presence of mesoscale ocean features even further enhances the SST variance in the interactive ensemble simulation beyond what would be expected from simple linear arguments. Changes in the air-sea coupling between simulations are assessed using pointwise convective rainfall-SST and convective rainfall-SST tendency correlations and again emphasize how the oceanic mesoscale alters the local association between convective rainfall and SST. Understanding the possible relationships between the SST-forced signal and the weather noise is critically important in climate predictability. We use the interactive ensemble simulations to diagnose this relationship, and we find that the presence of mesoscale ocean features significantly enhances this link particularly in ocean eddy rich regions. Finally, we use signal-to-noise ratios to show that the ocean mesoscale activity increases model estimated predictability in terms of convective precipitation and atmospheric upper tropospheric circulation.

  17. Life cycle assessment of ocean energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    UIHLEIN ANDREAS

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oceans offer a vast amount of renewable energy. Tidal and wave energy devices are currently the most advanced conduits of ocean energy. To date, only a few life cycle assessments for ocean energy have been carried out for ocean energy. This study analyses ocean energy devices, including all technologies currently being proposed, in order to gain a better understanding of their environmental impacts and explore how they can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply. Methods...

  18. Ocean plankton. Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Chaffron, Samuel; Kultima, Jens Roat; Labadie, Karine; Salazar, Guillem; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Zeller, Georg; Mende, Daniel R; Alberti, Adriana; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Costea, Paul I; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Engelen, Stefan; Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Guidi, Lionel; Hildebrand, Falk; Kokoszka, Florian; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Poulain, Julie; Poulos, Bonnie T; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Sarmento, Hugo; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Raes, Jeroen; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer

    2015-05-22

    Microbes are dominant drivers of biogeochemical processes, yet drawing a global picture of functional diversity, microbial community structure, and their ecological determinants remains a grand challenge. We analyzed 7.2 terabases of metagenomic data from 243 Tara Oceans samples from 68 locations in epipelagic and mesopelagic waters across the globe to generate an ocean microbial reference gene catalog with >40 million nonredundant, mostly novel sequences from viruses, prokaryotes, and picoeukaryotes. Using 139 prokaryote-enriched samples, containing >35,000 species, we show vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with the human gut microbiome despite the physicochemical differences between these two ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. The Southern Ocean's role in ocean circulation and climate transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Stewart, A.; Hines, S.; Adkins, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The ventilation of deep and intermediate density classes at the surface of the Southern Ocean impacts water mass modification and the air-sea exchange of heat and trace gases, which in turn influences the global overturning circulation and Earth's climate. Zonal variability occurs along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Antarctic margins related to flow-topography interactions, variations in surface boundary conditions, and exchange with northern basins. Information about these zonal variations, and their impact on mass and tracer transport, are suppressed when the overturning is depicted as a two-dimensional (depth-latitude) streamfunction. Here we present an idealized, multi-basin, time-dependent circulation model that applies residual circulation theory in the Southern Ocean and allows for zonal water mass transfer between different ocean basins. This model efficiently determines the temporal evolution of the ocean's stratification, ventilation and overturning strength in response to perturbations in the external forcing. With this model we explore the dynamics that lead to transitions in the circulation structure between multiple, isolated cells and a three-dimensional, "figure-of-eight," circulation in which traditional upper and lower cells are interleaved. The transient model is also used to support a mechanistic explanation of the hemispheric asymmetry and phase lag associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events during the last glacial period. In particular, the 200 year lag in southern hemisphere temperatures, following a perturbation in North Atlantic deep water formation, depends critically on the migration of Southern Ocean isopycnal outcropping in response to low-latitude stratification changes. Our results provide a self-consistent dynamical framework to explain various ocean overturning transitions that have occurred over the Earth's last 100,000 years, and motivate an exploration of these mechanisms in more sophisticated climate models.

  20. Disposal in sea-bed geological formations. Properties of ocean sediments in relation to the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, P.J.; Thomson, J.

