WorldWideScience

Sample records for tender puentes lecciones

  1. Tender puentes: lecciones globales desde México sobre políticas de salud basadas en evidencias Bridging the divide: global lessons from evidence-based health policy in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Frenk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos seis años, México ha llevado a cabo una profunda transformación de su sistema de salud. Este artículo presenta una visión general de las principales características de la experiencia de reforma mexicana. Como resultado del alto grado de desigualdad social, México es un microcosmos de la diversidad de problemas que afectan a los países de todos los niveles de desarrollo. Su sistema de salud no estaba a la altura de las presiones impuestas por la doble carga de enfermedad, en donde la desnutrición, las infecciones comunes y los problemas de salud reproductiva coexisten con las enfermedades no transmisibles y las lesiones. Con la mitad de su población sin acceso al aseguramiento en salud, México enfrentaba una paradoja inaceptable: si bien la salud es un factor clave en la lucha contra la pobreza, un gran número de familias se empobrecía como consecuencia de los gastos para la atención de su salud, incluyendo los medicamentos. La reforma se diseñó para corregir esta paradoja mediante la introducción de un innovador esquema denominado Seguro Popular, a través del cual se protege de manera gradual a 50 millones de mexicanos, la mayoría de ellos pobres, que hasta ahora habían sido excluidos de la seguridad social formal. Este artículo presenta una serie de resultados alentadores para lograr el fin último de la reforma: el acceso universal a servicios de salud de alta calidad con protección social para todos.During the past six years, Mexico has undergone a large-scale transformation of its health system. This paper provides an overview of the main features of the Mexican reform experience. Because of its high degree of social inequality, Mexico is a microcosm of the range of problems that affect countries at all levels of development. Its health system had not kept up with the pressures of the double burden of disease, whereby malnutrition, common infections, and reproductive health problems coexist with non-communicable disease and injury. With half of its population uninsured, Mexico was facing an unacceptable paradox: whereas health is a key factor in the fight against poverty, a large number of families became impoverished by expenditures in health care and drugs. The reform was designed to correct this paradox by introducing a new scheme called Popular Health Insurance (Seguro Popular. This innovative initiative is gradually protecting the 50 million Mexicans, most of them poor, who had until now been excluded from formal social insurance. This paper reports encouraging results in the achievement of the ultimate objective of the reform: universal access to high-quality services with social protection for all.

  2. Puente Richmond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1959-04-01

    Full Text Available El puente Richmond-San Rafael, como todas las obras de gran importancia, ha tenido una larga y meditada gestación antes de pasar del estado de anteproyecto al de ejecución. Su construcción se halla justificada en una imperiosa necesidad de vías de comunicación entre las dos márgenes de la bahía de San Francisco de California, en la zona que separa la población de Richmond de la de San Rafael. El tráfico por transbordadores entre las dos mencionadas márgenes era tan intenso y, a veces, interrumpido por huelgas y otros accidentes, que las colas de vehículos en espera para cruzar la bahía se hacía interminable.

  3. The Puente Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meznek, James; And Others

    The Puente Project is a statewide program that helps Mexican American/Latino community college students in California achieve their academic goals. Puente's goals are to reduce the number of Mexican American/Latino community college students who drop out of school and increase the number who transfer to four-year institutions. To meet these goals,…

  4. Puente de la Muga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torroja, Eduardo

    1962-02-01

    Full Text Available El mismo tipo de puente que el de Tordera puede hacerse con vigas de altura constante, como es el caso de otro puente sobre el río de la Muga. En este, el proyecto preveía el lanzamiento longitudinal de las tres vigas—soldadas entre sí, unas a continuación de las otras—, como una viga continua de tres luces.

  5. Eduardo Torroja. Puentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-05-01

    Full Text Available Con motivo de la conferencia sobre "Puentes modernos", del cursillo para Inspectores y Jefes de la Dirección General de Carreteras, en el Instituto Técnico de la Construcción, el conferenciante, profesor Fernández Casado, comenzó su disertación con la siguiente exposición de la obra de Eduardo Torroja en el ramo de puentes.

  6. El puente Kerisper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breffeil, R.

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta obra, situada en Bretaña (Francia, es una de las distintas que en esta zona se han construido con objeto de salvar los estuarios y reducir las distancias de los trazados de carreteras que siguen el borde del mar. El puente se ha ubicado en el Morbihan, en la desembocadura del río Crach y en las proximidades de Trinité sur Mer, donde el tráfico por carretera aumenta constantemente. La construcción del puente acorta 17 kilómetros la distancia de los 2.500 vehículos por hora que durante el verano circulan por esta carretera de orden nacional.

  7. Puente sobre el Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equipo Editorial

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Para salvar el lago de Maracaibo (Venezuela, el conocido ingeniero italiano Riccaido Morandi ha presentado un proyecto de puente para ferrocarril y carretera, de hormigón pretensado, de tramos independientes, constituyendo un sistema Gerber, que tiene una longitud total de 8.720 m y un vano central de 400 m de luz. Este último tramo, en unión de los dos adyacentes al mismo, constituirán, una vez terminada la obra, un conjunto continuo. El tablero del puente se halla a una altura de 45 m sobre el nivel del agua en la zona del canal, con objeto de permitir la navegación. El tablero, de 20,90 m de anchura total, se ha subdividido en tres partes, dos simétricas respecto al eje, laterales, de 7,20 m de anchura, para la circulación en sentidos opuestos por carretera, una plataforma central, de 5 m de ancho, para el ferrocarril y dos andenes para el paso de peatones y servicios.

  8. Puente de Troulero, Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianadda, L.

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available When it was decided by the local authorities and the Emosson, S. A., electricity firm to build an access road, it became necessary to construct a bridge at Troulero, to go over rocky fill material which covered a mountain side, in a limiting state of unstable equilibrium. The bridge is 140 m long, and rests on oblique reinforced and prestressed concrete supports. The completion of this project has taken three years, and it has cost over 620,000 Swiss Francs.AI ser decretada la construcción de una carretera de acceso por las autoridades cantonales y la dirección de electricidad de Emosson, S. A., fue necesaria la realización de una obra de fábrica —el puente de Troulero— que franquease unos echadizos rocosos en estado de equilibrio límite situados en una ladera. La obra construida, de 140 m de longitud, es un puente con soportes oblicuos de hormigón armado y pretensado. La duración de los trabajos ha sido de tres años, y el coste sobrepasa los 620.000 francos suizos.

  9. Puente Reich, Viena - Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staber, Johann

    1979-11-01

    Full Text Available The Reich Bridge substitutes for another bridge linking the centre and North areas of the city, collapsed on 8th August 1976. The purpose of this bridge is to regulate traffic and lends urban distinction to this city section. The structure is a suspended bridge, some 300 m in span, with two abutments on the banks and two piers for anchoring support. The cross section is a box girder large enough to carry motor traffic and the urban railway line.

    El puente Reich sustituye a otro anterior, derrumbado el 8 de agosto de 1976, que servía de enlace entre el centro y la parte norte de la ciudad de Viena. Debe servir para ordenar el tráfico y para realzar urbanísticamente esta zona de la ciudad. La estructura que presenta es un puente colgante de unos 300 m de luz, con dos estribos en zona de tierra y dos apoyos para los anclajes El perfil es una viga-cajón Vierendel que permite el tráfico automovilístico y el trazado del Metropolitano.

  10. Puente Verrazano-Narrows

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    Ammann, -

    1964-05-01

    embotellamientos. El puente se halla situado entre Brooklyn y Staten Island. La importancia de esta obra, aparte las enormes cantidades de materiales que exige su construcción, consiste en los 1.298 m de luz que tiene su tramo central. Los dos accesos, simétricos, tienen 370 m de luz cada uno. El tablero, suspendido, se compondrá de dos calzadas de seis bandas de circulación cada una, subdivididas en dos direcciones únicas de circulación por medio de un macizo central. Los anclajes y cimientos han alcanzado profundidades de 30 a 50 m en lo que respecta a las pilas. Las torres que soportan los cables de suspensión tienen 210 m de altura respecto al nivel medio del mar. Su armazón metálica, prefabricada, tiene en su interior un complicado laberinto compuesto de miles de células. El tablero, de doble calzada en una segunda fase, se halla suspendido de cuatro cables de 0,90 m de diámetro, con péndolas de 55 mm de diámetro. Para la formación del cable sobre las propias torres de apoyo ha sido necesario instalar una verdadera trefilería, de la cual se acompaña un esquema elocuente por sí mismo. Simultáneamente a la construcción del puente se están realizando una serie de rectificaciones y mejoras en las vías próximas a los accesos, con objeto de encauzar el tráfico que el puente ha de canalizar. Todos estos trabajos, junto con el propio puente, forman un plan general cuyo alcance económico es del orden de 400 millones de dólares. La seguridad del personal que trabaja en esta obra, cuya terminación se confía para 1964, ha sido estudiada y puesta en juego con gran minucia y firmeza.

  11. Puente en Melk, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1974-05-01

    Full Text Available This interesting bridge across the Danube links the central forest zone with the highway Ceste and contributes greatly to facilitate the intense traffic of this region. It has a total length of 818 m, distributed in nine spans: the two central ones over the river are 190 m each with box girders. A great many problems have bean solved successfully regarding the various foundations, slender beams, processes of concreting, the temperature of concrete, and the most adequate design and realisation all of which makes this work one of the most important ones that have been constructed in Austria during recent years.Este interesante puente sobre el Danubio enlaza la zona boscosa central con la autopista Oeste y contribuye grandemente a aligerar el denso tráfico de esta zona. Tiene una longitud total de 818 m, distribuidos en nueve tramos; los dos centrales, sobre el río, alcanzan los 190 m cada uno, con vigas de cajón. Se han resuelto acertadamente numerosos problemas, relacionados con las variadas cimentaciones adoptadas, esbeltez de canto en las vigas, procesos de hormigonado, temperatura del hormigón y el cálculo y ejecución más adecuados; todo lo cual hace de esta obra una de las más importantes que se han realizado en Austria durante los últimos años.

  12. Puente, en Hagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoht, H.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available The bridge at Hagen-Eskesy, in Germany, was destroyed during the last war, and its reconstruction is part of a local improvement plan. The initial bridge was metallic, but it has now been decided to build a main tied arch, consisting of a box section arch, of 93 m span, and two lateral spans, each 33 m long. These two are open girders, whose top and bottom chords are also hollow box sections. Both the tie members and the main bridging structures are prestressed. The twin arches, from which the deck hangs, are independent. This has made it necessary to attach the arches very rigidly to the stabilising structure, to withstand the powerful effect of the wind forces. Owing to the large dimensions, the possible effect of torsion and buckling under the prestressing forces had to be carefully considered. The twin arches are 12.90 m from each other, and their section is 1.2x1.2 m at the springers, 2x2 m at the quarter span, and 2.4x1.7 at the crown. During the loading and overloading tests, oscilographs were used, to record the effect of mobile loads, and of the increasing overloads. To simulate the effect of running over uneven surfaces, timber beams were placed across the pavement, and loaded vehicles were made to run over them.El puente de Hagen-Eckesey (Alemania fue destruido durante la última guerra mundial, y su reconstrucción ha sido incluida en un plan local de mejoras. El proyecto inicial era metálico, pero razones importantes aconsejaron la solución en arco atirantado, con vigas-cajón como elementos de rigidez en un tramo central de 93 m de luz, y dos tramos laterales, de 33 m de luz, con estructuras aporticadas cuyos cabezales son también vigas huecas tipo cajón. Tanto los tirantes como las piezas de puente son pretensados. Los dos arcos, de los que está suspendido el tablero, son independientes, lo que ha exigido una solidarización con las vigas de rigidez para transmitir los efectos de un viento normal a los soportes y de éstos al

  13. Puente Öland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanska Cementgjüteriet, Empresa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The Öland bridge spans across the Kalmar strait, reaching from Möllstorpslage, on the island of Öland, to the island of N. Skallö; from here to the island of Svinö and then to Jutnabben, on the Swedish peninsula. It has 155 spans out of which 147 are small spans, two medium and six central, each one of them 130 m, with a total length of 6.070 m. The high arches have been constructed by the system of successive corbels and the low ones with a launching of big beams of reinforced concrete. Foundations on columns or poured on site in pneumatic emptied boxes, depending on the cases and piers of reinforced concrete, constructed by means of sliding formwork. The Construction Firm has been Skanska Cementgjuteriet, on account of the Government Administration.El puente de Öland salva el estrecho de Kalmar, partiendo de Möllstorpslage, en la isla de Öland, hasta la isla de N. Skallö; de aquí a la de Svinö y desde ésta hasta Jutnabben, en la península sueca. Tiene 155 vanos: 147 de luces pequeñas, 2 de luces medianas y 6 centrales, de 130 m cada una, con una longitud total de 6.070 m. Los arcos denominados altos se han realizado por el sistema de voladizos sucesivos, y los bajos, mediante lanzamiento de grandes vigas de hormigón armado. Cimientos sobre pilotes o vertidos in situ, en cajones vaciados neumáticamente, según los casos, y pilas de hormigón armado, construidas con auxilio de encofrados deslizantes. La Empresa constructora ha sido Skanska Cementgjuteriet, por cuenta de la Administración del Estado.

  14. PUENTE Project: The Mentor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestas-Flores, Margarita; Chavez, Mauro

    This manual was developed for individuals serving as mentors in Evergreen Valley College's PUENTE Project, a program which integrates the skills of an English teacher, a Hispanic counselor, and Hispanic professionals/mentors into a team structure in an attempt to assist Hispanic students in making academic improvements, to build self-confidence,…

  15. Evaluacion de las leyes: lecciones de la criminologia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubio, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    .... De la criminologia, una disciplina auxiliar del derecho penal, se pueden obtener valiosas lecciones practicas, teoricas y normativas, por ejemplo, en su manera de abordar el tema de la recoleccion de informacion...

  16. Puente Cañas

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sáenz

    2017-01-01

    En la carretera de Trinidad a Cienfuegos, provincia de Las Villas (Cuba), se ha construido un puente isostático sobre el río Cañas, de hormigón pretensado, de tres tramos, cuya sección transversal es celular de tres tabiques formando un doble cajón. Los dos tramos laterales o accesos al central, de 15,5 m de luz cada uno, se han construido en voladizo respecto a los dos apoyos centrales. El tramo central salva un vano de 76 m.

  17. Puente Cañas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sáenz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available En la carretera de Trinidad a Cienfuegos, provincia de Las Villas (Cuba, se ha construido un puente isostático sobre el río Cañas, de hormigón pretensado, de tres tramos, cuya sección transversal es celular de tres tabiques formando un doble cajón. Los dos tramos laterales o accesos al central, de 15,5 m de luz cada uno, se han construido en voladizo respecto a los dos apoyos centrales. El tramo central salva un vano de 76 m.

  18. Puente sobre el Boven Merwede

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available Con objeto de mejorar las comunicaciones por carretera entre el norte de Holanda y el puerto belga de Amberes, ya se había proyectado un nuevo trazado que suprimía muchos pasos a través de ciudades y los transbordadores que cruzaban el Boven-Merwede en las proximidades de Gorinchem. Empezada la construcción de los estribos del puente que debía suprimir los transbordadores, sobrevino la última guerra mundial y paralizó estas importantes obras.

  19. Tendiendo puentes : Antecedentes y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Planas, Javier

    2010-01-01

    En el presente informe se describen las actividades concretadas en el marco del programa de extensión universitaria Tendiendo Puentes. En lo fundamental, este programa procura la integración regional de las ciudades fronterizas de Monte Caseros (Argentina), Bella Unión (Uruguay) y Barra do Quaraí (Brasil) a través de la realización de actividades educativas y culturales tendientes a la recuperación de la historia de estos pueblos. Para lograr tal fin, se ha dispuesto un cronograma de cursos y...

  20. Puente del Pedrido, tramo central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torroja, Eduardo

    1962-02-01

    Full Text Available Planteada la necesidad de proceder a la ejecución del tramo central del puente en el Pasaje del Pedrido sobre la ría de Betanzos, y encontrándonos con que las armaduras para el mismo, que ya estaban acopiadas a pie de obra antes de la guerra, estaban totalmente no tuvimos inconveniente, puesto que habían de adquirirse de nuevo, en introducir algunas ligeras modificaciones sobre el proyecto anterior, a fin de reducir en lo posible el coste de la obra.

  1. El Puente de Piedra de Grecia: ¿un arco o un puente natural?

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Rolando

    2011-01-01

    El Puente de Piedra se ha formado por la remoción natural y selectiva de las rocas volcánicas quelo forman, es decir, es el resultado de la manifestación de procesos erosivos. Esta estructura natural puede con-siderarse como un arco natural o como un puente natural. Su base presenta el efecto de incremento de resistencia por compresión. El Puente de Piedra se ha clasificado, taxonómicamente, como un Puente Natural Meándrico de acuerdo con sus atributos.  The natural and selective erosion o...

  2. El puente Europa en Innsbruck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available To link up the Central Europe and the Southern Europe road system across the Alps, a road bridge has been recently built, which runs 190 m above the bottom of the valley of the Sill river. This structure has been named the Europa Bridge. The Brenner Pass is very suitable for winter traffic by road, in spite of its height of 1370 m above sea level. The bridge deck consists of a metallic box girder. The total length of 657 ms has been divided into six spans. Three of them are 91 m long, two are 108 m long, and the central span is 198 m long. The main features of this bridge are its supports, which rise to a height far above anything so far previously attempted. The highest pile is 160 m long, from the ground to the deck. The piles are hollow inside, and have been internally divided by means of two partitions, which extend throughout the total height. Horizontal thrust is allowed for by a series of horizontal diaphragms, spaced every 20 m. Due to the accumulation, on the surface of the valley, of thick layers of surface soil carried down by the river, the foundations have had to be established at a great depth. The piles have been built with the aid of sliding formwork. The design and erection of the bridge has been done by the Vereinigte Osterreichische Eisen un Stahlwerke, AG., and the work was directed by Ing. Dipl. Josef Gruber.Para unir la red viaria de Europa Central con el Sur del Continente a través del Paso del Brenner, en los Alpes austro-italianos, se ha construido recientemente un puente para carretera—con una altura de 190 m sobre el fondo del valle del río Sill—denominado Puente de Europa. El paso trasalpino del Brenner presenta condiciones muy favorables para la circulación por carretera en invierno, a pesar de sus 1.370 m de altitud. El tablero está constituido por una viga, cajón metálica. Los 657 m de longitud total del puente propiamente dicho se han subdividido en seis tramos: tres de 81, dos de 108 y uno central de

  3. El Puente Llacolén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Muñoz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El principal proyecto de Puente urbano en los últimos años en el país corresponde al nuevo puente sobre el río Bío-Bío para unir el centro de la ciudad de Concepción con la nueva comuna de San Pedro de la Paz. Proyecto realizado enteramente con fondos sectoriales con un monto aproximado de US $ 60.000.000.

  4. Puente sobre el rio Lay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1959-11-01

    Full Text Available El puente sobre el río Lay, salva el río formando un ángulo de 69° con la dirección de éste. Situado en el término municipal de la Reorthe (Francia, sus características principales se concentran en sus tres vigas pretensadas, de 30 m de longitud, prefabricadas, siguiendo los procedimientos Preyssinet, proyectadas por la Société Technique pour l'Utilisation de la Précontrainte, que también se encargó de la redacción del proyecto general de ejecución, cuya realización se encomendó a la empresa constructora Dodin, y de los métodos empleados para la colocación de las vigas en obra.

  5. The beef tenderness model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kedibone KY. Modika

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Frylinck, L., Van Wyk, G.L., Smith, T.P.L., Strydom, P.E., Van Marle-Köster, E., Webb, E.C., Koohmaraie, M. & Smith, M.F., 2009. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle. Meat Sci. 83, 657-665. Geesink, G.H. & Koohmaraie ...

  6. Puente sobre el rio Medway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman, Fox, Ingenieros

    1963-02-01

    have been prestressed both longitudinally and transversally. Between the two circulation roadways an elastic barrier has been placed, supported on metal posts.El puente sobre el río Medway tiene la misión de salvar dicho río en el nuevo trazado de carretera necesario para aliviar el denso tráfico estival entre Dower y Londres. Está situado en las proximidades de la ciudad de Rochester. La estructura se ha construido utilizando las vías de concurso. De todos los tipos presentados se eligió una estructura de hormigón armado. La longitud total de la obra es de 1.000 m. Los tres tramos principales de la obra salvan el río. El central es de 152 m de luz, y los dos adyacentes son de 103 m cada uno. Los accesos tienen un total de 18 tramos, que arrojan una longitud de 654 m. La anchura del puente es de 34 m, y la calzada se ha subdividido en dos direcciones de tráfico de 7,30 m cada una y, además, se han dejado dos espaldones laterales de 2,40 m de anchura. En planta se puede admitir que el puente tiene una alineación recta con una ligerísima curva, y que en el plano vertical presenta una pendiente de desagüe entre las pilas 9 y 10. Los estribos son de hormigón armado: tipo celular el del este y de hormigón en masa el del oeste. Los estribos se apoyan sobre pilotes hexagonales de hormigón armado cuya circunferencia circunscrita tiene 55 cm de radio y de 12 a 20 m de longitud. Cuando el firme se hallaba a profundidades inferiores a 6 m, los estribos se cimentaban directamente sobre el firme. Las pilas constituyen pórtico y tienen una altura variable de 9 a 30 m sobre el nivel del suelo. Los tramos de acceso forman una estructura continua simplemente apoyada. Cada tramo se compone de ocho vigas longitudinales de 30 a 41 m de longitud y de 190 toneladas cada una. Estas vigas son del tipo pretensado y prefabricado. El tramo central es del tipo cantilever, constituido por dos brazos, de 30 m de longitud, formados por vigas cajón. Cada una de estas vigas consta

  7. Puente de Niesenbach Linz - Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the works carried out by the firm Mayreder Kraus & Co. to construct the bridge in question across the gorge of the same name. It consists of 30 m straight side spans and one 120 m central span accomplished by means of the system of successive corbels uniting 6 m members with the aid of a cable way. The 18.80 m wide deck rests upon two twin arches of prestressed concrete with the help of five pairs of vertical pillars of reinforced concrete.En este artículo se describen las obras realizadas por la firma Mayreder Kraus & Co. para la construcción del puente citado, sobre el barranco de! mismo nombre, tendido sobre tramos laterales rectos de 30 m de luz y uno central, en arco, de 120 m, llevado a cabo por el procedimiento de voladizos sucesivos, uniendo trozos de 6 m con el auxilio de una grúa-cable. El tablero, de 17,80 m de anchura, se apoya sobre dos arcos gemelos, de hormigón pretensado, mediante cinco pares de pilares verticales de hormigón armado.

  8. El puente Woodrow Wilson Memorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The project for the new bridge over the Potomac river, which is 1,800 m long, and will be situated within the metropolitan zone of Washington had to be approved by the Arts Commission of the local council, which is responsible for the aesthetic quality of all new urban developments. This important bridge consists of multiple short span arches and a drawbridge span, over the navigable canal. The wide deck, carrying altogether six lanes of traffic, is supported on groups of four cylindrical posts, of reinforced concrete. Each of these posts rests on a number of fairly deeply driven prestressed concrete piles. The position of each of these was fixed by means of a timber guide, which mutually related the position of the various piles. After driving in all the piles, a concrete slab was constructed on top of them, which in turn supports the palissade of four posts. The whole operation was carried out within cofferdams built with sheetpiling. The construction of the deck was a straightforward operation, and only the drawbridge, supported on four hinges, involved certain difficulties owing to the need that these hinges be perfectly aligned at all times.El proyecto de ejecución del nuevo puente sobre el río Potomac, de 1.800 m de longitud total, en la zona metropolitana de Washington (Estados Unidos, ha necesitado la aprobación de la Comisión de Bellas Artes, encargada de velar por la armonía general del paisaje circundante. Esta importante obra, de tramos múltiples, de reducidas luces, presenta la particularidad de un tramo levadizo, que salva el canal navegable y rompe la continuidad entre los otros tramos adyacentes. Las pilas que soportan la amplia calzada —de seis bandas agrupadas en dos direcciones únicas de circulación—, son del tipo de cuatro montantes cilíndricos, de hormigón, y en forma de palizada. Cada una de las pilas descansa sobre una serie de pilotes, bastante profundos, de hormigón pretensado. La hinca de pilotes se

  9. Puente sobre el Oosterschelde, Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoving, H. T.

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available This new bridge, forming part of the Delta project, is made of concrete, and was built by successive overhangs. Precast units were mainly used. The bridge is 5,000 m long, and is 11.85 m wide. The main spans are 95 m in length, except one, which can be opened up to sea traffic, which is 40 m long. The free height of the bridge over the sea is 15 m, which is insufficient for large ships. This required that one of the spans, in deep water, should open up, on hinges, and provide free passage to large ships. The intermediate bridge supports are of special interest. They rest on piles which go down to 38 m. They are hollow, cylindrical, of 4.35 m external diameter, and are driven into the ground in several stages, as they penetrate through the sands at the bottom of the Oosterschelde. To drive them in, an excavating device, inside the pile, was utilised, and also a dredging and suction mechanism, to clean out the bottom, and allow the piles to sink by gravity. But when external friction did not allow this to happen, the piles were weighed down with up to 500 tons of ballast. A series of three of these piles, in a row, makes up each bridge support. A cross member over the pile heads supports, in turn, the bridge deck. The bridge was built in successive sections, overhanging from each support, and then finally connected with a central portion. Use of precast units has been very extensive, so that the bridge can be justiaflably regarded as being prefabricated.Este nuevo puente, que forma parte del Plan de obras denominadas del Delta, es de hormigón y se ha construido por el procedimiento de voladizos sucesivos, utilizando, en su mayor parte, elementos prefabricados. Tiene una longitud total de 5.000 m; una anchura de 11,85 m; tramos principales de 95 m de luz, salvo uno, levadizo, que tiene 40 m. La altura libre sobre las ag^uas del mar es de 15 m, que es insuficiente para las naves de gran tonelaje; esto exigió que uno de sus tramos, en aguas

  10. Puente sobre el Rhin – Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bänziger, D. J.

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available In the brief period of two months a new bridge over the Rhine has been constructed to substitute one which collapsed on August 1970, because of the undermining of one of its pillars. On November 28 1970 the new bridge was opened to the traffic, including trucks of up to 3.5 Kp, and on December 7th of the same year vehicles of up to 26 Kp could use it. In the construction of this bridge, for the first time, use has been made of cylindrical, prefabricated, precast thin shells. This project is of special significance because of its operational importance, since it connects Lichtenstein and Switzerland; the exceptionally short time of its construction; and the new type of deck used.Para sustituir un puente sobre el Rhin, hundido el 14 de agosto de 1970 por socavación de uno de sus pilares, se ha construido un nuevo puente en el escaso plazo de dos meses. El 28 de noviembre de 1970, este nuevo puente se abrió al tráfico de vehículos de hasta 3,5 Mp, y el 7 de diciembre del mismo año, a los vehículos de hasta 26 Mp. En la construcción de este puente se han utilizado, por vez primera, láminas cilíndricas de cubierta, prefabricadas y pretensadas. La importancia del puente, que sirve para el enlace entre el Principado de Liechtenstein y Suiza, el nuevo tipo de tablero utilizado, así como el plazo de construcción, extraordinariamente breve, dan un interés especial a esta obra.

  11. El puente de Etxola-erreka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercedes Urteaga

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre el límite municipal entre Hernani y Urnieta (Guipúzcoa, se conserva un puente de extraordinarias características. Construído en piedra arenisca y de un sólo arco, destaca, además, por su situación en una zona natural recóndita y de gran belleza. En las cercanías, se ha descubierto una galería de mina con indicios de haber sido abierta en época romana. Por ésta y otras razones que explicaremos, creemos que el puente de Etxola-Erreka puede incluirse entre el patrimonio arqueológico de época romana.

  12. El puente de Etxola-erreka.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mercedes Urteaga

    1989-01-01

    Sobre el límite municipal entre Hernani y Urnieta (Guipúzcoa), se conserva un puente de extraordinarias características. Construído en piedra arenisca y de un sólo arco, destaca, además, por su situación en una zona natural recóndita y de gran belleza. En las cercanías, se ha descubierto una galería de mina con indicios de haber sido abierta en época romana. Por ésta y otras razones que explicaremos, creemos que el puente de Etxola-Erreka puede incluirse entre el patrimonio arqueológico de ép...

  13. El puente romano de Colloto (Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente RODRÍGUEZ OTERO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se estudian 7 monedas (siglos IV - V del "tesorillo" recuperado en el puente durante la Guerra Civil de 1936, confirmando la factura romana de la fábrica apuntada por la tradición y afirmada tipológicamente por la bibliografía (época republicana - principios del siglo I. Se describe el puente y, al estudiarlo tipológicamente, se observa que la tipología al uso no es aplicable, tal como está estructurada, a todos los puentes de fábrica romana. Asimismo se observa que la metrología y la modulación no sirven como elementos de autentificación cronológica por ser la primera una técnica poco rigurosa. Por último, se contextualiza históricamente el puente y se sientan las bases de su cronología.RÉSUMÉ: On étudie sept monnaies (siécles IV - V du "petit trésor" recuperé dans le pont pendant la Guerre Civile de 1936, confirmant la facture romaine de la fabrique esquissée par la tradition et typologiquement certifiée par la bibliographie (époque républicaine - debut du Ier siécle. On décrit le pont et, lors de son étude typologique, on remarque que la typologie en usage n'est pas appiicable, telle qu'elle est structurée, á tous les ponts de fabrique romaine. On observe aussi que la métrologie et la modulation ne sont pas valables en tant qu'éléments d'authentification chronologique, étant donné que la premiére technique est peu rigoureuse. En dernier lieu, on contextualise historiquement le pont et on établit les bases de sa chronologie.

  14. Puente sobre el Rin Dusseldorf, Alemania Federal

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    Modemann, H. J.

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available The bridge over the Rhine, in Dusseldorf- Flehe — one of whose most important jobs is to alleviate traffic from the other bridges in the town of Dusseldorf — consists of three clearly diferentiated parts: — a metal part 368 m. in length; — another in prestressed concrete, 780 m. long, and — an A-shape pylon, acting as element joining both. This bridge has the span clearance record in West Germany, and its metal part constitutes the longest corbel in the world.

    El puente sobre el Rin, en Düsseldorf- Flehe —una de cuyas funciones más Importantes es la de aliviar el tráfico a los demás puentes existentes en la ciudad de Dusseldorf—, consta de tres partes claramente diferenciadas: — una metálica de 368 m de longitud; — otra de hormigón pretensado de 780 m de largo, y — un pilono, en forma de A, que sirve como elemento de unión entre ambas. Este puente ostenta el récord de luz libre en la República Federal Alemana, y su parte metálica constituye el voladizo de mayor longitud del mundo.

  15. Aguas arriba del puente de Segovia: puentes del Manzanares en el Distrito de Moncloa-Aravaca

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Perellon, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    Una de las invariantes de los viajeros extranjeros e ilustres escritores del siglo XVII es la serie de burlas con que motejaron al aprendiz de río. Ésta, al menos, la menos cruel de cuantas le dedicaron en multitud de poemas y textos. Veta también inacabable, pareja con la anterior, fue la crítica a las desmesuradas fábricas de los puentes, como la magistral que le dedica Luis de Góngora en su Señora doña puente segoviana / cuyos ojos están llorando arena. Unos y otros, viajeros y escritores,...

  16. Puente Río Colorado - Costa Rica

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    Kulka, F.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado River bridge is located in a 95 m deep canyon, with a 122 m span. To choose the type of bridge, it has been endeavoured to use the largest possible number of national building materials which, together with the difficulty of reaching the site, meant that a series of classical solutions had to be rejected. That of an arch bridge was adopted, with a reversed support on prestressed cables, on which the road passes. The system is based on the hanging bridge principle, but with the rolling track resting on the cables, instead of hanging from them. There is a first cover, made up of prefabricated components, on the cables, which strengthens the bridge's stability. This cover supports three portal-columns, the pillars of the final roadway. The cables were prestressed from the heads of the two sloping pillars. The two side spans were designed with prefabricated T girders.El puente Río Colorado está situado en un cañón de 95 m de profundidad, salvando una luz de 122 m. Para la elección del tipo de puente se ha procurado emplear el mayor número posible de materiales de construcción nacionales, lo que, unido a la dificultad de acceso a la obra, hizo que se rechazaran una serie de soluciones clásicas. Se adoptó la de un puente-arco con un soporte invertido sobre cables pretensados, encima del cual descansa la calzada. El sistema está basado en los principios del puente colgante, pero apoyando el camino de rodadura en los cables, en lugar de colgarlo de ellos. Sobre los cables existe una primera cubierta, integrada por elementos prefabricados, que refuerza la estabilidad del puente. Esta cubierta soporta tres pórticos-columna, pilares de la calzada definitiva. El pretensado de los cables se realizó desde las cabezas de dos pilares inclinados. Los dos vanos laterales se proyectaron con vigas en T prefabricadas.

  17. [Puente Project Students' Performance.] Report on Spring 1988 Sabbatical Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo, Marcelino

    A study was undertaken to examine the performance of Puente Project students compared to that of Mexican-American students and Anglo-American students in community colleges. Surveys and interviews with Puente counselors were conducted to explore methods and techniques used to deal with potential dropouts. A comparison was made of the number of…

  18. Student Success in College Composition through the Puente Project Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Barbara

    Much can be learned from California's Puente Project Model that would help students' success in classrooms as well as in college in general, and in their daily lives. Puente, which means "bridge" in Spanish, began in 1982 at Chabot College in northern California and is now in 38 colleges and 19 high schools statewide. Originally designed…

  19. Historia del Puente en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available Como indicábamos en el artículo «Puente de Alcántara», aparecido en el n.º 312 de esta Revista, con estos apéndices damos definitivamente por terminada la edición de la «Historia del Puente en España».

  20. Puente Aranda de Bogotá-Colombia

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    Jorge Eduardo Pachón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo la caracterización química del material particulado menor a 10 micrómetros (PM10 recolectado en la Localidad de Puente Aranda de Bogotá. Durante el período de estudio (junio de 2005 a junio de 2006 se recolectaron 75 muestras de PM10 en diferentes condiciones climáticas en tres puntos de monitoreo, dos en la zona industrial y el tercero en una zona remota. Se incluyen en el estudio los días del paro de transportes que tuvo lugar en la ciudad en el 2006. Se determinó la presencia de cadmio, cobre, cromo, plata, hierro, plomo, manganeso, cinc y níquel. Las concentraciones promedio diarias de PM10 en Puente Aranda se encontraron entre 65 y 100 µg/m3, mientras que para el norte de la ciudad variaban entre 20 y 30 µg/m3. Los principales metales encontrados en la zona industrial fueron Fe y Pb, con concentraciones hasta de 4.000 ng/m3. El grupo de metales Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Mn presentaron un rango medio de concentración (50 a 700 ng/m3 en Puente Aranda, <100 ng/m3 en el norte de la ciudad. Los metales con las menores concentraciones en la atmósfera fueron Cd y Ag. A partir del analisis de material particulado y metales pesados se realizó una aproximación al aporte de las fuentes de emisión.

  1. Varios puentes de Berlín

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    Heusel, Hanns

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available The last war destroyed a large number of civil works, among which were the Berlin bridges. As the number of these was considerable, it was decided to improve on the original designs and methods of construction, taking advantage of new materials and prestressing techniques. Of the 84 reconstructed bridges, 24 of them have been made in prestressed concrete. This emphasizes what considerable importance was attached to this constructional method at a time when this technology had not yet reached its present day mature development. The rebuilt bridges have spans varying between 25 and 100 ms. Their foundations differ considerably in each particular case. Some consist of pile structures, others are of sheet piling, and others again are caissons. At present the most important prestressed bridge in Berlin is the Disching bridge, which runs over the Havel, and carries the road to Spandau. Its single span is 94 ms long, and the ratio of rise to span is 1/63.1.La última guerra mundial destruyó una serie de obras públicas, entre las cuales se hallaban muchos puentes de Berlín. Como el número de puentes destruidos es considerable, se pensó en mejorar las obras originales y los métodos de construcción, para lo cual se contaban con nuevos materiales y la técnica del pretensado, actualmente en estado de madurez. De las 84 obras que se han reconstruido, 24 son de hormigón pretensado. Esto pone de relieve la importancia que se le dio a este sistema en aquellos momentos en que la técnica de este tipo de construcciones no había alcanzado todavía el actual desarrollo. Los puentes reconstruidos tienen luces que varían de 25 a 100 metros. Los cimientos de estas obras son muy distintos y variados: unos están formados por tablestacas, otros se apoyan sobre pilotes y, finalmente, otros, constituidos por cajones. El puente pretensado más importante actualmente en Berlín es el de Disching, que salva el río Havel y cuyo objeto es el de dar paso a la

  2. Lecciones de introducción al Derecho Civil

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Soto, Carlos Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Contiene 16 lecciones: 1.-Introducción al Derecho 2.-Las fuentes del Derecho 3.-Aplicación y eficacia de las normas jurídicas 4.-El Derecho subjetivo 5.-La persona como sujeto del Derecho 6.-Las cosas y los bienes como objeto del Derecho 7.-El derecho de crédito u obligación (I) 8.-El derecho de crédito u obligación (II) 9.-El contrato: teoría general 10.-Los contratos en particular (I) 11.-Los contratos en particular (II) 12.-La responsabilidad civil 13...

  3. Sociología Ambiental: 5 lecciones virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    5 LECCIONES EN SOCIOLOGÍA AMBIENTAL: TEMA 1. La crisis socioambiental y su interpretación sociológica; TEMA 2. Ecoutopías: movimentos y pensamientos ecologistas; TEMA 3.- Desastres socioambientales; TEMA 4.- Megaproyectos: análisis impactos socioambientales; TEMA 5.- Globalización y Medio Ambiente. Cada lección desarrolla un tema principal del corpus teórico de la sociologia ambiental contemporánea. Contienen los materiales y links necesários para su seguimiento por parte del lector. Los tema...

  4. Puente Alnö – Suecia

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available This bridge that joins the island of Alnô with the peninsula near the port of Sundsvall In the north of Sweden is one of the many of prestressed concrete that have been constructed lately all over the world with the system of successive corbels. Until recently it was the longest bridge in the country and distinguishes itself by the elegance and slenderness of its longer arches and by the deep foundation system used to construct the four central bridge piers. It has been planned and constructed by Skanska Cementgjuteriet, a firm that is specializing in this type of structure.Este puente, que une la isla de Alno con la península, cerca del puerto de Sundsvall, en el norte de Suecia, es uno de los muchos de hormigón pretensado que se han construido últimamente en todo el mundo por el sistema de voladizos sucesivos. Hasta hace poco era el puente más largo del país y destaca por la elegancia y esbeltez de sus arcos más largos y por el sistema de cimentación profunda empleado para construir las cuatro pilas centrales. Ha sido proyectado y construido por Skanska Cementgjuteriet, empresa que se ha especializado en este tipo de estructura.

  5. Albert O. Hirschman y la economia del desarrollo: lecciones para el presente

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jimena Hurtado

    2014-01-01

    ..., después de explorar su punto de vista, presenta las posibles lecciones de Hirschman a la economía del desarrollo actual, en general, y al método de experimentos sociales controlados, en particular.

  6. Lecciones de la gran depresion para la recuperacion economica en 2009

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romer, Christina D

    2009-01-01

    Este articulo compara la Gran Depresion de los anos treinta con la actual crisis mundial y presenta algunas lecciones utiles para el diseno de politicas que permitan superar la crisis y comenzar una recuperacion firme...

  7. Puente Clifton. Puente pretensado sobre el río Trent. Nottingham

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    Finch, R. M.

    1959-04-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo puente de Clifton obedece a la necesidad que hace mucho tiempo se hacía sentir de un paso complementario sobre el río Trent en las proximidades de Nottingham. La gran densidad del tráfico que debía hacer frente al paso sobre el río, motivando embotellamientos de vehículos, ha sido la causa que ha precipitado la realización de este proyecto. El nuevo puente viene a remediar estos inconvenientes. Esta obra forma parte de un plan general de arterias de circulación provistas de dos calzadas; pero la urgencia del paso, ha sido la causa determinante de su realización independientemente del referido proyecto de carreteras.

  8. Todos los puentes El puente. Una Colección en tres épocas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Gerhardt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The collection El Puente of the publishing house Edhasa was developed in three stages: the first one, by Guillermo de Torre initiative and under his direction in the period 1963-1968, the second one, directed by Félix Grande and the name of El Puente Literario between the year 1970 and 1971; and the third one and, for the present time, last, whose volumes were published in the lapse of the years 2001 to 2004. The article takes a look at the history of the collection in three stages and describes their catalogs, with particular attention to the first stage, its history and its role in receiving the literature of exile in Spain during the Franco regimeLa colección El Puente de la editorial Edhasa se desarrolló en tres etapas: la primera, por iniciativa de Guillermo de Torre y bajo su dirección, en el periodo 1963-1968; la segunda, dirigida por Félix Grande y con la denominación de El Puente Literario, entre los años 1970 y 1971; y la tercera y, por el momento, última, cuyos volúmenes fueron publicados en el lapso de los años 2001 a 2004. El artículo realiza un recorrido por la historia de la colección en sus tres etapas y describe sus respectivos catálogos, deteniéndose especialmente en la primera etapa, sus antecedentes y su papel en la recepción de la literatura del exilio en España, durante el régimen franquista

  9. House Types in La Puente: A Student Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakey, Steve

    1984-01-01

    Students in an honors urban class collected architectural data on all residential buildings constructed prior to 1950 in the city of La Puente, California and made recommendations regarding the preservation of certain structures. The project is described. (RM)

  10. Contribution of muscle proteinases to meat tenderization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S T

    1998-07-01

    The exact mechanisms involved in the postmortem meat tenderization process and the nature of changes associated with improvement in tenderness are complex and not fully understood. Based on the relevant evidence thus far obtained, the focus of this review is on clarifying the factors affecting meat tenderness, particularly the toughening and tenderness phases, possible endogenous proteinases involved in meat tenderization and how these proteinases contribute to meat tenderization. Of the different biochemical and ultrastructural changes occurring in the meat tenderization process, myofibril disruption at the Z-disk and contractile proteins are discussed in detail. This myofibril disruption can perhaps be ascribed to the synergistic action of calcium-dependent proteinases (both mu- and m-calpains) and lysosomal proteinases, especially the cathepsins B and L.

  11. Bambú Guadua en puentes peatonales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Carmiol Umaña

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se habla de puentes peatonales en bambú es conveniente estudiar de cerca las últimas obras que se producen en Colombia. Estas innovadoras construcciones no solo permiten cruzar ríos y carreteras sino que muestran la competitividad de este material en la ingeniería ecológica (Figura N.°1. La propagación de este tipo de construcciones por todo el país denota que la Guadua ya forma parte de la cultura colombiana y de un estilo fresco y propio que ha dejado de relacionarse solo con pobreza o construcciones de interés social. Además, se deja en evidencia que este material es una opción perfectamente viable para un país que, como el nuestro, está expuesto a avalanchas, inundaciones y sismos. A pesar de que en un principio los puentes peatonales se construyeron para acortar distancias y superar barreras naturales, en las últimas décadas también se han convertido en una necesidad para la seguridad del transeúnte que está inmerso en un desmedido crecimiento urbano. Sin embargo, y aunque existan diferentes alternativas para responder al mismo problema, casi todas ellas se posponen porque comúnmente requieren de inversiones a nivel estatal. Este artículo trata de una técnica constructiva que proviene inicialmente de los indígenas suramericanos. A pesar de que estuvo olvidada por varias generaciones, esta técnica, ahora renovada, trae consigo múltiples beneficios. La inyección de concreto en los entrenudos del bambú permite desarrollar obras más acordes a las exigencias actuales, puentes con luces más amplias y, sobre todo, construcciones de bajo impacto, accesibles a los recursos económicos de pequeñas comunidades o empresas privadas.

  12. Puente de hormigón pretensado, Caracas

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    Johannson, Johannes

    1960-03-01

    Full Text Available El puente Portachuelo, situado en el helicoide de la Roca Tarpeya (Caracas, es una estructura de hormigón pretensado en forma de pórtico espacial. En los estudios preliminares, con objeto de encontrar un sistema adecuado para el puente en curva se investigó primeramente el sistema de Dischinger, en el cual la columna del pórtico se descompone en un elemento de compresión y un tirante.

  13. Puente Llacolén-Concepción

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    Alfredo Palacios Barra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El Puente Llacolén, constituye el principal viaducto urbano de los últimos años en el país. Con una inversión de US$ 60.000.000, el proyecto se realizó totalmente con fondo sectoriales, a través de la Subdirección de Vialidad Urbana Nacional bajo el contrato "Reposición Puente Bio Bio Antiguo, Ruta 160 Concepción-San Pedro".

  14. El puente de Triana y su tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Jalvo, José Miguel

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Before the XIX century, nobody dare to construct a bridge on Guadalquivir river, from Córdoba to Sanlucar. It was, really, a great venture. In Sevilla, one of the most flourishing towns by the time in Spain, this problem was solved with a boat's bridge. That means that the technicians did not trust in the river bed. But, thanks to the fact of Sevilla’s prosperity and of the new technologies and new materials, they decided, finally, to undertake the work. The industrial use of the iron concerning communications and the success of the first suspension bridges -with span alike or higher to those herewith stated-, encouraged the technicians to jump over the one hundred and fifty meters between Sevilla and Triana . The choice of the suspension bridge was taken because it was useful to introduce other options, like this of the masonry, with Silvestre Pérez not used from the XV century, and this of iron (arcs or beams. But, no one of them solved the bed problems.La labor de construir un puente sobre el Guadalquivir no debía de ser empresa fácil si consideramos que desde Córdoba a Sanlúcar nadie se atreviera a emprenderla hasta mediado el siglo XIX. Que en la Sevilla de la Casa de Contratación, una de las ciudades más prósperas de la época moderna, este salto estuviera resuelto con un puente de barcas, explica, sin necesidad de otra justificación, lo insensato que le debía parecer a los expertos de la zona el fiarse del lecho del río. Esa misma prosperidad hizo que, gracias a nuevas técnicas y nuevos materiales, se retomara la intención de emprender la obra. El uso industrial del hierro, su aplicación a las comunicaciones y el éxito de los primeros puentes suspendidos -con luces iguales y superiores a la que aquí se plantea-, anima a resolver el salto de ciento cincuenta metros que, hablando en términos de distancia, separan a Sevilla de Triana. La opción de un puente colgante prospera porque salva limpiamente los problemas

  15. Puente Student English Success, Retention, and Persistence at Gavilan Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Terrence

    This document discusses the Puente program at Gavilan Community College. The Puente program has historically focused on Latino students who intended to transfer to four-year institutions and it is currently focusing in underrepresented students with transfer intent, but is open to all. Puente students are able to enroll in English classes designed…

  16. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2 inches...

  17. Tender Notices | About IASc | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Limited tender notification for AMC for computers & peripherals. Open tender for supply of printing and photocopier paper. Tender for Transport, Housekeeping and Catering services. Tender for website redesign - Work awarded to lowest bidder Sriranga Digital Software Technologies after scrutiny of price bids; Tender for ...

  18. Puente Willow Creek en Monterrey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the 10 awards given every year by the Prestressed Concrete Institute for the most outstanding prestressed concrete projects, two have been awarded in California this year, one of them to the Willow Creek bridge, near Monterrey. The prestressed, double T girders of this bridge were made at a workshop, a great distance from the bridge site. These are 24 m long, 1.35 m high, and are stabilized by transversal diaphragms, 20 cm in thickness. The table deck is of reinforced concrete, being 8.85 m wide and 20 cm thick. The structure is straightforward, slender, and adapts itself pleasantly to the background. It has seven spans and crosses over a secondary road, in addition to bridging the Willow stream. The supporting piles are hollow, of rectangular cross section, and over them a cross beam carries the five girders and the deck itself. The end abutments consist of vertical reinforced concrete walls, and supporting, soil filled, structures. The above information was supplied by the California Road Department.De los diez premios que anualmente concede el Prestressed Concrete Institute para las obras de hormigón pretensado más notables, dos han correspondido a California y uno de ellos al puente de Willow Creek, situado en la región de Monterrey. Las vigas de hormigón pretensado, con sección en forma de doble T, se prefabricaron en un taller situado a gran distancia del puente. Tienen 24 m de longitud y 1,35 m de canto, estando arriostradas con diafragmas transversales de 20 cm de espesor. La losa del tablero, de hormigón armado, tiene 8,85 m de anchura y 20 cm de espesor. La estructura es sencilla, esbelta y armoniza perfectamente con el paisaje que la circunda. Tiene siete tramos y salva un paso inferior secundario y el arroyo Willow. Los soportes, se apoyan sobre pilotes, algunos de gran altura; son huecos, de sección rectangular y terminan en una cruceta que sirve de sostén a las cinco vigas que soportan la losa del tablero. Los estribos

  19. Historia del puente en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available Terminamos el estudio de los puentes romanos con el de Alcántara, en Toledo; está situado sobre el Tajo y recibió el nombre genérico del puente en lengua arábiga, lo cual no es ningún argumento para atribuir su construcción a los árabes, aunque alguno de los cronistas lo aduce como tal. Además del puente de Alcántara de la provincia de Cáceres, que es el más famoso, existe un tercer puente que se quedó con el mismo nombre; está situado en la actual Argelia, entre Biskra y Constantina sobre el torrente Fedhala en el camino de Lambeza al desierto. Tiene un solo arco de gran luz, análogo al del puente de Augusto en Narni, y fue restaurado, poco inteligentemente, en 1862, por los ingenieros militares franceses (ver P. GAZZOLA, pág. 172.

  20. LA CRISIS FINANCIERA INTERNACIONAL. Ocho lecciones de y para América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis financiera internacional del 2008-2009 puso de manifiesto las fortalezas y debilidades del paradigma prevaleciente en materia de desarrollo en América La-tina. Éste se basa en una cuenta de capitales liberada que a su vez ha mejorado de manera importante las condiciones macroeconómicas. Este artículo proporciona lecciones provenientes de la crisis, no solamente para la región, sino para otros paí-ses en desarrollo que buscan conseguir crecimiento económico en un contexto de mayor integración a los mercados internacionales de capital. Algunas de las lec-ciones no son nuevas pero han sido reforzadas con la crisis, como la necesidadde que América Latina diversifique sus exportaciones (no sólo de productos sino de socios comerciales. Otras lecciones desmitifican otros elementos, como por ejem-plo la imposibilidad de aplicar políticas contracíclicas, al menos del lado moneta-rio. Otras lecciones incluyen i el papel relativo de la banca nacional y extranjera como amortiguadores de los choques financieros externos, y ii el costo potencial de adoptar regulaciones financieras internacionales que no tomen en consideración el desarrollo de cada país. Tomadas en conjunto, las lecciones arrojan un nuevo sentido de optimismo para el crecimiento de América Latina.

  1. Los siete puentes de Könisberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Guardiola-Rivera

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina las consecuencias del paso, en los estudios jurídicos, de la teorización particular o restringida a la general, y sus relaciones con la política y la filosofía. tras explicar el abandono del nacionalismo metodológico que la caracterizaba, y proponer una analogía de ese desplazamiento con la revolución matemática moderna, opone una topología de dimensiones y entrecruzamientos a la lógica puntual de subordinación que informa las perspectivas particularistas sobre el derecho y lo político. se trata de una invitación a cruzar los puentes que unen dimensiones diferentes (norte/sur, arriba/abajo en todas las direcciones; a tornar la mirada hacia el espacio, su toma violenta y fijación por desplazamiento forzado; a tomar partido en esta lucha y disfrutar el viaje mientras se inventa un mundo nuevo.

  2. Historia del puente en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available El tercer tipo de puente romano que anunciábamos en los capítulos anteriores se define por su función, no por su época. Corresponde al puente de vano único o, por lo menos, único importante, que, al ser de medio punto, alza considerablemente la calzada sobre el río, aunque arranque tomando como cuerda el nivel mismo de aguas medias. Al establecer las rasantes de enlace con el camino antes y después del cauce resulta el perfil fuertemente alomado, que se ha tomado como típicamente medieval, aunque creemos que los puentes agrupados en este capítulo muestran su origen romano.

