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Sample records for tendon sheathing filler

  1. Acute calcific tendinitis simulating tendon sheath infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omololu, B; Alonge, T O; Ogunlade, S O

    2001-01-01

    Tendon sheath infection has catastrophic consequences if not diagnosed. We present acute calcific tendinitis, a simulator of tendon sheath infection with a good prognosis in a 14 year old athletic tennis player.

  2. Tendon sheath fibroma in the thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Vincent M; Ashana, Adedayo O; de la Cruz, Michael; Lackman, Richard D

    2012-04-01

    Tendon sheath fibromas are rare, benign soft tissue tumors that are predominantly found in the fingers, hands, and wrists of young adult men. This article describes a tendon sheath fibroma that developed in the thigh of a 70-year-old man, the only known tendon sheath fibroma to form in this location. Similar to tendon sheath fibromas that develop elsewhere, our patient's lesion presented as a painless, slow-growing soft tissue nodule. Physical examination revealed a firm, nontender mass with no other associated signs or symptoms. Although the imaging appearance of tendon sheath fibromas varies, our patient's lesion appeared dark on T1- and bright on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. It was well marginated and enhanced with contrast.Histologically, tendon sheath fibromas are composed of dense fibrocollagenous stromas with scattered spindle-shaped fibroblasts and narrow slit-like vascular spaces. Most tendon sheath fibromas can be successfully removed by marginal excision, although 24% of lesions recur. No lesions have metastasized. Our patient's tendon sheath fibroma was removed by marginal excision, and the patient remained disease free 35 months postoperatively. Despite its rarity, tendon sheath fibroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a thigh mass on physical examination or imaging, especially if it is painless, nontender, benign appearing, and present in men. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. [Experimental study of allogenic tendon with sheath grafting in chicken].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Wang, S L; Gao, X S

    2001-03-01

    To investigate availability of deep freeze stored allogenic tendon with sheath grafting in repairing the tendon and sheath defect in the II area of flexor digitorum tendon. Sixty chickens with tendon and sheath defect were divided into 2 groups randomly, group A was treated with allogenic grafting and group B was treated with autogenic grafting, these two groups were divided into two subgroups respectively, they were, group A1 allogenic tendon with whole sheath grafting, group A2 allogenic tendon with partial sheath grafting, group B1 autogenic tendon with whole sheath grafting and group B2 autogenic tendon with whole sheath grafting. All the allogenic grafts were treated by deep freeze. Histomorphological study, histoimmunological study and slipping function of the grafts were measured after operation. In group A1 and B1, the local reaction was sever, the nutrition of tendon graft was barricaded by the whole sheath resulting in adhesion, degeneration and necrosis. In group A2 and B2, the tendon graft healed well and little adhesion existed between tendon and sheath. The results showed that there were significant differences between tendon grafting with whole sheath and tendon grafting with partial sheath. Deep freeze store can reduce the immunogenicity of allogenic tendon with sheath. Allogenic tendon with partial sheath grafting can be used as a new biological material for repairing the tendon and sheath defect.

  4. Diseases of the tendons and tendon sheaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Adrian; Anderson, David E; Desrochers, André

    2014-03-01

    Contracted flexor tendon leading to flexural deformity is a common congenital defect in cattle. Arthrogryposis is a congenital syndrome of persistent joint contracture that occurs frequently in Europe as a consequence of Schmallenberg virus infection of the dam. Spastic paresis has a hereditary component, and affected cattle should not be used for breeding purposes. The most common tendon avulsion involves the deep digital flexor tendon. Tendon disruptions may be successfully managed by tenorrhaphy and external coaptation or by external coaptation alone. Medical management alone is unlikely to be effective for purulent tenosynovitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Miscellaneous conditions of tendons, tendon sheaths, and ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, S J; Dik, K J

    1995-08-01

    The use of diagnostic ultrasonography has greatly enhances our ability to diagnose injuries of tendons and tendon sheaths that were previously either unrecognized or poorly understood. For may of these injuries, there is currently only a small amount of follow-up data. This article considers injuries of the deep digital flexor tendon and its accessory ligament, the carpal tunnel syndrome soft tissue swellings on the dorsal aspect of the carpus, intertubercular (bicipital) bursitis and bicipital tendinitis, injuries of the gastrocnemius tendon, common calcaneal tendinitis, rupture of peroneus (fibularis tertius) and ligaments injuries of the back.

  6. Fibroma of the tendon sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon

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    Maeseneer, Michel de; Shahabpour, Maryam [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Isacker, Tom van [Sint-Lucas Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brugge (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Caillie, Marie-Astrid van [Sint-Lucas Hospital, Department of Pathology, Brugge (Belgium)

    2014-03-15

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath is a benign tumor that is less common than giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. Both tumors may present as a painless, slowly enlarging mass. Radiological findings may be similar for both tumors. Histologically, fibroma of the tendon sheath lacks the hemosiderin-laden macrophages that are typical for giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. We report on a 49-year-old woman with fibroma of the tendon sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon. In our case, on MR images, we observed band-like hypointense areas centrally in the tumor, mild patchy contrast enhancement, and most importantly, no decrease of signal intensity on gradient echo images. These characteristics reflected histological findings. (orig.)

  7. Giant cell tumour of extensor tendon sheath: Preventing recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Shirol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant Cell Tumour of tendon sheath is relatively rare tumour with an overall incidence of around 1 in 50,000 individuals. Marginal excision of giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath is the treatment of choice. It is also the commonest hand lesion to recur after excision. The incidence of local recurrence is high, ranging from 9-44%. Here we present a case report of a giant cell tumour of extensor tendon sheath in hand which was successfully treated with special emphasis on ways of prevention of recurrence.

  8. Fibroma of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Wha; Lee, So Young; Jung, Sung-No; Sohn, Won Il; Kwon, Ho

    2012-01-01

    Fibroma of tendon sheath is a rare benign tumor that usually occurs in upper extremities. It is mostly asymptomatic and grows slowly within the tendons or tendon sheaths. Histopathologic findings show well-demarcated nodules consisting of haphazardly arranged fibroblast-like spindle cells, which are embedded in a dense, collagenous matrix. We present a patient with fibroma of the tendon sheath on the flexor hallucis longus tendon, which was in an unusual location and has never been reported. The lesion was completely excised and showed no evidence of recurrence after 2 years of follow-up. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fibroma of tendon sheath with 11q rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Jun; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Nagatomo, Masaya; Naito, Masatoshi

    2014-09-01

    Fibroma of tendon sheath is an uncommon, benign fibroblastic tumor that usually occurs in the upper extremities of young and middle-aged adults. A clonal chromosomal aberration, t(2;11)(q31-32;q12), has been described in one case. We herein present a unique cytogenetic finding of fibroma of tendon sheath arising in the first web space of the right hand of a 38-year-old woman. Physical examination showed a 3.5-cm, firm, mobile, non-tender mass. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined soft tissue mass with iso- to slightly-low signal intensity relative to skeletal muscle on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences demonstrated moderate patchy enhancement of the mass. A fibroma or giant cell tumor of tendon sheath was suggested, and the lesion was marginally excised. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of fibroma of tendon sheath. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a novel t(9;11)(p24;q13-14) translocation among other karyotypic abnormalities. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient is doing well without local recurrence two months after surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of fibroma of tendon sheath with clonal chromosomal abnormalities. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-Layer Electrospun Membrane Mimicking Tendon Sheath for Prevention of Tendon Adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Defect of the tendon sheath after tendon injury is a main reason for tendon adhesions, but it is a daunting challenge for the biomimetic substitute of the tendon sheath after injury due to its multi-layer membrane-like structure and complex biologic functions. In this study, a multi-layer membrane with celecoxib-loaded poly(l-lactic acid-polyethylene glycol (PELA electrospun fibrous membrane as the outer layer, hyaluronic acid (HA gel as middle layer, and PELA electrospun fibrous membrane as the inner layer was designed. The anti-adhesion efficacy of this multi-layer membrane was compared with a single-layer use in rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon model. The surface morphology showed that both PELA fibers and celecoxib-loaded PELA fibers in multi-layer membrane were uniform in size, randomly arrayed, very porous, and smooth without beads. Multi-layer membrane group had fewer peritendinous adhesions and better gliding than the PELA membrane group and control group in gross and histological observation. The similar mechanical characteristic and collagen expression of tendon repair site in the three groups indicated that the multi-layer membrane did not impair tendon healing. Taken together, our results demonstrated that such a biomimetic multi-layer sheath could be used as a potential strategy in clinics for promoting tendon gliding and preventing adhesion without poor tendon healing.

  11. Mineralized fibroma of the tendon sheath presenting as a bursitis

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    Le Corroller, Thomas; Champsaur, Pierre [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, Service de Radiologie, Marseille (France); Faculte de Medecine de Marseille, Departement d' Anatomie, Marseille (France); Bouvier-Labit, Corinne [Hopital La Timone, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Marseille (France); Sbihi, Abderrahmane [Clinique Juge, Service de Chirurgie orthopedique, Marseille (France)

    2008-12-15

    We report on the clinical, imaging - including ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging - and histological features of a fibroma of the tendon sheath with mineralized chondroid and osseous metaplasia, presenting as a semimembranosus bursitis. The anatomical characteristics of the semimembranosus bursa are demonstrated by dissection in a cadaveric specimen and correlated with the imaging findings in our patient. (orig.)

  12. Fibroma of the tendon sheath - a rare hand tumor.

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    Heckert, Reed; Bear, Jonathan; Summers, Thomas; Frew, Michael; Gwinn, David; McKay, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS) is a rare, benign, soft tissue lesion. Clinically, FTS presents similarly to the more common giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. It is distinguished histologically by the lack of giant cells, foamy histiocytes and synovial cells. We presented a case of FTS involving the common tendon sheath surrounding the flexor tendons leading to the third metacarpal. A 63-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of a painless mass in his right palm that had recently tripled in size. Examination demonstrated a 5x4 cm firm, nodular, superficial mass that was adherent to the overlying skin. Radiographs of the hand revealed a soft tissue mass without bony abnormality. Ultrasound demonstrated a solid, heterogeneous and hypoechoic mass and computed tomography demonstrated that the mass centered predominantly at the mid and distal portions of the third metacarpal. The patient underwent excisional biopsy of the lesion and a palmar, longitudinal incision was made from the wrist to the third metacarpal. Submitted histologic sections revealed a well-circumscribed lesion closely resembling hyalinized collagen. Neither vascular proliferations, necrosis, nor mitoses were observed. Similarly, multinucleated giant cells, pigment-laden macrophages, and inflammatory cells were also not identified. A diagnosis of FTS was rendered. We provided an additional rare case to the literature of a FTS and highlight the need to consider this entity in the differential diagnosis for any soft tissue lesion in the hand. Three months post surgery the patient demonstrated full range of motion of the hand.

  13. Chondroma within the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. A case report and literature review.

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    Brahms, M A; Fumich, R M

    1978-01-01

    Chondromas in tendon sheaths are a rare entity proviously reported in the flexor sheaths on the hand and possibly the foot. This is the first reported case of condroma of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath at the ankle region. A literature review with regard to pathogenesis, classification, and recurrence has been presented.

  14. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath: A review | al Kadi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Tumors of hand are uncommon entities. Giant Cell Tumour of Tendon Sheath (GCTTS) is the second most common soft tissue tumour, next only to ganglion cysts. Method and Result: We report two cases of giant cell tumours of tendon sheath. One arose from the flexor tendon in the palm of a 22 years old ...

  15. Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath: Spectrum of radiologic findings

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    Karasick, D.; Karasick, S. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States) Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath is the second most common tumor of the hand. It can also occur in larger joints. Radiologic features include a soft-tissue mass with or without osseous erosion. Less commonly, it can cause periostitis or permeative osseous invasion; it may rarely calcify. The entire imaging spectrum of this lesion is presented, with emphasis on atypical appearances which can mimic other lesions. (orig.).

  16. Synovial lipomatosis arborescens of the peroneal tendon sheath

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    Vinson, Emily N.; Martinez, Salutario [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Dodd, Leslie G. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Durham, NC (United States); Merian, Marc [Duke University Medical Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Durham, NC (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The term ''lipoma arborescens'' has been used to describe the diffuse infiltration of fat within hypertrophic synovial villi, a condition which has been most frequently described in the knee. We advocate the term ''synovial lipomatosis arborescens'' for this process and present what is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of this disorder isolated to the peroneal tendon sheath, with imaging, intraoperative, and histological correlation. (orig.)

  17. Three-dimensional Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy wrist and finger tendon sheaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzboll-Danielsen, Mads; Janta, Iustina; Torp-Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim was to investigate the presence of feeding vessels in or in close proximity to extensor and flexor tendon sheaths at the wrists level and in finger flexor tendon sheaths in healthy controls, using 3D ultrasound (US), which may cause pitfalls, in order to ensure correct interpre......Background The aim was to investigate the presence of feeding vessels in or in close proximity to extensor and flexor tendon sheaths at the wrists level and in finger flexor tendon sheaths in healthy controls, using 3D ultrasound (US), which may cause pitfalls, in order to ensure correct...

  18. The effect of flexor sheath integrity on nutrient uptake by chicken flexor tendons.

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    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Lesker, P A

    1985-12-01

    The effect of varying degrees of flexor sheath integrity (sheath excised, incised, or incised and repaired) on the uptake of 3H-proline by chicken flexor tendons in Zone II was studied. The tendons were either: normal and uninjured, lacerated and repaired, or uninjured except for vinculum longum ligation. Different degrees of sheath integrity did not influence the uptake of 3H-proline by the tendons. The tendon does not appear to be dependent on a synovial environment for nutrients and is capable of obtaining these nutrients by diffusion from the surrounding extracellular tissue fluid. Diffusion is the primary nutrient pathway to the flexor tendon in this area, because removing its major vascular attachment (i.e., the vinculum longum) did not effect proline uptake. Careful closure of the sheath with restoration of a synovial environment does not appear to be necessary for tendon nutrition.

  19. Effect of flexor sheath integrity on nutrient uptake by chicken flexor tendons

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    Peterson, W.W.; Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of varying degrees of flexor sheath integrity (sheath excised, incised, or incised and repaired) on the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by chicken flexor tendons in Zone II was studied. The tendons were either: normal and uninjured, lacerated and repaired, or uninjured except for vinculum longum ligation. Different degrees of sheath integrity did not influence the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by the tendons. The tendon does not appear to be dependent on a synovial environment for nutrients and is capable of obtaining these nutrients by diffusion from the surrounding extracellular tissue fluid. Diffusion is the primary nutrient pathway to the flexor tendon in this area, because removing its major vascular attachment (i.e., the vinculum longum) did not effect proline uptake. Careful closure of the sheath with restoration of a synovial environment does not appear to be necessary for tendon nutrition.

  20. Aseptic tenosynovitis of the digital flexor tendon sheath, fetlock and pastern annular ligament constriction.

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    Dik, K J; Dyson, S J; Vail, T B

    1995-08-01

    The anatomy of the digital flexor tendon sheath and related tendons and ligaments is described. Diagnosis and management of acute tenosynovitis and long-term tenosynovitis and associated tendon injuries are discussed, as well as the syndrome of stenosis of the fetlock canal (or fetlock annular ligament constriction) and palmar annular ligament constriction. Desmitis of the palmar annular ligament is also described.

  1. Acute Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Caused by Diffuse Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath: A Case Report

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    Ward, Christina M; Lueck, Nathan E; Steyers, Curtis M

    2007-01-01

    A 46 year old male developed spontaneous acute carpal tunnel syndrome of the right wrist without any antecedent trauma. Surgical exploration revealed hemorrhage secondary to diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath as the underlying cause. PMID:17907439

  2. The contents of macromolecule solutes in flexor tendon sheath fluid and their relation to synovial fluid. A quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, L; Heinegård, D; Ohlsson, K

    1992-04-01

    The importance of synovial environment for minimal adhesion formation in flexor tendon healing has recently gained attention. Various techniques have been used to restore an injured synovial tendon sheath. Therefore a quantitative analysis of flexor tendon sheath fluid is of interest to increase our knowledge about the specific synovial milieu and to evaluate the success of different types of sheath reconstructions from a biochemical point of view. Samples of tendon sheath fluid from trigger digits and tendon sheaths containing ganglions have been assayed for contents of hyaluronic acid and proteins of different molecular weights. The results show concentrations of hyaluronate and several proteins similar to those in normal joint fluid. These results indicate that flexor tendon sheath fluid has a character similar to synovial fluid of joints and apparently has specific functions such as soft tissue lubrication and nutrition of avascular tendon tissue.

  3. Three-dimensional Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy wrist and finger tendon sheaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzboll-Danielsen, Mads; Janta, Iustina; Torp-Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the presence of feeding vessels in or in close proximity to extensor and flexor tendon sheaths at the wrists level and in finger flexor tendon sheaths in healthy controls, using 3D ultrasound (US), which may cause pitfalls, in order to ensure correct...... and twenty of the right wrist. US was carried out using a GE Logiq E9 unit with a 3D US probe. The colour Doppler settings were to published recommendation. RESULTS: The feeding vessels in or in close proximity to the tendon sheaths were found in the flexor and extensor tendons sheaths at least once in each...... participant. No significant difference in feeding vessels was seen between the radial and carpal level in the wrist (p = 0.06) or between the second and third flexor tendon sheath (p = 0.84). CONCLUSION: Doppler findings in or in close proximity to the tendon sheaths were common in wrists and fingers...

  4. The effect of flexor sheath integrity on nutrient uptake by primate flexor tendons.

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    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Lesker, P A

    1986-05-01

    The effect of flexor sheath excision versus sheath incision and repair on the uptake of 3H-proline by profundus tendons in zone II was examined. Proline uptake was measured at 7 days in eight monkeys with intact flexor tendons (group I) and at either 3 or 7 days in eight monkeys with the tendons transected and repaired (group II). In both groups, the flexor sheaths of the digits of the right hand were excised, whereas those of the left hand were incised and repaired. For both the intact and the transected and repaired flexor tendons, it was found that 3H-proline uptake was not improved with sheath closure. The extracellular tissue fluid appeared to be capable of providing nutrients to the tendon in amounts equal to that of the synovial fluid. Therefore, closure of the sheath after primary flexor tendon repair does not appear to be necessary for tendon nutrition, according to the data obtained from experimental studies on the nonhuman primate.

  5. Giant cell tumour of peroneus brevis tendon sheath--a case report and review of literature.

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    Goni, Vijay; Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Radotra, B D; Viswanathan, Vibhu Krishnan; Logithasan, Rajesh Kumar; S, Balaji

    2012-07-13

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue lesion most commonly found in the flexor aspect of hand and wrist. Being rare in foot and ankle, the unusual presentation of this lesion may sometimes mimic other lesions like lipoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, synovial cyst and ganglion. Hence it is important to include this lesion in differential diagnoses especially if the lesion is found to be anchored to any of the surrounding tendons. This article describes the unusual occurrence of giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath of peroneus brevis which is rarely described in literature.

  6. [Questions concerning two-stage reconstruction of injured flexor tendons. III. Ultrastructure of the tenosynovium in the pseudo-tendon sheath created by using a silicone rod].

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    Salamon, A; Bíró, V; Vámhidy, L; Trombitás, K; Józsa, L

    1993-01-01

    Authors have investigated the ultrastructure of the pseudo tendon sheath, formed with silicon rod and man. They have observed a superficial structure, resembling the normal tendon sheath in scanning electron microscopic examination. With transmission electron microscopy phagocyte "A" type and secretion "B" type synovial cells were found. Authors state that the newly formed tenosynovium has an important role in the nutrition of the tendon graft and the prevention of adhesions.

  7. Motion Compensation of Tendon-Sheath Driven Continuum Manipulator for Endoscopic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon-sheath actuation mechanism is widely used in surgical robot, especially in endoscopic surgery, due to its capable of providing remote force and action transmission through long and flexible channel. However, hysteresis, backlash, nonlinear friction are the drawbacks of this mechanism. Our surgical robot use continuum manipulator which is useful in endoscopic surgery, due to its flexible and simple structure. Unlike other literatures that focus on tendon-sheath compensation only, the continuum manipulator is also taken into application level analysis. A model based feedforward motion compensation for tendon-sheath driven continuum manipulator is presented. The model is validated by using optical tracking system to trace the distal end position. Experiment result shows that the proposed model reduces the position error less than 5%.

  8. Fibroma and giant-cell tumor of tendon sheath: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista KT

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kátia Tôrres Batista,1 Heveline Becker de Moura,1 Maria Isabel Lima,2 Kikue Terada Abe3 1Department of Plastic Surgery and Pathology, 2Electron Microscopy Laboratory, 3Cytogenetic Laboratory, Sarah Hospital Brasilia, Brazil Abstract: A 53-year-old man presented in 2009 with a tumor over the dorsum of his hand and wrist. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before surgery and histopathological and immunohistochemical studies were performed after surgery. This demonstrated an ill-defined lesion measuring 46 mm × 31 mm confined to the subcutaneous tissues, extensor tendons, and articular capsule on the dorsum of the hand and wrist with heterogeneous intermediate and high T1 and T2 signal suggesting a complex mixture of fat and fibrous elements. A histopathological differential diagnosis of hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion/tumor (HFLL/T and giant-cell tumor of tendon sheath and fibroma of tendon sheath was made. We describe this rare lesion and call attention to important points in diagnosis. Keywords: giant cell tumor, fibroma tumor, sheath tendon tumor

  9. The vascularization of human flexor tendons within the digital synovial sheath region--structureal and functional aspects.

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    Lundborg, G; Myrhage, R; Rydevik, B

    1977-11-01

    The intrinsic vascularization of human flexor tendons within the digital sheath region was studied on fresh amputation specimens with the aid of angiographic and histochemical techniques. In the flexor digitorum profundus tendon, three separate vascular systems of various origin and with no or very little communication could be verified. In the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, two such systems were observed. The volar surface of both tendons is more or less devoid of vessels. Moreover, at the proximal interphalangeal joint level, the flexor digitorum profundus tendon has a volar avascular zone, constituting about 1 mm, i.e., about one-third to one-fourth of the thickness of the tendon. It is assumed that the synovial fluid is of importance for the nutrition of the tendons and that therefore the synovial sheath should be preserved as much as possible.

  10. [The diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath with chondroid metaplasia in right temporomandibular joint: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Qian, Zhang; Ning, Geng; Junyu, Liu; Haoman, Niu; Yu, Chen

    2017-04-01

    A case diagnosed as diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath with chondroid metaplasia in right temporomandibular joint was reported. The clinicopathological features, diagnosis, and treatment were discussed with the literature review.

  11. Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by a giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Marcel F; Sheikh, Zahid A; Quinton, David N

    2014-02-01

    A 76-year-old woman developed right carpal tunnel syndrome after being conservatively treated for tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons with associated mild carpal tunnel syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a tumour in the carpal tunnel. Re-exploration showed that the median nerve was being compressed by a giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon sheaths. Appropriate imaging is advised in patients with additional findings (such as swelling) or in patients with secondary carpal tunnel syndrome and incomplete response to conservative treatment, to exclude a space-occupying lesion.

  12. MR imaging findings of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath involving the foot : a case report

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    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Park, Young Wook; Shim, Jeong Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath(GCTTS) is a benign condition which involves the synovium of the tendon sheaths, and usually occurs around the small joints, e. g. the ankle, knee, and wrist. Histologically, GCTTS is similar to pigmented villonodular synovitis(PVNS). The authors report MRI findings of a GCTTS. This showed lower signal-intensity lesions than adjacent muscles on T1-weighted, proton density weighted, and T2-weighted images.

  13. An unusual case of cycticercosis of the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Agarwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection by the larval stage (cystcercus cellulosae of the cestode, Taenia Solium (pork tape worm, especially in those individuals who live in the endemic areas. After gaining entry into the body, the larvae become encysted and may lie in subcutaneous tissue, striated muscle, the vitreous humor, or other tissues. We report an unusual case of cysticercosis of the the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles that presented as a swelling of the tendoachilles. Upon Fine Needle Aspiration and Cytology (FNAC that were conducted preoperatively, the possibility of villonodular synovitis was identified. However, the cysticercosis diagnosis was confirmed later after an excisional biopsy was performed. We could find no reports in the literature concerning an occurrence of cysticercosis in the tendon sheath of tendoachilles.

  14. Fibroma of the tendon sheath: A diagnostic dilemma on fine-needle aspiration cytology

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    Jitendra G Nasit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS is an uncommon benign soft tissue tumor (STS of the tendon sheath. Clinical and radiological features are not distinctive enough to clinch the diagnosis preoperatively. Although histological features are well described, diagnostic cytological features of FTS are still lacking. Till date only two reports describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC findings of FTS. The present case is a 50-year-old female who presented with a slow growing nodule on the right thigh over a period of 2 years. FNAC revealed low cell yield with loose clusters of fibrotic spindle cells and stellate cells intermingled with fibro-collagenous and myxoid matrix. Few cells showed mild degree of nuclear atypia. Necrosis and atypical mitoses were not seen. Cytology findings were suggestive of benign/low-grade fibroblastic or fibromyxoid lesion. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of FTS. This article discusses the diagnostic role of FNAC in FTS with its differential diagnosis

  15. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath mimicking a plexiform neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Arvind Tambe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS is a benign soft tissue tumor of the limbs arising from the complex of the tendon sheath and periarticular soft tissues of small joints. It is the second most common benign space occupying lesion in the hand and usually presents as a painless soft tissue mass, which grows slowly in size for many years. We present an interesting case of an enormous GCTTS presenting as a slowly growing mass over left sole of a 52-year-old woman. The duration of GCTTS may range from a few weeks to 30 years but in our case the duration of tumor was almost 48 years, which could be the longest reported duration of GCTTS.

  16. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath and synovial membrane: A review of 26 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Kumar Shashi; Manav, Ajoy Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh; Abhinav; Sinha, Vishvendra Kumar; Sharma, Akshat

    2017-11-01

    Aim of our study is to highlight the incidence and benign nature of Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath and need for complete removal, thus minimizing the chances of recurrence. A total of 26 cases of Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath operated in the department of Orthopaedics, Patna Medical College & Hospital, Patna from 2003 to 2010 were included in this study. The surgery was performed after clinical evaluation of the lesion and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC). The tumour underwent en bloc marginal excision. The patients were followed up for minimum two year. Our study population consisted of 18 females and 8 males. The mean age at the time of surgery was 38.3 years (range, 18-62 years). Twenty three cases were found in the 3rd and 4th decade. Twenty two cases involved upper extremity and only 4 cases in lower extremity. MRI was done in 2 cases where diagnosis was in doubt. Bony indentation on X-ray film was found in 7 cases and thorough curettage of cortical shell was done. All the cases were treated by marginal excision. Three cases developed post-operative stiffness but regained full range of movement with physiotherapy. Sensory impairment was seen in 3 cases. Recurrence occurred in 2 case and they were treated by repeat marginal excision. Meticulous en-masse marginal excision of the giant cell tumour of tendon sheath in blood less field using magnification is the treatment of choice.

  17. [Applied anatomy of the distal "vinculum tendinis" in the fetlock tendon sheath of the hindlimb in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibl, H; Herrmann, J; Rehage, J; Lorenzi, P; Constantinescu, G

    2001-06-01

    A relatively thick (diameter approximately 2 mm), ropelike (length ca. 20 mm) and elastic "Vinculum tendinis" connects--within the fetlock tendon sheath--the dorsal side of the deep digital flexor tendon with the dorsal part of the Manica flexoria (the communicating band of the Musculus interosseous medius to the superficial digital flexor tendon). The extensive fetlock tendon sheath can be involved in diseases such as aseptic and septic inflammations. Spreading of these inflammations makes in some of these cases the partial resection of the tendon of the deep digital flexor muscle and the cutting of these Vincula necessary. The results of this contribution, collected from 60 hindlimbs of adult bovines show variations in number, length, diameter and extent and the inner structure with blood vessels and nerves.

  18. Fibroma of the tendon sheath--a rare hand tumor following repetitive trauma to the palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS) is a rare, benign, soft tissue lesion. Clinically, FTS presents similarly to the more common giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath. It can be distinguished histologically by the lack of giant cells, foamy histiocytes and synovial cells. The author presents a case of FTS involving the flexor tendon to the fourth metacarpal following repetitive trauma. A 42 year old man presented with a three year history of painless mass in the right palm that had increased in size and became painful recently. Examination demonstrated 6 x 4 cm firm, nodular, superficial mass that was adherent to the underlying structures. Radiographs revealed soft tissue mass. Ultrasound showed a solid heterogeneous mass and the MRI demonstrated that the mass cantered predominantly at the mid and distal portion of fourth metacarpal. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology was inconclusive. The patient underwent excisional biopsy of the lesion showing lobulated lesion closely resembling hyalinized collagen. Neither vascular proliferations, necrosis, nor mitoses were observed. A diagnosis of FTS was made. The case report provided an additional rare case to literature of a FTS and highlights the need to consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of any soft tissue lesion in the hand after repetitive trauma. Two months later the patient demonstrated full range of movements in the hand.

  19. [Pulleys of the tendon sheath of the flexor pollicis longus muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H M; Fischer, G

    1999-11-01

    The fibrous wall of the flexor tendon sheath of the thumb is reinforced by pulleys similar to those in the fingers. As cited in the literature, there are two annular pulleys A 1 and A 2 and one oblique pulley. On the basis of our investigations, this distribution was found only in 10%. In 90%, the proximal (A 1) and the distal pulley (A 2) can be seen. However, between these two annular pulleys a Y-shaped fiber complex can be dissected at the level of the base and the shaft of the proximal phalanx. This complex can be further divided into an annular part (proximal) and an oblique part (distal). The annular part is associated with the tendon insertion of the adductor pollicis muscle. The oblique part arises distal from the annular part from the ulnar side of the tendon sheath, running to the radial side of the proximal phalanx interwoven with the interphalangeal joint capsule and the palmar plate. Some fiber strands continually pass into the cutaneous ligaments of Cleland. Thin accessory pulley fibers were found between the annular pulley A 1 and the annular part of the Y-shaped fiber complex in 9.5% and in 20.6% between the oblique part and the annular pulley A 2.

  20. Modeling and motion compensation of a bidirectional tendon-sheath actuated system for robotic endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenglong; Wang, Zheng; Phee, Soo Jay

    2015-04-01

    Recent study shows that tendon-sheath system (TSS) has great potential in the development of surgical robots for endoscopic surgery. It is able to deliver adequate power in a light-weight and compact package. And the flexibility and compliance of the tendon-sheath system make it capable of adapting to the long and winding path in the flexible endoscope. However, the main difficulties in precise control of such system fall on the nonlinearities of the system behavior and absence of necessary sensory feedback at the surgical end-effectors. Since accurate position control of the tool is a prerequisite for efficacy, safety and intuitive user-experience in robotic surgery, in this paper we propose a system modeling approach for motion compensation. Based on a bidirectional actuated system using two separate tendon-sheaths, motion transmission is firstly characterized. Two types of positional errors due to system backlash and environment loading are defined and modeled. Then a model-based feedforward compensation method is proposed for open-loop control, giving the system abilities to adjust according to changes in the transmission route configuration without any information feedback from the distal end. A dedicated experimental platform emulating a bidirectional TSS robotic system for endoscopic surgery is built for testing. Proposed positional errors are identified and verified. The performance of the proposed motion compensation is evaluated by trajectory tracking under different environment loading conditions. And the results demonstrate that accurate position control can be achieved even if the transmission route configuration is updated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Postsurgical Paracicatricial Cutaneous Satellitosis of Giant Cell Tumour of the Tendon Sheath, Localized Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Caputo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tenosynovial giant cell tumour (localized type is a tumour of tendon sheaths and interphalangeal joints, affecting the digits and arising from the synovium. It is characterized by a proliferation of mononuclear cells and osteoclast-like polykaryocytes. Its propagation to the skin is an exceptional event, which can take place either in localized form in the fingertips (localized type or in the rare diffuse form called giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath (diffuse type. We report here a case of giant cell tumour with cutaneous satellites, which appeared close to and around the surgical scar following the excision of the primary lesion, in a 9-year-old boy. In the cutaneous satellites, a few signs of transformation could be observed, consisting of the lack of stroma and pronounced cellularity characterized by sheets of rounded synovial-like cells admixed with multinucleated giant cells and xanthoma cells. No relapse was observed 1 year after a plastic surgery procedure (complete replacement of the involved skin. Diffuse lesions usually represent a diagnostic problem in comparison with their localized counterparts. The malignant transformation of an originally typical tenosynovial giant cell tumour is a rare but well-documented event. Our case seems to represent a typical example because the pronounced cellularity might wrongly lead to a diagnosis of malignancy.

  2. Tendon-Sheath Mechanisms in Flexible Membrane Wing Mini-UAVs: Control and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegoeh Tjahjowidodo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible membrane wings (FMWs are known for two inherent advantages, that is, adaptability to gusty airflow as the wings can flex according to the gust load to reduce the effective angle of attack and the ability to be folded for compact storage purposes. However, the maneuverability of UAV with FMWs is rather limited as it is impossible to install conventional ailerons. The maneuver relies only on the rudders. Some applications utilize torque rods to warp the wings, but this approach makes the FMW become unfoldable. In this research, we proposed the application of a tendon-sheath mechanism to manipulate the wing shape of UAV. Tendon-sheath mechanism is relatively flexible; thus, it can also be folded together with the wings. However, its severe nonlinearity in its dynamics makes the wing warping difficult to control. To compensate for the nonlinearity, a dedicated adaptive controller is designed and implemented. The proposed approach is validated experimentally in a wind tunnel facility with imitated gusty condition and subsequently tested in a real flight condition. The results demonstrate a stable and robust wing warping actuation, while the adaptive washout capability is also validated. Accurate wing warping is achieved and the UAV is easily controlled in a real flight test.

  3. High-resolution MRI assessment of dactylitis in psoriatic arthritis shows flexor tendon pulley and sheath-related enthesitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ai Lyn; Fukuba, Eiji; Halliday, Nicola Ann; Tanner, Steven F; Emery, Paul; McGonagle, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Dactylitis is a hallmark of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) where flexor tenosynovitis is common. This study explored the microanatomical basis of dactylitis using high-resolution MRI (hrMRI) to visualise the small entheses around the digits. Twelve patients with psoriatic dactylitis (4 fingers, 8 toes), and 10 healthy volunteers (6 fingers, 4 toes) had hrMRI of the digits using a 'microscopy' coil and contrast enhancement. All structures were evaluated including the tendons and ligaments, related enthesis organs, pulleys, volar/plantar plates and tendon sheaths. In dactylitis, collateral ligament enthesitis was seen in nine digits (75%), extensor tendon enthesitis in six digits (50%), functional enthesitis (5 digits, 42%), abnormal enhancement at the volar plates (2/5 joints, 40%) and the plantar plate (1/5 joints, 20%). Nine cases (75%) demonstrated flexor tenosynovitis, with flexor tendon pulley/flexor sheath microenthesopathy observed in 50% of all cases. Less abnormalities which were milder was observed in the normal controls, none of whom had any signal changes in the tendon pulleys or fibrous sheaths. This study provides proof of concept for a link between dactylitis and 'digital polyenthesitis' including disease of the miniature enthesis pulleys of the flexor tendons, further affirming the concept of enthesitis in PsA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of porcupine quill foreign bodies in the plantar flexor tendon sheath region in a heifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulon, Pierre-Yves; Achard, Damien; Babkine, Marie

    2010-01-01

    A 17-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for persistent enlargement above the right hind fetlock of 1-month’s duration. Diffuse plantar soft tissue swelling was present on the radiographs and ultrasonography revealed the presence of multiple porcupine quill extremities embedded in the subcutaneous tissue within the flexor tendon sheath wall. Surgical removal was performed. PMID:21037892

  5. Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath in palmar region-cytological aspect of an uncommon tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeddula Chakrapani Spoorthy Rekha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS is a benign soft tissue neoplasm. It is the second most common tumor of the hand after ganglion. The pathogenesis of GCTTS is not known. This tumor is known to recur after excision. We present a case of GCTTS in the palmar aspect of the right hand of a 41-year-old female. Ultrasonography of hand revealed a well-defined hypoechoic lesion in the subcutaneous plane with focal areas of calcification. She underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA. The FNA smears showed the characteristic presence of stromal cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells. This is an uncommon case of GCTTS present in the palmar aspect of hand diagnosed by FNA.

  6. Giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath may present radiologically as intrinsic osseous lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepper, A.M. de; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, RC Leiden (Netherlands); Hogendoorn, P.C.W. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, RC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to explain radiographic features of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath (GCTTS), in particular, osseous extension, by correlating imaging findings with histology in order to increase the accuracy of radiological diagnosis. In a series of 200 consecutive osseous (pseudo) tumors of the hand, on radiography, six patients presented with an intrinsic osseous lesion caused by a histologically confirmed neighboring GCTTS. Available radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images were correlated with histology. Radiography showed osseous lesions consisting of well-defined cortical defects in four (one of whom also demonstrated cortical scalloping) and a slightly expansile, well-defined osteolytic lesion in two patients. MR obtained in four patients showed the extraosseous tumor invading/eroding bone and causing cortical scalloping (three and one patients, respectively). Extension depicted on MR was confirmed on the two available resection specimens. All lesions were polylobular (cauliflower or mushroom like) and neighbored tendon sheaths. Dense collagen and hemosiderin-loaded macrophages explained the high CT attenuation and the low MR signal intensity on T2-weighted images that was observed in all four MR and in all two CT scans. The high density of proliferative capillaries explained the marked enhancement observed in all four patients with gadolinium (Gd)-chelate-enhanced MR imaging. GCTTS is a soft tissue (pseudo) tumor that may invade bone and as a consequence mimick an intrinsic osseous lesion on radiographs. In such cases, specific MR and CT features that can be explained by histological findings can be used to suggest the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Leslie; Ingle, Danny

    The American Heritage dictionary defines filler as ‘something added to augment weight or size or fill space'. Historically, commercial papermakers have used a variety of inexpensive, minimally beneficiated minerals as fillers for economic extension of more costly wood fibre. As such, these fillers played a relatively inconsequential role in contributing specific quality characteristics to the final sheet. However, as paper grades have evolved, the role of mineral fillers has dramatically expanded to contribute specific functionality to final paper grades. In general, this has resulted in a broader offering of mineral products to the papermaker delivering a range of optical and physical properties. Additionally, the use of mineral fillers may significantly impact dynamics on the paper machine itself. For example, the type and level of filler can dramatically affect chemical demand, drainage, speed and drying rates. A basic understanding of the fundamental characteristics of fillers and their resulting impact, both within the paper matrix and on the paper machine, is a critical requirement for cost-effective grade optimization.

  8. The fate of isolated segments of flexor tendons within the digital sheath--a study in synovial nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P

    1976-07-01

    A study has been made of the fate of isolated, devascularised segments of profundus tendon replaced within the synovial flexor sheaths in the front paws of adult rabbits. In all the experiments the segments were found to have survived as viable "loose bodies" and no adhesions developed. Active remodelling processes occurred over the cut ends of the segments and degenerative changes were confined to the most deeply lying tissue. The experiments confirm the existence of a synovial fluid pathway of nutrition, concerned, it is suggested, with nourishing the more superficial layers of the tendon.

  9. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath restricting joint movement in the thumb: A case study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Durmus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath are the second most common type of subcutaneous benign tumors found in the hand. These tumors are slow growing soft tissue mases that develop over a long period of time and can occur at any age. Although such lesions are usually painless, there is a possibility of recurrence of the tumor. Patients should seek postoperative management in order to prevent any possibility of recurrence. In view of the current literature, we present a case involving a patient suffering from a multifocal giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath that restricted movement of the interphalangeal joints of the thumb. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 16-19

  10. Pediatric giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath of the craniocervical junction involving the occipital condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Mo; Chang, Jong Hee; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Kyu Sung

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS), also called pigmented villonodular synovitis, is a common lesion of the synovial membrane of the hand joint, but it uncommonly involves the axial skeleton, especially in pediatric populations. Furthermore, GCTTS originating from the occipital condyle has not been reported previously. A 15-year-old girl presented with a palpable neck mass for 1 year, and imaging studies revealed a less demarcated and heterogeneously enhanced mass in the suboccipital region. The tumor was originating from the occipital condyle that eroded the skull and atlas, and it was completely resected via a far lateral transcondylar approach followed by transarticular screw fixation. After the resection, we performed occipitocervical fusion to prevent spinal instability. The patient made an uneventful recovery after surgery. Recurrence has not been observed after 5 years of follow-up. We report this rare case and briefly review the general features and unusual locations of GCTTS with recommendations for treatment modalities.

  11. Nonseptic tenosynovitis of the digital flexor tendon sheath caused by longitudinal tears in the digital flexor tendons: a retrospective study of 135 tenoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensburg, L; Wilderjans, H; Simon, O; Dewulf, J; Boussauw, B

    2011-11-01

    Longitudinal tears (LTs) of the digital flexor tendons are an important cause of chronic tenosynovitis of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS). The origin of those marginal tears is not yet fully understood. The long-term outcome after medical and surgical treatment is guarded. To determine the prevalence of LTs of the digital flexor tendons in a large population of horses undergoing diagnostic tenoscopy of the DFTS and to assess the outcome of surgical treatment and the factors influencing the outcome. Medical records of 130 horses with chronic tenosynovitis of the DFTS that had tenoscopic surgery between 1999 and 2009 were evaluated. One hundred and thirty-five DFTSs were examined. LTs were diagnosed in 104 DFTSs in 101 horses and long-term follow-up was obtained. Seventy-eight percent of the horses with a nonseptic tenosynovitis of the DFTS had a LT. Preoperative ultrasonographic examination diagnosed tears in 76% of the cases. In showjumpers forelimbs were more frequently affected than hindlimbs (88 vs. 12%), with the right front having a higher incidence of injury than the left front (76 vs. 24%). Seventy-nine percent of the tears involved the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and 87% were located on the lateral tendon border. Thirty-seven horses (38%) returned to an equal or higher level of work. The use of a radiofrequency probe (coblation) was associated with a lower level of performance and decreased the cosmetic end result. Persistence of marked post operative distension of the DFTS carried a poor prognosis for return to previous level of work. A guarded prognosis for future soundness should be given to horses presented for treatment of LTs of the digital flexor tendons. The use of coblation wands had a negative effect on the final outcome. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath composed largely of epithelioid histiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a relatively uncommon lesion. GCTTS composed largely epithelioid histiocytes are very rare. In the literature, the author could not find such cases. A 73-year-old man presented with a mass of right thumb, and resection of the mass was performed. Grossly, the mass was encapsulated and yellowish, and measured 1.5 x 2 x 2 cm. Microscopically, the mass was composed of cellular and hypocellular zones. The former was composed of spindle cells and osteoclast-like giant cells, while the latter of epithelioid clear histiocytes. The area of the former was 20%, and the latter 80%. Pigment was seen in the former elements. Mitotic figures were seen in 3/per 30 high power fields (HPFs) in the former element and 2/per 30 HPFs in the latter element. Histochemically, the pigment was hemosiderin positive with Prussian blue staining. Immunohistochemically, both the elements were negative for cytokeratin (CK) CE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CEA, HMB45, alpha-smooth muscle antigen, p53, CD10, TTF-1, and CDX2. Both the elements were positive for CD68 and Ki-67 (cellular element 30% and hypocellular element 20%). The histiocytes of the hypocellular element and osteoclast-like giant cell of the cellular element were positive for CD45. S100-protein positive Langerhans cells and CD45-positive lymphocytes were scattered. The pathological diagnosis was GCTTS. In the author's experience, GCTTS composed largely epithelioid histiocytes are very rare. In the literature, the author could not find such cases. Thus, the author reports herein this case.

  13. Intra-articular fibroma of tendon sheath in a knee joint associated with iliotibial band friction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Dong Ho; Choi, Sun Seob; Kim, Soo Jin; Lih, Wang [Dong-A University Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Iliotibial band (ITB) friction syndrome is a common overuse injury typically seen in the active athlete population. A nodular lesion on the inner side of the ITB as an etiology or an accompanying lesion from friction syndrome has been rarely reported. A 45-year-old male presented with recurrent pain and a movable nodule at the lateral joint area, diagnosed as ITB friction syndrome. The nodule was confirmed as a rare intra-articular fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS) on the basis of histopathologic findings. We describe the MRI findings, arthroscopic and pathologic features, in this case of intra-articular FTS presenting with ITB friction syndrome.

  14. Intra-articular fibroma of tendon sheath in a knee joint associated with iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sunseob; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lih, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Iliotibial band (ITB) friction syndrome is a common overuse injury typically seen in the active athlete population. A nodular lesion on the inner side of the ITB as an etiology or an accompanying lesion from friction syndrome has been rarely reported. A 45-year-old male presented with recurrent pain and a movable nodule at the lateral joint area, diagnosed as ITB friction syndrome. The nodule was confirmed as a rare intra-articular fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS) on the basis of histopathologic findings. We describe the MRI findings, arthroscopic and pathologic features, in this case of intra-articular FTS presenting with ITB friction syndrome.

  15. Identification of surgically-induced longitudinal lesions of the equine deep digital flexor tendon in the digital flexor tendon sheath using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: an ex-vivo pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuglia, Andrea; Mollo, Giulia; Bullone, Michela; Riccio, Barbara

    2014-11-25

    Longitudinal tears in the lateral aspect of the deep digital flexor tendon are the most common causes of pain localised to the equine digital flexor tendon sheath. However conventional ultrasonographic techniques provide limited information about acute lesions. Ultrasonographic contrast agents are newly developed materials that have contributed to advancement in human diagnostic imaging. They are currently approved for intravenous use in human and animal models. In this study we described intrathecal use in the horse. This study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of standard and angle contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to detect and characterize surgically-induced longitudinal lesions in the deep digital flexor tendons.In this pilot study surgically-induced lesions were created in the lateral aspect of the deep digital flexor tendon within the digital flexor tendon sheath in 10 isolated equine limbs to generate a replicable model for naturally occurring lesions. Another 10 specimens were sham operated. All the limbs were examined ultrasonographically before and shortly after the intrasynovial injection of an ultrasound contrast agent containing stabilised microbubbles. The images were blindly evaluated to detect the ability to identify surgically-created lesions. The deep digital flexor tendons were dissected and a series of slices were obtained. The depth of longitudinal defects identified with contrast-enhanced ultrasound scans was compared to the real extent of the lesions measured in the corresponding gross tendon sections. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with both angle and standard approach provided a significant higher proportion of correct diagnoses compared to standard and angle contrast ultrasonography (p ultrasonography reliably estimated the depth of surgically-induced longitudinal lesions in the deep digital flexor tendons. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the digital flexor tendon sheath could be an effective tool to detect intrasynovial

  16. Arthroscopic Release of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Sheath in Female Ballet Dancers: Dynamic Pathology, Surgical Technique, and Return to Dancing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaki, Hiroki; Hayashi, Hiroteru; Sakamoto, Kanako; Tsuruga, Rei; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-12-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is known as a major overuse lesion in female dancers. We describe arthroscopic surgical techniques in relation to the dynamic pathology of the disease. Crepitus and pain on moving the great toe with the ankle in plantar flexion on preoperative examination confirm the diagnosis of FHL stenosing tenosynovitis even if the os trigonum is not evident. The ankle is approached through standard posterolateral and posteromedial portals. A 4.0-mm-diameter 30° arthroscope is used. Soft tissues around the talus are cleared with a motorized shaver and a radiofrequency device. The posterior aspects of the talus, os trigonum, and FHL tendon surrounded by the tendon sheath are visualized. The dynamic pathology of the FHL tendon is well observed on passive motion of the great toe. The prominent bone fragment of the talus is removed and the tendon sheath is cut with a retrograde knife and a motorized shaver from the superior border down to the entrance of the fibro-osseous tunnel. Arthroscopic release of the FHL tendon sheath is a useful and easy method to directly approach the dynamic pathology of FHL tenosynovitis in female ballet dancers.

