WorldWideScience

Sample records for ten-year csep-italy earthquake

  1. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  2. A Ten-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  3. Ten-year urban forestry action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    The Ten-year Urban Forestry Action Plan: 2016-2026 was published in September, 2015 (see http://www.urbanforestry.subr.edu/FinalActionPlan_Complete_11_17_15.pdf). This 260 page heavily illustrated document was prepared by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (NUCFAC) under leadership and funding from the USDA Forest Service. The Plan's...

  4. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  5. Romania: Ten Years of EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By joining the European Union as of 1st of January 2007, Romania made use of a window of opportunity which may not have been open later. In the ten years that followed, advantages and challenges of the membership have in part been overshadowed by the impact of the global financial crisis. The country went through a boom-bust-boom economic cycle. The swing from overheating to depression and back again to overheating has been amplified by pro-cyclical economic policy. Romania has been a selective policy taker in the EU often delaying fiscal and legal actions resulting in lost benefits. By reviewing the current political uncertainties in Europe, the conclusion emerges that more effective governance and more active foreign policy is necessary under the current Europe-wide orientation loss. The country may need to develop a mobilising strategy and policy beyond the direct benefits provided by the EU, one that also contributes to the success of the European integration.

  6. Choledochal cysts: our ten year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cianci, F

    2012-04-01

    We present our experience in the management of choledochal cysts from 1999 to 2009. A retrospective review of all charts with a diagnosis of choledochal cysts in our institution in this ten-year period. Data was collated using Excel. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cyst: 9 females and 8 males. The average age at diagnosis was 28 months (range from 0 to 9 years). The most common presenting symptoms were obstructive jaundice 6 (35%) and abdominal pain and vomiting 4 (23%). Ultrasound (US) was the initial diagnostic test in all cases with 4 patients requiring further investigations. All patients underwent Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy. The average length of stay was 11 days. Patients were followed up with Liver Function Tests (LFTS) and US 4-6 weeks post-operatively. Three patients developed complications including post-op collection, high drain output requiring blood transfusion and adhesive bowel obstruction. Our overall experience with choledochal cyst patients has been a positive one with effective management and low complication rates.

  7. The first ten years of Swift supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter A.

    2015-09-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has proven to be an incredible platform for studying the multiwavelength properties of supernova explosions. In its first ten years, Swift has observed over three hundred supernovae. The ultraviolet observations reveal a complex diversity of behavior across supernova types and classes. Even amongst the standard candle type Ia supernovae, ultraviolet observations reveal distinct groups. When the UVOT data is combined with higher redshift optical data, the relative populations of these groups appear to change with redshift. Among core-collapse supernovae, Swift discovered the shock breakout of two supernovae and the Swift data show a diversity in the cooling phase of the shock breakout of supernovae discovered from the ground and promptly followed up with Swift. Swift observations have resulted in an incredible dataset of UV and X-ray data for comparison with high-redshift supernova observations and theoretical models. Swift's supernova program has the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of stellar life and death as well as the history of our universe.

  8. Ten years for the public Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago, CERN issued a statement declaring that a little known piece of software called the World Wide Web was in the public domain. Nowadays, the Web is an indispensable part of modern communications. The idea for the Web goes back to March 1989 when CERN Computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal for a 'Distributed Information Management System' for the high-energy physics community. The Web was originaly conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between scientists working all over the world. There were many obstacles in the 1980s to the effective exchange of information. There was, for example a great variety of computer and network systems, with hardly any common features. The main purpose of the web was to allow scientists to access information from any source in a consistent and simple way. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee's idea had become the World Wide Web, with its first server and browser running at CERN. Through 1991, the Web spread to other particle physics ...

  9. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1961-01-01

    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  10. Closer to zero: Reflections on ten years of ART rollout

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To reflect upon ten years of antiretroviral therapy. (ART) rollout, one really should set the clock back a little further to see the massive impact of ART on our lives – for clinicians and patients alike. My own journey with HIV began in 1999 when, as a young doctor, I decided to venture into private practice with a local general ...

  11. A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-31

    Jul 31, 2010 ... Original Research: A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy in India. 267. Vol 53 No 3. S Afr Fam Pract 2011. Introduction. The body contains approximately 600 lymph nodes, but only those in the submandibular, axillary and inguinal regions may be palpable in healthy people.

  12. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day...

  13. Ten years into the marshes – Hapalemur alaotrensis conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the approach that Madagascar Wildlife Conservation has been implementing during the past ten years at Lake Alaotra, discussing the plan of action and challenges for environmental education, ecotourism and alternative livelihoods. Les problèmes de gestion des ressources naturelles impliquent ...

  14. Changes in users' Web search performance after ten years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in users' Web search performance using search engines over ten years was investigated in this study. Matched data obtained from samples in 2000 and 2010 were used for the comparative analysis. The patterns of Web search engine use suggested a dominance in using a particular search engine. Statistical ...

  15. Epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis in Ethiopia: A ten-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A time-series study design was applied to analyze the ten-year trends of Tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Data on ten-key indicators for the period of 2000-2009 was obtained from the Ministry of Health public documents. Five stratifying variables were used to analyze the trends in the key TB indicators. The data on the indicators ...

  16. Ten Years after Columbine: The Tragedy of Youth Deepens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    For young people it just gets worse. Ten years after the Columbine tragedy, the debate over school safety has clearly shown that educators, parents, politicians, and the mainstream media have created the conditions in which young people have increasingly become the victims of adult mistreatment, indifference, neglect, even violence. The tragic…

  17. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume II."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty papers on the study of tsunamis and respective tsunamigenic earthquakes are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami". The papers presented in this second of two special volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time, including five papers devoted to new findings specifically in the Indian Ocean. Two papers compile results from global observations and eight papers cover Pacific Ocean studies, focusing mainly on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Remaining papers in this volume describe studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and tsunami source studies. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  18. The African Association for Lexicography: After Ten Years

    OpenAIRE

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This year it has been ten years since the establishment of AFRILEX. After an expla-nation of what led to its forming, this article gives a short overview of its composition and activi-ties.


    Keywords: AFRICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LEXICOGRAPHY (AFRILEX), AFRICAN LAN-GUAGES ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AFRICA (ALASA), BUREAU OF THE WOORDEBOEK VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE TAAL (WAT), DICTIONARY OF SOUTH AFRICAN ENGLISH (DSAE), LINGUISTIC ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (L...

  19. The next ten years in neonatology: new directions in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a prelude to proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology to be held in Cagliari, Italy from October 21st to 25th, 2014. These proceedings will be a significant milestone, highlighting the new frontiers of perinatal and neonatal research. Over the five days of this meeting, we aim to (1 examine the roots of the new directions in perinatal and neonatal research; (2 predict the trajectories of advancement in medical technologies, research, clinical care and teaching that will be the future of perinatology and neonatology. The discussion will be in four sections:back to the future: the placenta and perinatal programming;paradigm shift: the revolution of metabolomics in perinatalogy and neonatology;brave new world: the microbiome and microbiomics from perinatal to adult life;new inhabitants on the planet earth: adults who were born with extremely low birth weight. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  20. Eight to ten years follow-up after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen Rathenborg, Lisbet; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    Follow-up information was obtained on 185 patients who consecutively underwent carotid endarterectomy eight to ten years previously. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed in 59 patients who were still alive and living within 100 miles of the hospital. Using lifetable analysis, the annual...... of restenosis and the development of symptoms, perhaps with the exception of internal carotid artery occlusion, which is not an accepted indication for carotid endarterectomy. Together with recent data from the literature, these observations challenge the indication for reoperative carotid surgery....... rate of focal strokes was estimated to be 2% and 1.5% on the operated and the contralateral, non-operated carotid artery, respectively. Doppler examination revealed 48% re-stenoses, including 14% occlusion and 15% greater than 50% stenosis. However, there was no association between the occurrence...

  1. Ten Years of Support for Basic Scientific Research by CONACYT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humberto Fabila Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of ten years of support for basic scientific research by the CONACYT. The paper identifies the strongest areas of knowledge in basic science in Mexico and concludes that the institutions where basic science is done are mainly public higher education institutions, followed by also public research centers, while private institutions of higher education and companies carry out almost no research in basic science. Findings show that research on basic science in state universities has grown impressively in recent years, reaching the level of the institutions of higher education of the Federal District. Finally, the implications of these findings as well as the public policies through which support has been granted are discussed.

  2. Ten years of integrated care for the older in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Somme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper analyzes progress made toward the integration of the French health care system for the older and chronically ill population.Policies: Over the last ten years, the French health care system has been principally influenced by two competing linkage models that failed to integrate social and health care services: local information and coordination centers, governed by the social field, and the gerontological health networks governed by the health field. In response to this fragmentation, Homes for the Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients (MAIAs is currently being implemented at experimental sites in the French national Alzheimer plan, using an evidence-based model of integrated care. In addition, the state's reforms recently created regional health agencies (ARSs by merging seven strategic institutions to manage the overall delivery of care.Conclusion: The French health care system is moving from a linkage-based model to a more integrated care system. We draw some early lessons from these changes, including the importance of national leadership and governance and a change management strategy that uses both top-down and bottom-up approaches to implement these reforms.

  3. Foothills Model Forest: a ten-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.

    2002-04-01

    The first ten years of the Foothills Model Forest, established in 1992, is reviewed. The model forest has been established to develop sustainable forest management within the broader concept of sustainable development and integrated resource management. The project focuses on issues such as wildlife habits and habitats; biodiversity monitoring; natural disturbance trends and patterns; and socio-economic studies. In Phase One of the Canadian Model Forest Network the Foothills Model Forest focused primarily on conducting world class research to advance the concept of sustainable forest management. Phase Two was devoted to communicating the results of that research, with a strong emphasis on generating baseline awareness of the concept of sustainable forest management and creating public awareness of the project's mandate in Alberta. Work during the next five years is expected to focus on demonstration and implementation of research results to forest managers and practitioners and others with a stake in the continued sustainability of Alberta's forests. The Sustainable Forest Management project shares a common objective with the Alberta Chamber of Resources' Integrated Landscape Management project; both projects recognise that reducing the industrial footprint is key to sustainable development. The emphasis on demonstration and implementation in the third phase of the Foothills Model Forest is expected to ensure continued sustainability of forests, ecosystems, communities and resources, with full recognition of the fact that the goal of sustainable development can be achieved only by full cooperation and integrated action of all stakeholders.

  4. Ten years of integrated care for the older in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Somme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper analyzes progress made toward the integration of the French health care system for the older and chronically ill population. Policies: Over the last ten years, the French health care system has been principally influenced by two competing linkage models that failed to integrate social and health care services: local information and coordination centers, governed by the social field, and the gerontological health networks governed by the health field. In response to this fragmentation, Homes for the Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients (MAIAs is currently being implemented at experimental sites in the French national Alzheimer plan, using an evidence-based model of integrated care. In addition, the state's reforms recently created regional health agencies (ARSs by merging seven strategic institutions to manage the overall delivery of care. Conclusion: The French health care system is moving from a linkage-based model to a more integrated care system. We draw some early lessons from these changes, including the importance of national leadership and governance and a change management strategy that uses both top-down and bottom-up approaches to implement these reforms.

  5. [TEN YEARS OF OPIOID CONSUMPTION BY CHILDREN (2001-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Tamar; Sherf, Michael; Battat, Erez; Vardy, Daniel; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2015-09-01

    Opioids are considered a cornerstone in the treatment of pain. They are rarely used in almost half of the countries of the world, especially in children. The aim of this study was to assess opioid use over a ten-year study period from 2001-2010, among children 0-18 years old who are members of Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest HMO in Israel Data on the purchase of opioids, authorized for use in Israel, was obtained from the computerized databases of CHS. In addition, the patient's demographic details and cancer morbidity were also extracted. The data was analyzed after all the doses of all opioids consumed (fentanyl patch, oxycodone, methadone, hydromorphone, oral transmucosal fentanyl) were converted into oral morphine equivalents (OME). In all, 1,098 children purchased at least one opioid prescription during the study period. Of them, 27.3% had a diagnosis of cancer and 55.5% were female. A 42% decrease in total annual OME (mg) purchased, from 209,443 mg to 122,048 mg, was observed from 2001 to 2010. There was no specific pattern or trend in the annual number of pediatric and adolescent patients who purchased at least one opioid drug during the study period. In 86.5% of the cases, children with a non-cancer cause of pain purchased opioids for only one month. There is a low and inconsistent rate of opioid consumption among pediatric and adolescent members of the CHS. Further study is needed to explore the reasons for this low opioid consumption rate in this population group.

  6. Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause property damage, injuries, and even deaths. If you live in a coastal area, there is the possibility of a tsunami. Damage from earthquakes can also lead to floods or fires. Although there are no guarantees of ...

  7. Pierre Bourdieu, dez anos depois Pierre Bourdieu, ten years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Carta Cardoso de Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto procura discutir o legado deixado pelo sociólogo francês Pierre Bourdieu. Dez anos após sua morte, tem-se discutido, em nível internacional, a relevância deste autor, um dos mais influentes e citados teóricos do mundo. Para a identificação desta influência no Brasil, mais especificamente no campo educacional brasileiro, pesquisou-se nas teses e dissertações encontradas no banco de dados da CAPES, que referenciavam Bourdieu, de que forma estaria se dando a apropriação de seu quadro teórico de análise para construção de conhecimento no referido campo. Concluiu-se que o número de produções defendidas nos Programas de Pós-Graduação em Educação no Brasil, de 1965 a 2010, cresce de forma exponencial, demonstrando o quão profícua a utilização da teoria sociológica de Bourdieu tem se mostrado para explicar a realidade da Educação no Brasil na contemporaneidade. Encerra-se o artigo com uma reflexão sobre a consideração do status de Bourdieu como um clássico da Sociologia que, paradoxalmente, se mostra mais atual e vivo do que qualquer outro autor quando se trata de aplicar seu princípio maior, a saber, analisar o mundo social e suas lógicas, desvelando as formas de dominação e as misérias sociais.This paper's intent is to discuss the legacy left by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. Ten years after his death, it has been discussed at an international level the relevance of this author, one of the most cited and influential theorists in the world. To identify such influence in Brazil, more specifically in the Brazilian educational field, we investigated theses and dissertations found in CAPES database, which referenced Bourdieu, to identify how those works use his theoretical framework of analysis for construction of knowledge in that field. It was concluded that the number of productions held in post-graduate programs in education in Brazil, from 1965 to 2010, grows exponentially

  8. Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Kaye M.; Pakiser, Louis Charles

    1998-01-01

    One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature is a severe earthquake and its terrible aftereffects. An earthquake is a sudden movement of the Earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. For hundreds of millions of years, the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the Earth as the huge plates that form the Earth's surface slowly move over, under, and past each other. Sometimes the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulating energy. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. If the earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage. Today we are challenging the assumption that earthquakes must present an uncontrollable and unpredictable hazard to life and property. Scientists have begun to estimate the locations and likelihoods of future damaging earthquakes. Sites of greatest hazard are being identified, and definite progress is being made in designing structures that will withstand the effects of earthquakes.