  3. Nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwal, S.

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha puesto en servicio un nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges, a unos cinco kilómetros aguas abajo de la estación ferroviaria de Mokameh Ghat, del Estado de Bihar, en la India. La obra consta de 14 tramos principales, de unos 120 m, aproximadamente, de luz cada uno, y 4 tramos, dos en cada extremidad, de 30 m de luz, que constituyen un total de 1.820 m de longitud. El puente tiene dos tableros: el superior, de 7,30 m de anchura, destinado a un paso de carretera, y el inferior, convenientemente separado, para el paso de un ferrocarril. Entre la parte inferior del puente y el nivel de aguas se ha dejado una altura libre de 10,50 m para el paso de la navegación fluvial.

  4. El colapso del Puente Samaná: un nuevo enfoque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cifuentes Cifuentes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available E13 de octubre de 1993, colapsó la superestructura del puente sobre el río Samaná en la carretera Bogotá - Medellín, en Colombia. La Facultad de Minas de la Universidad Nacional, en Medellín, llevó a cabo un estudio que señala como causa probable del colapso, la falla de la unión de la armadura inferior con un pendolón. Un nuevo estudio analítico realizado en 1996, por la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional, en Bogotá, indica que el puente tenía problemas de estabilidad general, los cuales se presentan en este artículo, y se indican como posible causa del colapso. Así mismo se muestran algunas soluciones dadas al problema para un puente gemelo.

  5. Báscula puente para el pesaje de camiones

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Jacobe, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Este proyecto esta ubicado en el término Municipal de Berga El objeto de este proyecto abarca el diseño, calculo, realización e instalación de una báscula puente para el pesaje de camiones. Las dimensiones del puente que soportará el vehiculo será de 3 m de ancho, 12 m de longitud comercial y una altura total de 33 cm. Esta estructura será modelo sobresuelo, accediendo a ella mediante 2 rampas de un 6% mínimo de inclinación. Estará ubicada en la entrada de una fabrica de transform...

  6. Erosión en estribos de puentes aliviadores

    OpenAIRE

    Scacchi, Graciela; Spalletti, Pablo; Brea, José Daniel; SCHREIDER Mario; Fuentes Aguilar, Ramón

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se vuelcan parte de los esfuerzos realizados por investigadores de la Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Hídricas de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral y del Laboratorio de Hidráulica del Instituto Nacional del Agua para estudiar la erosión junto a estribos de puentes aliviadores durante la última década en Argentina. Por una parte, estudios experimentales demostraron que las erosiones locales en estribos de puentes aliviadores, cuando estos son de paredes verticales, dependen...

  7. Medida de aceleraciones con puentes líquidos

    OpenAIRE

    González Hernández, Miguel Angel

    2011-01-01

    Se desarrolla la teoría básica necesaria para la aplicación de los puentes líquidos a la medida de pequeñas aceleraciones que llevan la dirección de su eje. En primer lugar se desarrolla un método de disparo que reduce el problema, de condiciones de contorno, a uno algebraico que, ampliado con un método de continuación, permite calcular formas de equilibrio de puentes líquidos, tanto estables como inestables, a partir de los valores de los parámetros. Con los resultados obtenidos se calculan ...

  8. Puente pretensado, en Oakland (U. S. A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, T. Y.

    1965-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a four span bridge, which is prestreesed in four dimensions, and runs over a number of railway lines. The design has been awarded a number of prizes. The axis of the bridge is circular, and consequently the weight of the bridge imposes torsional moments on the structure. The most original feature of this project is the placing of the prestressing along three space coordinates, and also the regulation of the prestressing forces as functions of time. The prestressing is very densely distributed along the curved part of the structure. This counteracts the effects of the dead weight, and enables the structure to be statically considered as if its spans were straight. Owing to the large torsional moments, the bridge consists of seven T section beams, to reduce the weight and the number of prestressing cables. Another interesting feature of this design is that the springers have been readjusted 25 cm, in order to regain the original compressive constraints, which would have been lost in time, due to creep phenomena. Precast units were not used, as they were not the most apt to work under torsion, and for similar reasons only two dilation joints were fitted.Este puente, de cuatro tramos, pretensado en las cuatro dimensiones, salva una serie de vías férreas y ha obtenido diferentes premios. Las alineaciones del eje forman ángulos de 47 y 20°, y como sus desarrollos correspondientes son curvas circulares se crean momentos importantes de torsión debidos al peso propio. Lo más original de esta obra consiste en la ordenación del pretensado según las tres coordenadas espaciales y una cuarta, temporal, que nos da el valor de las tensiones en función del tiempo.

  9. Puente Coronado - San Diego (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available This 3,5 km long bridge, joining the cities of San Diego and Coronado is one of the longest in the world of this type, and one of the three most important straight line bridges in the United States. Its supporting structure consists of reinforced concrete columns resting on footings or piles, according to whether they are under the sea water or on dry land. The superstructure is partly of metal plates and partly of box girders. The surfacing of the deck consists of asphalt epoxy concrete, of 5 cm depth. Special paint was applied to the bridge, including layers of vinyl, iron oxide and blue vinyl on a zinc base.Este puente, de unos 3 km y medio, que une las ciudades de San Diego y Coronado es uno de los de mayor longitud del mundo, de este tipo, y uno de los tres principales ortótropos de los Estados Unidos de América. Su infraestructura está constituida por pilas de hormigón armado apoyadas sobre pilotes o sobre zapatas, según estén en el mar o en tierra firme. La superestructura está formada, en parte, por chapas metálicas y, en parte, por vigas cajón. El acabado del tablero metálico se realizó a base de hormigón asfáltico de epoxi con un espesor de 5 cm. La pintura es especial y se compone de capas de vinilo, de óxido de hierro y de vinilo azul sobre una capa de cinc.

  10. The Puente Learning Center: A Building and a Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the People United To Enrich the Neighborhood through Education (Puente) Learning Center, a nonprofit center in Los Angeles (California) providing programs in literacy, English-as-a-Second-Language, study skills, job training, and computer skills for people who traditionally have had limited access to education and technology. (SLD)

  11. The Puente Project: Socializing and Mentoring Latino Community College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    2000-01-01

    Claims that the way that minority students are socialized is related to retention and persistence. Discusses mentoring programs offered in community colleges that socialize and retain minority students. Explores the Puente Program as an example of a successful program that can aid minority Latino students. (Contains 35 references.) (MZ)

  12. High School Puente Program. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "High School Puente Program" aims to help disadvantaged students graduate from high school, become college eligible, and enroll in four-year colleges and universities. Interdisciplinary in approach, the program has three components: writing, counseling, and mentoring. Students in the ninth and tenth grades receive rigorous writing…

  13. Puentes gemelos. Río Salado, Nuevo México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1959-04-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, el Estado de Nuevo Méjico acaba de construir un puente para carretera que, por estar ésta dividida en dos partes independientes, de dos bandas de circulación cada una, se han tenido que construir dos estructuras gemelas, paralelas, que salvan el Río Salado.

  14. Situación actual del puente arco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manterola, Javier

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of prestressed concrete in the forties and of the span bridge (puente atirantado in the nineteen sixties have displaced the arch bridge. There has recently been renewed interest in this type of bridge, for various reasons: construction in advance of the arch as a projection, with the thrust of the deck on the already constructed arch, broader possibilities for location as the result of the adoption of certain special arrangements; an increase in the number of arches with lower deck due to the attractivesness for the user.

    La aparición del hormigón pretensado en los años 40 y la del puente atirantado en los 60 han dejado sin "sitio" al puente arco. Recientemente se observa una pequeña reactivación en la construcción de este tipo de puentes por varios motivos: Construcción del arco por avance en voladizo acompañado por el empuje del tablero sobre el arco ya construido. Ampliación de sus posibilidades de ubicación por la adopción de determinadas disposiciones especiales. Incremento de la presencia del arco con tablero inferior por la vistosidad que presenta de cara al usuario.

  15. Liquefied natural gas tender crashworthiness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Research is being conducted to develop technical : information needed to formulate effective natural gas fuel : tender crashworthiness standards. This research is being : performed for the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRAs) : Office of Res...

  16. Puentes UC: A bridge between university and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Irarrázaval

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Universities have contributed to society in different ways. Public contributions constitute not only an opportunity to create public value in society, but also to strengthen the comprehensive education of students. The university's public contribution involves the creation of opportunities to link the available technical capacity with those real needs that can be adressed by the university. Puentes (meaning 'bridge' UC is a program at the Catholic University of Chile, created in 2002. It has established a succesful model to link the university with local government, allowing students to develop academic projects that address pressing public challenges, as well as develop useful products for local government management. The Puentes UC model of professional facilitation assists local governments to filter their demands, identifying those that present an appropriate opportunity for student involvement. Subsequently, Puentes UC invites students to develop projects which address these demands as part of their courses, internships or theses, and supports them during the execution of their projects. The program's management model works to ensure that local government receive useful technical proposals, and students benefit from a satisfying educational experience. To date, 2,747 projects have been carried out in 23 municipalities, with the participation of 17,504 students and more than 300 academics. The Puentes UC model, originally conceived of as a means to work with local governments near the university's campus, has been extended to rural municipalities in other regions of the country, and to new public institutions such as the Gendarmería (Chile's penitentiary service. The potential of this linking model has thus been demonstrated, and can be applied in new realms of cooperation between the university and society. This article describes in detail the Puentes UC model, and its historical evolution. It then discusses outcomes and achievements, both

  17. Ética para gobernar. lecciones básicas para un gobierno justo

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Bautista, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Ética para gobernar. Lecciones básicas para un gobierno justo. Tiene por propósito fomentar una cultura ética en os servidores públicos que contribuya a un cambio de conducta hacia un buen gobierno y que siente las bases para prevenir y controlar la corrupción

  18. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  19. El puente Bendorf sobre el Rin (Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschfeld, Kurt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available This recently completed bridge over the Rhine is 524 m long, and is a reinforced concrete structure, built by successive overhangs, without the aid of formwork or scaffolding. The centre span is 208 m in length, and the other six vary between 43 and 71 m. The deck consists of two independent parts, including a continuous box girder, with a hinge at the crown of the main span. It is stiffened with transversal diaphragms, spaced every 34 m. The piles rest on pneumatic caissons, which go down to 16 m below the river bed. The attachment between the piles and the caissons is rigid, at the central pile, and at the other piles it operates through a roller bearing. The central span was constructed without intermediate supports for the first 40 m, and beyond that stage, for greater safety, a provisional movable tower was built, as a temporary point of support for the free overhang. The various sections were concreted and post-tensioned with 32 mm bars, by the Dywidag procedure. Account was taken of the varying deformations that took place at each section, so as to add the necessary counter-deflection that finally enabled the two sides of the arch to meet at the crown at the calculated point.Este puente, recientemente construido, sobre el Rin, tiene una longitud total de 524 m, es de hormigón armado y se ha realizado por el procedimiento de voladizos sucesivos, sin entramado auxiliar ni cimbras. La luz del tramo central es de 208 m, y las de los otros seis oscilan entre 43 y 71 m. La estructura del tablero se compone de dos partes independientes, formadas por una viga tipo cajón, continua, con una articulación en la clave del tramo central y rigidizada con diafragmas transversales espaciados a 34 m. Las pilas centrales se apoyan sobre cajones neumáticos que descienden 16 m debajo del fondo del río. La unión entre estas pilas y la estructura cajón es rígida, y de tipo rodillo en las otras pilas. El tramo central se ha construido por voladizos

  20. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  1. Puente Guadalquivir España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanero, Juan

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available The interesting solution used for substituting this bridge is described and is considered unique amongst the many similar jobs carried out by the same authors, who were awarded the project RENFE has offered in this regard. All these jobs had the basic condition that they had to be carried out without interrupting traffic as the existing track was the only line available. This article explains the difficulties which arose and the steps adopted to build-up the cutwaters and abutments, as well as construction of the new planking, which was more resistant, and which was used for a while jointly with the old. The scrapping and load operation was also a delicate job. Finally, we wish to point out that a rust-resistant material, which does not require exterior painting, was used. However, this requires a strict material and welding quality control. The result has been very satisfactory as far as speed, effectiveness and economy are concerned.

    Se describe la interesante solución adoptada en la sustitución del citado puente, como caso singular entre otros muchos semejantes de los mismos autores, que fueron favorecidos en el concurso convocado, al efecto, por RENFE. Todos ellos tenían el condicionamiento fundamental de tener que ser llevados a cabo sin interrumpir el tráfico en la línea, que es de vía única. Se explican las dificultades surgidas y las medidas adoptadas para recrecer las pilas y estribos, así como la construcción del nuevo tablero, más resistente, que durante algún tiempo trabajó conjuntamente con el antiguo. La operación de desguace y puesta en carga ha representado asimismo, una labor delicada. Resaltamos, por último, que se ha utilizado material resistente a la corrosión que no necesita pintura exterior, lo cual exige, en cambio, un riguroso control del material y de la soldadura. El resultado ha sido muy satisfactorio en rapidez, efectividad y economía.

  2. Sobrevivendo a un tsunami: lecciones de Chile, Hawai y Japon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compilado por Atwater, Brian F.; Cisternas V., Marco; Bourgeois, Joanne; Dudley, Walter C.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    Este folleto contiene historias veridicas que ilustran como sobrevivir, y como no sobrevivir, a un tsunami. Esta publicacion esta dirigida a las personas que viven, trabajan o, simplemente, se divierten a lo largo de las costas que pueden ser afectadas por un tsunami. Tales costas rodean la mayor parte del Oceano Pacifico pero tambien incluyen algunas areas costeras de los Oceanos Atlantico e Indico. Aunque mucha gente llama a los tsunamis 'olas de marea', estos no estan relacionados a las mareas, sino son una serie de olas, o 'tren de olas', generalmente causadas por cambios en el nivel del fondo marino durante los terremotos. Los tsunamis tambien pueden ser generados por la erupcion de volcanes costeros, islas volconicas, deslizamientos submarinos e impactos de grandes meteoritos en el mar. Como sucedio en Sumatra en el 2004, los tsunamis pueden alcanzar alturas de 15 metros, no tan solo en la costa sino tambien kilometros tierra adentro. Los relatos presentados en este folleto fueron seleccionados de entrevistas realizadas a personas que sobrevivieron al tsunami del Oceano Pacifico de 1960. Muchas de estas personas, incluyendo a la enfermera de la foto, se enfrento a las olas generadas a poca distancia, en la costa chilena. En cambio, otros debieron hacer frente al tsunami muchas horas despues, en Hawai y Japon. La mayoria de las entrevistas fueron realizadas a fines de los anos ochenta y en los noventa. Las historias ofrecen una mezcla de lecciones de supervivencia a un tsunami. En algunos casos se presentan las acciones que confiablemente salvaron vidas: poner atencion a los avisos de la naturaleza, abandonar los bienes, dirigirse rapidamente a un sector alto y permanecer alli hasta que el tsunami realmente haya terminado. Otras historias describen como se encontro refugio al subir a construcciones y arboles o flotar sobre desechos, tacticas que tuvieron diferentes resultados y que pueden ser recomendadas solo como actos desesperados de personas atrapadas en

  3. 78 FR 48631 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups... Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 317 Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  4. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Conte Hadlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  5. Historia del puente en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1958-11-01

    Full Text Available Volvemos a decir que es nuestro propósito estudiar, en este artículo y otros dos que seguirán, los puentes romanos de que tenemos noticia. Aunque la meta ideal es que sean todos los puentes romanos españoles, estamos forzados a errar, por defecto y por exceso, y al resultado será aplicable aquello de que "ni están todos los que son, ni son todos los que están". Para que el acierto fuera máximo', se precisaría la aportación de todas las personas que tengan conocimiento del tema. Sirvan estas líneas de invitación, y al mismo tiempo de agradecimiento anticipado a su ayuda tan necesaria para centrar la cuestión en su más y en su menos.

  6. Puente del Guadalimar – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto, F.

    1973-10-01

    Full Text Available This bridge is a continuous precast concrete box, resting on three piers and their corresponding abutments. It has three 38 m spans each, and one main 54 m spark. The flooring edge is 3.5 m and the piles 17 m high. The bridge is designed for single track railway. This was a project of the Technical Office of Carlos Fernández Casado, S. A.El puente es un cajón continuo de hormigón pretensado, apoyado en tres pilas y sus correspondientes estribos. Tiene tres luces de 38 m cada una, y una luz central de 54 m. El canto del tablero es de 3,5 m y la altura de pilares de 17 m. El puente está diseñado para ferrocarril de vía única. Proyecto de la Oficina Técnica Carlos Fernández Casado, S. A.

  7. Un Puente A Los Cielos -- A Bridge To The Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, K. K.; Harrison, R. J.; Poindexter, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    Un Puente A Los Cielos is an outreach project targeted at Socorro High School students and Spanish-speaking population of the Americas. The project took place over the summer of 2003 during which six Socorro High School students and their supervisor spent the summer exploring the astronomical community at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and across New Mexico while translating web pages on astronomy for the general public into Spanish. We describe the project and highlight both the successes and unexpected complications and discuss methods of evaluating the impact of the project on the high school students and on the Spanish-speaking community. Un Puente A Los Cielos is funded through NASA IDEAS grant HST-ED-90245.01-A. KKD is supported by an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-0103879.

  8. Puente sobre el río Brenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Schvarcz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Para la unión por carretera de los poblados de Limeña y Vigodarzere, de la provincia de Padua (Italia, separados por el río Brenta de Limeña, se ha construido un puente de hormigón armado —proyectado por el autor—, de tres tramos, dos laterales de 26 m de luz cada uno y uno central de 50 m, cuyo conjunto constituye un sistema Gerber con dos articulaciones situadas a 14 m de los apoyos intermedios y dentro del vano central del puente. La obra tiene 102 m de longitud total y un tablero subdividido en una Calzada de 6 m de anchura y dos andenes de 1 m cada uno.

  9. Desarrollo Infantil Temprano: lecciones de los programas no formales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Eming Young

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo empieza mencionando al aporte de las ciencias al conocimiento del desarrollo humano. Se sintetiza el trabajo de Shonkoff/Phillips sobre el tema, resaltándose la importancia de la experiencia temprana y su interacción con la biología para el desarrollo del cerebro. Posteriormente se incursiona en el Desarrollo Infantil Temprano y su significación en los resultados posteriores del niño, destacando algunos factores que inciden en el desarrollo cerebral. Este tema se enlaza con el trabajo de Shore, que compara las teorías del “viejo” y el “nuevo” pensamiento. Seguidamente se resaltan los efectos de las intervenciones tempranas, vinculando el tema al desarrollo del cerebro, y ampliándolo en el capítulo de la competencia social, en el que presentan cifras estadísticas que reflejan en parte las hipótesis. Luego se propone la vinculación de las investigaciones a los programas, y basándose en un trabajo inédito de Kirpal, se enumeran algunas lecciones aprendidas, con énfasis en la necesidad de la participación de la comunidad para generar pertenencia y sostenibilidad en los programas. Después se entra al tema de la sociedad civil y su participación en el desarrollo de los programas, resaltándose las virtudes de las ONGs y el papel que pueden desempeñar en la búsqueda de soluciones a los problemas sociales. Se continúa con la experiencia de programas no formales de educación inicial en América Latina y El Caribe, en los que se destaca la participación de la sociedad civil; luego se detallan los principios que rigen los programas no formales, mediante una matriz en la que se indican determinadas prácticas que corresponden a ciertas metas. Para concluir, se reafirma que el Desarrollo Infantil Temprano es esencial en la lucha contra la pobreza.

  10. Desarrollo Infantil Temprano: lecciones de los programas no formales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Eming Young

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo empieza mencionando al aporte de las ciencias al conocimiento del desarrollo humano. Se sintetiza el trabajo de Shonkoff/Phillips sobre el tema, resaltándose la importancia de la experiencia temprana y su interacción con la biología para el desarrollo del cerebro. Posteriormente se incursiona en el Desarrollo Infantil Temprano y su significación en los resultados posteriores del niño, destacando algunos factores que inciden en el desarrollo cerebral. Este tema se enlaza con el trabajo de Shore, que compara las teorías del “viejo” y el “nuevo” pensamiento. Seguidamente se resaltan los efectos de las intervenciones tempranas, vinculando el tema al desarrollo del cerebro, y ampliándolo en el capítulo de la competencia social, en el que presentan cifras estadísticas que reflejan en parte las hipótesis. Luego se propone la vinculación de las investigaciones a los programas, y basándose en un trabajo inédito de Kirpal, se enumeran algunas lecciones aprendidas, con énfasis en la necesidad de la participación de la comunidad para generar pertenencia y sostenibilidad en los programas. Después se entra al tema de la sociedad civil y su participación en el desarrollo de los programas, resaltándose las virtudes de las ONGs y el papel que pueden desempeñar en la búsqueda de soluciones a los problemas sociales. Se continúa con la experiencia de programas no formales de educación inicial en América Latina y El Caribe, en los que se destaca la participación de la sociedad civil; luego se detallan los principios que rigen los programas no formales, mediante una matriz en la que se indican determinadas prácticas que corresponden a ciertas metas. Para concluir, se reafirma que el Desarrollo Infantil Temprano es esencial en la lucha contra la pobreza

  11. Paleomagnetism of the Puente Piedra Formation, Central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Steven R.; Butler, Robert F.

    1985-02-01

    Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 15 sites in the early Cretaceous Puente Piedra Formation near Lima, Peru. This formation consists of interbedded volcanic flows and marine sediments and represents the oldest known rocks of the Andean coastal province in this region. The Puente Piedra Formation is interpreted as a submarine volcanic arc assemblage which along with an overlying sequence of early Cretaceous clastic and carbonate rocks represents a terrane whose paleogeographic relationship with respect to the Peruvian miogeocline in pre-Albian time is unknown. Moderate to high coercivities, blocking temperatures below 320°C, and diagnostic strong-field thermomagnetic behavior indicate that pyrrhotite is the dominant magnetic phase in the Puente Piedra Formation. This pyrrhotite carries a stable CRM acquired during an event of copper mineralization associated with the intrusion of the Santa Rosa super-unit of the Coastal Batholith at about 90 ± 5 m.y. B.P. The tectonically uncorrected formation mean direction of: D = 343.2°, I = -28.6°, α 95 = 3.4° is statistically concordant in inclination but discordant in declination with respect to the expected direction calculated from the 90-m.y. reference pole for cratonic South America. The observed declination indicates approximately 20° of counterclockwise rotation of the Puente Piedra rocks since about 90 m.y. This is consistent with other paleomagnetic data from a larger crustal block which may indicate modest counterclockwise rotation during the Cenozoic associated with crustal shortening and thickening in the region of the Peru-Chile deflection.

  12. Puente de Suehiro –Japón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1977-05-01

    Full Text Available This bridge, of the braced type, is the longest in Japan. In its construction, serious technicel and utilisation difficulties had to be overcome, such as: the need of having a 205 m span and a height of 21 m, adverse conditions of the ground, etc. Between several solutions submitted in the draft project that of a braced bridge was chosen with continuous box-type bridge deck divided into three stretches, and understructure with cylindrical steel box like a provisional jetty. The bridge, located in the harbour area of Tokushima, was recently opened to traffic and its structure and erection are described in this article.Este puente, de tipo atirantado, es el más largo del Japón. En su construcción han tenido que vencerse serias dificultades técnicas y de uso, tales como: la necesidad de disponer de un vano de 205 m y una altura de 21 m, las condiciones adversas del terreno, etc. Entre varias soluciones presentadas en el anteproyecto se eligió la de puente atirantado con tablero continuo en cajón, dividido en tres tramos, e infraestructura a base de cajón cilíndrico de acero corno dique provisional. El puente, situado en la zona portuaria de Tokushima, ha sido abierto al tráfico recientemente y en este artículo se describe su estructura y montaje.

  13. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  14. Puente mixto para ferrocarril y carretera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris, P. C.

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available This new bridge, known as the West Branch, spans the course of a river, and has a double function and two superimposed decks. One of these carries the road, and the other lower one, the railway line. It has been constructed by the Dept. of Public Works of California. The structure consists of four main spans resting on reinforced concrete piles, of great height. Four rectangular holes run down their centres. The decks consist of a continuous metal framework, made up of heavy elements, some of them weighing up to 56 tons each, was assembled in the workshop in separate sections. These were then transported to the site, to be integrated within the whole structure. In the final assembly high tensile steel bolts were employed. As the piles are very high, they are of varying cross section, according to the height. The concreting was done by means of sliding formwork, and this was sufficiently wide to ensure that the concrete was at least four hours old when the formwork passed beyond its level. To carry out these operations an auxiliary tower was built up. which supported the framework carrying the concreting tub and its pouring mechanism. From this main tub the concrete was poured into others, which placed it into the various parts of the formwork. The operation of the concrete elevator, whose motive power was provided by of the plant at ground level, was controlled by telephone between the operator of the power plant and the person responsible for distributing the concrete on the top platform. To provide the finish of the surfaces left by the sliding formwork, another platform was installed, working at a level below the lower edge of the formwork, and a similar arrangement was adopted with respect to the inner formwork for the four hollows running inside the piles.El nuevo puente, llamado West Branch, que salva el profundo cauce de un río, tiene una doble finalidad y dos tableros superpuestos: uno para carretera en la parte superior y otro para una

  15. El terremoto de Nicoya, lecciones aprendidas y por aprender : sistematización de las conclusiones de los talleres de lecciones aprendidas

    OpenAIRE

    López Gordo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Las emergencias y desastres, junto a su potencial destructivo y la alteración de las condiciones de vida de las poblaciones y territorios en los cuales impactan, traen consigo un aprendizaje que merece ser rescatado y asimilado para reducir las vulnerabilidades. Durante los últimos 20 años, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS/OMS) realiza esfuerzos de sistematización de las lecciones aprendidas que han dejado en eventos en diferentes países de la región, a fin de reflexionar sobre a...

  16. Dos puentes de hormigón, en Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-05-01

    Full Text Available The great majority of the bridges at present under construction in Britain are reinforced or prestressed concrete structures. There are more of the first type, and no less than 300 of them have been built in the last decade. In order to convey some general idea of this type of construction in Britain, ihe author of the article has selected two types of bridges which seem to reflect best British contemporary practice in this field. The bridges, to which reference is made here, have been built for the Ministry of Transport, and have been designed by various engineers in cooperation with private architects. Bridge at Wentbridge. Its total length is 143 ms, and its maximubm height above the ground 30 ms. It has three spans; a central one of 58 ms and two lateral ones of 43.50 ms each. The piles of this structure are considerably inclined with respect to the vertical, and this gives the bridge a pleasant and harmonious appearance. The deck is divided into two traffic lanes, each 7.30 ms wide, and there is a central nucleus sufficiently massive to separate the two lanes completely. Two pedestrian footpaths, each 2.70 ms wide, contribute to the total deck width of 33 ras. Bridstow Bridge. This bridge differs essentially from the one mentioned above, and is undoubtedly the type of structure that fits best with the local scenery. Its three spans have an overall length of 107 ms, and the width of the deck is 24 ms. The central opening, of 63 ms span, consists of two cantilevers, and a closing central section, 31.30 ms in length, which rests on rollers.La inmensa mayoría de los puentes que actualmente se están construyendo en Inglaterra son de hormigón armado o pretensado. Los del primer tipo son más numerosos, pues sólo en los últimos diez años se han realizado 300. Con objeto de dar una idea general de la construcción de este tipo de estructuras en Inglaterra, el autor ha elegido dos tipos de puente que parece son los que mejor caracterizan las

  17. A Study of the Puente Project: 1983-1986. Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atondo, Angelo; And Others

    Puente Projects are currently operating at 10 community colleges in California to increase retention, general education requirements completion, and transfer among Hispanic community college students. Puente integrates the skills of an English teacher, a Hispanic counselor, and Hispanic professionals acting as mentors to promote academic…

  18. 78 FR 37788 - In the Matter of: Juan Ricardo Puente-Paez, Inmate Number #05086-379, FCI McDowell, Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Juan Ricardo Puente-Paez, Inmate Number 05086-379, FCI..., Juan Ricardo Puente-Paez (``Puente-Paez'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Puente-Paez was convicted of...

  19. Lecciones aprendidas en desastres y la gestión del conocimiento en salud y desastres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian María Céspedes Mora

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan los últimos trabajos publicados sobre la conciencia que se tiene acerca de la producción y diseminación de las lecciones aprendidas en desastres para la gestión del conocimiento en materia de medicina y desastres. Se destaca la influencia de las lecciones aprendidas como elemento importante en la toma de decisiones ante el manejo de los desastres. Se expone la inquietud que para el Centro Latinoamericano de Medicina de Desastres constituye la necesidad de rescatar e incentivar la producción de las lecciones aprendidas por el personal de la salud en su enfrentamiento a catástrofes y en el desempeño de sus funciones en Cuba y en Latinoamérica.This paper reviewed the last papers published about the awareness of the production and dissemination of lessons learned on disasters for the knowledge management in terms of medicine and disaster. It underlined the effect of the lessons learned as an important element in the decision-taking on disaster management. It showed the concern of the Latin-American Center of Disaster Medicine about the need of rescuing and encouraging the production of the lessons learned by the health personnel in facing up to catastrophes and in performing its work in Cuba and Latin America

  20. Seroprevalencia de Leptospirosis en Puente Piedra, Lima en el año 2006 Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Puente Piedra, Lima, in 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James A. Platts-Mills; Patrick LaRochelle; Kalina Campos; Joseph M. Vinetz; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Jessica N. Ricaldi

    2011-01-01

    .... El presente estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la seroprevalencia para Leptospira en el distrito de Puente Piedra, donde se han presentado casos de leptospirosis severa en los últimos años...

  1. 49 CFR 230.99 - Tender truck axles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender truck axles. 230.99 Section 230.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Tenders Running Gear § 230.99 Tender truck axles. The minimum diameters of axles for various axle loads...

  2. Disqualification for non-compliance with public tender conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When government entities procure goods or services, they generally consider and award contracts only to bidders who complied with the specifications and conditions of tender as laid down in the tender invitation. Tenders received must in other words be conforming, compliant or responsive. This enables procuring entities ...

  3. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  4. Consumer thresholds for establishing the value of beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M F; Carr, M A; Ramsey, C B; Crockett, K L; Hoover, L C

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, a national consumer evaluation was conducted for beef tenderness on USDA Select strip loin steaks of known Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values, ranging from tough (> 5.7 kg) to tender (consumers place on tenderness by determining the average price a consumer would pay for a steak in three tenderness categories. Three supermarkets in each of five metropolitan areas (Baltimore, MD/Washington D.C.; Chicago, IL; Dallas/Fort Worth, TX; Los Angeles, CA; and Lubbock, TX) were selected to represent a wide range of income, education, and ethnicity at each city. Five trained research teams traveled to the cities to collect data during the same 10-d period. Consumers (n = 734; minimum of 15 consumers/panel, three panels/store, three stores/city, five cities) were asked to evaluate samples from each tenderness classification (tender, intermediate, or tough) for overall and tenderness acceptability, overall quality, beef flavor, juiciness, tenderness, how much they would pay for the steak ($17.14, 14.28, or 10.98/kg), if they would pay more than current market price if guaranteed tender, and to estimate the number of meals in a 2-wk period that included beef. The consumers were 52% light beef users, consuming 0 to 8 meals containing beef in 2 wk, 41% heavy beef users (greater than 12 meals/2 wk), and 6% moderate beef users (9 to 12 meals/2 wk). Consumer tenderness acceptability increased as WBS values decreased (P consumer perception from tender to tough beef occurred between 4.3 and 4.9 kg of WBS based on > or = 86% consumer acceptability. Consumer acceptability for tenderness decreased from 86% at 4.3 kg for a "slightly tender" rating to 59% at 4.9 kg for a "slightly tough" rating. Data from the present study suggested that consumer WBS tenderness values of 4.9 kg would result in 100, 99, 94, 86, and 25% customer satisfaction for beef tenderness, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of the consumers would purchase steaks if the retailer guaranteed

  5. Puente de Humber Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Población Knappe, Eleuterio

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the building of the world's longest single- span hanging bridge (2,250 metres in the Humber estuary. The floor of this bridge, the main light of which Is 1,410 m, is formed by trapezoidal chestbeams made with 18 m long rigid sheets. This makes possible both economy of steel and a reduction In the dimensions of the cables, pylons and anchorage masses. The pylons, built of sliding formwork, consist of two 155 m high reinforced concrete hollow pillars.These pillars are joined by four horizontal struts. The construction of the Humber bridge allows the distances between both shores of the estuary to be cut and completes the motorway network in the area.

    Se describe en este artículo la construcción del puente colgado de tramo sencillo más largo del mundo (2.250 m en el estuario de Humber. El tablero de este puente, cuya luz principal es de 1.410 m, está formado por vigas-cajón trapezoidales realizadas mediante chapas rigidizadas de 18 m de longitud. De esta manera se obtiene una economía de acero así como una reducción en las dimensiones de los cables, pilonos y macizos de anclaje. Los pilonos, construidos con encofrado deslizante, se componen de dos pilares huecos de hormigón armado de 155 m de altura. Estos pilares están unidos por cuatro riostras horizontales. La construcción del puente de Humber permite acortar las distancias entre ambas orillas del estuario y completa la red de autopistas de la zona.

  6. Rigidez dinámica de estribos y puentes

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cutillas, Antonio; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    1994-01-01

    Los datos obtenidos de puentes instrumentados en zonas sísmicas, demuestran la importancia que tienen los estribos en la respuesta dinámica de la estructura. Si bien existen modelos que permiten estudiar la incidencia de las cimentaciones de las pilas, no existe ningún modelo analítico un numérico que permita acotar la incidencia d e los estribos. En este trabajo se presentan modelos de Elementos de Contorno en el dominio de la frecuencia, tanto en dos como en tres dimensiones, así como el cá...

  7. Disqualification For Non-Compliance With Public Tender Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe Bolton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When government entities procure goods or services, they generally consider and award contracts only to bidders who complied with the specifications and conditions of tender as laid down in the tender invitation. Tenders received must in other words be conforming, compliant or responsive. This enables procuring entities to compare tenders on an equal footing and ensures equal treatment amongst bidders. In South Africa the extent to which bidders must comply with tender specifications and conditions is a thorny issue in practice. In 2008 the Supreme Court of Appeal in Millennium Waste Management (Pty Ltd v Chairperson, Tender Board: Limpopo Province confirmed the views of the courts in South Africa regarding compliance with tender conditions and the amendment of tenders before award. The recent 2013 decision of the Supreme Court of Appeal in Dr JS Moroka Municipality v The Chairperson of the Tender Evaluation Committee of the Dr JS Moroka Municipality, however, has moved public procurement regulation in South Africa to a point where procuring entities have very limited discretionary powers when evaluating compliance with tender specifications and conditions. This paper argues for an approach that allows procuring entities in South Africa more discretion when evaluating compliance with tender specifications and conditions. In doing so, reliance is placed on the treatment of "responsiveness" in international instruments as well as the views of the South African courts since first they were confronted with the issue.

  8. Frequency of counterstrain tender points in osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Glover, John C; Rennie, Paul R; Ferrill, Heather P; Morris, William F; Johnson, Jane C

    2013-09-01

    Counterstrain is 1 osteopathic manipulative treatment technique taught to osteopathic medical students, but teaching all 300 counterstrain tender points is not feasible at most colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs) because of time limitations. To identify high-yield tender points in osteopathic medical students for teaching and to assess for correlations between tender points and demographic information, weight, and history of pain or trauma. First- and second-year osteopathic medical students at 5 COMs were surveyed regarding the presence and absence of tender points found on themselves by fellow students. Demographic information, weight, and history of pain and trauma data were collected. The McNemar test was used to compare the frequency of positive tender points between the right and left sides. Multiple logistic regression models were fit to the data to determine if participant characteristics were related to having 1 or more positive tender points in a tender point group. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the percentage of positive anterior vs posterior tender points. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test for differences between COMs after accounting for differences in participant characteristics. Frequency of 78 tender point groups was obtained. Forty tender point groups (51%) were positive for the presence of 1 or more tender points by 50% or more of the participants. Positive tender points were more common on the right side for 23 groups (all P<.001). Female participants were more likely to have tender points for 22 groups (all P<.001). The 20- to 25-year-olds had more tender points for 6 groups (all P≤.03). Tender points were more common in participants with a history of pain for 29 groups (all P<.001) and with a history of trauma for 4 groups (all P≤.05). Anterior tender points were more common for cervical, thoracic, rib, and lumbar body regions (P<.001). Differences were found between COMs for all tender point groups

  9. Ingeniería de puentes. Análisis estructural

    OpenAIRE

    Monleón Cremades, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    La ingeniería de puentes puede definirse como el conjunto de conocimientos y técnicas que permiten aplicar el saber científico a la utilización de los materiales para la construcción de puentes. Entre todos los conocimientos necesarios para tal fin, este volumen se dedica por entero a la formulación del problema estático en estas construcciones y a las técnicas matemáticas adecuadas para su resolución. Monleón Cremades, S. (2017). Ingeniería de puentes. Análisis estructural. Editorial Univ...

  10. A Silicate Inclusion in Puente del Zacate, a IIIA Iron Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Davis, Andrew M.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Moore, Carleton B.; Steele, Ian M.

    1996-09-01

    The IIIA and IIIB iron meteorites are considered to have formed in the cores of asteroids. A silicate inclusion within the IIIA meteorite Puente del Zacate consisting of olivine (Fa_4), low-calcium pyroxene (Fs_6Wo_1), chromium diopside (Fs_3Wo47), plagioclase (An14Or_4), graphite, troilite, chromite, daubreelite, and iron metal resembles inclusions in IAB iron meteorites. The oxygen isotopic composition of the Puente del Zacate inclusion is like chromite and phosphate inclusions in other IIIA and IIIB irons. The Puente del Zacate inclusion may have been derived from the lower mantle of the IIIAB parent asteroid.

  11. Reconstrucciones históricas del puente de El Kantara en Constantine, Argelia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabeu-Larena, J.; Meghraoui, A.; Hernández-Lamas, P.

    2015-01-01

    Constantine, conocida como la «ciudad de los puentes», reúne un patrimonio construido excepcional. Entre sus puentes, se analiza como obra especialmente significativa el de «El Kantara» y sus reconstrucciones históricas: desde el primer puente romano de piedra del año 161, hasta el actual arco de hormigón armado que data de 1951, pasando por la reconstrucción otomana de 1792 y el arco de ingeniería francesa de hierro de 1863. El artículo reúne referencias históricas y documentales de sus dife...

  12. Influencia de los estribos en el modelado dinámico de puentes

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Lera, Sagrario; Martínez, A.; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    1992-01-01

    La repentina puesta fuera de servicio de puentes sometidos a la acción sísmica ha despertado un interés creciente por la comprensión de su comportamiento. En puentes pequeños o medianos los terraplenes de acceso son una parte muy significativa de la estructura. La práctica habitual de considerar los apoyos rígidos no representa adecuadamente la realidad, especialmente en puentes del tipo "integral" en que el estribo es solidario del tablero y los movimientos de este actúan directamente sobre ...

  13. Consideraciones sismicas en el diseño de cimentaciones de concreto armado en puentes

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Reyes, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    El presente trabajo profesional de cimentaciones de puentes, no se trata de un resumen de todo lo que habría que saber sobre cimentaciones, sino la ambición es sensibilizar a los Ingenieros en general, que quisieran diseñar estructuras de puentes, con los diversos problemas que los puentes plantean, facilitándoles una visión en conjunto de los tipos de cimentaciones que encontraran, pero incidiendo en el análisis sísmico de las estructuras que no era considerado al detalle en cimentaciones de...

  14. Puente sobre el río Trisanna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1966-10-01

    Full Text Available This bridge, already the subject of a previous reform, has been recently readapted to the requirements of modem traffic. The reform was done without interrupting its use. The central metallic span, of 120 m length, was erected above the old one, with the aid of auxiliary structures on each side of the bridge. When completed, it was moved to its permanent position. The structure of this span is an arch with a tie member and a suspended deck, which rests on two main full web girders of 3.60 m depth, which are suitably stabilised laterally.Este puente, que ya fue objeto de una reforma similar, se ha readaptado recientemente a las necesidades que impone el tráfico y los vehículos modernos. La reforma se realizó, sin interrumpir la circulación, montando el tramo central, metálico, de 120 m de luz, sobre un entramado auxiliar levantado a ambos lados del puente y preparando sobre él la nueva estructura metálica que, finalmente, se llevaría a su posición definitiva. La estructura es de arco atirantado y tablero suspendido, el cual se apoya sobre dos vigas maestras, de alma llena y 3,60 m de canto, convenientemente arriostradas entre sí.

  15. El puente Zwenberg, en Kärnten – Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the civil engineering work connected with the new layout of the Tauern railway, one of the most difficult railway sections ever constructed in the world. It includes a number of concrete arch bridges, with 120 m, 150 m, and 200 m spans. Additionally there is a 535 m long suspension bridge. By means of these structures the old railway layout, which was in very poor condition, has been almost completely altered.En este artículo se describen las obras de fábrica realizadas en el nuevo trazado del ferrocarril de subida al Tauern, uno de los tramos de vía más difíciles que se han construido en el mundo. Se trata de varios puentes de arco de hormigón, con luces de 120, 150 y 200 m, además de un puente colgante de 535 m de longitud. Con estas estructuras se cambia casi totalmente el antiguo trazado en el que las obras de fábrica se encontraban muy deterioradas.

  16. Pelvic floor tenderness in the etiology of superficial dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Paul J; Mui, Justin; Allaire, Catherine; Williams, Christina

    2014-11-01

    To calculate the prevalence of pelvic floor tenderness in the population of women with pelvic pain and to determine its implications for symptoms of pelvic pain. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with pelvic pain at a tertiary referral centre. Pelvic floor tenderness was defined as levator ani tenderness on at least one side during single digit pelvic examination. The prevalence of pelvic floor tenderness in this cohort of women with pelvic pain was compared with the prevalence in a cohort of women without pain attending a gynaecology clinic. In the women with pelvic pain, multiple regression was performed to determine which variables were independently associated with pelvic floor tenderness. The prevalence of pelvic floor tenderness was 40% (75/189) in the cohort with pelvic pain, significantly greater than the prevalence of 13% (4/32) in the cohort without pain (OR 4.61; 95% CI 1.55 to 13.7, P = 0.005). On multiple logistic regression, superficial dyspareunia (OR 4.45; 95% CI 1.86 to 10.7, P = 0.001), abdominal wall pain (OR 4.04; 95% CI 1.44 to 11.3, P = 0.005), and bladder base tenderness (OR 4.65; 95% CI 1.87 to 11.6, P = 0.001) were independently associated with pelvic floor tenderness. Pelvic floor tenderness was similarly present in women with or without underlying endometriosis. Pelvic floor tenderness is common in women with pelvic pain, with or without endometriosis, and is a contributor to superficial dyspareunia. Pelvic floor tenderness was also associated with abdominal wall pain and bladder base tenderness, suggesting that nervous system sensitization is involved in the etiology of pelvic floor tenderness.

  17. 75 lecciones aprendidas en programas de alfabetización informacional en universidades iberoamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Tirado, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide a systemized and organized presentation of the lessons learned from the most representative programs of Information Literacy in Ibero-American universities. A model was applied to capture lessons learned based on the triangulation of different sources of information and research methods (analysis of literature and websites, interviews, surveys, etc.... This resulted in the identification of 75 lessons learned, categorized by four main components, that can serve as a guide to be used by Ibero-American universities that have already initiated the design and implementation of training programs in Information Literacy, as well as those just beginning this process.El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una sistematización y organización de las lecciones aprendidas desde los programas más representativos de Alfabetización Informacional –ALFIN– en universidades iberoamericanas. Tras la aplicación de un modelo de captura de lecciones aprendidas basado en la triangulación de diferentes fuentes de información y métodos de investigación (análisis de la literatura y sitios web, entrevistas, encuestas, etc., se ofrece como resultado las 75 lecciones aprendidas identificadas, categorizadas según cuatro grandes componentes, para que a modo de guía puedan ser utilizadas por las universidades iberoamericanas iniciadas y/o principiantes en el diseño de sus programas de formación en Alfabetización Informacional.

  18. Las “Lecciones Académicas” de Evangelista Torricelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Herrera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En las Lecciones Académicas (“Lezioni accademiche”, Torricelli a la manera divulgativa dibujó un boceto de bastantes de sus ideas científicas, algunas novedosas, como la circulación general de la atmósfera. El estilo culto e irónico, pero informal, que utilizó le permitió exponer conceptos que de otra manera, dadas las circunstancias, hubiera sido casi imposible. En estas notas muestro algunos ejemplos.

  19. LECCIONES DE LA CRISIS DEL EURO PARA LA COOPERACIÓN FINANCIERA REGIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarteche, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    La cooperación financiera regional (CFR) busca asegurar liquidez a los bancos centrales, construir y mantener el riesgo regional relativamente homogéneo. Un aspecto de la CFR son los requisitos fiscales para asegurar la estabilidad y homogeneidad de precios de los países miembros. La unidad de cuentas regional requiere de un fondo de estabilización y de un fondo de rescate de la deuda para asegurar los spreads. El presente trabajo revisa las lecciones para América Latina del funcionamiento de...

  20. Obra de Eduardo Torroja: puentes. Informes de la Construcción N° 131, 1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, C.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Con motivo de la conferencia sobre ''Puentes modernos", del cursillo para Inspectores y Jefes de la Dirección General de Carreteras, en el Instituto Técnico de la Construcción, el conferenciante, profesor Fernández Casado, comenzó su disertación con la siguiente exposición de la obra de Eduardo Torroja en el ramo de puentes.

  1. Ejecución de puentes pretensados por voladizos sucesivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available The system of construction whereby successive extensions of a cantilevered structure are carried out has made it possible to extend, to an extraordinary extent, the free spans of straight section prestressed concrete bridges. At present the Bendorf bridge is being constructed, whose central span is 358 m long. This system was first used in Brazil, for the construction of an ordinary reinforced concrete bridge over the river Peixe. But the method fell into disuse, except for very few exceptions, until Firsterwalder again brought it up to date 20 years later, when building the Neckar bridge, made of prestressed concrete. With this new technique all the advantages of the system could be exploited, as well as achieving a very rapid construction. This constructional procedure leads directly to the structural type known as compensate cantilevers. T shaped cells are attached together by means of prestressing cables to form advancing cantilevers. Thereby a total bridge structure is formed, whose span is twice that of each cantilevered half. This method can be applied to other bridge types, such as dintels with overhanging sections (this was the first new application, single span portal frames, T portal frames, continuous beams, etc. The typical constructional method is to move the formwork, which is anchored and cantilevered beyond the constructed part. A weekly progress of 3,50 m is normal. It is also possible to employ prefabricated sections, which are successively joined to the ones already in place. (Owing to the length of this article, it will be published in several successive issues.El sistema de construcción por voladizos sucesivos ha permitido ampliar, de modo extraordinario, las luces de los puentes de tramo recto de hormigón pretensado. Actualmente se construye el puente de Bendorf con tramo central de 258 metros. Se utilizó por primera vez en Brasil para la construcción de un puente de hormigón armado normal sobre el río Peixe, pero

  2. Puente sobre el Veveyse, en la carretera N-9, Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constructions Mécaniques de Vevey, Ateliers de

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the full development of the project, the site research and the actual construction of this interesting bridge. The bridge has a curved planform, and consists of two parallel structures, supported on concrete piles. These were built with sliding formwork. The deck is prestressed concrete and supporting metal box girders, which were assembled by successive overhangs.Se describe en el artículo el proceso completo de proyecto, estudios del terreno y ejecución de este interesante puente, de planta curva, compuesto de dos elementos gemelos y paralelos, construido a base de pilas de hormigón —realizadas con auxilio de encofrados deslizantes— y tablero de hormigón pretensado, soportado por estructura metálica con vigas cajón, colocadas por el sistema de lanzamientos sucesivos.

  3. Puente Kohlbrand Sobre el Elba Hamburgo -Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwab, Rudolf

    1976-02-01

    Full Text Available The suspension bridge, in the port of Hamburg, is one of the most important engineering works in northern Germany. The work is divided into three sectors: 1 The eastern accommodation ramp, 2,410 m long. 2 The bridge across the river bed, 520 m long. 3 The western accommodation ramp, -,050 meters. The bridge is 17.60 m wide and has four traffic lanes. Sectors 1 and 3 were solved by means of prestressed concrete superstructures, with one or two cell box girders. Sector 2 has a 325 m span between the two piers and a 54 m high and 150 m ship passage. The central piers that rise 130 m above the ground consist of a base of reinforced concrete and a 98 m high metallic part, formed by a box of bolted and subsequently welded beams. In the upper part of this last part are the connections for the suspension cables for the overhanging part of the bridge. The construction works were carried out beginning with sectors 1 and 3 on both sides of the river simultaneously. Once these were completed and the piers were raised, the work.El puente elevado de Kohlbrand, en el puerto de Hamburgo, es una de las obras de ingeniería más importantes de la parte norte de Alemania. La obra se divide en tres sectores: 1° La rampa este de acceso, de 2.410 m. 2° El puente sobre el cauce del río, de 520 m. 3° La rampa oeste de acceso, de 1.050 m. El puente tiene 17,60 m de anchura y cuatro carriles. Los sectores 1.» y 3.° se resolvieron mediante superestructuras de hormigón pretensado, con vigas cajón de una o dos células. El sector 2.° posee una luz de 325 m entre las dos pilas principales, y una altura útil de paso sobre el nivel del agua de 54 m en un ancho de 150 m. Las pilas centrales, de 130 m de altura sobre la cota del terreno, se hallan constituidas por una base de hormigón armado y una parte metálica de 98 m de altura, formada por un cajón de vigas atornilladas y posteriormente soldadas. En la parte superior de esta última se

  4. Ejecución de puentes pretensados por voladizos sucesivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of construction whereby successive extensions of a cantilevered structure are carried out has made it possible to extend, to an extraordinary extent, the free spans of straight section prestressed concrete bridges. At present the Bendorf bridge is being constructed, whose central span in 258 ms long. This system was first used in Brazil, for the construction of an ordinary reinforced concrete bridge over the river Peixe. But the method fell into disuse, except for very few exceptions, until Firsterwalder against brought it up to date 20 years later, when building the Neckar bridge, made of prestressed concrete. With new technique all the advantages of the system could be exploited, as well as achieving a very rapid construction. This constructional procedure leads directly to the structural type known as compensated cantilevers. T shaped cells are attached together by means of prestressing cables to form advancing cantilevers. Thereby a total bridge structure is formed, whose span is twice that of each cantilevered half. This method can be applied to other bridge types, such as dintels with overhanging sections (this was the first new application, single span portal frames, T portal frames, continuous beams, etc. The typical constructional method is to move the formwork, which is anchored and cantilevered beyond the constructed part. A weekly progress of 3,50 ms is normal. It is also possible to employ prefabricated sections, which are successively joined to the ones already in place. (Owing to the length of this article, it will be published in several successive issues.El sistema de construcción por voladizos sucesivos ha permitido ampliar, de modo extraordinario, las luces de los puentes de tramo recto de hormigón pretensado. Actualmente se construye el puente de Bendorf con tramo central de 258 metros. Se utilizó por primera vez en Brasil para la construcción de un puente de hormigón armado normal sobre el río Peixe, pero

  5. Puente sobre el río Enns, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polensky & Zöllner, Constructora

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available A road bridge has been recently opened over the Enns river at Steyr (Austria. The purpose is to improve traffic and avoid the bottlenecks that often took place. The bridge is supplemented by three other works of lesser importance, namely two bridges and a tunnel for pedestrians. The bridge structure supporting the decks is cellular, box type. It has three compartments, and four vertical partitions, whose thickness varies from 6 m over the intermediate piles to 2.30 m at the crown. There are three spans, of 47, 101 and 70 m length. The bridge intrados forms a smooth curve. Two overhangs extend from the central structure, and provide sidewalks for pedestrians: the deck itself having a width of 17 m. The structure was made in successive overhangs, in 3.50 m sections. Longitudinal prestressing, by means of PZ-A-100 type cables, was done by applying an initial loading of 120 t. The cables run in tubes. After the concrete had reached a suitable strength, the cables were stretched. The tubes were then filled with cement mortar, and in this operation air suction equipment was utilised to make sure that no air cavities were left.Se ha construido y puesto en servicio un puente para carretera sobre el río Enns en Steyr (Austria, con objeto de mejorar la circulación de vehículos y evitar las congestiones que se producían frecuentemente. Complementan al puente otras tres obras de menor importancia, constituidas por dos puentes y un túnel para el paso de peatones. La estructura que soporta el tablero es celular, tipo cajón, de tres células y cuatro almas y tabiques verticales, con canto variable desde 6 m sobre las pilas intermedias a 2,30 m en la clave. El puente se subdivide en tres tramos de 47, 101 y 70 m de luz, respectivamente. El intradós sigue el perfil de una curva suave. Del cuerpo de la estructura salen dos ménsulas que soportan los dos andenes para peatones, quedando el tablero con una anchura total de 17 metros. La estructura se construy

  6. Puente sobre el río Tevere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morandi, Riccardo

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This bridge has a prestressed concrete deck, and the rest of the structure is ordinary reinforced concrete. It has three cantilevered spans. The central one is 58 m long, and the two lateral ones are each 51 m in length. The spanning structure includes several prestressed ribs, which were made at the workshop. As the ground was not sufficiently resistant, the foundations were built on piles, which have been placed both under the lateral and intermediate springers. The bridge has an overall width of 26 m. The pavement is separated into two independent carriageways by means of a central platform, which divides the traffic in opposite directions. The joints between the cantilevered sections of the arches, and the central girders, run diagonally to the plane of the deck. Thereby it is intended that differential settlements of the supporting bridge structure will not cause accidental cracking of the concrete.Este puente lleva tablero de hormigón pretensado y el resto es de hormigón ordinario, presentando tres tramos, tipo cantilever, con 58 m de luz en el central, y dos laterales de 51 m de luz cada uno. La estructura que cierra cada tramo se compone de varios nervios pretensados, hormigonados en taller. Como el terreno no presentaba garantías suficientes de sustentación fue necesario el empleo de pilotes, tanto en las pilas como en los dos estribos. La anchura total del puente es de 26 m, quedando dividida la cálzala en dos partes independientes por un macizo central que encauza y separa el tráfico en dos direcciones. Las juntas achaflanadas existentes entre las dos extremidades—en contacto—de las ménsulas y de las vigas de cierre tienen la misión de evitar, en lo posible, el agrietamiento accidental del hormigón que pudieran ocasionar los asientos diferenciales en los soportes.