  17. New surgical approach to the plantar fetlock joint through the digital flexor tendon sheath wall and suspensory ligament apparatus in cases of concurrent septic synovitis in two cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J; Martinek, B

    2005-05-01

    A new surgical approach to the infected fetlock joint is described in two cattle suffering from septic tenosynovitis of the lateral digital flexor tendon sheaths of the right lateral hind-digits with concurrent septic serofibrinous arthritis of the adjoining fetlock joints, caused by penetrating wounds. In both patients, the infected sheaths were opened and the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons were removed. Intraoperatively, a small entry through the fetlock joint capsule was detected, directly distal to the lateral proximal sesamoid bone. The tract was surgically enlarged and a second approach into the plantar fetlock joint pouch was created proximally by making a 3 cm long and 0.5 cm wide incision between the two lateral suspensory ligament branches. This allowed easy access to the plantar joint pouch, removal of fibrin clots and an effective joint lavage using 5L of sterile saline solution. The incisions of the fetlock joint capsules remained unsutured and were drained using soft polyurethane foam to preclude premature closure. The tendon sheath wounds remained unsutured. In both patients, the digital flexor tendon sheath and the fetlock joint were lavaged daily for the following three days. The infection was eliminated in both cattle and both fully recovered without residual lameness.

  18. DYNAMIC SONOGRAPHY OF THE EQUINE METACARPO(TARSO)PHALANGEAL DIGITAL FLEXOR TENDON SHEATH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanni, Daria L; Rademacher, Nathalie; Riggs, Laura M; Baumruck, Rebecca A; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-11-01

    Palmar/plantar annular desmitis is a common disease that may be associated with adhesions and structures affecting the flexor tendons, which requires tenoscopy to diagnose. The purpose of this descriptive study was to develop a dynamic sonographic technique for evaluating the motion of normal equine flexor tendons in relation to the palmar/plantar annular ligament and to compare findings with horses previously diagnosed with palmar/plantar annular desmitis. Ten healthy adult horses were examined prospectively and the images of four horses diagnosed with palmar/plantar annular desmitis were retrospectively evaluated. Dynamic sonography was performed at the level of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint by maximally extending and flexing the interphalangeal joints. Palmar/plantar annular ligament thickness (mm), size of any gap between the flexor tendons, and subjectively increased angulation of the long linear echoes of the superficial digital flexor tendon were measured. The presence of gliding motion between the palmar/plantar annular ligament and superficial digital flexor tendon was determined by consensus. Twenty-eight healthy control limbs (16 hind/12 fore) and four with palmar/plantar annular desmitis (3 hind/1 fore) were evaluated. Controls had unrestricted gliding motion between the palmar/plantar annular ligament and flexor tendons and zero to 13° of angulation of the long linear echoes. The four affected horses had restricted gliding motion and between 20-35° angulation of the long linear echoes. Dynamic ultrasound is a feasible technique for detecting restricted flexor tendon and palmar/plantar annular ligament gliding motion, as well as subjectively increased angulation of the long linear echoes of the flexor tendon in affected horses compared with controls and warrants further investigation. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  19. Investigation of a robust tendon-sheath mechanism for flexible membrane wing application in mini-UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shian; Tjahjowidodo, Tegoeh; Lee, Hsuchew; Lai, Benedict

    2017-02-01

    Two inherent issues manifest themselves in flying mini-unmanned aerial vehicles (mini-UAV) in the dense area at tropical climate regions, namely disturbances from gusty winds and limited space for deployment tasks. Flexible membrane wing (FMW) UAVs are seen to be potentials to mitigate these problems. FMWs are adaptable to gusty airflow as the wings are able to flex according to the gust load to reduce the effective angle-of-attack, thus, reducing the aerodynamic loads on the wing. On the other hand, the flexible structure is allowing the UAV to fold in a compact package, and later on, the mini-UAV can be deployed instantly from the storage tube, e.g. through a catapult mechanism. This paper discusses the development of an FMW UAV actuated by a tendon-sheath mechanism (TSM). This approach allows the wing to morph to generate a rolling moment, while still allowing the wing to fold. Dynamic characteristics of the mechanism that exhibits the strong nonlinear phenomenon of friction on TSM are modeled and compensated for. A feed-forward controller was implemented based on the identified nonlinear behavior to control the warping position of the wing. The proposed strategy is validated experimentally in a wind tunnel facility by creating a gusty environment that is imitating a realistic gusty condition based upon the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results demonstrate a stable and robust wing-warping actuation, even in gusty conditions. Accurate wing-warping can be achieved via the TSM, while also allowing the wings to fold.

  20. The role of the synovial fluid and tendon sheath for flexor tendon nutrition. An experimental tracer study on diffusional pathways in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, G; Holm, S; Myrhage, R

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive tracers were used to analyse nutritional mechanisms of flexor tendons of dogs during various experimental conditions. The transport and distribution of methyl glucose in the tendon was analysed 15 min after intravenous injection during the following experimental conditions: (1) normal state--rest; (2) passive mobilization of the tendon; (3) active mobilization of the tendon; (4) exclusion of exposure to synovial fluid-preservation of vascular supply; (5) exclusion of vascular supply--preservation of exposure to synovial fluid. The results indicate that active mobilization gives a significant increase in tracer concentration in the volar part of the tendon, while passive mobilization has no such effect. Diffusional pathways from the synovial fluid plays a major role for transport of tracer into the tendon, while the intrinsic vascular system apparently is of no or minor importance in this respect. The main mechanism for solute transport within the tendon is passive diffusion. Transport of sulphate in the volar part follows a similar pattern as in other avascular tissues and the incorporation of sulphate by the cells is low and comparable to that in articular cartilage. The results support our previous hypothesis that the flexor tendon system physiologically corresponds to a joint, and that the synovial fluid plays an important role for flexor tendon nutrition.

  1. Correlation of the SLAP lesion with lesions of the medial sheath of the biceps tendon and intra-articular subscapularis tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett William

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP lesions have been well described in the literature and are thought to be secondary to traction injuries to the biceps anchor and/or falls on the outstretched arm. The pulley has recently been described as a structure that aids in the prevention of biceps instability. The intra-articular subscapularis insertion (IASS has been noted to contribute to the robust nature of the medial sheath. The purpose of the study was to determine a potential correlation of SLAP lesions and pulley lesions with/without IASS lesions, (hereafter referred to as medial sheath as forces that can disrupt the biceps anchor and may also disrupt structures of the medial sheath or vice-versa. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen consecutive shoulder arthroscopies performed by one surgeon were reviewed retrospectively. Operative reports and arthroscopic pictures were carefully reviewed with particular attention paid to the labral and pulley pathology. Selection bias was noted as the author had never operated primarily for a Type 1 SLAP lesion. Following, however, and as such, the exclusion criteria, was a Type 1 SLAP. Results: There were a total of 30 SLAP lesions and a total of 126 medial sheath lesions. There were 13 patients who had both SLAP and medial sheath lesions. There were 17 patients who had a SLAP lesion without a medial sheath lesion. There were 96 medial sheath lesions without a SLAP. A comparison of rates between patients who had a medial sheath lesion with a SLAP and those who had a medial sheath lesion without a SLAP, for the 316 patients, and when tested with a Fisher exact test revealed that there was no statistical significance, P = 0.673. The prevalence of SLAP lesions in this population of 316 patients was 9.4%, Buford 1%, medial sheath lesions 39%, and SLAP and medial sheath lesions 4%. Interestingly, there were three Buford complexes, all associated with a SLAP and one Buford complex

  2. Localized Giant Cell Tumors of the Flexor Tendon Sheath of the Finger: An Analysis of Twenty Five Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Tanrivermis Sayit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of this retrospective study were to evaluate localized giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath (GCTTS with Magnetic Resonance (MR imaging findings and to review the epidemiological features of the disease. We also evaluated the literature regarding GCTTS and performed an analysis of the available information. Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 25 histologically proven cases of GCTTS of the finger during the period between 2012-2014. In addition, a retrospective analysis of the patients’ records was carried out, and age, gender, site and size of lesion, recurrence, and MRI findings were reviewed. Results: The patients were predominantly female (n = 16 and had a mean age of 51.9 ± 12.8 years. Nine patients were male with a mean age of 45.1 ± 13.4 years. The size of the tumors ranged from 6 mm to 30 mm, with a mean size of 15.3±6.8 mm. Tumors were present on the right hand in 15 patients and on the left hand in 10 patients. Among women, 11 tumors were located on the right hand and 5 were found on the left. In men, 4 of the tumors were located on the right hand and 5 were on the left. The most frequent digit on which tumors were found was the index finger, accounting for 40% of cases (n=10. The most frequent location was the index finger for both women (n=6 and men (n=4. All of the lesions were described as well-circumscribed, encapsulated, lobulated, or multilobulated solitary masses with MR imaging. Signal intensity on T1 weighted images (WI was equal to that of skeletal muscle in 23 cases. In two cases, signal intensity was slightly higher. On T2WIs, the signal intensities tended to be between those of skeletal muscle and fat in all of the cases. All of the lesions showed mild to moderate contrast enhancement when compared with precontrast images. There was no statistically significant differences between male and female patients in terms of age, tumor side, involved digit, and highest tumor size

  3. Flexor tendon nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, P R; Lesker, P A

    1985-02-01

    The concepts regarding nutrient pathways to flexor tendons within the digital sheath are reviewed. Historically, both diffusion and perfusion have been considered significant pathways to the flexor tendon. Theories of tendon healing and adhesion formation, as well as techniques employed by the surgeon in the repair of tendons, are based on these concepts.

  4. Tenosynovitis of the carpal sheath of the digital flexor tendons associated with tears of the radial head of the deep digital flexor: observations in 11 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, G J; Wright, I M

    2012-01-01

    Tears of the radial head of the deep digital flexor (DDF) have not previously been documented. To describe the presentation, clinical, ultrasonographic and tenoscopic features associated with tears of the radial head of the DDF and to report the results of treatment. Tears of the radial head of the DDF cause lameness and distension of the carpal sheath of the digital flexor tendons. Removal of disrupted tissue that is extruded into the sheath can result in clinical resolution and restoration of function. Case records and diagnostic images of horses in which tearing of the radial head of the DDF was diagnosed were reviewed retrospectively and follow-up information obtained. Eleven cases were identified. Clinical, ultrasonographic and tenoscopic commonality was recorded and treatment techniques were documented. All cases returned post operatively to pre-injury levels of work. Tearing of the radial head of the DDF is a clinical entity with consistent diagnostic features. Tenoscopic removal of the torn tissue is associated with a good outcome. Clinicians evaluating lame horses should include tearing of the radial head of the DDF as a differential diagnosis in animals with distended carpal sheaths. Tenoscopic surgery is a recommended treatment. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Giant cell tumors of the tendon sheaths in the hand: review of 96 patients with an average follow-up of 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancigu, R; Rabarin, F; Jeudy, J; Saint Cast, Y; Cesari, B; Fouque, P A; Raimbeau, G

    2013-06-01

    Giant cell tumors (GCT) of the hand are relatively common and have a good prognosis, but the risk of recurrence is high. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical results of a consecutive series of patients and to determine the risk factors for recurrence. This was a retrospective study of 96 patients (57 women, 39 men) operated between February 1982 and October 2005 for GCT of the tendon sheaths in the hand. The average age at the time of the procedure was 47.7±14.5 years (range 13-75). All the patients were reviewed by an independent surgeon. The following were recorded: clinical result (QuickDASH, satisfaction), recurrence, histological appearance of tumor, location of tumor, excision margins and extension into the neighboring anatomical structures (tendon, joint). The tumor was located in the index finger in 29 cases, middle finger in 23 cases, thumb in 21 cases, ring finger in 11 cases, little finger in 11 cases, hypothenar area in two cases and thenar area in one case. In all cases, the lesion was isolated. The swelling was palmar in 27 cases, dorsal in 20 cases and medial or lateral in 59 cases. The most common joint location was the DIP joint (35% of cases). The swollen area was sensitive in 12 cases. The time from the appearance of the tumor to physician consultation ranged between 1 month and 7 years. Before the surgery, standard X-rays were taken in all patients; ultrasonography was also performed in eight patients and MRI in one patient. The tumor had an average diameter of 15.8±2.6mm (range 5-30). Histological analysis revealed a multilobed lesion with multinucleated giant cells, with or without encapsulation. The average follow-up at the time of review was 12.1±3.8 years (range 5-29). There were eight recurrences in seven patients (8.3%). The average time to recurrence was 2.75±2 years (range 1-6.5). In every case of recurrence, there had been intra-articular tumor development and/or tendon destruction (Plesions where

  6. Frequency of Penetration of the Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath and Distal Interphalangeal Joint Using a Direct Endoscopic Approach to the Navicular Bursa in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane-Smyth, Justine; Taylor, Sarah Elizabeth; García, Eugenio Cillán; Reardon, Richard J M

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the frequency of inadvertent penetration of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) and/or distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) when using a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, and to evaluate an alternate direct approach to the navicular bursa. Cadaveric study. Equine cadaver limbs (n = 40 for direct; n = 12 for alternate approach). Four surgeons performed the direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa on 10 limbs each. Frequencies of inadvertent synovial penetration and iatrogenic damage were compared between surgeons. Use of an alternate direct approach, adopting a straight parasagittal trajectory, was evaluated by 2 surgeons. Inadvertent synovial penetration occurred in 45% of limbs (DFTS 37.5%; DIPJ 17.5%; and both structures 10%). Successful bursa entry was achieved on the first attempt in 45% of limbs. Significant variation in frequency of inadvertent synovial penetration was observed between surgeons (range 10-80%). Inadvertent synovial penetration did not occur when using the alternate direct technique. Iatrogenic damage to navicular bone fibrocartilage and/or deep digital flexor tendon occurred in 55% of limbs using the direct endoscopic approach and in 0% of limbs using the alternate direct approach. Because of the considerable risk of inadvertent penetration of the DFTS and/or the DIPJ when making a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, it is advisable to investigate for inadvertent penetration when treating navicular bursa sepsis using a direct approach. The alternate direct technique may reduce the risk of inadvertent penetration; however, the view within the bursa may be restricted. © 2016 The Authors. Veterinary Surgery published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Septic ankle with purulence tracking up the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath leading to deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism and compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waryasz, Gregory R; McClure, Philip; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-06-01

    The differential diagnosis for lower extremity swelling and ankle pain is broad and can have overlapping and related diagnoses. If there is concern for more than one diagnosis, the practitioner should perform a thorough physical examination, order the appropriate studies, and perform the correct procedures to completely diagnose and treat the patient. This article presents the case of a 19-year-old male who presented with 5 days of left ankle pain, fevers, and swelling without any known trauma to the area. Physical examination was concerning for a septic ankle joint, cellulitis, deep venous thrombosis, and compartment syndrome. Duplex venous ultrasound confirmed a deep venous thrombosis in the popliteal vein. Joint aspiration of the ankle had gross purulence with the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room where he was found to have gross purulence in the deep posterior compartment, medial and lateral soft tissues of the ankle, and gross purulence in the ankle joint. The deep posterior compartment also had significant muscle necrosis and evidence of compartment syndrome. This case presents the possibility of a septic ankle leading to compartment syndrome and deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism due to the intra-articular nature of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Case report, Level IV. © 2014 The Author(s).

  8. Clinical aspects of tendon healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractWe know that healing of a tendon wound takes place by an invasion of fibreblasts from the surrounding tissues; the tendon itself has no intrinsic healing capacity. lt was Potenza (1962) who proved that a traumatic suture of the tendons within their sheath is followed by disintegration of

  9. Experimental restoration of the digital synovial sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiken, O; Rank, F

    1977-01-01

    The digital synovial sheath constitutes an important component of the delicate mechanism of flexor tendon nutrition and gliding function, In the present study the true nature of the inner cell layers of secondary healed defects in the tendon sheath as well as of free tendon sheath autografts were studied. Leghorn chickens were used as experimental animals and the gradual development of the pseudosheath as well as the healing of sheath autografts were studied both macroscopically and histologically including transmission electron miscroscopy. Synovial regeneration by extension from intact parts of the sheath was never observed and the pseudosheath formed around silastic rods consisted of granulation tissue with fibroblasts and macrophages. The free tendon sheath autografts demonstrated a normal process of healing at the edges of the defect. Synovial regeneration appeared to be that of metaplasia and proliferation of fibroblasts and macrophages. This phenomenon was demonstrable both in the secondary healed defects and more convincingly in the sheath autografts. Further, the silastic rod was found to induce foreign body reaction in the healing synovium. It is concluded that grafting of autologous tendon sheath tissue seems to be a promising method for restoration of defects in the digital tendon sheath.

  10. MRI and thallium features of pigmented villonodular synovitis and giant cell tumours of tendon sheaths: a retrospective single centre study of imaging and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynskey, Samuel J; Pianta, Marcus J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the MRI and thallium-201 ((201)TI) scintigraphy attributes of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and giant cell tumours of tendon sheaths (GCTTS). The epidemiology of these uncommon lesions was also assessed and less commonly encountered pathology reported on including multifocality, necrosis and concurrent malignancy. A retrospective single centre review of MRI and (201)TI scintigraphy findings for 83 surgically proven or biopsy-proven consecutive cases of PVNS was undertaken. Radiological findings including lesion size, (201)TI uptake (as a marker of metabolic activity), location, extent and patient demographics were correlated with biopsy and surgical specimen histology. Typical appearances are described, as well as less common imaging manifestations. The study period encompassed all patients presenting or referred to a tertiary bone and soft-tissue tumour referral centre with PVNS or GCTTS between 1 January 2007 and the 1 December 2013. Lesions occur most commonly around the knee joint in the fourth decade of life, with younger patients showing a tendency to occur in the hip. Features of PVNS and GTTS include bone erosion, ligamentous and cartilage replacement, muscle infiltration and multifocality. MR signal characteristics were variable but post-contrast enhancement was near-universal. 14 of 83 cases showed no uptake of (201)TI and revealed a statistically significant smaller average axial dimension of 19.8 mm than lesions displaying active (201)TI uptake of 36.4 mm, p = 0.016. Four lesions demonstrated central necrosis on gross histology, two of each from both the (201)TI-avid and (201)TI-non-avid groups. MR is the imaging modality of choice when considering the diagnosis of these uncommon tumours. (201)TI scintigraphy as a marker of metabolic activity further adds minimal value although small lesions can appear to lack (201)TI avidity. This article depicts typical imaging findings of PVNS/GCTTS and

  11. Digital flexor sheath: repair and reconstruction of the annular pulleys and membranous sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, J G; Leversedge, F J

    2000-01-01

    Rupture or transection of the digital pulley may necessitate repair or reconstruction to treat symptomatic flexor tendon bowstringing. When reconstruction is necessary, intrasynovial tendon grafts may provide superior gliding characteristics when compared with traditional extrasynovial tendon grafts. Lacerations of the membranous portion of the digital sheath and of noncritical annular pulleys usually do not require operative repair.

  12. Wrinkle Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as injectable implants, soft tissue fillers, or wrinkle fillers are medical device implants approved by the ... for the correction of moderate to severe facial wrinkles and skin folds, such as nasolabial folds, which ...

  13. Nutrition of flexor tendons in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, P R; Bridwell, K; Whiteside, L A; Lesker, P A

    1978-10-01

    The hydrogen washout technique was used to investigate the role of synovial diffusion versus vascular perfusion in the nutrition of monkey flexor tendons within the digital sheath. There was no significant difference in the uptake and washout of hydrogen tracer by tendons in contact with synovium but detached from the surrounding vasculature, compared to control tendons. However, there was insignificant uptake of tracer by tendons with intact vasculature, but separated from synovium. Synovial diffusion is a primary nutrient pathway of monkey flexor tendons within the digital sheath.

  14. Local administration of Trolox, a vitamin E analog, reduced tendon adhesion in a chicken model of flexor digitorum profundus tendon injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yuk Wa; Fu, Sai Chuen; Mok, Tsui Yu; Chan, Kai Ming; Hung, Leung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand flexor tendon injuries are compromised with tendon adhesion. Tendon adhesion forms between flexor tendon and tendon sheath, reduces the range of motion of fingers, and affects their function. Oxidative stress is increased in flexor tendon after injury and might play a role in tendon adhesion formation. Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), a water-soluble analog of vitamin E, is antioxidative. Trolox reduced oxidative stress and the expression of fi...

  15. Tendon injuries of the hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265

  16. Tumor de células gigantes de bainha de tendão no LCA Tendon sheath giant cells tumor in ACL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pedrinelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um relato de caso de tumor de células gigantes de bainha do ligamento cruzado anterior, uma localização extremamente rara para esse tipo de lesão. O paciente do sexo feminino apresentava dor no joelho, sem relato de trauma anterior. Foi submetido ao exame clínico, ao estudo radiográfico e de ressonância magnética da região. Feita a hipótese diagnóstica de TGC de Bainha, o paciente foi então tratado com ressecção artroscópica do tumor. O diagnóstico foi confirmado com exame anátomo-patológico. O paciente evoluiu bem, com melhora dos sintomas referidos no pré-operatório.The author presents a case report of Tumor Giant Cells (TGC localized on the anterior cruciate ligament sheath, an extremely rare site for this kind of lesion. A 37 y-o female patient presented with knee pain, with no history of previous trauma. She underwent clinical examination, X-ray study and magnetic resonance of the region. The diagnostic hypothesis of Sheath TGC was provided, and the patient was treated with tumor arthroscopy resection. Diagnosis was confirmed by anatomicopathological examination. By the end point assessment, none of the pre-operative symptoms were reported.

  17. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables: common test methods part 4-1: methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds – resistance to environmental stress cracking – measurement of the melt flow index – carbon black and/or mineral filler content measurement in polyethylene by direct combustion – measurement of carbon black content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) – assessment of carbon black dispersion in polyethylene using a microscope

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Specifies the test methods to be used for testing polymeric insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables for power distribution and telecommunications including cables used on ships. Gives the methods for measurements of the resistance to environmental stress cracking, for wrapping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of melt flow index and for measurement of carbon black and/or mineral filler content, which apply to PE and PP coumpounds, including cellular compounds and foam skin for insulation.

  18. Giant cell tumor of the flexor tendon of the wrist: US and MRI evaluation. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bassetti, E.; Candreva, R.; Santucci, E.

    2011-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a benign proliferative lesion of synovial origin that may affect the joints, bursae and tendon sheaths. We report the case of a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath arising from the carpal tunnel of the wrist in a 47-year-old woman. The patient underwent ultrasound (US) examination and subsequently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  19. Achilles Tendonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Treat Achilles Tendonitis? en español Tendinitis de Aquiles Kim didn't do much over the summer ... Achilles Tendonitis and Who Gets It? Your Achilles tendon is located at the back of your foot, ...

  20. Collagen Structure of Tendon Relates to Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Franchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A tendon is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Tendon may be surrounded by different structures: 1 fibrous sheaths or retinaculae; 2 reflection pulleys; 3 synovial sheaths; 4 peritendon sheaths; 5 tendon bursae. Tendons contain a few cells, mostly represented by tenoblasts along with endothelial cells and some chondrocytes; b proteoglycans (PGs, mainly decorin and hyaluronan, and c collagen, mostly type I. Tendon is a good example of a high ordered extracellular matrix in which collagen molecules assemble into filamentous collagen fibrils (formed by microfibrils which aggregate to form collagen fibers, the main structural components. It represents a multihierarchical structure as it contains collagen molecules arranged in fibrils then grouped in fibril bundles, fascicles and fiber bundles that are almost parallel to the long axis of the tendon, named as primary, secondary and tertiary bundles. Collagen fibrils in tendons show prevalently large diameter, a D-period of about 67 nm and appear built of collagen molecules lying at a slight angle (< 5°. Under polarized light microscopy the collagen fiber bundles appear crimped with alternative dark and light transverse bands. In recent studies tendon crimps observed via SEM and TEM show that the single collagen fibrils suddenly changing their direction contain knots. These knots of collagen fibrils inside each tendon crimp have been termed “fibrillar crimps”, and even if they show different aspects they all may fulfil the same functional role. As integral component of musculoskeletal system, the tendon acts to transmit muscle forces to the skeletal system. There is no complete understanding of the mechanisms in transmitting/absorbing tensional forces within the tendon; however it seems likely that a flattening of tendon crimps may occur at a first stage of tendon stretching

  1. Nonsurgical giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath or of the diffuse type: Are MRI or {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT able to provide an accurate prediction of long-term outcome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercle, Laurent [IUCT-Oncopole/Institut Claudius Regaud, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Villejuif (France); Chisin, Roland [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical Center, Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel); Ammari, Samy [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Gillebert, Quentin [Hopital tenon, Hopitaux Universitaires Est Parisien, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Ouali, Monia [Institut Claudius Regaud, Department of Biostatistics, Toulouse (France); Jaudet, Cyril; Dierickx, Lawrence; Zerdoud, Slimane; Courbon, Frederic [IUCT-Oncopole/Institut Claudius Regaud, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); Delord, Jean-Pierre [Institut Claudius Regaud, Department of Clinical Research, Toulouse (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Villejuif (France)

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether MRI (RECIST 1.1, WHO criteria and the volumetric approach) or {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT (PERCIST 1.0) are able to predict long-term outcome in nonsurgical patients with giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath or of the diffuse type (GCT-TS/DT). Fifteen ''nonsurgical'' patients with a histological diagnosis of GCT-TS/DT were divided into two groups: symptomatic patients receiving targeted therapy and asymptomatic untreated patients. All 15 patients were evaluated by MRI of whom 10 were treated, and a subgroup of 7 patients were evaluated by PET/CT of whom 4 were treated. Early evolution was assessed according to MRI and PET/CT scans at baseline and during follow-up. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to evaluate the degree of agreement between PERCIST 1.0, RECIST 1.1, WHO criteria, volumetric approaches and the reference standard (long-term outcome, delay 505 ± 457 days). The response rate in symptomatic patients with GCT-TS/DT receiving targeted therapy was also assessed in a larger population that included additional patients obtained from a review of the literature. The kappa coefficients for agreement between RECIST/WHO/volumetric criteria and outcome (15 patients) were respectively: 0.35 (p = 0.06), 0.26 (p = 0.17) and 0.26 (p = 0.17). In the PET/CT subgroup (7 patients), PERCIST was in perfect agreement with the late symptomatic evolution (kappa = 1, p < 0.05). In the treated symptomatic group including the additional patients from the literature the response rates to targeted therapies according to late symptomatic assessment, and PERCIST and RECIST criteria were: 65 % (22/34), 77 % (10/13) and 26 % (10/39). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with PERCIST is a promising approach to the prediction of the long-term outcome in GCT-TS/DT and may avoid unnecessary treatments, toxicity and costs. On MRI, WHO and volumetric approaches are not more effective than RECIST using the current thresholds. (orig.)

  2. Flexor tendon physiology: tendon nutrition and cellular activity in injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberman, R H

    1985-01-01

    Scientific studies of the past 20 years have done much to redefine the mechanisms by which flexor tendons heal. Several points have become increasingly clear: Flexor tendons are nourished to a greater extent by synovial fluid diffusion than vascular perfusion. Tendon cells are capable of proliferating, producing collagen, and reconstructing their own gliding surface in the absence of adhesion ingrowth. The key to a successful outcome after flexor tendon repair appears to be an early restoration of tendon continuity, reconstruction of the sheath, if possible, and early passive mobilization. This complex stimulates the tendon's intrinsic repair potential, which is contained within the cells of the tendon itself but appears to be expressed only under ideal experimental and clinical situations.

  3. Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What OT Can Do: Video For Professionals Ethics Tendon Injuries When a person experiences a tendon injury in the hand that affects the ability ... plan. What can a person with a hand tendon injury do? Implement a home exercise program recommended ...

  4. Ultrasonographic assessment of the equine palmar tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaliya, N R; Ranpariya, J J; Kumar, Dharmendra; Javia, C B; Barvalia, D R

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the equine palmar tendon by ultrasonography (USG) in standing the position. USG of palmar tendons was performed in 40 adult horses using linear transducer having frequency of 10-18 MHz (e-soate, My Lab FIVE) and L52 linear array transducer (Titan, SonoSite) with frequencies ranging from 8 to 10 MHz. Palmar tendon was divided into 7 levels from distal to accessory carpal bone up to ergot in transverse scanning and 3 levels in longitudinal scanning. The USG evaluation was very useful for diagnosis of affections of the conditions such as chronic bowed tendon, suspensory ligament desmitis, carpal sheath tenosynovitis and digital sheath effusions. The mean cross-sectional area (cm(2)) of affected tendons was significantly increased in affected than normal tendons. The echogenicity was also found reduced in affected tendons and ligaments along with disorganization of fiber alignment depending on the severity of lesion and injury. USG proved ideal diagnostic tool for diagnosis and post-treatment healing assessment of tendon injuries in horses.

  5. Primary flexor tendon repair: surgical techniques based on the anatomy and biology of the flexor tendon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, M A

    1991-01-01

    The anatomy, biology and bio-mechanics of the flexor tendon system demand a precise approach to flexor tendon repair. Within the fibroosseous canal, the synovial fluid and a complex intratendinous vascular network provide nutrition for intrinsic flexor tendon healing. Retention of the synovial sheath theoretically maintains an enclosed tendon/tendon sheat environment in which the tendon repair is bathed in synovial fluid, and may glide within a smooth tunnel. The preservation of the intricate double tendon inter-relationship and the annular pulley system is vital to the efficiency of finger flexion. This review details surgical and postoperative techniques aimed at restoring the normal anatomy and providing optimal conditions for the return of flexor tendon function.

  6. Flexor tendon specimens in organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, F; Eiken, O; Bergenholtz, A; Lundborg, G; Erkel, L J

    1980-01-01

    The healing process of sectioned and subsequently sutured rabbit tendon segments was studied over a period of 3 weeks, using an organ culture technique. In one series, the tendon specimens were exposed to a chemically defined culture medium for nutrition. In two control series, the specimens were kept in the synovial cavity of the knee joint for varying periods of time, before being transferred to the culture medium. The tendons remained viable in the medium. The superficial tendon cells demonstrated the morphological characteristics of fibroblasts, but cellular fibroplasia could not be detected. The two control series subjected to synovia prior to transfer into the culture medium showed superficial repair similar to the findings in previous studies on healing capacity of tendon nourished by synovia. The investigation supports the hypothesis that superficial tendon cells are fibroblasts with a potential for repair and that synovia is an efficient nutrient medium. Thus, the beneficial effects on repair exercised by the tendon sheath function should be utilized in flexor tendon surgery.

  7. Communication through plasma sheaths

    OpenAIRE

    Korotkevich, A. O.; Newell, A. C.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent.

  8. Excisão de tumor de células gigantes de bainha de tendão com envolvimento ósseo por dupla via de acesso: relato de caso Excision of giant cell tumor of tendon sheath with bone involvement by means of double access route: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Pinho Teixeira Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O tumor de células gigantes de bainha de tendão (TCGBT é uma lesão frequente e é o segundo tumor mais frequente na mão, após o cisto sinovial. O diagnóstico é feito através do exame clínico e por exames complementares (radiografia simples e ressonância magnética. Ao exame radiológico, pode-se observar invasão ou erosão óssea da falange atingida. Na ressonância magnética, um "efeito fluorescente ou brilhoso" pode ser observado, devido à alta quantidade de hemossiderina encontrada no tumor. O tratamento cirúrgico é a prática mais comum, sendo a excisão completa importante para se evitar a recidiva do tumor, especialmente quando se observar invasão óssea nos exames de imagem, que geralmente se relaciona a uma maior recidiva do tumor. Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um caso de tumor de células gigantes de bainha de tendão, encontrado na falange média do terceiro dedo de uma paciente de 45 anos, tratado cirurgicamente com sucesso, por dupla via de acesso, dorsal e volar.Giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath are common lesions and are the second most frequent tumors in the hand, after synovial cysts. They are diagnosed by means of clinical examination and complementary examinations (simple radiography and magnetic resonance. Erosion and invasion of the phalangeal bone affected may be seen on radiological examination. Magnetic resonance may show a "fluorescent or radiant effect" may be observed, caused by the high quantity of hemosiderin inside the tumor. Surgical treatment is the commonest practice, and complete excision is important for avoiding recurrence of the tumor, especially when bone invasion is observed on imaging examinations, which is generally related to greater tumor recurrence. In this paper, a case of a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in the middle phalanx of the third finger of a 45-year-old female patient is presented. This was successfully treated by means of surgery using a double access route

  9. Tendon healing: an experimental model in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, C L; Snyder, D M

    1977-03-01

    Based upon the studies of the healing process in dogs in which profundus tendons were severed partially by a method in which the cut surfaces remained in contact and the area of division was in an undamaged area of the sheath, it was shown that healing of the tendon took place without evidence of vascular contribution from the sheath. Vascular loop patterns, similar to those seen in synovial lining of joints or on either side of the growth plate of growing bone, were found on the surface of the tendons in the area of mesotenon reflection, the osseotendinous junctions, where the vinculum joined the tendon, and in various areas of the tendon sheath. No other vessels were found. A theory for nutrition of the tendon is proposed analagous to that postulated for maintenance of cartilage, first with the formation of synovial fluid by the vascular loop system and then a diffusion phase dependent upon the repetitive loading and unloading of the tissue to force the fluid into the system of canaliculi in the tendon.

  10. [Suture techniques and material in surgery of flexor tendons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillukat, T; Fuhrmann, R; Windolf, J; van Schoonhoven, J

    2017-03-01

    Adhesions and scar formation between flexor tendons and the surrounding tissue are only contemporarily avoidable by movement of flexor tendons. Concepts with active follow-up protocols are more favorable than passive mobilization. The main risks of flexor tendon repair are rupture of the tendon suture, insidious gap formation and resistance to tendon gliding within the tendon sheath. Currently, there is no consensus with respect to the optimal suture technique or suture material. Nevertheless, there are some principles worth paying attention to, such as using stronger suture material, blocking stitches, suture techniques with four or more strands as well as circular running sutures. A technically acceptable compromise, even for the less experienced, is currently the four-strand suture combined with a circular running suture. It maintains sufficient stability for active motion follow-up protocols without resistance.

  11. Release of the A4 pulley to facilitate zone II flexor tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin Bo

    2014-11-01

    During primary or delayed primary repair of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon, surgeons often face difficulty in passing the retracted tendon or repaired tendon under the dense, fibrous A4 pulley. The A4 pulley is the narrowest part of the flexor sheath, proximal to the terminal tendon. Disrupted tendon ends (or surgically repaired tendons) are usually swelling, making passage of the tendons under this pulley difficult or even impossible. During tendon repair in the A4 pulley area, when the trauma is in the middle part of the middle phalanx and the A3 pulley is intact, the A4 pulley can be vented entirely to accommodate surgical repair and facilitate gliding of the repaired tendon after surgery. Venting the pulley does not disturb tendon function when the other major pulleys are intact and when the venting of the A4 pulley and adjacent sheath is limited to the middle half of the middle phalanx. Such venting is easily achieved through a palmar midline or lateral incision of the A4 pulley and its adjacent distal or/and proximal sheath, which helps ensure a more predictable recovery of digital flexion and extension. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental studies in chickens on the initial nutrition of tendon grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, P R; Lesker, P A; Bridwell, K

    1979-11-01

    A study of nutrition of various tendon graft preparations in adult chickens (up to 2 weeks after grafting), using tritiated proline and a trichloracetic acid extraction technique which separated the free and metabolized amino acid fractions, suggests that diffusion of nutrients is an important process in the initial nutrition of tendon grafts, that tendon grafts are metabolically active and viable structures, that adhesions which are frequently associated with tendon grafts do not appear to be essential to the nutrition of grafts, and that tendon grafts within fibrous pseudosheaths are nourished as effectively as grafts within synovial sheaths.

  13. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Achilles tendon rupture. Obesity. Excess weight puts more strain on the tendon. Prevention To reduce your chance of developing Achilles tendon problems, follow these tips: Stretch and strengthen calf muscles. Stretch your calf until you feel a noticeable ...

  14. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Page ( 1 ) Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It occurs when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the ...

  15. Achilles tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large ...

  16. Tubercular tenosynovitis of extensor tendons of foot--a rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis of soft tissues as a result of spread from adjacent bone or joint is a well recognized entity. However isolated tuberculous pyomyositis, bursitis and tenosynovitis are rare, constituting about 1% of skeletal tuberculosis. Tubercular tenosynovitis commonly involves tendon sheaths of wrist and hand. Cases of ...

  17. -Computed tomography arthrography and tendon imaging of the ankle-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybier, M; Hamze, B; Champsaur, P; Parlier, C

    1997-01-01

    Ankle opacification dramatically increases the diagnostic value of CT examination of the foot and ankle. The procedure may be entirely performed on the CT table. The main results and indications of CT-arthrography of the ankle are presented. CT-tenography of the ankle which includes the opacification of a tendon sheath on the CT table, is also described.

  18. Iliopsoas Tendon Reformation after Psoas Tendon Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

  19. Peroneal tendon disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O'Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries. Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers. Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and ...

  20. Endoscopic adhesiolysis for extensive tibialis posterior tendon and Achilles tendon adhesions following compound tendon rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2013-01-01

    Tendon adhesion is one of the most common causes of disability following tendon surgery. A case of extensive peritendinous adhesions of the Achilles tendon and tibialis posterior tendon after compound rupture of the tendons was reported. This was managed by endoscopic adhesiolysis of both tendons. The endoscopic approach allows early postoperative mobilisation which can relieve the tendon adhesion.

  1. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the type of peroneal tendon injury. Options include: Immobilization. A cast or splint may be used to ... arthritis, gout, tendonitis, fracture, nerve compression (tarsal tunnel syndrome), infection and... Founded in 1942, the American College ...

  2. Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Achilles tendon, the largest and strongest tendon in the human body, is nevertheless one of the tendons which most commonly undergoes a complete subcutaneous tear. Achilles tendon ruptures are especially common in middle aged men who occasionally participate in sport. Even though Achilles tendon ruptures are frequent, up to 25% of acute injuries are misdiagnosed, and present as chronic injuries. Methods: This is a review article about diagnosis and management of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. Minimally invasive Achilles tendon reconstruction is discussed. Results: The optimal surgical procedure is still debated, however, less invasive peroneus brevis reconstruction technique and free hamstring autograft provide good functional results. Conclusion: The management of chronic ruptures is more demanding than acute tears, because of the retraction of the tendon ends, and the gap makes primary repair impossible. Wound complications and infections are frequent after open procedures. Minimally invasive treatments provide good functional results and lower complications rate. PMID:29081863

  3. Biologics for tendon repair☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A.; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135

  4. Treatment of the ageing hand with dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kühne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the trend in facial cosmetic procedures, patients are now increasingly requesting hand rejuvenation treatments. Intrinsic ageing of the hands is characterized by loss of dermal elasticity and atrophy of the subcutaneous tissue. Thus, veins, tendons and bony structures become apparent. Among the available procedures, intrinsic ageing of the hands is best improved by restoring the volume of soft tissue. Volume restoration can be achieved with a number of long-lasting dermal fillers with varying degrees of improvement and treatment longevity. The dermal fillers used in hand rejuvenation include autologous fat, collagen, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite and poly-L-lactic acid. Here, we describe our preferred injection method for hand rejuvenation using calcium hydroxylapatite and a single-bolus injection.

  5. Tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps tendon: histopathologic analysis of the extra-articular biceps tendon and tenosynovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Jonathan J; Shishani, Yousef; Rodgers, Mark; Gobezie, Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Bicipital tendinitis is a common cause of anterior shoulder pain, but there is no evidence that acute inflammation of the extra-articular long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon is the root cause of this condition. We evaluated the histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath in order to compare those findings to known histologic changes seen in other tendinopathies. Twenty-six consecutive patients (mean age 45.4±13.7 years) underwent an open subpectoral biceps tenodesis for anterior shoulder pain localized to the bicipital groove. Excised tendons were sent for histologic analysis. Specimens were graded using a semiquantitative scoring system to evaluate tenocyte morphology, the presence of ground substance, collagen bundle characteristics, and vascular changes. Chronic inflammation was noted in only two of 26 specimens, and no specimen demonstrated acute inflammation. Tenocyte enlargement and proliferation, characterized by increased roundness and size of the cell and nucleus with proteoglycan matrix expansion and myxoid degenerative changes, was found in all 26 specimens. Abundant ground substance, collagen bundle changes, and increased vascularization were visualized in all samples. Anterior shoulder pain attributed to the biceps tendon does not appear to be due to an inflammatory process in most cases. The histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath are similar to the pathologic findings in de Quervain tenosynovitis at the wrist, and may be due to a chronic degenerative process similar to this and other tendinopathies of the body.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells modulate release of matrix proteins from tendon surfaces in vitro: a potential beneficial therapeutic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican, Elaine R; Dudhia, Jayesh; Alves, Ana-Liz; Clements, Lucy E; Plessis, Francois Du; Smith, Roger K W

    2014-05-01

    Injury of tendons contained within a synovial environment, such as joint, bursa or tendon sheath, frequently fails to heal and releases matrix proteins into the synovial fluid, driving inflammation. This study investigated the effectiveness of cells to seal tendon surfaces and provoke matrix synthesis as a possible effective injectable therapy. Equine flexor tendon explants were cultured overnight in suspensions of bone marrow and synovium-derived mesenchymal stems cells and, as controls, two sources of fibroblasts, derived from tendon and skin, which adhered to the explants. Release of the most abundant tendon extracellular matrix proteins into the media was assayed, along with specific matrix proteins synthesis by real-time PCR. Release of extracellular matrix proteins was influenced by the coating cell type. Fibroblasts from skin and tendon appeared less capable of preventing the release of matrix proteins than mesenchymal stems cells. The source of cell is an important consideration for cell therapy.

  7. FIBRILLINS IN TENDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Giusti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tendons among connective tissue, mainly collagen, contain also elastic fibres made of fibrillin 1, fibrillin 2 and elastin that are broadly distributed in tendons and represent 1-2% of the dried mass of the tendon. Only in the last years, studies on structure and function of elastic fibres in tendons have been performed. Aim of this review is to revise data on the organization of elastic fibres in tendons, in particular fibrillin structure and function, and on the clinical manifestations associated to alterations of elastic fibres in tendons. Indeed, microfibrils may contribute to tendon mechanics; therefore, their alterations may cause joint hypermobility and contractures which have been found to be clinical features in patients with Marfan syndrome and Beals syndrome. The two diseases are caused by mutations in genes FBN1 and FBN2 encoding fibrillin 1 and fibrillin 2, respectively.

  8. Research progress of composite fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan ZHAO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using composite filler is a very potential way to braze dissimilar material, especially braze metals with ceramics. The composite filler which is added varieties of high temperature alloy, carbon fiber and ceramic particles has a suitable coefficient of thermal expansion. The application of composite filler can release the residual stress caused by mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient in the brazing joints and improve the overall performance significantly. According to the traditional classification method of composite materials, the composite filler is divided into micron-reinforced composite filler and nano-reinforced composite filler, of which the feature and research status are discussed in this text. According to the influence of different size reinforced phases on microstructure and mechanical property of the brazing joints, nano-reinforced composite filler has more uniform and better structure compared with micron-reinforced composite filler, and higher joint strengh can be obtained by using it. However, the reinforced mechanism is still an open question, and will become the key area of the future research work.

  9. Blood supply of the flexor digital tendon in the hand and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z Z; Zhong, S Z; Sun, B; Ho, G T

    1990-01-01

    An anatomical study on the blood sources and vascularity of the flexor digital tendon was conducted in the upper extremities of fresh cadavers by means of arterial injection and meticulous dissection of the transparent tendon under the microscope. According to whether or not synovial membrane surrounded the tendon, the flexor digital tendon can be divided into 2 regions: non-synovial and synovial. The major intrinsic blood supply of the digital tendon was in the form of longitudinal vascular bundles, while the transverse anastomotic branches were short and sparse. The non-synovial region of the tendon was covered by paratenon and the vascular distribution of this region was uniform. In the synovial sheath, the blood vessels distributed only on the dorsal side, while the volar side was devoid of vessels. The profundus and superficialis tendons had an avascular zone at the proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints respectively. It was considered that the difference of the vascular architecture might be related to the mechanical force to which the tendon was subjected. The nutrition of tendon was discussed and the selection of tendon graft at operation was suggested.

  10. Evaluation of the ability of xanthan gum/gellan gum/hyaluronan hydrogel membranes to prevent the adhesion of postrepaired tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shyh Ming; Chang, Shwu Jen; Wang, Hung-Yi; Tang, Shu Ching; Yang, Shan-Wei

    2014-12-19

    After tendon-repair surgery, adhesion between the surgical tendon and the synovial sheath is often presented resulting in poor functional repair of the tendon. This may be prevented using a commercially available mechanical barrier implant, Seprafilm, which is composed of hyaluronan (HA) and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels. In a rat model, prepared membranes of various compositions of gellan gum (GG), xanthan gum (XG) and HA as well as Seprafilm were wrapped around repaired tendons and the adhesion of the tendons was examined grossly and histologically after 3 weeks of healing. Certain formulations of the XG/GG/HA hydrogel membranes reduced tendon adhesion with equal efficacy but without reducing the tendon strength compared to Seprafilm. The designed membranes swelled rapidly and blanketed onto the tendon tissue more readily and closely than Seprafilm. Also they degraded slowly, which allowed the membranes to function as barriers for extended periods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The management of partial zone II intrasynovial flexor tendon lacerations: A literature review of biomechanics, clinical outcomes and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberry, Kyle D; Shue, Shirley; Chepla, Kyle J

    2018-01-12

    Penetrating trauma or lacerations within zone II of the flexor sheath may result in partial tendon injury. The proper management of this injury is controversial; the literature contains differing indications for surgical treatment and post-operative rehabilitation. A literature review of the Cochrane, Medline and Pubmed databases was performed using the following search criteria: partial, flexor, tendon, laceration. All English language studies that evaluated biomechanical strength, complications, and outcomes after partial tendon injury in human and animal studies were included and reviewed by two of the authors. Animal and cadaveric biomechanical studies have demonstrated that partial lacerations involving up to 95% of the tendon cross-sectional area can safely tolerate loads generated through unresisted, active finger flexion. Suture tenorraphy of partial tendon injury is associated with decreased tendon tensile strength, increased resistance, and decreased tendon gliding. Complications of non-surgical management include triggering and entrapment, which can be managed by tendon beveling or pulley release. Late rupture is extremely uncommon (one report). Partial tendon lacerations involving 90% of the cross-sectional area can be safely treated without surgical repair and immediate protected active motion. Indications for exploration and treatment include concern for complete injury, triggering of the involved digit, or entrapment of the tendon. Surgical treatment for tendon triggering or entrapment with less than 75% cross-sectional injury is beveling of the tendon edges and injuries greater than 75% should be repaired with a non-, simple epitendinous suture. All patients should be allowed to perform early protected active motion after surgery.