  9. The Catholic School under Scrutiny: Ten Years of Research in Italy (1998-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Guglielmo; Cicatelli, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book delineates the evolution of the Study Centre for Catholic Schools (CSSC) in its first ten years of existence since its foundation in 1998 by the Italian Bishops' Conference. The volume is divided into three main sections. The first outlines the context and the activity of the CSSC during ten years: the role, the functions, the tasks and…

  10. Ten-year follow-up of an anatomical hydroxyapatite-coated total hip prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Cortés, V.; Panisello Sebastiá, J. J.; Herrera Rodríguez, A.; Peguero Bona, A.; Martínez Martín, A.; Herrero Barcos, L.; García-Dihinx, L.

    2006-01-01

    We report our results after ten year follow-up of 107 consecutive ABG-I hip prostheses implanted between June 1990 and December 1992: Only 84 prostheses were still in the study after ten years, but only six patients had undergone surgical revision. We can consider our clinical outcomes as excellent, with a whole-implant survival rate greater than 96%, a mean Merle D’Aubigne and Postel score increasing from 7.97 before operation to 16.17 at ten year follow-up, and a personal subjective assessm...

  11. Early Predictors of Ten-Year Course in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Svein; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying patients at risk of poor outcome at an early stage of illness can aid in treatment planning. This study sought to create a best-fit statistical model of known baseline and early-course risk factors to predict time in psychosis during a ten-year follow-up period after a first...... psychotic episode. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2000, 301 patients with DSM-IV nonorganic, nonaffective first-episode psychosis were recruited consecutively from catchment area-based sectors in Norway and Denmark. Specialized mental health personnel evaluated patients at baseline, three months, and one, two......, five, and ten years (N=186 at ten years). Time in psychosis was defined as time with scores ≥4 on any of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items P1, P3, P5, P6, and G9. Evaluations were retrospective, based on clinical interviews and all available clinical information. During the first two years...

  12. The Aethereal Network on Chip after Ten Years: Goals, Evolution, Lessons, and Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Kees; Hansson, A.

    2010-01-01

    The goals for the Æthereal network on silicon, as it was then called, were set in 2000 and its concepts were defined early 2001. Ten years on, what has been achieved? Did we meet the goals, and what is left of the concepts? In this paper we answer those questions, and evaluate different

  13. Theory-Based Evaluation: Reflections Ten Years On. Theory-Based Evaluation: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Patricia J.; Weiss, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter begins with a brief introduction by Rogers, in which she highlights the continued salience of Carol Weiss's decade-old questions about theory-based evaluation. Theory-based evaluation has developed significantly since Carol Weiss's chapter was first published ten years ago. In 1997 Weiss pointed to theory-based evaluation being mostly…

  14. Quality of Life in South Africa--The First Ten Years of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    South Africa celebrated ten years of democracy in 2004. This special issue of "Social Indicators Research" ("SIR") reviews developments that have impacted on the quality of life of ordinary South Africans during the transition period. The issue updates an earlier volume of "SIR" (Volume 41) published in 1997 and as a…

  15. Educational Virtual Environments: A Ten-Year Review of Empirical Research (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Natsis, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    This study is a ten-year critical review of empirical research on the educational applications of Virtual Reality (VR). Results show that although the majority of the 53 reviewed articles refer to science and mathematics, researchers from social sciences also seem to appreciate the educational value of VR and incorporate their learning goals in…

  16. Acute lower abdominal pain caused by adnexal torsion in a ten-year-old girl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Hansen, Lars Folmer; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    A ten-year-old girl presented with four days of lower abdominal pain. A diagnostic laparoscopy on the suspicion of acute appendicitis revealed left-sided adnexal torsion. The cyanotic ovary was detorsed and recovered. At three-month follow-up there were no clinical or ultrasonic signs of pathology...

  17. Ten years after the Jali Commission Assessing the state of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years have lapsed since the Jali Commission's final report became publicly available, and it is therefore an opportune time to assess the state of South Africa's prison system. The Jali Commission was appointed when it became clear that the state had lost control of the Department of Correctional Services (DCS).

  18. Ten-year mortality review in a pioneer psychiatric hospital in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the mortality among admitted patients in the study centre, a pioneer psychiatric facility in the West African sub-region. Design: A detailed retrospective study of the records of all deaths among the inpatients during the ten-year period of January, 1991 to December, 2000. Setting: Psychiatric Hospital ...

  19. Survival and vigour of ultra-dry seeds after ten years of hermetic storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.D.; Ellis, R.H.; Astley, D.; Pinnegar, A.E.; Groot, S.P.C.; Kraak, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of carrot, groundnut, lettuce, oilseed rape and onion were stored hermetically in laminated aluminium foil packets in four environments (dry or ultra-dry moisture contents combined factorially with temperatures of 20 degrees C or -20 degrees C), replicated at several sites. After ten years'

  20. Randomized Trial of Treatment for Children with Sexual Behavior Problems: Ten-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Melissa Y.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This study prospectively follows 135 children 5-12 years of age with sexual behavior problems from a randomized trial comparing a 12-session group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with group play therapy and follows 156 general clinic children with nonsexual behavior problems. Ten-year follow-up data on future juvenile and adult arrests and…

  1. Ten Years of bored tunnels in the Netherlands : Part I: Geotechnical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; Bezuijen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years have passed since in 1997 for the first time construction of bored tunnels in the Netherlands soft soil was undertaken. Before that date essentially only immersed tunnels and cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed in the Netherlands. The first two bored tunnels were Pilot Projects, the 2nd

  2. Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    "Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education" in the United States is the tenth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. The survey is designed, administered and analyzed by the Babson Survey Research Group. Data collection is conducted in partnership with the College Board. This year's study, like those…

  3. Mechanical birth injuries in the Niger Delta: a ten-year review (1989 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanical birth injuries in the Niger Delta: a ten-year review (1989-1998). Cosmos E Enyindah, Alice R Nte. Abstract. Context: Birth traumas associated with poor obstetric services contribute significantly not only to the high perinatal morbidity and mortality, but also to long-term sequelae in the survivors in many developing ...

  4. Transverse patella fracture in a ten year old boy: case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patella fractures are rare in children. Transverse fractures in particular are an uncommon pattern. We report a case of a transverse patella fracture in a ten year old boy. He presented with inability to actively extend his left knee, two months after a fall. On evaluation he was found to have a transverse fracture of his left patella.

  5. Careers as Viewed by Five and Ten Year Graduates of Home Economics and Journalism Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, Wilma; Sailor, Patricia

    This study examined the reactions of women who chose a traditional career (home economics) and women who chose a nontraditional career (journalism) five and ten years after graduation. The study included 171 home economics graduates and 75 journalism graduates. Of these, 36 were males and 210 females. Sixty-eight graduated in 1965 and 178 in 1969.…

  6. Preliminary ten year results from a randomised single centre mass screening trial for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Juul, Svend; Fasting, Helge

    2006-01-01

    analysis of the ten-year mortality from AAA, based upon population-based data until 2002 (7 years) and incomplete hospital-based information on deaths until 2005 (10 years). METHODS AND MATERIAL: In 1994 we started a randomised screening trial of 12,639 64-73 year-old males; 6,306 were controls, and 6...

  7. Mathematical Skills in Undergraduate Students. A Ten-Year Survey of a Plant Physiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, A.; Vila, F.; Sanz, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the health and life sciences and many other scientific disciplines, problem solving depends on mathematical skills. However, significant deficiencies are commonly found in this regard in undergraduate students. In an attempt to understand the underlying causes, and to improve students' performances, this article describes a ten-year survey…

  8. Historical Evolution of Instructional Technology in Teacher Education Programs: A Ten-Year Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrus, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The content and emphasis of the introductory technology courses for undergraduate preservice teachers has historically been examined, with the earliest study conducted by Stracke in 1932. In an attempt to identify trends in the course DeKieffer conducted a series of studies over ten year intervals, in 1947, 1957, 1967, and 1977. In 2000 the first…

  9. Land evaluation suitability for settlement based on soil permeability, topography and geology ten years after tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rusdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Years after the tragedy of the tsunami in Banda Aceh researchers are still saddled with the problem of water permeability, slope and geology suitability for settlements. Social and ecological vulnerability to disasters and outcomes of Oceanic earthquakes causing tsunamis remain an indelible phobia to potential residents at the western coast of Sumatra upto the northern part of Indonesia. Ten years after the disaster, this study evaluates the topography of the area to determine the level of suitability of the area for human habitat. This article examines the concept of land suitability evaluation and its potential as a tool of determining appropriateness of a settlement. The focus of the study centered on the application of geographic information systems GIS in handling spatial data permeability, slope and geology of the land in accordance with the FAO land suitability standard. To ensure that the application works, it requires geospatial analysis compiled based on the permeability, slope and geology that can be observed and measured for the residential requirements. Results showed that almost all the cities within Banda Aceh are suitable for residency (Ordos.

  10. [Competent and diverse. Portrayal of older adults in Dutch television commercials ten years later].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Selm, M; Westerhof, G J; de Vos, B

    2007-05-01

    The present study replicates our study of older adults' portrayal in Dutch television commercials conducted in 1993. The central question is whether older adults are being portrayed more visibly in Dutch television commercials and whether this portrayal has become more diverse compared to ten years ago. Based on a list of descriptions of all commercials broadcasted by public television channels in 2003 (N= 4767) 117 commercials featuring older adults were selected. By means of a quantitative content analysis it was examined whether and how older men and women are portrayed. It was concluded that although older adults are not more prevalent compared to ten years ago, their portrayal is more diverse with respect to their roles and the advertised products. Older adults were portrayed as more competent and less age-stereotypical in television commercials.

  11. A prospective ten-year follow-up of patients with chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, P C L; Menezes, M C S; Forte, W C N

    2016-01-01

    Chronic urticaria can be the initial clinical presentation of a number of different diseases. The objective of the present study was to report the associated diseases during a ten-year clinical-laboratory follow-up in patients with an initial diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) of unknown cause. A prospective, longitudinal cohort study with a ten-year clinical-laboratory follow-up was conducted. Patients with a history of urticarial plaques of over six weeks presenting as the only clinical symptom were selected. Individuals with other clinical conditions, urticaria of known causes or chronic physical urticaria were excluded. The following tests were initially performed: haemogram, urine type I, stool parasite exam and sedimentation rate. The following exams were ordered during follow-up: PPD; urine culture; serology tests; antithyroid and antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, lupus anticoagulant; thyroid hormones; serum immunoglobulin; paranasal sinus and thorax radiographs; testing for BK and Helicobacter pylori; and prick tests. Infections were diagnosed in 29% of patients (syphilis, parasitosis, H. pylori, urinary infection, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C); autoimmune diseases in 21% (thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome); primary immunodeficiencies in 4% (IgA and IgG2 deficiencies); and chronic myeloid leukaemia in 1%. At ten-years of follow-up, the urticaria diagnosis was CSU of unknown cause in 45% of the cases. This ten-year clinical-laboratory follow-up of 100 individuals with chronic urticaria as the initial diagnosis revealed the presence of associated diseases in over half of the cases. The most prevalent diseases were infections and autoimmune diseases besides primary immunodeficiencies and blood diseases. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton Liu Liu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C. 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short- time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum with a ...

  13. Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short-time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum ...

  14. The AES total ankle arthroplasty analysis of failures and survivorship at ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Alexandre; Viste, Anthony; Fessy, Michel Henry; Besse, Jean Luc

    2017-09-04

    AES mobile-bearing total ankle replacement was developed from the Buechel Pappas model. It was withdrawn in 2009, after identification of a higher than expected complication rate. The purpose of the current study was to analyse clinical outcomes, failures and survival of the initial series of 50 AES published in 2009. In this single-centre continuous prospective study (2003-2006), 50 AES prostheses were included. Pre-operative osteoarthritis was mainly post-traumatic (50%) and secondary to instability (36%). All patients were assessed with clinical and radiographic follow-up at six months, one year, two years and every two to three years thereafter. A CT-scan was systematically performed before procedure, and at two years, five years and ten years. At last follow-up, all patients with TAR had a functional (SF 36, AOFAS) and clinical assessment. All complications or surgical events were analysed. The mean follow-up was ten ± two years (range, 9-13). The mean AOFAS score was 75 points (range, 26-100). The mean SF 36 score was 69 points (range, 35-97). There was a significant deterioration in AOFAS score at five years and at last follow-up (p < 0.05). Fifteen TARs underwent reoperation for cyst curettage-graft because of development of periprosthetic lesions. Six of them ended up with prosthesis removal-arthrodesis. At the last follow-up, 14 TARs were removed for arthrodesis. Of the 30 prostheses seen at last follow-up, four are awaiting prosthesis removal-arthrodesis and one for cyst curettage-graft. The ten year survivorships free of any prosthesis removal or arthrodesis and free of any reoperation were 68% (95% CI, 55-85) and 57% (95% CI, 44-74), respectively. Our data suggested a high rate of reoperation. Overall ten year survival was lower than with other designs, particularly due to cyst lesions. Level IV, prospective case series.

  15. Compromises in orchestra pit design: A ten-year trench war in The Royal Theatre, Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Mortensen, Bo

    1998-01-01

    years this new flexibility caused a formal battle between the orchestra, the singers, and management, because each group had different interests as to how the pit should be configured for each new production. In the 1990s, increased concern about the musicians' hearing and the increase in the popularity...... of opera finally opened the way for a new renovation of the pit, which solved most of the problems. The paper describes the many lessons learned during the ten-year period in which the authors were involved with the case as acoustic consultants. Questions of how pit configuration influences mutual hearing...

  16. Spontaneous Mediastinitis in a Ten-year-old Girl: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kyung Eun; Kim, Ji Hong; Yoon, Choon Sik [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Acute suppurative mediastinitis is an uncommon, life threatening condition with a mortality rate of up to 40%. It is mainly caused by esophageal perforation or post-operative complications, and acute mediastinitis not caused by trauma or surgery is rare. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of spontaneous mediastinal abscess in children have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a case of an acute mediastinal abscess in a ten-year-old girl and there was no demonstrable clinical or radiologic etiology for infection

  17. Plant and equipment division laboratory services series: a ten-year building-maintenance cost history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keesee, H.F.