    1984-01-01

    Work on the permeability and consolidation characteristics of sediment cores from the north-east Atlantic has shown that each sediment type studied has a unique void ratio/permeability relationship and that the permeability decreases with effective stress more rapidly for fine than for coarser grained material. Significant over-consolidation is also present in Pacific red clays from the deep-sea drilling project. Their permeability is less for a given void ratio than that of their Atlantic counterparts. A theoretical analysis is given of the effects on permeability of deep open burrows revealed by improved core handling techniques. Mineralogy and sediment and water chemistry of six cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain have demonstrated the effects of lateral sediment redistribution and have shown only mildly reducing conditions. Pore water studies on a 4 m Kasten core from Great Meteor East show oxygen falling to zero within 30 cm of the sediment surface

  1. Linked Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  2. Ocean acidification genetics - Genetics and genomics of response to ocean acidification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are applying a variety of genetic tools to assess the response of our ocean resources to ocean acidification, including gene expression techniques, identification...

  3. Ship track for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. Ship Track for The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the US Coast Guard icebreaker Healy during the "Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  5. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...

  6. Oceanic forcing of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Ryan J; Falter, James L

    2015-01-01

    Although the oceans play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and function of coral reefs worldwide, a modern understanding of the complex interactions between ocean and reef processes is still only emerging. These dynamics are especially challenging owing to both the broad range of spatial scales (less than a meter to hundreds of kilometers) and the complex physical and biological feedbacks involved. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these processes, ranging from the small-scale mechanics of flow around coral communities and their influence on nutrient exchange to larger, reef-scale patterns of wave- and tide-driven circulation and their effects on reef water quality and perceived rates of metabolism. We also examine regional-scale drivers of reefs such as coastal upwelling, internal waves, and extreme disturbances such as cyclones. Our goal is to show how a wide range of ocean-driven processes ultimately shape the growth and metabolism of coral reefs.

  7. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  8. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad L Smith

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5°N management boundary to 20°N-25°N from 45°W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10°W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish.

  9. Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph E; Körtzinger, Arne; Gruber, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Ocean warming and increased stratification of the upper ocean caused by global climate change will likely lead to declines in dissolved O2 in the ocean interior (ocean deoxygenation) with implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitat. Ocean models predict declines of 1 to 7% in the global ocean O2 inventory over the next century, with declines continuing for a thousand years or more into the future. An important consequence may be an expansion in the area and volume of so-called oxygen minimum zones, where O2 levels are too low to support many macrofauna and profound changes in biogeochemical cycling occur. Significant deoxygenation has occurred over the past 50 years in the North Pacific and tropical oceans, suggesting larger changes are looming. The potential for larger O2 declines in the future suggests the need for an improved observing system for tracking ocean 02 changes.

  10. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-04

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  11. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  12. Climate change feedbacks on future oceanic acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.; Matear, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Oceanic anthropogenic CO 2 uptake will decrease both the pH and the aragonite saturation state (Oarag) of seawater leading to an oceanic acidification. However, the factors controlling future changes in pH and Oarag are independent and will respond differently to oceanic climate change feedbacks such as ocean warming, circulation and biological changes. We examine the sensitivity of these two CO 2 -related parameters to climate change feedbacks within a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The ocean warming feedback was found to dominate the climate change responses in the surface ocean. Although surface pH is projected to decrease relatively uniformly by about 0.3 by the year 2100, we find pH to be insensitive to climate change feedbacks, whereas Oarag is buffered by ∼15%. Ocean carbonate chemistry creates a situation whereby the direct pH changes due to ocean warming are almost cancelled by the pH changes associated with dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations changes via a reduction in CO 2 solubility from ocean warming. We show that the small climate change feedback on future surface ocean pH is independent to the amount of ocean warming. Our analysis therefore implies that future projections of surface ocean acidification only need to consider future atmospheric CO 2 levels, not climate change induced modifications in the ocean

  13. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  14. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  15. GOCE Data for Ocean Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija

    and order. The method makes use of all available GOCE gradient data in addition to the global models and aims at improving the determination of Earth’s gravitational field in regional areas. Subsequently, the calculated equipotential surface, known as the geoid, is used together with measurements of sea...... surface height in a calculation of the Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT). This reflects the geostrophic ocean currents and leads to a better understanding of ocean mass and heat transfer. In regional geoid recovery from GOCE gradients, two methods are used, one of them being Least-Squares Collocation (LSC...