  12. Tendon functional extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, Hazel R C; Berk, David E; Kadler, Karl E; Ramirez, Francesco; Young, Marian F

    2015-06-01

    This article is one of a series, summarizing views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the "Functional Extracellular Matrix" stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment, and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels, and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, aging, and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Suture materials and suture techniques used in tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, L D

    1985-02-01

    . The less traumatic suture techniques facilitate closure of the tendon sheath, which not only acts as a mechanical barrier to the ingrowth of extrasheath adhesion, which produces fibroblasts, but also re-establishes the continuity of the synovial fluid system, which is a major source of nutrition to the tendon. The healing tendon then can be thought of as a delicate structure, one not to be overmanipulated, traumatized, strangulated, or stretched.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  14. Percutaneous Achilles Tendon Lengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ligament Reconstruction Lateral Ankle Stabilization Mosaicplasty for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus Peroneus Longus to Achilles Tendon Transfer Pilon Fracture Surgery Posterior Ankle Endoscopy or ...

  15. Tendon and ligament imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Grainger, A J

    2012-01-01

    MRI and ultrasound are now widely used for the assessment of tendon and ligament abnormalities. Healthy tendons and ligaments contain high levels of collagen with a structured orientation, which gives rise to their characteristic normal imaging appearances as well as causing particular imaging artefacts. Changes to ligaments and tendons as a result of disease and injury can be demonstrated using both ultrasound and MRI. These have been validated against surgical and histological findings. Novel imaging techniques are being developed that may improve the ability of MRI and ultrasound to assess tendon and ligament disease. PMID:22553301

  16. The role of proximal pulleys in preventing tendon bowstringing: pulley rupture and tendon bowstringing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeflang, S; Coert, J H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to tendon bowstringing at the proximal phalanx. We hypothesised that: (1) a partial rupture of the A2 pulley leads to significant bowstringing, (2) the location of the A2 rupture, starting proximally or distally, influences bowstringing, (3) an additional A3 pulley rupture causes a significant increase in bowstringing following a complete A2 pulley rupture and (4) the skin and tendon sheath may prevent bowstringing in A2 and A3 pulley ruptures. Index, middle and ring fingers of eight freshly frozen cadaver arms were used. A loading device pulled with 100 N force was attached to the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). The flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) was preloaded with 5 N. Bowstringing was measured and quantified by the size of the area between the FDP tendon and the proximal phalanx over a distance of 5 mm with ultrasonography (US). US images showed that already a 30% excision of the A2 pulley resulted in significant bowstringing. In addition, a partial distal incision of the A2 pulley showed significantly more bowstringing compared to a partial proximal incision. Additional A3 pulley incision and excision of the proximal tendon sheath did not increase bowstringing. Subsequently, removing the skin did increase the bowstringing significantly. A partial A2 pulley rupture causes a significant bowstringing. A partial rupture of the A2 pulley at the distal rim of the A2 pulley resulted in more bowstringing than a partial rupture at the proximal rim. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cannulas for facial filler placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoseph, Louis M

    2012-05-01

    With more physicians performing injections to the face in increasingly sophisticated ways, techniques must evolve accordingly. Injectables are no longer mere wrinkle fillers but true panfacial volumizers that are placed in many different planes and tissues of the face, in contrast to fillers of the past used for the dermis. This development is providing better results previously not achievable with off-the-shelf fillers. Microcannulas represent a step forward in enhancing surgeons' ability to fill the face with less discomfort, edema, and ecchymosis, with faster recovery. Microcannulas will probably play a role in volume replacement for many years to come. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath—Use of fine-needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Meena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath (GCTTS is a slow-growing, usually painless benign lesion of soft tissues. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with a painless, slowly enlarging swelling on right thumb in order to highlight the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in diagnosing GCTTS.

  19. The study of optical properties and proteoglycan content of tendons by PS-OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Weightman, Alan; Wimpenny, Ian; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Ahearne, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Tendons are load-bearing collagenous tissues consisting mainly of type I collagen and various proteoglycans (PGs) including decorin and versican. It is widely accepted that highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons a play critical role for transferring tensile stress and demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. Tendinopathy (defined as a syndrome of tendon pain, tenderness and swelling that affects the normal function of the tissue) is a common disease associated with sporting injuries or degeneration. PG's are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathy. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between proteoglycan content/location and birefringent properties of tendons. Tendons dissected from freshly slaughtered chickens were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarizing light microscope during the extraction of PGs or glycosaminoglycans using established protocols (guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) or proteinase K solution). The macroscopic and microscopic time lapsed images are complimentary; mutually demonstrating that there was a higher concentration of PG's in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles; and the integrity of the sheath affected extraction process and the OCT birefringence bands. Extraction of PGs using GuHCl disturbed the organization of local collagen bundles, which corresponded to a reduction in the frequency of birefringence bands and the band width by PS-OCT. The feature of OCT penetration depth helped us to define the heterogeneous distribution of PG's in tendon, which was complimented by polarizing light microscopy. The results provide new insight of tendon structure and also demonstrate a great potential for using PS-OCT as a

  20. Tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps tendon: histopathologic analysis of the extra-articular biceps tendon and tenosynovium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit JJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan J Streit,1 Yousef Shishani,1 Mark Rodgers,2 Reuben Gobezie1 1The Cleveland Shoulder Institute, 2Department of Pathology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH, USA Background: Bicipital tendinitis is a common cause of anterior shoulder pain, but there is no evidence that acute inflammation of the extra-articular long head of the biceps (LHB tendon is the root cause of this condition. We evaluated the histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath in order to compare those findings to known histologic changes seen in other tendinopathies. Methods: Twenty-six consecutive patients (mean age 45.4±13.7 years underwent an open subpectoral biceps tenodesis for anterior shoulder pain localized to the bicipital groove. Excised tendons were sent for histologic analysis. Specimens were graded using a semiquantitative scoring system to evaluate tenocyte morphology, the presence of ground substance, collagen bundle characteristics, and vascular changes. Results: Chronic inflammation was noted in only two of 26 specimens, and no specimen demonstrated acute inflammation. Tenocyte enlargement and proliferation, characterized by increased roundness and size of the cell and nucleus with proteoglycan matrix expansion and myxoid degenerative changes, was found in all 26 specimens. Abundant ground substance, collagen bundle changes, and increased vascularization were visualized in all samples. Conclusion: Anterior shoulder pain attributed to the biceps tendon does not appear to be due to an inflammatory process in most cases. The histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath are similar to the pathologic findings in de Quervain tenosynovitis at the wrist, and may be due to a chronic degenerative process similar to this and other tendinopathies of the body. Keywords: biceps tendinitis, biceps tendinopathy, tenosynovium, anterior shoulder pain, long head biceps

  1. Study of optical properties and proteoglycan content of tendons by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Wimpenny, Ian; Weightman, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons play a critical role for transferring tensile stress, and they demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans (PGs) have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. PGs are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; the changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathies. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between PG content/location and birefringence properties of tendons. Fresh chicken tendons were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarization light microscopy during the extraction of PGs, using guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). Complementary time-lapsed images taken from the two modalities mutually demonstrated that the extraction of PGs disturbed the local organization of collagen bundles. This corresponded with a decrease in birefringence and associated banding pattern observed by PS-OCT. Furthermore, this study revealed there was a higher concentration of PGs in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles, and therefore the change in birefringence was reduced when extraction was performed on unsheathed tendons. The results provide new insights of tendon structure and the role of PGs on the structural stability of tendons, which also demonstrates the great potential for using PS-OCT as a diagnostic tool to examine tendon pathology.

  2. Tendon lengthening and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitoussi, F; Bachy, M

    2015-02-01

    Tendon lengthening and transfer are usually indicated for certain neuromuscular disorders, peripheral or central nerve injury, congenital disorder or direct traumatic or degenerative musculotendinous lesion. In musculotendinous lengthening, technique depends on muscle anatomy, degree of correction required, and the need to avoid excessive loss of force. Lengthening within the muscle or aponeurosis is stable. In the tendon, however, it may provide greater gain but is not stable and requires postoperative immobilization to avoid excessive lengthening. Tendon transfer consists in displacing a muscle's tendon insertion in order to restore function. The muscle to be transferred is chosen according to strength, architecture and course, contraction timing, intended direction, synergy and the joint moment arm to be restored. Functions to be restored have to be prioritized, and alternatives to transfer should be identified. The principles of tendon transfer require preoperative assessment of the quality of the tissue through which the transfer is to pass and of the suppleness of the joints concerned. During the procedure, transfer tension should be optimized and the neurovascular bundle should be protected. The method of fixation, whether tendon-to-bone or tendon-to-tendon suture, should be planned according to local conditions and the surgeon's experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Optic nerve sheath meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez, Silvia Muñoz Quiñones, Jorge Arruga GinebredaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: A 53-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of visual loss in his left eye. Visual acuity could be corrected to 20/20 with an increased hyperopic correction. Dilated funduscopy showed faint choroidal folds and elevation of the left optic disc. The coronal view of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a fluid-filled dilated sheath surrounding normal optic nerves. General physical examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were normal. The subject was diagnosed as having dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheath and followed a course of acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily for three months, and displayed good anatomical and functional results during a 2-year follow-up period. Despite the fact that several authors have recommended an optic nerve decompression, most of the patients follow a benign clinical course. The role of corticosteroids is not described in the literature. Raised levels of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid in the perioptic subarachnoidal space could be a determining factor. On the basis of an osmotic gradient between the cerebral subarachnoid space and perioptic subarachnoid space, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors could be beneficial. In contrast to other reports, we believe that surgical intervention could be reserved for patients with rapid or progressive optic nerve dysfunction.Keywords: optic nerve, perineural subaracnoid space, optic nerve meningocoele, optic nerve tumors

  4. Condition Assessment of PC Tendon Duct Filling by Elastic Wave Velocity Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fook Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques are high in demand for modern nondestructive evaluation of large-scale concrete structures. The travel-time tomography (TTT technique, which is based on the principle of mapping the change of propagation velocity of transient elastic waves in a measured object, has found increasing application for assessing in situ concrete structures. The primary aim of this technique is to detect defects that exist in a structure. The TTT technique can offer an effective means for assessing tendon duct filling of prestressed concrete (PC elements. This study is aimed at clarifying some of the issues pertaining to the reliability of the technique for this purpose, such as sensor arrangement, model, meshing, type of tendon sheath, thickness of sheath, and material type as well as the scale of inhomogeneity. The work involved 2D simulations of wave motions, signal processing to extract travel time of waves, and tomography reconstruction computation for velocity mapping of defect in tendon duct.

  5. Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon after fracture of the lower end of the radius--a clinical and microangiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, O; Lundborg, G

    1979-02-01

    The pathogenesis of the late post-traumatic rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon has never been satisfactorily explained. In the present series of fifty-nine ruptures two were partial, making possible an exact localization of the rupture. Microangiographic studies performed on amputated arms showed that this part of the tendon was poorly vascularized. Our study confirms earlier observations that ruptures most commonly occur after undisplaced fractures. It is suggested that increased pressure within the non-ruptured tendon sheath jeopardizes the blood flow in the already poorly vascularized parts of the tendon, leading to degeneration and rupture, usually within eight weeks. An haematoma inside the sheath interfering with the production of synovial fluid, could deprive the tendon of an alternative nutrition via diffusional pathways.

  6. Tendon Gradient Mineralization for Tendon to Bone Interface Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a “bone-to-bone” interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into 5 groups: 1) normal FDP tendon, 2) CaP (Non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), 3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), 4) CaPFetuin (Non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and 5) CaPEXTFetuin (Extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200 μm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction. PMID:23939935

  7. Peroneal tendon disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O'Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries.Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers.Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus.A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments.Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion.The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047.

  8. How Obesity Affects Tendons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michele; Salini, Vincenzo; Andia, Isabel

    Several epidemiological and clinical observations have definitely demonstrated that obesity has harmful effects on tendons. The pathogenesis of tendon damage is multi-factorial. In addition to overload, attributable to the increased body weight, which significantly affects load-bearing tendons, systemic factors play a relevant role. Several bioactive peptides (chemerin, leptin, adiponectin and others) are released by adipocytes, and influence tendon structure by means of negative activities on mesenchymal cells. The ensuing systemic state of chronic, sub-clinic, low-grade inflammation can damage tendon structure. Metabolic disorders (diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and dislipidemia), frequently associated with visceral adiposity, are concurrent pathogenetic factors. Indeed, high glucose levels increase the formation of Advanced Glycation End-products, which in turn form stable covalent cross-links within collagen fibers, modifying their structure and functionality.Sport activities, so useful for preventing important cardiovascular complications, may be detrimental for tendons if they are submitted to intense acute or chronic overload. Therefore, two caution rules are mandatory: first, to engage in personalized soft training program, and secondly to follow regular check-up for tendon pathology.

  9. Adequacy of palmaris longus and plantaris tendons for tendon grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubietz, Michael G; Jakubietz, Danni F; Gruenert, Joerg G; Zahn, Robert; Meffert, Rainer H; Jakubietz, Rafael G

    2011-04-01

    The reconstruction of tendon defects is challenging. The palmaris longus and plantaris tendon are generally considered best for tendon grafting. Only a few studies have examined whether these tendons, when present, meet criteria for successful grafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these tendons in regard to adequacy as tendon grafts. To evaluate adequacy for grafting, the palmaris longus and plantaris tendons were harvested from 92 arms and legs of 46 cadavers. Macroscopic evaluation and measurements concerning presence, length, and diameter of the tendons were obtained. Criteria for adequacy were a minimum length of 15 cm with diameter of 3 mm or, alternatively, 30 cm with a diameter of 1.5 mm. The palmaris longus tendon was present bilaterally in 36 cases and was absent bilaterally in 4 cases. The plantaris tendon was present bilaterally in 38 cases and absent bilaterally in 4 cases. In 29 cadavers, the palmaris longus tendon did not meet the criteria to be used as a tendon graft. Only in 8 cases were the tendons satisfactory for grafting bilaterally. The plantaris tendon met criteria for grafting in 20 cases bilaterally. In 17 cases, the tendons were considered inadequate bilaterally. Despite their presence, the palmaris longus and plantaris tendons are adequate for grafting less often than previously thought. In less than 50%, the tendons, although present, would serve as useful grafts. Our findings underscore the importance of choosing a second donor site before surgery in case the primarily selected tendon is not found to be suitable. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tavşanlarda zon II fleksör tendon kesilerinin tamiri sonrası yapışıklık oluşumu üzerine politetrafloroetilen cerrahi membran’ın etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Tomak, Yilmaz; Karaismailoglu, T.N.; Dabak, Nevzat; Tilki, Koksal; Tepe, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    Adhesions which develop following Zone II flexor tendon repair is a problem still awaiting solution. In this experimental study PTFE SM (Polytetrafluoroethylene Surgical Membrane) use for the primary tendon repair and sheath reconstruction is macroscopically, histopathologically and functionally evaluated in rabbit animal models. FDP tendons of the 3rd and 4th fingers of the both forefoot of 30 New Zealand albino rabbits were bisected at Zone II and repaired. With 8 fingers in either group, o...

  11. Biomechanical and Macroscopic Evaluations of the Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen B Duci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs] following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions. Methods: We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits; thus, a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study. Results: Based on the results achieved in our experimental study, the load (N significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Conclusions: The load (N significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Therefore, these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath, which in this case required greater traction force.

  12. Biomechanical and Macroscopic Evaluations of the Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Neziri, Burim; Mekaj, Agon Y; Lajqi, Shpetim; Shahini, Labinot

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs]) following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions. Methods: We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits; thus, a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study. Results: Based on the results achieved in our experimental study, the load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Conclusions: The load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Therefore, these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath, which in this case required greater traction force. PMID:26063369

  13. Biomechanical and Macroscopic Evaluations of the Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Neziri, Burim; Mekaj, Agon Y; Lajqi, Shpetim; Shahini, Labinot

    2015-06-20

    The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs]) following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions. We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits; thus, a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study. Based on the results achieved in our experimental study, the load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. The load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Therefore, these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath, which in this case required greater traction force.

  14. Tendon Transfers for Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that 65% to 75% of patients with cervical spinal cord injuries could benefit from upper extremity tendon transfer surgery. The goals of surgery are to restore elbow extension, as well as hand pinch, grasp, and release. Patients who have defined goals, actively participate in therapy, and understand expected outcomes, appear to have the highest satisfaction following tendon transfer procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evaporated milk fillers having brass parts may be approved if free from corroded surfaces and kept in good... Standards for Plastic, and Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials. Fillers shall be designed so that they in no...

  16. QUANTIFICATION OF PARTIAL OR COMPLETE A4 PULLEY RELEASE WITH FDP REPAIR IN CADAVERIC TENDONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Orrin I.; Lee, Nathan M.; Finneran, John J.; Shillito, Matthew C.; Meunier, Matthew J.; Abrams, Reid A.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Repair of a lacerated flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon underneath or just distal to the A4 pulley can be technically challenging, and success may be confounded by tendon triggering and scarring to the pulley. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of partial and complete A4 pulley release in the context of a lacerated and repaired FDP tendon just distal to the A4 pulley. Methods Tendon biomechanics were tested in six cadaveric hands secured to a rigid frame permitting measurement of tendon excursion, tendon force, and finger range of motion. After control testing, each finger underwent laceration and repair of the FDP tendon at the distal margin of the A4 pulley using a six-strand core suture technique and epitendinous repair. Testing was then repeated after the following interventions: 1) Intact A4 pulley 2) Release of the distal half of the A4 pulley, 3) Complete release of the A4 pulley, and 4) Continued proximal release of the sheath to the distal edge of A2 (release of C2, A3, and C1 pulleys). Release of the pulleys was performed by incision; no tissue was removed from the specimens. Results From full extension to full flexion, average profundus tendon excursion for all intact digits was 37.9 ± 1.5 mm, and tendon repair resulted in average tendon shortening of 1.6 ± 0.4 mm. Flexion lag increased from less than 1 mm to over 4 mm with venting of the A4 pulley, complete A4 release, and proximal sheath release, respectively. Compared to the intact state, repair of the tendon with an intact A4 pulley, release of half the A4 pulley, complete A4 release, and proximal sheath release resulted in percent increases in work of flexion (WOF) of 11.5 ± 3.1%, 0.83 ± 2.8%, 2.6 ± 2.4%, and 3.25 ± 2.2%, respectively (ppulley, WOF did not increase by more than 3% from control conditions after partial or complete A4 pulley release, and WOF was significantly less than performing a repair and leaving the A4 pulley intact. PMID:21306835

  17. Joint Workplan on Filler Investigations for DPCs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This workplan addresses filler attributes (i.e., possible requirements), assumptions needed for analysis, selection of filler materials, testing needs, and a long-range perspective on R&D activities leading to filler demonstration and a safety basis for implementation.

  18. History of flexor tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Paul R

    2005-05-01

    The first issue of Hand Clinics published 20 years ago was devoted to flexor tendon injuries. This was most appropriate, because no subject in hand surgery has sparked more interest or discussion. That inaugural issue included excellent presentations on the basic science of tendon injuries (anatomy, biomechanics, nutrition, healing, adhesions) and the clinical practice of tendon repair. Of interest, there was no presentation on the fascinating history of flexor tendon surgery. It is most appropriate, therefore, that this current update of the flexor tendon begins with a historical review of the evolution of flexor tendon repair.

  19. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W. (UCIN)

    2012-09-10

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  20. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W. (UCIN)

    2009-08-26

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  1. Tendon transfer or tendon graft for ruptured finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, U S; Kim, J H; Seo, W S; Lee, K H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical outcome of tendon reconstruction using tendon graft or tendon transfer and the parameters related to clinical outcome in 51 wrists of 46 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with finger extensor tendon ruptures. At a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the mean metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint extension lag was 8 degrees (range, 0-45) and the mean visual analogue satisfaction scale was 74 (range, 10-100). Clinical outcome did not differ significantly between tendon grafting and tendon transfer. The MP joint extension lag correlated with the patient's satisfaction score, but the pulp-to-palm distance did not correlate with patient satisfaction. We conclude that both tendon grafting and tendon transfer are reliable reconstruction methods for ruptured finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid hands.

  2. Modeling Sheaths in DC Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Scott

    2014-10-01

    Textbook presentations on sheaths are often limited to a discussion of Bohm's criterion because more detailed analysis results in equations that can be solved only by numerical methods. There are both fluid and kinetic models for sheaths that can be solved by packaged numerical integration routines in a mathematical spreadsheet such as Mathematica, Matlab, or Mathcad. The potential profiles and the currents for sheaths at boundaries usually have monotonic profiles that are easily modeled using a Boltzmann distribution for electrons and for ions using the fluid momentum equation and the continuity equation with a source term describing plasma production. Additional ion species and bi-Maxwellian electron distributions are easily included. Virtual cathodes may form above emissive surfaces which divide the distribution function of emitted electrons into a passing population and a reflected population that can be modeled only by a kinetic approach. For sheaths at inserted objects such as probes and dust particles, it is customary to prescribe the plasma characteristics at infinity, to ignore creation of new plasma by ionization, and to solve for the radial variation of the density near the object and for the current collected by the object. A kinetic model is required for sheaths at inserted objects because the distribution function must be divided into passing particles and collected particles.

  3. [Achilles tendon rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H

    2000-03-01

    The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques.

  4. Fillers in dermatology: from past to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Anna H

    2015-11-01

    Injectable fillers were introduced in dermatology as a method for reconstructing facial deformities and restoring the aging face. Although fillers have become a popular option among cosmetic patients, clinical experience has shown that fillers must be used with caution, as complications can occur. This article provides a brief review of the history of filler agents currently available for soft tissue augmentation. Although no single filler is ideal for all patients, indications, and situations, residents should be aware of the properties and characteristics that make each product unique.

  5. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this ... can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider inserts a small ...

  6. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); hide

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  7. Revisiting the plasma sheath - dust in plasma sheath

    CERN Document Server

    Das, G C; Bora, M P

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have considered the formation of warm plasma sheath in the vicinity of a wall in a plasma with considerable presence of dust particles. As an example, we have used the parameters relevant in case of lunar plasma sheath, though the results obtained in this work could be applied to any other physical situation such as laboratory plasma. In the ion-acoustic time scale, we neglect the dust dynamics. The dust particles affect the sheath dynamics by affecting the Poisson equation which determines the plasma potential in the sheath region. We have assumed the current to a dust particle to be balanced throughout the analysis. This makes the grain potential dependent on plasma potential, which is then incorporated into the Poisson equation. The resultant numerical model becomes an initial value problem, which is described by a 1-D integro-differential equation, which is then solved self-consistently by incorporating the change in plasma potential caused by inclusion of the dust potential in the Poisso...

  8. The quantitative role of flexor sheath incision in correcting Dupuytren proximal interphalangeal joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazar, P E; Floyd, E W; Earp, B E

    2016-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding intra-operative treatment of residual proximal interphalangeal joint contractures after Dupuytren's fasciectomy. We test the hypothesis that a simple release of the digital flexor sheath can correct residual fixed flexion contracture after subtotal fasciectomy. We prospectively enrolled 19 patients (22 digits) with Dupuytren's contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint. The average pre-operative extension deficit of the proximal interphalangeal joints was 58° (range 30-90). The flexion contracture of the joint was corrected to an average of 28° after fasciectomy. In most digits (20 of 21), subsequent incision of the flexor sheath further corrected the contracture by an average of 23°, resulting in correction to an average flexion contracture of 4.7° (range 0-40). Our results support that contracture of the tendon sheath is a contributor to Dupuytren's contracture of the joint and that sheath release is a simple, low morbidity addition to correct Dupuytren's contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Additional release of the proximal interphalangeal joint after fasciectomy, after release of the flexor sheath, is not necessary in many patients. IV (Case Series, Therapeutic). © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...

  10. Open Achilles tendon lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, M Nader; Al Ateeq Al Dosari, Mohamed; Al Subaii, Nasser; Kawas, Alaa; Al Mas, Ali; Al Ser, Yaser; Abuodeh, Yousef; Shakil, Malik; Habash, Ali; Mukhter, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to closed Achilles tendon ruptures, open injuries are rarely reported in the literature. This paper provides information about open Achilles tendon wounds that are eventually seen in the Middle East. The reporting unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, is one of the biggest trauma centers in the Gulf area and the major health provider in Qatar. This is a retrospective study including patients admitted and operated for open Achilles tendon injuries between January 2011 and December 2013. Two hundred and five cases of open Achilles tendon lacerations were operated in Hamad General Hospital in this period. Forty-eight cases showed partial injuries, and the remaining are complete tendons cut. In the same period, fifty-one closed ruptured Achilles tendons were operated in the same trauma unit. In the majority of cases, the open injury resulted from a slip in the floor-leveled traditional toilette seats. Local damage to the toilette seats resulted in sharp edges causing the laceration of the heel if the patient was slipping over the wet floor. This occurrence is the cause in the vast majority of the cases. Wounds were located 1-5 cm proximal to tendon insertion. Standard treatment principles were applied. This included thorough irrigation in the emergency room, intravenous antibiotics, surgical debridement and primary repair within 24 h. Patients were kept in the hospital 1-7 days for intravenous antibiotics and possible dressing changes. Postoperatively below knee slabs were applied in the majority of patients and were kept for about 4 weeks followed by gradual weight bearing and range of motion exercises. Outpatients follow up in 1-2 weeks. Further follow-up visits at around 2-, 4-, 8- and 12-week intervals until complete wound healing and satisfactory rehabilitation outcome. Sixteen cases needed a second procedure. A high incidence of Achilles tendon open injuries is reported. This seems to be related to partially damaged floor-level toilettes in the

  11. Tendon Tissue Engineering and Its Role on Healing of the Experimentally Induced Large Tendon Defect Model in Rabbits: A Comprehensive In Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid; Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Healing of large tendon defects is challenging. We studied the role of collagen implant with or without polydioxanone (PDS) sheath on the healing of a large Achilles tendon defect model, in rabbits. Sixty rabbits were divided into three groups. A 2 cm gap was created in the left Achilles tendon of all rabbits. In the control lesions, no implant was used. The other two groups were reconstructed by collagen and collagen-PDS implants respectively. The animals were clinically examined at weekly intervals and their lesions were observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained from the animals and were assessed for hematological analysis and determination of serum PDGF level, at 60 days post injury (DPI). The animals were then euthanized and their lesions were assessed for gross and histopathology, scanning electron microscopy, biomechanical testing, dry matter and hydroxyproline content. Another 65 pilot animals were also studied grossly and histopathologically to define the host implant interaction and graft incorporation at serial time points. The treated animals gained significantly better clinical scoring compared to the controls. Treatment with collagen and collagen-PDS implants significantly increased the biomechanical properties of the lesions compared to the control tendons at 60DPI (Plesions (Ptendon. Implantation of the bioimplants had a significant role in initiating tendon healing and the implants were biocompatible, biodegradable and safe for application in tendon reconstructive surgery. The results of the present study may be valuable in clinical practice. PMID:24039851

  12. Achilles tendon rupture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will cover your foot and go to your knee. Your toes will be pointing downward. The cast will be changed every 2 to 3 weeks to help stretch your tendon. If you have a leg brace, splint, or boot, it will keep you from ...

  13. Fixation Strength of Polyetheretherketone Sheath-and-Bullet Device for Soft Tissue Repair in the Foot and Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jay; Fischer, Brian; Nute, Michael; Rizza, Robert

    Tendon transfers are often performed in the foot and ankle. Recently, interference screws have been a popular choice owing to their ease of use and fixation strength. Considering the benefits, one disadvantage of such devices is laceration of the soft tissues by the implant threads during placement that potentially weaken the structural integrity of the grafts. A shape memory polyetheretherketone bullet-in-sheath tenodesis device uses circumferential compression, eliminating potential damage from thread rotation and maintaining the soft tissue orientation of the graft. The aim of this study was to determine the pullout strength and failure mode for this device in both a synthetic bone analogue and porcine bone models. Thirteen mature bovine extensor tendons were secured into ten 4.0 × 4.0 × 4.0-cm cubes of 15-pound per cubic foot solid rigid polyurethane foam bone analogue models or 3 porcine femoral condyles using the 5 × 20-mm polyetheretherketone soft tissue anchor. The bullet-in-sheath device demonstrated a mean pullout of 280.84 N in the bone analog models and 419.47 N in the porcine bone models. (p = .001). The bullet-in-sheath design preserved the integrity of the tendon graft, and none of the implants dislodged from their original position. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MRI of the Achilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegele, M.; Lienemann, A.; Hahn, D.; Lissner, J.; Boehm, P.

    1987-06-01

    The Achilles tendon and preachillar space of 30 patients was studied by MRI. A surface coil (Helmholtz' principle) was applied and all patients were examined with a superconducting magnet operating at 1.0 Tesla field strength. The purpose of the study was to illustrate pathological changes of the tendon and the surrounding soft tissue. In 3 cases MRI diagnosed a total rupture of the Achilles tendon. Furthermore, the strain of the tendon and side effects of an inflammatory process could be demonstrated. The use of a surface coil yields a high resolution of the normal anatomy of the region and of the pathological changes of the tendon and the surrounding soft tissue structures. The advantages of MRI for Achilles tendon diagnostics against competitive modalities are 1) excellent soft tissue contrast, 2) multiplanar imaging, 3) as well as exact delineation and visualisation of the lesion.

  15. Synthesis, development, characterization and effectiveness of bovine pure platelet gel-collagen-polydioxanone bioactive graft on tendon healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Ali; Oryan, Ahmad; Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid

    2015-01-01

    Bovine platelet gel (BPG) is an accessible and cost-effective source of growth factors which may have a value in tendon regenerative medicine. We produced a collagen implant (CI) as a tendon proper, covered it with polydioxanone (PDS) sheath to simulate paratenon and finally embedded the BPG as an active source of growth factor within the bioimplant to test whether BPG would be able to accelerate and enhance tendon regeneration and repair. After in vitro characterization of the bioactive grafts, the grafts were implanted in rabbit large tendon defect model. Untreated tendons and tendons treated with either CI or CI-PDS were served as controls for the CI-PDS-BPG. The animals were investigated clinically, ultrasonographically and haematologically for 120 days. After euthanasia, dry matter content, water uptake and delivery characteristics and also gross morphological, histopathological and scanning electron microscopic features of the healing tendons were assessed. In vitro, the activated platelets in the scaffold, released their growth factors significantly more than the controls. BPG also increased cell viability, and enhanced cellular differentiation, maturation and proliferation inside the CI-PDS compared with the controls. In vivo, the BPG modulated inflammation, increased quality and rate of fibroplasia and produced a remodelled tendon that had significantly higher collagen content and superior collagen fibril and fibre differentiation than controls. Treatment also significantly improved tendon water uptake and delivery characteristics, animals’ serum PDGF level, CI-PDS biocompatibility and biodegradability and reduced peritendinous adhesions, muscle fibrosis and atrophy. BPG was effective on tendon healing and CI-PDS-BPG may be a valuable bioscaffold in tendon reconstructive surgery. PMID:25702535

  16. Elucidation of filler-to-filler and filler-to-rubber interactions in silica-reinforced natural rubber by TEM Network Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Filler-to-rubber interaction is a key parameter in the reinforcement of rubber. This paper presents an investigation into filler-to-filler and filler-to-rubber interactions in silica-reinforced natural rubber (NR) in the presence and absence of a silane coupling agent. Using a special network

  17. Skin rejuvenation without a scalpel. I. Fillers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fillers are an important tool in the armamentarium of the physician combating aging phenomena. A wide variety of filler substances are now available that meet many, but by far not all, needs in aesthetic medicine. The most commonly used substances now are hyaluronic acid and collagen preparations

  18. Filler functionality in edible solid foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sman, R G M

    2016-05-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains. But, we show that much can be learned about that from the field of synthetic polymeric foams with (nano)fillers. For edible brittle foams the enhancement of mechanical strength by filler ingredients is less relevant compared to the additional functionalities such as 1) the promotion of bubble nucleation and 2) cell opening-which are much more relevant for the snack texture. The survey of particulate ingredients added to snack formulations shows that they cannot be viewed as inert fillers, because of their strong hygroscopic properties. Hence, these fillers will compete with starch for water, and that will modify the glass transition and boiling point, which are important factors for snack expansion. Filler properties can be modified via extrusion, but it is better if that processing step is decoupled from the subsequent processing steps as mixing and expansion. Several filler ingredients are also added because of their nutritional value, but can have adverse effect on snack expansion. These adverse effects can be reduced if the increase of nutritional value is decoupled from other filler functionality via compartmentalization using micropellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Self Compacting Concrete with Chalk Filler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2007-01-01

    Utilisation of Danish chalk filler has been investigated as a means to produce self compacting concrete (SCC) at lower strength levels for service in non aggressive environments. Stable SCC mixtures were prepared at chalk filler contents up to 60% by volume of binder to yield compressive strengths...

  20. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  1. Musculoskeletal lesions and lameness in 121 horses with carpal sheath effusion (1999-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Joan S; Genovese, Ronald L; Döpfer, Dörte; Stewart, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Equine carpal sheath effusion has multiple etiologies. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of distinct musculoskeletal lesions lameness in a sample of horses with a clinical diagnosis of carpal sheath effusion. A total of 121 horses met inclusion criteria. Seventy-four percent (89/121) of horses were lame at presentation; middle-aged (9-18 years, 80%) and older (> 18 years, 85%) horses were lame more frequently than young horses (< 9 years, 44%). Ninety-three percent (113/121) were diagnosed with osseous and/or soft tissue abnormalities. Of these 113 horses, 10 exhibited osseous abnormalities, whereas 111 were diagnosed with soft tissue lesions. Eighty-four percent (93/111) of the soft tissue injuries extended from the caudodistal antebrachium to the palmar metacarpus. The superficial digital flexor tendon (98/111; 88%) and accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon (64/111; 58%) were the most commonly injured structures, with both structures affected in 41 (41/111; 37%) horses. Injuries within the caudodistal antebrachium included the superficial digital flexor musculotendinous junction (66), the accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon (64), and deep digital flexor muscle (21), in isolation or in combination with other structures. Increased echogenicity in the medial superficial digital flexor musculotendinous junction was detected in 40 horses and was significantly associated with increasing age (middle-aged, 19/40; old, 18/40). Findings from this study indicated that age should be taken into consideration for horses presented with carpal sheath effusion and that adjacent structures within the caudodistal antebrachium should be included in evaluations. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. New technique for withdrawing broken sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Cagan Efe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sheath that is broken inside vessel is a rare complication, and intravascular fragments from broken sheaths are retrieving transcutaneously by techniques including the loop snare catheter, basket catheter, and grasping/biopsy forceps. We reported a less common type of broken central venous sheath in location and a successful unique technique for retrieving it from subclavian vein by using noncompliant balloon from 40 year old female patient.

  3. "Venting" or partial lateral release of the A2 and A4 pulleys after repair of zone 2 flexor tendon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwai Ben, I; Elliot, D

    1998-10-01

    The need for lateral release or "venting" of the A2 and A4 pulleys either to facilitate repair of the flexor tendon(s) or to allow free gliding of the repair(s) was examined in 126 consecutive zone 2 flexor tendon injuries within the tendon sheath and distal to the distal edge of the A2 pulley (zones 2A and 2B of Tang's classification) in which at least one flexor tendon had been completely divided. This study showed that 81 (64%) of these repairs required venting of one or the other pulley. It was necessary to vent the A4 pulley between 10 and 100% of its length in 71 (56%) of the fingers and to vent the distal edge of the A2 pulley by 4 to 10 mm in 10 (8%) of the fingers.

  4. Wide-Awake Primary Flexor Tendon Repair, Tenolysis, and Tendon Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jin Bo

    2015-01-01

    Tendon surgery is unique because it should ensure tendon gliding after surgery. Tendon surgery now can be performed under local anesthesia without tourniquet, by injecting epinephrine mixed with lidocaine, to achieve vasoconstriction in the area of surgery. This method allows the tendon to move actively during surgery to test tendon function intraoperatively and to ensure the tendon is properly repaired before leaving the operating table. I applied this method to primary flexor tendon repair ...

  5. Gastrocnemius tendon length and strain are different when assessed using straight or curved tendon model

    OpenAIRE

    Stosic, Jelena; Finni Juutinen, Taija

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of tendon curvature on measurements of tendon length using 3D-kinematic analysis. Curved and straight tendon models were employed for assessing medial gastrocnemius tendon length and strain during hopping (N = 8). Tendon curvature was identified using small reflective markers placed on the skin surface along the length of the tendon and a sum of vectors between the markers from the calcaneous up to the marker at the origin of tendon was calculated. T...

  6. [Cutaneous ultrasound and dermal fillers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Fernández, C; Burón Álvarez, I; Fernández-Tresguerres Centeno, A; Alfageme Roldán, F; de Cabo Francés, F

    2015-11-01

    Requests for fillers or dermatological implants have dramatically increased in dermatology consultations in the last few years, either for the correction of superficial age-related wrinkles and cutaneous creases or to increase the volume of specific areas (cheeks, lips...). Dermatologists are often the first professionals to provide these treatments. Nevertheless, in other situations, the patients have already been treated, and many of them do not know the type of material that has been implanted or may even deny previous treatment, even when evident on clinical examination. In these occasions, cutaneous ultrasound is an effective and reliable tool for the real-time diagnosis of the kind of implant that has been used, its location, and the study of its possible complications. Copyright © 2015 Academia Española de Dermatología y Venereología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Tendon tissue engineering and its role on healing of the experimentally induced large tendon defect model in rabbits: a comprehensive in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Meimandi-Parizi

    Full Text Available Healing of large tendon defects is challenging. We studied the role of collagen implant with or without polydioxanone (PDS sheath on the healing of a large Achilles tendon defect model, in rabbits. Sixty rabbits were divided into three groups. A 2 cm gap was created in the left Achilles tendon of all rabbits. In the control lesions, no implant was used. The other two groups were reconstructed by collagen and collagen-PDS implants respectively. The animals were clinically examined at weekly intervals and their lesions were observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained from the animals and were assessed for hematological analysis and determination of serum PDGF level, at 60 days post injury (DPI. The animals were then euthanized and their lesions were assessed for gross and histopathology, scanning electron microscopy, biomechanical testing, dry matter and hydroxyproline content. Another 65 pilot animals were also studied grossly and histopathologically to define the host implant interaction and graft incorporation at serial time points. The treated animals gained significantly better clinical scoring compared to the controls. Treatment with collagen and collagen-PDS implants significantly increased the biomechanical properties of the lesions compared to the control tendons at 60DPI (P<0.05. The tissue engineered implants also reduced peritendinous adhesion, muscle fibrosis and atrophy, and increased ultrasonographical echogenicity and homogenicity, maturation and differentiation of the collagen fibrils and fibers, tissue alignment and volume of the regenerated tissue compared to those of the control lesions (P<0.05. The implants were gradually absorbed and substituted by the new tendon. Implantation of the bioimplants had a significant role in initiating tendon healing and the implants were biocompatible, biodegradable and safe for application in tendon reconstructive surgery. The results of the present study may be valuable in

  8. Novel methods for tendon investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Michael; Langberg, Henning; Bojsen-Møller, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Tendon structures have been studied for decades, but over the last decade, methodological development and renewed interest for metabolic, circulatory and tissue protein turnover in tendon tissue has resulted in a rising amount of investigations. Method. This paper will detail the various...

  9. Xanthelasma-Like Reaction to Filler Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Lior; Eviatar, Joseph A; Massry, Guy G; Bernardini, Francesco P; Hartstein, Morris E

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new complication of a xanthelasma-like reaction which appeared after dermal filler injection in the lower eyelid region. A retrospective case analysis was performed on 7 patients presenting with xanthelasma-like reaction after filler injection to the lower eyelids. Seven female subjects with no history of xanthelasma presented with xanthelasma-like reaction in the lower eyelids post filler injection. Fillers included hyaluronic acid (2 patients), synthetic calcium hydroxyapatite (4 patients), and polycaprolactone microspheres (one patient). Average time interval between filler injection and development of xanthelasma-like reaction was 12 months (range: 6-18 months). Treatment included steroid injections, 5FU injections, ablative or fractionated CO2 laser, and direct excision. Pathology confirmed the lesion was a true xanthelasma in one patient. In treated patients, there was subtotal resolution after laser. Xanthelasma-like reaction resolved completely after direct excision. Three patients elected to have no treatment. Previously there has been one reported case of xanthelasma after filler injection. This case series is the largest to date. Furthermore, this series is notable because xanthelasma-like reactions appeared after injection with 3 different types of fillers. None of the patients had evidence of xanthelasma prefiller injection. The precise mechanism by which filler injection can lead to the formation of xanthelasma-like reaction is unclear. A possible mechanism may be related to binding of low-density lipoprotein and internalization by macrophages. Further investigation is required. Nevertheless, physicians performing filler injections should be aware of this new complication and treatment options.

  10. Ultrasound-guided tendon fenestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaras, Mary M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2013-02-01

    A potential treatment for chronic tendinosis or tendinopathy is percutaneous ultrasound-guided tendon fenestration, also termed dry needling or tenotomy. This procedure involves gently passing a needle through the abnormal tendon multiple times to change a chronic degenerative process into an acute condition that is more likely to heal. This article reviews the literature on tendon fenestration and describes the technical aspects of this procedure including postprocedural considerations. Although peer-reviewed literature on this topic is limited, studies to date have shown that ultrasound-guided tendon fenestration can improve patient symptoms. Several other percutaneous treatments for tendinopathy that include prolotherapy, autologous whole-blood injection, and autologous platelet-rich plasma injection are often performed in conjunction with fenestration. It is currently unknown if these other percutaneous procedures have any benefit over ultrasound-guided tendon fenestration alone. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Thermal Analysis of Filler Reinforced Polymeric Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadge, Mahesh Devidas

    Improving heat dissipating property of composite materials is becoming increasingly important in domains ranging from the automotive industry, electronic devices to aeronautical industry. Effective heat dissipation is required especially in aircraft and racing tires to guarantee high performance and good service life [1]. The present study is focused on improving the thermal conductivity of Emulsion-styrene butadiene rubber (ESBR) which is a cheap alternative to other rubber composites. The disadvantages of ESBR are low thermal conductivity and high heat generation. Adding fillers with high thermal conductivity to ESBR is proposed as a technique for improving the thermal conductivity of ESBR. The purpose of the research is to predict the thermal conductivity of ESBR when filled with fillers of much higher thermal conductivity and also to find out to what extent the filler properties affect the heat transfer capabilities of the composite matrix. The influence of different filler shapes i.e. spherical, cylindrical and platelets on the overall thermal capability of composite matrix is studied, the finite element modelings are conducted using Abaqus. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional models are created in Abaqus to simulate the microstructure of the composite matrix filled with fillers. Results indicate that the overall thermal conductivity increases with increasing filler loading i.e. for a filler volume fraction of 0.27, the conductivity increased by around 50%. Filler shapes, orientation angle, and aspect ratio of the fillers significantly influences the thermal conductivity. Conductivity increases with increasing aspect ratio (length/diameter) of the cylindrical fillers since longer conductive chains are able to form at the same volume percentage as compared to spherical fillers. The composite matrix reaches maximum thermal conductivity when the cylindrical fillers are oriented in the direction of heat flow. The heat conductivity predicted by FEM for ESBR is

  12. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Alberto Goldman2 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital, Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. Keywords: acne, scars, dermal fillers, injection, extracellular matrix

  14. Current Applications of Facial Volumization with Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony J; Taglienti, Anthony J; Chang, Catherine S; Low, David W; Percec, Ivona

    2016-05-01

    After reading this article and watching the accompanying videos, the participant should be able to: 1. Assess patients seeking facial volumization and correlate volume deficiencies anatomically. 2. Identify appropriate fillers based on rheologic properties and anatomical needs. 3. Recognize poor candidates for facial volumization. 4. Recognize and treat filler-related side effects and complications. Facial volumization is widely applied for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation both as a solitary means and in conjunction with surgical correction. Appropriate facial volumization is dependent on patient characteristics, consistent longitudinal anatomical changes, and qualities of fillers available. In this article, anatomical changes seen with aging are illustrated, appropriate techniques for facial volumization are described in the setting of correct filler selection, and potential complications are addressed.

  15. Emerging permanent filler technologies: focus on Aquamid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamauchi PS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul S Yamauchi1,2 1Dermatology Institute and Skin Care Center, Santa Monica, CA, USA; 2Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: A plethora of soft tissue fillers have been developed within the past decade to correct the cutaneous changes that occur with photoaging. Such fillers, whether nonpermanent, semipermanent, or permanent, are widely used to fill undesired facial rhytides. In addition, fillers are employed to correct atrophy of the face as well as other parts of the body such as the dorsum of the hands through volumization and contouring. The extensive long-term safety outcomes reported with fillers and the ease with which they are administered make them an ideal choice to correct rhytides and to contour the face. However, as with any cosmetic procedure, in order to ensure high patient satisfaction and a safe outcome, proper training in injection techniques, the choice of the proper candidate, and awareness of potential adverse events are essential. This review article focuses on the permanent filler, Aquamid, which is composed of polyacrylamide hydrogel. Keywords: Aquamid, rejuvenation, skin aging, soft tissue fillers, polyacrylamide

  16. Rectus Femoris Tendon Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Raul; Panascì, Manlio; Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Vasta, Sebastiano; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since it was developed, hip arthroscopy has become the favored treatment for femoroacetabular impingement. Due to recent considerable improvements, the indications for this technique have been widely extended. Injuries of the rectus femoris tendon origin, after an acute phase, could result in a chronic tendinopathy with calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition, leading to pain and loss of function. Traditionally, this condition is addressed by local injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids or, when conservative measures fail, by open excision of the calcific lesion by an anterior approach. Purpose: To assess whether arthroscopic excision of calcification of the proximal rectus is a safe and effective treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Outcomes were studied from 6 top amateur athletes (age range, 30-43 years; mean, 32.6 years) affected by calcification of the proximal rectus who underwent arthroscopic excision of the calcification. Patients were preoperatively assessed radiographically, and diagnosis was confirmed by a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan. To evaluate the outcome, standardized hip rating scores were used pre- and postoperatively (at 6 and 12 months): the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Oxford Hip Score, and Modified Harris Hip Score. Moreover, visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, sport activity level (SAL), and activities of daily living (ADL) were also used. Results: One year after surgery, all patients reported satisfactory outcomes, with 3 of 6 rating their return-to-sport level as high as preinjury level, and the remaining 3 with a percentage higher than 80%. Five patients ranked their ability to carry on daily activities at 100%. Statistical analysis showed significant improvement of the Oxford Hip Score, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and all 3 VAS subscales (pain, SAL, and ADL) from pre- to latest postoperative assessment (P < .05). Conclusion: Arthroscopic excision of

  17. Biceps Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Polvino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 55-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of right arm pain. Five days prior to arrival, he attempted to lift himself up on his van and experienced what he described as a “rubber band snapping” in his right arm. He reported severe pain at the time that persisted but lessened in severity. Additionally, he reported increasing bruising over the proximal right arm. He had no history of prior right arm or shoulder injury. Significant findings: Physical exam was significant for ecchymosis and mild swelling of the right bicep. When the right arm was flexed at the elbow, a prominent mass was visible and palpable over the right bicep. Right upper extremity strength was 4/5 with flexion at the elbow. Discussion: The biceps brachii muscle is comprised of a long and short head, which share a common attachment at the bicipital tuberosity on the radius. The short head originates from the coracoid process of the scapula and the long head originates from the supraglenoid tubercle.1 Biceps tendon rupture has been found to occur at a rate of 0.53/100,000 over five years, and is three times more likely to occur in men than women.2 Risk factors for biceps tendon rupture include male sex, old age, increased body mass index, smoking, and pre-existing shoulder pathology.3,4 Diagnosis of biceps tendon rupture is typically a clinical diagnosis utilizing inspection and palpation as well as special testing such as the Speed’s and/or Yergason’s tests. Ultrasound may be used to aid in diagnosis; in full-thickness tears, ultrasound was found to have a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 98%. However, in partial thickness tears ultrasound has a sensitivity of 27% and a specificity of 100%.5 Often considered the gold standard in diagnosis, MRI has been found to have a sensitivity of only 67% and specificity of 98% in detecting complete tears6. Treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression

  18. Is your cement sheath stressed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBruijn, G. [Schlumberger Well Cementing Services Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Wells are cemented for several reasons, most notably to provide zonal isolation; support the casing's axial load; maintain wellbore integrity; protect groundwater; and protect the casing from corrosion. This presentation addressed some of the concerns regarding the development of tensile cracks when drilling in high temperature high pressure wells during steam stimulation. Flexible cement solutions were also provided along with their key technical specifications. Simulations of cement sheath stress have shown that a cement system can operate in a dynamic stress environment if an optimized blend is used. Cement stress simulation enables the evaluation of zonal isolation risks. The paper indicated that of the 6 steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in Canada that have used a flexible and expandable cement solution system developed by Schlumberger Well Cementing Services, none have shown signs of casing gas vent flow at surface. figs.