    1976-09-01

    Maintaining a multifacility national laboratory in a safe, reliable condition is a complex management responsibility in terms of budgets, costs, and proper utilization of personnel and material resources. Increasing wage rates and material costs, combined with decreased budgets and aging facilities, create unusual challenges to maintenance managers. A ten-year history of building-maintenance costs, a brief description of the maintenance program, analyses of personnel requirements, cost increase indexes, unit costs, cost controls, procedures, and a brief discussion of alterations and improvements are presented.

  18. Colorectal carcinoma in a ten-year-old girl: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbani Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is very rare in childhood. In this case report, we depict a ten-year-old girl who presented with features of intestinal obstruction which turned out to be due to poorly differentiated mucin secreting adenocarcinoma of descending colon. Only increased awareness of this malignancy in this age-group and a high index of suspicion can help when a child complains of persistent pain of abdomen, altered bowel habits or rectal bleeding, and may provide diagnosis at an earlier stage, thereby improving the prognosis.

  19. Moving Upstream and Going Local: The Responsibility to Protect Ten Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Moix

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago the international community pledged to protect civilians from genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by endorsing the responsibility to protect (R2P doctrine. Yet today, horrific violence against civilians continues in places like Syria, Iraq, and South Sudan. This article examines some of the progress and gaps in the international community’s efforts to better protect civilians against mass violence over the past decade. It proposes two emerging directions for advancing the R2P agenda in the coming years: 1 greater focus on upstream prevention, and 2 increased support for locally-led peacebuilding and prevention actors and capacities.

  20. Ten Years Back, Five Years Forward: The Data Seal of Approval

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Dillo; Lisa de Leeuw

    2015-01-01

    If we want to share data, the long-term storage of those data in a trustworthy digital archive is an essential condition. Trust is the basis of storing and sharing data. That trust must be present in the various stakeholders involved. Certification of digital archives can make an important contribution to the confidence of these stakeholders in the digital archives.Ten years ago DANS was assigned the task of developing a Seal of Approval for digital data to ensure that archived data can still...

  1. Ten years of forensic odontology: a report from the Department of Forensic Odontology, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teivens, A; Mornstad, H

    1992-12-01

    The practical activities of the Department of Forensic Odontology at the National Board for Forensic Medicine in Stockholm, Sweden, have been reviewed over a ten year period (1980-1989). The number of cases has increased from 72 in 1980 to 278 in 1989, and a total of 1402 tasks have been carried out. Seventy-five per cent of the cases have concerned identification of single individuals, 14% have involved the National Register of Missing Persons with the remaining cases being age determination (34), bite marks (27), oral examination after criminal assault (69), examination of skeletal remains, dentures, restorative materials (33) and written reports to be presented at court (159).

  2. Idaho National Laboratory 2013-2022 Ten-Year Site Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin Ozaki; Sheryl L. Morton; Elizabeth A. Connell; William T. Buyers; Craig L. Jacobson; Charles T. Mullen; Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Robert D. Logan

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Ten-Year Site Plan (TYSP) describes the strategy for accomplishing the long-term objective of transforming the laboratory to meet Department of Energy (DOE) national nuclear research and development (R&D) goals, as outlined in DOE strategic plans. The plan links R&D mission goals and INL core capabilities with infrastructure requirements (single- and multi-program), establishs the 10-year end-state vision for INL complexes, and identifies and prioritizes infrastructure needs and capability gaps. The TYSP serves as the basis for documenting and justifying infrastructure investments proposed as part of the FY 2013 budget formulation process.

  3. Ten years of democracy: attitudes and identity among some South African school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlyn Dyers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten years into South Africa’s democracy, how do school children feel about themselves as part of specific groups, and what is the role of language in their socio-cultural identities? This paper looks at the ways in which two groups of fourteen-year-old Xhosa-speaking and mixed-race ‘Coloured’ South African secondary school learners in a new housing area near Cape Town negotiate their identities through language in a context of rapid social change. It analyses their beliefs and attitudes about the languages and speech communities to which they are exposed.

  4. Ten Years of GWOT, the Failure of Democratization, and the Fallacy of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oakley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available October 7, 2011, marked a decade since the United States invaded Afghanistan and initiated the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT. While most ten-year anniversary gifts involve aluminum, tin, or diamonds, the greatest gift U.S. policymakers can present American citizens is a reconsideration of the logic that guides America's counterterrorism strategy. Although the United States has successfully averted large-scale domestic terrorist attacks, its inability to grasp the nature of the enemy has cost it dearly in wasted resources and, more importantly, lost lives. Two of the most consistent and glaring policy flaws revolve around the concepts of filling "ungoverned spaces" and installing democracy by force.

  5. Early detection, early symptom progression and symptomatic remission after ten years in a first episode of psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Haahr, Ulrik; Larsen, Tor K

    2013-01-01

    Poor symptom outcome remains a challenge in psychosis: At least 50% of first-episode patients continue to have positive and/or negative symptoms after ten years.......Poor symptom outcome remains a challenge in psychosis: At least 50% of first-episode patients continue to have positive and/or negative symptoms after ten years....

  6. Idaho National Laboratory 2015-2023 Ten-Year Site Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheryl Morton; Elizabeth Connell; Bill Buyers; John Reisenauer; Rob Logan; Chris Ischay; Ernest Fossum; Paul Contreras; Joel Zarret; Steve Hill; Jon Tillo

    2013-09-01

    This Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Ten-Year Site Plan (TYSP) describes the strategy for accomplishing the long-term objective of sustaining the INL infrastructure to meet the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) mission: to promote nuclear power as a resource capable of making major contributions in meeting the nation’s energy supply, environmental and energy security needs. This TYSP provides the strategy for INL to accomplish its mission by: (1) linking R&D mission goals to core capabilities and infrastructure requirements; (2) establishing a ten-year end-state vision for INL facility complexes; (3) identifying and prioritizing infrastructure needs and capability gaps; (4) establishing maintenance and repair strategies that allow for sustainment of mission-critical (MC) facilities; and (5) applying sustainability principles to each decision and action. The TYSP serves as the infrastructure-planning baseline for INL; and, though budget formulation documents are informed by the TYSP, it is not itself a budget document.

  7. Floridi’s “Open Problems in Philosophy of Information”, Ten Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dodig Crnkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In his article Open Problems in the Philosophy of Information [1] Luciano Floridi presented a Philosophy of Information research program in the form of eighteen open problems, covering the following fundamental areas: Information definition, information semantics, intelligence/cognition, informational universe/nature and values/ethics. We revisit Floridi’s program, highlighting some of the major advances, commenting on unsolved problems and rendering the new landscape of the Philosophy of Information (PI emerging at present. As we analyze the progress of PI we try to situate Floridi’s program in the context of scientific and technological development that have been made last ten years. We emphasize that Philosophy of Information is a huge and vibrant research field, with its origins dating before Open Problems, and its domains extending even outside their scope. In this paper, we have been able only to sketch some of the developments during the past ten years. Our hope is that, even if fragmentary, this review may serve as a contribution to the effort of understanding the present state of the art and the paths of development of Philosophy of Information as seen through the lens of Open Problems.

  8. A ten year audit of maternal mortality: Millennium development still a distant goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuja Singla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess various causes of maternal mortality over a ten year period Design: Retrospective audit of hospital case records Setting: Tertiary care hospital Population: Pregnant women who expired in the premises of GTB Hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective audit of case records of maternal deaths was conducted for a ten year period (January 2005 to December 2014. Results: There were a total of 647 maternal deaths out of 1,16,641 live births. Sixty-eight percent (n = 445 of women were aged 21-30 years, while 10.5% (n = 68 were <20 years of age. The most common direct causes of maternal mortality were preeclampsia/eclampsia in 24.4% (n = 158, obstetric hemorrhage in 19.1% (n = 124 and puerperal sepsis in 14.5% (n = 94. With regards to indirect causes, anemia accounted for 15.3% (n = 99 mortality. There was only 1 (0.1% mortality because of HIV/AIDS. Other notable causes of maternal mortality were infective hepatitis in 7.1% (n = 46. Tuberculosis, that is a disease of tropical countries, accounted for 3.0% (n = 20 of the total deaths. Conclusion: High maternal mortality in GTB hospital can be due to it being a tertiary hospital with referrals from all neighbouring states. Accessible antenatal care can help prevent these maternal deaths. Female education can be of immense help in dealing with the problem and improving the utilization of public health facilities.

  9. Ten years of telerehabilitation: A literature overview of technologies and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogante, Marco; Grigioni, Mauro; Cordella, Daniele; Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at delivering a structured overview of telerehabilitation literature by analysing the entire set of articles under the search terms "telerehabilitation" or "tele-rehabilitation" to portray "state of the art" ten years after the publication of the first scientific article on the topic. A structured study has been conducted by considering all those articles containing the word "telerehabilitation" or "tele-rehabilitation". Medline, Embase, Cochrane, UK Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health databases have been interrogated for articles between 1998 and 2008. 146 scientific articles were found. 56 articles focus on patient treatment, 23 are reviews, 3 are to be considered as both patient treatment papers and reviews, 53 are either technical reports, system descriptions or analyses of new approaches; 8 are general discussion on telerehabilitation. The present paper draw the scenario of the first ten years of telerehabilitation, focussing on clinical applications and technologies. Basically, it confirms the lack of comprehensive studies providing evidence for supporting decision and policy-makers in adopting telerehabilitation technologies in the clinical practice. An overall lack of standardisation in the used terminology also results from the analysis of keywords, which is typical of quite recent fields of application.

  10. Ten year experience with antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia: Trends in patient characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phirum Lay

    Full Text Available Although HIV disease stage at ART initiation critically determines ART outcomes, few reports have longitudinally monitored this within Asia. Using prospectively collected data from a large ART program at Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope in Cambodia, we report on the change in patient characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period.We conducted a retrospective analysis including all adults (≥ 18 years old starting ART from March 2003-March 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The cumulative incidence of death, lost to follow-up (LTFU, attrition (death or LTFU and first line treatment failure were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Independent risk factors for these outcomes were determined using Cox regression modeling.Over the ten-year period, 3581 patients initiated ART with a median follow-up time of 4.8 years (IQR 2.8-7.2. The median age was 35 years (IQR 30-41, 54% were female. The median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 22 cells/μL (IQR 4-129 in 2003 to 218 (IQR 57-302 in 2013. Over the 10 year period, a total of 282 (7.9% individuals died and 433 (12.1% were defined LTFU. Program attrition (died or LTFU was 11.1% (95% CI: 10.1%- 12.4% at one year, 16.3% (95% CI: 15.1%-17.6% at three years, 19.8% (95% CI: 18.5%-21.2% at five years and 23.3% (95% CI: 21.6-25.1 at ten years. Male sex and low baseline body mass index (BMI were associated with increased attrition. Factors independently associated with mortality included a low baseline CD4 count, older age, male sex, low baseline BMI and hepatitis B co-infection. Individuals aged above 40 years old had an increased risk of mortality but were less likely to LTFU. There were a total of 137 individuals with first line ART failure starting second line treatment. The probability of first line failure was estimated at 2.8% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.4% at 3 years, 4.6% (95% CI: 3.9%-5.5% at 5 years and 7.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.5% at ten years of ART. The probability was

  11. Ten year experience with antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia: Trends in patient characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Phirum; An, Sokkab; Soeung, Sunpiseth; Srey, Pich Sovannary; Thai, Sopheak; Lynen, Lutgarde; Griensven, Johan van

    2017-01-01

    Although HIV disease stage at ART initiation critically determines ART outcomes, few reports have longitudinally monitored this within Asia. Using prospectively collected data from a large ART program at Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope in Cambodia, we report on the change in patient characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period. We conducted a retrospective analysis including all adults (≥ 18 years old) starting ART from March 2003-March 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The cumulative incidence of death, lost to follow-up (LTFU), attrition (death or LTFU) and first line treatment failure were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Independent risk factors for these outcomes were determined using Cox regression modeling. Over the ten-year period, 3581 patients initiated ART with a median follow-up time of 4.8 years (IQR 2.8-7.2). The median age was 35 years (IQR 30-41), 54% were female. The median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 22 cells/μL (IQR 4-129) in 2003 to 218 (IQR 57-302) in 2013. Over the 10 year period, a total of 282 (7.9%) individuals died and 433 (12.1%) were defined LTFU. Program attrition (died or LTFU) was 11.1% (95% CI: 10.1%- 12.4%) at one year, 16.3% (95% CI: 15.1%-17.6%) at three years, 19.8% (95% CI: 18.5%-21.2%) at five years and 23.3% (95% CI: 21.6-25.1) at ten years. Male sex and low baseline body mass index (BMI) were associated with increased attrition. Factors independently associated with mortality included a low baseline CD4 count, older age, male sex, low baseline BMI and hepatitis B co-infection. Individuals aged above 40 years old had an increased risk of mortality but were less likely to LTFU. There were a total of 137 individuals with first line ART failure starting second line treatment. The probability of first line failure was estimated at 2.8% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.4%) at 3 years, 4.6% (95% CI: 3.9%-5.5%) at 5 years and 7.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.5%) at ten years of ART. The probability was

  12. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume I"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami." Eight papers examine various aspects of past events with an emphasis on case and regional studies. Five papers are on tsunami warning and forecast, including the improvement of existing tsunami warning systems and the development of new warning systems in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean region. Three more papers present the results of analytical studies and discuss benchmark problems. Four papers report the impacts of tsunamis, including the detailed calculation of inundation onshore and into rivers and probabilistic analysis for engineering purposes. The final two papers relate to important investigations of the source and tsunami generation. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean (Sumatra) and 2011 Japan (Tohoku) tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  13. A ten-year search for synchronous cells: obstacles, solutions and practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edward Helmstetter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My effort to use synchronously dividing cultures to examine the Escherichia coli cell cycle involved a ten-year struggle with failure after failure punctuated by a few gratifying successes, especially at the end. In this essay, I recount my personal journey in this obsessive experimental pursuit. That narrative is followed by a description of a simplified version of the baby machine, a technique that was developed to obtain minimally disturbed, synchronously growing E. coli cells. Subsequent studies with this methodology led to an understanding of the basic properties of the relationship between chromosome replication and cell division. Accordingly, I end this reminiscence with a simple, fool-proof graphical strategy for deducing the pattern of chromosome replication during the division cycle of cells growing at any rate.

  14. The State of the Art Ten Years After a State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2014-01-01

    A decade has passed since the first review of research on a ``flagship application" of music information retrieval (MIR): the problem of music genre recognition (MGR). During this time, about 500 works addressing MGR have been published, and at least 10 campaigns have been run to evaluate MGR sys......, the problems of validity in evaluation also affect research in music emotion recognition and autotagging. We conclude by discussing the implications of our work for MGR and MIR in the next ten years.......A decade has passed since the first review of research on a ``flagship application" of music information retrieval (MIR): the problem of music genre recognition (MGR). During this time, about 500 works addressing MGR have been published, and at least 10 campaigns have been run to evaluate MGR...