  16. Upper ocean physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Ram, P.S.

    This monograph is the outcome of an attempt by the authors to present a synthesis of the studies on physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in relation to air-sea interaction, monsoon/climate variability and biological productivity...

  17. Climate change feedbacks on future oceanic acidification

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, Ben I.; Matear, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic anthropogenic CO2 uptake will decrease both the pH and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) of seawater leading to an oceanic acidification. However, the factors controlling future changes in pH and Ωarag are independent and will respond differently to oceanic climate change feedbacks such as ocean warming, circulation and biological changes. We examine the sensitivity of these two CO2-related parameters to climate change feedbacks within a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The ocean ...

  18. The deep ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems.

  19. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  20. The impact on ocean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear war would have less impact on ocean ecosystems than on terrestrial systems. But damage to coastal regions and estuaries might be substantial. This chapter discusses the distribution, effects, and hazards of fallout radionuclides in the ocean, and attempts to assess the impact on ocean ecosystems of dust particles in the atmosphere, ozone depletion, and temperature change following a nuclear war. The information offers some insight into the impact of such a war, but does not provide definitive predictions. Two other consequences, however, do have the potential for devastating effects upon marine ecosystems. It has been predicted that a 100-fold reduction in solar light intensity at the earth's surface due to particles in the atmosphere is possible; this would result in death to most of the phytoplankton and herbivorous zooplankton in more than half of the oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, and under some circumstances, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere by NOsub(X) could increase UV radiation at the earth's surface, the magnitude of the change being sufficient to seriously reduce the populations of organisms at the base of the food web. Temperature changes would be of little consequence. (U.K.)

  1. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  2. Meteorite impact in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelitz, R.

    1979-01-01

    In the present study, the dynamic of hypervelocity impacts and crater formation in water are examined with allowance for the unique properties of water. More precisely, the transient crater calculated is permitted to relax and act as a source of oceanic surface waves.

  3. The Health of the Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Edward D.

    International scientific literature is used to review relevant data concerning pollution of the world's oceans. Chapters 1, 8 and 9 address themselves to the problems of international control of marine pollution. Chapter 1 introduces the importance of the time factor, revealing information on how long it takes a pollutant to reach an undesirable…

  4. Artificial radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-10-01

    The report highlights the areas of major contributions that the nuclear era has made to the understanding of oceanography and the marine sciences, and in particular the application to the public health problems that arise through anthropogenic exploitation of the oceans for the disposal of radioactive materials

  5. Origin of the ``Ocean Bible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, W. H.

    2002-12-01

    ``The Oceans" is such a landmark for Sverdrup and the Scripps Institution that one ought to take a look at how it came about. The book came very close to NOT being written. Sverdrup was about to decline an invitation by Prentice Hall when his secretary persuaded him to accept. The contract called for 500-600 pages, it ended up with 1087 pages. Royalty was 10% (\\$0.27 to each author for the copy I purchased in 1943). Sverdrup had estimated a market of 550 copies. By the end of 1965 23,766 copies of the American edition alone had been sold. The book was completed in the early war years under very trying conditions for Sverdrup personally. When it did appear in print, a year after Pearl Harbor, the distribution was restricted to the continental United States because ``...it would be of great aid to the enemy should it fall into his hands." The book carries the mark of Sverdrup's lifelong emphasis on the synthesis of observations: ``we have preferred definite statements to mere enumeration of uncorrelated observations and conflicting interpretations." The result was a coherent presentation of ocean science, a remarkable achievement considering how badly the ocean was undersampled. I will describe my experience as a willing listener while Sverdrup was contemplating of how to organize Chapter XV: The Water Masses and Currents of the Oceans.