  19. Primary optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremic, Branislav [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pitz, Susanne (eds.) [University Eye Hospital, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) is a rare tumour. Cases are usually separated into primary ONSM, which arises either intraorbitally or, less commonly, intracanalicularly, and secondary ONSM, which arises intracranially and subsequently invades the optic canal and orbit. This is the first book to cover all important aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of primary ONSM. After a general introduction, individual chapters discuss the clinical presentation, clinical examination and diagnosis, imaging, and histology. Treatment options are then addressed in detail, with special emphasis on external beam radiation therapy, and in particular stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy. The latter has recently produced consistently good results and is now considered the emerging treatment of choice for the vast majority of patients with primary ONSM. This well-illustrated book will prove invaluable to all practitioners who encounter primary ONSM in their clinical work. (orig.)

  20. [Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannus, P; Paavola, M; Paakkala, T; Parkkari, J; Järvinen, T; Järvinen, M

    2002-10-01

    Overuse tendon injury is one of the most common injuries in sports. The etiology as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to tendinopathy are of crucial medical importance. At the moment intrinsic and extrinsic factors are assumed as mechanisms of overuse tendon injury. Except for the acute, extrinsic trauma, the chronic overuse tendon injury is a multifactorial process. There are many other factors, such as local hypoxia, less of nutrition, impaired metabolism and local inflammatory that may also contribute to the development of tissue damage. The exact interaction of these factors cannot be explained entirely at the moment. Further studies will be necessary in order to get more information.

  1. Ultrasonographic assessment of flexor tendon mobilization: Effect of different protocols on tendon excursion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-W.H. Korstanje (Jan-Wiebe); J. Soeters (Johannes); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); P.C. Amadio (Peter ); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.W. Selles (Ruud)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Different mobilization protocols have been proposed for rehabilitation after hand flexor tendon repair to provide tendon excursion sufficient to prevent adhesions. Several cadaver studies have shown that the position of the neighboring fingers influences tendon excursions of

  2. Disposable sheath that facilitates endoscopic Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Short, Michael; Tai, Isabella T.; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-02-01

    In vivo endoscopic Raman spectroscopy of human tissue using a fiber optic probe has been previously demonstrated. However, there remain several technical challenges, such as a robust control over the laser radiation dose and measurement repeatability during endoscopy. A decrease in the signal to noise was also observed due to aging of Raman probe after repeated cycles of harsh reprocessing procedures. To address these issues, we designed and tested a disposable, biocompatible, and sterile sheath for use with a fiber optic endoscopic Raman probe. The sheath effectively controls contamination of Raman probes between procedures, greatly reduces turnaround time, and slows down the aging of the Raman probes. A small optical window fitted at the sheath cap maintained the measurement distance between Raman probe end and tissue surface. To ensure that the sheath caused a minimal amount of fluorescence and Raman interference, the optical properties of materials for the sheath, optical window, and bonding agent were studied. The easy-to-use sheath can be manufactured at a moderate cost. The sheath strictly enforced a maximum permissible exposure standard of the tissue by the laser and reduced the spectral variability by 1.5 to 8.5 times within the spectral measurement range.

  3. In vivo gene transfer and overexpression of focal adhesion kinase (pp125 FAK) mediated by recombinant adenovirus-induced tendon adhesion formation and epitenon cell change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, J; Kubota, H; Hotokezaka, S; Ludwig, F J; Manske, P R

    1997-11-01

    Adhesion formation is a frequent complication of tendon injury repair: however, little is known about its mechanisms. The intracellular focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-related signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tendon adhesions. The replication deficient adenovirus containing the FAK gene (pp125 FAK) was constructed and named Adv-Fak. By in vitro transductions with the recombinant virus, overexpression of the FAK protein was documented in transduced cultured primary tendon cells. By in vivo direct injection of Adv-FAK into the space between the tendon and tendon sheath of White Leghorn chickens, FAK gene transfer with overexpression of the FAK protein was detected by immunohistological staining. The morphology of these stained cells changed from the normal flat shape to cuboid. The group with overexpressed adenovirus-mediated FAK had significant adhesion formation, as seen by increased work of flexion (118.197 +/- 29.616), compared with the group with overexpressed adenovirus-mediated beta-galactosidase (67.507 +/- 36.066) (p applied. Our results show that overexpression of FAK can induce tendon adhesion formation in vivo. This indicates that FAK and the FAK-related signaling pathway may be involved in the process of tendon adhesion formation. Understanding the details of this process may help to prevent tendon adhesion and improve healing.

  4. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zurich (Switzerland); Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  5. Theory of sheath in a collisional multi-component plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this brief report is to study the behaviour of sheath structure in a multicomponent plasma with dust-neutral collisions. The plasma consists of electrons, ions, micron size negatively charged dust particles and neutrals. The sheath-edge potential and sheath width are calculated for collisionally dominated sheath.

  6. The tendon approximator device in traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Kamal S; Karimi, Hamid; Forootan, Nazilla-Sadat S

    2015-01-01

    Precise and tension-free approximation of two tendon endings is the key predictor of outcomes following tendon lacerations and repairs. We evaluate the efficacy of a new tendon approximator device in tendon laceration repairs. In a comparative study, we used our new tendon approximator device in 99 consecutive patients with laceration of 266 tendons who attend a university hospital and evaluated the operative time to repair the tendons, surgeons' satisfaction as well as patient's outcomes in a long-term follow-up. Data were compared with the data of control patients undergoing tendon repair by conventional method. Totally 266 tendons were repaired by approximator device and 199 tendons by conventional technique. 78.7% of patients in first group were male and 21.2% were female. In approximator group 38% of patients had secondary repair of cut tendons and 62% had primary repair. Patients were followed for a mean period of 3years (14-60 months). Time required for repair of each tendon was significantly reduced with the approximator device (2 min vs. 5.5 min, ptendon repair were identical in the two groups and were not significantly different. 1% of tendons in group A and 1.2% in group B had rupture that was not significantly different. The new nerve approximator device is cheap, feasible to use and reduces the time of tendon repair with sustained outcomes comparable to the conventional methods.

  7. Genetic instability in nerve sheath cell tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Casartelli, Cacilda; Rainho, Claudia Aparecida

    1995-01-01

    by the presence of polyploid cells with inconsistent abnormalities, endoreduplications and telomeric associations resulting in dicentric chromosomes. It is probable that these cytogenetic abnormalities represent some kind of evolutionary advantage for the in vitro progression of nerve sheath tumors....

  8. A Prospective Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma as Biological Augmentation for Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Achilles tendon rupture is one of the most common tendon injuries in adults. We hypothesized that Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP can be used as biological augmentation for surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Our study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture undergoing surgical repair were randomly assigned into either control group or PRP group. End-to-end modified Krackow suture was performed in both groups. In the PRP group, PRP was injected into the paratenon sheath and around the ruptured tissue after the tendon was repaired. Postoperatively we evaluated isokinetic muscle strength at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, ankle ROM, calf circumference, Leppilahti score, and the SF-36 score were evaluated at 6, 12, and 24 months after operation. At 3 months, the PRP group had better isokinetic muscle. The PRP group also achieved higher SF-36 and Leppilahti scores at 6 and 12 months. At 24 months, the PRP group had an improved ankle range of motion compared to the control group. Our study results suggest that PRP can serve as a biological augmentation to acute Achilles tendon rupture repair and improves both short and midterm functional outcomes.

  9. On the fail-safe design of tendon-driven manipulators with redundant tendons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, Jinn Biau; Liu, Tyng; Lee, Jyh Jone [National Taiwan University, Taipei (China)

    2012-06-15

    A tendon-driven manipulator having redundant tendons may possess more flexibility in operation, such as optimizing the performance of tendons, reducing the burden of each tendon, and providing fail-safe features. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the design of tendon-driven manipulators with a fail-safe feature, that is, to synthesize a system that may still remain controllable as any of the tendons have broken down or malfunctioned. Characteristics of tendon-driven manipulators are briefly discussed. Criteria for tendon-driven manipulators with redundant tendons and fail-safe feature are then established. Subsequently, constraints for such system are derived from the structure of tendon-driven manipulator. Associated with the criteria, manipulators can remain controllable when any of the tendons fails to function. Finally, a geometric method for determining the structure is developed. Examples of two-DOF and three-DOF tendondriven manipulators are demonstrated.

  10. Extensor and flexor digit synovial sheath, sac and synovial capsule in the distal part of the limbs in buffalos and camels and its relation of surgical interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AL-sadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one samples of the distal parts of limbs were obtained from different ages of buffalo and camels of both sex to study the synovial structures to determine the suitable sites for injection of surgical interference. The result showed that extensor digit synovial sheath was extend between middle or distal part of metacarpal (metatarsal to the extensor processes and this formed with synovial capsule dorsal pouches which serve in surgical interference. The flexor digit synovial sheath extended to palmar (planter between distal extremity of metacarpal (metatarsal to the middle of second phalanx in buffalo while in camel it extended to the proximal extremity of second phalanx, that sheath was formed with suspensory ligament and sessamoid bone palmar or planter pouches which were serve the surgical interference. Fourth synovial bursa observed situated dorsally between the extensor digit laterals tendon and capsule of fetlock joint, forms site of injection during surgical interference, while the other two synovial bursa were located to palmer (planter between deep flexor tendon and distal sessamoid bone in buffalo while in camel these bursa were located between deep flexor tendon and cartilage of the second phalanx, these bursa were served for surgical interference. The synovial capsule which serve the surgical interference through digit cushion these were shown extended from the claw capsule. The result show that surgical interference was form six pouches in buffalo and eight pouches in camel, which formed by synovial structures and the tissue associated with them.

  11. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants.

  12. Histopathological findings in chronic tendon disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, M; Józsa, L; Kannus, P; Järvinen, T L; Kvist, M; Leadbetter, W

    1997-04-01

    Tendon injuries and other tendon disorders represent a common diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine, resulting in chronic and long-lasting problems. Tissue degeneration is a common finding in many sports-related tendon complaints. In the great majority of spontaneous tendon ruptures, chronic degenerative changes are seen at the rupture site of the tendon (1). Systemic diseases and diseases specifically deteriorating the normal structure of the tendon (i.e. foreign bodies, and metabolic, inherited and infectious tendon diseases) are only rarely the cause of tendon pathology. Inherited diseases, such as various hereditary diseases with disturbed collagen metabolism and characteristic pathological structural alterations (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfani syndrome, homocystinuria (ochronosis)), represent approximately 1% of the causes of chronic tendon complaints (2), whereas foreign bodies are somewhat more common and are found in less than 10% of all chronic tendon problems (1). Rheumatoid arthritis and sarcoidosis are typical systemic diseases that cause chronic inflammation in tendon and peritendinous tissues. Altogether, these 'specific' disorders represented less than 2% of the pathological alterations found in the histological analysis of more than 1000 spontaneously ruptured tendons (1, 3, 4). In this material, degenerative changes were seen in a great majority of the tendons, indicating that a spontaneous tendon rupture is a typical clinical end-state manifestation of a degenerative process in the tendon tissue. The role of overuse in the pathogenesis of chronic tendon injuries and disorders is not completely understood. It has been speculated that when tendon is overused it becomes fatigued and loses its basal reparative ability, the repetitive microtraumatic processes thus overwhelming the ability of the tendon cells to repair the fiber damage. The intensive repetitive activity, which often is eccentric by nature, may lead to cumulative

  13. How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Practical Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-01-01

    Most plasmas have a very thin sheath compared with the plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculations of the plasma and sheath. The Bohm criterion provides the boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to the Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very...

  14. Protective sheath for a continuous measurement thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, R. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a protective thermocouple sheath of a magnesia graphite refractory material for use in continuous temperature measurements of molten metal in a metallurgical ladle and having a basic slag layer thereon. The sheath includes an elongated torpedo-shaped sheath body formed of a refractory composition and having an interior borehole extending axially therethrough and adapted to receive a thermocouple. The sheath body includes a lower end which is closed about the borehole and forms a narrow, tapered tip. The sheath body also includes a first body portion integral with the tapered tip and having a relatively constant cross section and providing a thin wall around the borehole. The sheath body also includes a second body portion having a relatively constant cross section larger than the cross section of the first body portion and providing a thicker wall around the borehole. The borehole terminates in an open end at the second body portion. The tapered tip is adapted to penetrate the slag layer and the thicker second body portion and its magnesia constituent material are adapted to withstand chemical attack thereon from the slag layer. The graphite constituent improves thermal conductivity of the refractory material and, thus, enhances the thermal responsiveness of the device.

  15. Protective sheath for a continuous measurement thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, R.M.

    1991-12-03

    Disclosed is a protective thermocouple sheath of a magnesia graphite refractory material for use in continuous temperature measurements of molten metal in a metallurgical ladle and having a basic slag layer thereon. The sheath includes an elongated torpedo-shaped sheath body formed of a refractory composition and having an interior borehole extending axially therethrough and adapted to receive a thermocouple. The sheath body includes a lower end which is closed about the borehole and forms a narrow, tapered tip. The sheath body also includes a first body portion integral with the tapered tip and having a relatively constant cross section and providing a thin wall around the borehole. The sheath body also includes a second body portion having a relatively constant cross section larger than the cross section of the first body portion and providing a thicker wall around the borehole. The borehole terminates in an open end at the second body portion. The tapered tip is adapted to penetrate the slag layer and the thicker second body portion and its magnesia constituent material are adapted to withstand chemical attack thereon from the slag layer. The graphite constituent improves thermal conductivity of the refractory material and, thus, enhances the thermal responsiveness of the device. 4 figures.

  16. A finite element procedure for radio-frequency sheath-plasma interactions based on a sheath impedance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, H.; Myra, J. R.

    2017-11-01

    A finite element code that solves self-consistent radio-frequency (RF) sheath-plasma interaction problems is improved by incorporating a generalized sheath boundary condition in the macroscopic solution scheme. This sheath boundary condition makes use of a complex sheath impedance including both the sheath capacitance and resistance, which enables evaluation of not only the RF voltage across the sheath but also the power dissipation in the sheath. The newly developed finite element procedure is applied to cases where the background magnetic field is perpendicular to the sheath surface in one- and two-dimensional domains filled by uniform low- and high-density plasmas. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by employing the previous capacitive sheath model at a typical frequency for ion cyclotron heating used in fusion experiments. It is shown that for sheaths on the order of 100 V in a high-density plasma, localized RF power deposition can reach a level which causes material damage. It is also shown that the sheath-plasma wave resonances predicted by the capacitive sheath model do not occur when parameters are such that the generalized sheath impedance model substantially modifies the capacitive character of the sheath. Possible explanations for the difference in the maximum RF sheath voltage depending on the plasma density are also discussed.

  17. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  18. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal must...

  19. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the filler...

  20. Basic mechanisms of tendon fatigue damage

    OpenAIRE

    Neviaser, Andrew; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Flatow, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Pathologic processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the tendons have been proposed as the underlying cause of rotator cuff disease, but the precise etiology is not known. Tear formation is, in part, attributable to the accumulation of subrupture tendon fatigue damage. We review the molecular, mechanical, and structural changes induced in tendons subjected to controlled amounts of fatigue loading in an animal model of early tendinopathy. The distinct tendon responses to low and moderate levels of ...

  1. MRI of normal achilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollandi, G.A. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Perrone, R. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Garlaschi, G. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Derchi, L.E. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the normal internal structure of tendons 11 volunteers without clinical evidence of tendinopathy were examined using conventional spin-echo T1-, T2- and proton-density weighted sequences. The Achilles tendon was chosen because of its high frequency of injury in athletic activity, large size, superficial position and because it is oriented nearly parallel to the static magnetic field, therefore minimizing the ``magic angle phenomenon``. The tendons exhibited areas of slighly increased signal in four T1-weighted and in all but one proton-density-weighted scans. No intratendinous signal was detected in T2-weighted images. The possible origin of these findings is discussed. We conclude that the knowledge of these normal signals may be useful to avoid incorrectly diagnosing as pathological. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  2. Achilles tendon reflex measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeszczyk, Janina; Straszecka, Joanna

    1995-06-01

    The examination of Achilles tendon reflex is widely used as a simple, noninvasive clinical test in diagnosis and pharmacological therapy monitoring in such diseases as: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetic neuropathy, the lower limbs obstructive angiopathies and intermittent claudication. Presented Achilles tendon reflect measuring system is based on the piezoresistive sensor connected with the cylinder-piston system. To determinate the moment of Achilles tendon stimulation a detecting circuit was used. The outputs of the measuring system are connected to the PC-based data acquisition board. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy and repeatability is good enough for diagnostics and therapy monitoring purposes. A user friendly, easy-to-operate measurement system fulfills all the requirements related to recording, presentation and storing of the patients' reflexograms.

  3. Midportion Achilles tendinosis and the plantaris tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredson, Håkan

    2011-10-01

    When re-operating patients with midportion Achilles tendinosis, having had a poor effect of ultrasound (US) and Doppler-guided scraping, the author found the involvement of the plantaris tendon to be a likely reason for the poor result. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of a plantaris tendon in close relation to the Achilles tendon in consecutive patients with midportion Achilles tendinosis undergoing treatment with US and Doppler-guided scraping. This study includes 73 consecutive tendons with chronic painful midportion Achilles tendinosis, where US+Doppler examination showed thickening, irregular tendon structure, hypo-echoic regions, and localised high blood flow outside and inside the ventral Achilles midportion. The tendons were treated with US+Doppler-guided scraping, via a medial incision. If there was a plantaris tendon located in close relation to the medial Achilles, it was extirpated. An invaginated, or 'close by located', enlarged plantaris tendon was found in 58 of 73 (80%) tendons. Preliminary clinical results of the combined procedure, US + Doppler-guided surgical scraping and extirpation of the plantaris tendon, are very promising. A thickened plantaris tendon located in close relation to the medial Achilles seems common in patients with chronic painful midportion tendinosis. The role of the plantaris tendon in midportion Achilles tendinosis needs to be further evaluated and should be kept in mind when treating this condition.

  4. Heel pain and Achilles tendonitis -- aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Your Injury The Achilles tendon connects your calf muscles to your heel bone. Together, they help ... running or jumping. Do activities that do not strain the tendon, such as ... and strengthen the muscles and tendon. Range of motion exercises will help ...

  5. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  6. Hybrid filler composition optimization for tensile strength of jute fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of weight content of bagasse fibre, carbon black and calcium carbonate on tensile strength of pultruded GFRP composite is evaluated and the optimum hybrid filler composition for maximizing the tensile strength is determined. Different compositions of hybrid filler are prepared by mixing three fillers using Taguchi ...

  7. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  8. Filler functionality in edible solid foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains.

  9. Theory of the Electron Sheath and Presheath

    CERN Document Server

    Scheiner, Brett; Yee, Benjamin T; Hopkins, Matthew M; Barnat, Edward V

    2015-01-01

    Electron sheaths are commonly found near Langmuir probes collecting the electron saturation current. The common assumption is that the probe collects the random flux of electrons incident on the sheath, which tacitly implies that there is no electron presheath and that the flux collected is due to a velocity space truncation of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF). This work provides a dedicated theory of electron sheaths, which suggests that they are not so simple. Motivated by EVDFs observed in Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations, a 1D model for the electron sheath and presheath is developed. In the model, under low temperature plasma conditions ($T_e\\gg T_i$), an electron pressure gradient accelerates electrons in the presheath to a flow velocity that exceeds the electron thermal speed at the sheath edge. This pressure gradient generates large flow velocities compared to what would be generated by ballistic motion in response to the electric field. It is found that in many situations, under co...

  10. Chronic Achilles tendon rupture reconstructed using hamstring tendon autograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Philip; Mason, Lyndon William; Molloy, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon (delayed diagnosis of more than 4 weeks) can result in retraction of the tendon and inadequate healing. Direct repair may not be possible and augmentation methods are challenging when the defect exceeds 5-6 cm, especially if the distal stump is grossly tendinopathic. We describe our method of Achilles tendon reconstruction with ipsilateral semitendinosis autograft and interference screw fixation in a patient with chronic rupture, a 9 cm defect and gross distal tendinopathy. Patient reported outcome measures consistently demonstrated improved health status at 12 months post surgery: MOXFQ-Index 38-25, EQ5D-5L 18-9, EQ VAS 70-90 and VISA-A 1-64. The patient was back to full daily function, could single leg heel raise and was gradually returning to sport. No complications or adverse events were recorded. Reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon with large defects and gross tendinopathy using an ipsilateral semitendinosis autograft and interference screw fixation can achieve satisfactory improvements in patient reported outcomes up to 1 year post-surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioactive glass particulate filler composite: Effect of coupling of fillers and filler loading on some physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Onur; Lassila, Lippo V; Kumbuloglu, Ovul; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silanization of biostable and bioactive glass fillers in a polymer matrix on some of the physical properties of the composite. The water absorption, solubility, flexural strength, flexural modulus and toughness of different particulate filler composite resins were studied in vitro. Five different specimen groups were analyzed: A glass-free control, a non-silanized bioactive glass, a silanized bioactive glass, a non-silanized biostable glass and a silanized biostable glass groups. All of these five groups were further divided into sub-groups of dry and water-stored materials, both of them containing groups with 3wt%, 6wt%, 9wt% or 12wt% of glass particles (n=8 per group). The silanization of the glass particles was carried out with 2% of gamma-3-methacryloxyproyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). For the water absorption and solubility tests, the test specimens were stored in water for 60 days, and the percentages of weight change were statistically analyzed. Flexural strength, flexural modulus and toughness values were tested with a three-point bending test and statistically analyzed. Higher solubility values were observed in non-silanized glass in proportion to the percentage of glass particles. Silanization, on the other hand, decreased the solubility values of both types of glass particles and polymer. While 12wt% non-silanized bioactive glass specimens showed -0.98wt% solubility, 12wt% silanized biostable glass specimens were observed to have only -0.34wt% solubility. The three-point bending results of the dry specimens showed that flexural strength, toughness and flexural modulus decreased in proportion to the increase of glass fillers. The control group presented the highest results (106.6MPa for flexural strength, 335.7kPA for toughness, 3.23GPa for flexural modulus), whereas for flexural strength and toughness, 12wt% of non-silanized biostable glass filler groups presented the lowest (70.3MPa for flexural strength

  12. Can PRP effectively treat injured tendons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    PRP is widely used to treat tendon and other tissue injuries in orthopaedics and sports medicine; however, the efficacy of PRP treatment on injured tendons is highly controversial. In this commentary, I reason that there are many PRP- and patient-related factors that influence the outcomes of PRP treatment on injured tendons. Therefore, more basic science studies are needed to understand the mechanism of PRP on injured tendons. Finally, I suggest that better understanding of the PRP action mechanism will lead to better use of PRP for the effective treatment of tendon injuries in clinics.

  13. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

  14. Transcription factor EGR1 directs tendon differentiation and promotes tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Charvet, Benjamin; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Havis, Emmanuelle; Ronsin, Olivier; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Robert, Nicolas; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E.; Baumberger, Tristan; Doursounian, Levon; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen. Here, we investigated the function of the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 in tendon formation, healing, and repair using rodent animal models and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adult tendons of Egr1–/– mice displayed a deficiency in the expression of tendon genes, including Scx, Col1a1, and Col1a2, and were mechanically weaker compared with their WT littermates. EGR1 was recruited to the Col1a1 and Col2a1 promoters in postnatal mouse tendons in vivo. Egr1 was required for the normal gene response following tendon injury in a mouse model of Achilles tendon healing. Forced Egr1 expression programmed MSCs toward the tendon lineage and promoted the formation of in vitro–engineered tendons from MSCs. The application of EGR1-producing MSCs increased the formation of tendon-like tissues in a rat model of Achilles tendon injury. We provide evidence that the ability of EGR1 to promote tendon differentiation is partially mediated by TGF-β2. This study demonstrates EGR1 involvement in adult tendon formation, healing, and repair and identifies Egr1 as a putative target in tendon repair strategies. PMID:23863709

  15. Functionally Distinct Tendons From Elastin Haploinsufficient Mice Exhibit Mild Stiffening and Tendon-Specific Structural Alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhoff, Jeremy D; Fang, Fei; Kahan, Lindsey G; Espinosa, Gabriela; Cocciolone, Austin J; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Mecham, Robert P; Lake, Spencer P

    2017-11-01

    Elastic fibers are present in low quantities in tendon, where they are located both within fascicles near tenocytes and more broadly in the interfascicular matrix (IFM). While elastic fibers have long been known to be significant in the mechanics of elastin-rich tissue (i.e., vasculature, skin, lungs), recent studies have suggested a mechanical role for elastic fibers in tendons that is dependent on specific tendon function. However, the exact contribution of elastin to properties of different types of tendons (e.g., positional, energy-storing) remains unknown. Therefore, this study purposed to evaluate the role of elastin in the mechanical properties and collagen alignment of functionally distinct supraspinatus tendons (SSTs) and Achilles tendons (ATs) from elastin haploinsufficient (HET) and wild type (WT) mice. Despite the significant decrease in elastin in HET tendons, a slight increase in linear stiffness of both tendons was the only significant mechanical effect of elastin haploinsufficiency. Additionally, there were significant changes in collagen nanostructure and subtle alteration to collagen alignment in the AT but not the SST. Hence, elastin may play only a minor role in tendon mechanical properties. Alternatively, larger changes to tendon mechanics may have been mitigated by developmental compensation of HET tendons and/or the role of elastic fibers may be less prominent in smaller mouse tendons compared to the larger bovine and human tendons evaluated in previous studies. Further research will be necessary to fully elucidate the influence of various elastic fiber components on structure-function relationships in functionally distinct tendons.

  16. Multiple extensor tendons reconstruction with hamstring tendon grafts and flap coverage for severe dorsal hand injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaydar, M; Orman, O; Ozel, O; Altan, E

    2017-10-10

    Treatment of patients with traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons on the dorsum of the hand is a challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome after reconstruction of soft tissues and multiple extensor tendons in patients who suffered traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons. Ten patients were enrolled in the study. These patients underwent single-stage reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendon grafts for multiple extensor tendon defects and fasciocutaneous flaps for coverage of dorsal hand defects. In total, 25 tendons (2 tendons in 5 patients and 3 tendons in 5 patients) were reconstructed. The semitendinosus tendon was used in all patients and the gracilis tendon was added in five patients for tendon reconstruction. Total tendon length requiring reconstruction was between 9cm and 31cm. Free anterolateral thigh flaps were used in six patients and reverse pedicled forearm flaps were used in four patients. According to Miller's scoring system, 8 fingers had excellent results, 12 fingers had good results and 5 fingers had fair results at the final follow-up. Hamstring tendons can be used satisfactorily for primary reconstruction of multiple digital extensor tendons due to their availability and compatibility, with a fasciocutaneous flap. IV. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Hyperuricemic PRP in Tendon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is injected within tendons to stimulate healing. Metabolic alterations such as the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or hyperuricemia could hinder the therapeutic effect of PRP. We hypothesise that tendon cells sense high levels of uric acid and this could modify their response to PRP. Tendon cells were treated with allogeneic PRPs for 96 hours. Hyperuricemic PRP did not hinder the proliferative actions of PRP. The gene expression pattern of inflammatory molecules in response to PRP showed absence of IL-1b and COX1 and modest expression of IL6, IL8, COX2, and TGF-b1. IL8 and IL6 proteins were secreted by tendon cells treated with PRP. The synthesis of IL6 and IL8 proteins induced by PRP is decreased significantly in the presence of hyperuricemia (P = 0.017 and P = 0.012, resp.. Concerning extracellular matrix, PRP-treated tendon cells displayed high type-1 collagen, moderate type-3 collagen, decorin, and hyaluronan synthase-2 expression and modest expression of scleraxis. Hyperuricemia modified the expression pattern of extracellular matrix proteins, upregulating COL1 (P = 0.036 and COMP (P = 0.012 and downregulating HAS2 (P = 0.012. Positive correlations between TGF-b1 and type-1 collagen (R = 0.905, P = 0.002 and aggrecan (R = 0.833, P = 0.010 and negative correlations between TGF-b1 and IL6 synthesis (R = −0.857, P = 0.007 and COX2 (R = −0.810, P = 0.015 were found.

  18. Mechanical properties and filler distribution as a function filler content in silica filled PDMS samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.); Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, E. B. (E. Bruce); Houlton, R. J. (Robert J.); Chitanvis, K. E. (Kiran E.); Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.); Hanson, D. E. (David E.)

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase imaging and tensile stress-strain measurements are used to study a series of model compression molded fumed silica filled polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) samples with filler content of zero, 20, 35, and 50 parts per hundred (phr) to determine the relationship between filler content and stress-strain properties. AFM phase imaging was used to determine filler size, degree of aggregation, and distribution within the soft PDMS matrix. A small tensile stage was used to measure mechanical properties. Samples were not pulled to break in order to study Mullins and aging effects. Several identical 35 phr samples were subjected to an initial stress, and then one each was reevaluated over intervals up to 26 weeks to determine the degree to which these samples recovered their initial stress-strain behavior as a function of time. One sample was tested before and after heat treatment to determine if heating accelerated recovery of the stress-strain behavior. The effect of filler surface treatment on mechanical properties was examined for two samples containing 35 phr filler treated or untreated with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ), respectively. Fiduciary marks were used on several samples to determine permanent set. 35 phr filler samples were found to give the optimum mechanical properties. A clear Mullins effect was seen. Within experimental error, no change was seen in mechanical behavior as a function of time or heat-treatment. The mechanical properties of the sample containing the HDMZ treated silica were adversely affected. AFM phase images revealed aggregation and nonuniform distribution of the filler for all samples. Finally, a permanent set of about 3 to 6 percent was observed for the 35 phr samples.

  19. Theory of sheath in a collisional multi-component plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The aim of this brief report is to study the behaviour of sheath structure in a multi- component plasma with dust-neutral collisions. The plasma consists of electrons, ions, micron size negatively charged dust particles and neutrals. The sheath-edge potential and sheath width are cal- culated for collisionally ...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75... explosive units. (a) A separate instantaneous detonator shall be used to fire each sheathed explosive unit. (b) Sheathed explosive units shall be primed and placed in position for firing only by a qualified...

  1. Injection inside the paraneural sheath of the sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Lykke; Andersen, Sofie L; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    There exists little anatomic knowledge regarding the structure and sonographic features of the sheath enveloping the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa. We investigated the spread of an injection inside the sheath to (1) determine whether the sheath is a structure distinct from the nerve or par...

  2. Fillers in the skin of color population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Candrice R; Taylor, Susan C

    2011-05-01

    The skin of color population in the United States is rapidly growing and the cosmetic industry is responding to the demand for skin of color targeted treatments. The aging face in skin of color patients has a unique pattern that can be successfully augmented by dermal fillers. Though many subjects with skin of color were not included in the pre-market dermal filler clinical trials, some post-market studies have examined the safety and risks of adverse events in this population. The safety data from a selection of these studies was examined. Though pigmentary changes occurred, there have been no reports of keloid development. Developing a patient-specific care plan and instituting close follow up is emphasized.

  3. Massive exophytic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Khorsand, MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a solitary neurofibroma involving the right posterior shoulder of a 69-year-old man with degeneration into a massive, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor measuring more than 3 times the average reported size. The radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomographic features are compared with the gross appearance and pathology.

  4. Volumizing the brow with hyaluronic acid fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambros, Val

    2009-01-01

    Aging eyes often are treated by excision of apparent excess skin and fat and, in some instances, by elevation of the brow. The result of these traditional approaches is increased definition of the orbit, which is not of benefit for all patients. In some cases, the addition of volume in the periorbital area may provide a better-looking result than traditional surgical alternatives. The author describes the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers for improvement of the periorbital region. Using local anesthetic, patients are provided with a preview of the aesthetic result of treatment with HA fillers to add volume to the brow. Most treatments are performed using HA fillers, which have the benefit of results that are both reversible and long-lasting. The author uses a fanning technique to inject small quantities of material. The use of these techniques results in a high degree of patient satisfaction. Occasional minor irregularities may occur, but these can be smoothed out by massage or blended by further injection. Results lasting two years are common and we have observed longevity of three years or more in some patients. Some brow configurations that falsely project emotional states, such as anxiety, may also be corrected. As in other types of cosmetic surgery, patient selection is key. In properly selected patients, increased fullness of the upper lids is preferable to the greater definition of the lids resulting from traditional surgical techniques. The longevity of treatment and reversibility of changes to the upper lids with HA fillers render this approach both cost-effective and safe.

  5. Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Science and Clinical Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Karol A

    2016-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid soft tissue fillers include a range of products (Juvederm Ultra, Juvederm Ultra Plus, Voluma, Restylane Silk, Restylane, Restylane Lyft, and Belotero Balance) that are used commonly for facial rejuvenation and enhancement of facial features. Although these products are similar in many ways, they are not interchangeable and have unique characteristics that need to be considered. Injection sites and techniques for facial rejuvenation are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    OpenAIRE

    Wollina U; Goldman A

    2015-01-01

    Uwe Wollina,1 Alberto Goldman2 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital, Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore...

  7. Mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon, in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Nielsen, C H; Hegnsvad, S

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been widely applied for in vivo measurements of tendon mechanical properties. Assessments of human Achilles tendon mechanical properties have received great interest. Achilles tendon injuries predominantly occur in the tendon region between the Achilles-soleus myotendinous...... Achilles tendon in vivo by the use of ultrasonography and 2) assess the between-day reproducibility of these measurements....

  8. [Diagnosis of flexor tendon injuries of the hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, P; Unglaub, F; Spies, C K

    2015-10-01

    Open or closed flexor tendon injuries may be caused by a variety of circumstances. Loss of function based on flexor tendon injuries is quite often missed. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the anatomy, the biomechanical behaviour of tendons and the intrinsic hand muscles enables the clinician to examine flexor tendon injuries adequately. This article focuses on relevant clinical tests for flexor tendon injuries.

  9. Tendon healing in vivo. An experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, S O; Lundborg, G; Lohmander, L S

    1989-01-01

    Flexor tendon segments were incubated in a diffusion chamber in the subcutis of rabbits. Tendons incubated up to 6 weeks in the diffusion chamber showed proliferating and migrating cells from the epitenon cell layer as well as viable endotenon cells. Explants frozen in liquid nitrogen prior to incubation showed no signs of extrinsic cell contamination and remained non-viable indicating that no cell penetration occurred through the Millipore filter and that cell division seen in non-frozen and incubated tendons was an expression of intrinsic cellular proliferative capacity of the tendon. In tendon segments incubated in chambers for three weeks, collagen synthesis was reduced by 50% and the rate of cell proliferation measured as 3H-thymidine incorporation, was 15 times that of native tendons. Frozen and incubated tendons showed only traces of remaining matrix synthesis or cell proliferation. With this experimental model we have histologically and biochemically shown that tendons may survive and heal while the nutrition exclusively could be based on diffusion and the tendons have an intrinsic capacity of healing. The described model enables further studies on tendon healing and its regulation.

  10. Ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft transfer for reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougoulias Nikolaos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques have been developed for the reconstruction of the Achilles tendon in chronic tears. In presence of a large gap (greater than 6 centimetres, tendon augmentation is required. Methods We present our method of minimally invasive semitendinosus reconstruction for the Achilles tendon using one para-midline and one midline incision. Results The first incision is a 5 cm longitudinal incision, made 2 cm proximal and just medial to the palpable end of the residual tendon. The second incision is 3 cm long and is also longitudinal but is 2 cm distal and in the midline to the distal end of the tendon rupture. The distal and proximal Achilles tendon stumps are mobilised. After trying to reduce the gap of the ruptured Achilles tendon, if the gap produced is greater than 6 cm despite maximal plantar flexion of the ankle and traction on the Achilles tendon stumps, the ipsilateral semitendinosus tendon is harvested. The semitendinosus tendon is passed through small incisions in the substance of the proximal stump of the Achilles tendon, and it is sutured to the Achilles tendon. It is then passed beneath the intact skin bridge into the distal incision, and passed from medial to lateral through a transverse tenotomy in the distal stump. With the ankle in maximal plantar flexion, the semitendinosus tendon is sutured to the Achilles tendon at each entry and exit point Conclusion This minimally invasive technique allows reconstruction of the Achilles tendon using the tendon of semitendinosus preserving skin integrity over the site most prone to wound breakdown, and can be especially used to reconstruct the Achilles tendon in the presence of large gap (greater than 6 centimetres.

  11. Repair of distal biceps tendon rupture using a suture anchor: description of a new endoscopic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégory, Thomas; Roure, Philippe; Fontès, Didier

    2009-03-01

    Repair of a distal biceps tendon rupture is a challenging procedure and, to date, there is no consensus as to which technique should be used because of the specific complications reported for each. A new endoscopic technique is described that uses a suture anchor to repair distal biceps tendon ruptures. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The results of a cohort of 23 patients (25 elbows) are reported with a median follow-up of 26 months. All patients were male and their median age was 44 years (range, 30-58). Ten of the patients (12 ruptures) were professional athletes or had a high level of physical activity. All repairs were performed via a 3-cm incision made in the "safe area" of the anterior crease of the forearm. The whole procedure was performed within the tendon sheath. The tendon was reinserted using a single anchor. Of the 23 patients, 22 were satisfied and 20 patients returned to their preinjury sports and jobs. There was a mean loss of 8.6 degrees of pronation and 5 degrees of supination. A single severe neurologic complication, which required a second surgical procedure, was reported. There were also 2 ectopic ossifications without clinical consequences and a transitory radial nerve paralysis. This study clearly demonstrated that endoscopic repair of the ruptured distal biceps tendon is safe, effective, and reproducible. It provides good functional outcome and early recovery with few complications. Postoperative median nerve palsy due to edema is a possible concern for patients involved in athletic activity and with a history of nerve entrapment; thus this technique should be used with caution in this group of patients.

  12. Effects of plasma sheath on solar power satellite array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the plasma sheath and equilibrium voltage distribution of a high-power solar array governs various kinds of plasma-interaction phenomena and array losses. Sheath effects of a linearly-connected array are investigated for GEO. Although the array may be large, the thin-sheath-limit analysis may be invalid, necessitating numerical methods. Three-dimensional computer calculations show that potential barriers and over-lapping sheaths can occur, i.e., structures not predictable under the thin-sheath-limit analysis, but nevertheless controlling the distribution of plasma currents impacting on the array.

  13. Active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy accelerates Achilles tendon repair by promoting neurite regeneration☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jielile, Jiasharete; Aibai, Minawa; Sabirhazi, Gulnur; Shawutali, Nuerai; Tangkejie, Wulanbai; Badelhan, Aynaz; Nuerduola, Yeermike; Satewalede, Turde; Buranbai, Darehan; Hunapia, Beicen; Jialihasi, Ayidaer; Bai, Jingping; Kizaibek, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy facilitates the functional recovery of a ruptured Achilles tendon. However, protein expression during the healing process remains a controversial issue. New Zealand rabbits, aged 14 weeks, underwent tenotomy followed immediately by Achilles tendon microsurgery to repair the Achilles tendon rupture. The tendon was then immobilized or subjected to postoperative early motion treatment (kinesitherapy). Mass spectrography results showed that after 14 days of motion treatment, 18 protein spots were differentially expressed, among which, 12 were up-regulated, consisting of gelsolin isoform b and neurite growth-related protein collapsing response mediator protein 2. Western blot analysis showed that gelsolin isoform b was up-regulated at days 7–21 of motion treatment. These findings suggest that active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy promotes the neurite regeneration of a ruptured Achilles tendon and gelsolin isoform b can be used as a biomarker for Achilles tendon healing after kinesitherapy. PMID:25317130

  14. Biceps tendon disorders in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, C L; Faber, K J; Hawkins, R J; Hovis, W D

    1999-01-01

    It has been proposed that the long head of the biceps functions as a humeral head depressor and stabilizer. In addition, in many overhead sports, the biceps helps to accelerate and decelerate the arm. With improper training or fatigue, inordinate stresses can be placed on the biceps as it attempts to compensate for other muscles. This can lead to attrition and failure, either within the tendon substance or at its origin. Bicipital problems in athletes usually occur in conjunction with other types of shoulder disorders, such as rotator cuff impingement and glenohumeral instability, making determination of the role and degree of biceps involvement difficult. Conditions affecting the biceps tendon in athletes can be generally classified as degeneration, instability, and disorders of the origin. Because of the close association of biceps lesions with other abnormalities, a thorough evaluation of the shoulder with a suspected biceps disorder is essential. Treatment of bicipital problems in athletes must often be accompanied by treatment of associated shoulder conditions.

  15. Nutrient pathways of flexor tendons in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, P R; Lesker, P A

    1982-09-01

    The perfusion and diffusion pathways to the flexor profundus tendons of 40 monkeys were investigated by measuring the uptake of tritiated proline by various tendon segments. In the absence of all vascular connections, the process of diffusion provides nutrients to all areas of flexor tendon and in this study the process of diffusion was greater. The distal segment of tendon was observed to be profused most rapidly. The proximal tendon segment is perfused from both the muscular-tendinous junction and the vinculum longus; vincular segment perfusion is via the vinculum longus vessels alone; central segment perfusion is shared by the vinculum longus and vinculum brevis vasculature. The distal segment uptake is by both the process of diffusion or vinculum brevis perfusion. The osseous attachment at the distal phalanx contributes little to tendon nutrition.

  16. Nutrient pathways of flexor tendons in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1982-09-01

    The perfusion and diffusion pathways to the flexor profundus tendons of 40 monkeys were investigated by measuring the uptake of tritiated proline by various tendon segments. In the absence of all vascular connections, the process of diffusion provides nutrients to all areas of flexor tendon and in this study the process of diffusion was greater. The distal segment of tendon was observed to be profused most rapidly. The proximal tendon segment is perfused from both the muscular-tendinous junction and the vinculum longus; vincular segment perfusion is via the vinculum longus vessels alone; central segment perfusion is shared by the vinculum longus and vinculum brevis vasculature. The distal segment uptake is by both the process of diffusion or vinculum brevis perfusion. The osseous attachment at the distal phalanx contributes little to tendon nutrition.

  17. Tendon Force Transmission at the Nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René

    2013-01-01

    of connective tissue function that are poorly understood. One such aspect is the microscopic mechanisms of force transmission through tendons over macroscopic distances. Force transmission is at the heart of tendon function, but the large range of scales in the hierarchical structure of tendons has made...... it difficult to tackle. The tendon hierarchy ranges from molecules (2 nm) over fibrils (200 nm), fibers (2 μm) and fascicles (200 μm) to tendons (10 mm), and to derive the mechanisms of force transmission it is necessary to know the mechanical behavior at each hierarchical level. The aim of the present work...... was to elucidate the mechanisms of force transmission in tendons primarily by investigating the mechanical behavior at the hierarchical level of collagen fibrils. To do so we have developed an atomic force microscopy (AFM) method for tensile testing of native collagen fibrils. The thesis contains five papers...

  18. Achilles tendon rupture in badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaalund, S; Lass, P; Høgsaa, B; Nøhr, M

    1989-01-01

    The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures. PMID:2605439

  19. Investigating tendon mineralisation in the avian hindlimb: a model for tendon ageing, injury and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabalyan, Natacha A; Evans, Darrell J R; Stanley, Rachael L

    2013-01-01

    Mineralisation of the tendon tissue has been described in various models of injury, ageing and disease. Often resulting in painful and debilitating conditions, the processes underlying this mechanism are poorly understood. To elucidate the progression from healthy tendon to mineralised tendon, an appropriate model is required. In this study, we describe the spontaneous and non-pathological ossification and calcification of tendons of the hindlimb of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The appearance of the ossified avian tendon has been described previously, although there have been no studies investigating the developmental processes and underlying mechanisms leading to the ossified avian tendon. The tissue and cells from three tendons – the ossifying extensor and flexor digitorum longus tendons and the non-ossifying Achilles tendon – were analysed for markers of ageing and mineralisation using histology, immunohistochemistry, cytochemistry and molecular analysis. Histologically, the adult tissue showed a loss of healthy tendon crimp morphology as well as markers of calcium deposits and mineralisation. The tissue showed a lowered expression of collagens inherent to the tendon extracellular matrix and presented proteins expressed by bone. The cells from the ossified tendons showed a chondrogenic and osteogenic phenotype as well as tenogenic phenotype and expressed the same markers of ossification and calcification as the tissue. A molecular analysis of the gene expression of the cells confirmed these results. Tendon ossification within the ossified avian tendon seems to be the result of an endochondral process driven by its cells, although the roles of the different cell populations have yet to be elucidated. Understanding the role of the tenocyte within this tissue and the process behind tendon ossification may help us prevent or treat ossification that occurs in injured, ageing or diseased tendon. PMID:23826786

  20. Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R.

  1. Nano-fillers to tune Young's modulus of silicone matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lijin; Xu, Zhonghua; Sun, Leming; Caveney, Patrick M.; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we investigated nanoparticles, nanofibers, and nanoclays for their filler effects on tuning the Young's modulus of silicone matrix, a material with broad in vivo applications. Nano-fillers with different shapes, sizes, and surface properties were added into silicone matrix, and then their filler effects were evaluated through experimental studies. It was found that spherical nanoparticles could clearly improve Young's modulus of the silicone matrix, while nanoclays and carbon nanofibers had limited effects. Smaller spherical nanoparticles were better in performance compared to larger nanoparticles. In addition, enhanced distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix has been observed to improve the filler effect. In order to minimize toxicity of the nanoparticles for in vivo applications, spherical nanoparticles coated with amine, acid, or hydroxide groups were also investigated, but they were found only to diminish the filler effect of nanoparticles. This study demonstrated that spherical nanoparticles could serve as fillers to tune Young's modulus of silicone matrix for potential applications in medicine.

  2. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong [Shilla General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture.

  3. Degradation of Aliphatic Polyesters in the Presence of Inorganic Fillers

    OpenAIRE

    Chouzouri, G.; Xanthos, M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Aliphatic polyesters are melt mixed with bioactive fillers and converted into sheets in order to compare their degradation behavior in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution as a function of processing method, polymer type, and crystallinity and type of filler. The samples are tested for weight changes, pH, intrinsic viscosity (IV), and thermal and mechanical property changes as a function of time. The study establishes that although the fillers appear to enhance the pol...