  15. The church and society in South Africa celebrating first ten years of democracy (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T H Dolamo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, colonialism, slavery, racism and apartheid are singled out as scourges that have afflicted South Africans for over three-and-half centuries in respect of the first four scourge, and for four-and-half decades in respect of apartheid.� Against this backdrop, the struggles of the people of South Africa against these scourges are portrayed and analysed.� With the attainment of freedom and democracy in 1994, the� ANC led government enacted pieces of legislation whose aim was to deepen and broaden democracy, thereby transforming the society beyond recognition of how it was before 1994. Celebrating the first ten years of freedom and democracy, the people of South Africa are taking stock of what has been achieved and not achieved and bracing themselves for the challenges that are facing them into the second decade.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Ten-Year Site Plan Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-03-01

    This document describes the currently active and proposed infrastructure projects listed in Appendix B of the Idaho National Laboratory 2013-2022 Ten Year Site Plan (DOE/ID-11449). It was produced in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List I.06. The projects delineated in this document support infrastructure needs at INL's Research and Education Campus, Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the greater site-wide area. The projects provide critical infrastructure needed to meet current and future INL opereational and research needs. Execution of these projects will restore, rebuild, and revitalize INL's physical infrastructure; enhance program execution, and make a significant contribution toward reducing complex-wide deferred maintenance.

  17. Medical School Attrition-Beyond the Statistics A Ten Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Bridget M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical school attrition is important - securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001–2011 and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. Methods The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Results Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779 in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR = 5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p  Absenteeism was documented in 30% of students, academic difficulty in 55.7%, social isolation in 20%, and psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies. Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. Conclusions While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red flag signals may alert us to risk of dropout including non-EU origin, academic struggling, absenteeism, social isolation, depression and leave of absence. Psychological morbidity amongst dropout students is high and Student Welfare services should be actively promoted. Absenteeism should prompt early intervention. Behind every dropout statistic lies a personal story. All

  18. Comparison of the refractive error changes among young children in ten years interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the optometric examination results of myopic young children between those diagnosed in the period from 1998 to 2000 and those diagnosed in the period from 2008 to 2010; and to find out the causes of myopia and factors that worsen the condition, and suggest methods of its prevention and treatment.METHODS: This study was a retrospective case study. We randomly selected sample from out-patient department register of cases and divided them into two main groups, ‘ten year before group'(TYBG(1998/2000 year casesand ‘ten years later group'(2008/2010 year cases(TYLG. Each group was further subdivided into three sub-groups by age: under-six years old children group(CG, seven-twelve years old primary-school group(PSGand thirteen-eighteen years old middle-school group(MSG. The optometric examination results were statistically analyzed.RESULTS: The difference of the mean dioptre between the TYBG and TYLG was strongly statistically significant, also forward-lead trend of age when children suffered from myopia was found(P0.01. There was a significant increase of dioptre among PSG and MSG in TYLG compared to TYBG(PCONCLUSION: Our study shows that the age of getting myopia was forward lead, the dioptre increases by 1.00 degree and the prevalence of myopia is increasing gradually. This situation may due to the modern life style and changes of living standard of the population. Therefore, prevention of myopia should concentrate more on younger children at kindergarten and primary school stage students.

  19. Ten-year results of phototherapeutic keratectomy on recurrent corneal erosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belquiz Rodrigues do Amaral Nassaralla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the ten-year visual results and outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK for recurrent corneal erosions. METHODS: Twenty-six eyes of 23 patients with recurrent corneal erosions were treated by PTK from 1996 to 2000 at the Goiania Eye Institute, Brazil. All eyes had failed to respond to conventional therapy. Data regarding preoperative and postoperative best-spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, spherical equivalent (SE, symptomatic relief, incidence of recurrence, and complications arising from the laser treatment were analyzed. The mean duration of symptoms prior to PTK was 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months. The corneal epithelium was debrided, and laser ablation was performed to a depth of 5 micron with an ablation zone of 7 to 9 mm, using the Technolas 217C Plano Scan excimer laser. Mean postoperative follow-up was 12 years (range, 10 to 14 years. RESULTS: At the last follow-up visit, 15 eyes (57.69% were symptomsfree. Five eyes (19.2% had occasional mild symptoms of irritation and photophobia upon awakening. Recurrence of painful corneal erosions occurred in six eyes (23.07%, which required a PTK retreatment. Twenty-four eyes had a preserved or improved BCVA, while 2 eyes showed deterioration of 1 line on Snellen test. Eleven eyes (42.3% had no change in SE, and the others (57.69% had a change of less than +/-0.75 diopters (D. There were no major complications during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Ten-year data show that PTK is a safe, fast, effective and minimal invasive choice of treatment for recurrent corneal erosions in patients who do not respond to conventional treatments.

  20. Ten Years On, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme and Zimbabwe's Marange and "Conflict Diamonds": Lessons to be learnt

    OpenAIRE

    Nazreen Shaik-Peremanov

    2014-01-01

    TEN YEARS ON, THE KIMBERLEY PROCESS CERTIFICATION SCHEME AND ZIMBABWE’S MARANGE AND "CONFLICT DIAMONDS": LESSONS TO BE LEARNT N Shaik-Peremanov* SUMMARY Remove by editor - Prof Christa Rautenbach email:

  1. A Vision for the Next Ten Years for Integrated Ocean Observing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Z. S.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean observing has come a long way since the Ocean Sciences Decadal Committee met over a decade ago. Since then, our use of the ocean and coast and their vast resources has increased substantially - with increased shipping, fishing, offshore energy development and recreational boating. That increased use has also spearheaded advances in observing systems. Cutting-edge autonomous and remotely operated vehicles scour the surface and travel to depths collecting essential biogeochemical data for better managing our marine resources. Satellites enable the global mapping of practically every physical ocean variable imaginable. A nationally-integrated coastal network of high-frequency radars lines the borders of the U.S. feeding critical navigation, response, and environmental information continuously. Federal, academic, and industry communities have joined in unique partnerships at regional, national, and global levels to address common challenges to monitoring our ocean. The 2002 Workshop, Building Consensus: Toward an Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observing System laid the framework for the current United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS). Ten years later, U.S. IOOS has moved from concept to reality, though much work remains to meet the nation's ocean observing needs. Today, new research and technologies, evolving users and user requirements, economic and funding challenges, and diverse institutional mandates all influence the future growth and implementation of U.S. IOOS. In light of this new environment, the Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) will host the 2012 Integrated Ocean Observing System Summit in November 2012, providing a forum to develop a comprehensive ocean observing vision for the next decade, utilizing the knowledge and expertise gained by the IOOS-wide community over the past ten years. This effort to bring together ocean observing stakeholders at the regional, national, and global levels to address these challenges

  2. Ten Years Back, Five Years Forward: The Data Seal of Approval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Dillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available If we want to share data, the long-term storage of those data in a trustworthy digital archive is an essential condition. Trust is the basis of storing and sharing data. That trust must be present in the various stakeholders involved. Certification of digital archives can make an important contribution to the confidence of these stakeholders in the digital archives.Ten years ago DANS was assigned the task of developing a Seal of Approval for digital data to ensure that archived data can still be found, understood and used in the future. In 2009 this Data Seal of Approval (DSA was transferred to an international body, the DSA Board, which has managed and further developed the guidelines and the peer review process ever since.The objectives of the DSA are to safeguard data, ensure high quality and guide reliable management of data for the future without requiring implementation of new standards, regulations or heavy investments. The DSA contains 16 guidelines for applying and verifying quality aspects concerning the creation, storage, use and reuse of digital data.Based on feedback from data archives that applied for a DSA and different case studies we have gained some insight into the benefits of DSA. Still, the impact of having the Seal is not easy to measure. Seal holders usually refer to qualitative benefits in the form of increased awareness of the value of their repositories to their communities, funders and publishers.Ten years down the line we can safely state that the Data Seal of Approval has proven its added value. If we try to look five years into the future, what can we expect? There are different developments: a growing interest in DSA among European research infrastructures, the collaboration between DSA and the ISCU World Data System under the umbrella of the RDA (Research Data Alliance and the European Commission is showing a growing interest in certification services.The success of DSA also provides the challenge to further

  3. Ten Years, Twenty Issues, and Two Hundred Papers of Numeracy: Toward International Reach and Transdisciplinary Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue completes the first ten years of Numeracy. The purpose of this introductory editorial is to review what has happened to the journal in those ten years. In the twenty issues, Numeracy’s output has been 201 papers counting the one or two editorials per issue. More than 50% of the papers are full, peer-reviewed articles, including 13 papers in two theme collections. The others are peer-reviewed notes and perspectives, editor-reviewed book reviews (15% of the total, and a column by contributing co-editor, Dorothy Wallace. The current issue marks an upswing in the number of notes, and our first discussion/reply. The number of papers per year has been increasing (e.g., 66% more in the last three years than in the first three years. The download rate has increased from about 5,000 in the first two years to 5,000 in about 40 days now. The editorial goes on to document two main outcomes. First, the journal is gaining an international reach: more than half the downloads occur outside the United States now, and the number of contributions from outside the United States has increased from 4 in the first five years to 15 in the second five years. Second, the across-the-curriculum nature of quantitative literacy is coming to the fore. The transdisciplinarity of QL is strikingly evident in this issue, which is discussed in some detail, especially how it conforms to the mission of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. The editorial ends with some results from a small ad hoc study of Google Scholar Citation Profiles. The question was, of the profiles that used “numeracy” or “quantitative literacy” as keywords, what other keywords did those profiles use, and what were the source countries? The results show that (1 QL is very much an American term, (2 there is, metaphorically, a vast and interesting numeracy ecosystem out there for Numeracy to engage and serve, and (3 as we become more global, the transdisciplinary relevance

  4. Prognostic factors in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a ten year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oloomi yazdi Z.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common cancer in the pediatric population. With modern treatments, the chance of the complete recovery is nearly 100%. The most important prognostic factors are appropriate treatment protocol and determination of patient risk factors based on clinical, morphological, immunological and cytological characteristics. In this study we reviewed frequency of these factors, like as age, gender, the primary white blood cell number, sub- group on the base of FAB classification, immunophenotype and the clinical progress. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed 877 pediatric patients with the diagnosis of ALL between the years of 1994 and 2004. In these patients the age, gender, primary WBC count, sub-group based on the FAB classification, immunophenotype and the clinical progress in 177 patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at Imam Khomeini Hospital between the years of 1994 to 2004 were determined. Results: Of these patients, 1.6% was younger than one year, 24.8% more than ten years old and 73.6% were between the ages of one and ten years; 63.8% were male. WBC counts were above 50,000/ul in 28.8% of the patients. FAB classifications included L1 in 80.2%, L2 in 17.5% and L3 in 2.3% of the patients. Immunophenotypes included pre-B cell in 63.8%, early pre-B cell in 23.1%, T cell in 12.3% and mature B cell in 0.8% of the patients. Marker CD10+ was detected in 88.1% of the B cell cases. In this study group, 74% of the patients recovered, 16.3% died and 16.5% relapsed.Conclusions: The prevalence of FAB-L1 and pre-B cell cases in this study is greater than a previous study, while the prevalence of FAB-L2 and early pre-B cell cases is less than that of the previous study.

  5. LECA refurbishment project or how to get ready for the next ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, Francois; Bois, Dominique; Blanc, Jean Yves

    2005-01-01

    Around 1995, CEA decided a strategy for its hot laboratories: Closing LAMA - Grenoble and LHA - Saclay, after RM2 - Fontenay-aux-Roses. Refurbishing and gathering irradiated material studies in LECI - Saclay. Refurbishing LECA - Cadarache for irradiated fuel examinations. Reprocessing pilot experiments being located in Atalante - Marcoule. Started up in 1964, LECA has got an exploitation license up to August 2005. In 2001, safety authorities agreed to extend it up to 2015, provided an extensive refurbishment is undertaken which includes civil engineering works to achieve the building earthquake resistance, based on 3D-computations and withstanding maximum historically likely earthquake, improving confinement by decontaminating, adding steel boxes inside cells, changing ventilation system and creating a mobile upper cell on the cell roof, changing power supplies, shielded glasses and most manipulators, improving travelling crane, fire protection, radioactivity monitoring and alarms, installing a new device for characterizing and evacuating wastes, decreasing the fissile mass stored inside the facility (source term). Most of the work should be ended by the end of 2005. Afterwards five cells, which do not withstand earthquake, will be deconstructed within 3 years. By mid 2004, 60 % of tasks are completed and all contracts are awarded. The total final cost is 97 M Euro, 80% of which regarding the only LECA refurbishment. (Author)

  6. The origin of the future ten questions for the next ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2006-01-01

    How did the universe begin? Where do galaxies come from? How do stars and planets form? Where do the material particles we are made of come from? How did life begin? Today we have only provisional answers to such questions. But scientific progress will improve these answers dramatically over the next ten years, predicts John Gribbin in this riveting book. He focuses on what we know—or think we know—about ten controversial, unanswered issues in the physical sciences and explains how current cutting-edge research may yield solutions in the very near future. With his trademark facility for engaging readers with or without a scientific background, the author explores ideas concerning the creation of the universe, the possibility of other forms of life, and the fate of the expanding cosmos. He examines “theories of everything,” including grand unified theories and string theory, and he discusses the Big Bang theory, the origin of structure and patterns of matter in the galaxies, and dark mass and dark ene...

  7. Highlighting ten years of physics education research in the upper division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Bradley

    2015-04-01

    The field of Physics Education Research (PER) has for over thirty years provided insights into student thinking and guided the development and assessment of reformed teaching strategies and practices in introductory physics courses. In the last decade or so, researchers have expanded the domain of such investigations to upper-division courses where undergraduate majors study more advanced content and begin to see themselves as future physicists. The upcoming Focused Collection on Upper Division PER brings together work from researchers active in these new frontiers of PER. In this presentation we provide an overview of the studies in this collection, which offer to the PER and greater physics education communities: new insights about the thinking, behavior, and beliefs of students in the upper division; new tools to innovate instruction, assess student learning, and evaluate teaching effectiveness; and groundbreaking studies of identity development and ``thinking like a physicist'' among physics majors. In this session we also recognize the ten-year anniversary of Physical Review Special Topics: Physics Education Research, an occasion that we will celebrate with an informal reception immediately following the conclusion of this invited session.