  7. Refuerzo de puentes existentes por cambio de esquema estático. Aplicación al puente San Luís en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Saavedra, Matías Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Debido a la existencia de pilas de puentes ubicadas en cauces de río con socavación, en muchos casos pueden acabar fallando las estructuras por problemas en las aimentaciones de las pilas, siendo necesario tomar medidas para su refuerzo. En el presente trabajo se plantea el refuerzo de puentes de luz pequeña y mediana, de varios vanos, con sistema de simple apoyo o continuo, planteando la modificación del esquema estático mediante la construcción de un arco tipo “network”, en el cual el...

  8. El observatorio metropolitano de Toluca: lecciones, propuestas y desafíos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Álvarez-Lobato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan las principales lecciones aprendidas durante la construcción del Observatorio Metropolitano de Toluca (METROSUM, se hacen propuestas puntuales orientadas a construir mejores observatorios urbanos y se identifican los desafíos más importantes que enfrentará la Red de Observatorios Urbanos Locales de México (Red OUL, que impulsa UN-Habitat y el gobierno federal mexicano. Las lecciones y las propuestas que aquí se comparten tienen como objetivo acortar la curva de aprendizaje de los interesados en la construcción de observatorios urbanos. Por su parte, los retos que se identifican pueden ser insumos útiles para diseñar las respuestas institucionales que garanticen la sostenibilidad de la Red OUL. Este artículo se inscribe en el campo de la escasa literatura especializada que trata de orientar la construcción de observatorios urbanos en países en desarrollo.

  9. Proteomics approach as a new way to predict tenderness as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteomics approach as a new way to predict tenderness as compared to the classical South African Beef Carcass Classification System. ... collected from Nguni breed animals, snap frozen and stored at −80 ºC for further use in search of protein markers that can be used to predict tenderness in a non-invasive manner.

  10. 18 CFR 5.19 - Tendering notice and schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tendering notice and schedule. 5.19 Section 5.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.19 Tendering notice and schedule. (a)...

  11. Towards the establishment of a relevant national tender price index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. There is currently only one published tender price index available in South Africa for use by built-environment practitioners. The purpose of this article is to report on an investigation into the nature of a more recent tender price index. A literature study was conducted to examine the theory of indices in order to.

  12. Assessment of Computer Software Usage for Estimating and Tender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this research is to evaluate the level of computer software usage for estimating and tender analysis while also assessing the challenges faced by Nigerian Quantity Surveyors in using computer software for estimating and tender analysis. The survey design methodology was adopted for this research.

  13. municipal tender awards and internal appeals by unsuccessful bidders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IT

    3.3.1 The facts in Lohan Civil-Tebogo Joint Venture. In this case, the municipality called for tenders in respect of certain road works. A firm of consulting engineers evaluated the tenders and recommended that only three bidders (Lohan, Moeletsi and Tau Pele) had the necessary capacity and experience to complete the ...

  14. El terremoto de Nicoya, lecciones aprendidas y por aprender : sistematización de las conclusiones de los talleres de lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gordo, Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las emergencias y desastres, junto a su potencial destructivo y la alteración de las condiciones de vida de las poblaciones y territorios en los cuales impactan, traen consigo un aprendizaje que merece ser rescatado y asimilado para reducir las vulnerabilidades. Durante los últimos 20 años, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS/OMS realiza esfuerzos de sistematización de las lecciones aprendidas que han dejado en eventos en diferentes países de la región, a fin de reflexionar sobre aquellos aspectos de la atención de la emergencia y de la respuesta a los desastres que se pueden mejorar y en los cuales se puede aumentar la capacidad de preparación y respuesta de los países para hacer frente a estas situaciones. Tras el terremoto de Nicoya, ocurrido en Costa Rica en septiembre de 2012, la OPS/OMS, en coordinación con la Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos y Atención de Emergencias (CNE, el Ministerio de Salud y la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, realizó una serie de talleres con funcionarios e instituciones vinculadas a la respuesta al terremoto, a fin de extraer las principales lecciones aprendidas y por aprender. Como parte de ese esfuerzo se publicó el documento Terremoto de Nicoya. Costa Rica. 5 de septiembre de 2012. Informe de sistematización de las conclusiones de los talleres de lecciones aprendidas, de cuyos principales hallazgos se incluyen en este artículo Emergencies and disasters, together with their potential for destruction and the alteration of the living conditions of the populations and territories they impact, are important sources of learning that deserves to be rescued and assimilated to reduce vulnerabilities. During the last 20 years, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO has developed an important effort to systematize the lessons learned from these events in different countries of the region in order to think about those aspects related to the attention of the emergency

  15. Puente sobre el río Parramatta, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available A bridge is now being built at Gladesville, Australia, of reinforced and prestressed concrete, which having a span of 277 m, will be the largest of its type in the world. The main arch consists of four parallel ribs, each 277 m in span. These ribs are hollow, and constitute the main structure of the arch. There are four secondary access spans on each side. The initial project was somewhat altered by the Sydney Dept. of Public Works. Each of the four main ribs of the central arch leaves 36 m clear height for fluvial navigation. The arched ribs are made up of 108 hollow units, each weighing 50 tons. At suitable intervals a number of transversal, prestressed diaphragms have been fitted, which serve to mutually stabilise the ribs. On the ribs a palisade of vertical supports carry the bridge deck. This is 22 m wide and has two sidewalks, each 1.80 m wide. The prestressed deck girders were made at two nearby workshops, one on each side of the bridge. The construction of the ribs was completed with the aid of a metallic scaffolding, which was moved from one rib to the next and served for the erection of all of them. Prestressing was done with Freyssinet type plane jacks. These were placed between the rib units, which were compressed, at the same as forcing the arch to lift off the scaffolding. After the oil had compressed the concrete, it was substituted by cement mortar. The operation was repeated at various points for each rib.En Gladesville, Sydney (Australia, se construye un puente, de hormigón armado y pretensado, que, por sus 277 m de luz, será el mayor de los hasta hoy construidos en arco. Está formado por cuatro arcos o nervios huecos como tramo central, de 277 m de luz, y cuatro tramos de acceso a uno y otro lado. El proyecto inicial sufrió alguna variante que introdujo el Departamento de Obras Públicas de Sydney. Cada uno de los cuatro arcos del tramo central, que deja una altura libre de 36 m para la navegación fluvial, se ha

  16. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  17. Puente para la autopista Lausana-San Mauricio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofer, Roland

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available As Switzerland is modernising its road network, and the National Exhibition at Lausanne will also place increased demands on road transport, the construction of the new bridge over the river Sorge has been urgently started. This bridge has two independent sections for the traffic in each direction. During the first phase a single bridge was built, and later a second one will be added. Present day Swiss road specifications are being used for the design of these structures. The bridge is about 180 ms long, runs 40 m over the valley, and consists of three spans, of 48, 82 and 48 m length. Its concrete deck is a box section, whose depth varies between 1.80 m at the springers, to 4.40 m, over the piles. The central span has been built cantilevering it from either side, and the other spans according to the standard practice in these cases. Owing to the great height of the piles, and the poor quality of the soil, a very detailed study of the subsoil was necessary, both below the piles, and at the two extremities of the bridge. A special source of difficulty was the calculation of the various positive and negative deflections that had to be foreseen so that the two cantilevered branches should meet at the centre span. To achieve this, the prestressing cables, and their loading were planned most accurately.La modernización de la red nacional de carreteras en Suiza, y la apertura de la Exposición Nacional de Lausana que motivará un aumento considerable del tráfico, han dado como resultado el comienzo urgente de las obras del nuevo puente sobre el río Sorge, con dos direcciones independientes. En la primera fase se construyó un solo puente y, posteriormente se construirá el otro, apoyándose para su cálculo y disposición en las normas suizas vigentes. El puente tiene unos 180 m de longitud total, se eleva unos 40 m sobre el fondo del valle, tiene tres tramos de 48, 82 y 48 m de luz, respectivamente; es de hormigón y el tablero está formado por

  18. The "Mentor Paper" Writing Assignment in One Community College Puente Class: Preliminary Report from a Participant Observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazden, Courtney B.

    An educator participating in a community college Puente class as both participant and observer analyzes the structure and experience of one writing assignment representative of the program's objectives. The Puente program combines teaching, counseling, and mentoring to California community college students as a means of promoting learning,…

  19. El puente de Brotonne sobre el Sena - Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campenon, -

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available This bridge solves the connection problem between Rouen and Le Havre. The need to preserve the maritime tradition of Rouen and to permit the heavy shipping traffic through the estuary forced a structural design which main part, 696.5 m long, consists of a 5-span triss-braced bridge. The central span, 320 m long, is the longest pre-stressed concrete span in the world. The structure also includes two access ramps. This article analyses the features and construction procedures of each element in the structure, namely: — Foundations, consisting on cylindrical piers for the main spans and piers on piles for the access ramps and viaducts. — The curved octagonal piles, creating an interesting aesthetical effect. — The deck consisting on a single monocelular girder, formed by twincore wedged, pieces, prestressed in all directions. — The tower with a constant 2.60 dimension crosswise and tapered from 4.80 to 2.84 meters lengthwise. — Tensors, prestressing, etc.

    Este puente resuelve el problema de comunicación entre Rouen y Le Havre. La necesidad de respetar la tradición marítima de Rouen y la navegación de barcos de gran tonelaje obligó a realizar una estructura cuya obra principal, de una longitud de 696,5 m, es un puente atirantado que tiene cinco tramos, de los cuales el central, de 320 m, constituye el récord del mundo de luz en hormigón pretensado. La estructura comprende, además, dos viaductos de acceso. En este artículo se hace un análisis de las características y procedimientos de construcción de cada uno de los elementos que componen la obra: — Las cimentaciones, que son columnas cilíndricas para las pilas principales, y sobre pilotes en las pilas de los viaductos de acceso. — Las pilas, de forma octogonal curvilínea, que producen un gran efecto estético. — El tablero es una viga monocelular, formada por dovelas de dos almas pretensadas en todas direcciones. — Las torres, cuya sección es

  20. El puente Río de Janeiro- Niteroi Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard, -

    1978-10-01

    Full Text Available This bridge, later given the name of the former Brazilian President Costa e Silva— as the construction was initiated during his term of office — signifies the completion of one of the most ambitious and demanding civil engineering projects in South America. Not only is It important on account of its length —the bridge crosses Guanabara Bay from the city of Río de Janeiro to the prosperous and expansive city of Niteroi on the opposite shore—, but also because of its strategic situation which makes it possible to connect the highway network of the south of the country with those of the north, thus creating a continuous line of Communications stretching along 4,000 km on the Atlantic coast. The bridge, 13,900 m long —8,900 of which are over the water—, is the fifth longest in the world, and in its central part has a span of 300 m and a height of 60 m, which allows access and departure of large ships in the Guanabara Bay. Most certainly it will play of role of vital importance in the future development of Brazil.

    El Puente Costa e Silva, que cruza la Bahía de Guanabara uniendo las ciudades de Río de Janeiro y Niteroi, alcanza, con sus 13.900 m de longitud, el quinto lugar del mundo, siendo el primero, entre los de vigas, por los 300 m de luz de su arcada principal. La construcción de un puente de estas proporciones sobre las aguas de la bahía, a 3 km de la costa más cercana, presentó, como es natural, toda una serie de dificultades de índole técnica, a las que hubo que añadir los cortos plazos de ejecución prescritos para la obra. Considerando ambos factores se optó por un sistema de construcción basado en la prefabricación de la estructura en unidades de gran tamaño que, posteriormente, serían izadas a las pilas de hormigón por medio de gatos especiales. La solución adoptada eliminó la necesidad de efectuar prolongados trabajos de construcción y montaje sobre el agua, con toda la gama de riesgos que esto

  1. Sustitución del tablero del puente Omaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara, Misao

    1963-04-01

    Full Text Available The Omaru Bridge, which carries the railway track to the Kyushu Island, in Japan, had a metallic superstructure, and as the bridge is close to the sea, had been subjected to the corrosion effect of sea water. As upkeep expenses were high and such structures suffer rapidly from these corrosion effects, the possibility of substituting these metal girders by prefabricated prestressed structures was investigated. The problem of this particular case is a general one, and the solution adopted in the case of the Omaru Bridge is in the nature of an initial trial, that could be applied more generally, after detail improvements, to other metal structures, where the damage of corrosion is increasingly serious. This paper describes in detail the method of preparing the girders, the technique of substitution, auxiliary equipment, prefabrication, etc.El puente Omaru, sobre el que pasa la línea férrea de la isla Kyushu, del Japón, era de superestructura metálica, y se hallaba sometido a los efectos corrosivos del agua marina, ya que la obra está en las inmediaciones del mar. Como los gastos de conservación son elevados y las estructuras metálicas sufren rápidamente los efectos de la corrosión, se estudió la posibilidad de sustituir las actuales vigas metálicas por otras, prefabricadas, de hormigón pretensado. El problema planteado aquí es general, y la solución adoptada para tal sustitución en el puente de Omaru es como un ensayo previo, con el fin de poderla extender, debidamente perfeccionada, a otras estructuras, también metálicas, en las que la corrosión se deja sentir con intensidad y gravedad crecientes. La preparación de vigas, métodos empleados para la sustitución, tren auxiliar, como material móvil y prefabricación, son objeto de descripción detallada en este trabajo.

  2. Evaluación de las leyes: lecciones de la criminología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rubio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se argumenta que la labor de evaluar el impacto de las leyes no puede ser un ejercicio teórico sino que requiere un enfoque especializado, empírico, local y multidisciplinario. De la criminología, una disciplina auxiliar del derecho penal, se pueden obtener valiosas lecciones prácticas, teóricas y normativas, por ejemplo, en su manera de abordar el tema de la recolección de información. También se hace referencia a sus enseñanzas teóricas para el debate conceptual sobre el crimen y se sugieren pautas metodológicas para evaluar el impacto de las reformas legales.

  3. Lecciones desatendidas entorno a la epidemia de dengue en Argentina, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A Bernardini Zambrini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo es una reflexión acerca del impacto de la epidemia 2009 en Argentina, con 26.000 afectados y seis muertes, y como las consecuencias pudieron haber sido mucho menores si hubiese existido dialogo y entendimiento entre epidemiología y política sanitaria. La falta de preparación, la descoordinación en la respuesta y el impacto sobre la población, confirman la brecha existente entre la evidencia científica y la toma de decisión política. La epidemiologia y la política sanitaria tienen distintas prioridades, distintos tiempos y distinta escala de valores. Las lecciones de la epidemia de 2009 deberían servir para acercar estos dos pilares de la salud publica de cara al beneficio de la comunidad, que al fin, es el objetivo común.

  4. Los viaductos de acceso al puente de Martigues – Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzo, R.

    1972-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the approaches to a large metal bridge 300 m in length. These approaches consist of two viaducts whose decks are continuous beams of prestressed concrete 260 and 315 m long; spans in both viaducts are 45 m long. The cross section is a slab with two 3 m deep ribs; there are no stiffeners, neither between the spans nor over the supports. The two structures have been constructed with spans of 45 m over a self-supporting formwork which has proven very efficient.Se describen los accesos a un gran puente metálico, de 300 m de longitud. Dichos accesos están constituidos por dos viaductos cuyos tableros son vigas continuas, de hormigón pretensado, de 260 y 315 m de longitud; las luces en ambos viaductos son de 45 m. La sección transversal es una losa con dos nervios de 3 m de canto; no existen riostras ni en los vanos ni sobre los apoyos. Las dos estructuras se han construido por tramos de 45 m sobre una cimbra autolanzable, que ha permitido muy buenos rendimientos.

  5. Nuevo puente para el oleoducto de Europa Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani, G.

    1971-04-01

    Full Text Available This bridge runs over the Po river, near Pavia, and is 1,370 m long. It is divided into spans of 36 m length each. The horizontal structure of the bridge consists of sets of four continuous girders, running over six spans, and two continuous girders, extending over seven spans. The piles are 14 m high and 1.50 m in diameter, and rest on the extension of the foundation piles. This article describes details of the project and the system of placing the continuous girders.Este puente, construido sobre el río Po, cerca de Pavía, tiene una longitud total de 1.370 m, dividida en tramos de 36 m de longitud, salvados por cuatro vigas continuas, de 6 vanos, y dos vigas continuas, de 7 vanos. Las pilas, de 14 m de altura y 1,50 m de diámetro, se han construido sobre la prolongación de los pilotes de cimientos. El artículo explica las particularidades de la obra y el procedimiento de lanzamiento adoptado.

  6. El nuevo puente sobre el río Pisuerga de la ronda sur de Valladolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arenas de Pablo, J. J.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The project for the work of a new bridge over Pisuerga river is described in this article. Considering how peculiar the topography of the place is, the idea of a truss-bridge is suggested, planning its construction thinking of the bearings that have to support the bridge and its constructive system, intending first its durability.

    Se describe el proyecto de obra del nuevo puente sobre el río Pisuerga. Teniendo en cuenta lo peculiar de la topografía del lugar, se sugiere la idea de puente atirantado, planteándose su construcción en el tipo de apoyos que ha de presentar dicho puente y su sistema constructivo, considerando, de manera especial, su durabilidad.

  7. Lecciones de la Gran Depresión para la recuperación económica en 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina D. Romer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo compara la Gran Depresión de los años treinta con la actual crisis mundial y presenta algunas lecciones útiles para el diseño de políticas que permitan superar la crisis y comenzar una recuperación firme. Una de esas lecciones es que una expansión fiscal pequeña sólo tiene efectos pequeños y que una expansión monetaria puede ayudar a sanear la economía aunque las tasas de interés sean cercanas a cero. Además, los diseñadores de política se deben abstener de reducir los estímulos antes de tiempo y considerar que la recuperación financiera y la recuperación real van juntas.

  8. Tenderizing spent fowl meat with calcium chloride. 3. Biochemical characteristics of tenderized breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmahmudi; Sams, A R

    1997-03-01

    Biochemical characteristics of spent fowl meat injected with calcium chloride or sodium chloride were evaluated. Hot-boned breast fillets were injected to 10% (wt/wt) with 0.3 M CaCl2 or 0.6 M NaCl, tumbled, and aged 24 h. Tumbling was conducted at 20 C, -635 mm Hg, 20 rpm for 1 h. Hot-boned and cold-boned (24 h) fillets were used as controls. One fillet from each carcass was baked and sheared with an Allo-Kramer cell, whereas the other fillet was used for biochemical analysis. Shear values indicated that both CaCl2- and NaCl-treated samples had significantly (P 0.05) to cold-boned samples. The CaCl2 injection treatment significantly elevated (P 0.05) among all treatments, which indicated that CaCl2 or NaCl did not contribute to meat tenderness through degradative changes in collagen. Calpain data indicated that mu-calpain had disappeared by 24 h aging in all treatments. The m-calpain activity was significantly lower (P 0.05) to that of hot-boned controls. Sarcomeres of CaCl2-treated samples were significantly shorter (P 0.05) to those of hot-boned controls, and were shorter than those of NaCl-treated muscles. The sarcomere length and calpain data suggest that CaCl2 tenderized fillets by ionic strength and calcium-specific effects (possibly a proteolytic action), whereas the NaCl solution tenderized by ionic strength effect at a similar conductivity level to that of the CaCl2 solution.

  9. Puente Beaucaire sobre el río Ródano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available El puente Beaucaire, de 462 m de longitud total, es una estructura de hormigón pretensado, de cinco tramos de 81,20 m de luz cada uno. El puente salva el río Ródano y une la aglomeración de Beaucaire con la de Tarascón (Francia, siguiendo el trazado de la carretera nacional número 99. La anchura total es de 13 m, de los que se han reservado cuatro para los dos andenes de dos metros de anchura.

  10. Análisis de estabilidad en puentes largos tipo pony

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Castaño, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo considera la estabilidad general de dos puentes de armadura de paso a través intermedio, con luces de 81 m y 99 m de longitud, por medio de un análisis de pandeo lineal elástico. Como resultado de este análisis se obtuvo la carga crítica, la cual se comparo con los resultados obtenidos al aplicar los requisitos del Código Colombiano de Diseño Sísmico de Puentes (artículos A.9.16.12.1 y A.9.16.12.2).

  11. Análisis de estabilidad en puentes largos tipo Pony

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Contreras Castaño

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo considera la estabilidad general de dos puentes de armadura de paso a través intermedio, con luces de 81 m y 99 m de longitud, por medio de un análisis de pandeo lineal elástico. Como resultado de este análisis se obtuvo la carga crítica, la cual se comparo con los resultados obtenidos al aplicar los requisitos del Código Colombiano de Diseño Sísmico de Puentes (artículos A.9.16.12.1 y A.9.16.12.2).

  12. La Reforma del ingeniero Luis de Justo en el puente medieval de Zamora (1905-1907)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier RODRÍGUEZ MÉNDEZ; Andrés Rodrigo, Héctor; Rubio Cavero, Manuel Pablo; García Gago, Jesús María

    2011-01-01

    En su dilatada existencia, el puente de piedra sobre el Duero en Zamora ha sufrido transformaciones constantes. Transformaciones que han sido necesarias para paliar los efectos devastadores de las endémicas crecidas que asolaron los barrios bajos de la ciudad. A finales del siglo XIX, su estado era tan preocupante que se decidió cerrarlo al tráfico y sustituirlo por otro, aguas arriba de éste. Conseguida para la ciudad la construcción de un nuevo puente de estructura metálica, se propusieron ...

  13. Socavación al pie de estribos de puentes en lechos no cohesivos

    OpenAIRE

    Venegas Espinoza, Zocimo

    2011-01-01

    Gran número de puentes para cruzar corrientes de agua, están expuestos a la ocurrencia de fenómenos hidrológicos extremos, con el consiguiente riesgo de socavación al pie de subestructuras (pilares y estribos). El presente trabajo es el resultado de pruebas de laboratorio del fenómeno de socavación al pie de estribos de puentes en lechos no cohesivos, para el cual se han realizado 135 ensayos de socavación, utilizando materiales no cohesivo fino y grueso, estribos de formas rectangulares,...

  14. Palpation for muscular tenderness in the anterior chest wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.W.; Vach, W.; Manniche, C.

    2003-01-01

    palpating for intercostal tenderness or tenderness in the minor and major pectoral muscles in a population of patients with and without chest pain. This may hamper the ability of clinicians to diagnose and classify the musculoskeletal component of chest pain if based exclusively on palpation of the anterior......OBJECTIVE: To asses the interobserver and intraobserver reliability (in terms of day-to-day and hour-to-hour reliability) of palpation for muscular tenderness in the anterior chest wall. DESIGN: A repeated measures designs was used. SETTING: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University...... Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Two experienced chiropractors examined 29 patients and 27 subjects in the interobserver part, and 1 of the 2 chiropractors examined 14 patients and 15 subjects in the intraobserver studies. INTERVENTION: Palpation for muscular tenderness was done in 14 predetermined areas...

  15. CORRUPTION IN THE FIELD OF TENDERING IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Azem Hajdari

    2015-01-01

    Kosovo as many world countries is facing numerous challenges such as: organized crime, corruption generally, including corruption in the field of tendering. These harmful p henomena are causing dissatisfaction among citizens, especially due to the fact that the punishment of their perpetrators is indicating stagnation and other big uncertainties. Corruption in the field of tendering in Kosovo is manifested in many different forms. The conseque...

  16. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning defects...

  17. Puente sobre el río Ain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-02-01

    against the deforming effect of the wind.Como consecuencia de la construcción del nuevo embalse sobre el río Ain, las aguas de éste se han elevado considerablemente sobre los niveles asignados a la cota media de desagüe del puente suspendido existente en las inmediaciones de Serrières-sur-Ain. Por ello, se ha tenido que pensar en la sustitución de esta obra por otra moderna y de capacidad suficiente para las exigencias del tráfico actual. En este artículo se reseñan los datos más importantes de esta obra, entre los que, resumiendo, diremos que el nuevo puente salva el río con un arco de hormigón armado, de 120 m de luz, de intradós circular, tablero apoyado sobre una palizada levantada a partir del extradós del arco y con una flecha máxima de 30 m en la clave del arco. El tablero sostiene una calzada de 7 m de anchura y lleva dos andenes, de 1 m de anchura cada uno, para el paso de peatones.

  18. Puentes de carretera de montaña, Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendel, Palmer y Tritton, Ingenieros

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available The new layout of the road between Hirwaun and Abergavenny, in the Welsh district known as «Heads of the Valleys», has involved the construction of four new bridges, which because of the difficult terrain, were very carefully designed before the best solution could be discovered. Traditional methods would have required the use of much scaffolding and tall supports, owing to the depth of the gorges to be traversed. Hence progressive cantilevering from either side of the span was chosen. In three of the four bridges the final method was the one mentioned above. In the other, a treble portal frame, resting on two intermediate slender supports, hinged at their base, was preferred. The first three bridges are all of very similar construction: in each case an initial mass at the springer was concreted, to which additional sections, each 3 m long, were added, and attached by means of prestressed reinforcement. The fourth bridge was built with double T girders, cantilevered in 3 m sections. The 3 m spaces between the chords of parallel girders were concreted at the site. A set of four of these girders, and the slabs between the chords, constitute a box girders, and the depth of this structure decreases from 4.50 ms over the supports to 1.50 m at the crown. The mixed system of prefabricated units, and slabs, concreted at the site, was made possible because of the prestressing.La reforma del trazado de la carretera entre Hirwaun y Abergavenny, en la zona denominada «Heads of the Valleys», ha motivado la construcción de cuatro nuevos puentes que, por su situación y por lo accidentado del terreno, fueron objeto de particular estudio a fin de lograr una solución óptima. La adopción de métodos tradicionales exigía el empleo de grandes cimbras y soportes por la profundidad de las depresiones salvadas. Por ello se recurrió a los sistemas de construcción en voladizos. La solución definitiva fue, pues, de arco en voladizo, en tres de los cuatro

  19. La alteridad como puente para la trascendencia ética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Solla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo tiene como objetivo auscultar la alteridad como puente para la trascendencia ética. El trabajo se desarrolla como un estudio documental de tipo expositivo, ya que en él se exponen diferentes investigaciones en las cuales se visualiza al otro como pilar importante para el desarrollo del ser humano en el campo educativo, visto éste como un ser que debe hacerse humano en su relación con los otros estudiantes, es decir en la propia interrelación cotidiana. Sirven las investigaciones de Heidegger (1967, Pérez Sánchez y Poveda-Serra (2008, Kusch (2007, Rich Harris (1999, Lévinas (2000, Merleau-Ponty (1962, Valles (2004, Buber (1980, Delors (1996, Salmerón (2010, Savater (1997, Dominique (2008, Hobbes (1967, Wojtyla (1976, Gadamer (1998, Cabenellas y Eslava (2001, Morín (2007 y Nietzsche (1979 como antecedentes teóricos al estudio del otro y su trascendencia ética. Cada parte de este ensayo está identificado con títulos como: Apertura del ser en el horizonte, Encuentro con el otro, Los sentidos del otro en nosotros, El individuo en la competencia social ciudadana del otro en el entorno educativo, La Trascendencia del otro y Trascendencia ética los cuales llevan al lector a comprender a su semejante a través de las relaciones que desarrolla con su par. Finalmente, se presenta como corolario que el convivir en alteridad coadyuva a la trascendencia de las ideas éticas-humanas a pesar del rompimiento causado por el distanciamiento de la partida o muerte.

  20. Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Puente Hills Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Recent geologic studies have identified the seismic potential of the Puente Hills fault system. This system is comprised of multiple blind thrust segments, a portion of which ruptured in the Mw 5.9 Whittier-Narrows earthquake. Rupture of the entire system could generate a Mw 7.2 (or larger) earthquake. To assess the potential hazard posed by the fault system, we have simulated the response for several earthquake scenarios. These simulations are unprecedented in scope and scale. Broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions are computed at 66,000 sites, covering most of the LA metropolitan region. Low frequency (f 1 Hz) motions are calculated using a stochastic approach. We consider scenarios ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 7.2, including both high and low stress drop events. Finite-fault rupture models for these scenarios are generated following a wavenumber filtering technique (K-2 model) that has been calibrated against recent earthquakes. In all scenarios, strong rupture directivity channels large amplitude pulses of motion directly into the Los Angeles basin, which then propagate southward as basin surface waves. Typically, the waveforms near downtown Los Angeles are dominated by a strong, concentrated pulse of motion. At Long Beach (across the LA basin from the rupture) the waveforms are dominated by late arriving longer period surface waves. The great density of sites used in the calculation allows the construction of detailed maps of various ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, SA), as well as full animations of the propagating broadband wave field. Additionally, the broadband time histories are available for use in non-linear response analyses of built structures.

  1. Puente sobre el Rin en Arnhem – Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this bridge was to carry the dense traffic across the Rhein existing in the Arnhem area. Its central stretch has a width of 37.40 m with two roadways: — the westbound roadway with two lanes for motor traffic, and ��� the eastbound roadway with two lanes for motor traffic and another for bicycles and motorbykes. The decking for the central and lateral sections was built using the method of successive cantilevers, while the oval-shaped access ramp was built using conventional forming and scaffolding. The aesthetics of the bridge was very much taken into account both in the design and in the finishing touches.

    Este puente se proyectó para hacer frente al denso tráfico sobre el Rin existente en esa zona de Arnhem. Tiene una anchura, en el tramo central, de 37,40 m con dos calzadas: — la occidental, con dos carriles en cada sentido para el tráfico automovilístico, y — la oriental, con dos carriles para el transporte público, y una pista para ciclistas y usuarios de ciclomotores. El tablero para el tramo central y los laterales se construyó por el método de voladizos sucesivos, mientras que la rampa de planta ovalada se realizó sobre cimbras convencionales. En el acabado y construcción de la obra se tuvo muy en cuenta el aspecto estético.

  2. Nuevo puente colgante sobre el Tigris, en Bagdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann, Boynton, Gronquist, London, Ingenieros

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available This suspension bridge is the first of its type built in Irak. Its structure is mainly of steel, though the deck is a compound construction of steel and concrete. It has three spans: a central one of 168 m length, and two lateral ones, each 84 m long. There are also two approach spans, each of 23 m, which have been made necessary due to the weakness of the soil. This is also the reason why the abutments do not support the load on the cables, so that the structure is anchored to itself: to achieve this the foundations have been reinforced with steel. The cables consist of 37 chords, each having 91 cables, of 4.5 mm diameter each, and a permissible stress of 158 kg/mm2. The piles are protected with screens of metal sheetpiling.Este puente colgante es el primero de su tipo construido en Irak. Su estructura fundamental es de acero; y el tablero mixto, de acero y hormigón. Consta de tres tramos, uno central de 168 m de luz y dos laterales, de 84 m de luz cada uno, más dos accesos, de 23 m, que fue preciso construir debido a la poca resistencia del terreno. Esta es también la causa de que los estribos no soporten la tensión de los cables, y de que la estructura esté anclada en sí misma, para lo cual se reforzó la cimentación con armaduras de acero. Los cables están constituidos por 37 cordones, y cada cordón, por 91 alambres de 4,5 mm Ø y una resistencia de 158 kg/mm2. Las pilas van protegidas con cortinas de tablestacas metálicas.

  3. Puentes de origen romano en torno a la ciudad de Capera: el puente de Caparra y el Pontón del Guijo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús ACERO PÉREZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un breve análisis y aportar nuevas informaciones y materiales al estudio de dos puentes tradicionalmente atribuidos a época romana y levantados en las proximidades de la antigua ciudad de Capera o Caparra. Ambos puentes se situarían en un ramal secundario que se desviaría de la "Vía de la Plata" a la altura de Capera para conectar transversalmente con la vía que ponía en comunicación Caurium con Mirobriga. En cuanto a su cronología, un repaso al panorama general de Capera permite relacionar la construcción del puente con el acceso de la ciudad al estatus de municipium flavium.ABSTRACT: The point of this work is to carry out a brief analysis and to provide new information and materials for the study of two bridges traditionally attributed to Roman times and erected around the ancient Capera or Caparra. Both bridges would be in a secondary Roman road which would branch off towards the "Vía de la Plata" as far up as Capera in order to link up across with the Roman road which connected Caurium and Mirobriga. As for the chronology of the two bridges, a review of the general outlook of Capera allows us to relate the building of these bridges with the access of the town to the status of municipium flavium.

  4. Glioblastoma de células gigantes en puente de Varolio

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1985-01-01

    Once imágenes de un glioblastoma de células gigantes situado en el puente de Varolio en un paciente de 4 años. Eleven pictures of a giant cell glioblastoma located in the pons of a 4-year-old male patient.

  5. Evolución de los puentes en la historia reciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manterola, Javier

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of high-resistance steels and concrete, the possibility of using, when best it suits us, part of the actions which bridges require, new morphologies such as orthotropic slabs for metallic bridges or the stretching of planks and the development of new construction processes, have given rise to a tremendous speeding up in the evolution of bridgebuilding since the Second World War. This article reviews the evolution of bridgebuilding {metallic, suspension and stretched bridges over the last forty years.La aparición de aceros y hormigones de alta resistencia, la posibilidad de utilizar, a nuestra conveniencia, parte de las acciones que solicitan el puente, las morfologías nuevas como la losa ortótropa para los puentes metálicos o el atirantamiento de los tableros y el desarrollo de nuevos procesos constructivos, han introducido una fuerte aceleración en la evolución de los puentes desde la segunda guerra mundial hasta ahora. . En este artículo se pasa revista a la evolución de los puentes de fábrica, metálicos, colgados y atirantados en los últimos cuarenta años.

  6. Socializing and Mentoring College Students of Color: The Puente Project as an Exemplary Celebratory Socialization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the literature on mentoring and the role of organizational socialization, then presents highlights from the Puente Project, a California community college program, as an exemplary model that addresses the needs of first-generation Latino college students from a cultural context. The paper discusses program successes and notes implications…

  7. Puentes. Puente de Mackinac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinman, David B.

    1958-11-01

    Full Text Available En el número 82 de nuestra revista se publicó un trabajo que se refería únicamente a la infraestructura de esta importante obra. En esta segunda parte damos a conocer las características más sobresalientes de la propia superestructura, estabilidad, métodos constructivos empleados en el montaje y el procedimiento que se ha seguido para lograr colocar los cables, de 12.500 toneladas de peso total, sobre las dos torres del tramo central, de 1.158 m de luz, método que ha consistido en formar los cables, partiendo de las bobinas de alambre, en la propia obra.

  8. El puente Verrazano-Narrows, en Nueva York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the new Verrazano Narrows bridge, at the entrance to the New York harbour, signifies an outstanding triumph for civil engineering. Although the span of the Golden Gate bridge is very similar to this span the constructive methods, and many details, differ in essential aspects. Firstly, the very short time taken in the construction is notable and also the great accuracy of calculation of many of its features. For instance, the sphericity of the earth has been taken into account, in determining the span between the axes of the towers, at the top and bottom parts of these. A multicellular box, used for the foundation of the towers is of great interest. This has made it possible to reach the solid ground, starting from an artificial island, with full stability and safety. This structure means an increase in existing bridge spans, and new possibilities arise. On the other hand, the problem of the total life of such a structure remains, especially in this case, since the cables and anchorage are situated in a highly corrosive environment, such as the air over the sea. One of the main artificers of this great work is the venerable Aurmann, from whom such rich experience and knowledge has been passed on to us.La entrada en servicio del nuevo puente Verrazano-Narrows, situado en la bocana del puerto de Nueva York, ha constituido un resonante éxito para la ingeniería civil. Aunque la luz del Golden Gate es muy similar a la de esta obra, los métodos constructivos y no pocos detalles difieren esencialmente. Resalta en primer lugar el reducido período de tiempo empleado en la ejecución y el derroche de precisiones en cada una de sus partes, entre ellas el considerar la esfericidad terrestre para determinar la luz entre ejes de torres en la parte superior e inferior de las mismas. Constituye notable interés el cajón multicelular empleado para cimientos de las torres, que ha permitido llegar al firme, partiendo de un islote artificial

  9. Puente sobre el río Quequen Salado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisoni, C. J.

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available This bridge has a single span, 60 m in length, and has a maximum rise of 9 m. It is made of reinforced concrete. In this project the authors tested in practice a number of theoretical investigations which they had previously carried out on the influence which the shape of a structure has on its strength and stability. They finally arrived at a solution consisting of a single reinforced concrete arch, of polygonal outline, which thereby has an increased moment of inertia, and is more similar to a hollow section. It has less weight, and is very slender. Due to the reduction in weight, the formwork is cheaper, and the stiffness is considerably improved by the addition of a series of suitably spaced diaphragms. Another feature of this project is that the arch has two hinges, one at each springer, and this causes part of the structure to be hyperstatic.El puente sobre el río Quequen Salado, de hormigón armado, tiene 60 m de luz en su tramo único y 9 m de flecha máxima. Los autores del proyecto, que estudiaron con anterioridad la influencia que la forma de una estructura puede tener en la estabilidad y resistencia de la obra, aprovecharon la oportunidad que ahora se les brindaba para comprobar experimentalmente las ideas instituidas en los estudios de orden teórico realizados. De todos estos ensayos resultó la solución adoptada, que consiste en un solo arco, de hormigón armado, con sección transversal de forma poligonal o quebrada, que por un lado gana inercia y por otro se asemeja a las secciones huecas; es de reducido peso y gran esbeltez. Como consecuencia del aligeramiento de peso propio, la cimbra resulta más económica; y la. rigidez se ve considerablemente aumentada con la introducción de unos diafragmas convenientemente espaciados. Otra particularidad de esta obra la constituye la presencia de dos articulaciones, una para arranque, lo que introduce un estado hiperestático en estas partes de la obra.

  10. "Socavación en pilas y estribos del puente Cuate II Nueva Italia - Arteaga km 160.312"

    OpenAIRE

    Osornio Alegre, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Al llevar a cabo el proyecto de un puente es importante predecir la magnitud de la erosión que el flujo de agua puede provocar en el terreno donde se desplantará su cimentación. La mayoría de las fallas registradas en México son provocadas por socavación en sus apoyos. Es importante el cálculo de la socavación en la construción y diseño de puentes ya que si se conoce la magitud de la socavación total, se estará en posibilidad de construir puentes más estables, la construcción de un puente imp...

  11. Association between Neck/Shoulder Pain and Trapezius Muscle Tenderness in Office Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2014-01-01

    the previous three months on a scale of 0–10 and palpable tenderness of the upper trapezius muscle on a scale of “no tenderness,” “some tenderness,” or “severe tenderness.” Odds ratios for tenderness as a function of neck/shoulder pain intensity were determined using cumulative logistic regression controlled......Background. Neck/shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder among adults.The pain is often assumed to be related to muscular tenderness rather than serious chronic disease. Aim. To determine the association between neck/shoulder pain intensity and trapezius muscle tenderness in office...... interval 1.70 to 2.04). Conclusion. In office workers, a strong association between perceived neck/shoulder pain intensity and trapeziusmuscle tenderness exists.The present study provides reference values of pain intensity among office workers with no, some, and severe tenderness of the trapezius muscle....

  12. ALBERT O. HIRSCHMAN Y LA ECONOMÍA DEL DESARROLLO: LECCIONES PARA EL PRESENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Hurtado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Albert Hirschman vivió casi cinco años en Colombia, donde según él, adquirió un punto de vista. Este punto de vista le permitió formular una aproximación original al desarrollo, alejada de las grandes teorías y del mero empirismo; lo llamó una estrategia de desarrollo y, en ella, resaltaba los eslabonamientos entre sectores productivos pero, sobre todo, las habilidades, creencias y expectativas necesarias, y muchas veces inexplotadas, para hacer posible un proceso dinámico de toma de decisiones. Estaba convencido de que los individuos eran más que simples beneficiarios de las políticas de desarrollo y los veía como agentes activos de sus propios procesos. Este artículo, después de explorar su punto de vista, presenta las posibles lecciones de Hirschman a la economía del desarrollo actual, en general, y al método de experimentos sociales controlados, en particular.

  13. Transposiciones complejas y corazón de Taussig-Bing. Lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Caffarena Calvar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Al revisar la literatura de las formas complejas de la transposición de grandes arterias (D-TGA invariablemente encontramos entremezclados sin distinción los corazones de Taussig-Bing. Esto supone en nuestra opinión un tremendo error conceptual, dado que las formas complejas de D-TGA y el corazón de Taussig-Bing son diferentes entidades desde el punto de vista anatómico y fisiológico, también con diferentes posibilidades de tratamiento quirúrgico. Basado en las lecciones aprendidas durante la cirugía de estos pacientes, es intención de los autores presentar las diferencias anatómicas y fisiopatológicas de ambas malformaciones, así como describir las diferentes opciones quirúrgicas utilizadas para obtener la corrección completa de estas desafiantes anomalías cardíacas del recién nacido.

  14. LA REFORMA ESTRUCTURAL DE LAS PENSIONES DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL EN AMERICA LATINA: MODELOS, CARACTERISTICAS, RESULTADOSY LECCIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mesa Lago

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La reforma estructural de las pensiones de la seguridad social es un tema de debate internacional y América Latina ha sido pionera en dicha reforma, tiene una experiencia acumulada de dos décadas y ha ejercido una influencia importante en otras regiones del mundo. Este artículo recopila información legal y estadística sobre dicha reforma en diez países latinoamericanos, con el fin de acometer tres tareas: (I analizar los tres modelos generales diversos seguidos y apuntar las características de las reformas entre los países;(II evaluar el desempeño de la reforma contrastándola con nueve supuestos convencionales sobre sus efectos (en la cobertura, el pago de las cotizaciones, la competencia y el costo administrativo, el impacto en el ahorro nacional, el rendimiento de la inversión, etc; y (III extraer lecciones de estas reformas que sean útiles para la región y otros países.

  15. Calls for Tender and Market Surveys Roles and Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, L

    2000-01-01

    ST division has implemented certain procedures to handle the calls for tender and market surveys. In January 1998, the division leader set up the 'call-for-tender co-ordination office' to check and approve each technical document leaving the division. The mandate of the call-for-tender co-ordination office is to check the quality of the documents, in order for these documents to be as clear as possible in terms of both content and structure. The role of this office is to contribute positively and give service to the people writing the documents, and not to give negative criticism. The aim of this paper is to present the mandate of the office, how papers are processed, and to draw up a first result summary.

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.260 - Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA? 102-118.260 Section 102-118.260 Public Contracts and..., Tenders Or Contracts § 102-118.260 Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to... submitted with the tender: (1) Issuing TSP, Bureau, Agency or Conference. (2) Tender number. (3) Standard...

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS ESTADÍSTICAS DE COLAPSO DE PUENTES EN COLOMBIA POR CARGAS EXPLOSIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Carrillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se presentan y discuten los datos registrados del colapso de puentes en Colombia por cargas explosivas originadas por atentados terroristas entre 1994 y 2014. El estudio incluye un análisis estadístico en términos de la ubicación, las características, el tipo y material con el cual estaban construidos los puentes. Este análisis demostró que la mayoría de los puentes colapsados se encontraban en lugares que actualmente son clasificados como «zonas rojas» del país. El estudio también incluye el análisis de los impactos económicos, sociales y políticos ocasionados por el colapso del puente ubicado sobre el río Riecito en el Caquetá. Este puente fue rehabilitado por medio de puentes móviles tipo Acrow pertenecientes al Ejército Nacional de Colombia e instalado y supervisado por el Instituto Nacional de Vías, INVIAS.

  18. Semisubmersible rigs attractive for tender-assisted drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranter, P. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-19

    Tender-assisted drilling (TAD) involves the use of tender support vessel (TSV) during the drilling phase of platform development to provide drilling utilities to the platform-mounted drilling package. The TSV provides facilities such as mud mixing, storage, pumping, bulk storage, hotel accommodations, and power. Thus, the platform topsides and jacket weight and size can be smaller and less expensive. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of TAD, then describes the TAD vessel, semisubmersible, platform cost savings, accommodations, drilling and workovers, and field experience.

  19. Etnoturismo en el cantón de Buenos Aires, Costa Rica. Retos y lecciones de aprendidas

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbado Morales, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa de Investigación en Desarrollo Urbano Sostenible. 2014 El artículo sintetiza los resultados arrojados por la investigación sobre rutas inter cantonales con el componente etnoturístico en la Región Brunca de Costa Rica (financiado por el Programa PNUD y gestionado por el Ministerio de Economía y Comercio de Costa Rica). El objetivo del estudio consiste en presentar las lecciones aprendidas y los retos de 11 ...

  20. Puente pretensado sobre el río Main

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoht, Hans

    1965-04-01

    Full Text Available This project, which was adjudicated to the firm Polensky & Zöllner, consists of a prestressed concrete bridge of three spans, 85, 140 and 85 m in length. Their shape and slenderness is well adapted to the natural beauty of the surrounding scenery. The axes of the bridge and of the river make an angle of 72° with respect to each other. Also, the bridge, in planform, is a circular arc of 1400 m radius. In the vertical plane, the outline of the bridge is also a circular arc, but of 14000 m radius. Its concavity faces upwards, and the lowest point is near the crown. The concreting of the two box girders, which support the pavement and sidewalks, has been carried out by a combined method of cantilevering and moveable formwork. The formwork was supported by a sliding framework, which could be shifted from place to place, as the overhanging section of the girders increased. This framework enabled a section 7 by 3.5 m in area to be constructed. Work started at a pillar, and developed simultaneously on both sides of it. The prestressing has been the main aspect of the mixed type of construction adopted. The construction by sections, and the large number of longitudinal and transversal cables has required special care in anchoring and aligning the cables. To avoid cracking, a number of helix shaped tubes were placed in the fresh concrete to absorb the hydration heat of the setting concrete. During the process of construction the girders were rigidly joined to the piles, so that the whole bridge structure became a single monolithic unit.El proyecto definitivo, adjudicado por concurso a la empresa Polensky & Zöllner, consiste en una estructura de hormigón pretensado de tres tramos, de 85, 140 y 85 m de luz, respectivamente, y cuya forma y esbeltez se adaptará a la belleza natural del paisaje local. Los ejes del puente y río forman un ángulo de 72°, y el de la calzada es una línea circular de 1.400 m de radio. En el plano vertical, el perfil del

  1. Seroprevalencia de Leptospirosis en Puente Piedra, Lima en el año 2006 Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Puente Piedra, Lima, in 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Patrick LaRochelle; Kalina Campos; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Ricaldi, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    La leptospirosis es una enfermedad ampliamente prevalente en áreas tropicales, pero también se presenta en áreas urbanas. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la seroprevalencia para Leptospira en el distrito de Puente Piedra, donde se han presentado casos de leptospirosis severa en los últimos años. Se recolectaron datos relacionados a factores de riesgo asociados con leptospirosis y muestras de sangre de 250 participantes, seleccionados por un muestreo aleatorio. Se encontró u...

  2. Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The steaks were evaluated by visual analysis for colour, marbling, fibre separation, surface texture and structure integrity by a 10-member trained panel. Colour was also measured by the CIE L*, a*, b* system using a Minolta meter, and tenderness was measured by means of Warner-Bratzler shear force. High negative ...

  3. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 240.17Ad-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a) Establishing book-entry depository accounts. When securities of a subject company have been declared eligible...

  4. Tendering and decision-making: a case on pharmaceutical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, S.; Vieira, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to contain expenditures for pharmaceuticals, the latest healthcare reforms have focused on decentralising German pharmaceutical market. Health insurance funds are now able to tender the products and subsequently conclude rebate contracts with one or more companies. Considering the enormous

  5. Comparison of shear force tenderness, drip and cooking loss, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the effects of breed (Brahman, Bonsmara, Simbrah and Simmental crosses) and post-mortem ageing on meat tenderness, purge, cooking loss and ultimate pH of the longissimus muscle under commercial production and slaughter conditions of the Namibian beef export industry. Fifty steers of each ...

  6. High-temperature tenderizing of beef sides: bacterial considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, K E; Marsh, B B; Lochner, J V

    1982-01-01

    A microbiological study of an experimental beef-tenderizing treatment, in which lean sides are held at 37 degrees C until transfer to a chiller at 3 h postmortem, was made. The treatment did not cause a significant increase in bacterial numbers or a proliferation of potential pathogens or food-spoiling organisms.

  7. Validating the 28-tender joint count using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Taal, Erik; Kuper, I.H.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the construct validity of the 28-tender joint count (TJC-28) using item response theory (IRT)-based methods. Methods: A total of 457 patients with early stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were included. Internal construct validity of the TJC-28 was evaluated by determining whether

  8. Competitive tendering in The Netherlands : Central planning vs. functional specifications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, D.M.; Lutje Schipholt, L.R.; Veeneman, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    The competitive tendering regime introduced in The Netherlands in 2001 aims at stimulating innovation in service design. One can observe, in the meantime, a variety of arrangements as transport authorities vary considerably in the level of service design freedom they give to operators, both in

  9. Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kedibone KY. Modika

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... The steaks were evaluated by visual analysis for colour, marbling, fibre separation, surface texture and structure integrity by a 10-member trained panel. Colour was also measured by the CIE L*, a*, b* system using a Minolta meter, and tenderness was measured by means of Warner-Bratzler shear force.