  4. Filler wire for aluminum alloys and method of welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Jr., Gerald W. O. (Inventor); Cho, Alex (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A weld filler wire chemistry has been developed for fusion welding 2195 aluminum-lithium. The weld filler wire chemistry is an aluminum-copper based alloy containing high additions of titanium and zirconium. The additions of titanium and zirconium reduce the crack susceptibility of aluminum alloy welds while producing good weld mechanical properties. The addition of silver further improves the weld properties of the weld filler wire. The reduced weld crack susceptibility enhances the repair weldability, including when planishing is required.

  5. Hybrid Composites from Wheat Straw, Inorganic Filler, and Recycled Polypropylene: Morphology and Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Min; Huang, Runzhou; He, Chunxia; Wu, Qinglin; Zhao, Xueni

    2016-01-01

    .... The effects of individual filler (WS) and combined fillers (WS and inorganic filler) on morphological, mechanical, and thermal expansion and water absorption properties of hybrid composites were investigated...

  6. Design, analysis and control of a novel tendon-driven magnetic resonance-guided robotic system for minimally invasive breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Lou, Jinlong; Yang, Zhiyong; Dai, Jiansheng; Yu, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Biopsy and brachytherapy for small core breast cancer are always difficult medical problems in the field of cancer treatment. This research mainly develops a magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-precision robotic system for breast puncture treatment. First, a 5-degree-of-freedom tendon-based surgical robotic system is introduced in detail. What follows are the kinematic analysis and dynamical modeling of the robotic system, where a mathematic dynamic model is established using the Lagrange method and a lumped parameter tendon model is used to identify the nonlinear gain of the tendon-sheath transmission system. Based on the dynamical models, an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative controller with friction compensation is proposed for accurate position control. Through simulations using different sinusoidal input signals, we observe that the sinusoidal tracking error at 1/2π Hz is 0.41 mm. Finally, the experiments on tendon-sheath transmission and needle insertion performance are conducted, which show that the insertion precision is 0.68 mm in laboratory environment. © IMechE 2015.

  7. [Microstructure of tendon and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J G

    1990-08-01

    Superficial and internal-structure of human and rat tendons were investigated under scanning electronic microscopy. Histologically, there are many pores on the synovium, under which a layer of network of fiber bands wraps the tendon. The synovial fluid propulsion system includes: Synovium----pores----network of fiber bands----space of tendon bands----space of tendon fibers. The synovial fluid is propelled through the above structure. The function of the network structure is like a sponge, it has the function of nutrition, absorption of heat, and lubrication.

  8. Simulation of tendon energy storage in pedaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, John; Damsgaard, Michael; Christensen, Søren Tørholm

    2001-01-01

    system is based on inverse dynamics, where the redundancy problem is solved by a minimum fatigue criterion guaranteeing maximuminter-muscular collaboration. The tendons are assumed to be linearly elastic. It is concluded that tendon elasticity is responsible for metabolic power loss......The role of elastic energy stored in tendons during pedaling is investigated by means of numerical simulation using the AnyBody body modeling system. The loss of metabolic energy due to tendon elasticity is computed and compared to the mechanical work involved in the process. The AnyBody simulation...

  9. Early diagnosis of tendon pathologies with sonoelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep ilerisoy Yakut

    2015-04-01

    RESULTS: Achilles tendon thicknesses measured at three segments (proximal, middle ,distal. did not show any statistically significant difference in both painless and symptomatic side. Proximal part of achilles tendon's elasticity did not show any difference in both side (p=0.31. In middle and distal segment , the elasticity was statistically different in symptomatic side than normal side p=0.005 and p=0.001 respectively. CONCLUSION: Sonoelastographic examination of Achilles tendons in patients with FMF suffering from talalgia may be useful for determining early dejenerative changes in tendons either in the absence of B-mode ultrasound findings. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 75-80

  10. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  11. Ultrastructural study of extraocular muscle tendon axonal profiles in infantile and intermittent exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Yi, Sung-Tae; Cho, Yoonae A; Uhm, Chang-Sub

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the ultrastructures of tendon axonal profiles in infantile and intermittent exotropia. Tendon axonal profiles are composed of myotendinous nerve endings that are presumed to serve as sensorial receptors in ocular proprioception. The study subjects included 10 patients with exotropia who had undergone surgery in one eye (recession and resection). They were divided into two equal groups. Five patients with infantile exotropia that had developed at under 12 months of age were allocated to group A. Another five, with intermittent exotropia that had developed at over 12 months of age, were allocated to group B. In all patients, medial recti were resected by 3-4 mm in order to obtain tissue samples, which were then examined under an electron microscope. In group A, we noted many axonal degenerative findings, such as the retraction of axons from myelin sheaths with considerable shrinkage, axonal disintegration, and Schwann cell proliferation. On the other hand, we identified three unique findings in group B: intact axons with incomplete Schwann cell wrapping; intact Schwann cells not associated with axons, and disorganized Schwann cells with shrunken axons. Different patterns of tendon axonal profiles were seen in association with the two types of exotropia. These differences may be related to the pathogenesis of these exotropia types.

  12. Friction between human finger flexor tendons and pulleys at high loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, A; Frank, O; Ochsner, P E; Jacob, H A C

    2003-01-01

    A method was developed to indirectly measure friction between the flexor tendons and pulleys of the middle and ring finger in vivo. An isokinetic movement device to determine maximum force of wrist flexion, interphalangeal joint flexion (rolling in and out) and isolated proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint flexion was built. Eccentric and concentric maximum force of these three different movements where gliding of the flexor tendon sheath was involved differently (least in wrist flexion) was measured and compared. Fifty-one hands in 26 male subjects were evaluated. The greatest difference between eccentric and concentric maximum force (29.9%) was found in flexion of the PIP joint. Differences in the rolling in and out movement (26.8%) and in wrist flexion (14.5%) were significantly smaller. The force of friction between flexor tendons and pulleys can be determined by the greater difference between eccentric and concentric maximum force provided by the same muscles in overcoming an external force during flexion of the interphalangeal joints and suggests the presence of a non-muscular force, such as friction. It constitutes of 9% of the eccentric flexion force in the PIP joint and therefore questions the low friction hypothesis at high loads. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. Comparison of the Achilles tendon moment arms determined using the tendon excursion and three?dimensional methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Satoru; Fukutani, Atsuki; Kusumoto, Kazuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Yanagiya, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The moment arm of muscle?tendon force is a key parameter for calculating muscle and tendon properties. The tendon excursion method was used for determining the Achilles tendon moment arm (ATMA). However, the accuracy of this method remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of error introduced in determining the ATMA using the tendon excursion method by comparing it with the reference three?dimensional (3D) method. The tendon excursion method determined the ATMA a...

  14. Tendon mineralization is accelerated bilaterally and creep of contralateral tendons is increased after unilateral needle injury of murine achilles tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Etienne John Ogilvy; Shrive, Nigel G; Rosvold, Joshua M; Thornton, Gail M; Frank, Cyril B; Hart, David A

    2013-10-01

    Heterotopic mineralization may result in tendon weakness, but effects on other biomechanical responses have not been reported. We used a needle injury, which accelerates spontaneous mineralization of murine Achilles tendons, to test two hypotheses: that injured tendons would demonstrate altered biomechanical responses; and that unilateral injury would accelerate mineralization bilaterally. Mice underwent left hind (LH) injury (I; n = 11) and were euthanized after 20 weeks along with non-injured controls (C; n = 9). All hind limbs were examined by micro computed tomography followed by biomechanical testing (I = 7 and C = 6). No differences were found in the biomechanical responses of injured tendons compared with controls. However, the right hind (RH) tendons contralateral to the LH injury exhibited greater static creep strain and total creep strain compared with those LH tendons (p ≤ 0.045) and RH tendons from controls (p ≤ 0.043). RH limb lesions of injured mice were three times larger compared with controls (p = 0.030). Therefore, despite extensive mineralization, changes to the responses we measured were limited or absent 20 weeks postinjury. These results also suggest that bilateral occurrence should be considered where tendon mineralization is identified clinically. This experimental system may be useful to study the mechanisms of bilateral new bone formation in tendinopathy and other conditions. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia exhibits heterotopic calcification in tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Hori, N; Nakamoto, N; Akita, M; Yoda, T

    2014-05-01

    Masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia is a new disease entity associated with limited mouth opening. In this study, we analyzed the microstructural characteristics of muscles and tendons in masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to determine the elemental composition. Histological analysis was performed to detect the calcification. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to clarify the microstructural characteristics of muscles and tendons. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis was performed to identify the distribution of elements. Mineralized nodules were observed in tendon tissues of masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia as compared with facial deformity. Electron microscopy revealed that the muscle and tendon tissues in masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia showed degenerative changes and distinctive histological findings as compared with tissues in facial deformity. We found that Ca, P, and Si were detected only in masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia. We demonstrated that masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia exhibits heterotopic calcification in tendon tissues. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Single-stage reconstruction of flexor tendons with vascularized tendon transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, P C; Pérez-García, A; Thione, A; Lorca-García, C

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of finger flexor tendons with vascularized flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon grafts (flaps) based on the ulnar vessels as a single stage is not a popular technique. We reviewed 40 flexor tendon reconstructions (four flexor pollicis longus and 36 finger flexors) with vascularized FDS tendon grafts in 38 consecutive patients. The donor tendons were transferred based on the ulnar vessels as a single-stage procedure (37 pedicled flaps, three free flaps). Four patients required composite tendon and skin island transfer. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, and functional results were evaluated using a total active range of motion score. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factors that could be associated with the postoperative total active range of motion. The average postoperative total active range of motion (excluding the thumbs) was 178.05° (SD 50°). The total active range of motion was significantly lower for patients who were reconstructed with free flaps and for those who required composite tendon and skin island flap. Age, right or left hand, donor/motor tendon and pulley reconstruction had no linear effect on total active range of motion. Overall results were comparable with a published series on staged tendon grafting but with a lower complication rate. Vascularized pedicled tendon grafts/flaps are useful in the reconstruction of defects of finger flexor tendons in a single stage, although its role in the reconstructive armamentarium remains to be clearly established. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Evaluation of Different Mineral Filler Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Ignatiuk, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Mineral filler aggregates play an important role in asphalt mixtures because they fill voids in paving mix and improve the cohesion of asphalt binder. Limestone powder containing over 90% of CaCO3 is the most frequently used type of filler. Waste material from the production of coarse aggregate can be successfully used as a mineral filler aggregate for hot asphalt concrete mixtures as the limestone powder replacement. This paper presents the experimental results of selected properties of filler aggregates which were obtained from rocks with different mineral composition and origin. Five types of rocks were used as a source of the mineral filler aggregate: granite, gabbro, trachybasalt, quartz sandstone and rocks from postglacial deposits. Limestone filler was used in this study as the reference material. The following tests were performed: grading (air jet sieving), quality of fines according to methylene blue test, water content by drying in a ventilated oven, particle density using pyknometer method, Delta ring and ball test, Bitumen Number, fineness determined as Blaine specific surface area. Mineral filler aggregates showed significant differences when they were mixed with bitumen and stiffening effect in Delta ring and ball test was evaluated. The highest values were achieved when gabbro and granite fillers were used. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of grain shape and size was carried out. Significant differences in grain size and shape were observed. The highest non-homogeneity in size was determined for quartz sandstone, gabbro and granite filler. Their Blaine specific surface area was lower than 2800 cm2/g, while for limestone and postglacial fillers with regular and round grains it exceeded 3000 cm2/g. All examined mineral filler aggregates met requirements of Polish National Specification WT-1: 2014 and could be used in asphalt mixtures.

  18. Standard guidelines for the use of dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently used fillers vary greatly in their sources, efficacy duration and site of deposition; detailed knowledge of these properties is essential for administering them. Indications for fillers include facial lines (wrinkles, folds, lip enhancement, facial deformities, depressed scars, periocular melanoses, sunken eyes, dermatological diseases-angular cheilitis, scleroderma, AIDS lipoatrophy, earlobe plumping, earring ptosis, hand, neck, dιcolletι rejuvenation. Physicians′ qualifications : Any qualified dermatologist may use fillers after receiving adequate training in the field. This may be obtained either during postgraduation or at any workshop dedicated to the subject of fillers. The physicians should have a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the area designated to receive an injection of fillers and the aesthetic principles involved. They should also have a thorough knowledge of the chemical nature of the material of the filler, its longevity, injection techniques, and any possible side effects. Facility: Fillers can be administered in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room. Preoperative counseling and informed consent: Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, and longevity of the filler should be discussed with the patient. Patients should be given brochures to study and adequate opportunity to seek information. Detailed consent forms need to be completed by the patients. A consent form should include the type of filler, longevity expected and possible postoperative complications. Preoperative photography should be carried out. Choice of the filler depends on the site, type of defect, results needed, and the physician′s experience. Injection technique and volume depend on the filler and the physician′s preference, as outlined in these guidelines.

  19. From Tendon Injury to Collagen-based Tendon Regeneration: Overview and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Clement; Picaut, Lise; Mosser, Gervaise; Trichet, Lea

    2017-01-01

    Tendon injury is a clinical, societal and economical issue. Moreover, tendon repair represents an important clinical challenge, partly due to the mechanical constraints that occur at the junctions with muscle and bone. Several strategies have been developed for tendon repair. In this review, we first assess the importance of tendon injuries from different sites and their causes. After a short overview of tendon three-dimensional organization, the complexity of the perfect repair quest is presented ranging from current clinical procedures to new engineering scaffolds. We then sum up tendon engineering requirements and focus on new collagen-based scaffolds, which raise promising prospects to mimic and repair tendon. In particular, we survey quantitatively a large panel of techniques to produce these scaffolds, detailing their principle and recent improvements. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Optic Nerve Sheath Mechanics in VIIP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Julia; Forte, Taylor E.; Wang, Roy; Feola, Andrew; Samuels, Brian; Myers, Jerry; Nelson, Emily; Gleason, Rudy; Ethier, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a major concern in current space medicine research. While the exact pathology of VIIP is not yet known, it is hypothesized that the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift increases intracranial pressure (ICP) and drives remodeling of the optic nerve sheath. To investigate this possibility, we are culturing optic nerve sheath dura mater samples under different pressures and investigating changes in tissue composition. To interpret results from this work, it is essential to first understand the biomechanical response of the optic nerve sheath dura mater to loading. Here, we investigated the effects of mechanical loading on the porcine optic nerve sheath.Porcine optic nerves (number: 6) were obtained immediately after death from a local abattoir. The optic nerve sheath (dura mater) was isolated from the optic nerve proper, leaving a hollow cylinder of connective tissue that was used for biomechanical characterization. We developed a custom mechanical testing system that allowed for unconfined lengthening, twisting, and circumferential distension of the dura mater during inflation and under fixed axial loading. To determine the effects of variations in ICP, the sample was inflated (0-60 millimeters Hg) and circumferential distension was simultaneously recorded. These tests were performed under variable axial loads (0.6 grams - 5.6 grams at increments of 1 gram) by attaching different weights to one end of the dura mater. Results and Conclusions: The samples demonstrated nonlinear behavior, similar to other soft connective tissue (Figure 1). Large increases in diameter were observed at lower transmural pressures (approximately 0 to 5 millimeters Hg), whereas only small diameter changes were observed at higher pressures. Particularly interesting was the existence of a cross-over point at a pressure of approximately 11 millimeters Hg. At this pressure, the same diameter is obtained for all axial loads applied

  1. The pathology of flexor tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P

    1979-10-01

    This paper discusses the problems of failure after tendon repair. For a long time the subject has been dominated by the problem of adhesion formation. Recent work has shown that this is not inevitable, and consideration of other factors, particularly the nutrition of tendon tissue is leading to the possibilities of other methods of treatment.

  2. [Spontaneous achilles tendon rupture in granulomatous vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthien, Jan Philipp; Delling, G; Rüther, W

    2003-08-01

    A 66-year old patient sustained a non-traumatic rupture of her left achilles tendon. She suffered from Sjögren's syndrome which occurred in conjunction with a systemic vasculitis, and recurrent episcleritis. The combination of Sjögren's syndrome and systemic vasculitis is well known. Subsequently, she was treated with high-dose systemic steroids over a period of 2 years. In order to reduce the amount of steroids due to preexisting severe osteoporosis and thoracic vertebral fractures, her medication was changed to cyclophosphamide shortly before her injury. Intraoperatively, a granuloma was discovered at the site of the rupture. This granuloma had infiltrated most of the achilles tendon at this site and virtually replaced viable tendon tissue. Originally, the rupture was supposedly due to the high dose steroids. This theory had to be revised according to the intraoperative findings. Following excision of the granuloma and operative treatment of the achilles tendon rupture, the continuity of the tendon could be completely restored. A MRI scan 3 months after the procedure demonstrated a completely healed Achilles tendon. Spontaneous achilles tendon rupture due to a granuloma in patients with vasculitis seems to be a rare event. However, tendon ruptures in combination with systemic lupus erythematodes have been described. Mostly, these events are attributed to long term application of steroids. Spontaneous rupture in combination with high dose treatment of steroids seems to be an underestimated problem.

  3. Recent advances in flexor tendon repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques)

    1971-01-01

    markdownabstractThe prognosis for restoration of good function after the treatment of a tendon lesion in 'no-man's land' is influenced by a number of factors which may be summarized as follows: - The nature of the injury. - The amplitude of the tendon excursion. - The motility of the

  4. MANAGEMENT OF OPEN ACHILLES TENDON INJURY: PRIMARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is attributable to increase in both competitive and recreational sports. In most of the literature written on Achilles tendon injuries there were rarely any information about open Achilles tendon lacerations. In ... Methods: This was a prospective study that took place at the Plastic Surgery Unit of Irrua Specialist. Teaching Hospital ...

  5. Instructive materials for tendon and ligament augmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro Pereira Simões Crispim, João Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Tendons and ligaments (T/L) are the connective tissue that connect muscles to bone and bone to bone, respectively. The main function of tendons is to translate muscle contractions into join motion and consequently generate movement. Ligaments function to stabilize joints and guide them during their

  6. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  7. Tendon xanthomas : Not always familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopal, Charlotte; Visseren, Frank L J; Marais, A David; Westerink, Jan; Spiering, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    Tendon xanthoma are most commonly associated with Familial Hypercholesterolemia, but the differential diagnosis includes sitosterolemia and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The case presented here is of a 48-year old male with large tendon xanthomas attributable to CTX. CTX is a rare, recessive

  8. Rupture of Achilles Tendon : Usefulness of Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Ki, Won Woo; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Song Mun; Shin, Myeong Jin [Ulsan Medical College, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To differentiate a complete rupture of Achilles tendon from an incomplete one which is important because its treatment is quite different. And it is necessary to know the exact site of the rupture preoperatively. Fifteen cases of fourteen patients which were diagnosed as Achilles tendon rupture by ultrasonography and surgery were reviewed. We compared sonographic rupture site with surgical findings. Ultrasonographic criteria for differentiation of complete and incomplete rupture was defined as follows : the discreteness, which means the proximal intervening hypoechogenicity to the interface echogenicity of distal margin of ruptured tendon : the slant sign, which represents the interface of ruptured distal margin which was seen over the 3/4 of the thickness of the tendon without intervening low echogeneicity : the invagination sign, which means the echogenic invagination from Kager triangle into posterior aspect of Achilles tendon over the half thickness of the tendon. The sites of complete tendon rupture were exactly corresponded to surgical finding in four cases of ten complete ruptures. And the discrepancy between sonographic and surgical findings in the site of complete rupture was 1.2 {+-} 0.4 cm in six cases. Three of ten complete ruptures showed the discreteness sign, all of ten showed the slant sign and two of ten showed the invagination sign. It is helpful to differentiate a complete from incomplete rupture of the Achilles tendon and to localize the site of the complete rupture with the ultrasonographic evaluation

  9. Comparative biomechanic performances of locked cruciate four-strand flexor tendon repairs in an ex vivo porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Alexander; Goldstein, Rachel; Nasser, Philip; Lee, Steve K

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the effects of 3 different locking configurations on repair strength when used in a cruciate four-strand repair. Sixty fresh porcine flexor tendons were transected and repaired with cruciate four-strand core suture repairs with 3 different locking configurations: simple locks (a modification of the Pennigton method), circle locks, and cross locks. Half of the repairs in each locking group were reinforced with a peripheral suture. The tendon repairs were subjected to linear load-to-failure testing. Outcome measures were 2-mm gap force and ultimate tensile strength. The cross lock repair had significantly greater 2-mm gap force and ultimate tensile strength than the simple lock repair, both with and without a peripheral suture. The cross lock repair showed significantly greater 2-mm gap force without a peripheral suture and significantly greater ultimate tensile strength with a peripheral suture than the circle lock repair. With peripheral reinforcement, the cross lock cruciate repair had a mean 2-mm gap force of 92 N and ultimate tensile strength of 119 N. The cross lock cruciate repair consistently produced the strongest biomechanic performance in all outcome measures. Locking configuration influences the biomechanic performance of cruciate four-strand flexor tendon repairs. Our results suggest that the cruciate repair with cross locks is stronger than repairs with simple locks or circle locks. Whether the results of this ex vivo porcine linear model can be translated to the clinical arena is unknown, because the factors of tendon/sheath friction, tendon healing, and compromised tendon viability from the lock were not addressed.

  10. Tendon Vasculature in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempfer, Herbert; Traweger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tendons represent a bradytrophic tissue which is poorly vascularized and, compared to bone or skin, heal poorly. Usually, a vascularized connective scar tissue with inferior functional properties forms at the injury site. Whether the increased vascularization is the root cause of tissue impairments such as loss of collagen fiber orientation, ectopic formation of bone, fat or cartilage, or is a consequence of these pathological changes remains unclear. This review provides an overview of the role of tendon vasculature in healthy and chronically diseased tendon tissue as well as its relevance for tendon repair. Further, the nature and the role of perivascular tendon stem/progenitor cells residing in the vascular niche will be discussed and compared to multipotent stromal cells in other tissues. PMID:26635616

  11. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  12. The screen hole plasma sheath of an ion accelerator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the first probing of the screen hole sheath of an ion accelerator system are presented. The screen hole sheath, represented as a set of equipotential contours, extends over a large distance within the discharge plasma. Under no conditions examined does the sheath enter the screen hole. Edge hole defocusing of multiaperture accelerator systems is due primarily to local plasma density variations rather than adjacent screen hole sheath interactions. The sheath boundary is independent of screen-to-accelerator grid spacing when the grid set is operated at the minimum ion beam divergence condition. Significant ion focusing effects occur in the sheath adjacent to the screen grid webbing leading to increased ion source beam current efficiency with decreasing screen-to-accelerator grid separation and/or screen grid thickness.

  13. Filler-wire positioner for electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, W. M.; Fueg, L. B.; Phillips, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Miniaturized positioner is installed in any electron beam vacuum chamber for use with wire feed applications requiring filler wire. Horizontal and vertical control of the positioner is maintained from a console while chamber is under vacuum. Device permits more positive positioning of welding filler wire.

  14. Dermal fillers in the Netherlands : A market surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers P; van Drongelen A; Geertsma R; Hodemaekers H; de Jong W; Lamme E; Oostlander A; Roszek B; Schwillens P; Venhuis B; Janssen R; PRS; GZB

    2017-01-01

    Dermal fillers, or just fillers, are products that are injected into or under the skin for medical or cosmetic purposes. This could be to restore the natural contours of the body after an operation for example, but also to mask the visible effects of ageing. The National Institute for Public

  15. Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate and bio-fillers by solvent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and some bio-fillers such as lignin (L), alpha cellulose (AC) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were prepared to investigate the effect of the bio-fillers on the properties of PHB by a solvent casting method. The thermal properties by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA–DTG and ...

  16. Bio-based fillers for environmentally friendly composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokhothu, Thabang H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bio-based fillers as alternative replacement for synthetic fillers has been dictated by increasing ecological concerns as well as depleting petroleum resources. The other aspect is a growing need for eco-friendly, renewable...

  17. Use of nut shells as fillers in polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three nutshell fillers including walnut, almond and pistachio nutshell were added to PLA. All the physical properties of samples deteriorated relative to PLA. When subjected to heat pre-treatment, although the physical properties of PLA-filler samples still deteriorated, the extent of deteriorat...

  18. Thompson Test in Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Albertson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available HPI: A 26-year old male presented to the emergency department after experiencing the acute onset of left ankle pain while playing basketball. Upon jumping, he felt a “pop” in his left posterior ankle, followed by pain and difficulty ambulating. His exam was notable for a defect at the left Achilles tendon on palpation. The practitioner performed a Thompson test, which was positive (abnormal on the left. Significant Findings: The left Achilles tendon had a defect on palpation, while the right Achilles tendon was intact. When squeezing the right (unaffected calf, the ankle spontaneously plantar flexed, indicating a negative (normal Thompson test. Upon squeeze of the left (affected calf, the ankle did not plantar flex, signifying a positive (abnormal Thompson test. The diagnosis of left Achilles tendon rupture was confirmed intraoperatively one week later. Discussion: The Achilles tendon (also: calcaneal tendon or heel cord is derived from the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as the soleus muscle. Rupture of the Achilles tendon most commonly occurs in the distal tendon, approximately 2-6 cm from its attachment to the calcaneal tuberosity, in an area of hypovascularity known as the “watershed” or “critical” zone.1-3 The Thompson test (also: Simmonds-Thompson test, described by Simmonds in 1957 and Thompson in 1962, is done while the patient is in the prone position, with feet hanging over the end of a table/gurney, or with the patient kneeling on a stool or chair.4-5 Squeezing the calf of an unaffected limb will cause the ankle to plantar flex, but squeezing the calf of a limb with an Achilles tendon rupture will cause no motion. The sensitivity of the Thompson’s test for the diagnosis of a complete Achilles tendon rupture is 96-100% and the specificity is 93-100%, but data is limited.6-8

  19. Kinetic model for the collisionless sheath of a collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu, E-mail: xtang@lanl.gov; Guo, Zehua, E-mail: guo@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Collisional plasmas typically have mean-free-path still much greater than the Debye length, so the sheath is mostly collisionless. Once the plasma density, temperature, and flow are specified at the sheath entrance, the profile variation of electron and ion density, temperature, flow speed, and conductive heat fluxes inside the sheath is set by collisionless dynamics, and can be predicted by an analytical kinetic model distribution. These predictions are contrasted here with direct kinetic simulations, showing good agreement.

  20. Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    approved for public release. 1 Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena Final Report 2016 Prof. Mitchell L. R. Walker Georgia...interaction and how both the sheath and the wall material affect the plasma as a whole. The research aims to determine the fundamental transport properties...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0346 Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena MITCHELL WALKER GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH CORPORATION Final

  1. Effect of Natural Fillers on Mechanical Properties of GFRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dhawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs have replaced conventional engineering materials in many areas, especially in the field of automobiles and household applications. With the increasing demand, various modifications are being incorporated in the conventional FRPs for specific applications in order to reduce costs and achieve the quality standards. The present research endeavor is an attempt to study the effect of natural fillers on the mechanical characteristics of FRPs. Rice husk, wheat husk, and coconut coir have been used as natural fillers in glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs. In order to study the effect of matrix on the properties of GFRPs, polyester and epoxy resins have been used. It has been found that natural fillers provide better results in polyester-based composites. Amongst the natural fillers, in general, the composites with coconut coir have better mechanical properties as compared to the other fillers in glass/epoxy composites.

  2. [Clinical application of peroneal muscles tendon transposition in repair of Achilles tendon rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rihao; Jin, Yu; Fang, Xiulin

    2006-07-01

    To discuss applied anatomy, biomechanics and surgical procedures of long peroneal muscles tendon transposition in repair of occlusive achilles tendon rupture. The blood supply and the morphology of long peroneal muscles tendon were observed in the lower extremity of 50 sides adult specimens and the mechanical tests which stretch load on the tendon were carried out. The methods were designed on the basis of the anatomical characteristics and morphology. Ten patients suffering occlusive Achilles tendon rupture were treated by using long peroneal muscles tendon transposition from March 2001 to July 2004. Among 10 patients, there were 7 males and 3 females, aging 32 to 54 years including 6 cases of jump injury, 2 cases of bruise, 1 case of step vacancy and 1 case of spontaneity injury. The interval between injury and surgery was 6 hours to 7 days in 7 fresh rupture and 21 days to 3 months in 3 old rupture. All cases belonged to occlusive Achilles tendon rupture (8 cases of complete rupture and 2 cases of incomplete rupture). The origin of long peroneal muscles was proximal tibia and fibular head, the end of them was base of first metatarsal bones and medial cuboid. The length of tendon was 13.5 +/- 2.5 cm. The width of origin tendon was 0.9 +/- 0.2 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm; the width on apex of lateral malleolus was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.4 +/- 0.1 cm, the width on head of cuboid was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm. The long peroneal muscles tendon had abundant blood supply. The results of mechanical test showed that the biggest load was 2,292.4 +/- 617.3 N on tendon calcaneus, 1,020.4 +/- 175.4 N on long peroneal muscles tendon, 752.0 +/- 165.4 N on peroneus brevis tendon and 938.2 +/- 216.7 N on tibialis posterior tendon. Ten cases of occlusive Achilles tendon rupture achieved healing by first intention and were followed up 18-24 months. No Achilles tendon re-rupture, necrosis of skin or other complications occurred

  3. Ion Scattering in a Self-Consistent Cylindrical Plasma Sheath

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Figueroa, Shana S; Cooke, D. L; Gatsonis, Nikos A

    2005-01-01

    .... Results indicate that higher plasma shielding limits the range of impact parameters that experience significant scattering, and that attracted particles entering tangent to the sheath experience increased scattering...

  4. Electrical characterization of a capacitive rf plasma sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, D; Hopkins, M B

    2007-01-01

    The authors report on an experimental system designed to investigate and characterize capacitive radio frequency (rf) sheaths. An electrode mounted in an inductive plasma reactor and driven with separate rf and direct current (dc) power sources is used. The advantage of this design is that the electrode sheath is decoupled from the plasma parameters. This allows detailed investigation of the sheath with different bias conditions without perturbing the bulk plasma parameters. Power coupled to ions and electrons through the sheath, at low pressure, is investigated and a method to determine the electron conduction current to the electrode, using the external dc bias, is presented.

  5. Studies in flexor tendon reconstruction: biomolecular modulation of tendon repair and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, James

    2012-03-01

    The Andrew J. Weiland Medal is presented each year by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand and the American Foundation for Surgery of the Hand for a body of work related to hand surgery research. This essay, awarded the Weiland Medal in 2011, focuses on the clinical need for flexor tendon reconstruction and on investigations into flexor tendon biology. Reconstruction of the upper extremity is limited by 2 major problems after injury or degeneration of the flexor tendons. First, adhesions formed after flexor tendon repair can cause decreased postoperative range of motion and hand function. Second, tendon losses can result from trauma and degenerative diseases, necessitating additional tendon graft material. Tendon adhesions are even more prevalent after tendon grafting; therefore these 2 problems are interrelated and lead to considerable disability. The total costs in terms of disability and inability to return to work are enormous. In this essay, published work from the past 12 years in our basic science laboratory is summarized and presented with the common theme of using molecular techniques to understand the cellular process of flexor tendon wound healing and to create substances and materials to improve tendon repair and regeneration. These are efforts to address 2 interrelated and clinically relevant problems that all hand surgeons face in their practice. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is higher serum cholesterol associated with altered tendon structure or tendon pain? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Benjamin J; Cook, Jill L; Docking, Sean I; Gaida, James E

    2015-12-01

    Tendon pain occurs in individuals with extreme cholesterol levels (familial hypercholesterolaemia). It is unclear whether the association with tendon pain is strong with less extreme elevations of cholesterol. To determine whether lipid levels are associated with abnormal tendon structure or the presence of tendon pain. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant articles were found through an electronic search of 6 medical databases-MEDLINE, Cochrane, AMED, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus. We included all case-control or cross-sectional studies with data describing (1) lipid levels or use of lipid-lowering drugs and (2) tendon structure or tendon pain. 17 studies (2612 participants) were eligible for inclusion in the review. People with altered tendon structure or tendon pain had significantly higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; with mean difference values of 0.66, 1.00, 0.33, and -0.19 mmol/L, respectively. The results of this review indicate that a relationship exists between an individual's lipid profile and tendon health. However, further longitudinal studies are required to determine whether a cause and effect relationship exists between tendon structure and lipid levels. This could lead to advancement in the understanding of the pathoaetiology and thus treatment of tendinopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Elastographic characteristics of the metacarpal tendons in horses without clinical evidence of tendon injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Meghann; Redding, W Rich; Labens, Raphael; Morgan, Michel; Davis, Weston; Seiler, Gabriela S

    2014-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injuries are common causes of impaired performance in equine athletes. Gray-scale ultrasonography is the current standard method for diagnosing and monitoring these injuries, however this modality only provides morphologic information. Elastography is an ultrasound technique that allows detection and measurement of tissue strain, and may provide valuable mechanical information about equine tendon and ligament injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, reproducibility, and repeatability of elastography; and to describe elastographic characteristics of metacarpal tendons in sound horses. Nineteen legs for 17 clinically sound horses without evidence of musculoskeletal pathology were included. Elastographic images of the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons and the branches of the suspensory ligament (tendon of the interosseous muscle) were described quantitatively and qualitatively. There was no statistically significant difference between operators (P = 0.86) nor within operators (P = 0.93). For qualitative assessments, reproducibility (0.46) was moderate and repeatability (0.78) was good. Similar to human Achilles tendons, equine tendons were classified as predominantly hard using elastography. There was no statistically significant difference in stiffness of the flexor tendons (P = 0.96). No significant difference in stiffness was found with altered leg position during standing (P = 0.84) and while nonweight bearing (P = 0.61). The flexor tendons were softer when imaged in longitudinal versus transverse planes (P tendons and ligaments of the distal forelimb in horses. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  8. Minimally invasive, endoscopic Achilles tendon reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendons with Endobutton stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Tomasz; Bąkowski, Paweł; Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Grygorowicz, Monika

    2016-06-03

    Plantaris tendon, peronus brevis tendon and flexor hallucis longus tendon augmentation, commonly used in Achilles tendon rupture, often lead to weakening of injured foot and they require the immobilization after the surgery. It is essential to develop the technique, which gives no such limitation and allows for immediate functional improvement. We present our method of minimally invasive, endoscopic Achilles tendon reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendons with Endobutton stabilization. Posterolateral and posteromedial portals were made approximately 3 cm above the posterosuperior part of the calcaneus to clean the area of the Achilles tendon endoscopically. Then the hamstrings are harvested and prepared for the "Endobutton" system. A midline incision of the skin is performed approximately 1 cm above the posterosuperior part of the calcaneus to approach to the posterosuperior part of the calcaneus. Then under fluoroscopy the calcaneus was drilled through using K-wire. The distal end of the graft equipped with an Endobutton loop was entered into the drilled tunnel in the calcaneus. Later, 8 consecutive skin incisions are performed. Proximal ends of the graft were brought out through the native Achilles tendon reaching medial and lateral skin incisions. The final step was to transfer and tie the graft ends through the most proximal skin incision. This minimally invasive, endoscopic technique allows reconstruction of the Achilles tendon using semitendinosus and gracilis tendons with Endobutton stabilization and can be used in so-called "difficult", resistant cases as a "salvage procedure".

  9. Serial superficial digital flexor tendon biopsies for diagnosing and monitoring collagenase-induced tendonitis in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. de Lacerda Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of a biopsy technique by performing serial evaluations of tissue samples of the forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT in healthy horses and in horses subjected to superficial digital flexor tendonitis induction. Eight adult horses were evaluated in two different phases (P, control (P1 and tendonitis-induced (P2. At P1, the horses were subjected to five SDFT biopsies of the left forelimb, with 24 hours (h of interval. Clinical and ultrasonographic (US examinations were performed immediately before the tendonitis induction, 24 and 48 h after the procedure. The biopsied tendon tissues were analyzed through histology. P2 evaluations were carried out three months later, when the same horses were subjected to tendonitis induction by injection of bacterial collagenase into the right forelimb SDFT. P2 clinical and US evaluations, and SDFT biopsies were performed before, and after injury induction at the following time intervals: after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and after 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. The biopsy technique has proven to be easy and quick to perform and yielded good tendon samples for histological evaluation. At P1 the horses did not show signs of localised inflammation, pain or lameness, neither SDFT US alterations after biopsies, showing that the biopsy procedure per se did not risk tendon integrity. Therefore, this procedure is feasible for routine tendon histological evaluations. The P2 findings demonstrate a relation between the US and histology evaluations concerning induced tendonitis evolution. However, the clinical signs of tendonitis poorly reflected the microscopic tissue condition, indicating that clinical presentation is not a reliable parameter for monitoring injury development. The presented method of biopsying SDFT tissue in horses enables the serial collection of material for histological analysis causing no clinical signs and tendon damage seen

  10. The effect of glucocorticoids on tendon cell viability in human tendon explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Wai Ting; Chuen Fu, Sai; Man Lee, Kwong

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Previous studies on the culture of human tenocytes have shown that dexamethasone and triamcino-lone reduce cell viability, suppress cell proliferation, and reduce collagen synthesis. However, such cell cultures lack the extracellular matrix and three-dimensional structure of normal tendons, which affects their response to stimuli. We established a human tendon explant culture system and tested the effects of dexamethasone and triamcinolone on cell viability. Methods Primary human tendon explant cultures were prepared from healthy hamstring tendons. Tendon strips were harvested from hamstring tendons and cultured in 24-well plates in Dulbecco’s modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 2% fetal calf serum. The tendon explants were treated with 0 μM (control), 10 μM, or 100 μM dexamethasone sodium phosphate or 0 μM (control), 10 μM, or 100 μM triamcinolone acetonide in DMEM for 96 h. Cell viability was measured by Alamar blue assay before and after glucocorticoid treatment. Results Incubation with 10 μM and 100 μM dexamethasone reduced cell viability in human tendon explants by 35% and 45%, respectively, as compared to a 6% increase in the controls (p = 0.01, mixed-effects ANOVA). Triamcinolone at 10 μM and 100 μM reduced cell viability by 33% and 36%, respectively, as compared to a 9% increase in the controls (p = 0.07, mixed-effects ANOVA). Interpretation Human tendon explant cultures can be used to study the effects of glucocorticoids on human tendon. Dexamethasone and triamcinolone suppress the cell viability of human tendon in its natural 3-dimensional environment with matrix anchorage. Human tendon explant cultures provide a species-specific model for further investigation of the effects of glucocorticoids on the metabolism of the extracellular matrix of human tendon, and on its mechanical properties. PMID:19421908

  11. Blood flow and clearance in tendons. Studies with dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, G; Davies, R; Tothill, P

    1984-05-01

    Blood flow in intact tendons in dogs was measured using 57Co-labelled microspheres and compared with the simultaneous clearance of a diffusible radionuclide, 85Sr, by the same tendons. Clearance was significantly greater than flow in all tendons, indicating that diffusion from surrounding tissues may be important in the nutrition of normal tendons.

  12. Achilles tendon: US diagnosis of pathologic conditions. Work in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blei, C.L.; Nirschl, R.P.; Grant, E.G.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-three patients were prospectively examined with ultra-sound (US) for acute or recurrent Achilles tendon symptoms. Three types of pathologic conditions of the Achilles tendon were found: tendinitis/tenosynovitis, acute tendon trauma, and postoperative changes. US appears to enable differentiation of these conditions and to contribute to the diagnosis of a broad range of Achilles tendon disorders.

  13. Micromechanical properties and collagen composition of ruptured human achilles tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Kovanen, Vuokko; Hölmich, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive.......The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive....

  14. Visual improvement and pain resolution in traumatic optic nerve sheath meningocele treated by optic nerve sheath fenestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Xiaoyun, Wu; Yi, Liang; Ningbo, Chen; Xizhong, Qiu; Shaowei, Yang; Wei, Lin; Maozhu, Zhao; Wubo, Ma; Xuefei, Pan; Li, Lai; Haibin, Tan; Daiwen, Zeng; Yong, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus as to the optimum treatment for traumatic optic neuropathy (TON). The decision to intervene medically or surgically, or simply observe was recommended to be on an individual basis. The purpose of this study is to test whether optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) could improve vision in patients with traumatic optic nerve sheath meningocele, although it was reported to be effective in patients with traumatic optic nerve sheath hematoma. ONSF was performed on two traumatic patients with dilated optic nerve sheath from MRI. Both patients initially suspected as traumatic optic nerve sheath hematoma were diagnosed as traumatic optic nerve sheath meningocele by intraoperative findings of the enlarged optic nerve sheath and clear fluid drained without evidence of blood in the subdural space. Moreover, significant orbit/head pain resolution and visual improvement within a week after ONSF was found. When TON presents with an enlarged optic nerve/sheath on CT or MRI with visual loss, an optic nerve sheath meningocele should be considered with the consideration that ONSF may benefit both visual acuity and post-traumatic pain, if present.

  15. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  16. CNS Myelin Sheath Lengths Are an Intrinsic Property of Oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Marie E; Byrne, Lauren; Ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2015-09-21

    Since Río-Hortega's description of oligodendrocyte morphologies nearly a century ago, many studies have observed myelin sheath-length diversity between CNS regions. Myelin sheath length directly impacts axonal conduction velocity by influencing the spacing between nodes of Ranvier. Such differences likely affect neural signal coordination and synchronization. What accounts for regional differences in myelin sheath lengths is unknown; are myelin sheath lengths determined solely by axons or do intrinsic properties of different oligodendrocyte precursor cell populations affect length? The prevailing view is that axons provide molecular cues necessary for oligodendrocyte myelination and appropriate sheath lengths. This view is based upon the observation that axon diameters correlate with myelin sheath length, as well as reports that PNS axonal neuregulin-1 type III regulates the initiation and properties of Schwann cell myelin sheaths. However, in the CNS, no such instructive molecules have been shown to be required, and increasing in vitro evidence supports an oligodendrocyte-driven, neuron-independent ability to differentiate and form initial sheaths. We test this alternative signal-independent hypothesis--that variation in internode lengths reflects regional oligodendrocyte-intrinsic properties. Using microfibers, we find that oligodendrocytes have a remarkable ability to self-regulate the formation of compact, multilamellar myelin and generate sheaths of physiological length. Our results show that oligodendrocytes respond to fiber diameters and that spinal cord oligodendrocytes generate longer sheaths than cortical oligodendrocytes on fibers, co-cultures, and explants, revealing that oligodendrocytes have regional identity and generate different sheath lengths that mirror internodes in vivo. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex differences in tendon structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dylan C; Kharaz, Yalda Ashraf; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Comerford, Eithne; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-10-01

    Tendons play a critical role in the transmission of forces between muscles and bones, and chronic tendon injuries and diseases are among the leading causes of musculoskeletal disability. Little is known about sex-based differences in tendon structure and function. Our objective was to evaluate the mechanical properties, biochemical composition, transcriptome, and cellular activity of plantarflexor tendons from 4 month old male and female C57BL/6 mice using in vitro biomechanics, mass spectrometry-based proteomics, genome-wide expression profiling, and cell culture techniques. While the Achilles tendons of male mice were approximately 6% larger than female mice (p differences in mechanical properties (p > 0.05) of plantaris tendons were observed. Mass spectrometry proteomics analysis revealed no significant difference between sexes in the abundance of major extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen types I (p = 0.30) and III (p = 0.68), but female mice had approximately twofold elevations (p differed by only 1%. In vitro, neither the sex of the serum that fibroblasts were cultured in, nor the sex of the ECM in which they were embedded, had profound effects on the expression of collagen and cell proliferation genes. Our results indicate that while male mice expectedly had larger tendons, male and female tendons have very similar mechanical properties and biochemical composition, with small increases in some ECM proteins and proteoglycans evident in female tendons. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2117-2126, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hyaluronic acid gel fillers in the management of facial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric S Brandt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fredric S Brandt1, Alex Cazzaniga21Private Practice in Coral Gables, Florida, USA and Manhattan, NY, USA, and Dermatology Research Institute, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Research Institute, Coral Gables, Florida, USAAbstract: Time affects facial aging by producing cellular and anatomical changes resulting in the consequential loss of soft tissue volume. With the advent of new technologies, the physician has the opportunity of addressing these changes with the utilization of dermal fillers. Hyaluronic acid (HA dermal fillers are the most popular, non-permanent injectable materials available to physicians today for the correction of soft tissue defects of the face. This material provides an effective, non invasive, non surgical alternative for correction of the contour defects of the face due to its enormous ability to bind water and easiness of implantation. HA dermal fillers are safe and effective. The baby-boomer generation, and their desire of turning back the clock while enjoying an active lifestyle, has expanded the popularity of these fillers. In the US, there are currently eight HA dermal fillers approved for commercialization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. This article reviews the innate properties of FDA-approved HA fillers and provides an insight on future HA products and their utilization for the management of the aging face.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, aging face, dermal filler, wrinkles, Restylane, Perlane, Juvéderm

  19. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yee Leong; Daniel Gheorghiu; Janardhan Rao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR) in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body bui...

  20. Assessment of Postoperative Tendon Quality in Patients With Achilles Tendon Rupture Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Tendon Fiber Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarman, Hakan; Atmaca, Halil; Cakir, Ozgur; Muezzinoglu, Umit Sefa; Anik, Yonca; Memisoglu, Kaya; Baran, Tuncay; Isik, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Although pre- and postoperative imaging of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) has been well documented, radiographic evaluations of postoperative intratendinous healing and microstructure are still lacking. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an innovative technique that offers a noninvasive method for describing the microstructure characteristics and organization of tissues. DTI was used in the present study for quantitative assessment of fiber continuity postoperatively in patients with acute ATR. The data from 16 patients with ATR from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The microstructure of ART was evaluated using tendon fiber tracking, tendon continuity, fractional anisotropy, and apparent diffusion coefficient values by way of DTI. The distal and proximal portions were measured separately in both the ruptured and the healthy extremities of each patient. The mean patient age was 41.56 ± 8.49 (range 26 to 56) years. The median duration of follow-up was 21 (range 6 to 80) months. The tendon fractional anisotropy values of the ruptured Achilles tendon were significantly lower statistically than those of the normal side (p = .001). However, none of the differences between the 2 groups with respect to the distal and proximal apparent diffusion coefficient were statistically significant (p = .358 and p = .899, respectively). In addition, the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements were not significantly different in the proximal and distal regions of the ruptured tendons compared with the healthy tendons. The present study used DTI and fiber tracking to demonstrate the radiologic properties of postoperative Achilles tendons with respect to trajectory and tendinous fiber continuity. Quantifying DTI and fiber tractography offers an innovative and effective tool that might be able to detect microstructural abnormalities not appreciable using conventional radiologic techniques. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle

  1. Retrospective analysis of oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tito Salla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic neuroma, neurofibroma, neurilemmoma, palisaded encapsulated neuroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST are peripheral nerve sheath tumors and present neural origin. The goal of this study was to describe the epidemiological data of oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors in a sample of the Brazilian population. Biopsies requested from the Oral Pathology Service, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil, between 1966 and 2006 were evaluated. Lesions diagnosed as peripheral nerve sheath tumors were submitted to morphologic and to immunohistochemical analyses. All cases were immunopositive to the S-100 protein. Thirty-five oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors were found, representing 0.16% of all lesions archived in the Oral Pathology Service. Traumatic neuroma (15 cases most frequently affected the mental foramen. Solitary neurofibroma (10 cases was more frequently observed in the palate. Neurofibroma associated with neurofibromatosis type I (2 cases was observed in the gingival and alveolar mucosa. Neurilemmoma (4 cases was more commonly observed in the buccal mucosa. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (3 cases occurred in the mandible, palate, and tongue. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (1 case occurred in the buccal mucosa. The data confirmed that oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors are uncommon in the oral region, with some lesions presenting a predilection for a specific gender or site. This study may be useful in clinical dentistry and oral pathology practice and may be used as baseline data regarding oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors in other populations.