  8. A ten-year study of depressive symptoms in Serbian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Ignjatović, Dragana; Hinić, Darko; Jakovljević, Mihajlo; Fountoulakis, Kostas; Siepera, Marianna; Rancić, Nemanja

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the rate of three dimensions of depressive symptoms in medical student population in Serbia, and to find out whether this rate had changed over the period often years. This cross-sectional study included 615 medical students (F = 61% and M = 39%), mean age = 23.60 (SD = 1.541), who were tested in five non-consecutive surveys between 2002 and 2012. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean BDI score for the entire sample was 6.26 +/- 6.175. There was no significant difference in total BDI score among the values obtained during the ten years of testing. The greatest portion of the examined sample (77.24%) had no signs of depressive symptoms, and there was no difference in symptom intensity between medical students and other educational profiles. Similar to previous results, females had higher scores on all depressive dimensions except for one tested year, whereas a weak correlation was found between BDI scores and student age (r = 0.104; p = 0.010). Since there are still discrepancies among studies that do (not) report that medical students have typical depressive symptoms, potential explanations for the mentioned discrepancies may be found in individual characteristics of the members of the student population. Our suggestions for future studies are that they should include the stress factor, stress coping strategies, estimated life satisfaction, and the impact of these factors on the potential mental disorders.

  9. Ten years of iPSC: clinical potential and advances in vitro hematopoietic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Bárbara Cristina Martins Fernandes; Moço, Pablo Diego; Pereira, Cristiano Gonçalves; Porto, Geciane Silveira; de Sousa Russo, Elisa Maria; Reis, Luiza Cunha Junqueira; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Picanço-Castro, Virginia

    2017-06-01

    Ten years have passed since the first publication announcing the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Issues related to ethics, immune rejection, and cell availability seemed to be solved following this breakthrough. The development of iPSC technology allows advances in in vitro cell differentiation for cell therapy purpose and other clinical applications. This review provides a perspective on the iPSC potential for cell therapies, particularly for hematological applications. We discuss the advances in in vitro hematopoietic differentiation, the possibilities to employ iPSC in hematology studies, and their potential clinical application in hematologic diseases. The generation of red blood cells and functional T cells and the genome editing technology applied to mutation correction are also covered. We highlight some of the requirements and obstacles to be overcome before translating these cells from research to the clinic, for instance, iPSC variability, genotoxicity, the differentiation process, and engraftment. Also, we evaluate the patent landscape and compile the clinical trials in the field of pluripotent stem cells. Currently, we know much more about iPSC than in 2006, but there are still challenges that must be solved. A greater understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of hematopoietic stem cells is necessary to produce suitable and transplantable hematopoietic stem progenitor cells from iPSC.

  10. A Ten Year Analysis of Fatal Peripheral Vascular Injuries Autopsy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Tuncer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Peripheral vascular injuries are usually associated with fatal injuries. Early diagnosis and intervention are so vital for improving a favorable outcome for traumatic vascular injuries. As a preventable cause of death, we aimed to evaluate peripheral vascular injuries in overall deaths in ten year period, 2003-2012. Material and Method: A retrospective evaluation was made of 2845 death cases which had post-mortem examination and autopsy from the 10-year period of 2003-2012 in Eskisehir, Turkey. The mean age of the cases included in the study was 32.5±7.9 years with the highest rate of cases occurring in the 30-39 years age group. Males constituted 89.2% of the victims. The most frequent manner of death was homicide 83.8%.The femoral artery was the most commonly injured vessel 29 cases (78.4%. In this study it was identified that, 33 patients (89.3% died before any medical intervention could be performed. Discussion: Our study shows that, peripheral vascular injuries most commonly caused by sharp objects. The injuries have a low mortality rate when early intervention is made. Autopsies are conducted is very important to explain not only the cause of death but also the treatment process, which would clear the cases of any potential malpractice or negligence claims.

  11. Ten years of ozone research at DLR; Ergebnisse aus zehn Jahren Ozonforschung im DLR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dameris, M.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    2000-02-01

    After ten years of ozone research, depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic regions and also over Europe is still not fully understood although its progress can be predicted by models. The state of the art was presented in the report 'Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998' of the World Meteorological Organisation. There is also a national documentation '10 Jahre Deutsche Ozonforschung 1989 bis 1999', to which DLR scientists made significant contributions. Some of their projects and findings are presented here. Research will be stimulated by the 2001 start of the ENVISAT satellite of the ESA. [German] Nach zehn Jahren Ozonforschung ist die Abnahme der Ozonschicht in der Stratosphaere nicht nur ueber der Antarktis (Ozonloch), sondern auch ueber der Arktis und Europa ein Faktum, das man heute weitgehend, wenn auch immer noch nicht vollstaendig versteht und dessen weitere Entwicklung man mit Modellen berechnen kann. Der Stand des Wissens wurde in einem umfassenden Bericht 'Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998' unter Federfuehrung der World Meteorological Organisation zusammengestellt. National gibt es eine Dokumentation '10 Jahre Deutsche Ozonforschung 1989 bis 1999'. Wissenschaftler des DLR haben zu den Erkenntnissen mit zahlreichen Publikationen wesentlich beigetragen. Einige der Projekte und Ergebnisse werden hier vorgestellt. Mit dem fuer 2001 geplanten Start des Umweltsatelliten ENVISAT der ESA erhaelt das Thema neue Aktualitaet. (orig.)

  12. Ten Years of Observatory Science from Saanich Inlet on the VENUS Cabled Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Macoun, P.; Round, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Saanich Inlet array of the VENUS cabled ocean observatory, maintained and operated by Ocean Networks Canada, was installed in February 2006, and in 2016 will have supported ten years of comprehensive interactive science. Representing the first in the present generation of cabled observing technologies, this coastal array has provided continuous high power and broadband communications to a variety of instrument platforms, hundreds of sensors, and enabled dozens of short, medium, and long-term studies. Saanich Inlet is a protected fjord with limited tidal action, resulting in an extremely productive environment, with strong seasonal chemical variations driven by episodic deep water renewal events and oxygen reduction processes. The breadth of the research has included microbial and benthic community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, forensics, quantifying inter-annual variations, benthic-pelagic coupling, sensor testing, plankton dynamics, and bio-turbulence. Observatory measurements include core water properties (CTD & O2) and water-column echo-sounder records, as well as experiment-oriented deployments utilizing cameras, Gliders, Dopplers, hydrophones, and a variety of biogeochemical sensors. With a recently installed Buoy Profiler System for monitoring the entire water column, community plans continue with a dedicated Redox experiment through the 2016-17 seasons. Highlights from the dozens of research papers and theses will be presented to demonstrate the achievements enabled by a comprehensive coastal cabled observing system.

  13. Modeling the Office of Science Ten Year Facilities Plan: The PERI Architecture Tiger Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Supinski, Bronis R.; Alam, Sadaf; Bailey, David H.; Carrington, Laura; Daley, Chris; Dubey, Anshu; Gamblin, Todd; Gunter, Dan; Hovland, Paul D.; Jagode, Heike; Karavanic, Karen; Marin, Gabriel; Mellor-Crummey, John; Moore, Shirley; Norris, Boyana; Oliker, Leonid; Olschanowsky, Catherine; Roth, Philip C.; Schulz, Martin; Shende, Sameer; Snavely, Allan; Spear, Wyatt; Tikir, Mustafa; Vetter, Jeff; Worley, Pat; Wright, Nicholas

    2009-06-26

    The Performance Engineering Institute (PERI) originally proposed a tiger team activity as a mechanism to target significant effort optimizing key Office of Science applications, a model that was successfully realized with the assistance of two JOULE metric teams. However, the Office of Science requested a new focus beginning in 2008: assistance in forming its ten year facilities plan. To meet this request, PERI formed the Architecture Tiger Team, which is modeling the performance of key science applications on future architectures, with S3D, FLASH and GTC chosen as the first application targets. In this activity, we have measured the performance of these applications on current systems in order to understand their baseline performance and to ensure that our modeling activity focuses on the right versions and inputs of the applications. We have applied a variety of modeling techniques to anticipate the performance of these applications on a range of anticipated systems. While our initial findings predict that Office of Science applications will continue to perform well on future machines from major hardware vendors, we have also encountered several areas in which we must extend our modeling techniques in order to fulfill our mission accurately and completely. In addition, we anticipate that models of a wider range of applications will reveal critical differences between expected future systems, thus providing guidance for future Office of Science procurement decisions, and will enable DOE applications to exploit machines in future facilities fully.

  14. Management of orbital cellulitis and subperiosteal orbital abscess in pediatric patients: A ten-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, Vittorio; Demattè, Marco; Farneti, Paolo; Fornaciari, Martina; Corsini, Ilaria; Piccin, Ottavio; Saggese, Domenico; Fernandez, Ignacio Javier

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric periorbital cellulitis represents a common disease complicating a nasal infection. A ten-year retrospective review of fifty-seven children admitted to our institution with the diagnosis of periorbital cellulitis as a complication of sinus infections was carried out. The age varied from one month to eleven years (mean 3.9 years). Thirty-five were males (62%), while twenty-two were females (38%). Nine out of fifty-seven (15.8%) presented exophthalmos associated with eyelid erythema and edema, while the rest suffered mainly from eyelid erythema and edema. Twenty-two patients complaining of exophthalmos or not responding to medical therapy within 48 h were assessed with a computed tomography scan (38.6%). A subperiosteal orbital abscess was detected in nine cases and these patients underwent surgical drainage (15,8%). Recurrence of orbital infection occurred in three cases (5.3%). Medical management is the main treatment for both preseptal and postseptal orbital cellulitis. Nevertheless, there is no universally accepted guideline for the treatment of subperiosteal abscesses and each case should be treated accordingly. Urgent surgical drainage should be considered in cases not responding to adequate medical management, or those cases presenting visual deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Scientometric analysis of published papers in global ophthalmology in the past ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng-Lu; Hu, Xin-Yue; Wang, Ying-Na; Ma, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the published papers of ophthalmology in past ten years and explore the development of ophthalmology. The data of this study retrieved from Science Citation Index Expanded and downloaded online in November 2017, including all the papers with publication year from 2007-2016 were analyzed. The papers were based on the Web of Science category and the journals were based on the Journal Citation Report category. The number of ophthalmology papers increased from 7450 to 9089 during 2007 to 2017. The average rate increased 2.2% annually. USA accounts for one thirds of the total and two thirds of the highly cited papers. In Asia, China, Japan and South Korea were in Top 10 by the number of ophthalmology papers. UK, Germany, Japan and Australia also had great impact in global ophthalmology. The hot spots included endothelial growth factor, optical coherence tomography and open-angle glaucoma. USA is in the leading position in global ophthalmology. Part of Asian countries play an important role in the development of ophthalmology, but the impact needs to be improved.

  16. [The ten-year retrospect of nutrition and health status of pregnant women in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C X; Yin, S A

    2018-01-06

    Improvement of the nutrition and health status of pregnant women should be one of the top priority strategies of improving the physical fitness of next generation and reserve of talented person for national sustainable development. This paper reviews the nutrition and health status of pregnant women in China over the recent ten years and discusses the underlying factors and changing trends. The most popular nutrition-related problem is dietary imbalance, and many micronutrient intakes are lower than the recommended dietary intakes or adequate intakes, and some of nutrient intakes are still at a very low level for a long time such as vitamin D and calcium. The nutrition-related health problems are mainly anemia, vitamin D and vitamin A deficiencies; iodine intake is not in optimal state with a large proportion of inadequate and individual cases facing excessive intake risk. Overweight and obesity, pregnancy complications such as gastrocnemius muscle spasms, pregnancy hypertensive disorders and gestational diabetes were prevalent among pregnant women. We should address both malnutrition and nutrition imbalance in the same time in order to improve the nutrition and health status of pregnant women, by developing and implementing relevant laws and regulations, giving higher attention to pregnant women with advanced age, which in turns prevent a variety of micronutrient deficiencies, reduce adverse pregnant outcomes, and improve nutrition and health status of maternal and child.

  17. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: ten years experience in a medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-En; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Shang-Hung; Yeh, San-Jou; Wu, Delon

    2008-01-01

    An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the therapy of choice for survivors of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias or sudden cardiac death. To date there is little data concerning the clinical features and outcome of ICD therapy among Taiwanese. This study identifies factors related to the outcome of ICD therapy over a ten-year period at this institution. Forty-nine ICDs were implanted in 46 patients between August 1996 and January 2006. The mean follow-up duration was 32 +/- 21 months. Patient data, primary cardiac diagnosis, presenting cardiac arrhythmia, echocardiographic parameters, hemodynamic indexes, electrophysiologic findings, and follow-up observations were analyzed. The findings were compared to those of the Taiwan ICD Multicenter Registry (TIMR) Study and major secondary prevention ICD trials in the literature. The patients in this study were comparable to those of TIMR but were younger and had better left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) than those in Western countries. Furthermore, higher mortality on follow-up was observed in patients with any of the following: LVEF or = 55 mm, a left ventricular end diastolic dimension > or = 75 mm, an end systolic dimension > or = 60 mm, triple vessel disease, a prior anterior myocardial infarction, and amiodarone or diuretic therapy. Patients with structural heart disease other than ischemic heart disease or dilated cardiomyopathy had higher event recurrence rates. Left ventricular function is a major determinant affecting the outcome in ICD recipients. Aggressive treatment for heart failure is warranted in these patients.

  18. Ten-year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Morey, Leslie C; Donnellan, M Brent; Samuel, Douglas B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-06-01

    This study compares the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Ten-year rank-order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (N = 266). Dependability-corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of.60-.90 for traits and.25-.65 for personality disorders. The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The five-factor theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Naive (commonsense) geography and geobrowser usability after ten years of Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlinck, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    In 1995, the concept of ‘naive geography’ was formally introduced as an area of cognitive geographic information science representing ‘the body of knowledge that people have about the surrounding geographic world’ and reflecting ‘the way people think and reason about geographic space and time, both consciously and subconsciously’. The need to incorporate such commonsense knowledge and reasoning into design of geospatial technologies was identified but faced challenges in formalizing these relationships and processes in software implementation. Ten years later, the Google Earth geobrowser was released, marking the beginning of a new era of open access to, and application of, geographic data and information in society. Fast-forward to today, and the opportunity presents itself to take stock of twenty years of naive geography and a decade of the ubiquitous virtual globe. This paper introduces an ongoing research effort to explore the integration of naive (or commonsense) geography concepts in the Google Earth geobrowser virtual globe and their possible impact on Google Earth's usability, utility, and usefulness. A multi-phase methodology is described, combining usability reviews and usability testing with use-case scenarios involving the U.S.-Canadian Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative. Initial progress on a usability review combining cognitive walkthroughs and heuristics evaluation is presented.