  6. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  7. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris

    2007-01-01

    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  8. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  9. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  10. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  11. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  12. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  13. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  14. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  15. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  16. Climate Ocean Modeling on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Cheng, B. N.; Chao, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in both understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting future climate change. However, modeling the ocean circulation at various spatial and temporal scales is a very challenging computational task.

  17. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  18. CTD Oceanographic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  19. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  20. Oceanographic Trawl Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  1. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at approximately 3-km resolution. While considerable...

  2. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NCEI developed a new set of high-resolution...

  3. Marine information technology - Indian Ocean scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Navelkar, G.S.; Singh, K.

    Marine and coastal information is necessary for sound decision making about sustainable utilisation of our oceanic and coastal resources. Due to inadequate data management tools, lack of information technology benefits in the minds of the ocean...

  4. Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooers, Christopher; Meinen, Christopher; Baringer, Molly; Bang, Inkweon; Rhodes, Robert C; Barron, Charlie N; Bub, Frank

    2005-01-01

    With the ongoing development of ocean circulation models and real-time observing systems, routine estimation of the synoptic state of the ocean is becoming feasible for practical and scientific purposes...

  5. Wave measurement in severe ocean currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.

    The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...

  6. Zooplankton Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  7. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 6-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding Guam at approximately 2-km resolution. While considerable effort has been...

  8. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Oahu at approximately 1-km resolution. While considerable...

  9. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) at approximately...

  10. World Ocean Atlas 2013 (NCEI Accession 0114815)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) is a set of objectively analyzed (1 degree grid and 1/4 degree grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved...

  11. OW NASA MODIS Aqua Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  12. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  13. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  14. The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Describing in detail the two-way interaction between wind and ocean waves, this book discusses ocean wave evolution in accordance with the energy balance equation. An extensive overview of nonlinear transfer is given, and the role of four-wave interactions in the generation of extreme events as well as the effects on ocean circulation is included. The volume will interest ocean wave modellers, physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers.

  15. Variational Data Assimilation for the Global Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ocean includes the Geoid (a fixed gravity equipotential surface ) as well as the MDT, which is not known accurately enough relative to the centimeter...scales, including processes that control the surface mixed layer, the formation of ocean eddies, meandering ocean J.A. Cummings (E3) nography Division...variables. Examples of this in the ocean are integral quantities, such as acous^B travel time and altimeter measures of sea surface height, and direct

  16. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  17. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gröcke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7 ‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the lower Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. If the T-OAE was indeed a global event, an isotopic expression of this event should be found beyond the epi- and pericontinental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of lower Toarcian organic matter-rich cherts from Japan, deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean, was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, based on radiolarian biostratigraphy, is a correlative of the lower Toarcian negative CIE known from Pangaean epi- and pericontinental strata. A smaller negative excursion in δ13Corg (ca. 2 ‰ is recognized lower in the studied succession. This excursion may, within the current biostratigraphic resolution, represent the excursion recorded in European epicontinental successions close to the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary. These results from the open ocean realm suggest, in conjunction with other previously published datasets, that these Early Jurassic carbon cycle perturbations affected the active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric.

  18. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.

    2016-02-01

    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See http://www.coexploration.net/gose/index.html

  19. Models for ecological models: Ocean primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Christopher K.; Leeds, William B.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean accounts for more than 70% of planet Earth's surface, and it processes are critically important to marine and terrestrial life.  Ocean ecosystems are strongly dependent on the physical state of the ocean (e.g., transports, mixing, upwelling, runoff, and ice dynamics(.  As an example, consider the Coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) region.

  20. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  1. The oceanic literary reading mind : An impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, M.