  10. La edad de la empatía. Lecciones de la naturaleza para una sociedad más justa y solidaria, por Fran de Waal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Milito Barone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rsseña del libro Fran de Waal, La edad de la empatía. Lecciones de la naturaleza para una sociedad más justa y solidaria (Barcelona: Tusquets Editores, 2011, 258 pp. ISBN: 978-84-8383-350-6

  11. Humedal urbano en Punta Arenas: Sustentabilidad del Proyecto Parque Ecológico Humedal Tres Puentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El Humedal Tres Puentes, ubicado en la entrada norte de Punta Arenas, es un espacio relevante desde el punto de vista ecológico y hábitat de una numerosa avifauna, uno de los más importantes de la ciudad. Sin embargo el Humedal está seriamente amenazado, dado su ubicación sobre uno de los principales vectores de crecimiento de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, en terrenos que han adquirido plusvalía paulatinamente, bien por efecto de la obra pública del Estado o por el simple crecimiento vegetativo de la ciudad que incrementa los valores del suelo con su proximidad. Este trabajo, muestra parte del proyecto de conservación "Parque Ecológico y Humedal Tres Puentes", cuyo objetivo principal es el de salvaguardar esta importante área ecológica.

  12. Métodos de definición de cargas en tirantes en puentes atirantados

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Peirotén, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Los puentes atirantados son estructuras altamente hiperestáticas y a su vez muy flexibles, sobre todo durante el proceso constructivo, debido a las grandes luces a las que están asociados. Este hecho junto con la prácticamente inevitable necesidad de recurrir a una construcción por fases y un buen número de no linealidades mecánicas y geométricas, así como los efectos reológicos y los errores de ejecución convierten el diseño y cálculo de puentes atirantados en una tarea delicada que ha de se...

  13. Shallow seismic imaging of folds above the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Shaw, John H.; Dolan, James F.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Plesch, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles image discrete folds in the shallow subsurface (Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system, Los Angeles basin, California. The profiles demonstrate late Quaternary activity at the fault tip, precisely locate the axial surfaces of folds within the upper 100 m, and constrain the geometry and kinematics of recent folding. The Santa Fe Springs segment of the Puente Hills fault zone shows an upward-narrowing kink band with an active anticlinal axial surface, consistent with fault-bend folding above an active thrust ramp. The Coyote Hills segment shows an active synclinal axial surface that coincides with the base of a 9-m-high scarp, consistent with tip-line folding or the presence of a backthrust. The seismic profiles pinpoint targets for future geologic work to constrain slip rates and ages of past events on this important fault system.

  14. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined effect of electrical stimulation and blade tenderization on some bovine muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raccach, M.; Henrickson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The electrical stimulation (ES) period was a very important factor determining the tenderness of three bovine muscles: Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), and Semimembranosus (SM). Tenderness (shear force values) increased in most cases with increasing the ES period. An ES period of 15 min was optimal for obtaining a tenderness equal to that obtained by conventional processing of beef. The shortest ES period used (1 min) was adequate in most cases to set the muscles in rigor mortis and in preventing cold shortening. The tenderness of blade tenderized muscles was in most cases independent from the ES period. Blade tenderization was very effective to tenderize the BF muscle followed in decreasing order of efficacy by the LD and SM muscles. The cooking times and cooking losses of the three muscles were not affected by either the ES period or by blade tenderization.

  16. Grounds for dispensing with public tender procedures in Government Contracting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa1 provides that organs of state must comply with five principles when procuring goods or services: procurement procedures must be fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective. In short, this means that organs of state should make use of competition when procuring goods or services. They should shop around and attract the maximum number of contractors who will participate in such competition. The aim should be the attainment of value for money, meaning, public money should be spent in an effective and efficient manner. Those who participate in competitions should also be treated fairly and without bias. In principle, no preferences should be afforded to different contractors; all contracting parties should have equal access to competition; some contractors should not be afforded more time for the preparation and submission of quotes or tenders than others; and the same information should be made available to all contracting parties. Government procurement procedures should further be transparent, meaning public or open. Thus, organs of state should not contract behind closed doors – government contracts should, as a rule, be advertised. Depending on the nature and value of a particular contract, the use of a public call for tenders is generally the best way to ensure compliance with the principles in the Constitution. By nature, a pubic call for tenders is open, it assists in the prevention of fraud and favouritism, and it ensures that the maximum number of contractors is approached to compete for a contract.Organs of state can also compare prices and quality and can contract with whoever offers the best deal. Most legislation therefore proceeds on the basis that procurement takes place by way of tendering. Generally, contracts above R200 000 are subject to public tender procedures. In certain instances, however, a public call for tenders may be inappropriate regardless of the high

  17. Instrumentación y auscultación de un puente integral

    OpenAIRE

    Corres Peiretti, Hugo; Ezeberry Parrotta, Javier Ignacio; Petschke, Tobías Philipp; Pérez Caldentey, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Las estructura integrales, en general, y los puentes, en particular, son estructuras sin juntas, generalmente, totalmente monolíticas. En estas estructuras el comportamiento frente a deformaciones impuestas, fluencia, retracción y temperatura, concomitantes con las acciones gravitatorias es determinante. La experimentación de laboratorio es inexistente, en este campo, debido a la dificultad de introducir las deformaciones impuestas. El Grupo Hormigón Estructural de la ETS de Caminos de Madrid...

  18. Recidivism and dynamics of mobile equipment theft in the town Puente Aranda, Bogota, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Ayala, Andrea Marcely; Vargas, Sandra Mireya; Lopez Riaño, Yed Milton

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the behavior of recidivism cellular theft, evidenced in the operation of catches made in 2014 in the town 16 Puente Aranda; to demonstrate this phenomenon the case study methodology was used in five subjects who have committed this crime in the area in question but have additionally made in other localities in Bogota. Revision was made in open and closed sources of information and interviews with expert actors to understand the notion of the phenomenon.

  19. Reconstrucciones históricas del puente de El Kantara en Constantine, Argelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu-Larena, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Constantine, known as the “city of bridges”, has an exceptional built heritage. Among its bridges, is analyzed as particularly significant the historical reconstructions of “El Kantara”: from the first Roman stone bridge, dated 161, up to the current concrete arch built in 1951, through the Ottoman rebuilding of 1792 and the cast iron French bridge of 1863. The article brings together historical and documentary references of its different configurations. Successive solutions reflects the technological evolution of bridges, while showing its impact on urban transformation and in the construction of the city’s identity.Constantine, conocida como la «ciudad de los puentes», reúne un patrimonio construido excepcional. Entre sus puentes, se analiza como obra especialmente significativa el de «El Kantara» y sus reconstrucciones históricas: desde el primer puente romano de piedra del año 161, hasta el actual arco de hormigón armado que data de 1951, pasando por la reconstrucción otomana de 1792 y el arco de ingeniería francesa de hierro de 1863. El artículo reúne referencias históricas y documentales de sus diferentes configuraciones. Las sucesivas soluciones ponen de manifiesto la evolución tecnológica de la construcción de puentes, a la vez que muestran su incidencia en la transformación urbana y en la propia identidad de la ciudad.

  20. Fitomejoramiento participativo del arroz de secano en Nicaragua: metodologías,resultados y lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Trouche

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En varias regiones de Nicaragua, el cultivo de arroz de secano asume un papel importante para la seguridad alimenticia de las familias campesinas, además es fuente de ingresos para éstas. Apartir del 2002, el CIRAD y el CIAT implementan en colaboración en Nicaragua un proyecto de investigación en fitomejoramiento participativo del arroz de secano dirigido a los pequeños y medianos productores.Este proyecto esta manejado en asociación con la Institución Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, varias ONGs e instituciones de extensión y organizaciones campesinas locales. En este trabajo, se describen la metodología general aplicada en el proyecto, los actores involucrados y los marcos de concertación entre los socios, las estrategias y métodos de evaluación y selección participativa aplicados y los principales resultados obtenidos al final de tres años. Esta experiencia deriva lecciones, con respecto al manejo de un proyecto de investigación asociando estrechamente fitomejoradores y productores, la selección de los socios, los métodos de trabajo, las competencias adquiridas por los actores y la diversidad genética explorada y valorizada, las que podrían ser utilizadas en la implementación de otros proyectos en este tema. Para la continuación del proyecto, los cambios de escala (scalingup, la organización de una producción descentralizada de semilla de calidad, el desarrollo de investigaciones en agronomía y la creación de un sistema permanente de evaluación y selección del arroz, reuniendo todos los actores de la cadena productiva, son los mayores retos

  1. Puentes Anchurón y Gergal – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanero, Juan

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the differences between the loads and speeds of the year the bridges were built and those nowadays, it has been necessary to update their strength and this had to be done suitably separating them, so that the operation could be performed without interrupting traffic. In both cases, the old substructure was taken advantage of, and an original solution, of undeniable interest adopted, consisting of placing a new metal bridge inside the old one. In this article, the delicate operations carried out are described, until the new bridge was put into operation and the new one broken up.Dadas las diferencias entre las cargas y velocidades del año de construcción de los puentes y las de nuestros días se hacía preciso actualizar su resistencia, y ello debía hacerse separándolos adecuadamente y de forma que la operación se realizase sin interrumpir el tráfico. En ambos casos se ha aprovechado la infraestructura antigua y adoptado una solución original de indudable interés, consistente en colocar un nuevo puente metálico dentro del antiguo. Se describen en este artículo las delicadas operaciones llevadas a cabo hasta la total puesta en carga del puente nuevo y desguace del antiguo.

  2. Puente Intercity, sobre el río Columbia EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant, Arvid

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available The Intercity Bridge over the Columbia River in the State of Washington, completed in 1978, was built in prestressed concrete using the traction method and introduces in the American bridge engineering an efficient, lasting and simple construction system. This article describes the job, the engineering studies carried out and the ways and means used to erect the structure. The 763 m Iong bridge was specially designed to achieve a high structural stability under any conceivable load, a Iong service life and low capital cost as well as a very low maintenance.

    El puente Intercity, sobre el rio Columbia en el Estado de Washington, es de tipo atirantado, de hormigón pretensado —terminado en 1978— que introduce en la ingeniería americana de puentes un sistema de construcción eficiente, duradero y simple. En este artículo se describe la obra, los estudios ingenieriles realizados y las formas y procedimientos de montaje de la estructura. El puente, de unos 763 m de longitud, se proyectó con el objetivo especial de conseguir una gran estabilidad de la estructura en cualquier hipótesis de carga, una vida de servicio larga y un bajo coste inicial, así como escaso entretenimiento.

  3. A combination of extended fuzzy AHP and fuzzy GRA for government E-tendering in hybrid fuzzy environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Yu, Dejian; Zhang, Wenyu; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering...

  4. A basis for modelling the costs of supplier selection: the economic tender quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; van Dijkhuizen, G.C.; Telgen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the decision a purchaser must make regarding the number of suppliers that should be invited to submit a tender for a certain purchase. On the one hand, the costs of sending invitations to tender, the costs of evaluating the tenders received, and the costs of communicating

  5. Seroprevalencia de Leptospirosis en Puente Piedra, Lima en el año 2006 Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Puente Piedra, Lima, in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Platts-Mills

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis es una enfermedad ampliamente prevalente en áreas tropicales, pero también se presenta en áreas urbanas. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la seroprevalencia para Leptospira en el distrito de Puente Piedra, donde se han presentado casos de leptospirosis severa en los últimos años. Se recolectaron datos relacionados a factores de riesgo asociados con leptospirosis y muestras de sangre de 250 participantes, seleccionados por un muestreo aleatorio. Se encontró una alta prevalencia de factores de riesgo en la población y, usando la prueba de aglutinación microscópica, anticuerpos circulantes contra Leptospira en solamente tres participantes (1,2%.Leptospirosis is a disease widely prevalent in tropical areas, but may also be present in urban areas. The present study aims to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira in the district of Puente Piedra, where there have been cases of severe leptospirosis in recent years. We collected data related to risk factors associated with leptospirosis and blood samples from 250 participants, selected by random sampling. We found a high prevalence of risk factors in the population and using the microscopic agglutination test, antibodies were found in only 3 participants (1.2%.

  6. Characterization of beef transcripts correlated with tenderness and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Hyun-Jung; Park, Eung-Woo; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2008-05-31

    To identify transcriptional markers for beef traits related to meat tenderness and moisture, we measured the transcriptome of the Longissimus dorsi skeletal muscle in 10 Korean native cattle (KNC). We analyzed the correlation between the beef transcriptome and measurements of four different beef traits, shear force (SF), water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), and loin eye area (LEA). We obtained non-overlapping and unique panels of genes showing strong correlations (|r|>0.8) with SF, WHC, CL, and LEA, respectively. Functional studies of these genes indicated that SF was mainly related to energy metabolism, and LEA to rRNA processing. Interestingly, our data suggested that WHC is influenced by protein metabolism. Overall, the skeletal muscle transcriptome pointed to the importance of energy and protein metabolism in determining meat quality after the aging process. The panels of transcripts for beef traits may be useful for predicting meat tenderness and moisture.

  7. Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kedibone KY. Modika

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural observations and its relationship to meat colour. K.Y. Modika1,2#, L. Frylinck1, K.W. Moloto1, P.E. Strydom1,. P.H. Heinze1 & E.C. Webb2. 1 Department of Meat Science, Agricultural Research Council – Animal Production Institute, Private Bag ...

  8. Construction Tender Subcontract Selection using Case-based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Due Luu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining competitive quotations from suitably qualified subcontractors at tender tim n significantly increase the chance of w1nmng a construction project. Amidst an increasingly growing trend to subcontracting in Australia, selecting appropriate subcontractors for a construction project can be a daunting task requiring the analysis of complex and dynamic criteria such as past performance, suitable experience, track record of competitive pricing, financial stability and so on. Subcontractor selection is plagued with uncertainty and vagueness and these conditions are difficul_t o represent in generalised sets of rules. DeciSIOns pertaining to the selection of subcontr:act?s tender time are usually based on the mtu1t1onand past experience of construction estimators. Case-based reasoning (CBR may be an appropriate method of addressing the chal_lenges of selecting subcontractors because CBR 1s able to harness the experiential knowledge of practitioners. This paper reviews the practicality and suitability of a CBR approach for subcontractor tender selection through the development of a prototype CBR procurement advisory system. In this system, subcontractor selection cases are represented by a set of attributes elicited from experienced construction estimators. The results indicate that CBR can enhance the appropriateness of the selection of subcontractors for construction projects.

  9. Exudate Protein Composition and Meat Tenderness of Broiler Breast Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, B; Gamble, G; Zhuang, H

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between meat tenderness and the protein composition of muscle exudates collected from broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem times was investigated. A total of 85 broilers were processed and breast fillets from each carcass were deboned at either 2 h (early-deboned, EB) or 24 h (control) postmortem. One fillet per carcass was used for 1 d postmortem meat tenderness measurements and the other fillet was stored at 4°C until 6 d postmortem for the collection of exudate prior to tenderness evaluation. Protein content and composition of muscle exudates were determined by a biuret assay and SDS-PAGE. Fillet pH, color, drip loss, and cook loss were also measured. Early-deboned fillets exhibited greater (P L*a*b*). Control fillets exhibited less drip loss after 6 d of storage (P = 0.005) and less cook loss at 1 and 6 d (P meat due to the combined effects of postmortem deboning time and post-deboning aging. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Tenderness indicators in salted and dried meat: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Montenegro Ishihara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Salted and dried meats are known and appreciated worldly. Their consumption is often associated to certain groups of people or particular regions, and due to this, they can be called traditional. They usually have simple technology, passed on from generation to generation and for this reason, there is much variation in the quality of these products. In Brazil charque, jerked beef and sun-dried meat stand out. Biltong, cecina de León, kilishi, kaddid and bresaola are other examples of salted and dried meats. Despite the importance of these meat products, there are no specific studies on their tenderness. Since tenderness is one of the attributes most reported by consumers, research may help the acceptance of meat products, increasing their demand. In this context, this review presents the characteristics of traditional salted and dried meat products related to processing aspects and suggested tenderness indicators - shear force, myofibrillar fragmentation index, sarcomere length, collagen quantification – to assess the softness of meat products, since they are easy to apply and include the study of the main responsible for meat softness, myofibrillar and connective tissue proteins.

  11. ALGUNAS LECCIONES SOBRE EL ACCESO A RECURSOS GENÉTICOS EN COLOMBIA. DOS ESTUDIOS DE CASO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL RICARDO NEMOGÁ SOTO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el acceso a los recursos genéticos (ARG con fines científicos o de aplicación comercial está regulado por la Decisión 391/96 de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones y sus normas reglamentarias. Durante los primeros años de su aplicación, la eficacia de esta normatividad fue casi nula resultado de deficiencias institucionales y de la falta de información e interés de los investigadores e instituciones de investigación. Con el fin de extraer lecciones sobre los procedimientos de obtención de ARG y de promover una mejor respuesta institucional de las autoridades ambientales, se examinan dos estudios de caso. La información se obtuvo de los expedientes N.o 2571 y N.o RGE0018-07 del Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (MAVDT. En la solicitud del Instituto de Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, después de siete años de trámite no ha sido posible obtener el ARG; al contrario, el MAVDT inició un proceso sancionatorio por acceso ilegal. En la solicitud de la "Unión Temporal Centro Colombiano de Genómica y Bioinformática de Ambientes Extremos GeBix" el respectivo ARG se firmó luego de 406 días de trámite. Se puede concluir que la obtención de contrato ARG, requiere conocimiento del procedimiento por parte del investigador y una respuesta adecuada en la implementación de la legislación por parte del MAVDT. Si bien actualmente el desarrollo del trámite es menos difícil para los investigadores, son necesarios ajustes institucionales y normativos para que la obtención de un contrato de ARG facilite, en lugar de obstaculizar la investigación científica.

  12. Diseño óptimo de tableros de puentes mixtos de carretera hormigón-acero

    OpenAIRE

    Taveras Mendoza, Carlos Tomás

    2014-01-01

    El desarrollo de la nanotecnología de los materiales, la búsqueda de la optimización en los proyectos de ingeniería, ha emergido una verdadera evolución en el diseño de los puentes a nivel mundial. Europa surge como el génesis de los puentes mixtos en el mundo, grandes puentes y viaductos se hacen con la tipología de viga cajón y viga bijácena mixta. España, concibe la tipología de la doble acción mixta, como alternativa de optimizar los costes del acero. En este trabajo de fin...

  13. La restauración del puente medieval sobre el río de las Truchas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Vegas; Camilla Mileto

    2008-01-01

    La restauración de este puente y entorno medieval conservados casi intactos hasta nuestros días partió de la necesidad de pasar lo más desapercibido posible para no disturbar el aura mágica del lugar. En un paisaje genuino caracterizado por las fábricas de piedra en seco, en busca de la mayor discreción posible la intervención de reparación y puesta en valor debió recurrir a esta técnica para resolver los problemas que aquejaban al puente. La reparación del pavimento de guijarros del puente d...

  14. Comentario a la Presentación del Libro "Lecciones de Historia de la Medicina"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Groot Liévano

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Sea lo primero dar las gracias al Dr. Juan Mendoza-Vega por la atención especial que ha tenido para conmigo al pedirme que haga el comentario de esta segunda edición de su conocido texto "Lecciones de Historia de la Medicina".

    Hay dos razones para tal agradecimiento: la primera, su enaltecedor concepto que tiene de mis capacidades, concepto más basado en la amistad que en la realidad, y la segunda, ella sí fundamental: el privilegio de leer esta edición bien escrita y amena como la primera pero ampliada con todos los avances de los últimos quince años. Se denomina "Lecciones" porque la modestia del autor así lo quiso pero en verdad es mucho más que eso porque en efecto se trata de un elegante resumen de la historia de la medicina desde la época mágica hasta el momento actual pasando por Grecia, Roma, el Medioevo, el aporte islámico, el Renacimiento y el mundo moderno con la aparición del concepto mecanicista, la mentalidad anatomo-patológica, la fisiopatología, la microbiología, la genética y la perspectiva de un mundo complejo en el que la biología molecular, la ingeniería genética y los avances de la informática jugarán un papel preponderante si se mantienen dentro de las normas bioéticas que convienen al hombre y a su entorno siguiendo la clásica tradición médica de servir a aquel de la mejor manera posible como lo establecía ya el Juramento Hipocrático hace dos mil cuatrocientos años.

    Cada etapa, además, aparece bellamente descrita dentro del marco socio-cultural de la época. Tan agradable y docto paseo lo presenta el Dr. Mendoza en catorce capítulos, cada uno de los cuales se anuncia, desde el propio índice del libro, con un inteligente resumen que invariablemente invita a la
    pronta lectura del respectivo texto.
    La historia es el hilo que une el pasado con el presente y le permite al hombre valorar su posición
    sobre la tierra y abrigar

  15. Presentación del Libro “Lecciones de Historia de la Medicina”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mendoza-Vega

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Esta segunda edición de las Lecciones es corrección y novedad sobre las lecciones que aparecieron hace ya 14 años, en 1989, y que editó el Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario primordialmente para texto de los alumnos de su Facultad de Medicina.

    Desde aquella época, siguiendo los dictados de Arnold Toynbee, gran historiador británico, se intentó una mirada a la historia de la medicina que saliera de lo anecdótico, que saliera de las listas de nombres y de figuras célebres y de acontecimientos, para tratar de mostrar a los estudiantes y a los lectores benévolos la relación entre lo que pensó la humanidad en determinados momentos sobre el fenómeno que hoy en castellano llamamos enfermedad y lo que fue en general la vida humana en esos momentos.

    Por supuesto, para evitar la aridez de un texto absolutamente desprovisto de anécdotas, traté de conservar también algo de los nombres, algo de las fechas y quizás mucho de las pequeñas historias alrededor de los grandes personajes de la historia de la medicina: comencé imaginando al hombre primitivo, al grupo humano más elemental, allá cuando comenzaron a pararse en las patas de atrás y a usar las de adelante para hacer cosas y me pareció que no estaba descaminado el pensar que en ese momento uno de los miembros del grupo, hombre o mujer, con un poco más de brillo en los ojos, con un poco más de inteligencia que los demás, tuvo la habilidad y tuvo el buen juicio para enfrentarse a un accidente, para tomar quizás el miembro fracturado de una accidentado e inmovilizarlo y así quitar el dolor y se hizo entonces acreedor a que los miembros del grupo y los de otros grupos con los que hiciera contacto volvieran, hacia ese miembro más inteligente, los ojos cada vez que aparecía el fenómeno de enfermedad, incluyendo el momento en que quisieron preguntarle ¿ésto por qué ocurre?

    A partir de ese momento planteo a lo largo de estas páginas, ha pasado la

  16. ANÁLISIS DE LA INTERACCIÓN HUMANO-ESTRUCTURA EN PUENTES PEATONALES DE SANTIAGO DE CALI

    OpenAIRE

    JHON ANDERSON SÁNCHEZ; DANIEL GÓMEZ; PETER THOMSON

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad, el incremento de la resistencia en nuevos materiales y las mayores luces entre apoyos hacen que los puentes peatonales sean más susceptibles a problemas de vibraciones excesivas. Infortunadamente las provisiones de las normas colombianas son limitadas para el diseño o rehabilitación de estas estructuras. En este artículo se presenta una clasificación de los puentes peatonales en Santiago de Cali que permite comparar efectos de la Interacción Humano-Estructura, aceleraciones ...

  17. Refuerzo del puente puangue en Chile mediante configuración arco tipo network. Comportamiento sísmico.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Rongish, James

    2011-01-01

    Actualmente se está estudiando una nueva técnica de reforzar puentes existentes de vigas continuas en Chile debido a la existencia de socavación en las pilas intermedias ubicadas en el cauce. Este método se basa en un cambio estático de la estructura utilizando un arco tipo network para sustentar el tablero. El tablero existente se mantiene y se utiliza como tirante para el arco con tendones pretensados. Durante el proceso constructivo el tablero se levanta y cuando actúa como puente en ar...

  18. Restauración del puente de Santa Quiteria entre Almassora y Vila-Real (Castellón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Noguera Giménez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El puente de Santa Quiteria en Castellón constituye una pieza única entre las tipologías de puentes medievales al estar construido con arcos en vez de bóvedas. La restauración que se presenta, además de plantear una recuperación estética digna de su valor monumental, aborda la solución de sus patologías estructurales intentando conjugar el respeto a los sistemas constructivos tradicionales con métodos innovadores.

  19. Estudio clínico prospectivo a 5 años de puentes posteriores de tres unidades de circona

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. En los últimos años, se han desarrollado nuevos materiales cerámicos cuyas propiedades mecánicas han mejorado notablemente, con el fin de proporcionar una mayor longevidad de las restauraciones y mejorar la resistencia a la fractura. OBJETIVOS El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar las tasas de supervivencia clínica y las complicaciones biológicas y mecánicas de puentes posteriores metal-cerámicos de tres unidades con puentes confeccionados con un sistema de óxido de circonio,...

  20. Tinnitus and its relationship with muscle tenderness in patients with headache and facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, M; Ugolini, A; Rota, E; Ferrero, L; Milani, C; Pezzoli, L; Pecorari, G; Mongini, F

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to examine tinnitus prevalence in patients with different types of headache and the relationship between tinnitus and the pericranial muscle tenderness and cervical muscle tenderness scores. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1251 patients with migraine and/or myogenous pain, arthrogenous temporomandibular joint disorders and tension-type headache. Standardised palpation of the pericranial and cervical muscles was carried out and univariable and multivariable analysis was used to measure the odds ratio of suffering tinnitus by the different diagnoses and muscular tenderness grade. A univariable analysis showed that myogenous pain, pericranial muscle tenderness and cervical muscle tenderness scores, sex, and age were associated with tinnitus. When a multivariable model including only age, sex and a headache diagnosis was used, myogenous pain, migraine and age were found to be associated with tinnitus. When muscle tenderness scores were also included, only the cervical muscle tenderness and pericranial muscle tenderness scores were found to be significantly associated with tinnitus. In a population of patients with headache and craniofacial pain, tinnitus was related to increased cervical muscle tenderness and pericranial muscle tenderness scores, rather than to any particular form of headache.

  1. Humedal urbano en Punta Arenas: Sustentabilidad del Proyecto Parque Ecológico Humedal Tres Puentes

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2015-01-01

    El Humedal Tres Puentes, ubicado en la entrada norte de Punta Arenas, es un espacio relevante desde el punto de vista ecológico y hábitat de una numerosa avifauna, uno de los más importantes de la ciudad. Sin embargo el Humedal está seriamente amenazado, dado su ubicación sobre uno de los principales vectores de crecimiento de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, en terrenos que han adquirido plusvalía paulatinamente, bien por efecto de la obra pública del Estado o por el simple crecimiento vegetativo ...

  2. CRONOTIPOS EN AVES DEL HUMEDAL DE TRES PUENTES, PUNTA ARENAS, MAGALLANES, CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Teneb, Ernesto; Gómez,Humberto; Cárcamo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Basándose en censos de aves realizadas durante 67 meses continuos en el Humedal de Tres Puentes, ubicado en la ciudad de Punta Arenas, se establecen 5 grupos significativos segregados en el tiempo, denominados cronotipos. Los resultados indican la presencia de dos cronotipos de aves migratorias, un cronotipo de aves residentes, un cronotipo de aves semi-residentes y un quinto cronotipo de aves esporádicas. Dejando en evidencia el uso regular y sistemático que estas aves hacen del humedal urba...

  3. Refuerzo de puentes de luces medias por conversión en arco atirantado tipo network

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Saavedra, Matías Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Según estudios estadísticos a nivel mundial, una de las principales causas de fallos en puentes corresponde a problemas relacionados con la interacción entre estructura e hidráulica produciendo altos costos humanos y económicos. La mayoría de las patologías se relacionan con procesos de socavación y erosión en pilas y estribos, específicamente en las cimentaciones de las pilas, siendo necesario tomar medidas para su refuerzo. Las dificultades en la inspección y mantenimiento de...

  4. Rehabilitación Puente Sobre el Río Súnuba

    OpenAIRE

    Grijalba, Stella

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación llevada a cabo en el segundo semestre del año 2009 y el primer semestre de 2010, se hizo una inspección visual detallada de todos los elementos de la estructura del puente, se efectuaron estudios de suelos junto a los estribos, topográficos del sector y a la estructura, ensayos químicos, de penetración y levantamiento de cada una de las piezas de la estructura. Se determinó la naturaleza y extensión de los daños, grietas, fisuras y g...

  5. Puente sobre el embalse de Barrios de Luna /León/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Sáiz, José Manuel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The bridge Carlos Fernández Casado covers the principal arm of the reservoir of Barrios de Luna, at the height of the former bridge of San Pedro de Luna, today covered by high waters. It is a suspension bridge with 440 m of space between its towers, with lateral bays each of 65 m. In carrying out the work the following phases were contemplated: — Counterweights. — Towers. — Braces. — Lintel. — Suspension. — Construction of the board. — Auscultation and control. The bridge is articulated in the center and with free longitudinal movement in order to permit the movements produced by retraction, flow and dilatation. This situation demands the carrying out, in the center of the bay, of a cap which permits vertical gyrations and horizontal displacements along the axle of the bridge and which prevents the rest of the movements. Both the project and the construction have been directed not only toward a viable construction from the point of view of resistance but also to obtain a balanced and esthetic work for the users of the highway.El puente Carlos Fernández Casado salva el brazo principal del embalse de Barrios de Luna, a la altura del antiguo pueblo de San Pedro de Luna, hoy inundado en aguas altas. Se trata de un puente atirantado de 440 m de luz entre sus torres, con vanos laterales de 65 m cada uno. En su ejecución se han contemplado las siguientes fases: — Contrapesos. — Torres. — Riostras. — Dintel. — Tirantes. — Construcción del tablero. — Auscultación y control. El puente está articulado en el centro y con libre movimiento longitudinal para permitir los movimientos producidos por retracción, fluencia y dilatación. Esta situación exige la ejecución, en el centro del vano, de una rótula que permita giros verticales y desplazamientos horizontales a lo largo del eje del puente y que impida el resto de los movimientos. Tanto el proyecto como la construcción se han

  6. Simulación directa del proceso constructivo de puentes atirantados sobre apoyos provisionales

    OpenAIRE

    LOZANO-GALANT, JOSE ANTONIO; Ruiz Ripoll, Lidia; Payá Zaforteza, Ignacio Javier; Xu, Dong; Turmo Coderque, José

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el Algoritmo Directo (“Direct Algorithm”, DA) para simular el proceso constructivo de puentes atirantados sobre apoyos provisionales. Este algoritmo está basado en una innovadora simulación directa de las etapas constructivas que no requiere de la aplicación del principio de superposición. Para ello se utiliza el concepto de longitud sin tesar de los tirantes (“unstressed lenght”). Dada su eficiencia computacional, entre las aplicaciones del algoritmo directo d...

  7. Recuperación de un puente metálico en Tuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldaña Martin, Federico

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the repair and recicle of a metalic bridge in steel. The new bridge has a pedestrian use because these one is situated inside of the village.En este articulo se expone el proyecto de reparación de un puente metálico situado sobre el río Tripes en Tui, provincia de Pontevedra, que estaba seriamente dañado, procediendo a su recuperación para el tráfico peatonal. al quedar enmarcado dentro de la trama urbana de la ciudad.

  8. Recidivism and dynamics of mobile equipment theft in the town Puente Aranda, Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra Ayala, Andrea Marcely

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the behavior of recidivism cellular theft, evidenced in the operation of catches made in 2014 in the town 16 Puente Aranda; to demonstrate this phenomenon the case study methodology was used in five subjects who have committed this crime in the area in question but have additionally made in other localities in Bogota. Revision was made in open and closed sources of information and interviews with expert actors to understand the notion of the phenomenon.

  9. Puente a trasplante cardiaco con oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea

    OpenAIRE

    Torregrosa Puerta, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    PUENTE A TRASPLANTE CARDIACO CON OXIGENACIÓN DE MEMBRANA EXTRACORPÓREA Objetivos: Los nuevos sistemas de Oxigenación de Membrana Extracorpórea (ECMO) han presentado un desarrollo tecnológico notable, fundamentalmente debido a la incorporación de oxigenadores y bombas centrífugas de larga duración, lo cual ha conducido a una importante mejoría en la supervivencia de los pacientes en shock cardiogénico refractario tratados con este tipo de asistencia mecánica circulatoria de corta duración. ...

  10. 155. Paciente con asistencia periférica con oxigenador de membrana extracorpórea como puente a asistencia y asistencia levitronix biventricular como puente a la recuperación. 1 + 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Sarralde

    2012-04-01

    Conclusión: La asistencia ECMO también tiene indicación como puente a otra asistencia. La asistencia Levitronix uni o biventricular está indicada y con buenos resultados para la recuperación miocárdica.

  11. Establishing tenderness thresholds of Venezuelan beef steaks using consumer and trained sensory panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-González, A; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Jerez-Timaure, N; Miller, M F

    2009-10-01

    The tenderness thresholds for ribeye steaks at 2d postmortem were found by using sensory trained (n=734 steaks) and consumers panel data (55 ribeye steaks and 296 consumers). Also, consumers' perceptions of sensory attributes of beef steaks were assessed to establish their relationships and to determine acceptability levels. The tenderness threshold obtained by regression analysis from trained panelists was 37.98N (3.87kg). Customer satisfaction of 81% was obtained when beef steaks had Warner-Bratzler shear force values (WBSF) less than 40.13N (4.09kg), suggesting that 40.13N could be considered as a tenderness threshold to segregate tough from tender steaks, for Venezuelan beef consumers. According to correlation and regression analyses, consumers focused on flavor to assign their overall liking score. Results suggest that consumers are able to detect changes in tenderness of steaks with different WBSF and that flavor drives customer satisfaction when the beef tenderness is acceptable.

  12. Loss estimates for a Puente Hills blind-thrust earthquake in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E.H.; Seligson, H.A.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Campbell, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    Based on OpenSHA and HAZUS-MH, we present loss estimates for an earthquake rupture on the recently identified Puente Hills blind-thrust fault beneath Los Angeles. Given a range of possible magnitudes and ground motion models, and presuming a full fault rupture, we estimate the total economic loss to be between $82 and $252 billion. This range is not only considerably higher than a previous estimate of $69 billion, but also implies the event would be the costliest disaster in U.S. history. The analysis has also provided the following predictions: 3,000-18,000 fatalities, 142,000-735,000 displaced households, 42,000-211,000 in need of short-term public shelter, and 30,000-99,000 tons of debris generated. Finally, we show that the choice of ground motion model can be more influential than the earthquake magnitude, and that reducing this epistemic uncertainty (e.g., via model improvement and/or rejection) could reduce the uncertainty of the loss estimates by up to a factor of two. We note that a full Puente Hills fault rupture is a rare event (once every ???3,000 years), and that other seismic sources pose significant risk as well. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  13. Antonio E. Puente: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Antonio E. Puente as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. "For his decades of efforts to enhance the recognition of psychologists in providing health care services, through his work with the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Panel to develop and maintain appropriate CPT codes for the breadth of professional practice; for his willingness to participate in litigation establishing the expertise of neuropsychologists to testify in court about their findings; for his tireless work in cross-cultural assessment relative to criminal trials; for his leadership of professional societies in clinical neuropsychology; for his promotion of legislation and policy at all levels of government; and for his countless other contributions to the enhancement of independent practice in psychology. Antonio Puente is a far-thinking visionary who freely shares his knowledge to improve the quality of psychological practice and the reimbursement system that attests to the worth of the profession. He is the very embodiment of the psychologist for whom this award is intended." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. COMPORTAMIENTO ESTRUCTURAL DE PUENTES EXTRADOSADOS DURANTE CONSTRUCCIÓN POR VOLADIZOS SUCESIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benjumea Royero

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el estudio del comportamiento durante construcción por voladizos sucesivos de un puente extradosado en concreto de tres luces (60+100+60 m, modelado numéricamente mediante elementos finitos en el software SAP2000. La fluencia y contracción del concreto, al igual que los efectos P-delta, se incluyeron en el modelamiento. El estudio se concentró en el comportamiento del tablero, los cables y los pilares, durante construcción y desde el momento del cierre hasta cincuenta años después, tiempo en el cual han ocurrido los efectos diferidos. Los resultados encontrados permiten vislumbrar la importancia de la consideración de estos efectos en el análisis por etapas del puente. Por ejemplo, en el tablero ocurren variaciones considerables en fuerzas internas y desplazamientos en el tiempo, y en los cables tiene lugar una pérdida de tensión máxima del 10 % con respecto a la tensión al final de construcción. En los pilares, los efectos diferidos en el tiempo causan desplazamientos horizontales de magnitud considerable en la corona, generando momentos flectores excesivos en la base. Lo anterior obliga a introducir una fuerza durante la construcción de la dovela de cierre para corregir dicho fenómeno.

  15. ANÁLISIS DE LA INTERACCIÓN HUMANO-ESTRUCTURA EN PUENTES PEATONALES DE SANTIAGO DE CALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON ANDERSON SÁNCHEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, el incremento de la resistencia en nuevos materiales y las mayores luces entre apoyos hacen que los puentes peatonales sean más susceptibles a problemas de vibraciones excesivas. Infortunadamente las provisiones de las normas colombianas son limitadas para el diseño o rehabilitación de estas estructuras. En este artículo se presenta una clasificación de los puentes peatonales en Santiago de Cali que permite comparar efectos de la Interacción Humano-Estructura, aceleraciones máximas y frecuencias naturales, con los criterios de vibraciones para diseño especificados en las principales normas. Aunque en los 19 puentes estudiados no se superaron los límites de aceleraciones establecidas por las normas por una persona al caminar, 16 de los puentes presentaron vibraciones que generaron incomodidad en los peatones. En consecuencia, se recomienda que futuras normas colombianas establezcan valores límites de aceleraciones y frecuencias naturales en función del desempeño según niveles de comodidad y seguridad percibida por los peatones.

  16. Injection-site lesions: incidence, tissue histology, collagen concentration, and muscle tenderness in beef rounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, M. H; Morgan, J. B; Glock, R. D; Tatum, J. D; Schmidt, G. R; Sofos, J. N; Cowman, G. L; Smith, G. C

    1995-01-01

    .... Two additional experiments were conducted to examine the subsequent effects of pharmaceutical administration on tissue histology, soluble and insoluble collagen concentration, and muscle tenderness...

  17. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted......, as well as pH decline and more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization with lower (P ... tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of activation of µ-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle....

  18. El patrimonio histórico de las obras públicas y su conservación: los puentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Troyano, Leonardo

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available There exists in Spain an important civil works historical patrimony to which attention has to be paid. Until the end of XVIII century the only technology to build durable bridges was the stone arch. In our century traffic necessities and technologies in bridge construction have changed significantly. This fact implies a change in mind about historical bridges and a decision between one of these possibilites: aAn adaptation to new necessities with a substantial transformation of the bridge even in its formal characteristics. bA substitution by means of a new bridge. The old bridge looses its function and is abandoned until final destruction. The object of this paper is to study both options and problems which arise from them.Existe en España un importante patrimonio histórico de obras públicas al que debe darse la debida atención en este aspecto. Hasta finales del siglo XVIII la única técnica utilizada para hacer puentes durables era la de arcos de piedra. En nuestro siglo las exigencias del tráfico y las técnicas de construcción de puentes han variado radicalmente. Ello supone una variación de actitud respecto de los puentes históricos y obliga a optar por una de estas dos posibilidades: aAdaptarlos a las necesidades actuales del tráfico, lo que supone una transformación sustancial del puente con fuerte deterioro de sus cualidades formales. bSustituirlos por un nuevo puente. El puente antiguo se queda sin función y, por tanto, pierde su carácter de obra de ingeniería. En general se abandona totalmente, deteriorándose hasta su hundimiento. El estudio de estas opciones y de los problemas que se plantean en estos puentes es la intención fundamental del presente artículo.

  19. Microwave as a rapid cooking method for beef tenderness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Douglas R G; Fernandez, Ludimila C; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo R; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2017-11-20

    Semitendinosus (ST) muscle steaks were grouped according to three locations (proximal, middle, and distal end), grilled to endpoint temperature of 71C or cooked for 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60 s in a microwave oven (Mw). The location did not affect (p > .05) the cooking loss (CL) or shear force (SF) values. The CL increased (p  .05) from the grill samples. None of the microwaves' SF values were different (p > .05) from the grill values, with treatments Mw30 to Mw50 showing moderate repeatability (R = 0.51-0.60) and Mw30 and Mw60 showing higher correlations (r > .71) with grill values. Cooking beef strips with a microwave is a potential method for tenderness evaluation, but requires additional study to evaluate and optimize this application in different muscles and for comparison to sensorial data. The work was intended to evaluate the possibility of using a microwave oven for cooking meat to be used in objective measurement protocols for meat tenderness and to optimize the conditions for this purpose. The use of a standardized microwave procedure allows a dramatic reduction in analysis time and may reduce error variance due to nonuniform cooking procedures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Psauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cluster analysis application identifies muscle characteristics of importance for beef tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriki Sghaier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important controversy in the relationship between beef tenderness and muscle characteristics including biochemical traits exists among meat researchers. The aim of this study is to explain variability in meat tenderness using muscle characteristics and biochemical traits available in the Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef (BIF-Beef database. The BIF-Beef data warehouse contains characteristic measurements from animal, muscle, carcass, and meat quality derived from numerous experiments. We created three classes for tenderness (high, medium, and low based on trained taste panel tenderness scores of all meat samples consumed (4,366 observations from 40 different experiments. For each tenderness class, the corresponding means for the mechanical characteristics, muscle fibre type, collagen content, and biochemical traits which may influence tenderness of the muscles were calculated. Results Our results indicated that lower shear force values were associated with more tender meat. In addition, muscles in the highest tenderness cluster had the lowest total and insoluble collagen contents, the highest mitochondrial enzyme activity (isocitrate dehydrogenase, the highest proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibres, the lowest proportion of fast-glycolytic muscle fibres, and the lowest average muscle fibre cross-sectional area. Results were confirmed by correlation analyses, and differences between muscle types in terms of biochemical characteristics and tenderness score were evidenced by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. When the cluster analysis was repeated using only muscle samples from m. Longissimus thoracis (LT, the results were similar; only contrasting previous results by maintaining a relatively constant fibre-type composition between all three tenderness classes. Conclusion Our results show that increased meat tenderness is related to lower shear forces, lower insoluble collagen and total collagen content, lower

  2. Análisis del comportamiento dinámico de tableros de puentes pérgola de ferrocarril en líneas de alta velocidad

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte González, Jokin

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo aborda el estudio del comportamiento dinámico de tableros de puentes pérgola de ferrocarril en líneas de alta velocidad. El rápido aumento de este tipo de vías tanto en España como en Europa, ha propiciado la aparición de un gran número de condicionantes que en muchas ocasiones requieren la adopción de tipologías de puentes no habituales que difieren sensiblemente del puente tipo viga. En este sentido, los puentes pérgola, debido a sus características muy específicas y a s...

  3. Criteria procedure development for tender in construction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Galina Gennad’evna

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of criteria optimization in order to objectively evaluate the experience of an applicant (a project organization and the quality of a design product (project documentation. The methodology to be developed is based on introduction of new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria that in conjunction with the applicable criteria specified by the Law on the Contract System will allow developing the optimal procedure to evaluate competitive bids of the participants in tenders and determining the most appropriate candidate, with whom the contract will be further concluded. The article analyzes the existing criteria and their interaction with each other and describes the specifics of tenders for design in the form of open competition. The list decreases to three criteria, such as "contract price", "quality, functional and environmental characteristics of a procurement facility", "qualification of procurement participants, including availability of financial resources, equipment and other material resources necessary for the execution of the contract material resources, the presence of goodwill, professionals and other employees of a certain experience level". However, in order to upgrade the quality of assurance procedures for the design works to be performed, it was decided to apply new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria components, such as "availability of positive findings of the state out-of-departmental examination that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the certificate on approval of architectural and urban planning decisions that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the permit for the commissioning of facilities that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the contract for designer's supervision with a participant in placement of

  4. Puentes Santa María y Pantano, en la Autopista del Sol (Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frizzi, Dorian

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Of all the constructional features along the 750 km of the Milan-Napoles motor road, only the two above mentioned bridges will be described. Both have have a large radius curvature in the horizontal plane, two independent pavements, and in both cases the deck is supported by a palisade of cylindrical columns, some of them very tall and of considerable diameter. The main spans are 40 m long, and the piles can reach a height of up to 40 m above their base. The foundations of these have necessitated the adoption of pneumatic caissons. The longest beams of the Santa Maria bridge are prestressed, concreted in the workshop and placed with the aid of auxiliary girders and travelling cranes, which lift them to their final emplacement. At the Fosso Pantano viaduct the girders were concreted at one end of the deck, and were then transported to their final position with the help of a provisional tubular framework. The beams rest either on led or neoprene plates, in order to provide suitable flexible joints.Entre todas las obras de fábrica, construidas a lo largo de los 750 km de esta autopista Milán-Nápoles, se describen aquí sólo los dos puentes enunciados. Ambos tienen su eje en curva circular de gran radio, dos calzadas independientes y soportes formando palizadas de montantes de fuste cilíndrico, algunas de gran diámetro y altura. Los tramos de mayor importancia son de 40 m de luz, y sus soportes ganan la mayor cota a unos 40 m de la base. Para los cimientos de estos últimos ha sido necesario el empleo de cajones neumáticos. Las vigas de mayor longitud en el puente de Santa María son de hormigón pretensado, hormigonadas en taller y lanzadas con vigas auxiliares, provistas de un puente-grúa para llevarlas a su posición definitiva. En el viaducto de Fosso Pantano, las vigas se hormigonaron en una extremidad del tablero y se riparon después hasta llevarlas a su posición definitiva, para lo cual se preparó previamente un entramado tubular

  5. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soee, Ann-Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Kreiner, Svend

    2013-01-01

    To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7-17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT)....

  6. A product modelling approach to competitive tendering in the building and construction industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, F.P.; Oszariyildiz, S.

    1998-01-01

    Competitive tendering is the activity of turnkey vendors and construction consortia in the Building and Construction industries that, to a large extend, determines the company's competitiveness. From the tender price it follows if a contract will be won or not, and, if the bid has been successful,

  7. Injections of Local Anesthetics into the Pharyngeal Region Reduce Trapezius Muscle Tenderness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinschenk, Stefan; Hollmann, Markus W.; Göllner, Richard; Picardi, Susanne; Strowitzki, Thomas; Diehl, Leon; Hotz, Lorenz; Meuser, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain is a frequent reason for seeking medical advice. Neuroanatomical findings suggest a close connection between the pharynx and the trapezius region. Irritation of the pharynx may induce tenderness of this area. Specific tender points, called neck reflex points (NRPs), can be identified here

  8. The effect of contract renewal and competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies and ridership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouwen, A.; van Ommeren, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to estimate the effect of contract renewal as well as competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies, and ridership. More specifically, we examine to what extent (multiple) contract renewals and introduction of competitive tendering for long-term public transport

  9. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vrind, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This

  10. 48 CFR 47.104-5 - Citation of Government rate tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citation of Government rate tenders. 47.104-5 Section 47.104-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.104-5 Citation of Government rate tenders. When 49 U...

  11. 17 CFR 240.14d-4 - Dissemination of tender offers to security holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissemination of tender offers to security holders. 240.14d-4 Section 240.14d-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-4 Dissemination of tender...

  12. Danish Public Construction Counselling Selection and Assignment Criteria in European Tendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    . A following standard error and Fisher’s exact test were conducted to test if there were any significant relations. Results indicate that invited tender with pre-qualification and most economically advantageous offer in 57.1 % of the tenders are the most used selection and assignment criteria in public...

  13. Miocene rifting in the Los Angeles basin: Evidence from the Puente Hills half-graben, volcanic rocks, and P-wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Tom; Burke, Kevin; Zhou, Hua-Wei; Yeats, Robert S.

    2002-05-01

    Formation of the Puente Hills half-graben in the northeastern Los Angeles basin and eruption of the Glendora and El Modeno Volcanics (16 14 Ma) help to define the timing of extension in the basin. Normal faulting on the proto-Whittier fault ca. 14 Ma established the Puente Hills half-graben, in which sedimentary strata accumulated between ca. 14 and 10 Ma and into which diabase sills intruded. North-South contraction began to invert the Puente Hills half-graben ca. 7 Ma, leading to formation of the Puente Hills anticline and the Whittier fault. Our high-resolution three-dimensional P-wave velocity model shows two anomalous higher velocity (6.63 km/s) bodies at depths between 9 and 18 km, which we attribute to dioritic plutons named here for Whittier Narrows and El Modeno. The stocklike Whittier Narrows pluton could have been a source for the Glendora Volcanics and the diabase sills in the Puente Hills half-graben. The sill-shaped El Modeno pluton was a likely source for the El Modeno Volcanics. The northwesterly alignment of the plutons may mark the location of the northeastern Los Angeles basin rift boundary, which is associated with the clockwise rotation of the western Transverse Ranges. Three active faults, the Elysian Park blind thrust, the Puente Hills blind thrust, and the Whittier fault, converge on the Whittier Narrows pluton, which may have played a role in their location and segmentation.

  14. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  15. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S; Zebis, Mette K

    2011-07-22

    Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%). In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%). In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. ISRCTN60264809.

  16. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%). In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%). In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809 PMID:21777478

  17. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%. In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%. In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809

  18. Comportamiento dinámico de puentes en arco con amortiguadores viscosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Parra García

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En éste trabajo se presenta la respuesta sísmica analítica de dos puentes en arco de gran luz, sometiéndolos a un movimiento simulado que incluye efectos de fuente cercana. Para reducir la respuesta se exploró su comportamiento conectando los dos extremos del tablero con la subestructura por medio de amortiguadores viscosos. Se llevaron a cabo una serie de análisis en el plano de ambos modelos para identificar los amortiguadores óptimos. Los resultados indicaron que el uso de amortiguadores viscosos con comportamiento no lineal, ofrece una solución práctica para reducir la respuesta dinámica de estas estructuras.

  19. Recognition of Paleoearthquakes on the Puente Hills Blind Thrust Fault, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James F.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Shaw, John H.

    2003-04-01

    Borehole data from young sediments folded above the Puente Hills blind thrust fault beneath Los Angeles reveal that the folding extends to the surface as a discrete zone (-145 meters wide). Buried fold scarps within an upward- narrowing zone of deformation, which extends from the upward termination of the thrust ramp at 3 kilometers depth to the surface, document the occurrence of at least four large (moment-magnitude 7.2 to 7.5) earthquakes on this fault during the past 11,000 years. Future events of this type pose a seismic hazard to metropolitan Los Angeles. Moreover, the methods developed in this study can be used to refine seismic hazard assessments of blind thrusts in other metropolitan regions.

  20. Ejecución de puentes pretensados por voladizos sucesivos (Continuación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available The system of construction whereby successive extensions of a cantilevered structure are carried out has made it possible to extend, to an extraordinary extent, the free spans of straight section prestressed concrete bridges. At present the Bendorf bridge is being constructed, whose central span is 208 m long. This system was first used in Brazil, for the construction of an ordinary reinforced concrete bridge over the river Peixe. But the method fell into disuse, except for very few exceptions, until Firsterwalder again brought it up to date 20 years later, when building the Neckar bridge, made of prestressed concrete. With this new technique all the advantages of the system could be exploited, as well as achieving a very rapid construction. This constructional procedure leads directly to the structural type known as compensated cantilevers. T shaped cells are attached together by means of prestressing cables to form advancing cantilevers. Thereby a, total bridge structure is formed, whose span is twice that of each cantilevered half. This method can be applied to other bridge types, such as dintels with overhanging sections (this was the first new application, single span portal frames, T portal frames, continuous beams, etc. The typical constructional method is to move the formwork, which is anchored and cantilevered beyond the constructed part. A weekly progress of 3,50 m is normal. It is also possible to employ prefabricated sections, which are successively joined to the ones already in place.El sistema de construcción por voladizos sucesivos ha permitido ampliar, de modo extraordinario, las luces de los puentes de tramo recto de hormigón pretensado. Actualmente se construye el Puente de Bendorf con tramo central de 208 metros. Se utilizó por primera vez en Brasil para la construcción de un puente de hormigón armado normal sobre el río Peixe, pero quedó en desuso—salvo poquísimas excepciones—hasta que lo volvió a poner a punto

  1. Application of three fault growth criteria to the Puente Hills thrust system, Los Angeles, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik L.; Cooke, Michele L.