  20. Ten years after "Worrying trends in econophysics": developments and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Econophysics has made a number of important additions to scientific knowledge. Yet it continues to lack influence with both economists and policy makers. Ten years ago, I and three other economists sympathetic to econophysics wrote a paper on worrying trends within the discipline. For example, its lack of awareness of the economics literature, and shortfalls in the use of statistical analysis. These continue to be obstacles to wider acceptance by economists. Like all agents, policy makers respond to incentives, and economists understand this very well. Much of the econophysics community appears to think that simply doing good science is sufficient to have the work recognised, rather than relating to the motivations and incentives of policy makers. Nevertheless, econophysics now has three major opportunities to advance knowledge in areas where policy makers perceive weaknesses in what they are presented with by economists. All can benefit from the analysis of Big Data. The first is a core model of agent behaviour which is more relevant to cyber society than the rational agent model of economics. Second, extending our understanding of the business cycle, primarily by incorporating the importance of networks into models. Third, devising proper measures of output in cyber society.

  1. [Thinking about academic development of acupuncture and moxibustion in recent ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bi-ling; Jia, Chun-sheng; Liu, Wei-hong; Yang, Yong-qing; Wang, Ling-ling; Yang, Hua-yuan; Wu, Xiao-dong; Shen, Xue-yong; Xu, Ping; Zhao, Jing-shen; Liu, Jun-ling; Cheng, Kai; Zhu, Wen-zeng

    2009-12-01

    Through combing the academic development of acupuncture in recent ten years, objectively reflects the real development status of acupuncture subject on these aspects sucl as basis, clinic, equipment, teaching and standardization, etc., shows the scientific and technological achievements and the highlights of the acupuncture academic development, analyzes the bottleneck and dilemma of the acupuncture academic development. It is indicated that there are several problems existed in acupuncture researche at present, such as the scale and the input of the acupuncture theory research are not enough, the basic research and clinical application is disjointed, the correlation between the acupoints and viscera need more systematic and further researches, the design level of clinical research on acupoints' main indications should be improved. From now on we should follow the inherent rule of the traditional theory of Chinese medicine and the way of integrated thinking, explore the new rule of acupuncture academic development, in order to fit the new historical period, and comprehensively promote the sustainable and coordinated development of acupuncture science.

  2. Ten-year operational dust forecasting - Recent model development and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallos, G; Spyrou, C; Astitha, M; Mitsakou, C; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Pytharoulis, I; Katsafados, P; Mavromatidis, E; Papantoniou, N; Vlastou, G [University of Athens, School of Physics, Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group - UOA/AM and WFG, University Campus, Bldg. PHYS-V, Athens 15784 (Greece)], E-mail: kallos@mg.uoa.gr

    2009-03-01

    The Sahara desert is one of the major sources of mineral dust on Earth, producing up to 2x10{sup 8} t yr-{sup 1}. A combined effort has been devoted during the last ten years at the University of Athens (UOA) from the Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group (AM and WFG) to the development of an analysis and forecasting tool that will provide early warning of Saharan dust outbreaks. The developed tool is the SKIRON limited-area forecasting system, based on the Eta limited area modeling system with embedded algorithms describing the dust cycle. A new version of the model is currently available, with extra features like eight-size particle bins, radiative transfer corrections, new dust source identification and utilization of rocky soil characterization and incorporation of more accurate deposition schemes. The new version of SKIRON modeling system is coupled with the photochemical model CAMx in order to study processes like the shading effect of dust particles on photochemical processes and the production of second and third generation of aerosols. Moreover, another new development in the AM and WFG is based on the RAMS model, with the incorporation of processes like dust and sea-salt production, gas and aqueous phase chemistry and particle formation. In this study, the major characteristics of the developed (and under development) modeling systems are presented, as well as the spatiotemporal distribution of the transported dust amounts, the interaction with anthropogenically-produced particles and the potential implications on radiative transfer.

  3. Global public-private health partnerships: lessons learned from ten years of experience and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Kent; Tanaka, Sonja

    2011-08-01

    Global Health Partnerships (GHPs) have contributed significantly to improved global health outcomes as well as the manner in which global health is governed. Yet in a context of an increasingly complex global health landscape, resource scarcity and a shift from disease-specific to systems strengthening approaches, it is important to continually enhance and apply our understanding of how to improve GHP performance. The authors reviewed and synthesised findings from eight independent evaluations of GHPs as well as research projects conducted by the authors over the past several years, the most recent of which involved semi-structured discussions with 20 'partnership pioneers'. This paper presents the major drivers of the GHP trend, briefly reviews the significant contributions of GHPs to global health and sets out common findings from evaluations of these global health governance instruments. The paper answers the question of how to improve GHP performance with reference to a series of lessons emerging from the past ten years of experience. These lessons cover the following areas: • Value-added and niche orientation • Adequate resourcing of secretariats • Management practices • Governance practices • Ensuring divergent interests are met • Systems strengthening • Continuous self-improvement. These and other critical reflections inform the 'what's next' agenda for GHP development. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. [Ten years of human papilloma virus vaccination. From dermatology to oncology via the infectious diseases department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando A

    2018-02-07

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) was first identified in dermatology, and it was subsequently demonstrated that is was required for the development of uterine cervical cancer and other tumours, after a persistent infection by any of its oncogenic genotypes. Ten years ago, the most common infections and cancers associated with HPV could be prevented by immunisation with 2vaccines, one bivalent, and another tetravalent, and having just marketed a nonavalent one. During the period 2007-2008, the HPV vaccine was included in the Autonomous Communities vaccination calendar, and it is the second vaccine, after that of Hepatitis B, that prevents cancer. In these 10 years that these vaccines have been available the knowledge has progressed and there have been significant advances in vaccination strategies, as well as in the indications and recommendations. These include, lowering the age in the vaccination schedule, prescribing of 2doses at 9 years and at 13-14 years, systematic vaccination of the male in some countries, immunisation of the woman after adolescence, implementation of vaccination programmes in developed countries, prevention of other cancers, recommendations for vaccinations for populations at high risk of HPV infection, scientific evidence on the impact and effectiveness of vaccination, and confirmation of the safety of these vaccines, with more than 270 million doses administered, as has already been observed in clinical trials. The role of health professionals is essential to achieve and maintain high vaccine coverage. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma cases for ten years in Qazvin province (2003-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keshani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human cancers comprise a large group of diseases that despite modern methods of diagnosis and advanced treatment techniques its mortality rate is high. Considering the role of environmental and cultural factors in the prevalence of oral cancer, epidemiological studies have a great importance. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in the province of Qazvin in a period of ten years. Methods: In this descriptive - analytical study, the documents of 88 patients with OSCC that were recorded by the Qazvin Cancer Registry Center during 2003-13, were used. Demographic data including age, sex and location of lesions were extracted from patient records. Data analysis were performed using chi-square, t-test and fisher exact test. Findings: Among the 88 patients, the average age was 64.3±17.7. The male to female ratio was 1 to 1.37 and the most involved area was tongue with 39 cases (63.9%, and the lowest was upper lip with 1 case (1.6%. The most of the patients were in the age between 70-80 years old. Conclusions: Pattern of OSCC in this study was similar to the other studies but the number of females and the mean age of patient had increased. Also, the mean age of patients was increased in eight decades and the most involved area tongue was reported.

  6. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Yin Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many of these diseases. Although health related research on green tea and its predominant phenol (catechins has been on-going for decades, major advances have occurred in the last 5–10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on seminal studies reported primarily within the last five years but not extending past ten years on the link between health and green tea with an emphasis on the catechins.

  7. Ten-year transient luminous events and Earth observations of FORMOSAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Rock Jeng-Shing; Lin, Shin-Fa; Wu, An-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the enormous contributions of FS2 (FORMOSAT-2 or Formosa satellite #2) in both Earth and transient luminous events (TLEs) observations in 10 years. As a small satellite operated for 10 years (20 May 2004 to 20 May 2014) in orbit, FS2 keeps its two unique characteristics: (1) to orbit 14 revolutions around the Earth per day with daily revisit capability, and (2) to provide the capabilities of Earth observation in sunlight time and TLEs observation in eclipsed time every day. It carries two payloads: the remote sensing instrument (RSI) for Earth imaging in satellite's day time and the imager of sprites and upper atmospheric lightning instrument (ISUAL) for scientific observations in satellite's night time, respectively. Daily revisit capability provides changes of events on Earth in either short time (several days) or long term (several years). Examples include: Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (December 2004), disintegration of Wilkins Ice Shelf in Antarctica region (2006-2014, long term), Sichuan earthquake (May 2008), Tohoku earthquake and tsunami (March 2011), polar regions (2006-2014, long term), etc. In the TLEs observation, ISUAL had recorded more than 35,000 events in 10 years with 73.93% elves, 6.54% red sprites, 5.81% halos, 13.42% blue jets and 0.30% gigantic jets. Major contributions of FS2 in this specific scientific area are presented. In particular, current and future research topics on TLEs are discussed. Also, major contributions of FS2's RSI to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) and Group of Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) are summarized. This paper also addresses briefly the health status of FS2 after working 10 years in orbit.

  8. Family religion and psychopathology in children of depressed mothers: ten-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Martha; Miller, Lisa; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gameroff, Marc; Weissman, Myrna M

    2012-02-01

    Previously we found that transmission of religion from mother to adult offspring as measured by correlations on ratings of personal importance of religion and frequency of attendance at religious services was hindered by maternal depression. Concordance of denomination, a measure indicating successful transmission of denomination within a mother and offspring pair, was associated with a 71% decreased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in offspring. This study attempts to replicate the findings in a younger generation of mothers who were the original offspring or spouse of the original offspring in the previous study, and their offspring. Mothers (N=45) and offspring (N=78) were assessed for MDD and anxiety using semi-structured clinical interviews (The Diagnostic Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Modified for the Anxiety Disorders) at two points across a ten-year interval. Religiosity was assessed by report of personal spirituality, frequency of attendance at religious services, and religious denomination Results partially replicate previous findings that maternal depression hinders the transmission of importance but not attendance or denomination to offspring. Concordance of denomination is protective, decreasing by 91% the likelihood of childhood anxiety or depression, independent of maternal depression. Limitations include small sample size that represents few denominations, limited assessments of religiosity, and inability to control for the possible confound of a close relationship between mother and offspring in our analyses. Family agreement and practice of religious denomination may be a robust protective source from MDD or anxiety for youth, independent of the effects of maternal depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiology, management and survival outcomes of primary cutaneous melanoma: a ten-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, M M F; Bolt, L J J; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G; Verleisdonk-Bolhaar, S T H P; van Marion, A; van Berlo, C L H

    2017-02-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, accounting for 90% of all the skin cancer mortality. The objective of this study was providing an overview of current patient- and tumour characteristics, treatment strategies, complications and survival in patients with MM over the past ten years. Hereby, an up-to-date view of every day clinical practice is obtained. Files of patients treated for primary cutaneous melanoma (n = 686) in the VieCuri Medical Centre in the Netherlands between January 2002 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant patient features, tumour characteristics, and (surgical) outcomes were evaluated. The majority of all the patients presented thin tumours (59.1% stage 1A/in situ melanoma). Men showed more ulceration (17.7% vs. 8.4%, p < .01) and a significantly higher Breslow thickness than women (1.2 mm vs. 0.9 mm, p < .01). 14.6% (40/273) underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB); 10/40 (25%) showed nodal metastasis, 50 patients (7.3%) developed distant metastases (M: 10.6%, F: 5%, p < .01). One-, 5- and 10- year disease specific survival rates were 96%, 86% and 84%, respectively. Median survival for stage 4 MM was 3 months. Extensive surgery was uncommon (n = 3). Patients generally presented with thin melanomas. Lymph node disease and distant metastases remained infrequently observed during following years, and general 1- and 5-year overall disease-specific survival rates exceeded 85%. Small numbers of rescue surgery and palliative medical treatment warrant further centralisation and investigation.

  10. Ten years of RELEA: achievements and challenges for astronomy education development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Jafelice, Luiz Carlos; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    When an area of education, and more particularly the research within this area, is aimed to development, a basic requirement is the existence of a regular publication that accounts for the scientific production in that area. This study aims to analyze 10 years of Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA). Publishing policies of the RELEA and their context are discussed in relation to submission, refereeing and publication. The 75 articles published in 18 editions are analyzed and classified by: year of publication, edition, the authors' institutions, school level, study focus and content. The results present trends and shortcomings of the production. A comparison with the number of articles published in other Brazilian journals of education and an analysis of the international scene in relation to other type publications along these ten years is made. Given that this journal is now consolidated, its future prospects in the international landscape are further considered. The challenges related to article submission are discussed: how to increase their number, the submission of Latin American countries, and how to bring in the issues and subjects not addressed until now. It is also considered the possibility of encouraging graduate studies, new lines of research in astronomy education, and dissemination of material in schools and universities for teachers and students. Finally, future possibilities are discussed given the IAU development programs. For example, more article submission from Portuguese-speaking countries with the support of Regional Nodes and Language Expertise Centers, and opportunities for volunteer IAU members and global projects for the development of astronomy education.

  11. Food items in the food intake of children aged seven to ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnig, Patrícia de Fragas; Hinnigi, Patrícia de Fragas; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimental

    2012-06-01

    To describe the most representative food items regarding the total intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in children with ages between 7 and 10 years. A list was prepared with all food intake and quantities, and the diet composition in relation to energy and macronutrients was calculated. The list was based on information provided by a 3-day-Food Diary completed by 85 schoolchildren ranging from seven to ten years old and enrolled in a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. After dividing the food into 129 items, we calculated the percentage in which each item contributed to diet nutrient intake and identified those which contributed to up to 95% of the total intake of calories and selected nutrients. The items "White rice, Greek rice, rice with vegetables" and "Brown, black and white beans, lentils" contributed significantly to the total intake of energy and carbohydrates. The item "Whole milk, powdered milk" had a significant participation in the total intake of lipids, protein and energy. We emphasize the importance of carbohydrates and energy intake from sugar-sweetened beverages (sodas and processed juices) in the total diet intake of the children. the contribution of rice in the total food intake of energy and carbohydrates; of beans in energy, carbohydrates and proteins; of milk and meat in energy, protein and lipids; and bread in energy and carbohydrates is noticeable. The participation of sugar-sweetened beverage in the total intake in energy and carbohydrates and of candies in the total intake of lipids is also evident.