    2016-01-01

    The mind and brain processes of the literary reading mind are most accurately defined as oceanic: the mind is an ocean. This is the essential premise that I put forward in my book Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind (Routledge, 2011).1 The statement is of

  2. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  3. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  4. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  5. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  6. Thermal Niche Tracking and Future Distribution of Atlantic Mackerel Spawning in response to Ocean Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eBruge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North-east Atlantic mackerel spawning distribution has shifted northward in the last three decades probably in response to global sea warming. Yet, uncertainties subsist regarding on the shift rate, causalities, and how this species will respond to future conditions. Using egg surveys, we explored the influence of temperature change on mackerel’s spawning distribution (western and southern spawning components of the stock between 1992 and 2013, and projected how it may change under future climate change scenarios. We developed three generalized additive models: (i a spatiotemporal model to reconstruct the spawning distribution for the north-east Atlantic stock over the period 1992-2013, to estimate the rate of shift; (ii a thermal habitat model to assess if spawning mackerel have tracked their thermal spawning-niche; and (iii a niche-based model to project future spawning distribution under two predicted climate change scenarios. Our findings showed that mackerel spawning activity has shifted northward at a rate of 15.9 ± 0.9 km/decade between 1992 and 2013. Similarly, using the thermal habitat model, we detected a northward shift of the thermal spawning-niche. This indicates that mackerel has spawned at higher latitudes to partially tracking their thermal spawning-niche, at a rate of 28.0 ± 9.0 km/°C of sea warming. Under future scenarios (mid and end of the century, the extrapolation of the niche-based model to coupled hydroclimatic and biogeochemical models indicates that centre of gravity of mackerel spawning distribution is expected to shift westward (32 to 117 km and northward (0.5 to 328 km, but with high variability according to scenarios and time frames. The future of the overall egg production in the area is uncertain (change from -9.3% to 12%. With the aim to allow the fishing industry to anticipate the future distribution of mackerel shoals during the spawning period, future research should focus on reducing uncertainty in projections.

  7. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisumaa, A.-M.; Pesant, S.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Delille, B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Orr, J.C.; Riebesell, U.; Tyrrell, T.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean

  8. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  9. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.

    1972-01-01

    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  10. The Ocean State Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ocean State Power is an independent partnership in the form of utility companies and private developers who have joined forces to build a gas-fired, combined cycle generating plant in Burrillville, Rhode Island. The initial capacity of the plant is expected to be approximately 250 MW, with a provision to double the size. Unit I will be on-line 2989/2990 with unit II shortly thereafter. The OSP equity group includes TransCanada PipeLines, Easter Utilities Associates, New England Electric System, Newport Electric and J. Makowski Associates. The author describes the project's major features and turns to a brief status report on the contracts and licenses. Ocean State Power came about because of; the rapid growth in demand for capacity in new England; the availability of a long-term supply of natural gas from Canada which has recently revised export policies and the inherent efficiency and reliability of combined cycle power generation

  11. Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes in oceanic ferromanganese deposits and ocean floor basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Nions, R.K.; Carter, S.R.; Cohen, R.S.; Evensen, N.M.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Pb-, Nd-, and Sr-isotope compositions of oceanic ferromanganese deposits, together with the Nd- and Sr-isotope compositions of altered ocean-floor basalts, are here reported. These data are used to evaluate these metals as sources in both the oceans and ocean ferromanganese deposits and the extent to which ocean-floor basalts may be a source of, or a sink for, these metals. (author)

  12. Preventing blue ocean from turning into red ocean: A case study of a room escape game

    OpenAIRE

    Gündüz, Şafak

    2018-01-01

    The weariness of competitive business environment has made it one of the hot topics of recent business management literature to find ways to escape from the intense Red Ocean by creating a Blue Ocean where there is no competition. Rene and Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy (2004) provides a reasonable solution for this issue. Blue Ocean Strategy studies demonstrate that every blue ocean will eventually turn red due to fast entries into the market and the literature leaves a gap in understanding...