  2. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  3. Electrohydrodynamic direct-writing orderly pattern with sheath gas focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyi Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Laminar sheath gas is introduced to increase the stability of Electrohydrodynamic Direct-Writing (EDW. The external stretching force from sheath gas promotes the ejection threshold, the diameter of jet and printed fibers as well. The critical voltage decreases with the increase of sheath gas pressure. The stretching force from sheath gas decreases the diameter of printed fiber as well as that of charged jet. As sheath gas pressure increases from 0 to 25 kPa, the average diameter of micro/nano structure reduces from 4.46μm to 845.25 nm. The laminar field flow of sheath gas shelters the charged jet free from the surrounding interferences, and helps charged jet to move in a straight line. With the help of sheath gas, the stability of charged jet can be improved to direct-write precise complex micro-pattern. The position precision of direct-written pattern is less than 5μm. As a novel method, EDW with laminar sheath gas would promote the deposition precision of printed micro/nano structure and its application.

  4. Electrospinning jet behaviors under the constraints of a sheath gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the ejection efficiency and uniformity of nanofibers is the key to applications of electrospinning technology. In this work, a novel electrospinning spinneret with a sheath gas passageway is designed. The frictional resistance that stems from the sheath gas provides additional stretching and restriction forces on the jet. The sheath gas also reduces interference and enhances the stability of the charged jet. A bead-on-strain simulation model is built up to determine the constraint effects of the sheath gas. Simulation results show that the sheath gas decreases the motion area and increases the stretching ratio of the liquid jet. The stretching force from the sheath gas decreases the diameter and increases the uniformity of the nanofiber. As the gas pressure increases from 0 kPa to 50 kPa, the critical voltage of the jet ejection decreases from 8.4 kV to 2.5 kV, the diameter of the nanofiber deposition zone decreases from 40 cm to 10 cm, and the diameter of the nanofibers decreases from 557.97 nm to 277.73 nm. The uniformity of nanofibers can be improved significantly using a sheath gas. The sheath gas contributes to the rapid deposition of a uniform nanofibrous membrane and the industrial applications of electrospinning.

  5. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe Fetterman, Yevgeny Raitses, and Michael Keidar

    2008-04-08

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  6. A Biomechanical Study of a Novel Asymmetric 6-Strand Flexor Tendon Repair Using Porcine Tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yoke Rung; Tay, Shian Chao

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical performance of a novel asymmetric 6-strand flexor tendon repair technique without locking loops. Twenty porcine flexor tendons were equally repaired by using the asymmetric technique and compared with the modified Lim-Tsai repair technique. The ultimate tensile strength, load to 1-mm gap force, stiffness, and mechanism of failure were measured. The asymmetric repair technique had significantly higher tensile strength (63.3 ± 3.7 N) than the modified Lim-Tsai repairs (46.7 ± 8.3 N). A novel flexor tendon repair technique with improved biomechanical performance may be available for use in flexor tendon repairs.

  7. Transcription factor EGR1 directs tendon differentiation and promotes tendon repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Charvet, Benjamin; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Havis, Emmanuelle; Ronsin, Olivier; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Robert, Nicolas; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E; Baumberger, Tristan; Doursounian, Levon; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen...

  8. Ultrasound detection and identification of cosmetic fillers in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wortsman, X.; Wortsman, J.; Orlandi, C.

    2012-01-01

    with the presence of those agents. Methods We used ultrasound in a porcine skin model to determine the sonographic characteristics of commonly available filler agents, and subsequently applied the analysis to detect and identify cosmetic fillers among patients referred for skin disorders. Results Fillers...... throughout the subcutaneous tissue, with occasional infiltration of local muscles and loco-regional lymph nodes. Accompanying dermatopathies were represented by highly localized inflammatory processes unresponsive to conventional treatment, morphea-like reactions, necrosis of fatty tissue and epidermal cysts...

  9. Traumatic tibialis anterior tendon rupture: treatment with a two-stage silicone tube and an interposition hamstring tendons graft protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgakos, Vasileios; Koutalos, Antonios; Hantes, Michael; Manoudis, Gregory; Badras, Leonidas; Malizos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    A novel technique for managing ruptured tibialis anterior tendon complicated by infection and tendon substance loss in a young adult is described. A two-stage reconstruction technique with a silicon tube and tendon autograft was performed. At first, after local control of the infection, scar excision and placement of a silicone tube was performed. Ten weeks later, ipsilateral hamstrings tendons were harvested and bridged the 7 cm tendon gap. Eighteen months later, the patient has excellent clinical and functional outcome.

  10. Kinetic theory of plasma sheaths surrounding electron-emitting surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J P; Hershkowitz, N; Kaganovich, I D; Wang, H; Raitses, Y; Barnat, E V; Weatherford, B R; Sydorenko, D

    2013-08-16

    A one-dimensional kinetic theory of sheaths surrounding planar, electron-emitting surfaces is presented which accounts for plasma electrons lost to the surface and the temperature of the emitted electrons. It is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. The sheath potential goes to zero as the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature, which can occur in the afterglow of an rf plasma and some low-temperature plasma sources. These results were validated by particle in cell simulations. The theory was tested by making measurements of the sheath surrounding a thermionically emitting cathode in the afterglow of an rf plasma. The measured sheath potential shrunk to zero as the plasma electron temperature cooled to the emitted electron temperature, as predicted by the theory.

  11. A Coupled Plasma-Sheath Model for High Density Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

    2000-01-01

    High density, low pressure plasmas are used for etching and deposition in microelectronics fabrication processes. The process characteristics are strongly determined by the ion energy distribution (IED) and the ion flux arriving at the substrate that are responsible for desorption of etch products and neutral dissociation at the surface. The ion flux and energy are determined by a self- consistent modeling of the bulk plasma, where the ions and the neutral radicals are produced, and the sheath, where the ions are accelerated. Due to their widely different time scales, it is a formidable task to self-consistently resolve non-collisional sheath in a high density bulk plasma model. In this work, we first describe a coupled plasma-sheath model that attempts to resolve the non-collisional sheath in a reactor scale model. Second, we propose a semianalytical radio frequency (RF) sheath model to improve ion dynamics.

  12. Converting round tendons to flat tendon constructs: Does the preparation process have an influence on the structural properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnick, C; Herbort, M; Raschke, M J; Schliemann, B; Siebold, R; Śmigielski, R; Fink, C

    2017-05-01

    The structural properties of hamstring tendon grafts were evaluated in a porcine model, after processing it to a flat shape, to better replace or augment anatomic flat structures (e.g. ACL, MPFL or MCL). In this biomechanical study, porcine flexor tendons were used which have a comparable shape to semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. One part of the tendon was prepared to a flat tendon construct by splitting the tendon longitudinally with a knife to half of the diameter of the tendon. The semi-split tendon was scratched out to a flat shape. The other matched part was tested in its original round shape. The tendons (n = 40) have been fixed in a uniaxial testing machine (Zwick/Roell) by cryo-clamps after preparing the fixed ends by 2-0 polyester sutures (2-0 Ethibond(®) EXCEL, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). In every specimen, there was a free 60-mm tendon part between both clamps. The tendons have been loaded to failure to evaluate typical biomechanical parameters such as stiffness, yield load and maximum load. No statistically significant differences (n.s.) regarding stiffness, yield load and maximum load between natively round and processed flat tendons could be detected. A prepared flat-shaped tendon does not show any different structural properties compared with an original round tendon. Therefore, a flat tendon seems to be a biomechanical stable graft option for anatomic reconstruction or augmentation of injured natively flat-shaped structures such as MCL, MPFL or ACL.

  13. Position Control of Tendon-Driven Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E.; Platt, Robert, Jr.; Hargrave, B.; Pementer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Conventionally, tendon-driven manipulators implement some force control scheme based on tension feedback. This feedback allows the system to ensure that the tendons are maintained taut with proper levels of tensioning at all times. Occasionally, whether it is due to the lack of tension feedback or the inability to implement sufficiently high stiffnesses, a position control scheme is needed. This work compares three position controllers for tendon-driven manipulators. A new controller is introduced that achieves the best overall performance with regards to speed, accuracy, and transient behavior. To compensate for the lack of tension feedback, the controller nominally maintains the internal tension on the tendons by implementing a two-tier architecture with a range-space constraint. These control laws are validated experimentally on the Robonaut-2 humanoid hand. I

  14. PERONEAL TENDON LESIONS IN ATHLETES (REVIEW)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. E. Achkasov; A. P. Sereda; A. D. Repetyuk

    2016-01-01

    .... Peroneal tendons pathology is not the major but the underestimated cause of pain in lateral and hindfoot as well as of foot dysfunction which is difficult to distinguish from lesions of lateral...

  15. Terminology for Achilles tendon related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; van Sterkenburg, M. N.; Wiegerinck, J. I.; Karlsson, J.; Maffulli, N.

    2011-01-01

    The terminology of Achilles tendon pathology has become inconsistent and confusing throughout the years. For proper research, assessment and treatment, a uniform and clear terminology is necessary. A new terminology is proposed; the definitions hereof encompass the anatomic location, symptoms,

  16. Is sonoelastography of value in assessing tendons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Andrea S; Faschingbauer, Ralph; Jaschke, Werner R

    2010-09-01

    Sonoelastography is a newly introduced ultrasound technique that evaluates tissue elasticity and thus provides additional information to that offered by conventional ultrasound images. In the musculoskeletal field, sonoelastography can help improve estimation of tendon stiffness. In this article, the principles and future developments of sonoelastography are discussed using the strongest and thickest tendon of the human body, the Achilles tendon, for illustrative purposes. Preliminary findings of sonoelastography in healthy and pathological Achilles tendons, technical considerations, examination technique and several limitations are addressed. The usefulness of elastography can be expected to increase rapidly in the musculoskeletal field, as soon as we learn to interpret elastographic artifacts as well as to take advantage of the new information provided by sonoelastography. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  17. Jumper's Knee (Patellar Tendonitis) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Jumper's Knee (Patellar Tendonitis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Jumper's Knee (Patellar ... prevent continued damage to the knee. How the Knee Works To understand how jumper's knee happens, it ...

  18. Achilles tendon assessed with sonoelastography: histologic agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klauser, Andrea S; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Tamegger, Mario; Faschingbauer, Ralph; Moriggl, Bernhard; Klima, Guenther; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Kastlunger, Martin; Jaschke, Werner R

    2013-01-01

    ...) and sonoelastography of the Achilles tendon with findings at histologic assessment. This study was conducted with the approval of the institutional review boards, and all cadavers were in legal custody of the study institution...

  19. Early diagnosis of tendon pathologies with sonoelastography

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep ilerisoy Yakut; Torel Ogur; sukran Erten; Deniz Delibas; Meltem Yildirim; Halil Arslan; Mehmet Gumus

    2015-01-01

    AIM : Sonoelastography (SE) is a new ultrasound-based imaging technique that provides information on tissue elasticity and stiffness. Strain sonoelastography is the most commonly used technique that allows real-time visualisation of the tissue. In this study, we searched the efficacy of SE for assessing Achilles tendon abnormalities in patients with familial mediterranean fever (FMF) suffering from talalgia. METHODS: Achilles tendons of 18 FMF patients suffering from unilateral talala...

  20. Suitable long tendon technologies and practices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Altounyan, P

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available to improve safety in coal mines. In order to improve safety in South African coal mining operations it is essential that rock engineering and support practices be improved in the light of available international knowledge and best practice... and Practices 2 1. The introduction of safer and more effective long tendon support systems. 2. The development of an industry wide guidance documents for each long tendon support type to be used. 3. The identification of appropriate laboratory...

  1. The aponeurotic expansion of the supraspinatus tendon: anatomy and prevalence in a series of 150 shoulder MRIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Thomas P.; Bureau, Nathalie J. [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Department of Radiology and Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Cardinal, Etienne [Radiologie Laennec, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guillin, Raphael [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, Radiology Department, Rennes (France); Lanneville, Pascale [Hopital du Centre-de-la-Mauricie, Pathology Department, Shawinigan, QC (Canada); Grabs, Detlev [Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Anatomy Department, Trois-Rivieres, QC (Canada)

    2014-09-02

    To describe the aponeurotic expansion of the supraspinatus tendon with anatomic correlations and determine its prevalence in a series of patients imaged with MRI. In the first part of this HIPAA-compliant and IRB-approved study, we retrospectively reviewed 150 consecutive MRI studies of the shoulder obtained on a 1.5-T system. The aponeurotic expansion at the level of the bicipital groove was classified as: not visualized (type 0), flat-shaped (type 1), oval-shaped and less than 50 % the size of the adjacent long head of the biceps section (type 2A), or oval-shaped and more than 50 % the size of the adjacent long head of the biceps section (type 2B). In the second part of this study, we examined both shoulders of 25 cadavers with ultrasound. When aponeurotic expansion was seen at US, a dissection was performed to characterize its origin and termination. An aponeurotic expansion of the supraspinatus located anterior and lateral to the long head of the biceps in its groove was clearly demonstrated in 49 % of the shoulders with MRI. According to our classification, its shape was type 1 in 35 %, type 2A in 10 % and type 2B in 4 %. This structure was also identified in 28 of 50 cadaveric shoulders with ultrasound and confirmed at dissection in 10 cadavers (20 shoulders). This structure originated from the most anterior and superficial aspect of the supraspinatus tendon and inserted distally on the pectoralis major tendon. The aponeurotic expansion of the supraspinatus tendon can be identified with MRI or ultrasound in about half of the shoulders. It courses anteriorly and laterally to the long head of the biceps tendon, outside its synovial sheath. (orig.)

  2. Tendon rupture associated with excessive smartphone gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Luke; Cage, Dori N; Horn, Adam; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2015-06-01

    Excessive use of smartphones has been associated with injuries. A 29-year-old, right hand-dominant man presented with chronic left thumb pain and loss of active motion from playing a Match-3 puzzle video game on his smartphone all day for 6 to 8 weeks. On physical examination, the left extensor pollicis longus tendon was not palpable, and no tendon motion was noted with wrist tenodesis. The thumb metacarpophalangeal range of motion was 10° to 80°, and thumb interphalangeal range of motion was 30° to 70°. The clinical diagnosis was rupture of the left extensor pollicis longus tendon. The patient subsequently underwent an extensor indicis proprius (1 of 2 tendons that extend the index finger) to extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer. During surgery, rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon was seen between the metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints. The potential for video games to reduce pain perception raises clinical and social considerations about excessive use, abuse, and addiction. Future research should consider whether pain reduction is a reason some individuals play video games excessively, manifest addiction, or sustain injuries associated with video gaming.

  3. TREATMENT OF OLD ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Koryshkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1998 to 2010 32 patients (14 men, 18 women, aged 15-65 years, underwent surgical treatment for old Achilles tendon rupture. In all cases correct diagnosis was made not earlier than 1 month after injury. The importance of clinical Thompson test and sonographic examination for diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is underlined. For the restoration of Achilles tendon V-Y plasty was used. Surgery was performed in a period of 1 to 13 months in patients with subcutaneous Achilles tendon ruptures. Follow-up results of patients in the postoperative period ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean follow-up 1 year 7 months. Date of observation in the postoperative period ranged from 6 months to 19 years. Marginal necrosis wound occurred in 3 (10% patients, re-rupture of the Achilles tendon to tendon suture zone - in one patient, even in one patient on day 14 became infected. Violations of the foot innervation were no detected.

  4. Triceps tendon rupture: repair and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocialkowski, Cezary; Carter, Rebecca; Peach, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Triceps tendon ruptures are rare injuries and are frequently missed on initial presentation to the emergency department. In cases of complete rupture, surgical repair is recommended but no guidelines exist on the optimum reconstructive technique or rehabilitation. We present a surgical technique and rehabilitation programme for the management of these injuries. A midline posterior incision is performed, the ruptured triceps tendon is identified and mobilized, and the tendon footprint is prepared. The tendon is then repaired using bone suture anchors, with a parachute technique, and held in 40° of flexion. The rehabilitation programme is divided into five phases, over a period of 12 weeks. Range of movement is gradually increased in a brace for the first 6 weeks. Rehabilitation is gradually increase in intensity, progressing from isometric extension exercises to weight-resisted exercises, and finally plyometrics and throwing exercises. Our surgical technique provides a solid tendon repair without the need for further metalwork removal. The graduated rehabilitation programme also helps to protect the integrity of the repair at the same time as enabling patients to gradually increase the strength of the triceps tendon and ultimately return to sport activities.

  5. Arthroscopic quadriceps tendon repair: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury.

  6. Arthroscopic Quadriceps Tendon Repair: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetomo Saito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation. Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury.

  7. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norshamira, A., E-mail: myra.arshad@gmail.com; Mariatti, M., E-mail: mariatti@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers.

  8. (Methacrylic Acid-Co-Divinylbenzene) Resin as Filler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divinylbenzene) resin (PMD) as a new filler-binder for direct compression tablets. Methods: Powder properties of PMD and MCC were characterized. Tablets made from PMD and MCC with and without propranolol hydrochloride were evaluated for ...

  9. (Methacrylic Acid-Co-Divinylbenzene) Resin as Filler- Binder for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divinylbenzene) resin (PMD) as a new filler-binder for direct compression tablets. Methods: Powder properties of PMD and MCC were characterized. Tablets made from PMD and MCC with and without propranolol hydrochloride were evaluated for ...

  10. Use of Cellulose-Containing Fillers in Composites with Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LAKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The composites, containing recycled polypropylene and fillers, obtained from different lignocellulosics by the thermocatalytic destruction method, were investigated. Birch sawdust, newsprint wastes, cotton residues and wood bleached sulphate pulp were used as raw materials for obtaining fillers. The indices of mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, deformation at break, shear modulus, toughness, twisting moment of the composites' samples were determined. It has been found that the obtained composites have relatively good mechanical properties. Better results were obtained, using fillers from sawdust and wood pulp. After treating the fillers with rapeseed oil, their water vapour sorption and water retention value (WRV decreased. In this case, the strength of the composites was higher.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.484

  11. Complications of hyaluronic acid fillers and their managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Abduljabbar

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Injection related side effects are the most commonly seen, which are usually transient. Vascular occlusion is the most severe complication associated with hyaluronic acid filler injection. A thorough understanding of the facial vascular anatomy reduces the risk of vascular occlusion. Early identification of a vascular occlusion and a prompt intervention can significantly decrease the risk of long term sequelae. Guidelines to avoid, identify and manage different hyaluronic acid filler complications have been suggested.

  12. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Nano Filler Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnia Noor Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focusing on mechanical and morphological properties of unsaturated polyester (UP reinforced with two different types of filler which is nano size clay Cloisite 30B (C30B and Carbon Black (CB. Samples were fabricated via hand lay-up and open molding technique. Percentages of Cloisite 30B & Carbon Black (CB used vary from 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%. The mechanical properties were evaluated by impact, flexural and hardness testing. Result shows that the mechanical strength of C30B was better compare to CB filled composite. The combination of UP with C30B helps to improve the properties due to the high surface area of nanosize filler in the matrix. The result shows that increasing of filler content had increased mechanical properties of composites. Optimum percentage represent good mechanical properties are 4% for both fillers. SEM images showed that rough surface image indicate to agglomeration of filler in the matrix for CB sample and smooth surface image on C30B sample indicate to homogenous blending between filler and matrix polyester. SEM images proved that mechanical properties result indicate that C30B polyester composite is a good reinforcement compare to CB polyester composite.

  13. Microstructural and rheological analysis of fillers and asphalt mastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.; Buzimov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pavements are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and organic binder. The aggregates are sorted in different sizes and different amount which are mixed together with bitumen. The finest mineral fraction (dfiller. This component has an important role in asphalt mixture - it fills the gaps between the aggregates and if mixed with bitumen (which is called asphalt mastics) it sticks the larger particles together. Particle size, microstructure and surface properties of fillers highly affect the cohesion with bitumen, therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the microstructure of mineral fillers (limestone, dolomite) which are used in Hungarian road constructions with the use of different techniques (particle size distribution, scanning electronmicroscopy tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, BET specific surface tests, determination of hydrophobicity). After the tests of fillers, asphalt mastics were prepared and rheological examinations were obtained. These examinations served to observe the interaction and the effect of fillers. The stiffening effect of fillers and the causes of rutting were also investigated. Based on our results, it can be stated that particle size, hydrophobic properties and the amount of fillers highly affect the rheological properties of mastics.

  14. Analysis of filler particle levels and sizes in dental alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lemes Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic filler fractions and sizes of commercially alginates. The inorganic particles volumetric fractions of five alginates - Jeltrate(J, Jeltrate Plus(JP, Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho(JC, Hydrogum(H and Ezact Krom(E were accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 450 °C for 3 hours. Unsettled materials were soaked in acetone and chloroform and sputter-coated with gold for SEM evaluation of fillers' morphology and size. The results for the volumetric inorganic particle content were (%: J - 48.33, JP - 48.33, JC - 33.79, H - 37.55 and E - 40.55. The fillers presented a circular appearance with helical form and various perforations. Hydrogum fillers looked like cylindrical, perforated sticks. The mean values for fillers size were (μm: J - 12.91, JP - 13.67, JC - 13.44, E - 14.59 and H - 9 (diameter, 8.81 (length. The results of this study revealed differences in filler characteristics that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  15. [Treatment of unrecent patellar tendon tear with semitendinous and gracilis tendons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Malacón, C A; García-Estrada, G A

    2011-01-01

    The patellar tendon lesion is very important due to the role of this tendon on the conformation of the extensor mechanism of the quadriceps. When the terminal end of this mechanism is injured, the extensor function of the knee is completely lost and thus the functional capability of the involved limb is completely disrupted.

  16. Local trauma in human patellar tendon leads to widespread changes in the tendon gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Lorentzen, Marc P; Kildevang Jensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    of Insulin-like growth factor-I, connective tissue growth factor, scleraxis, decorin, fibromodulin, tenascin-C, tenomodulin, VEGFa, CD68, IL-6, MMP12 and MMP13. In conclusion, a moderate trauma to a healthy human tendon (e.g. biopsy sampling) results in a widespread up-regulation of tendon cell activity...

  17. Three-dimensional muscle-tendon geometry after rectus femoris tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Deanna S; Blemker, Silvia S; Rab, George T; Bagley, Anita; Delp, Scott L

    2004-02-01

    Rectus femoris tendon transfer is performed in patients with cerebral palsy to improve knee flexion during walking. This procedure involves detachment of the muscle from its insertion into the quadriceps tendon and reattachment to one of the knee flexor muscles. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the muscle-tendon geometry and to assess the formation of scar tissue between the rectus femoris and adjacent structures. Magnetic resonance images of the lower extremities were acquired from five subjects after bilateral rectus femoris tendon transfer. A three-dimensional computer model of the musculoskeletal geometry of each of the ten limbs was created from these images. The three-dimensional paths of the rectus femoris muscles after transfer demonstrated that the muscle does not follow a straight course from its origin to its new insertion. The typical muscle-tendon path included an angular deviation; this deviation was sharp (>35 degrees ) in seven extremities. In addition, scar tissue between the transferred rectus femoris and the underlying muscles was visible on the magnetic resonance images. The angular deviations in the rectus femoris muscle-tendon path and the presence of scar tissue between the rectus femoris and the underlying muscles suggest that the beneficial effects of rectus femoris tendon transfer are derived from reducing the effects of the rectus femoris muscle as a knee extensor rather than from converting the muscle to a knee flexor. These findings clarify our understanding of the mechanism by which rectus femoris tendon transfer improves knee flexion.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Human Patellar Tendon at the Hierarchical levels of Tendon and Fibril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene Brüggebusch; Hansen, Philip; Hassenkam, Tue

    2012-01-01

    that of tendon supports that fibrillar rather than interfibrillar properties govern sub-failure tendon response, making the fibrillar level a meaningful target of intervention. The lower modulus found in vitro suggests a possible adverse effect of removing the tissue from its natural environment. In addition...

  19. Effect of estrogen on tendon collagen synthesis, tendon structural characteristics, and biomechanical properties in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Kongsgaard, M; Holm, Lars

    2009-01-01

    therapy (ERT, n = 10) were studied at rest and in response to one-legged resistance exercise. Synthesis of tendon collagen was determined by stable isotope incorporation [fractional synthesis rate (FSR)] and microdialysis technique (NH(2)-terminal propeptide of type I collagen synthesis). Tendon area...

  20. Mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon, in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Nielsen, C H; Hegnsvad, S

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been widely applied for in vivo measurements of tendon mechanical properties. Assessments of human Achilles tendon mechanical properties have received great interest. Achilles tendon injuries predominantly occur in the tendon region between the Achilles-soleus myotendinous...... junction and Achilles-calcaneus osteotendinous junction i.e. in the free Achilles tendon. However, there has been no adequate ultrasound based method for quantifying the mechanical properties of the free human Achilles tendon. This study aimed to: 1) examine the mechanical properties of the free human...

  1. ALINE: A device dedicated to understanding radio-frequency sheaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devaux

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In fusion devices, radiofrequency (RF antennas are used for heating the plasma. Those antennas and the plasma interact with each other through the so-called RF sheaths, layers of plasma where the quasi-neutrality breaks down and large electric fields arise. Among the effects of RF sheaths, there is the enhancement of the particles and energy fluxes toward the surface of the antenna, which in turn generate hot spots and release impurities, which are both deleterious for plasma operations. RF sheaths comprehension stumbles on the difficulty to achieve in situ measurements of the sheath properties, as scrape-off layer plasmas are a harsh environment. The very goal of the ALINE device is to tackle this issue and to fulfil the blank between numerical simulations and full-scale experiment by providing measurements within the RF sheaths in a controlled environment. In this paper we report on the latest experimental results from ALINE, in which a cylindrical Langmuir probe mounted on a remotely controlled and programmable arm allows for plasma characterizations in the three dimensions of space around the stainless steel antenna, including the sheath. We present a series of density and potential profiles and three dimension (3D maps in the plasma surrounding a stainless-steel RF antenna as well as in the sheath itself, for unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas.

  2. Flexor tendon tissue engineering: acellularization of human flexor tendons with preservation of biomechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgen, Brian C; Woon, Colin Y L; Kim, Maxwell; Thorfinn, Johan; Lindsey, Derek; Pham, Hung; Chang, James

    2011-08-01

    Acellular human tendons are a candidate scaffold for tissue engineering flexor tendons of the hand. This study compared acellularization methods and their compatibility with allogeneic human cells. Human flexor tendons were pretreated with 0.1% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) for 4  h followed by 24  h treatments of 1% Triton X-100, 1% tri(n-butyl)phosphate, or 0.1% or 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 0.1% EDTA. Outcomes were assessed histologically by hematoxylin and eosin and SYTO green fluorescent nucleic acid stains and biochemically by a QIAGEN DNeasy kit, Sircol collagen assay, and 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue glycosaminoglycan assay. Mechanical data were collected using a Materials Testing System to pull to failure tendons acellularized with 0.1% SDS. Acellularized tendons were re-seeded in a suspension of human dermal fibroblasts. Attachment of viable cells to acellularized tendon was assessed biochemically by a cell viability assay and histologically by a live/dead stain. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation. Compared with the DNA content of fresh tendons (551±212  ng DNA/mg tendon), only SDS treatments significantly decreased DNA content (1% SDS [202.8±37.4  ng DNA/mg dry weight tendon]; 0.1% SDS [189±104  ng DNA/mg tendon]). These findings were confirmed by histology. There was no decrease in glycosaminoglycans or collagen following acellularization with SDS. There was no difference in the ultimate tensile stress (55.3±19.2 [fresh] vs. 51.5±6.9 [0.1% SDS] MPa). Re-seeded tendons demonstrated attachment of viable cells to the tendon surface using a viability assay and histology. Human flexor tendons were acellularized with 0.1% SDS in 0.1% EDTA for 24  h with preservation of mechanical properties. Preservation of collagen and glycoaminoglycans and re-seeding with human cells suggest that this scaffold is biocompatible. This will provide a promising scaffold for future human flexor tendon tissue engineering studies to

  3. The effect of decellularized matrices on human tendon stem/progenitor cell differentiation and tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi; Chen, Xiao; Zhu, Ting; Hu, Jia-jie; Song, Hai-xin; Shen, Wei-liang; Jiang, Liu-yun; Heng, Boon Chin; Ji, Jun-feng; Ouyang, Hong-Wei

    2013-12-01

    It is reported that decellularized collagen matrices derived from dermal skin and bone have been clinically used for tendon repair. However, the varying biological and physical properties of matrices originating from different tissues may influence the differentiation of tendon stem cells, which has not been systematically evaluated. In this study, the effects of collagenous matrices derived from different tissues (tendon, bone and dermis) on the cell differentiation of human tendon stem/progenitor cells (hTSPCs) were investigated, in the context of tendon repair. It was found that all three matrices supported the adhesion and proliferation of hTSPCs despite differences in topography. Interestingly, tendon-derived decellularized matrix promoted the tendinous phenotype in hTSPCs and inhibited their osteogenesis, even under osteogenic induction conditions, through modulation of the teno- and osteolineage-specific transcription factors Scleraxis and Runx2. Bone-derived decellularized matrix robustly induced osteogenic differentiation of hTSPCs, whereas dermal skin-derived collagen matrix had no apparent effect on hTSPC differentiation. Based on the specific biological function of the tendon-derived decellularized matrix, a tissue-engineered tendon comprising TSPCs and tendon-derived matrix was successfully fabricated for Achilles tendon reconstruction. Implantation of this cell-scaffold construct led to a more mature structure (histology score: 4.08 ± 0.61 vs. 8.51 ± 1.66), larger collagen fibrils (52.2 ± 1.6 nm vs. 47.5 ± 2.8 nm) and stronger mechanical properties (stiffness: 21.68 ± 7.1 Nm m(-1) vs.13.2 ± 5.9 Nm m(-1)) of repaired tendons compared to the control group. The results suggest that stem cells promote the rate of repair of Achilles tendon in the presence of a tendinous matrix. This study thus highlights the potential of decellularized matrix for future tissue engineering applications, as well as developing a practical strategy for functional tendon

  4. Pengaruh partikel filler terhadap modulus elastisitas resin komposit Effect of filler particles on the elastic moduli of resin composites

    OpenAIRE

    Veni Takarini; Nina Djustiana; Renny Febrida

    2012-01-01

    Modulus of elasticity is one of the mechanical properties of composite resins affects the resistance to deformation, the strength of bonding with tooth structure and wear resistance. Modulus of elasticity is determined by the volume fraction of filler particles as the inorganic phase composite resin. This literature study aims to evaluate the size, shape and type of filler particles that affect the modulus of elasticity for composite resin. In a constant volume fraction, the large...

  5. Management of acute Achilles tendon rupture with tendon-bundle technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Bing; Yang, Yun-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Objective * These authors contributed equally to this work. To explore tendon-bundle technique for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. Methods Patients with full unilateral Achilles tendon rupture with no defects were included. The Achilles tendon medial edge surgical repair approach was used, revealing horsetail-like rupture bundles. Tendon bundles were anatomically realigned and repaired end-to-end using 5-0 sutures. Patients were followed-up for 1 year, and assessed for differences between the repaired versus healthy limb. Results Out of 24 patients (18 male, 6 female; aged 19-56 years) at 1 year following surgery, mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 92.4 ± 5.9; mean differences between the surgically repaired versus contralateral side in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were 3.5 ± 2.3° and 5.6 ± 3.2°, respectively; mean difference in calf circumference between the two sides was 0.9 ± 0.5 cm; and mean increase in Achilles tendon width versus the healthy side was 0.8 ± 0.2 cm. By 1 year post-surgery, there were no significant between-side differences in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle, or calf circumference. Conclusions Tendon-bundle surgery resulted in good ankle function restoration and low complication rates. Tendon-bundle surgery may reduce blood supply destruction and maximally preserve Achilles tendon length, and may be effective for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects.

  6. Ultrasonographic findings of pilar sheath acanthoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Seong Jin [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Pilar sheath acanthoma is a rare benign follicular hamartoma that presents with a central sinus containing keratinous material and is lined by epithelium. It typically occurs on the face, especially on the upper lip and forehead. In our case, the ultrasound (US) feature of pilar sheath acanthoma revealed a well-defined, oval hypoechoic nodule with hypoechoic capping within the dermis over the medial aspect of the calf. To the best of our knowledge, despite many reports on the clinicopathological aspects of pilar sheath acanthoma, this entity has not been well described in the radiologic literature, and US findings have not been documented.

  7. MR imaging in chronic Achilles tendon disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movin, T.; Rolf, C. [Section for Sports Medicine, Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Kristoffersen-Wiberg, M.; Aspelin, P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    1998-03-01

    Objectives: The primary objective was to compare 4 imaging sequences (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, proton density, and T1-weighted with gadolinium contrast agent enhancement) with regard to intratendinous signal abnormality in patients with achillodynia. The secondary objective was to relate the images to the clinical symptoms and histopathological findings. Material and Methods: Twenty patients (16 men, 4 women, median age 40 years) with chronic achillodynia participated in the study. The symptoms prohibited activity and clinical examination revealed swelling and tenderness 1.5-6 cm proximal to the Achilles tendon insertion. Of the 20 patients: 5 had bilateral achillodynia, 4 had had previous contralateral Achilles tendon disorder, and 11 had never had symptoms in the contralateral tendon region. These 11 tendons served as controls for comparison. MR imaging was performed on a superconductive 1.5 T unit. Both Achilles tendons were examined (n=40) at the same time, and multiple sagittal and transversal images were obtained. The corresponding sections on these images were visually graded according to both extension and level of MR signal intensity. Tissue was obtained for microscopic examination from the most symptomatic side in all patients (n=20). Results: T1-weighted images following gadolinium contrast medium enhancement proved to be the best method by which to visualize intratendinous signal abnormality. This sequence revealed signal abnormality in 24/25 symptomatic tendons and in 1/11 control tendons. Histopathological examination showed an increased noncollagenous extracellular matrix and altered fiber structure in the lesions corresponding to the contrast-enhanced areas. (orig./MG).

  8. An optimised injection technique for the navicular bursa that avoids the deep digital flexor tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, A J; Goodrich, L R; Barrett, M F; Werpy, N M; Morley, P S; McIlwraith, C W

    2016-03-01

    Injection of the navicular bursa is commonly performed from the palmar aspect of the limb, which results in penetration of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT). To report a radiographic guided injection from the lateral aspect of the limb that avoids puncture of the DDFT and to assess synovial and soft tissue penetration by the needle. Prospective clinical and cadaveric study. Prospective analysis of cadaver limbs and clinical cases in which the navicular bursa was injected from the lateral aspect. Cadaver limbs were placed in a stand to simulate weight bearing and injection was performed in limbs without synovial distension or with distension of either the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint, digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) or navicular bursa. In cadaver and clinical limbs, contrast was injected and the needle position assessed with radiographs. Cadaver (but not clinical) limbs were also examined using magnetic resonance imaging with the needle in situ. Successful navicular bursal injection was achieved in all limbs (n = 71). Relative risk of DIP joint puncture was 19 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.3-285.4, Pbursae from clinical cases. The lateral injection technique for the navicular bursa avoids penetration of the DDFT, although risk of synovial penetration must be considered when there is potential DIP joint or DFTS infection. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Direct Repair of Chronic Achilles Tendon Ruptures Using Scar Tissue Located Between the Tendon Stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Toshito; Shima, Hiroaki; Mori, Katsunori; Kizawa, Momoko; Neo, Masashi

    2016-07-20

    Several surgical procedures for chronically ruptured Achilles tendons have been reported. Resection of the interposed scar tissue located between the tendon stumps and reconstruction using normal autologous tissue have been well described. We developed a direct repair procedure that uses scar tissue, which obviates the need to use normal autologous tissue. Thirty consecutive patients with Achilles tendon ruptures with a delay in diagnosis of >4 weeks underwent removal of a section of scar and healing tissue with direct primary suture of the ends of the tendon without the use of allograft or autograft. Patients were followed for a mean time of 33 months. Preoperative and postoperative clinical outcomes were measured with the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score. In addition, the patients underwent preoperative and postoperative functional measurements and magnetic resonance imaging. Lastly, we evaluated the histology of the interposed healing tissue. The mean AOFAS scores were 82.8 points preoperatively and 98.1 points postoperatively. The mean postoperative ATRS was 92.0 points. At the time of the latest follow-up, none of the patients had experienced tendon reruptures or difficulties in walking or climbing stairs, and all except 2 patients could perform a single-limb heel rise. All athletes had returned to their pre-injury level of sports participation. Preoperative T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed that 22 Achilles tendons were thickened with diffuse intratendinous high-signal alterations, and 8 Achilles tendons were thinned. Postoperative T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings included fusiform-shaped tendon thickening and homogeneous low-signal alterations of the tendons in all patients. Histologically, the interposed scar tissue consisted of dense collagen fibers. Shortening of the tissue between the 2 tendon ends that included healing scar and direct

  10. Distal tendinosis of the tibialis anterior tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beischer, Andrew D; Beamond, Ben M; Jowett, Andrew J L; O'Sullivan, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Disorders of the tibialis anterior (TA) tendon have infrequently been reported but spontaneous rupture of this tendon is well recognized. The clinical presentation of tendinosis without rupture of the distal TA has not previously been reported and is the basis of this paper. A study of 29 patients diagnosed with distal TA tendinosis was undertaken. Data collected included, patient demographics, weight, height, pain profile and examination findings. All patients underwent MRI of the symptomatic foot. Operative findings of those patients undergoing surgery for this condition were collected. Twenty-nine patients (32 feet) were included in the study group. Their mean age was 62 years and 27 patients were female. Twenty-one patients were overweight. The usual presenting symptom was burning medial midfoot pain that was often reported to be worst at night. Swelling over the TA tendon was frequently observed. On MRI the TA was thickened in all patients. Longitudinal split tears were observed in 19 feet. Chondral thinning and/or osteophyte formation at the first tarsometatarsal or medial naviculocuneiform joints was observed in 11 feet. Eleven feet underwent surgery. Universally the TA tendon was macroscopically thickened and had lost its normal fibrillary appearance. Longitudinal split tears were observed in eight tendons. Pathology was typical of a degenerative tendinosis. Distal TA tendinosis is a condition that seems to predominantly affect overweight elderly women. It often presents with nocturnal burning medial midfoot pain.

  11. No Telescoping Effect with Dual Tendon Vibration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bellan

    Full Text Available The tendon vibration illusion has been extensively used to manipulate the perceived position of one's own body part. However, findings from previous research do not seem conclusive sregarding the perceptual effect of the concurrent stimulation of both agonist and antagonist tendons over one joint. On the basis of recent data, it has been suggested that this paired stimulation generates an inconsistent signal about the limb position, which leads to a perceived shrinkage of the limb. However, this interesting effect has never been replicated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of a simultaneous and equal vibration of the biceps and triceps tendons on the perceived location of the hand. Experiment 1 replicated and extended the previous findings. We compared a dual tendon stimulation condition with single tendon stimulation conditions and with a control condition (no vibration on both 'upward-downward' and 'towards-away from the elbow' planes. Our results show a mislocalisation towards the elbow of the position of the vibrated arm during dual vibration, in line with previous results; however, this did not clarify whether the effect was due to arm representation contraction (i.e., a 'telescoping' effect. Therefore, in Experiment 2 we investigated explicitly and implicitly the perceived arm length during the same conditions. Our results clearly suggest that in all the vibration conditions there was a mislocalisation of the entire arm (including the elbow, but no evidence of a contraction of the perceived arm length.

  12. Animal Models for Tendon Repair Experiments: A Comparison of Pig, Sheep and Human Deep Flexor Tendons in Zone II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Tim Sebastian; Hoffman, Stuart William; Scougall, Peter James; Gianoutsos, Mark Peter; Savage, Robert; Oliver, Rema Antoinette; Walsh, William Robert

    2017-09-01

    This laboratory study compared pig, sheep and human deep flexor tendons in regards to their biomechanical comparability. To investigate the relevant biomechanical properties for tendon repair experiments, the tendons resistance to cheese-wiring (suture drag/splitting) was assessed. Cheese-wiring of a suture through a tendon is an essential factor for repair gapping and failure in a tendon repair. Biomechanical testing showed that forces required to pulling a uniform suture loop through sheep or pig tendons in Zone II were higher than in human tendons. At time point zero of testing these differences did not reach statistical significance, but differences became more pronounced when forces were measured beyond initial cheese-wiring (2 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm). The stronger resistance to cheese-wiring was more pronounced in the pig tendons. Also regarding size and histology, sheep tendons were more comparable to human tendons than pig tendons. Differences in tendon bio-properties should be kept in mind when comparing and interpreting the results of laboratory tendon experiments.

  13. Robot Arm with Tendon Connector Plate and Linear Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor); Millerman, Alexander (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven end effector, a linear actuator, a flexible tendon, and a plate assembly. The linear actuator assembly has a servo motor and a drive mechanism, the latter of which translates linearly with respect to a drive axis of the servo motor in response to output torque from the servo motor. The tendon connects to the end effector and drive mechanism. The plate assembly is disposed between the linear actuator assembly and the tendon-driven end effector and includes first and second plates. The first plate has a first side that defines a boss with a center opening. The second plate defines an accurate through-slot having tendon guide channels. The first plate defines a through passage for the tendon between the center opening and a second side of the first plate. A looped end of the flexible tendon is received within the tendon guide channels.

  14. Sex Differences in Outcome After an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Brorsson, Annelie; Olsson, Nicklas; Eriksson, Bengt I; Karlsson, Jon; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tendon healing differs between the sexes. Comparisons in outcome between the sexes after an Achilles tendon rupture are often not possible because of the small cohort (<20%) of women. Purpose...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3025 - Passive tendon prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3025 Passive tendon prosthesis. (a... flexor tendon of the hand. The device is implanted for a period of 2 to 6 months to aid growth of a new...

  16. Healing of AchiIIes Tendon lnjury : Ultrasonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hyoen [Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of ruptured Achilles tendon after healing by surgical or conservative treatment. Ultrasonography of Achilles tendon was performed in 15 patients with Achilles tendon injury that was believed to be cured after surgical or conservative treatment. We used 7MHz liner transducer. Ultrasonographic characteristics of the affected tendon were compared with those of the opposite healthy tendon in terms of echogenicity and thickness of tendon, contour disruption, and surrounding fluid collection. The thickness of the affected Achilles tendon was significantly greater than that of the healthy tendon(P<0.001). Ultrasonographic findings included focal hylpoechogenicity(4), diffusehypoechogenicity(9), isoecho-genicity(2) and focal sonolucent area(6). Ultrasonographic findings of healed Achilles are diffuse increase in thickness and diffuse or focal decrease in echogenicity in the avsence of surrounding fluid collection or hematoma

  17. Tendon Mineralization Is Progressive and Associated with Deterioration of Tendon Biomechanical Properties, and Requires BMP-Smad Signaling in the Mouse Achilles Tendon Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Hast, Michael W.; Liu, Min; Usami, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic tendon mineralization can develop following tendon rupture or trauma surgery. The pathogenesis of ectopic tendon mineralization and its clinical impact have not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we utilized a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to determine whether ectopic tendon mineralization alters the biomechanical properties of the tendon and whether BMP signaling is involved in this condition. A complete transverse incision was made at the midpoint of the right Achilles tendon in 8-week-old CD1 mice and the gap was left open. Ectopic cartilaginous mass formation was found in the injured tendon by 4 weeks post-surgery and ectopic mineralization was detected at 8–10 weeks post-surgery. Ectopic mineralization grew over time and volume of the mineralized materials of 25-weeks samples was about 2.5 fold bigger than that of 10-weeks samples, indicating that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive. In vitro mechanical testing showed that max force, max stress and mid-substance modulus in the 25-weeks samples were significantly lower than the 10-weeks samples. We observed substantial increases in expression of bone morphogenetic protein family genes in injured tendons 1 week post-surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that phosphorylation of both Smad1 and Smad3 were highly increased in injured tendons as early as 1 week post-injury and remained high in ectopic chondrogenic lesions 4 weeks post-injury. Treatment with the BMP receptor kinase inhibitor (LDN193189) significantly inhibited injury-induced tendon mineralization. These findings indicate that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive, involves BMP signaling and associated with deterioration of tendon biomechanical properties. PMID:26825318

  18. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  19. Electron Sheaths: The Outsized Influence of Positive Boundaries on Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Benjamin T; Baalrud, Scott D; Barnat, Edward V; Hopkins, Matthew M

    2015-01-01

    Electron sheaths form near the surface of objects biased more positive than the plasma potential, such as in the electron saturation region of a Langmuir probe trace. They are commonly thought to be local phenomena that collect the random thermal electron current, but do not otherwise perturb a plasma. Here, using experiments, particle-in-cell simulations and theory, it is shown that under low temperature plasma conditions ($T_e \\gg T_i$) electron sheaths are far from local. Instead, a long presheath region extends into the plasma where electrons are accelerated via a pressure gradient to a flow speed exceeding the electron thermal speed at the sheath edge. This fast flow is found to excite instabilities, causing strong fluctuations near the sheath edge.

  20. Stability of the Tonks–Langmuir discharge pre-sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tskhakaya, D. D. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Kos, L. [LECAD Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tskhakaya, D. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    The article formulates the stability problem of the plasma sheath in the Tonks–Langmuir discharge. Using the kinetic description of the ion gas, i.e., the stability of the potential shape in the quasi-neutral pre-sheath regarding the high and low frequency, the perturbations are investigated. The electrons are assumed to be Maxwell–Boltzmann distributed. Regarding high-frequency perturbations, the pre-sheath is shown to be stable. The stability problem regarding low-frequency perturbations can be reduced to an analysis of the “diffusion like” equation, which results in the instability of the potential distribution in the pre-sheath. By means of the Particle in Cell simulations, also the nonlinear stage of low frequency oscillations is investigated. Comparing the figure obtained with the figure for linear stage, one can find obvious similarity in the spatial-temporal behavior of the potential.

  1. RF sheath and admittance characteristics of a spherical plasma probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a radio-frequency sheath model for a spherical probe in a collisionless plasma. The method of solution is based on the quasi-static approximation and the electrostatic probe theory of Bernstein and Rabinowitz (1959). The resistive part of the admittance is ascribed to the sheath transit-time collisionless dissipation mechanism suggested by Mayer (1963) and developed by Gould (1964). Expressions are obtained for the effective sheath thickness and the equivalent resistance of the transit-time dissipation. The sheath model and, hence, the admittance are completely determined in terms of the bias potential, the probe radius, the plasma frequency, and the Debye length - i.e., there are no adjustable parameters in the proposed theory which are to be determined by experiment. The results obtained agree favorably with Cohen and Bekefi's (1971) experimental data on the conductance resonant frequency and the width of the conductance peak.