  12. Analysis of ten year return period floods in west african rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nka Nnomo, Bernadette; Oudin, Ludovic; Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Karambiri, Harouna; Ribstein, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    In West Africa, flood and flow are usually determined by using methods advocated by the FAO (1996) and developed by ORSTOM and CIEH researchers in the 1960s. However, the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s decades were characterized by very low precipitation amounts, leading to low stream flows in river basins, except in the Sahelian region where the impact of human activities led to a substantial increase of floods in some catchments. More recently, studies pointed out an increase in the frequency of intense rainfall events and an increase of flood events. Consequently, the reliability of conventional methods for flood estimation is questionable. In this work, we analyzed the trends of the ten-year return period rainfall and stream flow events for several catchments in the Sahelian and Sudanian regions. We used eleven tributaries of large river basins (Niger, Nakambe, Senegal, Gambia) for which daily rainfall and flow data were collected from national hydrological services of four countries over West Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Senegal). The conjoint use of rainfall and flow data allowed us to analyze the possible causality link between the two variables. Mann-Kendall, Pettitt and Hubert tests were used to detect trends and abrupt change points in the annual maximum time series.The quantification of change was assessed by computing 10-year return period rain and flow values on sliding sub periods in the long-term maxima time series with the GEV distribution. Trend tests on annual maximum flows time series showed mixed results depending on the location of the catchments: generally speaking, a decrease is observed for Sudanian catchments and an increase is observed for Sahelian catchments. On a period of 50 years (1950 - 2010) we pointed out an increase of 72% of the mean value of flood 10-year return period for a station like Kakassi in the sahelian region, with respect to the period before the detected disruption; while for a soudanian catchment like Fadougou, the average

  13. [Home parenteral nutrition in patients with advanced cancer: experience of a single centre over ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Villares, J M; Gomis Muñoz, P; Valero Zanuy, Ma A; León Sanz, M

    2004-01-01

    The use of Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN) in patients with advanced cancer without the possibility of curative treatment continues to be a controversial subject entailing a considerable emotional burden. Nonetheless, this group of patients constitutes the main indication for HPN in many programmes. To present the characteristics of a series of patients included on an HPN programme over the last ten years. Retrospective study of the case histories of the 11 patients who received HPN over this period. The demographic and clinical details were noted along with their complications and evolution for comparison with those of a control group of patients with benign disease receiving HPN over the same period. For the comparisons, Student's t test and the chi-squared test were used as and when indicated. Results were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. Eleven patients received HPN, nine of them because of an irresoluble intestinal obstruction and two because of a high flow fistula. The mean age at the start of HPN was 50.8 +/- 12.7 years versus 37.3 +/- 17.2 years for the group with benign disease (p < 0.05). The mean duration of HPN was 71.05 +/- 217 days in the first group, notably less than the second (387.15 +/- 995.85; p < 0.05), with a range between 5 and 760 days. The patients received the infusion through a previously implanted subcutaneous reservoir (n = 9) and on two occasions, electively, through a tunnelled catheter. The infection rate was higher in the group with cancer (0.34 episodes per patient and 1,000 days on HPN) than in the group with benign disease (0.08 episodes; p < 0.05). HPN was suspended in only one of the patients more than 5 days prior to death due to clinical deterioration. Two patients required admission due to a complication associated with the technique. In both cases, a fungal infection of the blood made it necessary to withdraw the catheter. The quality of life, measured by means of an activity scale, was similar at the start

  14. Creative Climate: A global ten-year communications, research and learning project about environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, M. A.; Smith, J.

    2010-12-01

    The next ten years have been described by influential science and policy figures as ‘the most important in human history’. Many believe that the actions taken will decide whether we catastrophically change the atmosphere and eradicate our fellow species or find an alternative, less-damaging development path. But communications and public engagement initiatives have tended to focus on near term impacts or debates - whether they emphasise hazards, or trumpet ‘solutions’. There are signs of diminishing returns on communications and public engagement efforts, and serious obstacles to engaging around 40% of publics in e.g. the US and the UK. The Creative Climate web project takes a new approach, inviting people to see humanity’s intellectual and practical journey with these issues as an inspiring, dynamic and unfolding story. We are inviting people to join us in building a huge living archive of experiences and ideas that respond to these issues. The website will collect thoughts and stories from doorstep to workplace, from lab to garden; from international conference to community meeting - from all over the world. The body of diaries lie at the core of the project, but these are supplemented by the offer of free online learning resources and broadcast-quality audio and video materials. The project is experimental in terms of its scope, its approach to environmental communications and debate and in its use of media. It works with formal partners, including the BBC, yet also makes the most of the opportunities for user generated content to create a rich multimedia resource that can support research, learning and engagement. The design of the project is informed by environmental social science and communications research, and by an awareness of the unfolding potential of Internet based communications to support social change. It is also intended that the Creative Climate platform will develop so as to serve researchers by offering an open resource of qualitative

  15. Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance in Peru: a ten-year observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollett Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are food-borne pathogens of great importance and feature prominently in the etiology of developing world enteritis and travellers’ diarrhoea. Increasing antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter prevalence has been described globally, yet data from Peru is limited. Our objective was to describe the prevalence trends of fluoroquinolone and macrolide-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli stool isolates from three regions in Peru over a ten-year period. Methods Surveillance for enteric pathogens was conducted in Lima, Iquitos and Cusco between 2001 and 2010. Campylobacter stool isolates were tested for susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin. Susceptibilities were reviewed for 4652 isolates from Lima ( n = 3419, Iquitos ( n = 625 and Cusco ( n = 608. Results Comparing the study periods of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni isolates rose in the study areas of Lima (73.1% to 89.8%, p p C. coli rates also increased in Lima (48.1% to 87.4%, p p = 0.005. Small but significant increases in azithromycin-resistant and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni prevalence were noted in Iquitos (2.2% to 14.9%, p p = 0.002, and erythromycin-resistant C. coli rates increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.038. The prevalence of C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and azithromycin increased in Iquitos (0.3% to 14.9%, p C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and erythromycin rose in Iquitos (0.0% to 14.9%, p C. coli prevalence increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.034. Conclusions These results have implications for the empirical management of enterocolitis in Peru. Ongoing surveillance is essential to guide appropriate antimicrobial use in this setting. Local epidemiological studies to explore the relationship between increasing antimicrobial resistance and agricultural or human antibiotic

  16. Review suggests high survival rates for veneers at five and ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Eileen; Conway, David I

    2013-03-01

    The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched and the Evidence-Based Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, and Journal of Oral Rehabilitation were hand searched. Clinical trials registers, conference proceedings and academic colleagues were contacted to identify unpublished data, abstracts and other gray literature. There were no language limits. Article identification, screening, and eligibility and inclusion assessments were completed independently by two reviewers. Prospective and retrospective cohort and controlled trials assessing the outcome of feldspathic porcelain veneers in more than 15 patients were included. Some veneers in each study had to be in situ for five years. Veneers placed using unusual techniques, such as with no enamel preparation or excessive incisal edge lengthening, were excluded. Estimated cumulative survival and standard error for each study were assessed and used for meta-, sensitivity and post hoc analyses. The I(2) statistic and the Cochran Q test and its associated P value were used to evaluate statistical heterogeneity, with a random-effects meta-analysis used when the P value for heterogeneity was less than 0.1. Heterogeneity, publication patterns and small study biases were explored. Eleven studies were included with six (four prospective and two retrospective cohorts) contributing to the meta-analysis. The estimated cumulative survival for feldspathic porcelain veneers was 95.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 92.9% to 98.4%) at five years and ranged from 64% to 95% at ten years across three studies. A post hoc meta-analysis indicated that the 10-year best estimate may approach 95.6% (95% CI: 93.8% to 97.5%). High levels of statistical heterogeneity were found. When bonded to enamel substrate, feldspathic porcelain veneers have a very high 10-year survival rate that may

  17. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  18. Ten-year variability in fluxes, meteorology, and environmental conditions at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. P.; Turnipseed, A.; Bowling, D. R.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    Changing meteorological and environmental conditions affect fluxes; model analysis has shown that environmental variability directly accounts for about half the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 whereas the other 50% is due to biotic responses to these changing variables (Richardson et al. 2007). In our study, ten years (1998-2008) of turbulent flux measurements of heat, water vapor, and CO2 at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site (Monson et al. 2002) are examined with respect to meteorological conditions (atmospheric temperature, stability, precipitation, and cloudiness) as well as changes in environmental conditions, such as snow depth and soil moisture. The typical yearly cycle and an estimate of the magnitude of year-to-year variability in the diurnal fluxes and other variables for a high-elevation subalpine forest ecosystem are presented. Wintertime ecosystem respiration has an average 30-min NEE of 0.62 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between 0.5-1 μmol m-2 s-1. Uptake of CO2 in late summer has an average NEE of -0.71 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between -0.1 to -1.5 μmol m-2 s-1. Previous studies at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site have described the importance of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) (Monson et al. 2002) and also growing season length (Hu et al. 2009) on NEE. Water isotope ratios analyzed by Hu et al. (2009) have shown that trees at the site primarily rely on water from snowmelt to sustain them throughout the summer; combining this result with the SIPNET model, Hu et al. conclude that there is a limited connection between summer precipitation and the cumulative annual gross primary production (GPP). We have tested this conclusion more explicitly by examining the response of NEE to specific precipitation events and the effect of extended dry periods on the diel cycle of the fluxes, CO2 mole fraction, sap flow, and other meteorological and soil variables. Additionally, we examine the connection

  19. Early detection, early symptom progression and symptomatic remission after ten years in a first episode of psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Haahr, Ulrik Helt

    2013-01-01

    years, 50% of patients were in symptomatic remission. Non-remission was predicted by positive symptoms at inclusion and during the first year of treatment. Of individual symptoms only hallucinations were significantly predictive of ten-year non-remission. Early symptom differences were not reflected...

  20. Cause-Specific Mortality in HIV-Positive Patients Who Survived Ten Years after Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trickey, Adam; May, Margaret T; Vehreschild, Jorg-Janne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate mortality rates and prognostic factors in HIV-positive patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy between 1996-1999 and survived for more than ten years. METHODS: We used data from 18 European and North American HIV cohort studies contributing to the Antiretro...

  1. Dying from cancer or other chronic diseases in the Netherlands: ten-year trends derived from death certificate data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, L.F.J. van der; Francke, A.L.; Hingstman, L.; Willems, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the further development of palliative care, it is relevant to gain insight into trends in non-acute mortality. The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to provide insight into ten-year trends in the characteristics of patients who died from cancer or other chronic diseases in the

  2. Dying from cancer or other chronic diseases in the Netherlands: ten-year trends derived from death certificate data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Lud Fj; Francke, Anneke L.; Hingstman, Lammert; Willems, Dick L.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For the further development of palliative care, it is relevant to gain insight into trends in non-acute mortality. The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to provide insight into ten-year trends in the characteristics of patients who died from cancer or other chronic diseases

  3. 78 FR 57573 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Aspen AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  4. 78 FR 56185 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Fort Collins AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  5. 78 FR 46861 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Greeley AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  6. 78 FR 41342 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Ca on City AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  7. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  8. Ten years of sustainability evaluation using the MESMIS framework: Lessons learned from its application in 28 Latin American case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.; López Ridaura, S.; Aliana-Colomer, N.; Astier, M.; Masera, O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on sustainability evaluation and, more specifically, it describes and analyses the Indicator-based Framework for Evaluation of Natural Resource Management Systems (MESMIS, its Spanish acronym), ten years after its development. This framework fulfilled a pioneering role by

  9. Minimum ten-year follow-up of acetabular fracture fixation from the Irish tertiary referral centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Magill, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Successful outcome from acetabular fracture fixation is multi-factorial. Long-term results are not frequently reported. Pooling such data from high output centres will help progress acetabular fixation. This paper presents the first ten-year data from the Irish tertiary referral centre.

  10. Ten Years On, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme and Zimbabwe's Marange and "Conflict Diamonds": Lessons to be learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazreen Shaik-Peremanov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available TEN YEARS ON, THE KIMBERLEY PROCESS CERTIFICATION SCHEME AND ZIMBABWE’S MARANGE AND "CONFLICT DIAMONDS": LESSONS TO BE LEARNT N Shaik-Peremanov* SUMMARY Remove by editor - Prof Christa Rautenbach email: Christa.Rautenbach@nwu.ac.za

  11. Organisation and Management of a Complete Bachelor Degree Offered Online at the University of Milan for Ten Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Manuela; Papini, Sabrina; Scaccia, Daniela; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting some reflections on organisation and management of SSRI online: an e-learning initiative started at the University of Milan (Italy) in the academic year 2004/05 and offered to students over the last ten years. The initiative consisted in implementing the online version of an already existing three-year bachelor…

  12. Cause-Specific Mortality in HIV-Positive Patients Who Survived Ten Years after Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Margaret T.; Vehreschild, Janne; Obel, Niels; Gill, Michael John; Crane, Heidi; Boesecke, Christoph; Samji, Hasina; Grabar, Sophie; Cazanave, Charles; Cavassini, Matthias; Shepherd, Leah; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smit, Colette; Saag, Michael; Lampe, Fiona; Hernando, Vicky; Montero, Marta; Zangerle, Robert; Justice, Amy C.; Sterling, Timothy; Miro, Jose; Ingle, Suzanne; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate mortality rates and prognostic factors in HIV-positive patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy between 1996–1999 and survived for more than ten years. Methods We used data from 18 European and North American HIV cohort studies contributing to the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. We followed up patients from ten years after start of combination antiretroviral therapy. We estimated overall and cause-specific mortality rate ratios for age, sex, transmission through injection drug use, AIDS, CD4 count and HIV-1 RNA. Results During 50,593 person years 656/13,011 (5%) patients died. Older age, male sex, injecting drug use transmission, AIDS, and low CD4 count and detectable viral replication ten years after starting combination antiretroviral therapy were associated with higher subsequent mortality. CD4 count at ART start did not predict mortality in models adjusted for patient characteristics ten years after start of antiretroviral therapy. The most frequent causes of death (among 340 classified) were non-AIDS cancer, AIDS, cardiovascular, and liver-related disease. Older age was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality, injecting drug use transmission with non-AIDS infection and liver-related mortality, and low CD4 and detectable viral replication ten years after starting antiretroviral therapy with AIDS mortality. Five-year mortality risk was <5% in 60% of all patients, and in 30% of those aged over 60 years. Conclusions Viral replication, lower CD4 count, prior AIDS, and transmission via injecting drug use continue to predict higher all-cause and AIDS-related mortality in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for over a decade. Deaths from AIDS and non-AIDS infection are less frequent than deaths from other non-AIDS causes. PMID:27525413

  13. Cause-Specific Mortality in HIV-Positive Patients Who Survived Ten Years after Starting Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Trickey

    Full Text Available To estimate mortality rates and prognostic factors in HIV-positive patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy between 1996-1999 and survived for more than ten years.We used data from 18 European and North American HIV cohort studies contributing to the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. We followed up patients from ten years after start of combination antiretroviral therapy. We estimated overall and cause-specific mortality rate ratios for age, sex, transmission through injection drug use, AIDS, CD4 count and HIV-1 RNA.During 50,593 person years 656/13,011 (5% patients died. Older age, male sex, injecting drug use transmission, AIDS, and low CD4 count and detectable viral replication ten years after starting combination antiretroviral therapy were associated with higher subsequent mortality. CD4 count at ART start did not predict mortality in models adjusted for patient characteristics ten years after start of antiretroviral therapy. The most frequent causes of death (among 340 classified were non-AIDS cancer, AIDS, cardiovascular, and liver-related disease. Older age was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality, injecting drug use transmission with non-AIDS infection and liver-related mortality, and low CD4 and detectable viral replication ten years after starting antiretroviral therapy with AIDS mortality. Five-year mortality risk was <5% in 60% of all patients, and in 30% of those aged over 60 years.Viral replication, lower CD4 count, prior AIDS, and transmission via injecting drug use continue to predict higher all-cause and AIDS-related mortality in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for over a decade. Deaths from AIDS and non-AIDS infection are less frequent than deaths from other non-AIDS causes.