    2005-10-01

    Three-dimensional mechanical models are used to evaluate the performance of different fault growth criteria in predicting successive growth of three échelon thrust faults similar to the segments of the Puente Hills thrust system of the Los Angeles basin, California. Four sequential Boundary Element Method models explore the growth of successive échelon faults within the system by simulating snapshots of deformation at different stages of development. These models use three criteria, (1) energy release rate, (2) strain energy density, and (3) Navier-Coulomb stress, to characterize the lateral growth of the fault system. We simulate the growth of an échelon thrust fault system to evaluate the suitability of each of these criteria for assessing fault growth. Each of these three factors predicts a portion of the incipient fault geometry (i.e. location or orientation); however, each provides different information. In each model, energy release rate along the westernmost (leading) tip of the Puente Hills thrust drops with growth of the next neighboring fault; this result supports the overall lateral development of successive échelon segments. Within each model, regions of high strain energy density and Navier-Coulomb stress envelope at least a portion of the next fault to develop, although the strain energy density has stronger correlation than Navier-Coulomb stress to the location of incipient faulting. In each model, one of the two predicted planes of maximum Navier-Coulomb stress ahead of the leading fault tip matches the strike but not the dip of the incipient fault plane recreating part of the fault orientation. The incipient fault dip is best predicted by the orientation of the strain energy density envelopes around the leading fault tip. Furthermore, the energy release rate and pattern of strain energy density can be used to characterize potential soft linkage (overlap) or hard linkage (connection) of échelon faults within the system.

  2. El nuevo puente de Saint-Cloud París-Francia

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    Mathivat, J.

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the various problems that have been solved and the great amount of work that has been carried out to construct this bridge that connects the highway A-13 with the peripheral boulevard of the French capital making it possible to cross the Seine. The final solution has been that of a prestressed concrete bridge deck, supported by reinforced concrete piles on a foundation of plates or piles. The construction has a total length of 1,360 m out of which 1,103 are manufactured: a 574 m access viaduct and a 529 m bridge across the river. Altogether it comprises 14 sections, with spans of 46 m up to 101,75 m, one 42 m section on the left hand side and one 49 m section on the right hand side.Se describen en este artículo los diversos problemas resueltos y los múltiples trabajos realizados para construir este puente, que une la autopista A-13 con el bulevar periférico de la capital francesa, permitiendo el paso sobre el Sena. La solución adoptada, en definitiva, ha sido de tablero de hormigón pretensado, apoyado en pilas de hormigón armado sobre cimentación de placa o de pilotes, según los casos. La obra tiene una longitud total de 1.360 m, de los cuales 1.103 m son obras de fábrica: 574 m, de viaducto de acceso, y 529 m, de puente sobre el río. En total se distribuye en 14 tramos, con luces desde 46 a 101,75 m, un tramo de 42 m en la orilla izquierda y otro de 49 m en la orilla derecha.

  3. Central térmica de Puente Nuevo – España (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Conde, Enrique

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available The Empresa Nacional Eléctrica de Córdoba, S. A. has built near Córdoba the Puente Nuevo power station, to take advantage of the local coal, mined in the district of Peñarroya, Bélmez and Espiel, which is difficult to export. In addition to the construction difficulties which have had to be overcome, the power station is especially significant because it has been fitted with Spanish machinery, including the electrical and steam generators. This design has been followed by the construction of the power station at Almería and two additional power plants at San Juan de Dios, in Palma de Mallorca. All these installations are now in working order.La Empresa Nacional Eléctrica de Córdoba, S. A., ha montado, cerca de esta ciudad, la Central Térmica de Puente Nuevo para aprovechar los carbones de la zona Peñarroya-Bélmez-Espiel, de escasa salida en el mercado. Aparte de las dificultades constructivas que se han resuelto durante su instalación, la Central es interesante, especialmente, por el logrado intento de utilizar en ella la primera maquinaria de fabricación nacional, tanto en lo que se refiere a generadores eléctricos como a los de vapor. Se ha encabezado así el montaje de una serie que ha tenido su continuación en los dos grupos de la ampliación de la Central Térmica de Almería y en los otros dos de la Central de San Juan de Dios, de Palma de Mallorca, todos ellos funcionando en la actualidad.

  4. Desarrollo endógeno de los sistemas de pequeñas empresas: algunas lecciones de la experiencia italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Bertini

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las características evolutivas de las PYMES en la región más reconocida por su desarrollo: la famosa "Tercera Italia". En particular, Se reconoce la heterogeneidad del mundo de las pequeñas y medianas empresas industriales, y se analizan los elementos de las tres fases principales que caracterizan la evolución competitiva de las PYMES (surgimiento, expansión y consolidación. De esta manera se llega a exponer los elementos esenciales de una estrategia de desarrollo que enfatiza la apertura de las empresas al mercado, las políticas macroeconómicas tendientes a fortalecer la demanda y la especialización de la oferta, y el entorno territorial que orienta a relaciones productivas y comerciales de una mayor confianza, poniendo en marcha un proceso de desarrollo de redes de PYMES. El autor aborda también la posibilidad de aplicar y adaptar las lecciones de la experiencia italiana a los países en desarrollo.

  5. LECCIONES DE POLÍTICA MACROECONÓMICA PARA EL DESARROLLO, A LA LUZ DE LA EXPERIENCIA DEL PASADO DECENIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Frenkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo procura lecciones de política macroeconómica contrastando la expe-riencia de los países en desarrollo durante los años 2000, incluyendo su desempeño durante la crisis reciente, con los tres decenios anteriores de globalización finan-ciera. La principal lección es el papel decisivo de dichas políticas macroeconómicas para impulsar el crecimiento, la estabilidad financiera y un desempeño sólido frente a los choques externos, reales y financieros. Además, el contraste sugiere un con-junto de orientaciones de política macroeconómica que contribuyen a alcanzar el cumplimiento simultáneo de los tres objetivos mencionados. El análisis se presenta en dos partes. La primera se dedica a fundamentar la lección principal e identificar las orientaciones de política. En la segunda parte esas políticas macroeconómicas son expuestas sintéticamente y se analiza algunos aspectos de su instrumentación, particularmente de las políticas monetaria y cambiaria. Cierra el trabajo una sec-ción de reflexiones finales.

  6. 41 CFR 102-117.55 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender? (a) Using a rate tender is an advantage when... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender? 102-117.55 Section 102-117.55 Public Contracts and Property...

  7. Puente Volta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Scott, Petera

    1958-11-01

    Full Text Available La creciente revaloración nacional y aumento de precio del cacao han dado una nueva potencialidad al antiguo estado de Costa de Oro, hoy conocido con el nombre de Ghana, cuya fusión con sus vecinos de Togoland constituye actualmente una nacionalidad en vías de prosperidad.

  8. La crisis de la Unión Europea analizada desde una perspectiva neofuncionalista: lecciones para la integración regional en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, María Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, el modelo europeo era una referencia inevitable como caso exitoso para cualquier otro proyecto de integración regional. La actual crisis en la Unión Europea permite extraer algunas lecciones útiles para los procesos de integración en América Latina, especialmente desde el enfoque neofuncionalista y su crítica intergubernamentalista. Entre otras cosas, esta crisis nos enseña que la integración puede encontrar fácilmente sus límites y que no siempre es clara su meta fina...

  9. Las lecciones de Chernóbil: Ciencia y tecnología en la sociedad global y el proyecto cosmopolita

    OpenAIRE

    Willy Soto Acosta

    2012-01-01

    El artículo parte de las tres grandes lecciones que dejó la tragedia de Chernóbil. En primer lugar, que las invenciones científicas y tecnológicas pueden escapar del control humano y pueden llegar a re- presentar un riesgo, es decir, un potencial negativo contra la misma humanidad. Segundo, que la ciencia y la tecnología pueden volverse contra el mismo gé- nero humano si no son enmarcadas dentro de un proyecto cosmopolita.Tercero, Chernóbil demostró que los riesgos ecológicos no respetan fron...

  10. La Industria Litica Musteriense de la Capa «Alfa» de la Cueva del Castillo (Puente Viesgo, Santander

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    Luis BENITO DEL REY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Descubrimiento: La cueva del Castillo, descubierta por Herminio Alcalde del Río, fue dada a conocer por el propio descubridor en 1906. Situación: La cueva del Castillo está situada en la ladera Este del monte de su mismo nombre (figs. 1 y 2, a unos noventa metros sobre el nivel de la margen izquierda del río Pas, en las cercanías de Puente Viesgo, provincia de Santander.

  11. La Industria Litica Musteriense de la Capa «Alfa» de la Cueva del Castillo (Puente Viesgo, Santander)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis BENITO DEL REY

    2009-01-01

    Descubrimiento: La cueva del Castillo, descubierta por Herminio Alcalde del Río, fue dada a conocer por el propio descubridor en 1906. Situación: La cueva del Castillo está situada en la ladera Este del monte de su mismo nombre (figs. 1 y 2), a unos noventa metros sobre el nivel de la margen izquierda del río Pas, en las cercanías de Puente Viesgo, provincia de Santander.

  12. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  13. La restauración del puente medieval sobre el río de las Truchas

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    Fernando Vegas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La restauración de este puente y entorno medieval conservados casi intactos hasta nuestros días partió de la necesidad de pasar lo más desapercibido posible para no disturbar el aura mágica del lugar. En un paisaje genuino caracterizado por las fábricas de piedra en seco, en busca de la mayor discreción posible la intervención de reparación y puesta en valor debió recurrir a esta técnica para resolver los problemas que aquejaban al puente. La reparación del pavimento de guijarros del puente dio pie a una reflexión sobre la estratificación de los pavimentos históricos y la reintegración de las lagunas de un firme marcado por las trazas de la historia y los surcos de las antiguas carriladas.

  14. Puente del Generalísimo sobre el río Llobregat – España

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The present bridge, substituting the one destroyed by a catastrophic inundation, has to canalize a continuously growing traffic, due to the characteristics and the demography of the affected zone. It consists of two side spans of 62,50 m and one central span of 125 m, which is presently the maximum span in Spain for bridges built in prestressed concrete. The traffic facility consists of twin-decks, separated by 1 m, built with the cantilever method. All its parts, including the accesses, have been finished within eight months, which is an absolute record for this type of bridges.El actual puente sustituye al que fue destruido por una avenida catastrófica y está destinado a canalizar un tráfico de gran crecimiento, dadas las características y demografía de la zona. Consta de dos vanos laterales de 62,50 m y uno central de 125 m, que es la máxima luz actual en España para puentes de hormigón pretensado. La superestructura se compone de dos tableros gemelos, separados 1 m entre sí, construidos por el procedimiento de avance por voladizos sucesivos. Todas las obras, incluso los accesos, se han llevado a cabo en menos de 8 meses, récord absoluto para este tipo de puentes.

  15. History of a colony, a bridge and a market. La Pulga on Puente del Papa in Monterrey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrén Sandoval Hernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the understanding of one the links of the global economy through a historical peculiarity: the “Pulga del Puente del Papa”, or flea market in the city of Monterrey, Mexico. This market is a case of “popular globalization”. merchandise manufactured in distant countries and utilized in others, is sold in the “Pulga del Puente del Papa”. to be reused by local consumers. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the historical process of consolidation of this market, and to demostrate that it is a “commercial dispositive” that persists precisely because it is inserted into the “global chain of merchandise”. Within this famework, we ponder the interaction between local and global process across the Mexico–U.S. border. Not only do we trace the market’s history, we describe its principal characteristics and provide examples of the commercial dynamics and international circuits through which the “Pulga del Puente del Papa” is supplied.

  16. Characterization and classification of Japanese consumer perceptions for beef tenderness using descriptive texture characteristics assessed by a trained sensory panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Kitsunai, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yosuke; Hatori, Hikari; Muroya, Susumu; Nomura, Masaru; Miyaguchi, Yuji; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Meat tenderness is an important characteristic in terms of consumer preference and satisfaction. However, each consumer may have his/her own criteria to judge meat tenderness, because consumers are neither selected nor trained like an expert sensory panel. This study aimed to characterize consumer tenderness using descriptive texture profiles such as chewiness and hardness assessed by a trained panel. Longissimus muscles cooked at four different end-point temperatures were subjected to a trained sensory panel (n=18) and consumer (n=107) tenderness tests. Multiple regression analysis showed that consumer tenderness was characterized as 'low-chewiness and low hardness texture.' Subsequently, consumers were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to tenderness perceptions in each participant, and the two groups were characterized as 'tenderness is mainly low-chewiness' and 'tenderness is mainly low-hardness' for tenderness perception, respectively. These results demonstrate objective characteristics and variability of consumer meat tenderness, and provide new information regarding the evaluation and management of meat tenderness for meat manufacturers. © 2013.

  17. ¿Son seres humanos los puentes de fábrica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauder, E.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the common belief that the language used by engineers and architects to create, describe and spread their works, exclusively consists of technical terms from the realms of engineering and architecture disregarding other disciplines, in this article counterexamples will be shown which prove that at least in the field of masonry bridges the opposite occurs. Metaphor from the medical and psychological field seems to be the major tool used by these professionals to create and explain their knowledge. Thus, whenever the engineer or architect identify themselves with their work and see it as an extension of their own selves they use metaphorical terminology to express, that to them, masonry bridges are human beings. Therefore, they assign and expect human qualities along the whole life cycle of these bridges and, at the same time, play the role of creator, parent, defender, doctor or psychologist according to the situations or problems their bridge-child may be involved in. Moreover, it will become evident that the abundant use of this metaphor and its terminological correspondences are, by no means, a strange phenomenon but the logical result of the natural interdisciplinarity between building techniques, medicine (including psychology, terminology and language.A pesar de la creencia generalizada de que el lenguaje utilizado por ingenieros y arquitectos para crear, describir y divulgar sus obras es privativo de esta especialidad y completamente ajena a la de otras disciplinas, en este artículo se presentan ejemplos que, al menos en el campo de los puentes de fábrica, muestran todo lo contrario. La metáfora es la herramienta clave que el experto técnico utiliza para crear y explicitar sus conocimientos. Así, cuando el ingeniero o arquitecto se identifica con su obra y la ve como una prolongación de sí mismo, metaforiza verbal y terminológicamente que el puente de fábrica es un ser humano para él, atribuyéndole y exigi

  18. Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS – a pragmatic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture is used to reduce inflammation and decrease pain in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS. This study investigates the efficacy of acupuncture on the symptoms of DOMS. Methods Thirty subjects were assigned randomly to there groups, namely the control, non-tender point and tender point groups. Measurement of pain with full elbow flexion was used as indices of efficacy. Measurements were taken before and after exercise, immediately after treatment and seven days after treatment. Results Significant differences in visual analog scores for pain were found between the control group and tender point group immediately after treatment and three days after exercise (P Conclusion The results show that tender point acupuncture relieves muscle pain of DOMS.

  19. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of danish tenders in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Public construction agencies are one of the largest developers within the Danish construction industry, where such agencies own and develop new public construction projects. Most of these projects are put out in European tender. This study analyses the selection and assignment criteria employed......, and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period...... by these agencies in different types of public sector projects. Some of the objectives pursued by the study include the determination of 1/ the selection and assignment criteria mostly used in Danish public tenders 2/ how different types of projects use selection and assignment criteria in the bidding process...

  20. Mechanical Analysis of Fault Interaction in the Puente Hills Region, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W. A.; Cooke, M.

    2002-12-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Puente Hills thrust system (PHT) and the Whittier fault has been constructed using published cross sections, surface trace maps [Shaw (1999); Shaw and Suppe (1996); Wright (1991)] and products of the Southern California Earthquake Center. This study utilizes boundary element method models to validate the proposed fault geometry of the Puente Hills region via investigating fault interaction. The interaction between PHT and Whittier faults is evaluated within an elastic half-space under horizontal contraction and evidenced by slip rates on faults, strain energy density (SED), and Navier-Coulomb stress (NC) throughout the host rock. Modeled slip rates are compared to paleoseismic estimates to validate the proposed fault configuration while maps of SED and NC highlight regions of high strain in the host rock and likely faulting. Subsequently, the sensitivity of SED and NC distribution to changes in fault geometry illuminate the nature of fault interaction within this complex system of interacting faults. We explore interaction of faults within the PHT region using two sets of models. The first examines slip rates and SED and NC distribution within a local model of the PHT region while the second set incorporates the PHT faults within the context of the Los Angeles basin. Both sets explore the response of the fault system to systematic addition of faults. Adding faults within regions of high SED and NC does not influence slip on neighboring faults; however the addition of fault surfaces in regions of low/moderate SED and NC reduces slip along adjacent faults. The sensitivity of fault slip rates to direction of remote contraction in the Los Angeles Basin is examined with contraction directions of 036, 017, and 006.5 [Bawden (2001), Argus (1999), and Feigl (1993)]. Furthermore, variations on intersection geometry between the PHT and Whittier fault are explored. Portions of the PHT and Whittier faults show reasonable match to available

  1. Nuevo puente de La Barca sobre el río Ter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Borlado, Ramiro

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available The new La Barca bridge, over the river Ter, is on the northern approach to Gerona, and carries the CN II road from Madrid to France, passing through Barcelona. It substitutes another bridge of the same name, which was inadequate for the heavy increase in traffic, during recent years. The bridge is 128 m long, consisting of two lateral spans, each 37 m long, and a central span of 54 m. The superstructure consists of ten hollow metal girders, of variable depth, arranged as three-part cantilevered structures. The lateral sections are cantilevered towards the centre, and the middle part of the span rests on their extremities. The girders support a reinforced concrete slab of 16 cm thickness and 14 m width: 8 m for the roadway, and 3 m for each of the sidewalks. The structure rests on two piles and two abutments of reinforced concrete, based on caisson foundations, except for one of the abutments, which is a reinforced concrete block. The project is completed by the approach roads and stonemasonry.El nuevo puente de La Barca, sobre el río Ter, está situado en el acceso norte a Gerona de la C. N. II de Madrid a Francia por Barcelona. Sustituye a otro del mismo nombre que resultaba insuficiente para la elevada intensidad de tráfico de esta vía. La luz del puente es de 128 m, dividida en dos tramos laterales, de 37 m de luz, y un tramo central, de 54 m. La superestructura está constituida por cinco vigas metálicas, huecas, de canto variable, dispuestas como vigas cantilever de tres elementos. Los elementos laterales se prolongan hacia el centro en voladizo, apoyándose sobre ellos el elemento central. Las vigas soportan una losa de hormigón armado de 16 cm de espesor, y 14 m de anchura: 8 m para la calzada y 3 m para cada uno de los andenes laterales. El conjunto se apoya sobre dos pilas y dos estribos, de hormigón armado, cimentados sobre cajones indios, excepto uno de los estribos, que está cimentado sobre macizo de hormigón armado

  2. Puente sobre el río Ferreira (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Borlado, R.

    1968-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this bridge is to improve the intersection of the CN.540 road, from Lugo to Orense, with the 547 road. The chosen structural type meets the conditions of quick construction and cheapness that were paramount in this case. The superstructure of the bridge consists of six intermediate piles, and two abutments, which support seven straight spans with metallic longerons and reinforced concrete deck. The span over the river is 21 m long, and de others, all equal, are 15 m long.The total deck width is 9 m, of which 7 m are for road pavement, and 1 m on each side is reserved for pedestrians sidewalks. The reinforced concrete piles form portal frames, and have circular supports and rectangular dintels. The foundations consist of reinforced concrete blocks, and rest on layers of metamorphic slate into which the foundations penetrate sufficiently deeply to reach sound rock. The project is completed with approach roads to the bridge and the intersections of the roads that converge on the bridge.Su objeto es mejorar la intersección de la CN-540 de Lugo a Orense, con la C-547. La solución estructural elegida responde a las necesidades de rapidez de ejecución y economía exigidas a esta obra. La superestructura del puente la forman seis pilas intermedias y dos estribos que soportan siete tramos rectos con largueros metálicos y losa de hormigón armado. El tramo situado sobre el cauce normal del río tiene una luz de 21 m, y los tramos restantes son todos ellos iguales y de 15 m de luz. El ancho total del tablero es de 9 m, de los que corresponden 7 a la calzada y 1 m a cada uno de los andenes laterales. Las pilas de hormigón armado son aporticadas con soportes circulares y dintel rectangular. La cimentación, a base de macizos de hormigón armado, se apoya sobre una capa de pizarras metamórficas en la que se ha profundizado hasta alcanzar la zona sana. Completan la obra los accesos al puente y las intersecciones de las carreteras que

  3. Predictive value of tender joints compared to synovitis for structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; Mari, Karine; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Chalès, Gérard; Gaudin, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Saraux, Alain; Dougados, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of tender joints compared to synovitis for structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A post hoc analysis was performed on a prospective 2-year study of 59 patients with active RA starting on antitumour necrosis factor (TNF). Tenderness and synovitis was assessed clinically at baseline, followed by blinded ultrasound assessment (B-mode and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS)) on the hands and feet (2 wrists, 10 metacarpophalangeal, 10 proximal interphalangeal and 10 metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints). Radiographs of these joints were performed at baseline and at 2 years. The risk of radiographic progression with respect to the presence of baseline tenderness or synovitis, as well as its persistence (after 4 months of anti-TNF), was estimated by OR (95% CI). Results Baseline tender joints were the least predictive for radiographic progression (OR=1.53 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.29) pjoints with the presence of synovitis were predictive of radiographic progression (OR=1.89 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.85) p=0.002), especially seen in the MTP joints. Non-tender joints with no synovitis were negatively predictive (OR=0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.82) p=0.003). Persistence of tender joints was negatively predictive (OR=0.38 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.78) p=0.009) while persistence of synovitis was predictive (OR=2.41 (95% CI 1.24 to 4.67) p=0.01) of radiographic progression. Conclusions Synovitis is better than tenderness to predict for subsequent structural progression. However, coexistence of tenderness and synovitis at the level of an individual joint is predictive of structural damage, particularly in the MTP joints. Trial registration number NCT00444691. PMID:27042336

  4. Proteolysis in meat tenderization from the point of view of each single protein: A proteomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Alessandro; Zolla, Lello

    2016-09-16

    Muscle has to undergo a number of biochemical changes to become the final product, and, once become meat, needs to develop the proper organoleptic peculiarities, including tenderness. Tenderness depends on multiple factors, intervening throughout the production chain, from animal's birth till the end of meat aging. Given the striking number of variables, it is not an exaggeration to affirm that meat coming from each individual is a 'unique' meat. So, the process of meat tenderization follows different paths; meat derived from different animals shows its own evolution, but underneath the wide variability, all these individual developments follow a standard template: in other words, there are some boundaries that limit the possible variations. This review wants to give a comprehensive idea of the concept of meat tenderness, in particular focusing on the two protein classes that are among the most important direct responsibles for tenderization: sarcomeric proteins and proteolytic enzymes. We will review the most recent and significant data acquired on each protein, pointing the attention on the results collected by means of the 'omics' technologies, and underlining the possible role of markers in the frame of meat tenderness. Our review discusses the evidences collected by means of the 'omics' technologies about the proteolytic mechanisms that act in the muscle-to-meat conversion process, leading the muscle to reach the acceptable tenderness of the eatable meat. We consider the proteolytic enzymes and their substrate individually, summarizing the most significant data from the omic approach, and discussing their possible role of marker of tenderness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Meat tenderness genetic polymorphisms occurrence and distribution in five Zebu breeds in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; Martínez-González, Juan C.; Sifuentes-Rincón,Ana M.; Moreno-Medina, Victor R.; Ortega-Rivas, Eligio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Zebu cattle are represented by a diverse group of breeds in México. Traditionally these breeds have been associated with the tough beef characteristic. Validated genetic markers have the potential to be included in marker-assisted selection and management programs in order to improve traits such as beef tenderness. The incidence and distribution of Calpain and Calpastatin polymorphisms strongly associated with beef tenderness were estimated in registered cattle of five Zebu br...

  6. Infrared skin temperature measurement cannot be used to detect myofascial tender spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, M; Burnham, R

    2001-07-01

    To determine the relationship between skin temperature and pressure tolerance in patients with myofascial pain. Blinded, criterion standard. Community physiatry clinic. Sixteen consecutive female patients with myofascial pain or fibromyalgia with shoulder girdle symptoms above the T4 level for at least 3 months. No patient met the exclusion criteria of recent trauma to the area or therapy within 48 hours. Skin temperature was measured by using a hand-held infrared thermometer over 36 points arranged in a grid on the upper and midtrapezius. Pressure threshold was then assessed at each point by using a pressure threshold meter. A second, blinded examiner then examined each patient to find any myofascial tender spots and noted within which square on the grid they occurred. The correlation between temperature and pressure threshold and the temperature differences between tender and nontender areas. A nonsignificant correlation of.023 (p =.57) was found between temperature and pressure threshold. The mean temperature of the tender spots was 32.1 degrees C. No significant difference existed between tender spot temperature and temperature of nontender points (32.1 degrees C, p =.653) or contralateral points (32 degrees C, p =.893). Skin temperature, measured with a hand-held infrared thermometer, cannot be used to diagnose and follow treatment progress of myofascial tender spots, because skin temperature over tender spots does not correlate with pressure sensitivity. Copyright 2001 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  7. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  8. Combined Approach for Government E-Tendering Using GA and TOPSIS with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available As E-government continues to develop with ever-increasing speed, the requirement to enhance traditional government systems and affairs with electronic methods that are more effective and efficient is becoming critical. As a new product of information technology, E-tendering is becoming an inevitable reality owing to its efficiency, fairness, transparency, and accountability. Thus, developing and promoting government E-tendering (GeT is imperative. This paper presents a hybrid approach combining genetic algorithm (GA and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS to enable GeT to search for the optimal tenderer efficiently and fairly under circumstances where the attributes of the tenderers are expressed as fuzzy number intuitionistic fuzzy sets (FNIFSs. GA is applied to obtain the optimal weights of evaluation criteria of tenderers automatically. TOPSIS is employed to search for the optimal tenderer. A prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example from GeT to verify the feasibility and availability of the proposed approach.

  9. [Preliminary Study on the Detection of Pork Tenderness by Three-Dimensional Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yong; Zuo, Yue-ming; Chen, Jin-ming; Li, Gang; Chen, Chen; Yang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Tenderness is an important index to evaluate the pork's quality, in this paper a method called three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was proposed to detect pork tenderness. Because pork has a strong scattering impact on light, this method introduced more scattering information of pork samples into spectral analysis of tenderness. Using the special data acquisition system, three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectra of 64 pork samples were constructed by collecting the emergent light signals of different distances away from the light incident point. And n-way partial least squares (NPLS) regression was applied to establish the calibration model between the pork tenderness and three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectra which were denoised by wavelet transform. The determination coefficient of model for the calibration set (R2(Cal)) is 0.883 1, and the root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) is 3.685 0N. The determination coefficient of model for the prediction set (R2(Pred)) is 0.874 7, and the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) is 3.975 6N. The result indicates that the NPLS model of pork tenderness built by three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectra has higher calibration accuracy and prediction stability than the traditional diffuse reflectance spectra. Three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be expected to be a new method to quickly detect the tenderness and the other qualities of pork.

  10. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

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    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  11. Osteosíntesis con placa puente en fracturas diafisiarias conminutas de húmero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mancilla Mancilla

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir y evaluar la técnica de osteosíntesis percutánea mínimamente invasiva en fracturas disfisiarias conminutas de húmero. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo longitudinal de tres pacientes con diagnóstico de fractura de húmero clasificación AO 12C3 tratado quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, evaluándose pérdida sanguínea intraoperatoria, tiempo quirúrgico, movilidad de articulaciones vecinas y callo óseo. Resultados: La perdida promedio de sangre fue de 180cc y el tiempo operatorio promedio 60 minutos. Los pacientes presentaron dolor leve tolerable desde el primer día post operatorio, movilidad del hombro y del codo sin limitación, formación del callo óseo a partir de la cuarta semana y consolidación ósea a las 12 semanas promedio. No hubo lesión del nervio radial. Conclusiones: La placa puente es una alternativa de tratamiento en fracturas conminutas diafisiarias del húmero tanto por su bajo costo como por la rehabilitación funcional precoz de las articulaciones vecinas, asimismo recomendamos la visualización intra operatoria del nervio radial.

  12. Outbreack of salmonellosis after family party at locality of Puente Aranda, Bogota DC, Colombia

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    Teresa Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foodborne Diseases (FBD outbreaks occur every day worldwide, being salmonellosis their most common cause. On the epidemiologic week 44-2010, “Hospital del Sur ESE” received a notification on a FBD during a familiy gathering in a house of the Puente Aranda locality (Bogota – Colombia and executed an outbreak investigation to enforce control actions and to offer indications. Methods: Descriptive outbreak confirmation study of a probable FBD by Salmonella according to the symptoms and case definition. A house visit, exposed epidemiologic inquiry and stool cultures. Data were included and analysed with Epi-Info 3.5.1® using absolute, relative, central trend and dispersion measurements. Results: Of 28 people, 27 (96% ate the suspicious food – chicken rice; 2 (7,4% were hospitalized, 8 (29,8% needed attention at urgency ward. Attack rate was 59,3% for women, 40,4% for men; the most affected people by age was 1-4 year (18,8%; incubation period was 9 to 30 hours; all exposed suffered vomit, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and headaches; three stool samples were positive for Salmonella spp. Conclusions: A FBD by Salmonella spp. was confirmed; main source was –possibly- poor food manipulation and conservation. It is necessary to intensify information-education-communication actions related to food preparation, consumption and preservation.

  13. Central Térmica de Puente Nuevo, España (parte II

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    Sánchez Conde, Enrique

    1970-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous article the reasons were given why the power station was sited close to Puente Nuevo by the Empresa Nacional Eléctrica de Córdoba, S. A., so that the coal from the Peñarroya-Bélmez-Espiel zone may be used, and the general design pattern of the installation has been described. This article completes this information, and details of its most outstanding elements are given.En un artículo anterior hemos señalado las razones que llevaron a determinar la ubicación de la Central, por parte de la Empresa Nacional Eléctrica de Córdoba, S. A., cerca de dicha ciudad para aprovechar los carbones de la zona Peñarroya-Bélmez- Espiel, y hemos descrito el esquema general de la instalación. Con el presente finalizamos los datos sobre ella, indicando las características más destacadas de sus elementos.

  14. Estimación del nivel de daño en pilas de concreto en puentes con distintas condiciones de apoyo

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Coronel, Sergio Iván

    2011-01-01

    Se realiza una evaluación del nivel de daño de las pilas de dos puentes ubicados en la zona de mayor sismicidad del país. Uno de los puentes es irregular y tiene pilas de una sola columna de sección circular. El otro puente es regular con pilas de concreto tipo muro. Se consideraron tres distintas conexiones entre las pilas y la superestructura: conexión monolítica, apoyos de neopreno y apoyos de hule con núcleo de plomo. Se comparan las respuestas obtenidas con el método estático, dinámico m...

  15. Relationship between nongenital tender point tenderness and intravaginal muscle pain intensity: ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nancy; Brown, Candace; Bachmann, Gloria; Wan, Jim; Wood, Ronald; Ulrich, Dagny; Bachour, Candi; Foster, David

    2016-12-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder, both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intravaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these 2 conditions. We sought to: (1) correlate pain intensity during the nongenital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, and (2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. In all, 92 subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (numeric rating scale >1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point nongenital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intravaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm(2) forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of nongenital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance level was at P palpation

  16. Análisis de la evolución de los daños en los puentes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la identificación y evolución de daños en casi dos mil puentes de Colombia, para tres periodos de inspección (1996-1997, 2001-2002 y 2007-2008, basándonos en levantamientos presenciales realizados en el Instituto Nacional de Vías de Colombia (INVIAS con la metodología del Sistema de Administración de Puentes de Colombia (SIPUCOL. Para ello, se realizó un arduo trabajo de consolidación de los daños que se presentaron en los componentes principales de los puentes, tipificación, calificación, sus niveles de durabilidad, estabilidad y servicio, así como la evaluación de las obras de mantenimiento y rehabilitación implementados, con los cuales se procedió a los análisis y comparaciones por período. Así, se pudo concluir con la identificación de los grupos de puentes en buen estado, los de condiciones regulares y aquellos con daños graves y riesgo de colapso, las medidas urgentes de previsión y reparación que se detallan, así como el aporte a procesos de diagnóstico y procedimientos para inspecciones especiales. Por otro lado, la sola implementación del Sistema de Administración de puentes en un país entero, es una experiencia procedimental importante que deseamos sirva de referencia para otros diagnósticos y para el consolidado del estado de los puentes en América Latina en los temas de conservación y recuperación.

  17. Reindeer meat – is it always tender, tasty and healthy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain

  18. Nuevo sistema de empuje continuo de puentes: diseño y análisis mediante simulación numérica

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Martínez, Mar

    2014-01-01

    La Tesis Doctoral presenta un estudio del diseño y análisis numérico de un nuevo mecanismo de empuje de estructuras que permite la construcción de puentes de grandes luces utilizando un nuevo método constructivo. El lanzamiento de puentes es un método muy utilizado en la actualidad aunque tiene importantes inconvenientes que las empresas del sector requieren solventar. Entre las principales demandas de los sistemas actuales se encuentra la continuidad, reversibilidad y seguridad en el emp...

  19. Prediseño integral de la via Puente La Libertad - El Arbolito sector K19+970 al K21+970

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Betancur, Jorge William; Salgado Galeano, Julio Cesar

    2005-01-01

    La vía puente la libertad – el arbolito es una carretera secundaria que hace parte de la red vial del Departamento de Caldas; ubicada en la zona centro sur del Departamento en los municipios de Manizales y Villamaría. Es de suma importancia para el desarrollo turístico del Parque Natural Nevado del Ruiz y de sus aguas termales. El prediseño integral de la vía mencionada, se llevó a cabo en el sector k19+970 al k21+970, siendo el K0+000 el Puente La Libertad, ubicado en la salida del Municipio...

  20. La restauración de las bóvedas cerámicas de Guastavino en el puente de Queensboro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles DiSanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las impresionantes bóvedas bajo el acceso en Manhattan de este famoso puente de Nueva York, sometidas durante muchos años a la incuria del olvido y a condiciones extremas de filtraciones de agua y movimientos del tráfico rodado, han demostrado su extraordinaria calidad constructiva en este su primer siglo de existencia. En la restauración de las mismas se emplearon interesantes técnicas innovadoras que asumen y respetan los movimientos estructurales derivados de la estructura del puente y se proveyeron inteligentes sistemas de drenaje para evacuar el agua proveniente de las filtraciones de la calzada superior.

  1. Experiencia en la gestión y construcción del puente Vilca sobre el río Chancay: carretera Huaral - Acos

    OpenAIRE

    Portocarrero Hidalgo, Walter Augusto

    2016-01-01

    La presente tesis tiene como objetivo construir el puente Vilca, logrando los cambios necesarios, metodología de trabajo y aprobación del presupuesto por parte de la entidad contratante. Para ello, se realiza un estudio de la concepción del proyecto, problemas encontrados al inicio de la construcción, ingeniería y detalles del mismo, así como la construcción propiamente dicha, en lo que se refiere a estribos, falso puente, vigas y losa del tablero, barandas. Finalmente, se realiza la prueba d...

  2. Las condiciones hidrológicas del río Daule sección: "la toma. puente de la unidad nacional"

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    Las Condiciones Hidrológicas del río Daule Sección: "La Toma. Puente de la Unidad Nacional" Con el objeto de conocer las condiciones hidrológicas de un tramo del río Daule, se procedió a realizar un estudio en los meses de Noviembre de 1982 y Marzo de 1983, en el que se tomaron muestras de agua tanto en la superficie como en el fundo, en periodas de pleamar y bajamar; de 5 estaciones del río Daule, sección La Toma - Puente de la Unidad Nacional (31.7 Km), provincia del Guayas.

  3. The Role Of Transparency In Tenders In Order To Maintain The Public Interest And The Rights Of Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tajarlou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The public tenders are very important instrument which the public sector uses to the allocation of great part of public expenditure for Welfare of citizens. Due to the the lack of resources and the optimal use of it in line with the public interest and the rights of tenderers tenders play a key role in the public sector operations they can be defined as an instrument to increase the effectiveness of the public sector as a whole. But with the conflict of interests of the public and private sector there needs to be transparency so that the rights of the parties to maintain and public confidence in the state increase. Transparency in Tenders cause the Suppliers that win the bids are those with the best product at the best price targeted at achieving the best outcome. This paper examines the concept and types of tenders for the effects of transparency in government tenders.

  4. La “Introducción” a las Lecciones sobre derecho natural de Kant anotadas por Feyerabend.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Marey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta por primera vez en castellano la “Introducción” de las lecciones kantianas conocidas como Naturrecht Feyerabend (1784, a partir de la nueva edición del manuscrito preparada por Heinrich P. Delfosse, Norbert Hinske y Gianluca Sadun Bordoni (Kant-Index. Band 30: Stellenindex und Konkordanz zum „Naturrecht Feyerabend“. Teilband 1: Einleitung des „Naturrechts Feyerabend“, Sttutgard, Frommann-Holzboog, 2010. La traducción está antecedida por un estudio crítico en el que sostenemos la tesis de que la obra en cuestión constituye una fuente jurídico-política crucial para entender la formación del pensamiento práctico de Kant. Intentamos mostrar que si bien el texto puede ser leído como complemento de la Fundamentación de la metafísica de las costumbres, la preocupación central de la “Introducción” de Naturrecht Feyerabend gira en torno a (por lo menos tres ejes conceptuales que recaen, por entero, dentro del reino de la filosofía jurídica y política. En primer lugar, encontramos en el curso una preocupación por definir el concepto de la obligación jurídica desde la idea de coacción, distinguiéndolo así del de la obligación ética y asociándolo a la definición de derecho subjetivo como potestad o título para ejercer coacción de manera legítima. En segundo lugar, es central la tesis propiamente kantiana de que el derecho debe fundarse en la libertad externa y en la posibilidad de su compatibilidad universal, y no en la felicidad entendida como fin natural que todos los individuos deberían perseguir y como propósito del Estado. En tercer lugar, aparecen in nuce los fundamentos conceptuales por los cuales Kant delimita la obligación jurídica desde la realidad práctica del derecho político, esto es, de un Estado, y no desde una supuesta confluencia pre-jurídica (natural de intereses privados.

  5. Desarrollo y aplicación de lecciones de estadística en-línea con objetos de aprendizaje en un ambiente universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavigne, Gilles

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se presentan resultados preliminares de una investigación-desarrollo que tuvo el propósito de desarrollar lecciones de Estadística en línea con inserción de objetos de aprendizaje y estimar el efecto sobre el aprendizaje de los alumnos participantes en un ambiente natural universitario. Se utilizaron señalamientos teóricos constructivistas para el desarrollo de las lecciones, para conformarle al estudiante un ambiente en línea propicio para la construcción activa de su conocimiento.La aplicación de las lecciones se realizó con 92 alumnos universitarios (tres grupos. Se aplicó una encuesta de datos generales previo a la intervención educativa. Al final, se entrevistaron a los docentes responsables y se conformaron tres grupos de discusión con los alumnos. Los resultados mostraron un mejor aprendizaje en Estadística en 6 de las 7 comparaciones hechas para los subgrupos que tuvieron la mayor actividad en el web. La opinión de alumnos y docentes fue favorable a este tipo de innovación educativa. Finalmente, es conveniente puntualizar las bondades de incorporar este tipo de innovaciones en cursos universitarios y asi transitar hacia una mejora integral del proceso educativo.Abstract: This communication is presenting the preliminary results of a research-development project aiming to evaluate the pedagogical impact of constructivist based learning objects integrated into online Statistic lessons within a live university environment. The experiment was performed with 92 students distributed into three course groups. A survey of the students' general profile was applied previous to the educative intervention and, thereafter, the three participating teachers were interviewed and the students invited to participate to three discussion groups.The results show that, with the exception of one subgroup, the students with a greater online activity obtained a better mark. The overall opinion of the teachers and of the students was

  6. Adapting an empirically supported intervention for a new population and setting: findings and lessons learned from Proyecto Puentes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mimi V; Hall, William J; Sisler, Laurel A G

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice, the need for social work researchers and practitioners to adapt empirically supported interventions for new populations and cultures is essential. However, social work suffers from a lack of guidance and detailed examples of intervention adaptations that may not proceed "by the book" and actually falter but recover. Many of these situations result from lack of attention to setting and context even when researchers believe they have full stakeholder buy-in. This article presents process evaluation findings from an intervention adaptation called Proyecto Puentes that allowed for self-correction and successful intervention development.

  7. Evaluación técnica de los puentes en la infraestructura vial del departamento de Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, John Mario; Ospina Giraldo, Jaime; Graciano, Edir Amparo

    2014-01-01

    El desarrollo económico y social de una región está directamente relacionado con el estado de su infraestructura vial. La falla de un puente genera la interrupción total del tráfico de bienes en su superficie, generando incalculables pérdidas materiales y sociales mientras se restituye el flujo vehicular. El departamento de Antioquia cuenta en su patrimonio vial con una de las redes más extensas del territorio colombiano. La gobernación departamental es la encargada del adecuado funcionamient...

  8. OPTIMIZACIÓN APLICADA A LA CALIBRACIÓN Y VALIDACIÓN DE MODELOS DE ELEMENTOS FINITOS DE PUENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Calderón, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una propuesta para aplicar técnicas de optimización a la calibración de modelos de elementos finitosen análisis estructural. Concretamente, estas técnicas son aplicadas a un modelo computacional del puente Puerto Salgar,localizado en Colombia, sobre la carretera Honda - Río Ermitaño, en la abscisa correspondiente al cruce sobre el río Magdalena.Para realizar el proceso de calibración se ejecutaron fases de campo y de oficina entre las que están: instrumentación del puen...

  9. Espectros de fitolitos en tres suelos de la planicie de Puente Largo, paramo de Frontino, departamento de Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    Flórez Molina, María Teresa; Parra Sánchez, Luis Norberto

    2001-01-01

    Los fitolitos se obtuvieron de tres perfiles de suelos localizados en la Planicie de Puente Largo en el páramo de Frontino, clasificados como Typic Hapludands (perfiles 1 y 3) y Vitrandic Dystrudepts (perfil 2). En los perfiles se encuentran todas las morfotribus de fitolitos definidos por Flórez y Parra (2001), aunque las cantidades difieren entre ellos. La morfotribu más dominante es Prismatolita que está relacionada con Sysyrinchium micranthum, Juncus effusus, Juncus bogotensis, Calamagros...

  10. Una reseña de ensayos de carga no destructivos usados para la evaluación de puentes

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui, David

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este artículo es de proveer un breve repaso de la actividad relacionada con la evaluación experimental de los puentes en los Estados Unidos. Los dos métodos de evaluación de carga aplicados por AASHTO (La Asociación Americana de Oficiales de Carreteras Estatales y Transporte) son presentados incluyendo el esfuerzo permisible (AS) y el factor de carga (LF). Además, son discutidos los detalles básicos de los dos tipos de ensayos de carga más comunes para la evaluación d...

  11. Los nichos educativos, majestuosos escenarios donde los sujetos y la otredad entretejen puentes, caminos, andaduras a ser gestores de paz

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Agudelo, Luz Marina; Vallejo Vallejo, Lucero

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (Magister en Educación). Universidad Católica de Manizales, Facultad de Educación, 2014 La obra de conocimiento nace desde la andadura en busca de puentes vivos, que lleve a los niños, niñas y jóvenes a reencontrarse con su otredad, para hacer aprehensión de su condición humana; en un viaje donde seguramente encontrarán senderos, atajos, abismos que hacen incisiones profundas. Por ello, el andar es lento, pausado. Aun así, hay un trayecto trazado, una bitácora a seguir que las maestr...

  12. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in modulation of pain of tender points in syndrome fibromyalgia: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mara Magalhães Roriz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of pain and chronic diffuse, characterized by the presence of at least 11 of 18 points called anatomically specific tender points, painful on palpation. As the pain diffuse the main symptom of fibromyalgia. The current treatment is focused mainly to the reduction of symptoms. Physiotherapy has an important role in improving the control of pain. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the main TENS of low frequency and high intensity in modulating pain of tender points of patients with fibromyalgia. For this was a case study of patient R. S. S., 38-year-old female carrier of the syndrome of fibromyalgia attended school in the clinic of the Faculty of Integrated Ceará (FISIOFIC. The patient was treated with the TENS-pain Acupuncture points in a total of twelve care and pain assessed before starting treatment and after three attendants. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity at 77.7% of the tender points in the second evaluation and 88.8% of the points in the other assessments. It was concluded that there was a reduction in the pain of tender points of the patient showing the analgesia promoted by TENS, so it should be used as a complementary treatment programs associated with other treatments and also served as a good technique to locate the tender points

  13. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRIC NERVE STIMULATION IN MODULATION OF PAIN OF TENDER POINTS IN SYNDROME FIBROMYALGIA: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mara Magalhães Rori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of pain and chronic diffuse, characterized by the presence of at least 11 of 18 points called anatomically specific tender points, painful on palpation. As the pain diffuse the main symptom of fibromyalgia. The current treatment is focused mainly to the reduction of symptoms. Physiotherapy has animportant role in improving the control of pain. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the main TENS of low frequency and high intensity in modulating pain of tender points of patients with fibromyalgia. For this was a case study of patient R. S. S., 38-yearold female carrier of the syndrome of fibromyalgia attended school in the clinic of the Faculty of Integrated Ceará (FISIOFIC. The patient was treated with the TENS-pain Acupuncture points in a total of twelve care and pain assessed before starting treatment and after three attendants. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity at 77.7% of the tender points in the second evaluation and 88.8% of the points in the other assessments. It was concluded that there was a reduction in the pain of tender points of the patient showing the analgesia promoted by TENS, so it should be used as a complementary treatment programs associated with other treatments and also served as a good technique to locate the tender points.

  14. Quality of aged and tenderized beef commercialized in the Dracena region, Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. S. Bosco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and microbiological characteristics of aged and tenderized beef commercialized in the Dracena region, SP. Eight samples of aged meat and eight samples of tenderized meat were randomly purchased from commercial establishments and submitted to measurements of pH, shear force, cooking losses and color and to microbiological analysis. A completely randomized design consisting of two treatments and eight replicates was used. Among the physical characteristics studied, significant differences between the tenderization processes were observed for pH, cooking loss, redness (a*, yellowness (b* and oxymyoglobin/metmyoglobin ratio (O/M (P0.05 in shear force or lightness between processes. Microbiological analysis revealed a significant difference (P0.05 Despite clear and perceptible differences to the human eye in some physical characteristics, aged and tenderized beef commercialized in the Dracena region, SP, is similar in terms of tenderness and its color and microbiological quality meet the standards required for sale and human consumption.

  15. Puente de hormigón pretensado sobre el río Caroni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, Álvaro

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available This bridge consists of a. series of portal frames, of 96 m span each, making up a total length of about 500 m. The piles over the river have caused certain difficulties, and it became necessary to build a number cofferdams with sheetpiling, which became permanent formwork for the concrete foundations. The deck is a box section beam, of prestressed concrete. The most notable aspect of this structure is the constructive method. The total length of the deck was divided into 50 sections, each of them prefabricated at a nearby workshop. Each section was aligned along the deck axis: the deck already built serving as sliding ramp for each successive section. To carry out this difficult operation, neoprene was employed, which has a very low friction coefficient, on sliding over steel. To push the heavy table sections to their final position use has been made of hydraulic jacks. After these initial operations were completed, the groups of prestressed cables were correctly aligned: these cables had been provisionally stretched, during the process of putting the deck sections together. These groups of cables are attached to the inner surface of the side walls of the box sections of the deck.Este puente consta de una serie de tramos porticados de luces máximas (96 m , con longitud total de unos 500 metros. Las pilas o soportes han presentado cierta dificultad en los tramos correspondientes al río, pues han sido necesarias ataguías formadas por células de tablestacas que han servido de encofrados perdidos para hormigonar los cimientos. El conjunto del tablero está constituido por una viga-cajón, de hormigón pretensado. La particularidad más notable de esta estructura radica en los métodos constructivos llevados a cabo en su realización. La longitud total del tablero se ha subdividido en 50 trozos prefabricados en un taller próximo al puente y alineado con el eje del mismo, que ha servido de rampa para el traslado y corrimiento a su posici

  16. Puente de hormigón pretensado sobre el río Ter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebollo, Arturo

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available This work, constructed in 1964, is the access used for the construction, erection and present exploitation of the underground generating station of Susqueda Dam (Gerona, of Hidroeléctrica de Cataluña, S. A. The structure, foreseen for mobile overloads of 125 tons, is formed by a simple portal with inclined supports and linera variation in width. The floor, whose length is 60 metres, is prestressed from end to end and is fitted with intermediate hinges. In view of the excellent result of this structural layout, there is a possibility of triplicating its present scale, thus spanning gaps of 120-140 metres, not only because its technical and economic conditions permit it but also because bridges of notable beauty could be built with this type of structure.Esta obra, construida en 1964, es el acceso utilizado para la construcción, montaje y actualmente para la explotación de la central subterránea del Salto de Susqueda (Gerona, de Hidroeléctrica de Cataluña, S. A. La estructura, prevista para sobrecargas móviles de 125 t, está formada por un pórtico simple con apoyos inclinados y variación lineal en los cantos. El tablero, de 60 m de longitud, va pretensado de extremo a extremo, presentando articulaciones móviles en los mismos. En vista del excelente resultado de esta disposición estructural, se concluye con la posibilidad de ampliarla hasta el triple de la escala, pudiéndose salvar así luces libres de 120-140 m, no solamente por permitirlo sus condiciones técnicas y económicas, sino también porque se lograrían puentes de notable belleza con este tipo de estructura.

  17. Puente sobre el Río Ebro - Castejón (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, C.

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available This bridge over the Ebro, at Castejón, will provide an important north-south link between Pamplona and central Spain, with a possible connection towards France. It is designed to carry two traffic lanes only, with a total width of 10.50 ms. But it is planned to double it later, so that its width will be 20.50 and double panes of traffic in each direction will be provided. Currently, anticipating future needs, the township of Castejón has constructed this bridge through its own financial provisions, and will collect a toll charge to recuperate its outlay.El puente de Castejón sobre el rio Ebro servirá a una comunicación norte-sur de gran importancia desde la ciudad de Pamplona al centro de España, con posible prolongación hacia Francia. Se ha construido para dos vías de comunicación únicamente, con una latitud total de 10,50, pero en su día será duplicado, es decir, pasará a doble carril en cada una de las direcciones con separación intermedia y andenes laterales y latitud total de 20,50. En la actualidad el pueblo de Castejón, adelantándose a este porvenir próximo ha construido por su cuenta esta importante obra, obteniendo una concesión de peaje para sufragar los gastos.

  18. Los puentes de Madison: una mirada de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Herrera Sánchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Más allá del uso estereotipado y los lugares comunes del amor romántico y el drama, en la película Los puentes de Madison de Clint Eastwood se dibujan y se cuestionan las estrategias familiares y los roles de género de las mujeres rurales estadounidenses en los años 60 a través de su curso vital y de las relaciones sociales establecidas.Abordando cuestiones esenciales para el movimiento feminista como la maternidad, la sexualidad de la mujer, la identidad o la doble jornada en el sector agrícola y haciendo un gran uso del lenguaje audiovisual, la adaptación cinematográfica de la novela de Robert James Waller pone el acento (ya sea de forma intencionada o casual en los tabúes de las mujeres de la época y en los mandatos de género que éstas debían asumir.Beyond the stereotyped used of romantic love and drama on Clint Eastwood’s film The Bridges of Madison County are also shown and questioned family strategies and gender roles of rural women in the 1960s at United States through their lifes and established social relations.Dealing with feminist movement key issues as motherhood, female sexuality, identity, or the double work time on the agricultural sector and making extensive use of audiovisual language, the filmed adaptation of the novel written by Robert James Waller focuses on (either deliberately or accidentaly the taboos of the time women and gender mandates they sould assume.