  2. Compensatory muscle activation caused by tendon lengthening post Achilles tendon rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suydam, Stephen M.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Manal, Kurt; Silbernagel, Karin Gravare

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between the lengthening of the Achilles tendon post rupture and surgical repair to muscle activation patterns during walking in order to serve as a reference for post-surgical assessment. Method The Achilles tendon lengths were collected from 4 patients with an Achilles tendon rupture 6 and 12 month post-surgery along with 5 healthy controls via ultrasound. EMG was collected from the triceps surae muscles and tibialis anterior during over-ground walking. Results Achilles lengths at 6 and 12 months post-surgery were significantly longer (p Achilles tendon rupture; no side to side difference was found in the healthy controls. The triceps surae muscles’ activations were fair to moderately correlated to the Achilles lengths (0.38 Achilles tendon length and iEMG from the triceps surae muscles indicate that loss of function is primarily caused by anatomical changes in the tendon and the appearance of muscle weakness is due to a lack of force transmission capability. This study indicates that when aiming for full return of function and strength an important treatment goal appears to be to minimize tendon elongation. Level of evidence Prognostic prospective case series. Level IV. PMID:23609529

  3. Acute partial rupture of the common extensor tendon

    OpenAIRE

    Kachrimanis, G.; Papadopoulou, O.

    2010-01-01

    Rupture of the common extensor tendon is the most common acute tendon injury of the elbow. The authors describe a case of a patient with a clinical history of tendinopathy caused by functional overload of the common extensor tendon, treated also with infiltrations of steroids, and subsequent partial rupture of the tendon during sport activity. The diagnosis was made clinically and at ultrasound (US) examination; US follow-up after some time showed the healing of the lesion. This case confirms...

  4. Calcaneal tendon: imaging findings; Tendao calcaneo: avaliacao por imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Fonseca, Cristiano Rezio; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: crismontandon@hotmail.com; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares; Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Souza; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem e Anatomia Patologica

    2003-12-01

    We reviewed the radiological and clinical features of 23 patients with calcaneal tendon diseases, who were submitted to ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. The objective of this study was to characterize the lesions for a precise diagnosis of calcaneal tendon injuries. A wide range of calcaneal tendon diseases include degenerative lesions, inflammation of the peritendinous tissue such as peritendinitis and bursitis, and rupture. Imaging methods are essential in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of calcaneal tendon diseases. (author)

  5. MRI in flexor tendon rupture after collagenase injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurana, Shruti [Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi (India); Wadhwa, Vibhor [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Amirlak, Bardia [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Flexor tendon rupture is an unusual complication following collagenase injection to relieve contractures. These patients require a close follow-up and in the event of tendon rupture, a decision has to be made whether to repair the tendon or manage the complication conservatively. The authors report the utility of MRI in the prognostication and management of a patient with Dupuytren's contracture, who underwent collagenase injection and subsequently developed flexor digitorum profundus tendon rupture. (orig.)

  6. p38 MAPK signaling in postnatal tendon growth and remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Schwartz

    Full Text Available Tendon is a dynamic tissue whose structure and function is influenced by mechanical loading, but little is known about the fundamental mechanisms that regulate tendon growth and remodeling in vivo. Data from cultured tendon fibroblasts indicated that the p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in tendon fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in vitro. To gain greater insight into the mechanisms of tendon growth, and explore the role of p38 MAPK signaling in this process, we tested the hypotheses that inducing plantaris tendon growth through the ablation of the synergist Achilles tendon would result in rapid expansion of a neotendon matrix surrounding the original tendon, and that treatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 would prevent this growth. Rats were treated with vehicle or SB203580, and subjected to synergist ablation by bilateral tenectomy of the Achilles tendon. Changes in histological and biochemical properties of plantaris tendons were analyzed 3, 7, or 28 days after overload, and comparisons were made to non-overloaded animals. By 28 days after overload, tendon mass had increased by 30% compared to non-overloaded samples, and cross-sectional area (CSA increased by around 50%, with most of the change occurring in the neotendon. The expansion in CSA initially occurred through the synthesis of a hyaluronic acid rich matrix that was progressively replaced with mature collagen. Pericytes were present in areas of active tendon growth, but never in the original tendon ECM. Inhibition of p38 MAPK resulted in a profound decrease in IL6 expression, and had a modest effect on the expression of other ECM and cell proliferation genes, but had a negligible impact on overall tendon growth. The combined results from this study provided novel insights into tendon mechanobiology, and suggest that p38 MAPK signaling does not appear to be necessary for tendon growth in vivo.

  7. Plasma sheath effects on ion collection by a pinhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Joel L.; Snyder, David B.

    1993-01-01

    This work presents tables to assist in the evaluation of pinhole collection effects on spacecraft. These tables summarize results of a computer model which tracks particle trajectories through a simplified electric field in the plasma sheath. A technique is proposed to account for plasma sheath effects in the application of these results and scaling rules are proposed to apply the calculations to specific situations. This model is compared to ion current measurements obtained by another worker, and the agreement is very good.

  8. An unusual radiological presentation of optic nerve sheath meningiom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chameen Samarawickrama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Our report describes an unusual radiological presentation of optic nerve sheath meningioma. The classic radiological appearance of optic nerve thickening with enhancement and calcification within the tumor was not seen; instead, an elongating gadolinium enhancing band-like area adjacent to the superomedial aspect of the left optic nerve sheath was identified. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology. Our report adds to the spectrum of presentations of this relatively common clinical entity.

  9. Terson syndrome with bilateral optic nerve sheath hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauntt, Chiaki D; Sherry, Richard G; Kannan, Chithra

    2007-09-01

    A 53-year-old man presented with an acute headache and mental status changes due to rupture of an anterior choroidal artery aneurysm. A preoperative CT scan demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage, bilateral optic nerve sheath hemorrhage, and bilateral intraocular hemorrhage. Ophthalmoscopy and B-scan ocular ultrasound disclosed vitreous hemorrhages, features consistent with Terson syndrome. This is the first CT report of Terson syndrome showing bilateral optic nerve sheath hemorrhage.

  10. Tendon neuroplastic training: changing the way we think about tendon rehabilitation: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Ebonie; Kidgell, Dawson; Moseley, G Lorimer; Docking, Sean; Purdam, Craig; Cook, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy can be resistant to treatment and often recurs, implying that current treatment approaches are suboptimal. Rehabilitation programmes that have been successful in terms of pain reduction and return to sport outcomes usually include strength training. Muscle activation can induce analgesia, improving self-efficacy associated with reducing one's own pain. Furthermore, strength training is beneficial for tendon matrix structure, muscle properties and limb biomechanics. However, current tendon rehabilitation may not adequately address the corticospinal control of the muscle, which may result in altered control of muscle recruitment and the consequent tendon load, and this may contribute to recalcitrance or symptom recurrence. Outcomes of interest include the effect of strength training on tendon pain, corticospinal excitability and short interval cortical inhibition. The aims of this concept paper are to: (1) review what is known about changes to the primary motor cortex and motor control in tendinopathy, (2) identify the parameters shown to induce neuroplasticity in strength training and (3) align these principles with tendon rehabilitation loading protocols to introduce a combination approach termed as tendon neuroplastic training. Strength training is a powerful modulator of the central nervous system. In particular, corticospinal inputs are essential for motor unit recruitment and activation; however, specific strength training parameters are important for neuroplasticity. Strength training that is externally paced and akin to a skilled movement task has been shown to not only reduce tendon pain, but modulate excitatory and inhibitory control of the muscle and therefore, potentially tendon load. An improved understanding of the methods that maximise the opportunity for neuroplasticity may be an important progression in how we prescribe exercise-based rehabilitation in tendinopathy for pain modulation and potentially restoration of the corticospinal

  11. Structural tendon changes in patients with acromegaly: assessment of Achilles tendon with sonoelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Eda Demil; Ipek, Ali; Evranos, Berna; Idilman, Ilkay Sedakat; Cakir, Bekir; Ersoy, Reyhan

    2016-03-01

    To describe the sonoelastographic appearance of the Achilles tendon in acromegalic patients and to determine whether the blood concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) are associated with the various sonographic elasticity types of Achilles tendons. Eighty-four Achilles tendons of 42 acromegaly patients and 84 Achilles tendons of 42 healthy volunteers were assessed with sonoelastography. The tendons were classified into two main types according to the elasticity features: type 1 blue/green (hard tissue) and type 2 yellow/red within green (intermediate-soft tissue). Two subtypes of these types were also defined. According to the definition, the elasticity of the tissue was in a spectrum ranging from hard to soft as the type progressed from 1a to 2b. The mean thickness of Achilles tendons in patients with acromegaly was significantly higher compared with healthy Achilles tendons (5.1+/-0.7 mm vs. 4.4+/-0.5, pAchilles tendons (5.5+/-0.8 mm vs. 4.8+/-0.5 mm in inactive disease, p=0.003). A significantly higher proportion of acromegaly patients had type 2 sonoelastographic appearance of the Achilles tendon (124/252 third; 49.2% vs. 81/252 third; 32.1%, p=0.0001). Activity status of acromegaly and GH/IGF-I levels were similar in patients with different types of elasticity (p>0.05). Sonoelastography revealed structural changes in the tendinous tissue of patients with acromegaly, but it was not sensitive enough to reflect changes in the serum levels of GH/IGF-1.

  12. Subscapularis tendon avulsions and biceps tendon dislocations. A series of forty five patients; Lesions isolees du tendon subscapularis et malpositions internes du tendon long biceps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernageau, J. [Hopital Lariboisiere, 75 - Paris (France); Goutallier, D. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1997-12-01

    Our series consists of 45 lesions of the subscapularis tendon investigated by arthrography and CT arthrography. Arthrography demonstrated opacification of the sub-acromial bursa in 24 % of cases, internal malposition of the long head of biceps in 46 % of cases and direct signs of a lesion of the subscapularis tendon in 91 % of cases. CT arthrography showed incomplete transverse avulsion in 18 % of cases and complete transverse avulsion in 82 % of cases. The biceps was dislocated in 35 % of cases, and subluxated in 11 % of cases. The subscapularis muscle was infiltrated by fat in 46 % of cases. Isolated lesions of the subscapularis can be difficult to diagnose clinically and are more frequent than generally thought. CT arthrography must therefore be requested at the slightest doubt, as the intraoperative search for a lesion of the subscapularis tendon is sometimes difficult. (authors)

  13. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicles...... was transversally cut while the other fascicle and the fascicular membrane were kept intact. Cycle 3: both fascicles were cut in opposite ends while the fascicular membrane was left intact. A decline in peak force of 45% and 55% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and 93% and 92% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed...... in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. A decline in stiffness of 39% and 60% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and of 93% and 100% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. The present data demonstrate that lateral force transmission between...

  14. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2014-01-01

    to be clarified, particularly the role of weight-bearing during early rehabilitation. Also, there is a need for a clinically applicable and accurate measurement to detect patients in risk of developing Achilles tendon elongation. PURPOSE: The aim of this PhD thesis was to evaluate non-operative treatment of acute......BACKGROUND: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains.......3 mm), inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.97, SEM 3.3 mm and MDC 9.3 mm) and validity (measurement error 2%). CONCLUSION: Treatment algorithms across Scandinavia showed considerable variation, though operative treatment and controlled early weight-bearing was the preferred treatment in Denmark, Norway...

  15. PERONEAL TENDON LESIONS IN ATHLETES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Achkasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyzed scientific literature in respect of various issues in treatment of athletes with peroneal muscles lesions starting from 1987 till 2016. Key search and publications selection was made in PubMed and russian national electronic scientific library eLIBRARY. Peroneal tendons pathology is not the major but the underestimated cause of pain in lateral and hindfoot as well as of foot dysfunction which is difficult to distinguish from lesions of lateral ligaments of the ankle joint. Untreated lesions of peroneal tendons can result in chronic ankle pain and significant functional disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to improve the current comprehension of anatomy, to identify factors contributing to pathology, to perform diagnostic evaluation of peroneal tendons and to review current treatment options of such lesions.

  16. Triple Achilles Tendon Rupture: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann

    2017-11-16

    We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Simulation Model for Extensor Tendon Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aronstam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation model is designed for use by emergency medicine residents. Although we have instituted this at the PGY-2 level of our residency curriculum, it is appropriate for any level of emergency medicine residency training. It might also be adapted for use for a variety of other learners, such as practicing emergency physicians, orthopedic surgery residents, or hand surgery trainees. Introduction: Tendon injuries commonly present to the emergency department, so it is essential that emergency physicians be competent in evaluating such injuries. Indeed, extensor tendon repair is included as an ACGME Emergency Medicine Milestone (Milestone 13, Wound Management, Level 5 – “Performs advanced wound repairs, such as tendon repairs…”.1 However, emergency medicine residents may have limited opportunity to develop these skills due to a lack of patients, competition from other trainees, or preexisting referral patterns. Simulation may provide an alternative means to effectively teach these skills in such settings. Previously described tendon repair simulation models that were designed for surgical trainees have used rubber worms4, licorice5, feeding tubes, catheters6,7, drinking straws8, microfoam tape9, sheep forelimbs10 and cadavers.11 These models all suffer a variety of limitations, including high cost, lack of ready availability, or lack of realism. Objectives: We sought to develop an extensor tendon repair simulation model for emergency medicine residents, designed to meet ACGME Emergency Medicine Milestone 13, Level 5. We wished this model to be simple, inexpensive, and realistic. Methods: The learner responsible content/educational handout component of our innovation teaches residents about emergency department extensor tendon repair, and includes: 1 relevant anatomy 2 indications and contraindications for emergency department extensor tendon repair 3 physical exam findings 4 tendon suture techniques and 5 aftercare. During

  18. Effects of emitted electron temperature on the plasma sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, J. P., E-mail: sheehanj@umich.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D.; Wang, H.; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Sydorenko, D. [Physics Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9 (Canada); Hershkowitz, N. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    It has long been known that electron emission from a surface significantly affects the sheath surrounding that surface. Typical fluid theory of a planar sheath with emitted electrons assumes that the plasma electrons follow the Boltzmann relation and the emitted electrons are emitted with zero energy and predicts a potential drop of 1.03T{sub e}/e across the sheath in the floating condition. By considering the modified velocity distribution function caused by plasma electrons lost to the wall and the half-Maxwellian distribution of the emitted electrons, it is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. When the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature the emissive sheath potential goes to zero. One dimensional particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the predictions made by this theory. The effects of the addition of a monoenergetic electron beam to the Maxwellian plasma electrons were explored, showing that the emissive sheath potential is close to the beam energy only when the emitted electron flux is less than the beam flux.

  19. Medical image of the week: saber sheath trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low S-W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 79-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and an active smoker was transferred for evaluation of tracheal narrowing and concerns of malignant external compression versus tracheobronchomalacia for possible stenting. The patient underwent both chest computed tomography (Figure 1 and bronchoscopy (Figure 2 that confirmed the diagnosis of saber-sheath trachea and ruled out external compression. The airway was still adequately patent during inspiration and expiration with no clear dynamic collapse. Saber-sheath trachea is commonly described as intra-thoracic coronal narrowing and sagittal widening of the trachea (like a sword sheath. Repetitive cartilaginous injury from excessive coughing and elevated intra-thoracic pressure causes degeneration and calcification of the trachea cartilage, leading to remodeling and bending of the tracheal cartilage (1. Presence of saber-sheath trachea is highly associated with obstructive lung disease, which is present in our patient (2. There is no known specific treatment for saber-sheath trachea, however if patient with saber-sheath

  20. A Coupled Plasma and Sheath Model for High Density Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Bose; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a coupled plasma and collisionless; sheath model for the simulation of high density plasma processing reactors. Due to inefficiencies in numerical schemes and the resulting computational burden, a coupled multidimensional plasma and sheath simulation has not been possible model for gas mixtures and high density reactors of practical interest. In this work we demonstrate that with a fully implicit algorithm and a refined computational mesh, a self-consistent plasma and sheath simulation is feasible. We discuss the details of the model equations, the importance of ion inertia, and the resulting sheath profiles for argon and chlorine plasmas. We find that at low operating pressures (10-30 mTorr), the charge separation occurs only within a 0.5 mm layer near the surface in a 300 mm inductively coupled plasma etch reactor. A unified model eliminates the use of off-line or loosely coupled sheath models with simplifying assumptions which generally lead to uncertainties in ion flux and sheath electrical properties.

  1. Atomic Structure of Type VI Contractile Sheath from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Osman; He, Shaoda; Planamente, Sara; Stach, Lasse; MacDonald, James T; Manoli, Eleni; Scheres, Sjors H W; Filloux, Alain; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-12-21

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has three type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), H1-, H2-, and H3-T6SS, each belonging to a distinct group. The two T6SS components, TssB/VipA and TssC/VipB, assemble to form tubules that conserve structural/functional homology with tail sheaths of contractile bacteriophages and pyocins. Here, we used cryoelectron microscopy to solve the structure of the H1-T6SS P. aeruginosa TssB1C1 sheath at 3.3 Å resolution. Our structure allowed us to resolve some features of the T6SS sheath that were not resolved in the Vibrio cholerae VipAB and Francisella tularensis IglAB structures. Comparison with sheath structures from other contractile machines, including T4 phage and R-type pyocins, provides a better understanding of how these systems have conserved similar functions/mechanisms despite evolution. We used the P. aeruginosa R2 pyocin as a structural template to build an atomic model of the TssB1C1 sheath in its extended conformation, allowing us to propose a coiled-spring-like mechanism for T6SS sheath contraction. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Expanding refractory rectus sheath hematoma: a therapeutic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Guo-Shiang; Liau, Guo-Shiou; Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Chu, Shi-Jye; Ko, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kuo-An

    2012-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but well-described complication of a tussive paroxysm. It is an accumulation of blood within the sheath of the rectus abdominis secondary to disruption of the epigastric vessels or the rectus muscle and is often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen. Increases in the number of elderly patients and the use of therapeutic anticoagulation may increase the prevalence and severity of rectus sheath hematomas encountered in clinical practice. Expanding rectus sheath hematomas are occasionally refractory to conservative treatment and may require hemostatic intervention. Here, we describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with two separate rectus sheath hematomas that were precipitated by a paroxysm of coughing. Repeated computed tomography showed two separate expanding rectus sheath hematomas, which were not accompanied by obvious contrast extravasation on angiography. Empiric left inferior epigastric artery embolization resulted in rapid hemodynamic stabilization, and the hematomas shrank gradually. Early empiric transcatheter arterial embolization may be appropriate for patients who are poor surgical candidates and have enlarging hematomas that are refractory to conservative treatment.

  3. Nonlinear Gravitoelectrostatic Sheath Fluctuation in Solar Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear normal mode dynamics is likely to be modified due to nonlinear, dissipative, and dispersive mechanisms in solar plasma system. Here we apply a plasma-based gravitoelectrostatic sheath (GES model for the steady-state description of the nonlinear normal mode behavior of the gravitoacoustic wave in field-free quasineutral solar plasma. The plasma-boundary wall interaction process is considered in global hydrodynamical homogeneous equilibrium under spherical geometry approximation idealistically. Accordingly, a unique form of KdV-Burger (KdV-B equation in the lowest-order perturbed GES potential is methodologically obtained by standard perturbation technique. This equation is both analytically and numerically found to yield the GES nonlinear eigenmodes in the form of shock-like structures. The shock amplitudes are determined (~0.01 V at the solar surface and beyond at 1 AU as well. Analytical and numerical calculations are in good agreement. The obtained results are compared with those of others. Possible results, discussions, and main conclusions relevant to astrophysical context are presented.

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor surrounding the carotid sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Alvarez-Flores, Modesto; Arribas-García, Ignacio; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare spindle cell neoplasms that are mostly found arising from the pleura. Although SFTs recently have been reported in other regions, they are rare in the head and neck and have often been misdiagnosed due to their rarity. SFTs are benign in most cases. Clinically, SFTs usually manifest as well-circumscribed, slow-growing, smooth and painless masses. Symptoms are often minimal, although they may include sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, change of voice or trismus. CT-Scan and MRI are the most sensitive imaging procedures used. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision of the lesion. Because recurrences have been noted up to 30 years after surgery, long-term follow up is mandatory. In this article, we present a case of a Solitary Fibrous Tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space in a 20-year-old man, involving the carotid sheath, treated by surgical excision with no recurrence after 1 year. The clinical presentation, surgical management and pathological findings are described.

  5. Experimental study of a photoelectron sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Adrienne; Horanyi, Mihaly; Wang, Xu; Piquette, Marcus; Poppe, Andrew R.; Robertson, Scott

    2012-04-01

    We describe a set of laboratory experiments to reproduce and investigate the photoelectron layer that occurs above UV-illuminated surfaces in space. The experiments are done in vacuum with UV illumination at 172 nm that is sufficiently intense for the creation of a photoelectron layer above a large, planar metal surface with a Debye shielding distance of ˜7 centimeters, small in comparison with the scale of the experiment. The emitting surface electrically floats to a potential approximately 1.5 V more positive than a nearby equipotential surface. Retarding potential analysis of the energy distribution of the electrons emitted from the electrically floating surface, as well as Langmuir probe data, show an effective electron temperature of 1.4 (±0.3) eV and a density of 4×1010 m-3. Langmuir probe measurements are taken throughout the photoelectron sheath to determine the electron density, which show good agreement with results from a 1-D particle-in-cell simulation. These experiments enable the better understanding of the plasma environment of spacecraft, the moon, and other airless bodies in the solar system, and the processes that might be responsible for the charging, mobilization, and transport of dust particles on their surfaces.

  6. MicroRNA29a Treatment Improves Early Tendon Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashlee E; Millar, Neal L; Platt, Josh; Kitson, Susan M; Akbar, Moeed; Rech, Raquel; Griffin, Jay; Pool, Roy; Hughes, Tom; McInnes, Iain B; Gilchrist, Derek S

    2017-10-04

    Tendon injuries (tendinopathies) are common in human and equine athletes and characterized by dysregulated collagen matrix, resulting in tendon damage. We have previously demonstrated a functional role for microRNA29a (miR29a) as a post-transcriptional regulator of collagen 3 expression in murine and human tendon injury. Given the translational potential, we designed a randomized, blinded trial to evaluate the potential of a miR29a replacement therapy as a therapeutic option to treat tendinopathy in an equine model that closely mimics human disease. Tendon injury was induced in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of 17 horses. Tendon lesions were treated 1 week later with an intralesional injection of miR29a or placebo. miR29a treatment reduced collagen 3 transcript levels at week 2, with no significant changes in collagen 1. The relative lesion cross-sectional area was significantly lower in miR29a tendons compared to control tendons. Histology scores were significantly better for miR29a-treated tendons compared to control tendons. These data support the mechanism of microRNA-mediated modulation of early pathophysiologic events that facilitate tissue remodeling in the tendon after injury and provides a strong proof of principle that a locally delivered miR29a therapy improves early tendon healing. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of open achilles tendon injury: Primary repair and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Achilles tendon injuries have progressive increase worldwide in the last few decades. This is attributable to increase in both competitive and recreational sports. In most of the literature written on Achilles tendon injuries there were rarely any information about open Achilles tendon lacerations. In fact, Achilles ...

  8. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T

    2012-02-03

    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  9. Measurement of tendon reflexes by surface electromyography in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, J.; van Crevel, H.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method for measuring the tendon reflexes was developed. A manually operated, electronic reflex hammer was applied that enabled measurement of the strength of tendon taps. Reflex responses were recorded by surface electromyography. Stimulus-response relations and latencies of tendon reflexes

  10. Semitendinosus Tendon for Solitary Use in Anterior Cruciate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament requires adequate tendon length (>28 cm) and four strand construct diameter (>8 mm). This study sought to determine the dimensions of the semitendinosus tendon graft among Kenyans. Methods: Forty pairs of ST tendons were harvested from formalin fixed cadavers by ...

  11. Region-specific mechanical properties of the human patella tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, B T; Aagaard, P; Krogsgaard, M

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the mechanical properties of tendon fascicles from the anterior and posterior human patellar tendon. Collagen fascicles from the anterior and posterior human patellar tendon in healthy young men (mean +/- SD, 29.0 +/- 4.6 yr, n = 6) were tested in a mechanical rig. ...

  12. Painful Snapping Hip Owing to Bifid Iliopsoas Tendon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of internal snapping hip owing to a bifid iliopsoas tendon is described with a concurrent labral tear in a young active female. The labral tear was identified on magnetic resonance imaging, and the snapping bifid tendon on dynamic ultrasound. The patient was administered bupivicaine and steroid around the tendon ...

  13. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction by bone imprisonment | Zejjari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The radiological assessment finds imprisonment of posterior tibial tendon in the internal retromalleolar bony canal. The patient received a release of the tendon with resection of the bony canal in full. The posterior tibial tendon showed longitudinal laceration was sutured and the internal retromalleolar canal was closed.

  14. Using the zebrafish to understand tendon development and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J W; Galloway, J L

    2017-01-01

    Tendons are important components of our musculoskeletal system. Injuries to these tissues are very common, resulting from occupational-related injuries, sports-related trauma, and age-related degeneration. Unfortunately, there are few treatment options, and current therapies rarely restore injured tendons to their original function. An improved understanding of the pathways regulating their development and repair would have significant impact in stimulating the formulation of regenerative-based approaches for tendon injury. The zebrafish provides an ideal system in which to perform genetic and chemical screens to identify new pathways involved in tendon biology. Until recently, there had been few descriptions of tendons and ligaments in the zebrafish and their similarity to mammalian tendon tissues. In this chapter, we describe the development of the zebrafish tendon and ligament tissues in the context of their gene expression, structure, and interactions with neighboring musculoskeletal tissues. We highlight the similarities with tendon development in higher vertebrates, showing that the craniofacial tendons and ligaments in zebrafish morphologically, molecularly, and structurally resemble mammalian tendons and ligaments from embryonic to adult stages. We detail methods for fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry as an assay to examine morphological changes in the zebrafish musculoskeleton. Staining assays such as these could provide the foundation for screen-based approaches to identify new regulators of tendon development, morphogenesis, and repair. These discoveries would provide new targets and pathways to study in the context of regenerative medicine-based approaches to improve tendon healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound diagnostics of muscle and tendon injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Ruža

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sonography is a useful technique for the investigation of a number of musculoskeletal disorders. The most common indication for ultrasonography of muscles and tendons is the diagnosis of traumatic lesions, distinguishing them from other disorders and follow-up of healing process. Objective. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of ultrasound in the diagnosis of muscle and tendon injuries. Methods. The study included 170 patients (148 male and 22 female, mean age 29.6 years (range 14-60 years. All examinations were performed by linear transducer of 7.5-10 MHz, with longitudinal and transverse scanning. Ultrasound examination followed physical examination. Results. Traumatic lesions of muscles were diagnosed in 113 patients (66.7% and tendon injuries in 57 cases (33.2%. The muscle changes detected by ultrasonography were the following: 70 (61.9% partial and two (1.76% complete ruptures, 22 (19.46% haematoma, 9 (7.96% strains grade I, 4 fibroses and 4 ossifying myositis 4 (3.5%, respectively. Complications of muscle injuries were diagnosed in two cases, a muscular hernia and an arteriovenous fistula. Among tendon injuries, 21 (33.8% ruptures and 36 (66.1% tendinitis were diagnosed. Accompanying effusion in the bursa of patients with tendon injuries was found in 9 cases. Conclusion. Ultrasonography allowed visualization and objective assessment of the type and the extent of traumatic pathomorphological changes of muscles and tendons. Such diagnostic possibilities of ultrasonography are especially important in the choice of appropriate therapy.

  16. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajoulin, Omar A.; Alsbou, Mohammed S.; Ja’afreh, Somayya O.; Kalbouneh, Heba M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis), early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations. PMID:26620992

  17. [Comprehensive treatment in Achilles tendon rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus-Jiménez, Juan; Avalos, Cecilia Henríquez

    2007-01-01

    Due to incapacity caused by calcaneal tendon injuries for the reintegration of patients back to their daily activities and/or sparts it is necessary to decrease the time of reinstatement of patients. At present these times have improved by a good surgical technique and an early rehabilitation, and the patient is returned quickly as he sees less disability. It is proposed in this paper a type of surgical treatment and an early rehabilitation program, which have shortened the time of disability and incorporation to their daily activities and sports to eight weeks in 10 patients with Achilles tendon plasty.

  18. Lubricin in human achilles tendon: The evidence of intratendinous sliding motion and shear force in achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Long; Wei, Zhuang; Zhao, Chunfeng; Jay, Gregory D; Schmid, Thomas M; Amadio, Peter C; An, Kai-Nan

    2015-06-01

    Achilles tendon is one of the most commonly injured tendons. Mechanical force is regarded as a major causative factor. However, the biomechanics of Achilles tendon and mechanical mechanism of the injuries are unclear. Lubricin expresses at regions exposed to sliding motion and shear force in a number of tissues. This study investigated the distribution and concentration of lubricin in human Achilles tendons for better understanding the biomechanics of Achilles tendon. Achilles tendons were harvested from nine cadavers. Lubricin was extracted from various locations proximal to the calcaneal insertion and quantified with ELISA. The distribution of lubricin was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Lubricin was mainly identified at the interfaces of tendon fascicles, especially in the mid-portion of the tendon. The concentration of lubricin in Achilles tendons varied by individual and the distance from its calcaneal insertion. The distal portion of the tendon had a higher concentration of lubricin than the proximal regions of the tendon. This study suggests the presence of intratendinous sliding motion of fascicles and shear force at interfaces of fascicles in human Achilles tendon. Shear force could be an important mechanical factor for the development of Achilles tendinopathy and rupture. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Ideas about registration for sodium hyaluronate facial derma fillers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Shi, Xinli; Liu, Wenbo; Lu, Hong

    2012-09-01

    To review the registration and technical data for sodium hyaluronate facial derma fillers. Recent literature concerning registration for sodium hyaluronate facial derma fillers was reviewed and analyzed. The aspects on registration for sodium hyaluronate facial derma fillers include nominating the product, dividing registration unit, filling in a registration application form, preparing the technical data, developing the standard, and developing a registration specification. The main difficulty in registration is how to prepare the research data of that product, so the manufacturers need to enhance their basic research ability and work out a scientific technique routing which could ensure the safety and effectiveness of the product, also help to set up the supportive documents to medical device registration.

  20. Carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber/hybrid filler composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of the OSW and NLS are measured with the dynamic contact-angle technique. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS of the OSW reveals that the OSW possesses various reactive functional groups namely hydroxyl groups (OH. Hybrid filler from NLS and OSW were incorporated into carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR to produce XNBR hybrid composites. The reaction of OH groups from the OSW with COOH of the XNBR is checked by attenuated total reflectance spectra (ATR-IR of the composites. The degree of curing ΔM (maximum torque-minimum torque as a function of hybrid filler as derived from moving die rheometer (MDR is reported. The stress-strain behavior of the hybrid composites as well as the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is studied. Bonding quality and dispersion of the hybrid filler with and in XNBR are examined using scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM in SEM.

  1. Advanced Laser Techniques for Filler-Induced Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassuto, D.; Marangoni, O.; Santis, G. De

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The increasing use of injectable fillers has been increasing the occurrence of disfiguring anaerobic infection or granulomas. This study presents two types of laser-assisted evacuation of filler material and inflammatory and necrotic tissue that were used to treat disfiguring facial...... nodules after different types of gel fillers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Infectious lesions after hydrogels were drained using a lithium triborate laser at 532 nm, with subsequent removal of infected gel and pus (laser assisted evacuation). Granuloma after gels containing microparticles were treated using...... an 808-nm diode laser using intralesional laser technique. The latter melted and liquefied the organic and synthetic components of the granulomas, facilitating subsequent evacuation. Both lasers had an easily controllable thin laser beam, which enabled the physician to control tissue damage and minimize...

  2. Laser Diagnostic Method for Plasma Sheath Potential Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sean P.

    Electric propulsion systems are gaining popularity in the aerospace field as a viable option for long term positioning and thrusting applications. In particular, Hall thrusters have shown promise as the primary propulsion engine for space probes during interplanetary journeys. However, the interaction between propellant xenon ions and the ceramic channel wall continues to remain a complex issue. The most significant source of power loss in Hall thrusters is due to electron and ion currents through the sheath to the channel wall. A sheath is a region of high electric field that separates a plasma from a wall or surface in contact. Plasma electrons with enough energy to penetrate the sheath may result emission of a secondary electron from the wall. With significant secondary electron emission (SEE), the sheath voltage is reduced and so too is the electron retarding electric field. Therefore, a lower sheath voltage further increases the particle loss to the wall of a Hall thruster and leads to plasma cooling and lower efficiency. To further understand sheath dynamics, laser-induced fluorescence is employed to provide a non-invasive, in situ, and spatially resolved technique for measuring xenon ion velocity. By scanning the laser wavelength over an electronic transition of singly ionized xenon and collecting the resulting fluorescence, one can determine the ion velocity from the Doppler shifted absorption. Knowing the velocity at multiple points in the sheath, it can be converted to a relative electric potential profile which can reveal a lot about the plasma-wall interaction and the severity of SEE. The challenge of adequately measuring sheath potential profiles is optimizing the experiment to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. A strong signal with low noise, enables high resolution measurements and increases the depth of measurement in the sheath, where the signal strength is lowest. Many improvements were made to reduce the background luminosity, increase the

  3. Dermal filler injection: a novel approach for limiting infarct expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Liam P; Matsuzaki, Kanji; Noma, Mio; Jackson, Benjamin M; Eperjesi, Thomas J; Plappert, Theodore J; St John-Sutton, Martin G; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Early infarct expansion after coronary occlusion compromises contractile function in perfused myocardial regions and promotes adverse long-term left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We hypothesized that injection of a tissue-expanding dermal filler material into a myocardial infarction (MI) would attenuate infarct expansion and limit LV remodeling. Fifteen sheep were subjected to an anteroapical MI involving approximately 20% of the LV followed by the injection of 1.3 mL of a calcium hydroxyapatite-based dermal filler into the infarct. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography was performed at baseline, 30 minutes after MI, and 15 minutes after injection to assess infarct expansion. Sixteen additional sheep were subjected to the same infarction and followed echocardiographically and hemodynamically for 4 weeks after MI to assess chronic remodeling. Eight animals had injection with dermal filler as described above immediately after MI, and 8 animals were injected with an equal amount of saline solution. All animals exhibited infarct expansion soon after coronary occlusion. The regional ejection fraction of the apex became negative after infarction, consistent with systolic dyskinesia. Injection of the dermal filler converted the apical wall motion from dyskinetic to akinetic and resulted immediately in significant decreases in global, regional, and segmental LV volumes. Chronically, relative to saline control, dermal filler injection significantly reduced LV end-systolic volume (62.2 +/- 3.6 mL versus 44.5 +/- 3.9 mL; p < 0.05) and improved global ejection fraction (0.295 +/- 0.016 versus 0.373 +/- 0.017; p < 0.05) at 4 weeks after infarction. Injection of an acellular dermal filler into an MI immediately after coronary occlusion reduces early infarct expansion and limits chronic LV remodeling.

  4. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Wei Yee; Gheorghiu, Daniel; Rao, Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR) in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient.

  5. Human Achilles tendon glycation and function in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, Christian; Svensson, Rene Brüggebusch; Madsen, Mads Kongsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients have an increased risk of foot ulcers, and glycation of collagen may increase tissue stiffness. We hypothesized that the level of glycemic control (glycation) may affect Achilles tendon stiffness, which can influence gait pattern. We therefore investigated the relationship between...... collagen glycation, Achilles tendon stiffness parameters and plantar pressure in poorly (n = 22) and well (n = 22) controlled diabetic patients, including healthy age matched (45-70 yrs) controls (n = 11). There were no differences in any of outcome parameters (collagen cross-linking or tendon stiffness...... concentrations (55%, P Achilles tendon material stiffness was higher in DB (54%, P Achilles tendon material stiffness and skin connective...

  6. Anatomic, Vascular, and Mechanical Overview of the Achilles Tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The Achilles tendon is the strongest and thickest tendon in the body and is subjected to unique forces during the activities of living. A variety of pathologic processes have been identified causing clinical symptoms in patients of all ages. A detailed understanding of Achilles anatomy is necessary to understand the pathologic process that are seen in the tendon. As with all medical topics and conditions, our understanding is evolving as new research sheds light on pathologic processes involved with the Achilles tendon. This article reviews the anatomic, histologic, hemodynamic, and mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon and associated muscle structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternatives to Ni-base filler metals; Alternativen zu Nickelbasisloten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielage, B.; Hoyer, I. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In the amendment of the Freshwater Ordinance of 1 January 2003, the maximum permissible concentration of nickel ions in freshwater was reduced from 50 to 20 {mu}g/l. This resulted in problems in heat eschanger construction, and alternatives to Ni-base filler metals had to be found. Iron base filler metals are a promising alternative. Development activities focus on corrosion resistance, lower melting points to below 1100 degC operating temperature and sufficient strength for the various applications intended. Based on the known investigations of iron base alloys, new findings are presented. (orig.)

  8. Debridement and Functional Rehabilitation for Achilles Tendon Infection Following Tendon Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seung Hwan; Lee, Ho-Seong; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Sang Woo; Gwak, Heui-Chul; Bae, Su-Young

    2016-07-20

    An infected Achilles tendon after tendon repair is particularly difficult to treat because of the poor vascularity of the tendon as well as the thin surrounding soft tissue. For treatment of an infected Achilles tendon following tendon repair, we first focused on complete debridement and then promoted fibrous scar healing of the Achilles tendon using functional treatment. We retrospectively reviewed all of the medical records of 15 tertiary referral patients with postoperative infection of the Achilles tendon occurring between 2007 and 2012. The mean follow-up time was 33 months (range, 22 to 97 months). The infected tissue and the necrotic tendon were debrided, and the ankle was placed in a short leg splint for 2 weeks. The splint was then replaced with an ankle brace for the next 4 weeks. Partial weight-bearing was allowed immediately, and full weight-bearing was allowed at 2 weeks postoperatively. We assessed and recorded the physical parameters such as the range of motion, calf circumference, ability to perform a single-limb heel rise, patient satisfaction, and Arner-Lindholm scale. Laboratory tests, postoperative ultrasonography, and isokinetic plantar flexion power tests were also performed. At a mean time of 17 days (range, 8 to 30 days) after debridement, infection signs such as discharge from the wound, redness, and local warmth resolved. The wound had healed and the stitches were removed at a mean of 17 days following the wound repair. At the time of the latest follow-up, there were no signs of active infection. Achilles tendon continuity recovered in all patients by fibrous scar healing. Compared with the contralateral side, there was no difference in the ankle range of motion in 8 patients. According to the Arner-Lindholm scale, 9 of the 15 results were excellent and 6 were good. Ten patients were able to perform a single-limb heel rise. Eleven of 15 patients returned to their pre-injury recreational activities. Diffuse homogeneous echotexture of the

  9. Achilles Tendon Rupture: Avoiding Tendon Lengthening during Surgical Repair and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Achilles tendon rupture is a serious injury for which the best treatment is still controversial. Its primary goal should be to restore normal length and tension, thus obtaining an optimal function. Tendon elongation correlates significantly with clinical outcome; lengthening is an important cause of morbidity and may produce permanent functional impairment. In this article, we review all factors that may influence the repair, including the type of surgical technique, suture material, and rehabilitation program, among many others. PMID:21966048

  10. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ligamentation and Biomechanical Property of Tendon in Repair of Achilles Tendon Defect with Polyethylene Terephthalate Artificial Ligament: A Rabbit Tendon Repair Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengkun; Ma, Kui; Li, Hong; Jiang, Jia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common ruptured tendon of human body. Reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament is recommended in some serious cases. Sodium hyaluronate (HA) is beneficial for the healing of tendon injuries. We aimed to determine the effect of sodium hyaluronate in repair of Achilles tendon defect with PET artificial ligament in an animal tendon repair model. Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups. Eight rabbits repaired with PET were assigned to PET group; the other eight rabbits repaired with PET along with injection of HE were assigned to HA-PET group. All rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively for biomechanical and histological examination. The HA-PET group revealed higher biomechanical property compared with the PET group. Histologically, more collagen tissues grew into the HA-PET group compared with PET group. In conclusion, application of sodium hyaluronate can improve the healing of Achilles tendon reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament.

  11. Effect of biobased fillers nature on biodeterioration of hybrid polyethylene composites by mold fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.; Pantyukhov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of deterioration of natural fillers and polyethylene composites on their basis (polyethylene/filler=70/30) due to the action of mold fungi. The fillers chemical composition, dimensional parameters and biodegradability have been analyzed as factors exert a considerable impact on composite materials biodeterioration. It has been found that the principal factor determining the biodeterioration of polyethylene/filler composites by mold fungi is chemical composition of a filler and, in turn, its biodegradability. The excess of holocellulose content over lignin content and high protein content in a filler are able to induce biofouling of the polymeric composite materials. The presence of soluble and easy hydrolysed fraction in a filler increases its availability in a polymeric matrix. According to the study results, most effective natural fillers as additives stimulating polyethylene composites biodegradability are milled straw of seed flax and hydrolyzed keratin of bird’s feather.

  12. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yee Leong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. Keywords: Quadriceps tendon rupture; Achilles tendon rupture; Bilateral.

  13. The "turtleneck" pulley plasty for finger flexor tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubier, Jean-Noel; Lafosse, Thibault; Teboul, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    Injuries to the flexor tendons are frequent. Even when correctly treated, they can cause a loss of mobility of the digits secondary to postoperative adhesions. Further, conflicts between the tendon suture and the pulleys can limit the range of motion of the tendon and the flexion of the fingers. We propose a new pulley plasty that permits immediate retraining and avoids conflict with the tendon suture. Ten patients underwent surgery for a tendon injury in zone II, with no lesions of the associated pedicles. The tendons were repaired by a 4-strand stitch technique associated with a continuous peritendinous suture. Pulley plasty was systematically performed on A2, A4, or both. Eight patients recovered a satisfactory range of motion with a finger to palm distance of pulleys was necessary. This plasty technique is simple to carry out, reliable, and reproducible. Because it facilitates tendon repair and reinforces the existing pulleys, it permits immediate retraining and controlled active mobilization.

  14. A posterior tibial tendon skipping rope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, M. N.; Haverkamp, D.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an athletic patient with swelling and progressive pain on the posteromedial side of his right ankle on weight bearing. MRI demonstrated tenosynovitis and suspicion of a length rupture. On posterior tibial tendoscopy, there was no rupture, but medial from the tendon a tissue cord

  15. Engaging Stem Cells for Customized Tendon Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Thaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for a consistent therapeutic approach to tendon injury repair is long overdue. Patients with tendon microtears or full ruptures are eligible for a wide range of invasive and non invasive interventions, often subjectively decided by the physician. Surgery produces the best outcomes, and while studies have been conducted to optimize graft constructs and to track outcomes, the data from these studies have been inconclusive on the whole. What has been established is a clear understanding of healthy tendon architecture and the inherent process of healing. With this knowledge, tissue regeneration efforts have achieved immense progress in scaffold design, cell line selection, and, more recently, the appropriate use of cytokines and growth factors. This paper evaluates the plasticity of bone-marrow-derived stem cells and the elasticity of recently developed biomaterials towards tendon regeneration efforts. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and poly(1,8-octanediol co-citrate scaffolds (POC are discussed in the context of established grafting strategies. With POC scaffolds to cradle the growth of MSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells, developing a fibroelastic network guided by cytokines and growth factors may contribute towards consistent graft constructs, enhanced functionality, and better patient outcomes.

  16. Can Shockwave Therapy Improve Tendon Metabolism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, Johannes; Waugh, Charlotte; van der Worp, Henk; Scott, Alex; Ackermann, PW; Hart, DA

    2016-01-01

    Shockwave treatments are commonly used in the management of tendon injuries and there is increasing evidence for its clinical effectiveness. There is a paucity of fundamental (in vivo) studies investigating the biological action of shockwave therapy. Destruction of calcifications, pain relief and

  17. Palmar and digital flexor tendon pulleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, J R

    2001-02-01

    Retinacular structures, called pulleys, maintain the flexor tendons of the hand in constant relationship to the joint axes and promote economy and efficiency in finger flexion. This system is composed of the transverse carpal ligament, the palmar aponeurosis pulley, and the digital flexor pulley system. Of these three components, the digital pulleys are the most critical to finger flexion. In their normal state, these pulley components are ideal in all aspects including configuration and location, which accomodates a 260 degrees arc of motion without impingement and with minimum friction while at the same time using muscle tendon excursion that is well within the natural range of the muscle. An absent pulley results in an increased moment arm and requires increased tendon excursion to produce the same arc of motion. Because muscle excursion is not a limitless factor and is directly proportional to muscle fiber length, the effectiveness of tendon excursion is dependent on maintenance of the critical relationship between pulleys and the adjacent joints. Preservation and reconstruction of this system is based on knowledge of the anatomy and an understanding of the relative functional significance of each component of the system.

  18. Achilles Tendon Repair, A Modified Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Keyhani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Wound complications following open repair for acute Achilles tendon ruptures (AATR remain the subject of significant debate. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of covering repaired AATR using well-nourished connective tissues (paratenon and deep fascia to avoid complications after open repair.   Methods: In this case series study, open repair was performed for 32 active young patients with AATR. After the tendon was repaired, the deep fascia and paratenon was used to cover the Achilles tendon. Patients were followed for two years and any wound complication was recorded. During the last visit, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle-hind foot score was completed for all patients. Calf circumference and ankle range of motion were measured and compared with the contralateral side. Patients were asked about returning to previous sports activities and limitations with footwear. Results: Only, one patient developed deep wound infection (3%. None of the patients had any discomfort around the operation area, limitation with footwear, sural nerve injury, re-rupture, and skin adhesion. The AOFAS score averaged 92.5±6. Two patients (7% were unable to return to previous sports activities because of moderate pain in heavy physical exercises. The calf circumference and ankle ROM were similar between healthy and operated sides. Conclusion: The present study showed that fascial envelope for full covering of the repaired Achilles tendon may help to prevent the occurrence of wound complications.

  19. Influence of limestone filler and of the size of the aggregates on DEF

    OpenAIRE

    Shamaa, M. Al; Lavaud, S.; Divet, L; Colliat, JB; Nahas, G; Torrenti, JM

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study aims to determine the effect of limestone filler on concrete expansion due to delayed ettringite formation (DEF). Different mortars made with different sizes and percentages of limestone filler and Portland cement CEM I 52.5N are conserved in water. The expansion of the specimens is measured. Results show that DEF is not inhibited by limestone filler. The kinetics and the amplitude of the swelling depend on the size of the limestone filler. The volume fraction of aggre...