  13. The Phenomenom of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S.

    2017-12-01

    The earth is 70% and is protected by its atmosphere. The atmosphere is made up of several layers. The sunlight penetrates through the atmosphere and warms the earth surface. The earth's surface then in turn emits invisible infrared radiation back. As this radiation moves back up each layer absorbs some of it. Each layer then sends some of this energy back to earth again. When the layer becomes so thin the energy then escapes back into space. When we are adding more carbon dioxide to these layers we are causing the layers to absorb more of the energy and the radiation. This in turn causes the layers to become warmer since fewer radiation moves up through the layers and this energy bounces back to earth increasing the temperatures. The entire planet is taking on more of this energy and hence the temperatures are rising. The ocean plays a big rule in this change. It has prevented some of the CO2 from entering the earth's atmosphere. Oceans absorb about one third of the anthropogenic CO2 causing the phenomenon of ocean acidification and this comes at a huge cost to our marine environments. The CO2 is absorbed on the surface and then transferred into the deeper waters. Which causes it to be stuck for centuries before making its way back into the atmosphere. As the CO2 dissolves in seawater it causes the PH to lower. With a lowered PH water becomes more acidic. The Hydrogen ions decrease and become less active. With this process carbonic acid is formed. The ocean now is more acidic then it has ever been in the past 650,000 years. The increase in acidic levels has caused our marine life to adjust. Acidosis caused by the increase of carbonic acid in the body fluids means a lower pH in the blood. This changes is just the start to many health issues for these organism's.

  14. Life in the oceanic realms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    Keywords Phytoplankton,zooplankton,pri- mary and secondary producers, zooxanthellae. Chandralata Raghukumar is an emeritus scientist at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. After obtaining a PhD in plant pathology, she worked for 5 years on fungal... marine animals and plants were collected during such voyages by the researchers onboardthe vesselsandsystematicallydescribed. The HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board sailed around different oceans for nearly 4 years and this was the beginning...

  15. Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

  16. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  17. Ocean Literacy After-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Ocean Literacy is a topic that is often underrepresented in secondary school science curriculum. To combat this deficit, our School has partnered up with Hudson River Community Sailing (HRCS), a local organization in New York City that offers an after-school program to high-need high school students in the surrounding community. This organization has developed a 9th grade Sail Academy which allows students from participating public high schools to increase their proficiency in math and science by learning basic sailing, navigation, and boat building. Upon successfully completing the 9th grade Sail Academy curriculum, students enter the "First Mates Program" which offers a scaffolded set of youth development experiences that prepare students for college, career, leadership, and stewardship. This program is built in the context of a new Ocean Literacy Curriculum focused around 3 major topics within Ocean Literacy: Marine Debris, Meteorology, and Ecology (specifically water quality). The learning experiences include weekly data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing in the Hudson River adjacent to the HRCS Boathouse. Additionally there are weekly lessons engaging students in the fundamentals of each of the 3 topics and how they are also important in the lens of sailing. During the marine debris portion of the curriculum students identify sources of marine debris, impacts on the local environment, and study how debris can travel along the ocean currents leading in to larger garbage gyres. To supplement the curriculum, students embarked on a day trip to the Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility in Brooklyn, NY to learn how and where NYC receives its drinking water, how wastewater is treated, and how water quality in the local area can be easily influenced. While on the trip, students did their data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing at Newtown Creek, and then they compared their results

  18. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  19. Practical global oceanic state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Carl; Heimbach, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    The problem of oceanographic state estimation, by means of an ocean general circulation model (GCM) and a multitude of observations, is described and contrasted with the meteorological process of data assimilation. In practice, all such methods reduce, on the computer, to forms of least-squares. The global oceanographic problem is at the present time focussed primarily on smoothing, rather than forecasting, and the data types are unlike meteorological ones. As formulated in the consortium Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO), an automatic differentiation tool is used to calculate the so-called adjoint code of the GCM, and the method of Lagrange multipliers used to render the problem one of unconstrained least-squares minimization. Major problems today lie less with the numerical algorithms (least-squares problems can be solved by many means) than with the issues of data and model error. Results of ongoing calculations covering the period of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, and including among other data, satellite altimetry from TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason-1, ERS- 1/2, ENVISAT, and GFO, a global array of profiling floats from the Argo program, and satellite gravity data from the GRACE mission, suggest that the solutions are now useful for scientific purposes. Both methodology and applications are developing in a number of different directions.

  20. Breaking of ocean surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanin, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)