  19. Puente sobre el Boiron de St. Prex, en la autopista Lausana-Ginebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suter, René

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available The project consists of twin bridges, running side by side, and built one after the other. The same formwork to support reinforcement was used for both bridges, by merely moving the formwork parallel to itself, after the first bridge was completed. The bridges are of prestressed concrete, and have five spans of 56, 14, 70, 14 and 56 m, with a total length of 210 m. The deck is 2.60 m high and consists of two main girders of constant height, mutually attached by tie members, and resting on twin columns, of considerable slenderness, of reinforced concrete, and approximately 20 m high. The article describes the design procedure, the static structural calculations, the prestressing operations and some constructional details.La obra se compone de dos puentes gemelos, uno al lado del otro, construidos, sucesivamente, utilizando la misma cimbra para sostener la armadura por medio de una simple traslación lateral. Es de hormigón pretensado y comprende cinco tramos de 56, 14, 70, 14 y 56 m de luz, respectivamente, con una longitud total de 210 m. El tablero, de 2,60 m de altura, está formado por dos vigas maestras, de altura constante, unidas entre sí por tirantes y sostenidas por pilas gemelas, muy esbeltas, de hormigón armado y altura aproximada de 20 metros. El artículo describe los criterios seguidos al proyectarla, el cálculo estático de las estructuras, la fase de pretensado y algunos detalles de la construcción.

  20. Puente-paso para una estación de autobuses, California, (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel, -

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available The bus terminal has been built in three independent platforms, connected to one another by a 40 m-span bridge and to the two directions of traffic of the expressway below, by means of two stairs-and-lifts towers located at both ends of the access lobby, so as to facilitate pedestrian traffic to the two levels of the said expressway in the neighbourhood of the university campus. It deserves pointing out in this design, as a whole, the harmonious integration of the structural requirements — in reinforced concrete and metal window framing — with the aesthetic and functional criteria, something not commonly found in this type of buildings, more often considered as secondary and with little architectural value. This design has deserved the Honor Award of the South California Chapter of the American institute of Architects.

    Para posibilitar el acceso peatonal a los dos distintos niveles de la autopista inmediata al campus universitario, la estación de autobuses se ha realizado con tres plataformas independientes, unidas entre sí mediante un puente de 40 m de luz, y enlazadas verticalmente, con los dos sentidos de circulación de la autopista, a través de dos torres con escaleras y ascensores situados en los extremos del vestíbulo de acceso. En el conjunto destaca la armónica integración de las necesidades estructurales, resueltas a base de hormigón armado y carpintería metálica, y los valores estéticos y funcionales, pocas veces lograda en obras de esta naturaleza, normalmente consideradas como secundarias o de poco valor arquitectónico. El proyecto ha merecido el premio de honor del Instituto Americano de arquitectos de California del Sur.

  1. Lecciones aprendidas en el control de Aedes aegypti para afrontar el dengue y la emergencia de chikungunya en Iquitos, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalin Vilcarromero

    Full Text Available El dengue ha afectado a Iquitos desde 1990 causando varios brotes de gran impacto en la salud pública y por el que se desplegaron grandes esfuerzos para su control temporal. Actualmente, ante la expansión del virus chikungunya en las Américas y la amenaza de la emergencia del virus en Iquitos, reflexionamos a modo de lecciones aprendidas las actividades emprendidas en el área del control vectorial; la vigilancia epidemiológica; el diagnóstico y el manejo clínico durante los periodos de brotes de dengue, de modo que nos permita enfrentar mejor la amenaza de un brote del virus chikunguña en la ciudad más grande de la Amazonía peruana.

  2. [Mechanisms of muscle pain : significance of trigger points and tender points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinschek, H-P

    2008-12-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) belong to the group of chronic non-inflammatory pain syndromes affecting muscles and tendinous insertions. Important criteria in the diagnosis of both diseases are the presence of "tender points" and "trigger points". According to ACR criteria FMS is characterized by the presence of tender points whereas trigger points are typically found in MPS.The main difference is that until now tender points could only be defined in terms of their localization, whereas trigger points can be found upon palpation which may cause a specific referred pain pattern. In addition, analysis of trigger points by microdialysis demonstrated elevated levels of pro-inflammatory substances at these sites. Moreover, local treatment of trigger points either by manipulative therapy or injection appears to be most effective for prompt relief of symptoms.

  3. Time course of subjective pain ratings, and wound and leg tenderness after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Erichsen, C J

    1997-01-01

    .0002). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that wound pressure algometry correlates to postoperative pain at rest and during movement and may be an alternative way of assessing wound pain and tenderness. Increased tenderness to mechanical stimulation remote from the surgical wound could not be demonstrated.......BACKGROUND: Little information is available on time course of wound tenderness and relationship to subjective pain ratings following surgery. Furthermore, it is not clarified whether surgical procedures may induce hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation outside the area of the surgical incision. We...... have therefore assessed postoperative pain and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) adjacent to and remote from the surgical incision in 16 patients undergoing hysterectomy. METHODS: Pressure pain threshold was assessed with pressure algometry preoperatively, 4 and 6 and 1, 4 and 8 d after surgery...

  4. Comunicación, movilización y participación: lecciones aprendidas en la prevención y control de la fiebre dengue (fd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mosquera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio de intervención- investigación ejecutado durante 2003-2005 en el Atlántico (Colombia, con el propósito de mejorar la efectividad y sostenibilidad de los programas de control de Fiebre Dengue (FD, a través de una estrategia de comunicación participativa basada en los recursos comunicacionales locales y en los conocimientos, prácticas y percepciones de la comunidad; se exponen las lecciones aprendidas en torno a dimensiones críticas de las intervenciones en comunicación y salud organizadas en dos áreas: dimensiones político-técnicas y dimensiones teóricas y de investigación. El proyecto se desarrolló partir de la metodología combi, abordaje de comunicación y movilización social que incluye un proceso estratégico para identificar, promover y facilitar comportamientos que puedan repercutir en forma positiva y significativa y que sean factibles de lograr. Como variante al combi, se introdujeron componentes de participación social en la implementacion del proceso. Las lecciones aprendidas incluyen re- flexiones sobre el rol de los organismos rectores, la integralidad de las estrategias, el impacto de las intervenciones de comunicación en los indicadores entomológicos, la expansión de referentes teóricos en dengue y la posibilidad de abordar otras problemáticas de salud a partir de procesos participativos centrados en dengue.

  5. Tres lecciones de tinieblas, de José Ángel Valente: naturaleza musical, claves de poética e implicaciones simbólicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Escobar Borrego

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece un estudio circunscrito a la caracterización musical de Tres lecciones de tinieblas (1980, de José Ángel Valente (1929-2000. Para ello, se parte, en primer lugar, del análisis de las claves de poética que ofrece el escritor en distintos textos (entrevistas, ensayos, discursos, diario … para, con posterioridad, identificar las fuentes de dicho poemario, ya sean musicales –desde el canto gregoriano hasta Webern, Boulez o Schenker–, literarias (Gonzalo de Berceo, filosóficas (Miguel de Molinos, etc. En el conjunto de modelos presentado sobresale, en particular, la asimilación por parte de Valente del género de las Leçons des Ténèbres –sobre todo, Couperin y Charpentier–, así como de la tradición áurea española, con ecos de Tomás Luis de Victoria, Quevedo y sus Lágrimas de Hieremías castellanas, la «música silente» de San Juan de la Cruz o la «poesía musical» de Góngora, entre otros señeros referentes. Por último, dada la compleja naturaleza genérica de Tres lecciones, se presta especial atención, en fin, tanto al simbolismo pitagórico como a las propiedades musicales de las letras-números para concluir con unas notas sobre la poética del fragmento.

  6. Genome-Wide H3K4me3 Analysis in Angus Cattle with Divergent Tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunping; Carrillo, José A; Tian, Fei; Zan, Linsen; Updike, Scott M; Zhao, Keji; Zhan, Fei; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Tenderness is one of the most important properties of meat quality, which is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. As an intensively studied epigenetic marker, histone methylation, occurring on arginine and lysine residues, has pivotal regulatory functions on gene expression. To examine whether histone methylation involves in beef tenderness variation, we analyzed the transcriptome and H3K4me3 enrichment profiles of muscle strips obtained from the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Angus steers previously classify to the tender or tough group. We first plotted a global bovine H3K4me3 map on chromosomes and called peak-enriched regions and genes. We found that majorities of H3K4me3 on genes were occupying the first intron and intergenic regions and its maps displayed similar patterns in tender and tough groups, with high H3K4me3 enrichment surrounding the transcription start site (TSS). We also explored the relationship of H3K4me3 and gene expression. The results showed that H3K4me3 enrichment is highly positively correlated with gene expression across the whole genome. Cluster analysis results confirmed the relationship of H3K4me3 enrichment and gene expression. By using a pathway-based approach in genes with H3K4me3 enrichment in promoter regions from the tender cluster, we revealed that those genes involved in the development of different tissues-connective tissue, skeletal and muscular system and functional tissues-; while in tough group those genes engaged in cell death, lipid metabolism and small molecule biochemistry. The results from this study provide a deep insight into understanding of the mechanisms of epigenetic regulations in meat quality and beef tenderness.

  7. Genome-Wide H3K4me3 Analysis in Angus Cattle with Divergent Tenderness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhao

    Full Text Available Tenderness is one of the most important properties of meat quality, which is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. As an intensively studied epigenetic marker, histone methylation, occurring on arginine and lysine residues, has pivotal regulatory functions on gene expression. To examine whether histone methylation involves in beef tenderness variation, we analyzed the transcriptome and H3K4me3 enrichment profiles of muscle strips obtained from the longissimus dorsi (LD of Angus steers previously classify to the tender or tough group. We first plotted a global bovine H3K4me3 map on chromosomes and called peak-enriched regions and genes. We found that majorities of H3K4me3 on genes were occupying the first intron and intergenic regions and its maps displayed similar patterns in tender and tough groups, with high H3K4me3 enrichment surrounding the transcription start site (TSS. We also explored the relationship of H3K4me3 and gene expression. The results showed that H3K4me3 enrichment is highly positively correlated with gene expression across the whole genome. Cluster analysis results confirmed the relationship of H3K4me3 enrichment and gene expression. By using a pathway-based approach in genes with H3K4me3 enrichment in promoter regions from the tender cluster, we revealed that those genes involved in the development of different tissues-connective tissue, skeletal and muscular system and functional tissues-; while in tough group those genes engaged in cell death, lipid metabolism and small molecule biochemistry. The results from this study provide a deep insight into understanding of the mechanisms of epigenetic regulations in meat quality and beef tenderness.

  8. INCIDENCE OF ATLAS BRIDGES AND TUNNELS – THEIR PHYLOGENY, ONTOGENY AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS. 26 Incidencia de los puentes y túneles del atlas – Su filogenia, ontogenia e implicancias clínicas

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Lalit; Sanjay Piplani; Anterpreet K Arora; Jagdey S Kullar; Tripta Sharma

    2016-01-01

    En la vértebra atlas, los puentes posteriores, los puentes laterales y los túneles postero-laterales son las protrusiones óseas que pueden causar presión externa en la arteria vertebral cuando pasa  del foramen transverso de la vértebra cervical al foramen magnum del cráneo. Ejemplares que muestran dichas protrusiones fueron clasificadas según tengan puentes del atlas completos o incompletos que pueden predisponer a la insuficiencia vertebrobasilar y al síndrome cervicogénico especialmente du...

  9. Dinámica ambiental y económica en la localidad de Puente Aranda en Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Parra Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento muestra los resultados parciales de la investigación “Responsabilidad social y ambiental de la industria manufacturera en la localidad de Puente Aranda en la ciudad de Bogotá como alternativa al desarrollo humano integral sustentable”, realizados dentro del marco de trabajo del grupo de investigación Girsa. El estudio se basó en el análisis de la dinámica poblacional, ambiental y económica de la dicha localidad, a través de la metodología de la matriz de Vester. Con este instrumento se logró identificar las relaciones e interacciones dinámicas de todos los actores locales en el tiempo y en el espacio. Dentro de los problemas críticos que se encontraron en la localidad de Puente Aranda se encontró el agotamiento de fuentes hídricas, poca conciencia y educación ambiental de la población, una mala disposición de basuras, la no disponibilidad de servicios públicos para los nuevos asentamientos y altos niveles de emisión de partículas contaminantes.

  10. Evaluación de técnicas no destructivas en elementos de concreto para puentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Cruz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las técnicas no destructivas de Velocidad de Pulso Ultrasónico (VPU, termografía infrarroja y martillo de rebote para su aplicación en elementos de puentes de concreto y para determinar su posible aplicación in situ. El estudio se desarrolló en dos etapas: diseño y elaboración de los elementos representativos de un puente de concreto y aplicación de los ensayos no destructivos sobre estos. La técnica de VPU mostró gran capacidad para evaluar la homogeneidad y calidad de la matriz de concreto, con baja sensibilidad para identificar los daños en los refuerzos. La termografía infrarroja permitió la identificación de delaminaciones ubicadas a profundidades de hasta el 50% del espesor de la losa evaluada. Con los resultados del martillo de rebote se estimó la resistencia a la compresión del concreto de las losas, cuyas lecturas obtenidas fueron afectadas por la presencia de agregado grueso.

  11. Ciberespacio cultural de integración modelo interactivo como puente de cooperación entre las culturas Colombiana y polaca

    OpenAIRE

    Kulak, Ewa Marta

    2005-01-01

    El proyecto de creación de un ciberespacio de integración cultural que servi-rá de puente de cooperación entre las dos culturas: colombiana y polaca tiene como el objetivo aprovechar las nuevas técnicas de comunicación y de información que ofrece la Internet

  12. ELEMENTOS PARA LA VALORACIÓN INTEGRAL DE LOS RECURSOS NATURALES: UN PUENTE ENTRE LA ECONOMÍA AMBIENTAL Y LA ECONOMÍA ECOLÓGICA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PAULO CESAR RODRÍGUEZ ROMERO; ALEXANDER CUBILLOS GONZALEZ

    2012-01-01

    ... ecológicas y por ignorar la integralidad de los subsistemas que componen el ambiente. Ante tal panorama, resulta imperante encontrar puentes conceptuales entre las ciencias ambientales para llenar los vacíos en los métodos...

  13. The Puente Program: Latino Student Outcomes in English 96 and 1A, 1993-95. Research, Planning, and Grants Report 966-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Vivian

    In 1981, the Puente program was established at California's City College of San Francisco to improve the transfer rates of Chicano/Latino students to senior institutions. The program provides a supportive and stimulating environment to help students build confidence in their writing skills and provides extensive counseling and mentoring services.…

  14. Proto-Cogotas I o el bronce medio de la Meseta: La Gravera de «Puente Viejo» (Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier José GONZÁLEZ-TABLAS SASTRE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el mes de julio de 1984 el Museo Provincial de Avilal llevó a cabo una excavación de urgencia en un arenero situado en el pago conocido como «Puente Viejo» en las proximidades de Zorita de los Molinos, dentro del término municipal de Mingorria.

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.35 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-117.35 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service? (a) It is an... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service? 102-117.35 Section 102-117.35 Public Contracts and...

  16. 17 CFR 240.14e-7 - Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. 240.14e-7 Section 240.14e-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. In order to implement section 14(h) of the Act (15 U...

  17. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans Peter; Christensen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength.......To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength....

  18. INVIVO 31P MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS) OF TENDER POINTS IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLECOURT, AC; WOLF, RF; VANRIJSWIJK, MH; KAMMAN, RL; KNIPPING, AA; MOOYAART, EL

    1991-01-01

    31P Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopy was performed at the site of tender points in the trapezius muscle of patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Earlier, in vitro studies have reported changes in the high energy phosphate-metabolism in biopsies taken from tender points of fibromyalgia

  19. Puente metálico sobre el río Save

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer, G.

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available The original «Kinfi Alexander» suspension bridge over the Save river, Yugoslavia, which was destroyed during the last world war has been reconstructed, after organising an international prize award for its design. 32 projects from various countries were submitted. The chosen design is a metal structure, of 261 ms span. The arch of the main span has a hollow box section. The deck consists of an orthotropic slab, which has been subjected to a number of tests. The bridge has three spans (two approach and one central span, and was built without scaffolding, i. e., by cantilevering it from the springers. The roadway is 12 ms wide and there are two 3 ms wide footways. The box section arch girders are 9.60 ms deep over the piles, and 4.50 ms at the crown. The slopes on either side of the crown are 0.7 and 0.25%, respectively. The deck is very rigid, and is well capable of supporting the design loads and windage.El primitivo puente colgante Rey Alejandro, sobre el río Save, Yugoslavia, destruido durante la última guerra mundial, ha sido reconstruido por la vía de concurso internacional, al cual se presentaron 32 proposiciones de diferentes países. La solución aceptada fue una estructura metálica de 261 m de luz. El arco de este tramo tiene una sección hueca en forma de cajón. El tablero se compone de una placa ortotrópica, de la que, previamente, se han realizado varios ensayos. La obra, de tres tramos —dos para los accesos y uno central—, se construyó por procedimientos sin andamiaje, es decir, en voladizo. La anchura de la calzada es de 12 m, y dos andenes, de 3 m cada uno, para peatones. Los arcos de las vigas cajón tienen 9,60 m de canto sobre las pilas y 4,50 m en la clave. Las pendientes hacia uno y otro lado de la clave son del 0,7 y 0,25%, respectivamente. La rigidez del tablero es perfecta y suficiente para- soportar las cargas previstas y para transmitir los efectos del viento a las pilas.

  20. Puente sobre el río Jarama, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Borlado, Ramiro

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available As the previous bridge connecting Barajas with Paracuellos, on the 5th km of the road joining these villages, had been destroyed, a new one has been built. It is made of steel, has five spans, with a total length of 178.85 ms, has a 7 m wide pavement, and two 1.10 m wide sidewalks. The main feature of this bridge is a continuous girder, running over the three central spans, one 36.9 m long, and the other two 24.2 m each. This girder has a continuous web, of double T section. It has two halves, 6.2 ms apart, suitably linked together. The depth varies, and increases slightly over the central supports. The central piles rest on new foundations, consisting of caissons. The rest of the old foundations have been preserved. At the central pile the attachment is fixed, and on the two adjacent piles roller bearings have been fitted. At the end supports the deck structure rests on neoprene plates, 12 mm thick. To ensure the stability of the deck slab, a number of adequately spaced dilation joints have been provided.Por haber sido socavado y destruido el puente primitivo, situado en el punto kilométrico 4,800, y con objeto de restablecer el tráfico en la carretera de Barajas a Paracuellos, se ha construido uno nuevo, de estructura metálica, de cinco tramos, con una longitud total de 178,85 m, calzada de 7 m y dos andenes de 1,10 m de anchura cada uno. La parte principal de esta obra consiste en una viga continua que salva los tres tramos centrales, uno de 36,90 m de luz y los dos adyacentes a él de 24,20 m. Esta viga está constituida por dos de alma llena, de sección en forma de doble T, espaciadas a 6,20 m y convenientemente arriostradas entre ellas. Su canto es variable, aumentando linealmente en las proximidades de los dos apoyos centrales, hasta estos mismos. Las pilas de los tres tramos centrales se apoyan sobre nuevos cimientos, realizados con cajones, conservando los demás cimientos existentes. El apoyo sobre la pila central es fijo, y de

  1. Puente-túnel de la Bahía de Chesapeake, (U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdrup, Leif J.

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available The total project involves 20 km of road over shallow waters two tunnels, each 1,500 m long, two bridges, four artificial islands, 2,000 m of road over dykes, and approximately 9 km of approach roads. The total length of the work is 26 km, and the width of the pavement is 8.50 m. The supports for the elevated road, over the bay water, consist of palisades of three cylindrical, reinforced concrete, piles, connected with a cross member. The two underwater tunnels were prefabricated in sections, at the workshop, and were then transported in pontoons, and placed at the bottom of a trench, which had been previously dredged out. Finally the joints were sealed, and the diaphragms which initially closed the ends of each section were opened, when the structure was in its final position. The project is undoubtedly interesting because of its variety, size and length, and also on account of the difficulties of undertaking the sea works in relatively deep waters.El conjunto se compone de 20 km de paso superior, dos túneles de 1.500 m, dos puentes propiamente dichos, cuatro islas artificiales, 2.000 m de carretera sobre diques y aproximadamente 9 km de caminos de acceso. La obra tiene una longitud total de 26 km y la anchura de la calzada es de 8,50 m. Los soportes del paso superior están constituidos por palizadas de tres pilotes, cilíndricos, de hormigón armado, arriostrados con un cabezal. Los dos túneles se prefabricaron por trozos, en taller, los cuales fueron transportados por medio de pontones, colocados en el fondo de una trinchera previamente dragada y, finalmente, selladas las juntas y abiertos los diafragmas que originalmente cerraban los extremos de cada trozo, antes del hundimiento en su posición definitiva. La obra es de indudable interés por su variedad, volumen y longitud y por las dificultades que entraña el realizar trabajos marítimos en aguas relativamente profundas.

  2. Nuevo puente de Florídsdorf en Viena — Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was characterised by the great speed with which it was built, 18 months, a world record for this type of job. This was possible thanks to the compenetraron and perfect organisation of the companies who intervened most directly: Voest Alpine and Wagner. The construction system is described, made of large metal and concrete elements; the physiognomy of the bridge, with its parts on both sides of the riverbed and that which covers the real course of the river; spans and free heights of the different stretches; elevations and assembly, as well as laying prefabricated parts; foundations, piling and ancillary work. Work still to be done is also enumerated, although many of the jobs will shortly be completed or are in a very advanced stage, under the direction of the company Wiener Wrückenbau AG.

    Esta obra se caracteriza por la gran rapidez de construcción, 18 meses, fecha récord mundial para este tipo de trabajos. Ello ha sido posible por la compenetración y perfecta organización de las empresas que más directamente han intervenido: Voest Alpine y Wagner. Se describen el sistema de construcción, a base de grandes elementos metálicos y de hormigón; la fisonomía del puente, con sus partes a ambos lados del cauce y la que salva el curso propiamente dicho del río; luces y alturas libres de los diferentes tramos; elevación y montaje, así como colocación de las piezas prefabricadas; cimentación, pilotaje y obras auxiliares. Asimismo se enumeran las obras que quedan por hacer, aunque muchas de ellas están en vías de próxima terminación o muy avanzadas, bajo la dirección de la empresa Wiener Brückenbau AG.

  3. McMurray's Test and Joint Line Tenderness for Medial Meniscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Meniscus tears are the most common injury of the knee. The McMurray's test and Joint line tenderness for diagnosing meniscus tear have been widely tested, but results reported by different authors vary. The wide variations reported have an impact on clinical decision concerning whether to go for other ...

  4. The Role of Quality in the Adjudication of Public Tenders | Quinot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of the goods or services that government procures is obviously a very important consideration in deciding which supplier should be awarded a particular public tender. It follows that in the regulation of public procurement, particular attention should be given to the role of quality (also called functionality) in the ...

  5. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S

    2011-01-01

    Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults...... with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain....

  6. 78 FR 69844 - Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... phase synchronous generator, and switchgear for each turbine. Tailrace A tailrace structure and culvert... Energy Regulatory Commission Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered.... b. Project No.: 13272-003. c. Date Filed: November 1, 2013. d. Applicant: Alaska Village Electric...

  7. Effects of natural plant tenderizers on proteolysis and texture of dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPTIMUS ATS

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... Key words: Dry sausages, wild boar meat, plant enzymes, proteolysis, texture, sensory properties. INTRODUCTION. The technology of ... Stanton and Light, 1987; Dransfield and Etherington,. 1981; Naveena et al., 2004; ... For example Sullivan et al. (2010) studied the tenderization effects of seven enzyme.

  8. 78 FR 25067 - Warmsprings Irrigation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Warmsprings Irrigation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the...

  9. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of dark cutting (DC) on the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor attributes of beef. During carcass grading at a large U.S. commercial beef harvesting facility, DC carcasses (n = 160) and matching normal control (NC) carcasses (n = 160)...

  10. Tender rules and trust influence on cooperation in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Lene Faber; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -operating. A questionnaire survey including building owners, contractors, suppliers, architects, engineers and client design advisor has been accomplished. The survey shows that the problem with co-operation among others is the way the tendering rules normally are used, where the normal assignment criterion is the lowest...

  11. 76 FR 16764 - Crane & Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Crane & Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption From Licensing b. Project No.: 13583-001 c. Date filed: March 9, 2011 d. Applicant: Crane..., 600-volt transmission line connected to the Crane & Company mill complex. The proposed project is...

  12. “Omu Ngwo” (Omu-Furled - Tender Palm Frond) Symbology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the knowledge of how diversified the uses of omu are. This symbolic form is involved in maintaining the Ikwerre religious and social ethos, hence this paper. The focus of this paper therefore, is among the Ikwerre in Rivers State of the North Eastern Niger Delta Region. Key words: Tender, Palm Frond, Symbology, Sacred, ...

  13. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered...: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project. f...

  14. Tendering by municipalities of wind turbines; Aanbesteding door gemeenten van windmolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This manual provides municipalities answers to the questions of how the municipality must do the tendering for wind turbines and what choices they have [Dutch] Deze handleiding biedt gemeenten antwoorden op de vragen hoe de gemeente moet aanbesteden en welke keuzes zij daarin heeft.

  15. Meat tenderness genetic polymorphisms occurrence and distribution in five Zebu breeds in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Although the relatively low occurrence of favorable alleles in assessed loci may limit their use in selection programs, genotyping availability might be a practical and comprehensive tool for introgression programs by marker assisted selection and management as to improve meat tenderness of Zebu breeds.

  16. Analysis of variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Yuichiro; Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    The aim of this study is to analyze the variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender using data on MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), Kanto Regional Development Bureau. It was revealed that number of bidder and level of minimum price affect variation of successful bid rate based on multiple linear regression analysis.

  17. Drug tendering: drug supply and shortage implications for the uptake of biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Ira Jacobs,2 Carol Kirchhoff,3 Robert Popovian,4 Lesley G Shane5 1Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Global Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 3Global Technology Services, Biotechnology and Aseptic Sciences Group, Pfizer Inc, Chesterfield, MO, 4US Government Relations, Pfizer Inc, Washington, DC, 5Outcomes and Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Due to the continued increase in global spending on health care, payers have introduced a number of programs, policies, and agreements on pharmaceutical pricing in order to control costs. While incentives to increase generic drug use have achieved significant savings, other cost-containment measures are required. Tendering is a formal procedure to purchase medications using competitive bidding for a particular contract. Although useful for cost containment, tendering can lead to decreased competition in a given market. Consequently, drug shortages can occur, resulting in changes to treatment plans to products that may have lower efficacy and/or an increased risk of adverse effects. Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that tendering does not negatively impact patient care or the health care system. A large and expanding portion of total pharmaceutical expenditure is for biologic therapies. These agents have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions; however, patient access to biologic drugs can be limited due to availability, insurance coverage, and cost. As branded biologic therapies reach the end of patent- and data-protection periods, biosimilars are being approved as lower-cost alternatives. Biosimilars are products that are highly similar to the originator product with no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, purity, or potency. As more biosimilars receive regulatory approval and adoption increases, these therapies are expected to have an

  18. The accuracy of joint line tenderness by physical examination in the diagnosis of meniscal tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Osman Tuğrul

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the accuracy of joint line tenderness in the diagnosis of meniscal tears. Prospective cohort study. There were 104 male recruits (age range, 18 to 20 years; mean, 19.2 years) with suspected meniscal lesions who underwent arthroscopy. A thorough history and physical examination was performed on each patient by a physician with 4 years' experience on arthroscopic knee surgery. Twenty-six (25%) patients sustained injuries while in the Turkish Army, and 78 patients (75%) sustained injuries before they came to the army. On physical examination, assessment of joint line tenderness at the lateral and medial joint lines was performed with the patient's knee flexed 90 degrees. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of joint line tenderness for medial and lateral sides were calculated based on arthroscopic findings. In 104 knees, the diagnosis was correct in 71 (68%) and incorrect in 33 (32%) knees. A total of 37 medial meniscal tears and 27 lateral meniscal tears were identified at arthroscopy. Other pathology included 11 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, 5 medial femoral chondral lesions, 4 chondromalacia patellae, and 1 medial plica. No discernable abnormalities were seen in 21 knees. A preoperative diagnosis of a medial meniscal tear was made in 54 knees and 32 were confirmed at arthroscopy. A lateral meniscus tear was suspected in 27 knees and confirmed in 25. Five medial meniscus and 2 lateral meniscus tears were seen at arthroscopy. These had not been suspected with tenderness over the joint line. The accuracy of the test was lower with the presence of ACL lesions and condromalacia patella. I concluded that joint line tenderness as a test for lateral meniscal tears is accurate (96%), sensitive (89%), and specific (97%). However, for medial meniscal tears, rates are lower.

  19. El puente de Saint-Nazaire - Saint-Brévin – Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1976-05-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the industrial and tourist development of the region, it was necessary to construct a bridge across the Loire taking into account conditions such as the geological nature of the Loire river bed, the passing of up to 200,000 t oil tankers and other factors which were of utmost importance for the design and the subsequent construction. The work consist of two access viaducts and the central metal bridge. The viaduct, the outlines of which are curved in mutually opposite senses, are of prestressed concrete. They are made up equal spans, each of which has a length of 50.70 m between the pile axes, with in all 22 on the north side and 30 on the south side. Each span consists of: 4 prefabricated girders which are joined at the ends by tie members; between the girders there is a 0.50 cm thick fill layer, over which there is a reinforced concrete slab. The supporting piers, also of reinforced concrete, have a foundation of piles which generally speaking rest on the rocky substratum of the riverbed. The metal part rests upon two main piers, situated on either side, with same type of foundation as mentioned above. On these are located inverted V-shape pylons, with a short vertical element, to which the cables that support the centre bridge deck are anchored, formed by 96 m and 16 m long spans, welded together after having been lifted to their final level. This project —the greatest in France and the one that has the greatest clear span among the works of this kind— has required three years of work utilizing the most modern techniques and systems. More than 80,000 m2 of concrete and more than 17,000 t of different kinds of steel have been used.Como consecuencia del desarrollo industrial y turístico de la región, fue preciso construir un puente sobre el Loira, contando con condicionantes tales como la naturaleza geológica del lecho del Loira, el paso de petroleros de hasta 200.000 t, y otros factores que influyeron grandemente

  20. Acerca de unos retazos de tejido de lino procedentes del vicus romano de Puente Castro (León, España = Fragments of linen fabric from the Roman military vicus of Puente Castro (León, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGEL MORILLO CERDAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Una de las novedades más significativas en la arqueología del León romano durante los últimos años ha sido la identificación de un nuevo vicus militar a unos 2, 5 km del campamento de la legio VII gemina. El vicus de Puente Castro (Ad Legionem presenta las mismas características que otros localizados en las fronteras septentrionales del Imperio. El asentamiento se estructura en torno a la vía que discurría desde el campamento hacia el sureste. Su cronología se extiende desde mediados del siglo I d.C. hasta mediados del siglo III d.C., momento en que sufre una destrucción violenta.Presentamos aquí cuatro fragmentos de lino de época romana procedentes precisamente del vicus de Puente Castro, pertenecientes a una bolsa o taleguilla de monedas, que se han conservado precisamente gracias a las sales producidas por la corrosión del metal de las monedas que contenía dicho monedero. El análisis de uno de los fragmentos confirma el empleo de lino y cáñamo en su fabricación. La datación de las monedas permite proponer los años centrales del siglo III d.C. como la fecha más probable de fabricación de la tela. Los hallazgos de tela de lino constituyen una pequeña proporción del corpus de hallazgo de telas de época romana en la antigua Hispania. De ahí la importancia de estos fragmentos que incrementan las escasas evidencias disponibles.One of the most important news in the archaeology of the Roman León is the identification of a new military vicus 2.5 km far from the camp of legio VII gemina. The vicus of Puente Castro has similar characteristics to that located in the northern borders of the Roman Empire. The road from the camp towards the southeast is the backbone of the vicus. This is dated from the mid first century AD until the central decades of third century AD, when it suffers a violent destruction. We present here four Roman linen fragments found in the vicus of Puente Castro, belonging to a moneybag. It has been

  1. MICROFLORA CULTIVABLE Y ENDOMICORRIZAS OBTENIDAS EN HOJARASCA DE BOSQUE (PÁRAMO GUERRERO - FINCA PUENTE DE TIERRA ZIPAQUIRÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA BERNAL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el recuento de microorganismos cultivables (bacterias y hongos, microorganismos celulolíticos y endomicorrizas presentes en la hojarasca de bosque (finca Puente de Tierra en el páramo Guerrero, Colombia. Los microorganismos aislados con mayor frecuencia pertenecían a los géneros Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Penicillium, Rhodotorula y se aisló una cepa de Cladosporium sp. en un medio selectivo con carboximetil celulosa. Así mismo, se encontraron ocho morfotipos de endomicorrizas, entre los cuales predominaron especies de Glomus y Acaulospora. Este estudio contribuye con el conocimiento de la microbiota cultivable de hojarasca, que ha sido poco explorada en ecosistemas de páramo.

  2. Training medical students in the social determinants of health: the Health Scholars Program at Puentes de Salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Matthew J; Garland, Joseph M; Murphy, Katie M; Shuman, Sarah J; Whitaker, Robert C; Larson, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Given the large influence of social conditions on health, physicians may be more effective if they are trained to identify and address social factors that impact health. Despite increasing interest in teaching the social determinants of health in undergraduate medical education, few models exist. We present a 9-month pilot course on the social determinants of health for medical and other health professional students, which is based at Puentes de Salud, Philadelphia, PA, USA, a community health center serving a Latino immigrant population. This service-learning course, called the Health Scholars Program (HSP), was developed and implemented by volunteer medical and public health faculty in partnership with the community-based clinic. The HSP curriculum combines didactic instruction with service experiences at Puentes de Salud and opportunities for critical reflection. The HSP curriculum also includes a longitudinal project where students develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to address a community-defined need. In our quantitative evaluation, students reported high levels of agreement with the HSP meeting stated course goals, including developing an understanding of the social determinants of health and working effectively with peers to implement community-based projects. Qualitative assessments revealed students' perception of learning more about this topic in the HSP than in their formal medical training and of developing a long-term desire to serve vulnerable communities as a result. Our experience with the HSP suggests that partnerships between academic medical centers and community-based organizations can create a feasible, effective, and sustainable platform for teaching medical students about the social determinants of health. Similar medical education programs in the future should seek to achieve a larger scale and to evaluate both students' educational experiences and community-defined outcomes.

  3. Un modelo simplificado para el análisis de datos de deformación de vigas, obtenidos de pruebas de carga en puentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Vargas-Padilla

    2014-12-01

    La correspondencia entre ambos indicó que la losa no participa de manera conjunta con las vigas principales en la toma y distribución de las cargas temporales aplicadas sobre el puente, condición que propicia una repartición no homogénea de los esfuerzos sobre los elementos, y a la vez desfavorece el desempeño global de la estructura; es decir, que con este método se logró detectar fácilmente cuál era uno de los principales problemas estructurales del puente y, de otra forma, hubiese sido una comprobación compleja.

  4. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the supply of 6000 cryogenic temperature sensors

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of 6000 cryogenic temperature sensors for the Large Hadron Collider. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC. (USA), without competitive tendering, for the supply of 6000 cryogenic temperature sensors for a total amount of 694 860 US dollars (1 081 500 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The above amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the rate of exchange stipulated in the tender. LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC. has declared the following origin of the equipment relating to this adjudication proposal: USA-100%. The expenditure for the cryogenic temperature sensors will be reimbursed to CERN by the Department of Energy of the Government of the United States of America within the framework of the Accelerator Protocol to the Co-operation Agreement with the USA concerning their contribution towards the LHC machine.

  5. Tendering and relationships in strategic logistics service provider selection for global supply chain organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    come to a crossroad of termination, redefinition or change; attrition of relationships can be caused by poor quality, changed market conditions, management changes, lack of trust, changes in operational conditions on either side, and marketing influence from competitors. This study uses a case......The selection of logistics service providers (LSPs) is regarded as a critical and complex process. Within the areas of innovation and development of supply chains, lasting relationships are generally regarded as a positive and value-creating factor. Occasionally, relationships between buyer and LSP...... of private enterprise purchase additionally relate to the acceptance of some level of dialogue before, during and after the tender due date. Tendering is viewed as an extreme case of relationship management, where newcomers and existing suppliers are put on an equal footing, decades of incorporated...

  6. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40 days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (PFreezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (Pfreezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    for drug identification during drug shortages were proposed. Conclusion This study identified different barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes. The barriers and facilitators included specific features related to drugs, health care technology as well as to financial and organisational......Background Drug tenders and shortages result in drug changes. International studies found that drug changes can adversely affect patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals.1,2 The challenges of drug changes in Danish public hospitals have not previously been studied....... Purpose To identify barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes due to drug tenders and shortages in Danish public hospitals. Material and methods Six focus group interviews were conducted at three hospitals in different regions of the country. At each hospital two focus group interviews were...

  8. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To examine the hypothesis that forearm pain with palpation tenderness in computer users is associated with increased extensor muscle fatigue. METHODS: Eighteen persons with pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness in the extensor muscle group of the right forearm...... and twenty gender and age matched referents without such complaints were enrolled from the Danish NUDATA study of neck and upper extremity disorders among technical assistants and machine technicians. Fatigue of the right forearm extensor muscles was assessed by muscle twitch forces in response to low...... stimulated twitch forces were equal in the case and the referent group. After the fatiguing contraction, a decrease in muscle average twitch force was seen in both groups, but the decrease was largest in the referent group: 27% (95% CI 17-37) versus 9% (95% CI -2 to 20). This difference in twitch force...

  9. The Importance of Submarine Tenders to a Modern Naval War: Naval Combat Logistics and Seabasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    exclusively build a navy of warships without consideration of the maintenance , sustainment, replenishment, battle-damage repair, and munitions they would...Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT The potential for the US Navy’s adversaries to target its forward-projected ship maintenance depots, and the time...capable of general maintenance , nuclear propulsion plant maintenance , battle-damage repair, and replenishment of weapons and stores. These tenders and

  10. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF BIDDERS AND THEIR TENDER OFFERS CONCERNING EXECUTION OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Galkina Elena Vladislavovna

    2016-01-01

    In the article the reliability analysis methods of bidders and their tenders offers for implementation of construction works are offered. The special attention is focused on the complexity of these processes and the necessity of participation of serious, professional and responsible executors. Application of the described methods leads to a conclusion on the decrease of risks related to selection of a participant of a construction pro-ject. In the article the main stages of the implementation...

  11. Management of tinnitus and jaw-muscle tenderness using an intraoral appliance and acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, Dan; Behrenth, Erik; Ekman, Kristina; Johansson, Anders; Unell, Lennart; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2013-01-01

    Associations between signs and symptoms from the masticatory system and tinnitus have been reported.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of intraoral splint therapy and acupuncture on jaw-muscle tenderness and tinnitus. The study comprised 45 patients (24 men, 21 women; mean age 48 +/- 12 years) with long-standing tinnitus (duration 6.5 +/- 5.9 years).The patients were referred from the audiology department at the University hospital in Orebro, Sweden, where a complete audiological survey was performed. Jaw muscles were palpated and the subjective tinnitus evaluated on a 100 mm scale (VAS) at baseline and after one year. All patients received stabilization (Michigan type) splints at start of treatment. After 6 months, nonresponders (n=25) were subjected to acupuncture (6 sessions with duration of 30 minutes). Standard statistical methods were used. All patients had tender jaw muscles at palpation. Patients reported a significant decrease of the intensity of tinnitus during the observation period (from 78 +/- 20 mm to 52 +/- 24 mm after one year; P muscles tender to palpation also decreased significantly from 7.9 +/- 5.9 to 4.6 +/- 5.3; (Pmuscles. Intraoral splint therapy and acupuncture had a favorable effect on tinnitus and the jaw muscle symptoms. One year after the start of treatment, all but 6 of the 45 patients reported improvement of their tinnitus. Based on the results it is suggested that many tinnitus patients with jaw muscle tenderness can benefit by a treatment including intraoral splint and acupuncture.

  12. Management of demand based inventory aboard submarine tenders servicing attack (SSN) submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Timothy Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the computation of inventory levels based on demand history aboard Submarine Tenders that use the Shipboard Automated Data Processing System (SUADPS) for inventory control. The focus of the thesis was the workload and supply effectiveness issues associated with the processing of the SUADPS levels setting program. The objective of the thesis was to determine the effect on supply effectiveness and stock churn if the...

  13. 253. Experiencia en el puente al trasplante cardíaco con oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea en adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Doñate Bertolín

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: La asistencia tipo ECMO permite rescatar pacientes en shock cardiogénico refractario, asistiéndolos con éxito hasta el trasplante. Nuestros resultados postrasplante en pacientes en los que el puente al trasplante se hace sólo con ECMO, son suficientemente buenos como para aceptar esta estrategia, ya que la política nacional de trasplantes nos permite llevarlo a cabo en las primeras semanas de asistencia.

  14. Effects of calpain genotypes on meat tenderness and carcass traits of Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H Y; Davis, M E

    2011-10-01

    Relationships of the calpain system with meat tenderness and carcass traits were examined for 94 purebred Angus bulls with genotypes of the calpain classified by RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism) analysis. Designing of primers based on the calpain regulatory subunit (CAPNS) and u-calpian (CAPN1) genes. Bulls from 15 months of age were slaughtered, and carcass traits, including fat thickness (FAT); longissimus muscle area (LMA); percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH); hot carcass weight (HCW); marbling score (MAR); and quality grade (QUL), were analyzed. Measurements regarding meat tenderness involved activities of calpastatin (CAC), u-calpain (UAC), m-calpain (MAC), Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBS) and myofibril fragmentation index (MFI). Statistical significances of the calpain genotypes accounted for variations in MAR and QUL at CAPNS locus, and both loci explained variations of UAC and MAC. Significant mean differences in genotypes of CAPNS locus were found for MAR (BB > AB > AA) and QUL (AB > BB > AA). UAC showed significant correlations with MAC, CAC, MFI, FAT, and MAR, and we found that MAC correlated with WBS, FAT, HCW, MAR, and QUL. Strong positive correlation detected between LMA and HCW, and MAR and QUL, and a negative correlation between MFI and MAR was estimated. From the result it may be possible to use the calpain genotypes classified by RFLP and SSCP analysis in marker assisted selection programs to estimate UAC and MAC precisely regardless meat tenderness and to improve MAR and QUL of beef cattle.

  15. The transformation of the tender evaluation process in public procurement in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebankiewicz, E.; Kozik, R.

    2017-10-01

    Procedures regarding the evaluation of tenders have been changed since the public procurement law was enacted (it came into force in January 1, 1995). The contracting authority could apply both the criteria related to the qualities of the contractor and those related to the to the subject - matter of public contract. Two extensive amendments in 2001 and a government project introduced vital regulations and excluded the possibility of applying criteria related to the qualities of the contractor. Act of 29 January 2004 Public Procurement Law allowed to use price as the sole contract award criterion. The changes in the Law in 2014 restricted that possibility to the situation in which the subject matter of a contract is commonly available and has established quality standards. The Act of 22 June 2016 amending the Public Procurement Law Act and some other laws introduced the new criteria list and limited the importance of the price criterion in the certain situations. Instead of price, the cost can also be a criterion for tender evaluation. The cost criterion can be determined using life cycle costing. In the paper, based on contract notices of open tendering published in the Public Procurement Bulletin, the criteria of construction contract selection will be analysed. In particular the effectiveness of changes in the Procurement Law will be researched.

  16. Therapeutic evaluation of lumbar tender point deep massage for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhixin; Wang, Jun; Gao, Qian; Hou, Jingshan; Ma, Ling; Jiang, Congbo; Chen, Guohui

    2012-12-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of lumbar tender point deep tissue massage plus lumbar traction on chronic non-specific low back pain using change in pressure pain threshold, muscle hardness and pain intensity as indices. We randomly divided 64 patients into a treatment group (32 cases) and a control group (32 cases). Two drop-outs occurred in each group. Patients in the treatment group received tender point deep tissue massage plus lumbar traction and patients in the control group received lumbar traction, alone. We used a tissue hardness meter/algometer and visual analog scale (VAS) to assess the pressure pain threshold, muscle hardness and pain intensity. Following treatment, we obtained the following results in the treatment and control groups, respectively: the pressure pain threshold difference was 1.5 +/- 0.8 and 1.1 +/- 0.7; the muscle hardness difference was 4.2 +/- 1.6 and 3.5 +/- 1.3; and the VAS score difference was 1.9 +/- 0.9 and 1.4 +/- 0.8. Compared to the control group, the treatment group had higher pressure pain threshold (t = 2.09, P Lumbar tender point deep tissue massage combined with lumbar traction produced better improvement in pressure pain threshold, muscle hardness and pain intensity in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain than with lumbar traction alone.

  17. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryger Ann I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the hypothesis that forearm pain with palpation tenderness in computer users is associated with increased extensor muscle fatigue. Methods Eighteen persons with pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness in the extensor muscle group of the right forearm and twenty gender and age matched referents without such complaints were enrolled from the Danish NUDATA study of neck and upper extremity disorders among technical assistants and machine technicians. Fatigue of the right forearm extensor muscles was assessed by muscle twitch forces in response to low frequency (2 Hz percutaneous electrical stimulation. Twitch forces were measured before, immediately after and 15 minutes into recovery of an extensor isometric wrist extension for ten minutes at 15 % Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC. Results The average MVC wrist extension force and baseline stimulated twitch forces were equal in the case and the referent group. After the fatiguing contraction, a decrease in muscle average twitch force was seen in both groups, but the decrease was largest in the referent group: 27% (95% CI 17–37 versus 9% (95% CI -2 to 20. This difference in twitch force response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. Conclusion Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive response to exposure without any pathophysiological significance, or represents a part of a causal pathway leading to pain.

  18. Repeated tender point injections of granisetron alleviate chronic myofascial pain - a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Omrani, Shahin; Fredriksson, Lars; Gjelset, Mattias; Louca, Sofia; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; Ernberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to investigate if repeated intramuscular tender-point injections of the 5-HT3-antagonist granisetron alleviate pain in patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD...

  19. Analysis of required fleet size and private sector cost comparisons for the USCG inland construction tender fleet : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents an analysis performed in support of the United States Coast Guard in managing its fleet of construction tenders (WLICs). The project was sponsored by the Coast Guard's Office of Navigation Safety and Waterway Services, Short Ran...

  20. Obras públicas en Talavera de la Reina : los puentes medievales, aproximación histórica y arqueológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pacheco Jiménez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Los puentes en la Edad Media constituían un elemento de vital importancia para las comunicaciones terrestres. Su construcción y mantenimiento repercutían a menudo en el desarrollo de las tierras, ciudades y aldeas que se beneficiaban de los mismos. Como obra pública entendemos que los puentes medievales de Talavera de la Reina no estuvieron a la altura de las necesidades que tenía esta villa y su tierra. En este artículo analizamos desde la perspectiva histórica y arqueológica tres ejemplos de puentes medievales y sus antecedentes, para aportar nuevos datos al estudio de las infraestructuras viarias de la zona toledana y, por tanto, de la Castilla bajomedieval.In the Midle Age the bridges were an element of vital importance for the Communications by land. Their construction and maintenance had often effects on lands, cities and villages development and that was of great benefit to places. As pyblic works we know medieval bridges in Talavera de la Reina were not enough to the necessity of the city and its land. In this article we analyse from the historie and archaeologist view three exemples of medieval bridges and previous buildings in order to dive Information to the Communications network research in the Toledo área and therefore in medieval Castilla.

  1. Cooperación euro-latinoamericana en la educación. Lecciones aprendidas en el Programa EUROsociAL en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Tassara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito principal de este artículo es analizar el impacto del proyecto piloto Rede@prender, realizado en Colombia en el marco del Programa EUROsociAL y en contexto global de la cooperación euro-latinoamericana. La primera parte del texto presenta, por un lado, la filosofía de la cooperación euro-latinoamericana y del pro- grama y, por el otro, los contenidos de la política colombiana de educación a las competencias ciudadanas en la que se contextualizó el proyecto. La segunda parte profundiza las características generales del proyecto piloto e intenta dar cuenta de su impacto y resultados. Finalmente, la tercera y última parte del texto contiene algunas consideraciones sobre la aplicación de los criterios de evaluación, las buenas prácticas y las lecciones aprendidas gracias a la realización del proyecto Rede@prender.

  2. Las lecciones de Chernóbil: Ciencia y tecnología en la sociedad global y el proyecto cosmopolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Soto Acosta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo parte de las tres grandes lecciones que dejó la tragedia de Chernóbil. En primer lugar, que las invenciones científicas y tecnológicas pueden escapar del control humano y pueden llegar a re- presentar un riesgo, es decir, un potencial negativo contra la misma humanidad. Segundo, que la ciencia y la tecnología pueden volverse contra el mismo gé- nero humano si no son enmarcadas dentro de un proyecto cosmopolita.Tercero, Chernóbil demostró que los riesgos ecológicos no respetan fronteras y amenazan a casi la totalidad del planeta Tierra. El trabajo enfoca la problemática desde la teoría de la sociedad del riesgo global y enfatiza la necesidad de un desarrollo científico y tecnológico en función de la vida (humana, animal, vegetal y no de los inte- reses de élites políticas y económicas o del poderío de los Estados.

  3. Pequeñas lecciones (provisionales respecto de la formación para la investigación educativa y social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo FERNÁNDEZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pretende dar una serie de localizaciones reflexivas acerca de la formación para la investigación educativa y social. Partiendo de un contexto actual, en el que la investigación se encuentra sometida a las necesidades y determinaciones del capitalismo académico, lo que se plantea aquí es una serie de interrogantes que, a modo de pequeñas lecciones, nos sirvan para volver a pensar lo que hacemos en la formación de investigadores sociales. Aparecen cuestiones relacionadas con: la geocultura del investigador-empresario, el desarrollo de un conocimiento basado en el paradigma de la Complejidad y los Estudios culturales, la incorporación del sujeto pos-positivista a la comprensión de los fenómenos sociales, la relación de la investigación social con las teorías sobre la democracia, o la necesaria revisión de la Investigación Participativa. Estas cosas, y muchas otras, deben formar parte de un curso cero respecto del campo, tan variado y conflictivo, de la investigación social y educativa.

  4. Genomewide association mapping and pathway analysis of meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L M; Rosa, G J M; Lopes, F B; Regitano, L C A; Rosa, A J M; Magnabosco, C U

    2017-05-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest beef exporters, although the product has a low price due to quality issues. The meat exported by Brazil is considered medium and low quality by international buyers, mainly due to lack of tenderness. The predominant Zebu breeds (80% Nellore) are known for producing tougher beef than taurine breeds. Nonetheless, some studies have shown that there is substantial genetic variability for tenderness within the Nellore breed, although it is a difficult trait to improve by conventional selection methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a genomewide association study (GWAS) and a gene set enrichment analysis to identify genomic regions and biologically relevant pathways associated with meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle. Data consisted of Warner-Bratzler shear force values of LM from 427 Polled Nellore animals divided into 3 experimental slaughters (years 2005, 2008, and 2010). The animals were genotyped with either the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (777k, on 61 samples) or the GGP Indicus HD chip (77k, on 366 samples). Single nucleotide polymorphisms were excluded when the call rate was value was <1% (Fisher exact test, Bonferroni adjusted), and the minor allele frequency was <1%. Imputation from the GGP Indicus HD chip to the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip was performed using the FImput program. Genomewide association analysis was performed using the Efficient Mixed Model Association eXpedited (EMMAx) and the population parameters previously determined (P3D) methods. The GWAS was complemented with a gene set enrichment analysis performed using the FatiGO procedure. Significant markers ( < 0.0001) explaining a larger proportion of variation than other significant SNPs were located on chromosomes 3, 13, 17, 20, 21, and 25, indicating QTL associated with meat tenderness throughout the genome. Additionally, gene set analysis identified 22 Gene Ontology functional terms and 2 InterPro entries that showed significant

  5. Jaw Dysfunction Is Associated with Neck Disability and Muscle Tenderness in Subjects with and without Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Tender points in the neck are common in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD. However, the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with TMD still needs further investigation. This study investigated the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic TMD. Participants. Forty females between 19 and 49 years old were included in this study. There were 20 healthy controls and 20 subjects who had chronic TMD and neck disability. Methods. Subjects completed the neck disability index and the limitations of daily functions in TMD questionnaires. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles was measured using an algometer. Results. The correlation between jaw disability and neck disability was significantly high (r=0.915, P<0.05. The correlation between level of muscle tenderness in the masticatory and cervical muscles with jaw dysfunction and neck disability showed fair to moderate correlations (r=0.32–0.65. Conclusion. High levels of muscle tenderness in upper trapezius and temporalis muscles correlated with high levels of jaw and neck dysfunction. Moreover, high levels of neck disability correlated with high levels of jaw disability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the neck and its structures when evaluating and treating patients with TMD.