  20. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Schwartz

    Full Text Available Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A zone (∼20 µm exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked

  1. Turkey model for flexor tendon research: in vitro comparison of human, canine, turkey, and chicken tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Assaf; Thoreson, Andrew R; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Amadio, Peter C; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2017-08-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are one of the most common hand injuries and remain clinically challenging for functional restoration. Canine and chicken have been the most commonly used animal models for flexor tendon-related research but possess several disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to explore a potential turkey model for flexor tendon research. The third digit from human cadaveric hands, canine forepaws, turkey foot, and chicken foot were used for this study. Six digits in each of four species were studied in detail, comparing anatomy of the flexor apparatus, joint range of motioņ tendon excursion, tendon cross-sectional area, work of flexion, gliding resistance at the level of the A2 pulley, modulus of elasticity, suture retention strength, and histology across species. Anatomically, the third digit in the four species displayed structural similarities; however, the tendon cross-sectional area of the turkey and human were similar and larger than canine and chicken. Furthermore, the turkey digit resembles the human's finger with the lack of webbing between digits, similar vascularization, tendon excursion, work of flexion, gliding resistance, mechanical properties, and suture holding strength. More importantly, human and turkey tendons were most similar in histological appearance. Turkey flexor tendons have many properties that are comparable to human flexor tendons which would provide a clinically relevant, economical, nonhuman companion large animal model for flexor tendon research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G. (SOIBC); (Purdue); (Columbia)

    2012-02-21

    Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

  3. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Kilpua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  4. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahasi@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607–8471 (Japan)

    2017-03-10

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  5. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-03-01

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  6. Revisiting the plasma sheath—dust in plasma sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G. C. [Mathematical Science Division, IASST, Guwahati 781014 (India); Deka, R.; Bora, M. P., E-mail: mpbora@gauhati.ac.in [Physics Department, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we have considered the formation of warm plasma sheath in the vicinity of a wall in a plasma with considerable presence of dust particles. As an example, we have used the parameters relevant in case of plasma sheath formed around surfaces of various solid bodies in space, though the results obtained in this work can be applied to any other physical situation such as laboratory plasma. In the ion-acoustic time scale, we neglect the dust dynamics. The dust particles affect the sheath dynamics by affecting the Poisson equation which determines the plasma potential in the sheath region. It is important to note that our calculations are valid only when the amount of dust particles is not sufficient so as to affect the plasma dynamics in the dust-acoustic time scale, but enough to affect the plasma sheath. We have assumed the current to a dust particle to be balanced throughout the analysis. This makes the grain potential dependent on plasma potential, which is then incorporated into the Poisson equation. The resultant numerical model becomes an initial value problem, which is described by a 1-D integro-differential equation, which is then solved self-consistently by incorporating the change in plasma potential caused by inclusion of the dust potential in the Poisson equation.

  7. Ontogeny of the sheathing leaf base in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Leiboff, Samuel; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Leaves develop from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) via recruitment of leaf founder cells. Unlike eudicots, most monocot leaves display parallel venation and sheathing bases wherein the margins overlap the stem. Here we utilized computed tomography (CT) imaging, localization of PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transport proteins, and in situ hybridization of leaf developmental transcripts to analyze the ontogeny of monocot leaf morphology in maize (Zea mays). CT imaging of whole-mounted shoot apices illustrates the plastochron-specific stages during initiation of the basal sheath margins from the tubular disc of insertion (DOI). PIN1 localizations identify basipetal auxin transport in the SAM L1 layer at the site of leaf initiation, a process that continues reiteratively during later recruitment of lateral leaf domains. Refinement of these auxin transport domains results in multiple, parallel provascular strands within the initiating primordium. By contrast, auxin is transported from the L2 toward the L1 at the developing margins of the leaf sheath. Transcripts involved in organ boundary formation and dorsiventral patterning accumulate within the DOI, preceding the outgrowth of the overlapping margins of the sheathing leaf base. We suggest a model wherein sheathing bases and parallel veins are both patterned via the extended recruitment of lateral maize leaf domains from the SAM. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpua, Emilia; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

    2017-11-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  9. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device. 888.3045 Section 888.3045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is...

  10. Experimental investigation of plasma sheaths in magnetic mirror and cusp configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengqi; Wei, Zi-an; Ma, J. X.

    2017-11-01

    Sheath structures near a metal plate in a magnetized plasma were experimentally investigated in magnetic mirror and cusp configurations. Plasma parameters and the sheath potential distributions were probed by a planar and an emissive probe, respectively. The measured sheath profiles in the mirror configuration show that the sheath thickness first decreases and then increases when the magnetic strength is raised. A magnetic flux-tube model was used to explain this result. In the cusp configuration, the measured sheath thickness decreases with the increase of the coil current creating the magnetic cusp. However, when normalized by the electron Debye length, the dependence of the sheath thickness on the coil current is reversed.

  11. Influence of Ag, Cu and Fe sheaths on MgB{sub 2} superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Sihai; Pan, Alexey V.; Ionescu, Mihail; Liu Huakun; Dou Shixue [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    Copper, iron and silver MgB{sub 2} sheathed tapes have been manufactured under different conditions. It has been found that copper-sheathed tapes can show a higher critical current density than iron-sheathed tapes if heat-treated at temperatures below 850 deg. C. The influence of different overall mechanical deformation rates has been studied for tapes sheathed by all three types of metals. By increasing the deformation rate the critical current density was improved by about an order of magnitude in the case of the copper-sheathed tapes, while the critical current density of the iron-sheathed tapes remained constant. (author)

  12. [Benefits of volumetric to facial rejuvenation. Part 2: Dermal fillers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, P; Pons Guiraud, A; Lepage, C

    2017-09-11

    Injectable substances known as fillers are used to palliate age-related atrophy and ptosis, and for their so-called "pseudo-lifting" action. They do not replace face and neck lift, but allow it to be postponed or, when injected after surgical lifting, make the result durable. Hyaluronic acid has a predominant and unchallenged place among fillers, well ahead of poly-L-lactic acid or calcium hydroxyapatite. Approaches and injection methods are the same for all fillers, corresponding to those for autologous fat injection, the reference substance, with a few particularities. The substance used, the level of hyaluronic acid reticulation, and the depth of the injection depend on the injection site and intended effect. Effects range from smoothing superficial wrinkles to remodeling whole parts of the face. Complications related to such fillers are well known, especially in the case of hyaluronic acid, where overcorrection is the most frequent. To limit the risk of complications and also to offer each patient the most individually adapted corrections, before any procedure, the plastic surgeon needs to question the patient and perform precise medical examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of fillers on the alkali activated chamotte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembovska, L.; Bumanis, G.; Vitola, L.; Bajare, D.

    2017-10-01

    Alkali-activated materials (AAM) exhibit remarkable high-temperature resistance which makes them perspective materials for high-temperature applications, for instance as fire protecting and insulating materials in industrial furnaces. Series of experiments were carried out to develop optimum mix proportions of AAM based on chamotte with quartz sand (Q), olivine sand (OL) and firebrick sawing residues (K26) as fillers. Aluminium scrap recycling waste was considered as a pore forming agent and 6M NaOH alkali activation solution has been used. Lightweight porous AAM have been obtained with density in range from 600 to 880 kg/m3 and compressive strength from 0.8 to 2.7 MPa. The XRD and high temperature optical microscopy was used to characterize the performance of AAM. The mechanical, physical and structural properties of the AAM were determined after the exposure to elevated temperatures at 800 and 1000°C. The results indicate that most promising results for AAM were with K26 filler where strength increase was observed while Q and OL filler reduced mechanical properties due to structure deterioration caused by expansive nature of selected filler.

  14. Effect of waste rubber powder as filler for plywood application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Huei Ruey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the suitability of waste rubber powder (WRP use as filler in adhesive formulation for plywood application. Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF was employed as resin for formulating the wood adhesive. To improve chemical properties and bonding quality of adhesive, WRP was treated by different chemicals like 20% nitric acid, 30% hydrogen peroxide and acetone solution. The treated WRP were analysed by XRD and it showed that inorganic compounds were removed and carbon was remained as major component under the treatment of 20% HNO3. The treatment improved the mechanical properties like shear strength and formaldehyde emission of plywood (high shear strength and low formaldehyde emission. The physico-chemical interaction between the wood, resin and filler was investigated using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR technique and the interactions among N-H of MUF and C=O of wood and WRP were identified. The morphology of wood-adhesive interface was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and light microscope (LM. It showed that the penetration of adhesives and fillers through the wood pores was responsible for mechanical interlocking. Therefore, chemically treated WRP proved its potential use as filler in MUF based adhesive for making plywood.

  15. Preparation of fibrin networks on polymers containing nano-filler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozlowska, A.; Piegat, A.; Skrobot, J.; Strzalkowska, D.; El Fray, M.; Kubies, Dana; Riedel, Tomáš; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Rypáček, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, - (2010), s. 8-10 ISSN 1429-7248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB050833 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : fibrin networks * nano-filler Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.biomat.krakow.pl/gazeta/archiwum/92.pdf

  16. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  17. Induction heating of mastic containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, Á.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the induction heating of mastic through the addition of electrically conductive fillers and fibers (graphite and steel wool), and to prove that this material can be healed with induction energy. The effect of fibers content, sand-bitumen ratio and the

  18. Induction heating of mastic containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, Á.; Schlangen, E.; Van de Ven, M.; Van Vliet, D.

    The objective of this research is to examine the induction heating of mastic through the addition of electrically conductive fillers and fibers (graphite and steel wool), and to prove that this material can be healed with induction energy. The effect of fibers content, sand–bitumen ratio and the

  19. Hybrid filler composition optimization for tensile strength of jute fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to be very cost-effective materials particularly, for building and construction industry, packaging, railway coach .... and maintenance. A protective surface of 25 μm thick hard chrome plating is done to avoid abrasion of die due to the pultrusion of hard filler particles. For heating the die, an electric heater is provided with ...

  20. Influence of Quartz Fillers in Dielectric Composites on Electrostrictive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Shivamurthy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation E-glass epoxy composite filled with different amount of quartz powder were prepared by compression moulding and hot curing. Plain waived E-glass cloth with density 200gm / meter square was used as reinforcement. Epoxy resin LY556 mixed with Hardener HT907 and accelerator DY063 in the ratio 100:80:2 was used as matrix. The quartz powder of 30 microns particle size was used as fillers. Four types of composites were prepared with different amount of quartz fillers like 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% with unchanged reinforcement. For all the samples, dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ, dielectric constant and a. c. conductivity and electrostriction have been measured by using a LCR meter at 1 KHz frequency. The phenomenon of electrostriction was examined for all samples (of different percentage of quartz filled composites. It is observed that the percentage of filler influences the electrostriction phenomena in the composites. The 6 % filler content composites samples exhibits the improved electrostriction phenomenon required for sensors compared to other types of composites.

  1. More About Brazing Or Welding NiAl Without Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Kalinowski, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about two processes for joining, brazing, or welding workpieces made of nickel aluminide alloys, without use of filler metal. Joining processes involve uniform heating in vacuum-controlled furnace. Eliminates internal thermal gradients in workpieces joined and greatly reduces tendency toward cracking.

  2. Hydrophobic chalk as a filler for paints and varnishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the properties of the chemically precipitated chalk and the development of activities, which enable us to get from the secondary product of the manufacture different fertilizers, high-quality carbonate fillers for paints and varnishes, primers and putty.

  3. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  4. Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate and bio-fillers by solvent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Polyhydroxybutyrate; solvent casting; bio-fillers; biocomposites; biopolymer. 1. Introduction. Plastics, which are derived from petroleum and not readily biodegradable, are used to produce many materials, and the plastic waste disposal has particularly increased in the pack- aging applications from day to day [1].

  5. [The history of the contraceptive sheath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyotjeannin, C

    1984-06-01

    The condom, effective in preventing both pregnancy and venereal disease, had a limited role until the 19th century, when its use spread through all social strata. The 1st condoms may have been linen sheaths designed to protect against syphilis. A 16th century Neapolitan doctor provided a recipe for an antiseptic preparation to be applied for 4-5 hourrs, but after intercourse had occurred. A physician to Louis XV mentioned the condom in a book published in 1736, and in 1770 the condom was again described without being named. 4 yeears later it was again described and called the condom or English redingote. Later it was mentioned by the Marques de Sade, who alluded to its contraceptive effect. In the early 19th century, condoms made of sheep entrails were mentioned. Descriptions of the preparation of 3 grades of condom, regular, fine, and superfine, were later found. The discovery of the process of vulcanization of rubber in 1839 made possible more solid, marketable, and usable latex condoms. The condom apparently began to be used in the late 17th or early 18th century. Some authors state that it was invented by a Dr. Condom or Conton, a physician or knight in the court of Charls II of England. Othrs suggested that it was named after the city of Condom in Gascony or derived from a foreign word. The antivenereal disease qualities of condoms were described by Casanova and Gustave Flaubert, and other references to them may be found in the literature. Later the contraceptive use of the condom became progressively more common, beginning in the wealthier classes and spreading to the rural and lower classes perhaps by the later 18th century. The diffusion of contraception during the 19th century was cited as the cause of th slow decline in illegitimacy rates starting at the end of the century. The Church condemned the use of condoms for contraception, but the medical profession took a less hostile view due to their health function. At the present time, condoms are widely

  6. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2013-08-25

    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually

  7. Photovoltaic sheathing element with a flexible connector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langmaid, Joseph A; Keenihan, James R; Mills, Michael E; Lopez, Leonardo C

    2016-07-12

    The present invention is premised upon an assembly including at least a photovoltaic sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the sheathing element including at least: a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; at least a first and a second connector assembly disposed on opposing sides of the sheathing element and capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to at least two adjoining devices that are affixed to the building structure and wherein at least one of the connector assemblies includes a flexible portion; one or more connector pockets disposed in the body portion the pockets capable of receiving at least a portion of the connector assembly.

  8. On the temporal development of a plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, J. W., Jr.; Silevitch, M. B.

    1981-01-01

    This work studies a one-dimensional model for the time-dependent behavior caused by placing an uncharged conducting surface in contact with a uniform equilibrium plasma. Both the probe potential and plasma response are unknown a priori but are specified through a set of self-consistent model equations and boundary conditions. Some numerical and analytical consequences of this model are investigated. In particular, such issues are considered as (1) the formation and expansion of a quasi-neutral region connecting the non-neutral sheath to the distant undisturbed plasma; (2) the validity of assuming the existence of a sheath edge; and (3) the role of both static and dynamic Bohm criteria in the theory of unsteady sheath development.

  9. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  10. Continuum Kinetic and Multi-Fluid Simulations of Classical Sheaths

    CERN Document Server

    Cagas, Petr; Juno, James; Srinivasan, Bhuvana

    2016-01-01

    The kinetic study of plasma sheaths is critical, among other things, to understand the deposition of heat on walls, the effect of sputtering, and contamination of the plasma with detrimental impurities. The plasma sheath also provides a boundary condition and can often have a significant global impact on the bulk plasma. In this paper, kinetic studies of classical sheaths are performed with the continuum code, Gkeyll, that directly solves the Vlasov-Poisson/Maxwell equations. The code uses a novel version of the finite-element discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme that conserves energy in the continuous-time limit. The electrostatic field is computed using the Poisson equation. Ionization and scattering collisions are included, however, surface effects are neglected. The aim of this work is to introduce the continuum-kinetic method and compare its results to those obtained from an already established finite-volume multi-fluid model also implemented in Gkeyll. Novel boundary conditions on the fluids allow the she...

  11. Effect of tendon tensioning: an in vitro study in porcine extensor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael; Vaisman, Alex; Meleán, Patricio; Figueroa, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Graft tensioning is a controversial issue in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) that has not achieved consensus between peers. The purpose of this study is to determine if after tensioning tendon length and resistance to maximal load changes. We performed an in vitro study with 50 porcine extensors tendons. The first group (P=25) was tensioned with 80 N (19.97 lb) for 10 min, using an ACL graft preparation board. The second group (C=25) was used as control and was not tensioned. The average initial (groups P and C) and post tensioning tendon length (group C) were measured; the average initial and post tensioning tendon diameter were measured as well. All samples were fixated in a tube-clamp system connected to a tension sensor. The samples were stressed with continuous and progressive tension until ultimate failure at maximum load (UFML) occurs. The initial mean length was: P before tensioning=13.4 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 10.5-16.5); P after tensioning=13.8 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 11.5-16.5); C=13 mm+/-1.35 mm (p=0.005). The mean diameter was: P=5.6 mm (4.5-6); C=5.5 mm (range 4.5-6) (p>0.05). The UFML was: P=189.7 N (114-336); C=229.9 N (143-365) (p=0.029). Tendon tensioning with 80 N for 10 min produced 3% average elongation. These could be beneficial in ACLR since tendon tensioning decreases elongation of the graft after fixation. Regardless, tendon tensioning is not innocuous since it diminishes their resistance when continuously stressed until complete failure occurs.

  12. Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture Reconstructed With Achilles Tendon Allograft and Xenograft Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollawell, Shane; Baione, William

    2015-01-01

    More than 20% of acute Achilles tendon injuries are misdiagnosed, leading to chronic or neglected ruptures. Some controversy exists regarding how to best manage an acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, a general consensus has been reached that chronic rupture with ≥3 cm of separation is associated with functional morbidity and, therefore, should be managed operatively. It has been demonstrated that the functional outcomes of surgically treated Achilles ruptures are superior to the nonoperative outcomes in a chronic setting. In the present report, we reviewed 4 patients with chronic Achilles tendon ruptures that were successfully treated with an Achilles tendon interposition allograft and simultaneous augmentation with a xenograft. The median duration of rupture was 11 (range 8 to 16) weeks, the median gap between the proximal and distal segments of the tendon was 4.75 (range 3.5 to 6) cm, and the patients were able to return pain-free to all preinjury activities at a median of 14.5 (range 13.8 to 15.5) weeks, without the need for tendon transfer, lengthening, or additional intervention. The median duration of follow up was 37.25 (range 15.25 to 51.5) months, at which point the mean Foot and Ankle Outcomes Instrument core scale score was 97 ± 1 (mean normative score 53 ± 1), and the Foot and Ankle Outcomes Instrument shoe comfort core scale score was 100 ± 0 (mean normative score 59 ± 0). The combined Achilles allograft plus xenograft augmentation technique appears to be a reasonable option for the surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma in pregnancy and a systematic anatomical workup of rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Kerstin; Wedel, Thilo; Both, Marcus; Bas, Kayhan; Maass, Nicolai; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2016-10-19

    Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare clinical diagnosis, particularly in pregnancy. Due to unspecific symptoms, misdiagnosis is likely and could potentially endanger a patient as well as her fetus. A 26-year-old white woman presented with mild right-sided abdominal pain, which increased during palpation and movement, at 26 + 3 weeks' gestational age. Ultrasound imaging initially showed a round and well-demarcated structure, which appeared to be in contact with her uterine wall, leading to a suspected diagnosis of an infarcted leiomyoma. However, she reported increasing levels of pain and laboratory tests showed a significant drop in her initially normal hemoglobin level. A magnetic resonance imaging scan finally revealed a large type III rectus sheath hematoma on the right side. Because of progressive blood loss into her rectus sheath under conservative therapy, with a significant further decrease in her hemoglobin levels, surgical treatment via right-sided paramedian laparotomy was initiated. During the operation the arterial bleed could be ligated. She eventually achieved complete convalescence and delivered a healthy newborn spontaneously after 40 weeks of gestation. This case report highlights the clinical and diagnostic features of rectus sheath hematoma and shows the anatomical aspects of the rectus sheath, simplifying early and correct diagnosis.

  14. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna B. Lovati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution.

  15. Shear Wave Measurements for Evaluation of Tendon Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Lun; Kuo, Po-Ling; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Brum, Javier; Tanter, Mickael; Li, Pai-Chi

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigated the feasibility of using supersonic shear wave measurements to quantitatively differentiate normal and damaged tendons based on their mechanical properties. Five freshly harvested porcine tendons excised from pig legs were used. Tendon damage was induced by incubating the tendons with a 1% w/v collagenase solution. Values of shear modulus were derived both by a time-of-flight (TOF) approach and a transverse isotropic plate model (TI-model). The results show that as the preload applied to the tendon increased from 0 to 3 N, the mean shear modulus derived based on the TOF approach, the TI-model, and Young's modulus estimated from mechanical testing increased from 14.6 to 89.9 kPa, 53.9 to 348 kPa, and from 1.45 to 10.36 MPa, respectively, in untreated tendons, and from 8.4 to 67 kPa, 28 to 258 kPa, and from 0.93 to 7.2 MPa in collagenase-treated tendons. Both the TOF approach and the TI-model correlated well with the changes in Young's modulus. Although there is bias on the estimation of shear modulus using the TOF approach, it still provides statistical significance to differentiate normal and damaged tendons. Our data indicate that supersonic shear wave imaging is a valuable imaging technique to assess tendon stiffness dynamics and characterize normal and collagenase-damaged tendons.

  16. Continuum kinetic and multi-fluid simulations of classical sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagas, P.; Hakim, A.; Juno, J.; Srinivasan, B.

    2017-02-01

    The kinetic study of plasma sheaths is critical, among other things, to understand the deposition of heat on walls, the effect of sputtering, and contamination of the plasma with detrimental impurities. The plasma sheath also provides a boundary condition and can often have a significant global impact on the bulk plasma. In this paper, kinetic studies of classical sheaths are performed with the continuum kinetic code, Gkeyll, which directly solves the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The code uses a novel version of the finite-element discontinuous Galerkin scheme that conserves energy in the continuous-time limit. The fields are computed using Maxwell equations. Ionization and scattering collisions are included; however, surface effects are neglected. The aim of this work is to introduce the continuum kinetic method and compare its results with those obtained from an already established finite-volume multi-fluid model also implemented in Gkeyll. Novel boundary conditions on the fluids allow the sheath to form without specifying wall fluxes, so the fluids and fields adjust self-consistently at the wall. The work presented here demonstrates that the kinetic and fluid results are in agreement for the momentum flux, showing that in certain regimes, a multi-fluid model can be a useful approximation for simulating the plasma boundary. There are differences in the electrostatic potential between the fluid and kinetic results. Further, the direct solutions of the distribution function presented here highlight the non-Maxwellian distribution of electrons in the sheath, emphasizing the need for a kinetic model. The densities, velocities, and the potential show a good agreement between the kinetic and fluid results. However, kinetic physics is highlighted through higher moments such as parallel and perpendicular temperatures which provide significant differences from the fluid results in which the temperature is assumed to be isotropic. Besides decompression cooling, the heat flux

  17. Dengue Fever with rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-04-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear.

  18. Photovoltaic building sheathing element with anti-slide features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2015-09-08

    The present invention is premised` upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic building sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the photovoltaic building sheathing element. The element including a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; and at feast a first and a second connector assembly capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to one or more adjoining devices; wherein the body portion includes one or more geometric features adapted to engage a vertically adjoining device before installation.

  19. Finger Nerve Sheath Myxoma: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Shooshtarizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nerve sheath myxoma (NSM is a rare benign neoplasm of nerve sheath origin with Schwann cell differentiation. NSM and neurothekeoma were considered one single phenomenon in the past. Case Presentation A 28-year-old woman presented to our hospital clinic with pain and a fixed firm mass in the proximal phalanx of the right second finger. Excisional biopsy was performed and histological examination revealed NSM. Conclusions Based on the findings, NSM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of firm and tender masses in the upper extremities of young adults.

  20. Sheath and presheath in a collisionless open-field plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio; Fukui, Wakumi

    1989-04-01

    The formation and evolution of a presheath and sheath along field lines in a collisionless plasma in a nonuniform but axisymmetric open magnetic field are investigated theoretically. The plasma-sheath equation is derived using the ion source function of Emmert et al. (1980) and the Boltzmann law for the electrons; the dependence of the potential on the magnetic-field profile is demonstrated; and numerical results are presented in graphs. It is shown that the generalized Bohm criterion is satisfied whenever the axial profile of the magnetic field decreases monotonically toward the wall.

  1. [MR imaging of the Achilles tendon: evaluation of criteria for the differentiation of asymptomatic and symptomatic tendons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Wedegärtner, U; Maas, L C; Buchert, R; Adam, G; Maas, R

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop quantitative and qualitative MRI criteria to differentiate between healthy and pathological Achilles tendons. 364 Achilles tendons were examined on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. 264 patients had Achilles tendon complaints, 100 asymptomatic Achilles tendons served as a control. T 1-weighted, T 2-weighted and a STIR sequence were performed in sagittal and axial orientation. Images were evaluated in consensus by two radiologists. Quantitative and qualitative criteria were assessed. A Mann-Whitney-U-Test and a regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant differences between the patients with disorders and the control group concerning the depth (12.0 mm and 6.3 mm, p tendon, the area of the tendon cross section (1.60 mm (2) and 061 mm (2), p tendon depth (A4), length of bursa (A5) and area of tendon (F). The measurement of the Achilles tendon and the binary-logistic regression analysis allow differentiation between normal and pathological Achilles tendons. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Proximal tendon-prosthesis junction for active tendon implants of the hand: a biomechanical comparison of 2 techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew J; Owen, John R; McDowell, Charles L; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    To study the biomechanical characteristics (percent stretch, stiffness, and ultimate load) of 2 tendon-prosthesis techniques used to connect the proximal tendon stump to silicone active tendon implants used in reconstruction of flexor tendons. We evaluated percent stretch following cyclic loading and at failure, stiffness during load to failure, and ultimate load of 16 tendon-prosthesis junctions using cadaveric canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons to re-create 2 junction techniques: the tendon loop (TL) and the polyester weave (PW). The TL junction showed greater percent stretch at a static load of 2 N, following 500 cycles of loading between 2 N and 50 N, and at peak load. The PW junction displayed greater stiffness from 50 to 150 N during load to failure. Both junctions failed at a mean ultimate load greater than 220 N. The described proximal junction techniques for active tendon implants were strong enough to resist early active motion in the immediate postoperative period without significant elongation. The PW technique displayed greater stiffness and ultimate load compared with the TL. Data on tendon-prosthesis characteristics of these 2 methods may aid the surgeon in choosing which junction technique to use, during surgical tensioning decisions, and in considering activity protocols after surgery. These data may also serve as a baseline for further investigations regarding active tendon implants. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased unilateral tendon stiffness and its effect on gait 2-6 years after Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agres, A N; Duda, G N; Gehlen, T J; Arampatzis, A; Taylor, W R; Manegold, S

    2015-12-01

    Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) alters tissue composition, which may affect long-term tendon mechanics and ankle function during movement. However, a relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) properties and ankle joint function during gait remains unclear. The primary hypotheses were that (a) post-ATR tendon stiffness and length differ from the noninjured contralateral side and that (b) intra-patient asymmetries in AT properties correlate to ankle function asymmetries during gait, determined by ankle angles and moments. Ultrasonography and dynamometry were used to assess AT tendon stiffness, strain, elongation, and rest length in both limbs of 20 ATR patients 2-6 years after repair. Three-dimensional ankle angles and moments were determined using gait analysis. Injured tendons exhibited increased stiffness, rest length, and altered kinematics, with higher dorsiflexion and eversion, and lower plantarflexion and inversion. Intra-patient tendon stiffness and tendon length ratios were negatively correlated to intra-patient ratios of the maximum plantarflexion moment and maximum dorsiflexion angle, respectively. These results suggest that after surgical ATR repair, higher AT stiffness, but not a longer AT, may contribute to deficits in plantarflexion moment generation. These data further support the claim that post-ATR tendon regeneration results in the production of a tissue that is functionally different than noninjured tendon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Waves in Plasma Sheaths and at Boundaries: Theory and Computer Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birdsall, Charles

    1997-01-01

    .... There is no applied magnetic field; the plasma and waves are unmagnetized. First, a linear theory and simulation are made, to include the sheath and the pre-sheath from first principles and self-consistently...

  5. Individual Oligodendrocytes Have Only a Few Hours in which to Generate New Myelin Sheaths In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopka, Tim; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Lyons, David A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of myelin sheaths made by individual oligodendrocytes regulates the extent of myelination, which profoundly affects central nervous system function. It remains unknown when, during their life, individual oligodendrocytes can regulate myelin sheath number in vivo. We show, using live imaging in zebrafish, that oligodendrocytes make new myelin sheaths during a period of just 5 hr, with regulation of sheath number after this time limited to occasional retractions. We also show that activation and reduction of Fyn kinase in oligodendrocytes increases and decreases sheath number per cell, respectively. Interestingly, these oligodendrocytes also generate their new myelin sheaths within the same period, despite having vastly different extents of myelination. Our data demonstrate a restricted time window relative to the lifetime of the individual oligodendrocyte, during which myelin sheath formation occurs and the number of sheaths is determined. PMID:23806617

  6. Measurement of effective sheath width around the cutoff probe based on electromagnetic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y., E-mail: sjyou@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: woh1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J., E-mail: sjyou@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: woh1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.-S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan 573-540 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We inferred the effective sheath width using the cutoff probe and incorporating a full-wave three-dimensional electromagnetic (EM) simulation. The EM simulation reproduced the experimentally obtained plasma-sheath resonance (PSR) on the microwave transmission (S{sub 21}) spectrum well. The PSR frequency has a one-to-one correspondence with the width of the vacuum layer assumed to be the effective sheath in the EM simulation model. The sheath width was estimated by matching the S{sub 21} spectra of the experiment and the EM simulation for different widths of the sheath. We found that the inferred sheath widths quantitatively and qualitatively agree with the sheath width measured by incorporating an equivalent circuit model. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of the cutoff probe for inferring the effective sheath width from its experimental spectrum data.

  7. A ganglion of the patellar tendon in patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Lagadec, Matthieu; Petrover, David; Genah, Idan; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Bousson, Valérie; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2013-09-01

    Intratendinous ganglia are rare. We report the case of a sedentary woman with chronic mechanical anterolateral pain of the knee and an extensive ganglion of the patellar tendon as indicated on magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) examinations. There was evidence of a high-riding patella, patellar malalignment and patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome with significantly close contact between the patellar tendon and the lateral facet of the femoral trochlea. The ultrasound-guided aspiration of the ganglion enabled a localized injection of an anti-inflammatory drug (cortivazol) and the cytopathological examination of the fluid, which confirmed the diagnosis. Clinical improvement was maintained with knee rehabilitation and was satisfactory at follow-up after 1 year. To our knowledge, we report the first case of a ganglion of the patellar tendon subsequent to patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome. We found that this case was illustrative of mucoid degeneration in connective tissue due to chronic repetitive microtraumas. Additionally, this case provided the opportunity to discuss the management of this condition in a sedentary individual with a high-riding patella and patellar malalignment.

  8. Augmented Repair of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture Using an Allograft Tendon Weaving Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Huang, Gan; Ji, Ying; Ao, Rong guang; Yu, Baoqing; Zhu, Ya Long

    2015-01-01

    Achilles tendon rupture is a common injury, especially in those who are physically active. Although open surgery is a widely used option for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture, the optimal treatment is still disputed. In our study, 59 patients with unilateral, closed, acute rupture of the Achilles tendon were treated by open surgery using an allograft weave to augment the repair. All the surgeries were performed within 1 to 4 days after injury. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was recorded as 91.20 (range 88 to 95), 95.34 (range 92 to 98), and 98.27 (range 97 to 99) at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up visit, respectively. At the final follow-up visit, the mean difference between the mid-calf circumference of the injured and uninjured legs was 0.19 (range -0.03 to 1.50) cm (p = .43). At the final follow-up visit, the mean difference between the vertical distances from the plantar surface of the heel to the ground for the injured and uninjured lower extremities was 0.44 (range -0.03 to 0.5) cm (p = .17). Augmented repair using the allograft tendon weaving technique provided satisfactory tendon strength and functional outcomes and a timely return to the patients' activities. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fibrocartilage associated with human tendons and their pulleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M; Qin, S; Ralphs, J R

    1995-12-01

    The presence of fibrocartilage in tendons that wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys is well known. It is an adaptation to resisting compression or shear, but the extent to which the structure of most human tendons is modified where they contact pulleys is less clear, for there has been no single comprehensive survey of a large number of sites. Less is known of the structure of the corresponding pulleys. In the present study, 38 regions of tendons that wrap around bony pulleys or pass beneath fibrous retinacula have been studied in routine histology sections taken from each of 2 or 3 elderly dissecting room cadavers. Most of the corresponding pulleys have also been examined. Fibrocartilage was present in 22 of the 38 tendon sites and it was most conspicuous where the tendons pressed predominantly against bone rather than retinacula and where they showed a large change in direction. Fibrocartilage was more characteristic of tendons at the ankle than the wrist, probably because the long axis of the foot is at right angles to that of the leg. There was considerable variation in the structure of tendon fibrocartilage. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons had oval or round cells embedded in a highly metachromatic matrix with interwoven or spiralling collagen fibres. At other sites, fibrocartilage cells were arranged in rows between parallel collagen fibres. The differences probably relate to differences in development. A single tendon could be modified at successive points along its length and fibrocartilage could be present in the endotenon and epitenon as well as in the tendon itself. Pathological changes seen in 'wrap around' tendons were fragmentation and partial delamination of the compressed surface, chondrocyte clustering, fatty infiltration and bone formation. Three types of pulleys were described for tendons--bony prominences and grooves, fibrous retinacula and synovial joints. The extent of cartilaginous differentiation on the periosteum of bony pulleys

  10. Hardness of model dental composites - the effect of filler volume fraction and silanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J F; Wassell, R W

    1999-05-01

    The relationship between structure and mechanical properties for dental composites has often proved difficult to determine due to the use of commercially available materials having a number of differences in composition i.e. different type of resin, different type of filler, etc. This makes a scientific study of any one variable such as filler content difficult if not impossible. In the current study it was the aim to test the hypothesis that hardness measurements of dental composites could be used to monitor the status of the resin-filler interface and to determine the efficacy of any particle silanation process. Ten model composites formulated from a single batch of resin and containing a common type of glass filler were formulated to contain varying amounts of filler. Some materials contained silanated filler, others contained unsilanated filler. Specimens were prepared and stored in water and hardness (Vickers') was determined at 24 h using loads of 50, 100, 200 and 300 g. Composites containing silanated fillers were significantly harder than materials containing unsilanated fillers. For unsilanated products hardness was independent of applied load and in this respect they behaved like homogeneous materials. For composites containing silanated fillers there was a marked increase in measured hardness as applied load was increased. This suggests that the hardness-load profile could be used to monitor the status of the resin-filler interface. Copyright 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  11. Vacuum Brazing Diamond Grits with Cu-based or Ni-based Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenchun; Lu, Jinbin; Li, Yang; Xu, Shuai; Zhong, Sujuan; Wang, Bangfu; Qiu, Xinkai

    2017-08-01

    Diamond grits were brazed using Cu-Sn-Cr and Ni-Cr-B-Si filler metals, and the brazed grits were examined for microstructure (SEM, EDS, XRD), microhardness, and compression strength. Results showed that the microstructure of the Cu-based filler metal was uniform and consisted of α-Cu + (α-Cu + δ). Its wettability to the diamond was better than Ni-based filler due to the formation of a thin carbide reaction layer that improved the bond strength between the diamond and steel. The Cu-based filler led to reduced thermal damage to the diamond. The Cr in the filler metal diffused to the steel substrate to form a reaction layer at the filler/steel substrate interface. The microhardness of the Ni filler metal (810-830 HV0.3) was significantly higher than that of Cu filler metal (170-230 HV0.3). The compressive load values of the diamond grits brazed with Cu-based or Ni-based filler metal were 93.7 and 49.2% of the original diamond, and the TI values were 83.7 and 59.8% of the original diamond. Grinding experiments for failure mode in monolayer tools revealed that the tools brazed with Cu-based filler metal had a lower macro-fracture ratio than those brazed using the Ni-based filler.

  12. Optical coherence tomography for image-guided dermal filler injection and biomechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wang, Shang; Yee, Richard W.; Han, Zhaolong; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Dermal fillers are a very popular anti-ag ing treatment with estimated sales in the billions of dollars and millions of procedures performed. As the aging population continues to grow, these figures are only e xpected to increase. Dermal fillers have various compositions depending on their intended applicati on. Reactions to dermal fillers can be severe, such as ischemic events and filler migration to the eyes. Howe ver, these adverse reactions are rare. Nevertheless, the capability to perform imag e-guided filler injections would minimize th e risk of such reacti ons. In addition, the biomechanical properties of various fillers have been evalua ted, but there has been no investigation on the effects of filler on the biomechanical properties of skin. In this work, we utilize optical cohe rence tomography (OCT) for visualizing dermal filler injections with micrometer-scale sp atial resolution. In addition, we utilize noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify the changes in the biomechan ical properties of pig skin after the dermal filler injections. OCT was successfully able to visualize the dermal filler injecti on process, and OCE showed that the viscoelasticity of the pig skin was increased locally at the filler injection sites. OCT may be able to provide real-time image guidance in 3D, and when combined with functional OCT techniques such as optical microangiography, could be used to avoid blood vessels during the injection.

  13. The duration of hyaluronidase and optimal timing of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler reinjection after hyaluronidase injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Kwon, S B; Whang, K U; Lee, J S; Park, Y L; Lee, S Y

    2018-02-01

    Hyaluronidase injection is a commonly performed treatment for overcorrection or misplacement of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler. Many patients often wants the HA filler reinjection after the use of hyaluronidase, though the optimal timing of reinjection of HA filler still remains unknown. To provide the optimal time interval between hyaluronidase injections and HA filler reinjections. 6 Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with single monophasic HA filler. 1 week after injection, the injected sites were treated with hyaluronidase. Then, HA fillers were reinjected sequentially with differing time intervals from 30 minutes to 14 days. 1 hour after the reinjection of the last HA filler, all injection sites were excised for histologic evaluation. 3 hours after reinjection of HA filler, the appearance of filler material became evident again, retaining its shape and volume. 6 hours after reinjection, the filler materials restored almost its original volume and there were no significant differences from the positive control. Our data suggest that the hyaluronidase loses its effect in dermis and subcutaneous tissue within 3-6 hours after the injection and successful engraftment of reinjected HA filler can be accomplished 6 hours after the injection.

  14. Study on a novel Sn-electroplated silver brazing filler metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Peng, Jin; Cui, Datian

    2017-08-01

    Novel Sn-electroplated Ag brazing filler metal with a high tin content was prepared by combining the plating and thermal diffusion method. The BAg45CuZn alloy was used as a base filler metal, and a Sn layer was electroplated on it. Then the H62 brass was brazed with the Sn-plated brazing filler metal containing 6.2 wt% of Sn. The results showed that the microstructure of the brazed joints with the Sn-plated filler mainly consisted of the Ag phase, Cu phase, CuZn phase and Cu5Zn8 phase. The tensile strength of the joints brazed with the Sn-plated filler metal was 326 MPa, which was higher than that of the joints with the base filler metal. Fracture analysis showed that the fractures of the joints brazed by the Sn-plated filler metal was mainly ductile fracture mixed with a small quantity of brittle fracture.

  15. Bifurcated intraarticular long head of biceps tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rare, many anomalous origins of long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT have been reported in the literature. Anatomic variations commonly explained are a third humeral head, anomalous insertion, congenital absence and adherence to the rotator cuff. We report a rare case who underwent shoulder arthroscopy with impingement symptoms where in LHBT was found to be bifurcated with a part attached to superior labrum and the other part to the posterior capsule of joint. Furthermore, intraarticular portion of LHBT was adherent to the undersurface of the supraspinatus tendon. Awareness of such an anatomical aberration during the shoulder arthroscopy is of great importance as it can potentially avoid unnecessary confusion and surgery.

  16. Motor responses to experimental Achilles tendon pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Aaboe, Jens; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    different days separated by 1 week, three-dimensional ground reaction forces, ankle joint kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) of the lower leg muscles were recorded during one-legged full weight-bearing ankle plantar (concentric) and dorsal (eccentric) flexion exercises. Measurements were done...... before, during and after either experimental Achilles tendon pain or a non-painful control condition. Pain was induced by intratendinous injections of hypertonic saline with isotonic saline injections as control. Joint kinematics, ground reaction force frequency contents and average EMG amplitudes were...... calculated. Results Compared with the control condition experimental Achilles tendon pain reduced the EMG activity in agonistic, synergistic and antagonistic muscles, and increased the ground reaction force frequency content around 10 Hz, during both eccentric and concentric movement phases. Conclusions...

  17. [Animal experiment study of healing of the sutured flexor tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, A K; Blimke, B

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether tendons contain intrinsic cells capable of repair. To accomplish this, rabbit flexor tendons were exposed microsurgically, cut through, resutured and transferred as free transplant into the knee-joint. Immobilisation of the knee-joint will cause progressive formation of adhesions permitting neovascularisation of the transplant. Both is not observed when sutured flexor tendons were put in a knee articulation with full range of joint motion. Transmission electron micrography revealed up to 8 weeks after implantation vital cells and incidences of collagen neosynthesis independently whether adhesions existed or not. Histologically intrinsic repair was confirmed in mobile transplants and mainly initiated by cells of the visceral synovial sheet which form an anatomic-surgical unity with the tendon. In conclusion the importance of the synovial fluid for the tendon nutrition is underlined by the fact that an intrinsic healing of flexor tendon is possible without formation of adhesions.

  18. Effect of aging and exercise on the tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene B; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Couppé, Christian

    2016-01-01

    in humans, which likely reflects synthesis at the very periphery of the tendon rather than the core. Average collagen fibril diameter is largely unaffected by exercise, while there can be some hypertrophy of the whole tendon. In addition, it seems that resistance training can yield increased stiffness......Here, we review the literature on how tendons respond and adapt to ageing and exercise. With respect to aging, there are considerable changes early in life, but this seems to be maturation rather than aging per se. In vitro data indicate that aging is associated with a decreased potential for cell...... proliferation and a reduction in the number of stem/progenitor-like cells. Further, there is persuasive evidence that turnover in the core of the tendon after maturity is very slow or absent. Tendon fibril diameter, collagen content, and whole tendon size appear to be largely unchanged with aging, while...

  19. Congenital extensor tendon dislocation causing pseudotriggering of the little finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriç Çırpar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main complaints in extensor tendon dislocations are pain, swelling, sense of discomfort, snapping and difficulty in writing and forceful flexion. However, congenital extensor tendon subluxations may present with triggering of the fingers due to tendon dislocations. Unnecessary A1 pulley release may be performed for pseudotriggerring with unsuccessful results. Here, we report an unusual case of congenital extensor tendon subluxation of multiple digits with triggering of the left little finger and aim to attract notice to pseudotriggering of the digits due to tendon dislocations. An extensor hood reconstruction performed by an extensor digitorum communis tendon slip which is passed beneath the deep intermetacarpal ligament is a successful choice of treatment for these patients.

  20. The Achilles tendon: fundamental properties and mechanisms governing healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Benjamin R.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review highlights recent research on Achilles tendon healing, and comments on the current clinical controversy surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of injury. The processes of Achilles tendon healing, as demonstrated through changes in its structure, composition, and biomechanics, are reviewed. Finally, a review of tendon developmental biology and mechano transductive pathways is completed to recognize recent efforts to augment injured Achilles tendons, and to suggest potential future strategies for therapeutic intervention and functional tissue engineering. Despite an abundance of clinical evidence suggesting that current treatments and rehabilitation strategies for Achilles tendon ruptures are equivocal, significant questions remain to fully elucidate the basic science mechanisms governing Achilles tendon injury, healing, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:25332943

  1. Ca2+activity signatures of myelin sheath formation and growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraban, Marion; Koudelka, Sigrid; Lyons, David A

    2018-01-01

    During myelination, individual oligodendrocytes initially over-produce short myelin sheaths, which are either retracted or stabilized. By live-imaging oligodendrocyte Ca 2+ activity in vivo, we find that high-amplitude, long-duration Ca 2+ transients in sheaths prefigure retractions, mediated by calpain. Following stabilization, myelin sheaths grow along axons, and we find that higher-frequency Ca 2+ transient activity in sheaths precedes faster elongation. Our data implicate local Ca 2+ signaling in regulating distinct stages of myelination.

  2. Biceps femoris tendon injuries sustained while playing hockey

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2011-01-01

    A 42-year-old female nurse presented in March 2008 with a left proximal hamstring tendon injury sustained while playing hockey. At surgery, the proximal biceps femoris tendon and semitendonosus were found to be ruptured and were repaired. The patient made a good recovery but sustained a further hockey injury in January 2010 involving a complete tear and rupture of the biceps femoris tendon distally. This was managed conservatively and the patient was able to return to playing hockey 10 months...

  3. Hamstring Tendon Regeneration After Harvesting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs A M; Reijman, Max; Lodewijks, Susanne J M; Punt, Jorien; Meuffels, Duncan E

    2015-10-01

    Hamstring tendons are often used as autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, no systematic review has been performed describing consequences such as hamstring tendon regeneration rate and determinants of hamstring tendon regeneration. To summarize the current literature regarding hamstring tendon rate regeneration, the time course of regeneration, and determinants of hamstring regeneration. Systematic review. A search was performed in the Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases up to June 2014 to identify relevant articles. A study was eligible if it met the following inclusion criteria: tendons were harvested, regeneration at harvest site was assessed, population size was at least 10 human subjects, full-text article was available, and the study design was either a randomized controlled trial, prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, or case control study. A risk of bias assessment of the eligible articles was determined. Data describing hamstring tendon regeneration rates were pooled per time period. A total of 18 publications met the inclusion criteria. The mean regeneration rate for the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons was, in all cases, 70% or higher. More than 1 year after harvesting, 79% (median [IQR], 80 [75.5-90]) of the semitendinosus tendons and 72% (median [IQR], 80 [61-88.5]) of the gracilis tendons were regenerated. No significant differences in regeneration rate could be found considering patient sex, age, height, weight, or duration of immobilization. Results did not clearly show whether absence of regeneration disadvantages the subsequent hamstring function. Five studies measured the regeneration rate at different moments in time. Hamstring tendons regenerated in the majority of patients after ACL reconstruction. The majority of the hamstring tendon regeneration was found to occur between 1 month and 1 year after harvest. No significant determinants for

  4. Inflammation activation and resolution in human tendon disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dakin, Stephanie G; Martinez, Fernando O; Yapp, Clarence; Wells, Graham; Oppermann, Udo; Dean, Benjamin JF; Smith, Richard DJ; Wheway, Kim; Watkins, Bridget; Roche, Lucy; Carr, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of the role of inflammation in tendon disease is required to facilitate therapeutic target discovery. We studied supraspinatus tendons from patients experiencing pain before and after surgical subacromial decompression treatment. Tendons were classified as having early, intermediate or advanced disease and inflammation was characterized through activation of pathways mediated by Interferon, NF-κB, glucocorticoid receptor and STAT-6. Inflammation signatures revealed expr...

  5. Isolated tear of the plantaris tendon: ultrasound and MRI appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Stefano [CIM, Cabinet Imagerie Medicale, Geneva (Switzerland); Sailly, Matthieu [CIM, Cabinet Imagerie Medicale, Geneva (Switzerland); Health Center, ASPIRE, Doha (Qatar); Molini, Lucio [Ospedale Galliera, Struttura complessa di Radiodiagnostica, Genova (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    We report a retrospective analysis of the ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of five patients with isolated plantaris tendon tears. Both imaging techniques allowed detection of the tear, assessment of its severity and of its location. Compared with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound resulted in a less expensive and time-consuming evaluation. Isolated plantaris tendon tears can clinically mimic Achilles tendon tears or thrombophlebitis. Unlike these conditions, plantaris tear has a benign outcome and does not need surgical treatment or anticoagulation. (orig.)

  6. Use of the semitendinosus tendon for foot and ankle tendon reconstructions,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Lutti Guerra de Aguiar Zink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To demonstrate the results obtained from foot and ankle tendon reconstructions using the tendon of the semitendinosus muscle. The clinical results, the patient's degree of satisfaction and complications in the graft donor and recipient areas were evaluated.Methods:This was a retrospective study in which the medical files of 38 patients who underwent this surgical procedure between 2006 and 2010 were surveyed. The functional results from this technique, the complications in the donor and recipient areas and the patients' degree of satisfaction were evaluated.Results:Three patients presented complications in the recipient area (skin necrosis; one patient showed complications in the donor area (pain and insensitivity; and all patients had satisfactory functional results, with complete range of motion.Conclusion:The semitendinosus muscle is a good option for treatments for foot and ankle tendon injuries.

  7. 30 CFR 15.32 - Tolerances for weight of explosive, sheath, wrapper, and specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., wrapper, and specific gravity. 15.32 Section 15.32 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... explosive, sheath, wrapper, and specific gravity. (a) The weight of the explosive, the sheath, and the outer.... (c) The specific gravity of the explosive and sheath shall be within ±7.5 percent of that specified...

  8. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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