  6. Sexual Activity and Physical Tenderness in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Prevalence and Associated Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Kirkman, Maggie; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Despite a common misconception, older adults engage in sexual behavior. However, there is limited sexual behavior research in older adults, which is often restricted to small samples, to cohorts recruiting adults from 45 years old, and to questions regarding only sexual intercourse. To assess the cross-sectional prevalence of and characteristics associated with sexual activity and physical tenderness in community-dwelling older adults. From the Rotterdam Study, sexual activity and physical tenderness were assessed in 2,374 dementia-free, community-dwelling men and women at least 65 years old from 2009 through 2012 in the Netherlands. Analyses were stratified by sex and partner status. Sexual activity and physical tenderness (eg, fondling or kissing) in the last 6 months. Potential associated characteristics included measurements of demographics, socioeconomic position, health behavior, and health status. The vast majority of partnered participants (men, n = 858; women, n = 724) had experienced physical tenderness in the previous 6 months (83.7% of men and 82.9% of women) and nearly half had engaged in sexual activity (49.5% and 40.4% respectively). Very few unpartnered women (n = 675) had engaged in sexual activity (1.3%) or physical tenderness (5.2%), whereas prevalence rates were slightly higher for unpartnered men (n = 117; 13.7% or 17.1%). Engaging in sexual behavior was generally associated with younger age, greater social support, healthier behaviors, and better physical and psychological health. Findings show that older adults engage in sexual activity. It is important not to assume that an older person is not interested in sexual pleasure or that an older person is unhappy with not having a sexual partner. Offering an opportunity for open discussion of sexuality and medical assistance without imposing is a difficult balance. We encourage health care professionals to proactively address sexuality and extend knowledge about safe sex and sexual function

  7. Simulación numérica de los apoyos de puente metálico giratorio // Numeric simulation of gyratory metallic bridge supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Chagoyen-Méndez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestran algunos de los resultados del análisis realizado a losmecanismos de apoyo, de cierre y de giro del puente metálico del municipio Playa en ciudad de LaHabana (popularmente conocido como “Puente de Hierro”, como parte inicial de un proyecto másamplio que abarcará la reparación de todo el puente. El mismo tiene más de 100 años de explotación(desde 1906 y con un mantenimiento casi nulo, lo que ha traído como consecuencia un considerabledeterioro del puente. En éste artículo se describen las principales características y patologíasdetectadas al inspeccionar los mecanismos mencionados anteriormente y se presentan además, losresultados de la simulación numérica de uno de los ensambles de piezas del mecanismo de apoyo.Esta simulación arrojó que el apoyo puede trabajar con una seguridad adecuada.Palabras claves: puente, modelación, análisis estructural y modelación, resistencia de materiales._________________________________________________________________AbstractPresently work some of the results of the analysis carried out to the mechanisms of support, ofclosing and of turn of the metallic bridge of the Beach district in Havana city (popularly known as "IronBridge" are shown, like initial part of a wider project that will include the repair of the whole bridge.This has more than 100 years of exploitation (from 1906 and with an almost null maintenance, thathas resulted in a considerable deterioration o f the bridge. In this article the main ones characteristicand pathologies detected when inspecting the mechanisms mentioned previously are described andalso are presented, the results of the numeric simulation of one of assembles of pieces of the supportmechanism. This simulation profited that the support can work with an appropriate security.Key words: bridge, structural analysis and modeling, strength of materials.

  8. Ensanche del puente del Ángel Custodio sobre el río Turia – Valencia

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    Fornés Domenech, J.

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available The project comprises the widening of the existing bridge from 15 m to 31.60 m, and providing two traffic lanes, each 10.40 m Wide, and two sidewalks, of 2.40 m width, as well as two protection zones, 0.50 in width, and a central separating section of 5 m. The bridge has 6 spans, each 20 m long, and two half circular vaults, of 5 m diameter, at each end of the bridge. The bridge had to maintain its present span arrangement, since it has been widened only on one side. The sinking of piles, and the building of the span supports was completed in six months. The 20 m span beams, on which the reinforced concrete bridge slab rests were to be cast at the site, but after careful study by the site management engineer and the contractors it was decided to built them on the river bed, and lift them by means of a crane, to shorten the construction time. This saves time, and made it unnecessary to close the traffic over the existing bridge; an important factor, since the bridge connects the roads from Valencia, Barcelona and Alicante. The mean time taken in attaching, lifting and placing each beam was 18 minutes.El proyecto comprende el ensanche del puente actual de 15 m de anchura a 31,60 m, quedando con dos vías de 10,40 m, dos andenes de 2,40 m, dos zonas de protección de 0,50 m cada una y una mediana de 5 m. La sección longitudinal consta de seis vanos de 20 m de luz y dos bóvedas de medio punto de 5 m de diámetro situadas en las embocaduras. Había que darle al puente las mismas características actuales, puesto que el ensanche se hace por un solo lado. Pilotaje y alzado de pilas quedaron terminados en 6 meses. Las vigas de 20 m de luz sobre las que apoya el tablero de hormigón armado se preveía debían construirse in situ; pero estudiado conjuntamente por la Dirección de Obra y Empresa Constructora, se determinó prefabricarlas en el lecho del río y elevarlas con grúa para reducir el plazo de ejecución. De esta manera se consigue un ahorro

  9. Training medical students in the social determinants of health: the Health Scholars Program at Puentes de Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Brien MJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J O’Brien,1–4 Joseph M Garland,4,5 Katie M Murphy,4,6,7 Sarah J Shuman,3,4 Robert C Whitaker,1,3,8 Steven C Larson4,9 1Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, Temple University of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Puentes de Salud Health Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 6Master of Public Health Program, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 7Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 8Department of Pediatrics, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 9Department of Emergency Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: Given the large influence of social conditions on health, physicians may be more effective if they are trained to identify and address social factors that impact health. Despite increasing interest in teaching the social determinants of health in undergraduate medical education, few models exist. Participants and methods: We present a 9-month pilot course on the social determinants of health for medical and other health professional students, which is based at Puentes de Salud, Philadelphia, PA, USA, a community health center serving a Latino immigrant population. This service-learning course, called the Health Scholars Program (HSP, was developed and implemented by volunteer medical and public health faculty in partnership with the community-based clinic. The HSP curriculum combines didactic instruction with service experiences at Puentes de Salud and opportunities for critical reflection. The HSP curriculum also includes a longitudinal project where

  10. Lecciones aprendidas para Colombia de los procesos de paz con participación de la organización de las Naciones Unidas en el Salvador y Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Recuero, Iván Darío; Montero, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Por medio de este trabajo se busca describir y analizar los procesos de paz adelantados por El Salvador y Guatemala, haciendo enfasis en la participacion de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas dentro de los Acuerdos de Paz. A partir de alli se extraeran lecciones y elementos comunes que se podrían aplicar en un eventual proceso de paz en Colombia. Por tal razón, se hace necesario estudiar la relevancia, efectividad y el lugar ocupado por la ONU en la firma de los acuerdos de paz en El Sa...

  11. La expresión del compromiso político del Deán López Cepero en sus Lecciones políticas y en su Catecismo religioso, moral y político

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Figueroa, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Ilustrado y liberal, el sacerdote jerezano Manuel López Cepero es una figura destacada en el contexto cultural y literario que participará activamente en la vida política del primer tercio del siglo XIX, enfrentado tanto a revolucionarios antimonárquicos como a los afrancesados, tibios ante la usurpación del poder legítimo. Fruto de su compromiso político con su patria y en esa primera línea propagandística que suponen los catecismos y cartillas para el pueblo, publica unas Lecciones política...

  12. Freezing and thawing or freezing, thawing, and aging effects on beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, A L; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of freezing and thawing or freezing and thawing with an additional aging period after frozen storage on the tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) steaks relative to aged, fresh steaks. Left-side LL and ST (n = 35 each) were obtained from U.S. Select carcasses classified at the grading stand by the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center visible and near-infrared spectroscopy tenderness system to have predicted slice shear force greater than 16.5 kg at 14 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem, 2.54 cm thick steaks were cut from each muscle and assigned to 1 of the following treatments: 2 d fresh (2FRESH), 2 d freeze + thaw (2FREEZE), 2 d freeze + thaw + 12 d age (2FREEZE+12AGE), 14 d fresh (14FRESH), 14 d freeze + thaw (14FREEZE), 14 d freeze + thaw + 14 d age (14FREEZE+14AGE), and 28 d fresh (28FRESH). Steaks assigned to a freezing treatment were frozen at -26°C for 30 d before thawing/cooking or thawing with an additional aging period at 2°C. Slice shear force for LL and ST was lower (P FREEZE (27.4 and 24.5 kg) and 14FREEZE (22.4 and 22.4 kg) compared to 2FRESH (33.0 and 29.2 kg) and 14FRESH (25.3 and 25.5 kg), respectively. Slice shear force for LL and ST was lower (P FREEZE+12AGE (17.8 and 20.8 kg) and 14FREEZE+14AGE (14.6 and 19.0 kg) compared to 14FRESH (25.3 and 25.5 kg) and 28FRESH (18.7 and 21.7 kg), respectively. Desmin degradation for LL was not different (P > 0.05) between 2FREEZE (21.0%) and 2FRESH (14.6%) or between 14FREEZE (40.4%) and 14FRESH (38.4%); however, desmin degradation was higher (P FREEZE+12AGE (46.7%) and 14FREEZE+14AGE (71.1%) when compared to 14FRESH (38.4%) and 28FRESH (60.5%), respectively. Cooking loss for LL was higher (P FREEZE+12AGE (15.2%) compared to 14FRESH (14.0%) but was not different (P > 0.05) between 14FREEZE+14AGE (15.0%) and 28FRESH (14.3%). Freezing and thawing or a combination of freezing, thawing, and aging resulted in increased tenderness for LL

  13. Effects of animal class and genotype on beef muscle nanostructure, pHu, colour and tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Y. Chulayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal class and genotype of cattle on Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL nanostructure, ultimate pH (pHu, colour and tenderness of beef. We found significant positive relationships between distance travelled (DT and meat temperature (Tm (p"less than"0.01; lairage duration (LDhr and lightness of colour (L* (p"less than"0.01; ambient temperature (Ta and L* (p"less than"0.05 and LDhr and yellowness (b* (p"less than"0.05 of beef from Bonsmara cattle. Positive linear relationships were observed between DT and Tm (p"less than"0.05 and DT and L* (p"less than"0.01 of the non-descript cattle. There were no significant relationships between pre-slaughter stress and other beef quality parameters (pHu, Warner– Bratzler shear force [WBSF], redness [a*] and b* of Bonsmara, Nguni and non-descript cattle. Muscle fibres differed among class and genotype and had an effect on meat quality. The Bonsmara, non-descript and Nguni cows and heifers had visible skeletal muscle fibres which were thin and long, promising improved tenderness of beef. Genotype and class had significant effects on meat quality parameters (Tm, pHu, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. The first important principal components as they appeared from the analysis were pHu, Tm, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. Therefore, animal class did not affect the nanostructure of beef; instead, meat tenderness was enhanced by the longer and visible muscle fibres. Nguni cattle produced meat of superior quality to that of the Bonsmara and the non-descript cattle.

  14. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF BIDDERS AND THEIR TENDER OFFERS CONCERNING EXECUTION OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkina Elena Vladislavovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the reliability analysis methods of bidders and their tenders offers for implementation of construction works are offered. The special attention is focused on the complexity of these processes and the necessity of participation of serious, professional and responsible executors. Application of the described methods leads to a conclusion on the decrease of risks related to selection of a participant of a construction pro-ject. In the article the main stages of the implementation procedure are defined. That allows considering the economic state of applicants, and both economic and technical indicators of tender offers’ reliability. The main characteristics to be considered on each stage are revealed. The author makes a conclusion that the reliability of bidders is determined by the comparison of their economic states with the capacities for implementation of the orders with the specified characteristics. According to the terminology of the article, the reliability of applicant’s of-fers is the ability to execute orders on the bidder’s own conditions. In addition the author states that determining the reliability is based on the comparison of tender offers and contender’s characteristics of objects. The rational methods to compare economic indicators are offered. Along with this, it was found out that at the current moment the method of comparing the technical indicators for the projects-analogues with the indicators of a bidder’s object is not formalized. It limits the application of this method. Finally, it was concluded that the development of the methods applied to technical indicators provided a coherent system for evaluating the reliability of the construction bidders and their offers. It allows creating the basis for the development of appropriate automated system that can be used both for selection of competitive organizations and for preparation of offers by the applicants.

  15. As a mother tenderly: exploring parish ministry through the metaphor and analogy of mothering

    OpenAIRE

    Percy, Emma

    2012-01-01

    As a mother tenderly: using mothering as a metaphor and analogy for parish ministry. The thesis sets out to use maternal imagery as a way of articulating the practice of parish ministry in the Church of England. The aim is to find a language which can affirm and encourage many aspects of good practice that are in danger of being over looked because they are neither well articulated nor valued. The ministry of a parish priest is a relational activity: characterised by care. It is becaus...

  16. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soee ABL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ann-Britt L Soee,1 Liselotte Skov,1 Svend Kreiner,4 Birte Tornoe,1,2 Lise L Thomsen3 1Department of Paediatrics, Children's Headache Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department O, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Neuropediatrics, Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Denmark; 4Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7–17 years with tension-type headache (TTH and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS, pressure pain threshold (PPT, and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT. Patients and methods: Twenty-three children with frequent episodic TTH, 36 with chronic TTH, and 57 healthy controls were included. TTS was measured bilaterally at seven pericranial myofascial structures. PPT and supraPPT were assessed in the finger, m. temporalis, and m. trapezius by a Somedic® algometer. SupraPPT was defined as the pain perceived at a stimulus calculated as the individual site-specific PPT + 50%. Statistics: The effect of group, sex, age, headache frequency, intensity, and years on TTS, PPT, and supraPPT was analyzed by general linear models. Confirmatory factor analysis was analyzed for mutual relations between measurements. Results and conclusion: Tenderness increased uniformly in both frequent episodic TTH (median 14; interquartile range [IQR] 10–18; P < 0.001 and chronic TTH (median 13; IQR 9–20; P < 0.001 compared to controls (median 5, IQR 3–11. However, the children with frequent episodic TTH and chronic TTH did not show significantly increased sensitivity when measured by PPT or supraPPT. Factor analysis confirmed that the site-specific measurements depended on general latent variables. Consequently, the PPT and supraPPT tests can be assumed to measure

  17. GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM BASED ON ENHANCED AHP FOR TENDER EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhilah Ahmad; M Yazid M Saman; Fatma Susilawati Mohamad; Zarina Mohamad; Wan Suryani Wan Awang

    2014-01-01

    Application of model base in group decision making that makes up a Group Decision Support System (GDSS) is of paramount importance. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) that has been applied in GDSS. In order to be effectively used in GDSS, AHP needs to be customized so that it is more user friendly with ease of used features. In this paper, we propose an enhanced AHP model for GDSS tendering. The enhanced AHP method used is the Guided Ranked AHP (GRAH...

  18. Tender Is the Night: romantic tragedy or the tragedy of boundary violations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlding, Sybil

    2009-04-01

    In the author's reading, Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night (1934) is a sustained investigation of the incest taboo and of the psychological pressures that can lead to its collapse in the clinical situation. This novel allows the reader privileged entry into the "case" of a clinical boundary violation in a way that no scientific paper can permit. Drawing on Chasseguet-Smirgel's (1976) concept of the illness of ideality, the author uses this novel to demonstrate why none of us is safe from the possibility of erotic involvement with a patient.

  19. Research on the Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Tender Offer for Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minli, Zhang; Shanshan, Qiao

    The BP model in artificial neural network is used in this paper. Various factors that affect the tender offer is identified and these factors as the input nodes of network to conduct iterated operation in the network is applied in this paper. Through taking advantage of the self-learning function of network, this paper constantly modifies the weight matrix to achieve the objective error of the network error to achieve the function of predicting offer. As a software support tool, MATLAB is used in artificial neural network, the neural network toolbox helps to reduce the workload of writing code greatly and make the application of neural network more widely.

  20. Effects of animal class and genotype on beef muscle nanostructure, pHu, colour and tenderness

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Y. Chulayo; Voster Muchenje

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal class and genotype of cattle on Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) nanostructure, ultimate pH (pHu), colour and tenderness of beef. We found significant positive relationships between distance travelled (DT) and meat temperature (Tm) (p"less than"0.01); lairage duration (LDhr) and lightness of colour (L*) (p"less than"0.01); ambient temperature (Ta) and L* (p"less than"0.05) and LDhr and yellowness (b*) (p"less t...

  1. La asistencia ventricular mecánica como puente al trasplante cardíaco: fundamentos y objetivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García Montero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La introducción clínica de los dispositivos de tercera generación para asistencia cardiocirculatoria ha significado un notable avance en la terapia de los candidatos a trasplante cardíaco en fase de descompensación hemodinámica, mediante la modalidad conocida como puente al trasplante (PAT. La situación actual de dicha estrategia en nuestro país refleja una dispersión de criterios en cuanto a la selección de pacientes, indicación del dispositivo, manejo táctico de las opciones terapéuticas y, especialmente, detección del momento adecuado del trasplante. El presente trabajo: a analiza las características del régimen a flujo continuo y sus consecuencias sobre distintos órganos diana en el contexto de la estrategia PAT; b describe de forma resumida las líneas de actuación cubiertas por los dispositivos mecánicos de uso más frecuente, y, finalmente, c proporciona unas recomendaciones de manejo clínico antes, durante y para el momento de la desconexión del dispositivo. resulta imprescindible una adecuación de los distintos centros implicados en este tipo de terapia si se pretende avanzar en su aplicación y resultados.

  2. El CollectiveAccess, un sistema de gestió i difusió de col·leccions de museus, arxius i biblioteques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcaraz Martínez, Rubén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Es presenten les característiques principals del CollectiveAccess, un sistema de gestió i difusió de col·leccions digitals per a museus, arxius i biblioteques. Se'n descriuen els components principals, el procés d'instal·lació, l'estructura interna del sistema i es mostren alguns exemples de casos d'ús. Les versions analitzades del sistema són la 1.4 del Providence i la 2.0 del Pawtucket.Se presentan las principales características de CollectiveAccess, un sistema de gestión y difusión de colecciones digitales para museos, archivos y bibliotecas. Se describen sus principales componentes, el proceso de instalación, la estructura interna del sistema y se muestran algunos ejemplos de casos de uso. Las versiones analizadas del sistema son la 1.4 de Providence y la 2.0 de Pawtucket.This paper describes the main features of CollectiveAccess, a collections management and presentation system for the digital collections of museums, archives and libraries. The paper describes the main features of the system and explains how to install and configure the package. It also examines CA’s internal structure and gives examples of how it can be used. The system analyzed in the paper uses Version 1.4 of the core cataloguing application Providence and Version 2.0 of the public web-tool Pawtucket.

  3. Effects of growth potential and growth path on tenderness of beef longissimus muscle from bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchas, R W; Burnham, D L; Morris, S T

    2002-12-01

    The influence of growth potential or growth path on the tenderness of the longissimus muscle was investigated using 117 Angus and Angus-cross bulls and steers raised on pasture over two successive years. Growth rate for a period of 100 d from a weight of about 200 kg was used to identify the faster-growing two-thirds of cattle within the gender groups, half of which were grown fast to a slaughter weight of 530 kg at 16 to 18 mo of age (the Fast group), whereas the other half were restricted in growth (the Restricted group) so they attained a similar final weight as the slower-growing third (the Slow group) at about 26 mo of age. The Restricted group was included to determine whether the tougher meat expected from the Slow group relative to the Fast group (based on previous results) was due to the greater age of the Slow group or to their slower early growth rate. Beef from the Fast group was tenderer than that from both the Slow and Restricted groups based on sensory panels (P Slow and Restricted groups. Improved tenderness for the Fast group was associated with more intramuscular fat (P leaner carcasses (P < 0.01) of bulls compared with steers were consistent with other studies. Increases in age of 8 to 10 mo may be associated with less tender beef for cattle finished on pasture, and beef from bulls is likely to be less tender than that from steers.

  4. The relationship between temporomandibular joint pathosis and muscle tenderness in the orofacial and neck/shoulder region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Eitoku; Maekawa, Kenji; Minakuchi, Hajime; Nagamatsu-Sakaguchi, Chiyomi; Ono, Tsuyoshi; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Clark, Glenn T; Kuboki, Takuo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between TMJ pain/disk pathosis and the muscle tenderness pattern in the orofacial and neck/shoulder region. One hundred seventy-one TMD patients were divided into 4 groups, including group 1: patients with painful unilateral TMJ disk displacement (DD); group 2: patients with painless unilateral TMJ DD; group 3: patients with painless bilateral TMJ DD; and group 4: patients with a bilateral normal TMJ disk position (n = 41). Each subject underwent muscle palpation and the side-by-side number of muscle tenderness points was combined as the number of muscle tenderness points on each side. Within each group, DD with and without reduction subjects were separated into subgroups and then were analyzed. In group 1, the median muscle tenderness points on the side with painful TMJ DD without reduction was significantly higher than on the normal side (P = .019), whereas the palpation scores for painless DD patients showed no significant difference between the DD and normal sides. These results indicated painful disk displacement to possibly be correlated with ipsilateral muscle tenderness. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Combination of Extended Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy GRA for Government E-Tendering in Hybrid Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach.

  6. Jaw dysfunction is associated with neck disability and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A; Gadotti, I C; Armijo-Olivo, S; Biasotto-Gonzalez, D A; Magee, D

    2015-01-01

    Tender points in the neck are common in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with TMD still needs further investigation. This study investigated the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic TMD. Participants. Forty females between 19 and 49 years old were included in this study. There were 20 healthy controls and 20 subjects who had chronic TMD and neck disability. Subjects completed the neck disability index and the limitations of daily functions in TMD questionnaires. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles was measured using an algometer. The correlation between jaw disability and neck disability was significantly high (r = 0.915, P cervical muscles with jaw dysfunction and neck disability showed fair to moderate correlations (r = 0.32-0.65). High levels of muscle tenderness in upper trapezius and temporalis muscles correlated with high levels of jaw and neck dysfunction. Moreover, high levels of neck disability correlated with high levels of jaw disability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the neck and its structures when evaluating and treating patients with TMD.

  7. ESTUDIO DE LOS MÉTODOS DE ANÁLISIS BASADOS EN LA SUPERPOSICIÓN DE LOS COMPONENTES DE SOCAVACIÓN PARA PILARES COMPLEJOS APLICADOS AL PUENTE REQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Arriola Carrasco, Guillermo Gustavo; Consultora Ingenierías, Bachiller; Institución Privada; Bejarano Trujillo, Luis Miguel; Consultora Ingenierías, Bachiller; Institución Privada

    2015-01-01

    Las oportunidades de interacción y cruce entre nuestras redes viales y ríos son muy frecuentes, siendo los puentes los que ayudan al transporte. Cabe indicar también que los puentes fallan principalmente por problemas hidráulicos según las estadísticas mundiales, sin embargo la necesidad de minimizar estas fallas ha llevado a desarrollar una gran cantidad de investigaciones. Además la aplicabilidad de todas estas investigaciones se resumen en fórmulas y metodologías para determinar la socavac...

  8. Proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi muscle during prolonged ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polati, Rita; Menini, Michele; Robotti, Elisa; Millioni, Renato; Marengo, Emilio; Novelli, Enrico; Balzan, Stefania; Cecconi, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    To study proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi four Charolaise heifers and four Charolaise bull's muscles were sampled at slaughter after early and long ageing (2-4°C for 12 and 26days respectively). Descriptive sensory evaluation of samples were performed and their tenderness evaluated by Warner-Bratzler shear force test. Protein composition of fresh muscle and of meat aged was analysed by cartesian and polar 2-D electrophoresis. Student's t-test and Ranking-PCA analyses were performed to detect proteomic modulation, and the selected protein spots were identified by nano-HPLC-Chip MS/MS. This research has demonstrated that there are no differences between proteomic patterns of male and females Longissimus dorsi muscle, and that the extension of ageing beyond 12days, did not brings any concrete advantage in terms of sensory quality. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrated that meat maturation caused changes of the abundance of proteins involved in metabolic, structural, and stress related processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pain pressure threshold of a muscle tender spot increases following local and non-local rolling massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboodarda, S J; Spence, A J; Button, Duane C

    2015-09-28

    The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effect of rolling massage on pressure pain threshold (PPT) in individuals with tender spots in their plantar flexor muscles. In a randomized control trial and single blinded study, tender spots were identified in 150 participants' plantar flexor muscles (gastrocnemius or soleus). Then participants were randomly assigned to one of five intervention groups (n = 30): 1) heavy rolling massage on the calf that exhibited the higher tenderness (Ipsi-R), 2) heavy rolling massage on the contralateral calf (Contra-R), 3) light stroking of the skin with roller massager on the calf that exhibited the higher tenderness (Sham), 4) manual massage on the calf that exhibited the higher tenderness (Ipsi-M) and 5) no intervention (Control). PPT was measured at 30 s and up to 15 min post-intervention via a pressure algometer. At 30 s post-intervention, the Ipsi-R (24 %) and Contra-R (21 %) demonstrated higher (p massages (Ipsi-R, Ipsi-M and Contra-R) on PPT. Whereas the increased PPT following ipsilateral massage (Ipsi-R and Ipsi-M) might be attributed to the release of fibrous adhesions; the non-localized effect of rolling massage on the contralateral limb suggests that other mechanisms such as a central pain-modulatory system play a role in mediation of perceived pain following brief tissue massage. Overall, rolling massage over a tender spot reduces pain perception. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02528812 ), August 19(th), 2015.

  10. Tenderness as measured by pressure pain thresholds extends beyond the pelvis in chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth N P; Maykut, Caroline A; Binik, Yitzchak M; Amsel, Rhonda; Carrier, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS) in men is a common complaint, and causes significant impairment in quality of life. Until recently, the focus of research has primarily been on pain symptoms or underlying prostate pathology. However, new clinical phenotyping demonstrates pelvic tenderness to be an important component of UCPPS. Unfortunately, mechanisms underlying tenderness remain to be understood, and tenderness itself has not been well quantified. To validate the use of pressure pain thresholds as a method of measuring tenderness in UCPPS and to demonstrate that tenderness extends beyond the pelvis. Fifty-five men diagnosed with UCPPS and 46 healthy controls were recruited through referrals and advertisements. Each participant filled out questionnaires and was assessed by a structured interview. In addition, all UCPPS men underwent urological assessment. Demographic information was collected as well as the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index. Using a digital algometer, pressure pain thresholds on 10 genito-pelvic and one control site (deltoid) were measured. The four-glass test was used for all UCPPS men. UCPPS men had reliably lower pain thresholds compared to controls in all locations, including the deltoid. UCPPS men also demonstrated consistently lower overall pain thresholds regardless of location. Furthermore, pressure pain thresholds were able to correctly distinguish patients from controls 77% of the time. Prostate infection did not influence pain thresholds. Lower pelvic and nonpelvic thresholds suggest the involvement of a central mechanism in UCPPS. Overall, the data confirm the move away from a prostate-based view of UCPPS. This is supported by the failure to find threshold differences related to prostate infection. Pressure pain thresholds appear to be a promising method of assessing tenderness in UCPPS. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Metodología de evaluación y análisis de materiales de los puentes de fábrica de la red ferroviaria

    OpenAIRE

    Paniagua Serrano, Illán

    2011-01-01

    La determinación de la vida útil y conservación de los puentes arco de fábrica, por su funcionalidad y su valor patrimonial como construcción histórica es un tema de creciente interés dentro de las administraciones gestoras de estas estructuras. El estudio de la durabilidad de los materiales tradicionales de construcción es un concepto relacionado con la vida útil, pero cuyo estudio difiere notablemente del realizado sobre los tipos y materiales en los que se ha centrado la ingeniería mod...

  12. Influencia del fenómeno de socavación en la pila de un puente ante efectos de sismo

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Álzate, Elbert Yezid

    2013-01-01

    Los puentes cimentados sobre lechos de ríos o en zonas cercanas a corrientes de agua, en épocas de crecientes son altamente vulnerables a fenómenos de socavación; esto sumado a la acción de un posible evento sísmico dadas las condiciones geotécnicas y geológicas del territorio nacional los convierten en estructuras con una elevada probabilidad de convergencia de socavación y sismo. Esta investigación inicia definiendo metodologías que permiten al lector entender y evaluar la acción del fen...

  13. PROPUESTA DE UN MODELO HIDRÁULICO PARA LOS PILARES DEL PUENTE REQUE EMPLEANDO LA SUPERPOSICIÓN DE LOS COMPONENTES DE SOCAVACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Vigil Cárdenas, Jean Hilmer; Universidad Señor de Sipán; Campos Chávez, Alonso Herbht; Universidad Señor de Sipán

    2015-01-01

    Durante las últimas cuatro décadas, se han realizado numerosos estudios con la finalidad de desarrollar ecuaciones para pronosticar la socavación en pilares de puentes, la mayoría de estas se estiman usando datos del laboratorio y a veces se comprobaron usando datos de campo obtenidos con empirismo. Hasta la fecha los datos utilizados para comprobar las ecuaciones son limitados y hay considerable incertidumbre en el uso de estas ecuaciones para pronosticar la profundidad de socavación total s...

  14. Erosión por contracción y por estribo en puentes aliviadores en valle de inundación

    OpenAIRE

    SCHREIDER Mario; Zanardi, Luis; Scacchi, Graciela; Franco, Felipe

    1998-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analiza, en forma experimental, la interrelación existente entre los distintos tipos de erosión que se producen en puentes aliviadores, y sus vinculaciones con los parámetros característicos del escurrimiento. A tales fines se llevó a cabo una secuencia de ensayos de laboratorio, destinados especialmente a evaluar las modificaciones que sufre la distribución de caudales como consecuencia del desarrollo de la erosión por estribo, y la incidencia que ello tiene sobre l...

  15. Puente miocárdico con fenómeno de "ordeñamiento" coronario como causa de angina inestable

    OpenAIRE

    Róger A Lanzas Rodríguez; Jorge Fernández Acuña; Alejandro A Magaña Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    Los puentes miocárdicos están constituidos por haces de fibras musculares que recubren un trayecto variable de una arteria coronaria epicárdica, cursando en muchos casos de manera asintomático u originan síntomas debido a síndromes isquémicos coronarios agudos. Su diagnóstico se realiza in-vivo por estudio angiográfico, al comprobarse una compresión sistólica de una arteria coronaria que desaparece durante la sistole, fenómeno denominado de Milking u "ordeñamiento". Se presenta un caso de Pue...

  16. Cerebro y cognición social. Un puente entre la neurociencia y la construcción social del sujeto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Calle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye una reflexión sobre el puente entre la neurociencia y el comportamiento social. Temas como el cerebro, la mente, la cognición social y el comportamiento se revisan bajo una visión transdisciplinaria. De esta manera, la antigua perspectiva de la división objetiva y subjetiva de la comprensión de la mente, ha sido sustituida por una idea holística en la cual las conexiones cerebrales, la realidad social y el ser, son articuladas al mismo tiempo.

  17. Prevalencia y características de los puentes miocárdicos en estudios de angiografía coronaria por tomografía computarizada multidetector

    OpenAIRE

    JAVIER VALLEJOS; ALEJANDRO DEVIGGIANO; CARLOS CAPUÑAY; ELBA MARTÍN LÓPEZ; PATRICIA CARRASCOSA; JORGE CARRASCOSA

    2009-01-01

    RESUMENIntroducciónLos puentes miocárdicos (PM) representan una anomalía congénita de las arterias coronariasen la que un segmento de una arteria coronaria principal, de habitual trayecto epicárdico,transcurre dentro del miocardio describiendo un curso intramural. Aunque el método diagnóstico de referencia es la angiografía convencional, existen otras técnicas invasivas. Con eladvenimiento de la angiografía coronaria por tomografía computarizada multidetector(ACTCM) ha surgido una alternativa...

  18. Estudio de la evolución temporal de la erosión local en pilas de puente a largo plazo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernàndez Nualart, Mireia

    2004-01-01

    Esta tesina trata sobre la evolución temporal de la erosión local en pilas de puente. Para su estudio se han llevado a cabo una serie de ensayos en el laboratoriode Hidráulica y Mecánica de Fluidos de la UPC. Estos han servido para poder desarrollar un modelo morfodinámico, basado en la potencia del vórtice que forma el agua al chocar contra la pila y la conservación de la masa de sedimento, capaz de predecir la evolución de la erosión a lo largo del tiempo

  19. El viaducto de Raos. Una aplicación de la tipología losa aligerada en tableros de puentes de luces medias

    OpenAIRE

    González de Cangas, José Ramón; Lorenzo Esperante, Domingo; Crespo Martínez, José Antonio

    1999-01-01

    RESUMEN. Se presenta una aplicación de la tipología estructural losa aligerada continua de canto variable en un tablero de puente de hormigón pretensado con una luz máxima de 52,50 metros, describiéndose sus características fundamentales y los modelos de análisis utilizados. ABSTRACT. This article covers a case where a continuous voided slab of varying depth is used for a prestressed concrete bridge deck with a maximum span of 52.50 m. A description of the main characteristics of this slab...

  20. Criterios de diseño en puentes de hormigón frente a la acción térmica ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirambell Arrizabalaga, Enrique

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is based on the problem of environmental thermal effects on concrete bridges. In this study, an analytical model is developed to determine the time-dependent temperature distributions and the self-equilibrated longitudinal and transversal stresses distributions within the cross section of concrete bridges. Parametric studies are carried out in order to find the effects of all parameters governing the heat transfer and conduction problem. Moreover, a general methodology in order to obtain design stresses distributions and design thermal loads is presented. Such methodology is applied to the case of concrete bridges in Spain. Data bases are the results of parametric studies and the environmental information presented in several reports of National Institute of Meteorology.

    El presente trabajo centra su estudio en la problemática de los efectos térmicos ambientales en puentes de hormigón. Los objetivos perseguidos en esta tesis son, por una parte, el desarrollo de un modelo analítico capaz de obtener la respuesta térmica y tensional a nivel sección de los tableros de puentes de hormigón y el estudio de la influencia de todos los parámetros que intervienen en el fenómeno de la transmisión del calor en esta tipología estructural. Por otra parte, se presenta una metodología general de obtención de las acciones térmicas y los estados tensionales asociados, a considerar en el proceso de análisis y diseño de los puentes de hormigón. Dicha metodología ha sido aplicada, con posterioridad, al caso de puentes de hormigón emplazados en la geografía de nuestro país, siendo las bases de datos los resultados de los amplios estudios paramétricos llevados a cabo para cada una de las tipologías transversales de tablero comúnmente adoptadas en proyecto, y la información climatológica y ambiental recogida en las publicaciones del Instituto Nacional de Meteorología.

  1. Escuela de formación artística de puente Aranda: un espacio de reflexión entre arte, política y comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sary Constanza Murillo Poveda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo hace parte de una investigación preliminar sobre la importancia del papel que cumplen las Escuelas de Formación Artística Local en Bogotá. Estas son escuelas de educación no formal avaladas por el gobierno distrital para el desarrollo y fomento de las artes en la ciudad. Tomando como caso la Escuela de Formación Artística de Puente Aranda, se estudian las relaciones entre política cultural, educación y comunidad.

  2. Three-dimensional Geometry of Buried Fold Scarps Associated With Ancient Earthquakes on the Puente Hills Blind Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, L. A.; Dolan, J. F.; Hoeft, J. S.; Shaw, J. H.; Hartleb, R. D.

    2003-12-01

    The Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT) is a large blind thrust fault that extends east-west beneath the heart of the metropolitan Los Angeles region (Shaw and Shearer, 1999; Shaw et al., 2003). Christofferson (2002; in prep.) and Dolan et al. (2003) identified four buried fold scarps associated with large (Mw greater than or equal to 7), ancient earthquakes on the PHT beneath the City of Bellflower, in northern Orange County. One of the major outstanding questions regarding this research concerns the subsurface, three-dimensional geometry of these buried scarps. Specifically, we want to determine the extent to which the subsurface geometry of these scarps is controlled by tectonic versus fluvial processes. In order to begin addressing these questions, we drilled a north-south transect of hollow-stem, continuously cored boreholes across the buried fold scarps. This new borehole transect, which comprises six, 20-m-deep boreholes, was drilled parallel to, and ˜ 100 m west of, the original Carfax Avenue transect of Christofferson (2002) and Dolan et al. (2003). The overall pattern of progressive southward thickening of sedimentary units observed in the Carfax borehole transect extends westward to the new transect. Moreover, several key sedimentary contacts that are traceable laterally between the two transects occur at approximately the same depths at all locations along both transects. This three-dimensional data set thus defines several buried fold scarps that extend east-west beneath the study site. These observations confirm that the buried scarps are primarily tectonic, rather than fluvial features.

  3. Puente de Almodóvar sobre el río Guadalquivir, cerca de Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available The Almodóvar Bridge is the first of several structural works forming part of the new Cordoba-Sevilla motorway. The construction procedure adopted—cantilever method by means of precast sections—is very interesting and will be used also for other similar bridges. The bridge structure, with its two approach viaducts, consists of a Gerber beam of prestressed concrete resting on two piers, including a central span of 70 m and two side cantilevers of 35 m. The suspended span, 30 m long, and the two approach viaducts are constituted by precast prestressed beams. The central cantilever arms of the Gerber beam are constructed by means of precast sections which are subsequently connected together by prestressing bars. The article describes the design principles, the bridge structure as well as the methods of construction.Es la primera de una serie de obras destinadas a la construcción de la autopista Córdoba-Sevilla. El método de voladizos sucesivos de hormigón pretensado que se ha adoptado para su construcción, es de gran interés y permitirá su empleo en obras posteriores. La estructura del puente, que está constituida por una viga Gerber apoyada en dos pilas intermedias, comprende un tramo central de 70 m de luz y dos vanos laterales de 35 m de luz cada uno de ellos. El tramo central está formado por una viga prefabricada de hormigón pretensado, de 30 m de luz, simplemente apoyada en dos voladizos de 20 m. Los tramos en voladizo se ejecutaron mediante elementos sucesivos prefabricados, solidarizados mediante los cables del pretensado. Completan la obra los dos viaductos de acceso, con tableros construidos con vigas pretensadas prefabricadas. Este artículo describe el proyecto y ejecución de la obra.

  4. Effect of decreasing dietary cation anion difference on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Condron, K N; Shee, C N; Claeys, M C; Nennich, T D; Lemenager, R P

    2013-12-01

    The manipulation of acid-base balance has been extensively investigated as a means of manipulating Ca homeostasis and managing milk fever in dairy cows. A low dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) increases urinary Ca, blood-ionized Ca, and responsiveness to Ca-homeostatic hormones. Very little attention has been focused on the possibility of using a low dietary DCAD to increase muscle Ca availability, calpain activity, and meat tenderness of beef cattle. Thus, 90 Angus × Simmental crossbred steers were allotted by weight (590.1 ± 2.4 kg) and breed composition (% Simmental) to 3 treatments (6 pens/treatment, 5 steers/pen) to evaluate the effects of DCAD on beef tenderness. Treatments were initiated 2 wk before slaughter and consisted of 3 DCAD (mEq/100 g) treatments: -16, 0, and +16. Basal diets (DM basis) were 62 to 64% corn, 6 to 9% soybean meal, and 20% corn silage, and were formulated to contain similar concentrations of protein, energy (NEm; NEg), and minerals, with the exception of sodium and chlorine. A commercial chloride ion supplement (PASTURChlor, West Central, Ralston, IA) was added to diets to decrease DCAD and sodium bicarbonate was added to diets to increase DCAD. Performance before initiation of the study did not differ among treatments (P > 0.22). Urine pH did not differ at the initiation of the study (P > 0.57), but did increase at a decreasing rate on d 7 (6.37, 7.69, 8.13) and d 14 (5.68, 7.66, 8.03) of the study as DCAD increased from -16 to 0 to +16, respectively (quadratic, P differ among treatments (P > 0.16). In addition, DCAD did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force among treatments after 7 and 21 d of aging (P > 0.23). Although urine pH was decreased by feeding a -16 DCAD diet, Ca influx into the LM and beef tenderness were not affected by altering the DCAD in finishing beef cattle diets.

  5. 31 CFR 309.7 - Tenders; submission through Federal Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt. 309.7 Section 309.7 Money and Finance... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.7 Tenders; submission through Federal Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt. Tenders in response to any such public...

  6. Deciding about Design Quality : Value judgements and decision making in the selection of architects by public clients under European tendering regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the image of tender procedures in which Dutch public clients selected an architect has been dominated by distressing newspaper headlines. Architects fear that the current tender culture will harm the quality of our built environment due to a potential lack of diversity,

  7. 17 CFR 240.14d-5 - Dissemination of certain tender offers by the use of stockholder lists and security position...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissemination of certain... Regulation 14d § 240.14d-5 Dissemination of certain tender offers by the use of stockholder lists and... exclusively in the dissemination of tender offer materials to security holders in connection with the bidder's...

  8. Pain and tenderness in human temporal muscle induced by bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kai; Tuxen, C; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U

    1990-01-01

    Pain was induced in 19 healthy individuals by double-blind injections into the temporal muscle of 0.2 ml of physiological saline with or without active substances added. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (2 nmol) caused pain similar to saline, bradykinin (2 nmol) only insignificantly more pain (0.05 less than p...... less than 0.1), while a mixture of the two substances in half dosage (1 nmol + 1 nmol) caused pain significantly above saline (p less than 0.01). Variations in the response to saline did not permit a conclusion to be made on the question of induced tenderness. However, the mixture of the two substances...... appeared to lower the pressure-pain threshold as measured by a pressure algometer (p less than 0.05)....

  9. Two new compounds from the dried tender stems of Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Zhong, Shao-Min; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Xue-Jun

    2009-09-01

    Two new compounds, cinnamic aldehyde cyclic d-galactitol 3'R,4'S-acetal (1) and cinnamomumolide (2), along with six known compounds, syringaresinol (3), lyoniresinol (4), 5,7,3'-trimethoxyl-( - )-epicatechin (5), 5,7-dimethoxyl-3',4'-di-O-methylene-( +/- )-epicatechin (6), 2-methoxyl-4-hydroxy cinnamyl aldehyde (7), and glucosyringic acid (8), have been isolated from the dried tender stems of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. Compound 2 was elucidated as 8-methoxyl-9-hydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-3S,4R-diphenyl butyrolactone, named cinnamomumolide, which exhibited activity in protecting against the injury caused by hydrogen peroxide oxidation on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, with an EC(50) value of 10.7 microM. Compounds 3-8 were isolated from the title plant for the first time.

  10. Hydrodynamic shockwave tenderization effects using a cylinder processor on early deboned broiler breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, J R; Schilling, J K; Marriott, N G; Duncan, S E; Solomon, M B; Wang, H

    2001-07-01

    In separate experiments, chicken broiler breasts were deboned (45 min postmortem, 52 min, respectively) and either exposed to high pressure hydrodynamic shockwaves (HSW) 25 min after deboning (77 min postmortem) or after 24 h of storage (4°C) respectively, and compared to companion control breasts. HSW were produced in a cylindrical HSW processor with 40-g explosive. Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) values of the HSW breasts treated at 77 min postmortem were not different than the controls. HSW treatment decreased (PL*a*b*) were not affected by the HSW. HSW treatment at 25 min after deboning (77 min postmortem) may require a higher pressure front or delayed treatment after postmortem aging to improve tenderness.

  11. Exploring Factors of Successful Tendering Practices using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): The Study of Organizational Repetitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and evaluate Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) as a method for exploring the complexity of practices of project organizing and management combining the benefits of top-down and bottom-up research strategies. The QCA method is used in order to describe...... combinations of factors leading to particular results of tendering practices. Empirical material collected through data mining in previously completed project records (quantitative data) is supported by data obtained from project managers of a general contractor company (qualitative data) in order...... between architect and general contractor for design-bid-build projects or senior project responsible involvement from the contractors side in design-build projects. The analysis illustrates how QCA is a powerful strategy for exploring the complexity of project practices being able to bridge the divide...

  12. Los contratos-programa en las universidades: Lecciones de la comparación internacional. The Contract-Programs in Universities: Lessons from the International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. García de Fanelli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2005 el Ministerio de Educación de la Argentina incorporó una nueva política para asignar recursos públicos a las universidades nacionales: los contratos-programa. Su propósito ha sido brindar fondos para el mejoramiento de la calidad a partir de planes institucionales de mejora elaborados por las propias universidades. Se espera además que estos planes sean respuestas a las debilidades detectadas durante los procedimientos de evaluación externa llevados a cabo por la Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria (CONEAU. En este trabajo se exponen los resultados de una investigación comparativa sobre los casos de Francia y la Comunidad de Cataluña destinada a contribuir con el diseño de esta política de contractualización. La metodología de investigación incluyó el análisis de documentos, la observación de instancias de negociación y entrevistas con actores clave del gobierno y de las universidades. Se concluye señalando las principales lecciones que se desprenden de este análisis comparativo y subrayando las claras ventajas que presenta esta mecanismo en pos de alinear los objetivos estratégicos del gobierno y de las universidades, tras el fin común de mejorar la calidad. In 2005, the Ministry of Education of Argentina launched a new policy to allocate public funds to national universities: the contractualization policy. Its purpose is to allocate funds to improve teaching quality based on an institutional plan defined by each university. It is expected that this plan addresses the main weaknesses detected during the external assessment coordinated by the National Committee of University Assessment and Accrediting (CONEAU. This paper presents the main findings of a research project carried out to help in the design of this contractualization policy. The two most important antecedents, the French and the Catalonian cases, are examined through the study of official documents, on-site observation

  13. Puentes miocárdicos como causa de infarto agudo del miocardio Reporte de una serie de once casos y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J Echeverry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los puentes miocárdicos son una condición congénita, con una frecuencia variable. Han sido considerados como variante anatómica, hasta causantes de isquemia, infarto agudo del miocardio y muerte súbita. Los mecanismos involucrados guardan relación con la compresión sistólica de la arteria, el retardo en la recuperación de su diámetro en diástole y la alteración en el perfil de las velocidades y el flujo coronario. El abordaje diagnóstico aún considera la angiografía coronaria, pero cada vez se acepta un rol mayor del ultrasonido intravascular y el doppler intracoronario. El tratamiento farmacológico es la primera opción, aunque en pacientes seleccionados con angina refractaria o falla a la terapia médica se podría considerar la revascularización percutánea y/o quirúrgica. A continuación se presenta una serie de once pacientes en quienes se documentaron puentes miocárdicos como parte del estudio diagnóstico en el contexto de un síndrome coronario agudo (infarto agudo del miocardio sin elevación del ST, y se discute su relación como agente causal y las opciones terapéuticas disponibles.

  14. Puentes miocárdicos como causa de infarto agudo del miocardio Reporte de una serie de once casos y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Echeverry, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Los puentes miocárdicos son una condición congénita, con una frecuencia variable. Han sido considerados como variante anatómica, hasta causantes de isquemia, infarto agudo del miocardio y muerte súbita. Los mecanismos involucrados guardan relación con la compresión sistólica de la arteria, el retardo en la recuperación de su diámetro en diástole y la alteración en el perfil de las velocidades y el flujo coronario. El abordaje diagnóstico aún considera la angiografía coronaria, pero cada vez se acepta un rol mayor del ultrasonido intravascular y el doppler intracoronario. El tratamiento farmacológico es la primera opción, aunque en pacientes seleccionados con angina refractaria o falla a la terapia médica se podría considerar la revascularización percutánea y/o quirúrgica. A continuación se presenta una serie de once pacientes en quienes se documentaron puentes miocárdicos como parte del estudio diagnóstico en el contexto de un síndrome coronario agudo (infarto agudo del miocardio sin elevación del ST, y se discute su relación como agente causal y las opciones terapéuticas disponibles.

  15. Comportamiento de un puente histórico de arco de albañilería ante cargas dinámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Mauricio Ospina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describe el proceso de análisis al que fue sometido un puente histórico de arco de ladrillo construido en Colombia durante el siglo XVIII con el fin de predecir su comportamiento ante cargas producidas por sismos y determinar su vulnerabilidad. Dos estudios previos al análisis sísmico fueron realizados para obtener así información básica acerca del com- portamiento global de la estructura: un análisis estático lineal y un análisis modal, ambos a partir de un modelo tridimensional que se elaboró haciendo uso del método de elementos finitos. Se simuló la excitación sísmica bajo las condiciones propuestas en la norma sismorresistente del año 1998 (NSR-98. Los resultados obtenidos fueron coherentes con la historia del puente y sus respuestas frente a terremotos; la comparación entre las cargas sísmicas y la capacidad resistente de los materiales que constitu- yen la estructura confirma la vulnerabilidad de este tipo de edificios frente a daños localizados y posibilidades de colapso. Final- mente, los resultados sugieren la aplicabilidad del procedimiento desarrollado a otras estructuras históricas en Colombia.

  16. 153. Implantación de dos sistemas de oxigenador de membrana extracorpórea a un paciente en dos ingresos: Uno como recuperación, otro como puente a otra asistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Fernández-Divar

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: Como describimos en este caso, el ECMO es muy útil y fácil de implantar en pacientes con el objetivo de la recuperación o como puente al trasplante. Las asistencias no están exentas de complicaciones.

  17. Translocation and Fate of Shiga toxin-producting Escherichia coli in subprimals following blade tenderization and vacuum tumbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens, such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), a natural inhabitant on raw meat, may be transferred from the surface of the meat into the deeper layers of tissue following enhancement by blade tenderization and vacuum tumbling. Therefore, the consumption of enhanced beef...

  18. 77 FR 58367 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... enclosed within the powerhouse, and the last four units (8-11) are located outside. The hydraulic equipment...

  19. 77 FR 25158 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... settling basin located in the upper portion of the Loup Canal and containing a floating hydraulic dredge...

  20. The effect of breed of sire and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the beef chuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K L; Johnson, D D; West, R L; Marshall, T T; Hargrove, D D

    1991-09-01

    Steers (n = 59) produced from the mating of Braford, Simbrah, Senepol, and Simmental bulls to Brahman- and Romana Red-sired cows and Brahman bulls to Angus cows were used in this study. Effects of sire breed and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the major muscles of the chuck when steers were fed to 1.0 cm 12th rib fat were determined. There were no muscle tenderness effects due to sire breed group, with the exception of the serratus ventralis muscle, which was more tender in Brahman- and Braford-sired steers than in Simmental-sired steers. Additionally, the supraspinatus muscle from the yearlings was lower in shear value than that from the calves. The Brahman-sired steers had serratus ventralis muscles with higher percentages (P less than .05) of intramuscular fat than those of Braford-, Simbrah-, and Simmental-sired steers. Fat deposited within the muscle or between muscles in the chuck was not related to muscle tenderness as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear values. Also, percentages of intramuscular fat of the triceps brachii, serratus ventralis, or supraspinatus muscles were not influenced (P greater than .05) by age at feeding.

  1. Pulsed electric field processing of functional drink based on tender coconut water (Cococus nucifera L. - nannari (Hemidesmus indicus blended beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. Nannari extract (Hemidesmus indicus L. ready-to serve (RTS blended beverage were optimised. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the levels of independent variables (levels of tender coconut water, nannari extract and sugar. The responses of pH, ºBrix, CIE colour (L*, a* and b* value and OAA were studied. The data obtained were analysed by multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. The developed blended beverage was processed using pulsed electric field (PEF with electric field 31.2 kV/cm, 20 pulse widths at 100 Hz frequency to minimise nutritional and sensory attributes losses and compared with conventional thermal pasteurization (96 ºC for 360 s with p-value of 8.03. Thermal pasteurization showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in colour value, radical scavenging activity and overall acceptability after treatment and also during storage, when compared to PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage. PEF treatment also achieved a 3.01 ± 0.69 log inactivation, similar to thermal pasteurization of native micro flora. PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage was stable up to 120 days under ambient storage condition (27-30 °C.

  2. 77 FR 2966 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption from Licensing. b. Project No.: 14345-000. c. Filing Date: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock...

  3. 77 FR 73636 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting... No.: P-14345-001. c. Date filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock River, in the Town of Onota...

  4. 76 FR 59671 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for... License. b. Project No.: 12711-005. c. Date Filed: September 1, 2011. d. Applicant: Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project. f. Location: The proposed project...

  5. Assessment of the influence of surgical technique on postoperative pain and wound tenderness in cats following ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, Nicola J; Murison, Pamela J; Coe, Richard J; Waterman Pearson, Avril E

    2006-02-01

    Elective ovariohysterectomy was performed on 66 cats. Surgical approach was flank (group F) or midline (group M) allocated by block randomisation. Pre-anaesthetic medication was acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) via intramuscular injection. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous thiopentone, and maintained with halothane in 100% oxygen. Carprofen (4 mg/kg) was administered by the subcutaneous route immediately after induction of anaesthesia. Postoperative pain and wound tenderness were assessed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 11-12 and 20-24h after the end of surgery, and the assessment outcome marked on visual analogue scales (VAS). Intervention analgesia (if pain VAS was >40 mm) was pethidine 4 mg/kg via intramuscular injection. Area under the curve (AUC) for VAS for pain and VAS for wound tenderness for each cat were calculated. AUC for wound tenderness was significantly greater for group F (P = 0.007). There was no significant difference for AUC for pain between the groups. In conclusion, wounds after flank ovariohysterectomy are significantly more tender than after midline ovariohysterectomy in the cat. This indicates that interactive methods, including wound palpation, must be used to assess postoperative pain and the findings should be appropriately weighted in the overall assessment.

  6. 77 FR 12274 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... steel building housing a 3.4-megawatt (MW) turbine/generator unit and a vertical Kaplan-type four-blade... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...-020. c. Date Filed: February 8, 2012. d. Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). e. Name...

  7. 75 FR 67959 - Wagon Wheel Associates; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... [Project No. 13871-000] Wagon Wheel Associates; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the....: P-13871-000. c. Dated Filed: October 18, 2010. d. Submitted by: Wagon Wheel Associates (WWA). e...: Ms. Ruth Brown, Wagon Wheel Associates, 7.5 Goose Creek Road, South Fork, CO 81154; (970) 925-6071...

  8. 78 FR 71594 - Free Flow Power Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... Contact: Mr. Thomas Feldman, Vice President of Project Development, Free Flow Power Corporation, 239... Application: Major. b. Project No.: P-13703-002. c. Date filed: November 13, 2013. d. Applicant: Free Flow...

  9. 78 FR 71596 - Free Flow Power Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for... Application: Major. b. Project No.: P-13704-002. c. Date Filed: November 13, 2013. d. Applicant: Free Flow Power Missouri 2, LLC. e. Name of Project: Arkabutla Lake Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the U.S...

  10. 78 FR 71593 - Free Flow Power Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Thomas Feldman, Vice President of Project Development, Free Flow Power... Application: Major. b. Project No.: P-13702-002. c. Date filed: November 13, 2013. d. Applicant: Free Flow...

  11. 77 FR 76018 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With.... b. Project No.: P-13346-003. c. Date filed: December 3, 2012. d. Applicant: Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow Power), on behalf of its subsidiary Paynebridge, LLC. e. Name of Project: Williams Dam...

  12. 78 FR 71592 - Free Flow Power Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Thomas Feldman, Vice President of Project Development, Free Flow Power... Application: Major. b. Project No.: P-13701-002. c. Date filed: November 13, 2013. d. Applicant: Free Flow...

  13. 77 FR 36524 - Freedom Falls, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freedom Falls, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption from Licensing. b. Project No.: 14421-000. c. Date filed: June 1, 2012. d. Applicant: Freedom Falls, LLC. e. Name of Project: Freedom Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Sandy Stream, in...

  14. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cipriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K, joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28 and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0. We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR. We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7 and 1 (IQR 2.5, respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6. According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001. The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index.

  15. Los orígenes de la Psicología científica en España: Las «Lecciones sumarias de Psicología», de Giner de los Ríos

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente, Enrique

    1987-01-01

    Se analiza la influencia que tienen en orígenes de la Psicología científica española las Lecciones Sumarísimas de Psicología, de Giner de los Ríos, obra generalmente considerada como uno de los primeros escritos que en España se hacen eco de los desarrollos de la nueva Psicología europea, realizando un ensayo de valoración de la Psicología gineriana a la luz de las dos grandes alternativas que la nueva Psicología ofrecía al pensamiento psicológico del momento.

  16. El programa filosófico del joven Heidegger. (En torno a las lecciones de 1919. la idea de la filosofía y el problema de la concepción del mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Adrián Escudero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desarrolla el núcleo del programa filosófico del joven Heidegger a partir de las primeras lecciones de Friburgo. Este programa gira en torno a dos cuestiones fundamentales. Por un lado, una cuestión temática: el fenómeno de la vida humana y sus diferentes formas de manifestación y aprehensión, que lleva a Heidegger a una interesante relectura en clave ontológica de Aristóteles, Pablo, Agustín, Eckhart, Lutero o Schleiermacher. Por otro lado, una cuestión eminentemente metodológica: la de cómo acceder de manera correcta a la esfera primaria de la vida, que desemboca en un primer profundo cuestionamiento de la fenomenología reflexiva de Husserl

  17. Determination of a Holocene Slip Rate on the Puente Hills Blind-Thrust Fault, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, S. A.; Dolan, J. F.; Shaw, J. H.; Pratt, T. L.

    2001-12-01

    Paleoseismologic observations of slip histories and slip rates of faults that break the surface are available at an ever-increasing rate, but the nature of blind-thrust faults has kept paleoearthquake information on these faults out of reach. The complex network of blind thrust faults beneath the Los Angeles metropolitan region includes the Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT), which extends southeastward for >35 km from beneath downtown Los Angeles into northern Orange County. This thrust is active, as demonstrated by the occurrence of the 1987 Mw 6.0 Whittier Narrows earthquake (Shaw and Shearer 1999). Despite our awareness of the hazard posed by this fault, we do not know its current slip rate or its earthquake history prior to the 1987 event. To determine these critical data, we have begun a two-phase project in which we will acquire high-resolution seismic reflection data and excavate paleoseismologic boreholes and trenches across the zone of active folding associated with major earthquakes on the PHT. We have acquired high-resolution seismic reflection profiles along two transects across the zone of active folding. In our eastern most profile, along Trojan Way in La Mirada, the seismic reflection data show that the locus of active folding extends to 1.5- 2-m-thick reddish-brown argillic horizon. This soil indicates that the geomorphic surface atop the scarp is late Pleistocene in age. The 9 m height of the scarp provides a minimum estimate of total structural relief since stabilization of the ground surface. These observations yield an approximate uplift rate on the order of a few tenths of a mm/yr. Assuming simple hangingwall block translation and given the 19° -22° N dip of the PHT beneath the site, we calculate a minimum average late Pleistocene-Recent dip-slip rate of \\sim 0.2 to 1.1 mm/yr. This slip-rate range is based on our crude age estimates of the late Pleistocene soil. 14C dating of detrital charcoal recovered from the borehole will allow us to

  18. Continuity of slip rates over various time scales on the Puente Hills Blind-thrust Fault, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Kristian J.; Shaw, John H.; Leon, Lorraine A.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Barrera, Wendy; Rhodes, Edward J.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2014-05-01

    Our study seeks to assess the history of slip on the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system (PHT) from its inception through the Holocene by integrating a suite of geological and geophysical datasets. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. It is also well suited to slip rate studies, as fold scarps formed by slip on the PHT at depth have been continually buried by flood deposits from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers, preserving a record of uplift in the form of growth stratigraphy. We determined uplift from the growth stratigraphy by measuring the difference in sediment thickness across the folded layers. At our study site above the western segment of the PHT, the fold structure was imaged by industry seismic reflection data and a pair of high-resolution (100 to 700 m depth) seismic reflection profiles acquired by the authors for this study using weight drop and small vibrator sources. The industry and high-resolution profiles were stacked, migrated and depth converted using a velocity model based on the stacking velocities and the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Velocity Model. The shallowest layers of growth stratigraphy were geometrically constrained by lithological correlations across a series of cone penetration tests and continuously cored boreholes. Age control was provided by radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating, and sequence-stratigraphic boundaries. Radiocarbon dating was used to constrain individual earthquake event ages in the borehole transect. Using a novel coring procedure, light-protected samples for quartz OSL and feldspar IRSL dating were acquired from a 171-m-deep borehole that we drilled within the growth fold. These samples provided age constraints on growth strata that were tied to prominent seismic reflections and were combined with

  19. Characterization of migraineurs presenting interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia identified using a tender point count: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriyama, Toshihide; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-12-28

    Migraineurs exhibit pain hypersensitivity throughout the body during and between migraine headaches. Migraine is classified as a central sensitivity syndrome, typified by fibromyalgia showing widespread pressure hyperalgesia determined by a tender point. This study was performed to examine whether: 1) there is a subgroup of episodic migraineurs with widespread pressure hyperalgesia during and between attacks; 2) if such a subgroup exists, what is the prevalence and what is the difference between groups with interictal widespread hyperalgesia and acute allodynia regarding the demographic and clinical characteristics of migraine. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 176 consecutive episodic migraineurs and 132 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. The presence of widespread pressure hyperalgesia was investigated using manual tender point survey. To classify a subject's response as widespread pressure hyperalgesia, the cutoff value for responders was defined as the positive tender point count below which 95% of controls responded. Based on the number of positive tender points in controls, the cutoff value of tender point count for pressure hyperalgesia responders was 7. Of the 176 subjects, interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia and acute allodynia were observed in 74 (42%) and 115 (65.3%) patients, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that risk factors associated with interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia were female gender, younger age at migraine onset, higher frequency of migraine attacks, severe headache impact, cutaneous allodynia and depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that independent risk factors associated with interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia were female gender, higher frequency of migraine attack and younger age at onset. Interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia was common (42%) in the episodic migraineurs and was associated with younger age at onset, female gender, and higher

  20. El puente de la Rocha en Santiago de Compostela: ampliación de dos a cuatro carriles de circulación del puente existente en el km 67 de la CN-550 de la Coruña a Santiago y Tuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Ayúcar, José Antonio

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to continue the widening of the roadway of the CN-550 on the New Access to Santiago de Compostela up to the town limits of Milladoiro implied an important action on the existing masonry works. In these conditions, the La Rocha Bridge, with a bidirectional 7 m roadway of a total 10 m width, had to be extended to obtain the new cross section of the four carriageways, median strip and pavements. The bridge was widened adding a 6 m-wide deck to the existing platform on either side. The deck was made of prestressed precast beams and compression slabs. Prestressed concrete pier heads and metal struts were arranged as decks supporting elements which transfer forces originated by new loadings on the piers. The adopted solution made it possible to maintain the vehicle and pedestrian traffic but for four days, during which the pier heads were placed. The resistance scheme of the old bridge arcade was not altered. The new bridge was integrated into the pre-existing surroundings, preserving the local architectural heritage.

    La necesidad de continuar la duplicación de calzada de la CN-550 en el Nuevo Acceso a Santiago de Compostela hasta el límite municipal de Milladoiro, implicaba una importante actuación sobre las obras de fábrica existentes. En esta situación, el puente de La Rocha, con una calzada bidireccional de 7 m y anchura total de 10 m, necesitaba ampliarse hasta 22 m para obtener la nueva sección transversal de 4 carriles, mediana y aceras. El ensanchamiento del puente se ha conseguido añadiendo por ambos lados, a la plataforma existente, un tablero de 6 m de anchura, formado por vigas pretensadas prefabricadas y losas de compresión. Como elementos sustentantes de los tableros se disponen cabeceros de hormigón pretensado y tornapuntas metálicos, que transfieren las solicitaciones originadas por las nuevas acciones a las pilas. Con la solución adoptada, se ha conseguido mantener el tráfico rodado y peatonal a

  1. Tenderness, pH and Water Activity (Aw of Spices Dried Meat on Various Concentrate of Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe and Different Soaking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhadiyah Afrila

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of current research were to find out the concentrate of Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and different soaking time of to tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw, microbial count and sensory evaluation of spices dried meat. The result showed that higher the ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe concentrate and longer the soaking time, it would give more tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw to spices dried meat with 15% ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract and 20 minutes length of soaking time. Key Words : Dendeng, ginger, soaking time, tenderness, pH and Aw

  2. ALGUNAS LECCIONES SOBRE EL ACCESO A RECURSOS GENÉTICOS EN COLOMBIA. DOS ESTUDIOS DE CASO. Some lessons about Access to Genetic Resources in Colombia. Two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL RICARDO NEMOGÁ SOTO

    Full Text Available En Colombia el acceso a los recursos genéticos (ARG con fines científicos o de aplicación comercial está regulado por la Decisión 391/96 de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones y sus normas reglamentarias. Durante los primeros años de su aplicación, la eficacia de esta normatividad fue casi nula resultado de deficiencias institucionales y de la falta de información e interés de los investigadores e instituciones de investigación. Con el fin de extraer lecciones sobre los procedimientos de obtención de ARG y de pro-mover una mejor respuesta institucional de las autoridades ambientales, se examinan dos estudios de caso. La información se obtuvo de los expedientes N.º 2571 y N.º RGE0018-07 del Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (MAVDT. En la solicitud del Instituto de Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, después de siete años de trámite no ha sido posible obtener el ARG; al contrario, el MAVDT inició un proceso sancionatorio por acceso ilegal. En la solicitud de la 'Unión Temporal Centro Colombiano de Genómica y Bioinformática de Ambientes Extremos GeBix' el respectivo ARG se firmó luego de 406 días de trámite. Se puede concluir que la obtención de contrato ARG, requiere conocimiento del procedimiento por parte del investigador y una respuesta adecuada en la implementación de la legislación por parte del MAVDT. Si bien actualmente el desarrollo del trámite es menos difícil para los investigadores, son necesarios ajustes institucionales y normativos para que la obtención de un contrato de ARG facilite, en lugar de obstaculizar la investigación científica.Access to genetic resources (AGR with scientific or commercial purposes is regulated in Colombia by Decision 391/96 of the Andean Community of Nations and its prescribed norms. During the first years of the implementation of these norms, their effectiveness was almost null as a result of institutional deficiencies and the lack of

  3. Partial caecal necrosis - a rare cause of right-sided inferior abdominal pain and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuzi, Arben; Galeski, Dragisha; Elezi, Gazmend; Goreski, Aleksandar; Karatashev, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Non-occlusive caecal infarction is a rare condition that has been described in association with a variety of clinical entities, generally due to a low-flow state, and has been reported to occur in association with chronic heart disease, open-heart surgery, certain drugs, and haemodialysis. The aim of this article is to describe the presentation, diagnosis and management of this unusual clinical problem. We report on an 84-year-old female with known chronic heart disease presenting with right lower abdominal quadrant pain, tenderness and leukocytosis. Although initial clinical findings were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, CT revealed marked circumferential wall thickening of the caecum. Intraoperatively, caecal necrosis was confirmed, while the appendix and the remainder of the intestine appeared normal. There was no evidence of major vascular occlusion or embolization. The right hemicolectomy was performed with ileo-transverse anastomosis. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated isolated transmural caecal necrosis with marked infiltration of the caecal wall by numerous bacteria and neutrophils as a consequence of nonocclusive ischaemic colitis. The patient recovered completely and was discharged from the hospital on the tenth postoperative day without any surgical complications. Partial caecal necrosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower quadrant pain, especially in elderly patients with chronic heart disease.

  4. The Pelvis and Beyond: Musculoskeletal Tender Points in Women With Chronic Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanses, Tatiana V D; Chelimsky, Gisela; McCabe, Noel P; Zolnoun, Denniz; Janata, Jeffrey; Elston, Robert; Buffington, C A Tony; Simpson, Pippa; Zhang, Liyun; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    To determine the feasibility of a detailed pain sensitivity assessment using body-wide musculoskeletal tender points (TPs) in women with different types of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and compare phenotypic differences. Seventy women with CPP and 35 pain-free women underwent musculoskeletal evaluation of TPs in the pelvic floor, abdomen, groin, inner thigh, and all 18 fibromyalgia TPs. Patients scored elicited pain on a numeric rating scale. TP pain scores were used for intergroup comparison and intragroup correlation. Women with CPP were grouped as having either bladder pain syndrome (BPS, n=24) or myofascial pelvic pain (MPP, n=11) singularly or both concomitantly (BPS+MPP, n=35). TP pain scores for all evaluations were higher in women with CPP compared with healthy women (Ppain for each evaluation compared with women with BPS alone. Pelvic floor and fibromyalgia TP scores correlated strongly in the MPP group, moderately in the BPS+MPP group, and weakly in the BPS alone group. Although some moderate and strong correlations between different body locations were present in all 3 groups, only the BPS+MPP group showed moderate to strong correlations between all body TPs. Detailed musculoskeletal evaluation of women with CPP is feasible and well tolerated. Careful phenotyping differentiated BPS, MPP, and BPS+MPP groups. Attending to the differences between these groups clinically may lead to more effective treatment strategies and improved outcomes for patients with CPP.

  5. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different potential tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment and ageing on the quality of beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles was evaluated, including the tenderness, water loss and post-mortem proteolysis. Muscles were obtained from 12 steers (6 steers for each muscle), removed from the carcasses 4 hour postmortem and were treated with pulsed electric field within 2h. Six different pulsed electric field intensities (voltages of 5 and 10 kV × frequencies of 20, 50 and 90 Hz) plus a control were applied to each muscle to determine the optimum treatment conditions. Beef LL was found to get tougher with increasing treatment frequency whereas beef SM muscle was found to have up to 21.6% reduction in the shear force with pulsed electric field treatment. Post-mortem proteolysis showed an increase in both troponin and desmin degradation in beef LL treated with low intensity PEF treatment (20 Hz) compared to non-treated control samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilomatrixoma - presented as hypopigmented tender nodule: Diagnosed by FNAC: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankappa P Sinhasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma (PMX is a skin appendage tumor of hair matrix origin, which usually occurs on the face or upper extremities. Although the lesion can appear at any age, it is commonly seen in children and is more common in females. Despite being better defined, pilomatricomas continue to be frequently misdiagnosed and are not usually considered in differential diagnoses, either in clinical set-up or during cytological reporting. They typically present as a superficial, firm, solitary, slow-growing, painless mass in the dermis. The overlying skin may be normal or exhibit a bluish-red discoloration or ulceration. We report an 18-year-old girl presented with tender, subcutaneous nodule with overlying skin showing atrophy and hypopigmentation. Clinically, it was diagnosed as neurofibroma and sent for FNAC. We offered precise diagnosis of pilomatrixoma on cytological examination, (where chances of wrong diagnosis are very high and it was subsequently confirmed by histopathology. We discuss the varied clinical presentations, diagnostic difficulties, and differential diagnoses of PMX.

  7. Effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken breast muscle early postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sidang; Li, Chunbao; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2013-04-01

    Pre-slaughter fasting is a very important practice in the meat industry. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken muscle early postmortem. A total of 30 Yellow-feathered chickens were deprived of feed for 0 h, 12 h and 24 h before slaughter (n=10 each group). Breast muscles were removed and cut into 3 parts and stored at 0°C for 0 h, 3 h and 10 h. Samples were used for analyses of zymography, cathepsins, pH, glycogen/ATP/ADP/AMP, hormones and ultrastructure. Fasting caused the accelerated depletion (p0.05). Fasting resulted in greater ultimate pH (penzymes (p<0.05). Fasting for 24 h resulted in greater ultrastructural changes and plasma corticosterone levels than fasting for 12 h and control groups. Therefore, fasting for no more than 12 h is acceptable in practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (pcitric acid) and WC (with citric acid) conditions were significantly (pcitric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  9. Understanding tenderness variability and ageing changes in buffalo meat: biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (Pmuscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.

  10. Tenderness enhancement of beef from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle following electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursansky, B; O'Halloran, J M; Egan, A; Devine, C E

    2010-11-01

    High voltage electrical stimulation (1130 V peak, 14.28 bidirectional half sinusoidal pulses/s) or low voltage stimulation (45 V peak, 36 alternating square wave pulses/s) was used on cattle: (1) low voltage stimulation applied for 10 or 40 s with fast and slow chilling or high voltage stimulation for 60 s with normal chilling, applied to 100% Bos taurus cattle, (2) low voltage stimulation (40 s) and high voltage stimulation (60 s) with normal chilling applied to mixed Bos indicus and B.taurus cattle, (3) high voltage stimulation (54 s) with normal chilling applied to B. taurus and B. indicus cattle of 0-100% B. indicus composition, and (4) high voltage stimulation (60 s) applied to 100% B. taurus and 100% B. indicus cattle. All stimulation parameters enhanced the tenderness of steaks from M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) aged at 1°C up to 28 days compared with non stimulated LTL. Short low voltage stimulation of 10s was marginally more effective than no stimulation and longer durations of 40s were very effective and high voltage stimulation was most effective. The shear force values for non stimulated B. indicus LTL are much greater than for B. taurus, but following high voltage stimulation LTL of B. indicus were similar to B. taurus and all had lower shear force values than from non stimulated carcasses. Thus adequate electrical stimulation removes any toughness of LTL related to B. indicus genetic composition. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Digital tender point examination may be helpful in the evaluation of low back pain: clinical signs vs. magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian

    examined consecutively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine, we aimed 1) at analyzing these associations further to find out which association was more important, the association with degenerative changes or with radiculopathy and 2) at clarifying whether TP examination in LBP patients...... of the lumbar spine was performed. Associations were analyzed by linear regression analyses. Results: TPs were negatively associated with radiculopathy and with most degenerative manifestations on MRI, but the negative associations were primarily due to the presence of radiculopathy and/or nerve root compromise......Background: Low back pain (LBP) may occur both in patients with and without degenerative changes of the lumbar spine. Diffuse musculoskeletal tenderness may be estimated by digital tender point (TP) examination, a method also validated in LBP patients showing 70% agreement within +/-3 TPs...

  12. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Christensen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All...... of the patients completed version 1 of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and were assessed for tender points and knee muscle strength. All subjects underwent bilateral isokinetic knee muscle strength testing in flexion and extension. Normative knee muscle strength values were calculated from the healthy...... subjects, and the FM cohort was divided in 2 groups: 1) patients with normal muscle strength and 2) patients with low muscle strength (2 SDs below normal). The clinical characteristics of these 2 groups were compared. RESULTS: Significantly reduced knee muscle strength was found in 52% of the patients...

  13. Notas sobre la organización y ubicación del arte paleolítico en las cuevas del monte del Castillo (Puente Viesgo. Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un pequeño resumen de una parte de las conclusiones de los trabajos realizados en el transcurso del verano de 1985 en el Monte del Castillo. El propósito de los mismos se orientó en una total y exhaustiva revisión de la gran mayoría de figuras paleolíticas, tanto pintadas, grabadas, y en algún caso esculpidas, de las cuatro cuevas que forman este prestigioso y conocido conjunto troglodítico: La cueva de las Monedas, la cueva de la Pasiega, la cueva de las Chimeneas y la cueva del Castillo, en Puente Viesgo, Santander.

  14. Retos de construcción de un puente en un entorno urbano denso usando técnicas de mejoramiento de suelos

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Juan; Crumley, Alan

    2005-01-01

    La construcción de un puente sobre una vía primaria de seis carriles en un entorno urbano imponía limitaciones de espacio y tiempo para la construcción. La presencia de unos 30-40 pies de suelos blandos en el perfil complicaba la situación, añadiendo problemas potenciales de capacidad de sustentación, asentamientos, y fricción negativa. El uso de la técnica de precarga estaba limitado por el espacio de construcción, mientras que la construcción de un viaducto resultaba más costosa que la apli...

  15. UN ESTUDIO TEÓRICO AIM (ATOMS IN MOLECULES) CON EL FIN DE EVIDENCIAR LA EXISTENCIA DE PUENTES DE HIDRÓGENO EN VARIOS DERIVADOS TIAZÓLICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Sánchez-Viesca; Fernando Cortés; Ma. Reina Gómez; Martha Berros

    2009-01-01

    Esta comunicación empieza con una reseña de varios artículos en los que describimos la síntesis y la espectroscopía de 24 derivados tiazólicos nuevos. Muchos de estos compuestos presentaron desviaciones paramagnéticas en sus espectros de RMN de 1H, las cuales se interpretaron como debidas a la formación de puentes de hidrógeno. Por lo anterior, se realizó un estudio teórico utilizando cálculos ab initio con el fin de tener una evidencia teórica de estas interacciones, basándose en la densidad...

  16. Puentes miocárdicos como causa de infarto agudo del miocardio Reporte de una serie de once casos y revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo J Echeverry; Nelson E Murillo; Juan S Villadiego; Ochoa, Julián A.; Jorge G. Velásquez

    2013-01-01

    Los puentes miocárdicos son una condición congénita, con una frecuencia variable. Han sido considerados como variante anatómica, hasta causantes de isquemia, infarto agudo del miocardio y muerte súbita. Los mecanismos involucrados guardan relación con la compresión sistólica de la arteria, el retardo en la recuperación de su diámetro en diástole y la alteración en el perfil de las velocidades y el flujo coronario. El abordaje diagnóstico aún considera la angiografía coronaria, pero cada vez s...

  17. Comportamiento estructural y criterios de diseño de los puentes extradosados: visión general y estado del arte Structural behavior and design criteria of extradosed bridges: general insight and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benjumea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos 10 años, los puentes extradosados se han convertido en una solución estructural atractiva alrededor del mundo, gracias a los buenos resultados obtenidos con las primeras realizaciones en Japón. Esta nueva tipología, reconocida generalmente como una solución intermedia entre los puentes atirantados y los de pretensado de viga cajón construidos por voladizos sucesivos, se ha convertido en una opción interesante. Por consiguiente, dado el interés que hoy en día existe alrededor de este tipo de puente, en este trabajo se presenta el contexto histórico que describe su origen, y se exponen la influencia de los principales elementos estructurales en el comportamiento del puente, y los criterios de diseño que han sido propuestos por investigadores en el tema. De esta manera, se espera ofrecer una visión general de la concepción y el comportamiento estructural de los puentes extradosados para que sea considerada una alternativa más de tipología estructural de puentes en nuestro medio.Over the past 10 years, Extradosed bridges have become an attractive structural type around the world, due to the good results obtained with the first bridges constructed in Japan. This new typology, generally recognized as an intermediate solution between cable stayed bridges and cantilever constructed prestressed box-girder bridges, because these take advantages of design and constructions methods of the other two typologies, has become an interesting option. Therefore, given the interest that exist about this type of bridge, in this paper the historical context that describes its origin, the influence of the principal structural elements and the design criteria proposed by researchers are presented. In this way it is expected to offer a general insight into the design conception and structural behavior of Extradosed Bridges, so that they may be considered as an alternative structure for bridges in the Americas.

  18. Vulnerabilidad sísmica y capacidad de carga de un puente en acero basado en confiabilidad estructural Seismic vulnerability and load carrying capacity studies of a steel bridge based on structural relia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Muñoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de la confiabilidad estructural, para un Puente en Colombia después de su monitoreo. Los resultados de este trabajo son parte de una nueva metodología para evaluar puentes existentes mediante una colaboración entre Universidad-Empresas-Gobierno Nacional. Este estudio ayuda en la toma de decisiones y en la priorización de tareas de rehabilitación. Este estudio incluyó: caracterización dinámica de las vibraciones naturales del puente; adquisición de datos de fuerzas internas debidas al tráfico por medio de tecnología de LVDT's y Strain Gages; evaluación de las fuerzas actuales comparadas contra los esfuerzos máximos permitidos; modelación estática, dinámica y estructural. Adicionalmente se hizo un estudio de amenaza sísmica y respuesta dinámica del área del puente y nueve (9 diferentes espectros de respuesta fueron obtenidos, cada uno con un periodo de retorno diferente. Se encontró que las torres del puente tienen una probabilidad de falla mayor que la permitida por los códigos. Lo anterior condujo a un reforzamiento inmediato del puente.In this document, seismic vulnerability and load carrying capacity analyses are presented for a bridge in Colombia after monitoring by means of reliability of structures. Results of this work are part of a new methodology to evaluate existing bridges carried out though a partnership among University - Private Companies - and Goverment. This study helps in decision making on the priority of rehabilitation tasks. This study included: dynamic characterization of natural vibrations of the bridge; data logging of inner forces due to traffic by using LVDT's and strain gages technology; evaluation of actual forces to be compared to allowed stresses, dynamic and static structural modelling. Also, a seismic hazard and dynamic response of the local area of the bridge was developed and nine (9 different response spectra were obtained, each one varying its return period. It was found that the

  19. Modelling knowledge integration process in early contractor involvement procurement at tender stage – a Western Australian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hastie, J; Sutrisna, M; Egbu, C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose\\ud This paper aims to disseminate the knowledge integration process modelling throughout the phases of the Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) procurement methodology, to optimise the benefit of ECI procurement method. The development of the model was aimed at taking advantage from the associated benefits of integrating knowledge and of ECI procurement. ECI provides contractors with an alternative means to tendering, designing and constructing projects. Thus, this paper explores knowle...

  20. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  1. Proposal to negotiate a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of pipework for the new hostel

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate a contract for the supply and installation of new piping as preparatory work for the construction of a third on-site hostel. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve a contract with the SERVICES INDUSTRIELS DE GENEVE (SIG) (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of new piping for an amount not exceeding 700 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  2. Diseño del puente Abbas Ibn Firnás sobre el río Guadalquivir en Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinojosa, I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work for the New Access to the Cordoba Airport includes the construction of the Abbas Ibn Firnas Bridge to cross the Guadalquivir River. This cable-stayed bridge has two spans of 132.50 m each, and three approach spans on the right bank that add 100 meters to its length. The most important and singular aspect of the structure is the design of the mixed concrete and steel arches that open into two hexagonal tubes braced from the central pier to the abutments and the arrangement of the struts made up of closed cables in the form of a “Y” creating a spatial structure of great slenderness and stiffness, a three-dimensional structure that contains the traffic within, and dignifies the urban space over the Guadalquivir River.Las obras del Nuevo Acceso al Aeropuerto de Córdoba incluyen la construcción del Puente Abbas Ibn Firnás para salvar el cauce del río Guadalquivir. Se trata de un puente arco atirantado de dos vanos, con 132,50 m de luz cada uno con tres vanos de aproximación por la margen derecha que suman una longitud de 100 metros. El aspecto más relevante y singular de la estructura es el diseño de los arcos mixtos, que se abren en dos tubos hexagonales arriostrados, desde la pila central hacia los estribos, y la disposición de tirantes constituidos por cables cerrados en forma de “Y” que permite que se consiga una estructura espacial, un objeto tridimensional de gran esbeltez y rigidez, que acoge en su interior la circulación viaria, y dignifica el espacio urbano sobre el Guadalquivir.

  3. Temporal Controls on Uplift and Slip Rates for the Puente Hills and Santa Ana Mountains, Southern Los Angeles Basin, Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, E. M.; Grant, L. B.; Owen, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Puente Hills (PH) are seismically active and tectonically uplifted by the Puente Hills Blind Thrust fault (PHBTF). The rate of uplift, and consequently, the late Quaternary slip rate of the eastern part of the PHBTF, herein named the Santa Ana segment, can be constrained by mapping and dating Quaternary stream terraces and strath surfaces in the Santa Ana River Canyon. The PH are cut by the 2-3 mm/yr right-lateral Whittier fault, itself capable of M6.7-7.2 earthquakes. The 7 mapped terraces and strath surfaces of the PH are cut by the Whittier fault with minimal vertical separation. OSL dating, soil age estimates, and correlation with sea level highstands constrains the PH uplift rate to 0.6-1.4 mm/yr based on OSL dates, and 0.2-0.8 mm/yr from other methods. The rates overlap in the range 0.6-0.8 mm/yr, and we propose that this is the most reliable estimate of uplift rate because it is based on several methods. An uplift rate of 0.6-0.8 mm/yr for the PH is also consistent with a 500 700 ka emergent age based on our geomorphic analysis of PH drainage basin development. Using a 30° dip angle produces a slip rate on the Santa Ana segment of the PHBTF of 1.2-1.6 mm/yr. Preliminary tectonic geomorphic analysis of the Santa Ana Mountains (SAM) suggests that they too are being uplifted and are probably seismically active. Shorelines preserved on the lower foothills of Peralta and Loma Ridges were correlated to eustatic sea levels for age estimations. Mapping and dating of terraces in the Santiago Creek drainage, and the older marine terraces indicates that the SAM are uplifting at 0.2-0.7 mm/yr, probably due to a blind thrust associated with partial termination of the Elsinore fault.

  4. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intra-muscular fat content

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aslan, Ozlem

    2010-12-15

    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  5. Comparing complementary alternative treatment for chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin: Collateral meridian therapy versus local tender area-related meridians therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Ru-Yu; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Wong, Chih-Shung; Lin, Shinn-Long; Li, Tsung-Ying; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Ko, Shan-Chi; Yeh, Chun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes between 2 different treatments for unilateral chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin, that is, local tender area related meridians (LTARMs...

  6. Evolución de los usos en relación con los parámetros morfológicos de densidad y compacidad (Una muestra en Puente de Vallecas, Madrid / Use evolution in relation to morphological parameters of density and compactness. (A sample in Puente de Vallecas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miguel García Martín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDe las variables sociales, económicas, ambientales y espaciales que influyen en las actividades que se realizan en las ciudades son estas últimas, las relativas a la forma urbana, una de las menos estudiadas. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de dos parámetros morfológicos, la densidad y la compacidad, en la evolución de los usos para el caso del distrito de Puente de Vallecas, en la ciudad de Madrid. Se analiza así la adecuación de las distintas tipologías empleadas en la formación de esta zona periférica de la ciudad durante el siglo XX, comparando su situación y evolución actual.Palabras claveMorfología urbana, usos urbanos, densidad, diversidad, periferias, flexibilidad urbana.AbstractSocial, economic, environmental and spatial variables influence the activities that take place in cities. In this paper the spatial conditions, those relating to urban form, are studied trough the influence of two morphological parameters, density and compactness, in the evolution of the uses for the case of the Puente de Vallecas district in the city of Madrid. The suitability of different urban types used in the formation of the city’s periphery during the twentieth century is discussed comparing their current situation.KeywordsUrban morphology, urban uses, density, diversity, periphery, urban flexibility.

  7. Effect of tender coconut water on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2014-02-01

    . Dietary intakes of high potassium will decrease blood pressure (BP. Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drink high in potassium. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TCW on BP in female teachers and employees prehypertension. Methods: The research was a parallel single blind randomized clinical trial. A total of 32 female prehypertension subjects aged 25-44 years. The subjects were selected using certain criteria and randomly allocated to one of two groups using block randomized, 16 subjects each. The treatment group received TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling, and the control group received water 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling. Assessment of BP was done on day 0, day 8, and day 15. Statistical analysis were done using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Mean dietary intakes of potassium were 1420.28±405.54 mg/day or 30.22±8.63% compared to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA. During treatment period, potassium intake increased significantly in the treatment group. There were decreased BP in both groups, which were greater in the treatment group, but not statistically significant different (P > 0.05. The mean decrease of systolic BP was significant in treatment group (P = 0.031, meanwhile the mean decrease of diastolic BP was not significant (P=0.134. Conclusion: Tender coconut water 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has tendency to decrease systolic BP, but not diastolic blood pressure. (Health Science Indones 2013;2: 64-8Key words: coconut water, systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  8. INCIDENCE OF ATLAS BRIDGES AND TUNNELS – THEIR PHYLOGENY, ONTOGENY AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS. 26\tIncidencia de los puentes y túneles del atlas – Su filogenia, ontogenia e implicancias clínicas

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    Monika Lalit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En la vértebra atlas, los puentes posteriores, los puentes laterales y los túneles postero-laterales son las protrusiones óseas que pueden causar presión externa en la arteria vertebral cuando pasa  del foramen transverso de la vértebra cervical al foramen magnum del cráneo. Ejemplares que muestran dichas protrusiones fueron clasificadas según tengan puentes del atlas completos o incompletos que pueden predisponer a la insuficiencia vertebrobasilar y al síndrome cervicogénico especialmente durante los movimientos de cuello. El objetivo del estudio es saber la incidencia, ontogenia y filogenia de los puentes del atlas junto con las implicaciones clínicas. Este canal de la arteria vertebral del atlas y la morfología de los puentes fueron estudiados en un total de 60 (120 lados vértebras atlas humanas completas y secas obtenidas de la colección de esqueletos del Departamento de Anatomía del Government Medical College de Amritsar en Punjab. La incidencia de la impresión de la arteria vertebral (44, la impresión profunda de la arteria vertebral (42 era 71,66%, el puente parcial fue 13,33% y el puente lateral parcial fue 3,33% en el lado derecho y 5% en lado izquierdo. También se observaron doce anillos completos y un túnel 1.66% postero-lateral. La ocurrencia de estos puentes óseos abrazando la arteria vertebral es de suma importancia clínica, pueden causar efecto de comprensión en la arteria vertebral durante la rotación extrema de la cabeza y movimientos de cuello manifestándose en mareos, desmayos, diplopía temporal, vértigo y desórdenes neurológicos. El conocimiento de esta variación es importante para médicos, otorrinolaringólogos, neurólogos y ortopedistas que en la práctica diaria están en contacto con estas enfermedades de la columna vertebral y sus consecuencias.  In atlas vertebrae, the posterior bridges, lateral bridges and postero-lateral tunnels are the bony outgrowths which may cause external pressure

  9. Identificación y análisis de patologías en puentes de carreteras urbanas y rurales Identification and analysis of pathologies in bridges of urban and rural roads

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    Nilson Tadeu Mascia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación con un gran número de puentes con importantes problemas patológicos fue el factor de motivación para llevar a cabo esta investigación. Puentes de tamaños mediano y pequeño tienen relevancia significativa en el desarrollo económico y social del país, pues deben garantizar el tránsito de personas, vehículos, materias primas y productos locales. Sin embargo, las precarias condiciones de los puentes en las zonas urbanas y rurales hacen difícil el desplazamiento, causando incomodidad e inseguridad para los usuarios. Por otro lado, los costos de transporte para los productores y el mantenimiento para los gobiernos locales continúan aumentando. Este artículo tiene la intención de evaluar las condiciones de conservación de puentes pequeños y medianos en la región urbana y rural de Campinas (SP-Brasil. Así, este estudio se basa en el análisis de cuatro puentes de esta región, en los que se presentan varios ejemplos sobre el terreno de las manifestaciones patológicas en puentes de concreto, acero y madera. Este artículo también se centra en el diseño de puentes y la relación con su estado patológico estableciendo conceptos que podrían aplicarse al método correctivo y a la identificación de la patología en puentes de concreto, acero y madera. Por último, el objetivo es concluir que la forma más adecuada para evitar un estado patológico es el mantenimiento preventivo.A concern with a great number of bridges with significant pathological problems was the motivating factor to carry out this research. Small and medium size bridges have significant relevance for the economic and social development of the country, because they must ensure the transit of people, vehicles with raw material and local produce. However, the precarious conditions of bridges in the urban and rural areas make the displacement difficult, causing discomfort and unsafety for users. Furthermore, the transportation costs for producers and the

  10. Socavación producida por el río Huallaga al puente Colpa Alta en la provincia de Huánuco, utilizando los Métodos de Artamanov, Straub y Maza, en el HEC-RAS

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Matías, Elbio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    La investigación tiene como objetivo conocer los resultados obtenidos en el cálculo de socavación transversal, socavación general y socavación de estribos del río Huallaga en el puente Colpa Alta en la provincia de Huánuco en el año 2015 aplicando los métodos de Artamonov, Straub y Maza utilizando los parámetros hidráulicos del programa HEC-RAS. Para ello, se recogió información de los antecedentes en el mundo y en el Perú acerca de los estudios realizados sobre socavación de puentes, en los ...

  11. Lecciones aprendidas con los MOOC

    OpenAIRE

    García-Peñalvo, F. J.; Fidalgo-Blanco, Á.; Sein-Echaluce Lacleta, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Dentro del Plan de Formación del Profesorado Docente 2017 de la Universidad de Salamanca, se ha ofertado la actividad de formación “Cursos masivos abiertos en línea (MOOC)” (https://es.slideshare.net/grialusal/sumario-mooc), que se ha celebrado en el Instituto Universitario de Ciencias de la Educación (IUCE) de esta Universidad los días 1 y 2 de junio de 2017. Tras los conceptos generales sobre los MOOC (https://es.slideshare.net/grialusal/los-mooc-conceptos) y las experiencias de l...

  12. Un puente maestro

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    Leopoldo Múnera Ruíz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo constituye una revisión sintética y personal de la obra de Jean Philippe Peemans, reconocido intelectual belga (abogado, economista e historiador, sobre la modernización del mundo y el desarrollo de los pueblos. Los ejes temáticos que permiten hacer el recorrido por su trabajo académico giran alrededor de la crítica a la mesoideología de la modernización, los avatares del desarrollo real con respecto a las teorías del desarrollo, el dialogo sur-sur-norte y su propuesta sobre el desarrollo de los pueblos y las gentes como alternativa a los diversos ciclos de modernización económica. El análisis interdisciplinario comprendido en la obra del profesor Peemans y su sensibilidad hacia el mundo de lo popular en diversos continentes marcan un camino heterodoxo para enfrentar el reto que implica la satisfacción integral de las necesidades de la mayoría de la población mundial, mientras las distancias sociales y económicas entre el Norte y el Sur, así como las internas con respecto a ambos ámbitos geográficos, siguen incrementándose.

  13. MRI and "tenderness guided" transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of recto-sigmoid endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Luca; Guerriero, Stefano; Sulcis, Rosa; Pilloni, Monica; Ajossa, Silvia; Melis, Gianbenedetto; Mallarini, Giorgio

    2012-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and "tenderness-guided" transvaginal ultrasonography (tg-TVUS) in the identification of recto-sigmoid endometriosis. Institutional Review Board approval for this study was obtained, and written informed consent was given by all patients. This study is compliant with the STARD (Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy) method. Fifty-nine patients (mean age, 33 years; range, 21-44 years) with clinical suspicion of deep pelvic endometriosis were prospectively enrolled. They underwent tg-TVUS and MRI before surgery. The characteristics of the MRI signal were analyzed. Mapping of recto-sigmoid endometriosis was performed and tg-TVUS and MR imaging results were compared with surgical and pathological findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-) were calculated. Inter-technique concordance was assessed using the Cohen statistic, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained. Logistic regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of recto-sigmoid endometriosis was 51%. The specificity, sensitivity, and LR+ and LR- were 90%, 73%, 7.089 and 0.297, respectively, for MRI and 86%, 73%, 5.317 and 0.309, respectively, for tg-TVUS. The presence of a high T1 signal spot was an excellent specific finding (100%) but was associated with a low sensitivity (30%). Inter-technique concordance using the Cohen statistic indicated a kappa value of 0.658 (± 0.098 SD). According to the logistic regression equation obtained, the use of both tg-TVUS and MRI allows optimal diagnostic performance. MRI and tg-TVUS show similar results in the identification of recto-sigmoid endometriosis. The Cohen kappa value suggests that these methods may have complementary roles in the identification of recto-sigmoid endometriosis, depending on the site affected. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Investigating reduced bag weight as an effective risk mediator for mason tenders.

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    Davis, Kermit G; Kotowski, Susan E; Albers, James; Marras, William S

    2010-10-01

    Masonry workers face some of the highest physical demands in the construction industry where large bags of masonry material weighing 42.7 kg are commonly handled by mason tenders who mix the mortar, distribute mortar and bricks/blocks, and erect/dismantle scaffolding throughout the day. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using half-weight bags (21.4 kg) on reducing the biomechanical loading, physiological response, and perceived exertions. Ten male subjects performed asymmetric lifting tasks simulating unloading bags from a pallet. Muscle activity, trunk kinematics, heart rate, blood pressure and subjective rating data were collected. Spine loads were predicted from a well-validated EMG-assisted model. Bag weight, lift type, bag height at origin, and asymmetry at destination significantly impacted the spine loads. While there was a 50% reduction in bag weight, the peak loads for the half-weight bags were only 25% less than the more available full-weight bags (a reduction of about 320 N of shear and 1000 N of compression). Lifts allowing movement of the feet reduced the loads by about 22% in shear and 27% in compression compared to constrained postures. Interestingly, cumulative spine loads were greater for the lighter bags than the heavy bags ( approximately 40%). The subjective ratings of exertion and risk were significantly lower for the lighter bags. RELEVANCE TO INDUSTRY: The reduction in peak spine loading for the half-weight bags, particularly at the higher heights and when the feet were allowed to move could significantly reduce the injuries of masonry workers. However, there were trade-offs with cumulative loads that may minimize the reduced risk. Overall, given the limited amount of time lifting bags, the reduction of peak loads.

  15. Análisis de la construcción de la agencia social de las mujeres: estudio de caso: mesa de género de Puente Piedra.

    OpenAIRE

    Necochea Salguero, Meylí

    2013-01-01

    El problema sociológico que se estudia en este trabajo utiliza el concepto de agencia social para explicar el proceso de construcción de la capacidad de acción que va adquiriendo la Mesa de Género de Puente Piedra (MGPP), colectivo de mujeres formado en el 2006, que busca el reconocimiento del gobierno local del distrito para institucionalizar una agenda particular y convertirla en asunto público. Tesis

  16. USO DE LA METODOLOGÍA BRIM (BRIDGE INFORMATION MODELING COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA LA PLANIFICACIÓN DE LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN PUENTE DE CONCRETO EN COLOMBIA

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    Juan Sebastián Gaitán Cardona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la experiencia del uso de metodologías innovadoras para la planificación de la construcción de un puente de concreto en Colombia. Fue aplicada la metodología BrIM (Bridge Information Modeling, con el objetivo de mejorar el rendimiento y desarrollo de la planificación constructiva de este tipo de estructura. La elaboración del proyecto se dividió en tres etapas: la construcción del modelo conceptual, la simulación del proceso constructivo, y la cuantificación de materiales y costos. La experiencia demuestra que la elaboración de modelos paramétricos se puede convertir en una herramienta valiosa para la planificación, diseño y construcción de puentes de diferentes tipologías. Sin embargo, es necesario tener bases estructuradas sobre el uso del software y experiencia en la representación y dibujo de los componentes del puente, con el fin de satisfacer las necesidades de la industria constructora, que son mejorar la calidad, reducir costos, dar herramientas para un control adecuado de la construcción y acortar los tiempos de diseño y producción.

  17. HIV/AIDS: key lessons for a successful response and for future challenges VIH/SIDA: lecciones esenciales para una respuesta eficaz y para afrontar futuros desafíos

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    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Movida por la rápida expansión de la epidemia de VIH/ SIDA y su impacto mundial, la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas convocará una reunión especial en Nueva York en junio de 2001 para examinar la situación de la enfermedad. Como parte de los preparativos para la reunión, el Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas, Kofi Annan, emitió en febrero de 2001 un documento titulado Reunión Especial de la Asamblea General para tratar el tema del VIH y el SIDA: informe del Secretario General. En el documento se examinan la propagación de la epidemia de VIH/SIDA y su impacto en términos demográficos, sociales y económicos. También se detallan las lecciones esenciales que se han aprendido sobre las características de una respuesta eficaz contra la epidemia, y sobre las dificultades de intensificar esa respuesta. He aquí algunas de las lecciones presentadas en el documento: las respuestas eficaces muestran un respeto por los derechos humanos; se puede prevenir la expansión de la epidemia; las iniciativas nacionales requieren dirección y la participación de una variedad de actores; las medidas de prevención son eficaces; la atención y el tratamiento deben ser integrales; las buenas respuestas se arraigan en el seno de la comunidad; es esencial empoderar a la juventud; las personas que viven con el VIH y el SIDA desempeñan un papel central en las medidas de respuesta, que deben tener en cuenta simultáneamente los factores de riesgo, la vulnerabilidad del paciente y el impacto de la enfermedad. Para poder incrementar el alcance y la profundidad de las respuestas que actualmente están surtiendo buenos resultados, habrá que superar una serie de dificultades, entre ellas las de proporcionar liderazgo y coordinación, mitigar el impacto social y económico de la epidemia, lanzar iniciativas internacionales, afrontar el costo de los medicamentos y destinar los recursos necesarios.

  18. Tender coconut water an economical growth medium for the production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is most widely used prokaryotic expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Several strategies have been employed for expressing recombinant proteins in E.coli. This includes the development of novel host systems, expression vectors and cost effective media. In this study, we exploit tender coconut water (TCW) as a natural and cheaper growth medium for E.coli and Pichia pastoris. Result E.coli and P.pastoris were cultivated in TCW and the growth rate was monitored by measuring optical density at 600 nm (OD600nm), where 1.55 for E.coli and 8.7 for P.pastoris was obtained after 12 and 60 hours, respectively. However, variation in growth rate was observed among TCW when collected from different localities (0.15-2.5 at OD600nm), which is attributed to the varying chemical profile among samples. In this regard, we attempted the supplementation of TCW with different carbon and nitrogen sources to attain consistency in growth rate. Here, supplementation of TCW with 25 mM ammonium sulphate (TCW-S) was noted efficient for the normalization of inconsistency, which further increased the biomass of E.coli by 2 to 10 folds, and 1.5 to 2 fold in P.pastoris. These results indicate that nitrogen source is the major limiting factor for growth. This was supported by total nitrogen and carbon estimation where, nitrogen varies from 20 to 60 mg/100 ml while carbohydrates showed no considerable variation (2.32 to 3.96 g/100 ml). In this study, we also employed TCW as an expression media for recombinant proteins by demonstrating successful expression of maltose binding protein (MBP), MBP-TEV protease fusion and a photo switchable fluorescent protein (mEos2) using TCW and the expression level was found to be equivalent to Luria Broth (LB). Conclusion This study highlights the possible application of TCW-S as a media for cultivation of a variety of microorganisms and recombinant protein expression. PMID:24004578

  19. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

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    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  20. Identification and mapping of ts (tender spines), a gene involved in soft spine development in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunli; Yang, Xuqin; Wang, Yunli; Nie, Jingtao; Yang, Yi; Sun, Jingxian; Du, Hui; Zhu, Wenying; Pan, Jian; Chen, Yue; Lv, Duo; He, Huanle; Lian, Hongli; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run

    2018-01-01

    Using map-based cloning of ts gene, we identified a new sort of gene involved in the initiation of multicellular tender spine in cucumber. The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit contains spines on the surface, which is an extremely valuable quality trait affecting the selection of customers. In this study, we elaborated cucumber line NC072 with wild type (WT) hard fruit spines and its spontaneous mutant NC073, possessing tender and soft spines on fruits. The mutant trait was named as tender spines (ts), which is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. We identified the gene ts by map-based cloning with an F 2 segregating population of 721 individuals generated from NC073 and WT line SA419-2. It was located between two markers Indel6239679 and Indel6349344, 109.7 kb physical distance on chromosome 1 containing fifteen putative genes. With sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the Csa1G056960 gene was considered as the most possible candidate gene of ts. In the mutant, Csa1G056960 has a nucleotide change in the 5' splicing site of the second intron, which causes different splicing to delete the second exon, resulting in a N-terminal deletion in the predicted amino acid sequence. The gene encodes a C-type lectin receptor-like tyrosine-protein kinase which would play an important role in the formation of cucumber fruit. This is firstly reported of a receptor kinase gene regulating the development of multicellular spines/trichomes in plants. The ts allele could accelerate the molecular breeding of cucumber soft spines.