  14. Investigation of sea level around the island of Gavdos from ten years of TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimetry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. BANKS

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project ‘GAVDOS’ (MERTIKAS & PAVLIS, 1999 has been designed to lead to the establishment of a calibration and sea level monitoring site for the JASON-1 and ENVISAT satellites as well as the GLObal Sea level monitoring System (GLOSS. Within the context of this project, nearly ten years of TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimetry data (cycle 1 to 364 from the vicinity of the Gavdos Island (Crete, Greece have been processed and analysed. The results presented here are from the application of a method that incorporates the calculation of a corrected sea surface height from the altimetry data, along-track and cross-track data interpolation because of orbital drift, near coastal error filtering, and the use of a new geoid for the area. This method was applied in order to create ten year time series of sea level and associated parameters for the area around Gavdos island. The results reveal the pattern of sea level and local seasonal cycle around Gavdos over the last ten years.

  15. Keeping Up with the Reality Show: A Ten-Years-Later Review of Surviving Teaching on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Louise Ripley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A dozen years ago, I set out to teach my first Internet course at York University, a large urban Canadian university with 55,000+ students who are mainly commuters. Two years later I wrote an article titled, "Survivor!: When the Next Reality Show is You Teaching Your First Internet Course", in which I argued that there are ten major things you should not do when teaching on the Internet. Now ten years later, in this paper I revisit those recommendations to see if they still hold true, and to see if we need to add any new ones.

  16. Duration of Sexual Harassment and Generalized Harassment in the Workplace Over Ten Years: Effects on Deleterious Drinking Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking. PMID:21745045

  17. Review of ten-years presence of Aedes albopictus in Spain 2004-2014: known distribution and public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes, Francisco; Delacour, Sarah; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Torrell-Sorio, Antonio; Bengoa, Mikel; Eritja, Roger; Miranda, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Ricardo; Lucientes, Javier

    2015-12-23

    Ten years have gone by since the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus was recorded for the first time in Spain. In this paper, all relevant published information about this vector in Spain for the period 2004-2014 is reviewed. The known distribution for 2014 is provided, including all historical records (published and unpublished data) and the results from samplings of the last year. The consequences on public health about the presence of the Asian tiger mosquito in Spain are also highlighted. Further, legal aspects and control plans related to the management and diseases transmitted by this invasive vector species are also discussed.

  18. Ten Years of Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

  19. Peer-review and editorial process of the Ethiopian Medical Journal: ten years assessment of the status of submitted manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquselassie, Fikre

    2013-04-01

    The Ethiopian Medical Journal (EMJ) is a peer-reviewed journal, now 50 years old. Many medical journals, including EMJ, follow a peer review system that has evolved from the 18th century process for reviewing submitted manuscripts. However, not much is known about peer review and editorial processes by many authors who submit manuscripts to the EMJ. To describe procedures related to EMJ peer-review and editorial decision making and asses the status of manuscripts submitted to the journal in the ten year period between 2001 and 2010. All the minutes of the editorial board meetings of the ten years period 2001-2010 and relevant documents were reviewed. The minutes have details including date of submission, dates to and from reviewers, date of decision, number of assigned peer reviewers and comments given by reviewers for each submitted manuscript. The length of time took in the processes and the decision made (accepted or rejected) for each submitted manuscript was calculated from the dates. All submitted manuscripts passed through three stages: internal per-review by an editorial board member, external peer review by selected reviewers and final editing stage by an assigned editorial member. A total of 615 manuscripts were submitted to EMJ in the ten years period 2001-2010. Five hundred and one (82.7%) manuscripts were accepted for publication by peer reviewers, while 74 (12.2%) were rejected and 31 (5.1%) were withdrawn. Acceptance was lowest among original articles (81.3%) followed by teaching or review articles (84.3%) and case reports (89.3%). Thirty-two (8.4%) manuscripts were accepted within 6 months following submission and 50% were accepted within in one year of submission. About 6% of manuscripts were delayed for more than two years with a maximum delay of 43 months. Even though, there is a decline trend on the delay of processing manuscripts, EMJ has long to go in order to improve the quality of the journal and shorten the slow peer review process

  20. The statistical analysis of failure of a MEVATRON77 DX67 linear accelerator over a ten year period

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, H; Tahara, S; Uno, H; Kadohisa, S; Azuma, Y; Nakagiri, Y; Hiraki, Y

    2003-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) takes a leading role in radiation therapy. A linac consists of complicated main parts and systems and it is required that highly accurate operational procedures should be maintained. Operational failure occurs for various reasons. In this report, the failure occurrences of one linac over a ten year period were recorded and analyzed. The subject model was a MEVATRON77 DX67 (Siemens, Inc). The failure rate for each system, the form classification of the contents of failure, the operation situation at the time of failure, and the average performance life of the main parts were totaled. Moreover, the relation between the number of therapies that patients received (operating efficiency) and the failure rate within that number and the relation between environment (temperature and humidity) and the failure rate attributed to other systems were analyzed. In this report, irradiation interruption was also included with situations where treatment was unable to begin in total for the number o...

  1. Trace element contamination in the Guadalquivir River Estuary ten years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Victoria; Arias, Alberto M; Blasco, Julián

    2014-09-15

    Sediments, clams Scrobicularia plana and worms Hediste diversicolor from the Guadalquivir estuary were collected ten years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill and analyzed for metals. Significant seasonal and spatial effects were detected for most elements, so data from different sampling periods and locations were treated separately. Overall, the most polluted sites were found upstream, although Zn and Cu tended to accumulate at the estuary mouth. A significant decline of Zn in sediments and clams was observed compared to levels reported following the spill, so the estuarine ecosystem has recovered. However, the concentrations of some elements in S. plana were still higher than those of heavily contaminated regions. In this mollusk, Pb and As levels were higher in 2008 than in previous years, suggesting a new source entering into the estuary. Metals in sediments presented low bioavailability for biota, so other sources must account for the concentrations observed in these species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ten-year follow-up of giant basilar aneurysm treated by sole stenting technique: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, Marco; Gómez, Camilo R; Santos-Franco, Ja; Vinuela, Fernando; Aburto-Murrieta, Y; Lee, Angel

    2010-02-22

    The sole stenting technique has emerged as a new tool for the management of intracranial aneurysms. However, several concerns have emerged about the long-term behavior of intracranial stents, particularly their safety and efficacy. We present the first case of an intracranial aneurysm intentionally treated with the sole stenting technique. After ten years of clinical and imaging follow-up, the lesion has healed and no intrastent stenosis is observed.Several issues concerning this technique are discussed. For instance, the modification of the angle and intra-aneurysmal thrombosis may account as positive effects; negative outcomes include in-stent thrombosis or stenosis. This case report, involving a long clinical and imaging follow-up, provides an example of the effectiveness, safety, durability and simplicity of the sole stenting technique in the management of intracranial aneurysms.

  3. Ten-year follow-up of giant basilar aneurysm treated by sole stenting technique: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Angel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The sole stenting technique has emerged as a new tool for the management of intracranial aneurysms. However, several concerns have emerged about the long-term behavior of intracranial stents, particularly their safety and efficacy. Case presentation We present the first case of an intracranial aneurysm intentionally treated with the sole stenting technique. After ten years of clinical and imaging follow-up, the lesion has healed and no intrastent stenosis is observed. Several issues concerning this technique are discussed. For instance, the modification of the angle and intra-aneurysmal thrombosis may account as positive effects; negative outcomes include in-stent thrombosis or stenosis. Conclusions This case report, involving a long clinical and imaging follow-up, provides an example of the effectiveness, safety, durability and simplicity of the sole stenting technique in the management of intracranial aneurysms.

  4. Rotationplasty type BI versus type BIIIa in children under the age of ten years. Should the knee be preserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardes, J; Gosheger, G; Vachtsevanos, L; Hoffmann, C; Ahrens, H; Winkelmann, W

    2005-03-01

    Type BI rotationplasty is currently indicated for children with tumours of the proximal femur whereas type BIIIa rotationplasty is reserved for those in which the entire femur has to be removed. Our aim was to compare these two types of rotationplasty and determine whether the knee should be preserved in children with tumours of the proximal femur. We compared the post-operative complications, oncological outcome, range of movement, Enneking score and radiographs of six children, who had undergone type BI rotationplasty with those of 12 who had undergone type BIIIa rotationplasty. Patients with type BI rotationplasty had a mean Enneking score of 21.6 compared with 24.4 in those with type BIIIa rotationplasty, and worse mean results in all of the parameters investigated. We conclude that type BI rotationplasty has a worse functional outcome and more complications than type BIIIa rotationplasty in children under the age of ten years.

  5. Learning from lawsuits: Ten-years of NHS litigation authority claims against 11 surgical specialities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathryn E; Cooper, Lilli R L

    2016-05-06

    Medico-legal claims are a drain on NHS resources and promote defencive practice. The litigious burden of surgery in England has not been previously described. This paper describes trends over ten years of claims made against the NHS across 11 surgical specialities. Data were requested for all claims received by the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) from 2004 to 2014. Surgical specialities included cardiothoracic, general, neurosurgery, obstetric, oral and maxillofacial (OMFS), orthopaedic, otorhinolaryngology, paediatric, plastic, urology and vascular surgery. A literature review of peer-reviewed publications was performed with search terms 'NHSLA' and 'Surgery'. The NHS paid out approximately £1.5 billion across 11 surgical specialities from 2004 to 2014. Orthopaedic, obstetric and general surgery received the largest number of claims per year, and paediatric surgery the least. The mean time from registration of claim with the NHSLA to settlement was 25.5 months (range 17.8 months-35 months). Neurosurgery was responsible for the highest average amount paid per claim, and OMFS the lowest. Failure/delay in treatment and/or diagnosis and failure to warn/adequately consent were the three leading types of claim. 806 never events were successfully claimed for during the ten-year period. Sharing information and good practice should be a priority for surgical professionals. Lessons learnt from medico-legal claims are transferrable in strategic planning. This pan-speciality report has demonstrated considerable burden on the NHS and should promote improvement in practice on an individual level in addition to providing systems based recommendations to NHS and international organisations. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced HIV Disease at Enrolment in HIV Care: Trends and Associated Factors over a Ten Year Period in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaksmey Pe

    Full Text Available Early HIV diagnosis and enrolment in care is needed to achieve early antiretroviral treatment (ART initiation. Studies on HIV disease stage at enrolment in care from Asian countries are limited. We evaluated trends in and factors associated with late HIV disease presentation over a ten-year period in the largest ART center in Cambodia.We conducted a retrospective analysis of program data including all ARV-naïve adults (> 18 years old enrolling into HIV care from March 2003-December 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We calculated the proportion presenting with advanced stage HIV disease (WHO clinical stage IV or CD4 cell count <100 cells/μL and the probability of ART initiation by six months after enrolment. Factors associated with late presentation were determined using multivariate logistic regression.From 2003-2013, a total of 5642 HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV care. The proportion of late presenters decreased from 67% in 2003 to 44% in 2009 and 41% in 2013; a temporary increase to 52% occurred in 2011 coinciding with logistical/budgetary constraints at the national program level. Median CD4 counts increased from 32 cells/μL (IQR 11-127 in 2003 to 239 cells/μL (IQR 63-291 in 2013. Older age and male sex were associated with late presentation across the ten-year period. The probability of ART initiation by six months after enrolment increased from 22.6% in 2003-2006 to 79.9% in 2011-2013.Although a gradual improvement was observed over time, a large proportion of patients still enroll late, particularly older or male patients. Interventions to achieve early HIV testing and efficient linkage to care are warranted.

  7. The occurrence of osteoarthritis at a minimum of ten years after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patt Thomas W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of radiographic osteoarthritis in the operated knee in comparison with the contralateral knee ten years after a bone-tendon bone patellar autograft ACL-reconstruction and to evaluate to which level patients regain activity ten years after reconstruction. Methods Fifty-three patients with ACL instability were operated arthroscopically using the central third of the patellar tendon as a bone-tendon-bone autograft. At a minimum of 10 year follow up 28/44 patients matched the inclusion criteria and could be reached for follow-up. Evaluation included a patient satisfaction evaluation using a Visual Analog Scale, physical examination (International Knee Documentation Committee score, Tegner score, Lysholm score, KT-1000 stabilometry and a radiological evaluation (Kellgren and Fairbanks classification. Results The patients' satisfaction, at a mean of 10,3 year follow-up, measured with a VAS score (0–10 was high with a mean of 8.5 (range 4 to 10. The KT 1000 arthrometer laxity measurements revealed in 55% of the patients an A rating (1–2 mm, in 29% a B rating (3–5 mm and in 16% a C rating (6–10 mm. According to the Tegner score 54% of the patients were able to perform at the same activity level as pre-operatively. The mean pre-operative Tegner score was 6.8 and the mean post-operative Tegner score was 6.0 at final follow up. The Lysholm score showed satisfactory results with a mean of 91 points (range 56 to 100. According to the Kellgren and Fairbank classifications, there is a significant difference (p Conclusion The patellar BTB ACL reconstruction does not prevent the occurrence of radiological OA after 10 years but does help the patient to regain the pre-operative level of activity.

  8. Socioeconomic position and ten-year survival and virologic outcomes in a Ugandan HIV cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Flynn

    Full Text Available Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years. We documented baseline employment status, regular household income, education level, housing description, physical ability, and CD4 count. Viral load was measured every six months. Proportional hazard regression tested for associations between baseline characteristics and 1 mortality, 2 virologic failure, and 3 mortality or virologic failure as a composite outcome. Over ten years 23% (n = 127 of participants died, 6% (n = 31 were lost-to-follow-up and 23% (107/472 experienced virologic treatment failure. In Kaplan-Meier analysis we observed an association between employment and mortality, with the highest cumulative probability of death occurring in unemployed individuals. In univariate analysis unemployment and disease severity were associated with mortality, but in multivariable analysis the only association with mortality was disease severity. We observed an association between higher household income and an increased incidence of both virologic failure and the combined outcome, and an association between self-employment and lower incidence of virologic failure and the combined outcome when compared to unemployment. Formal education level and housing status were unrelated to outcomes. It is feasible to achieve good ten-year survival, retention-in-care, and viral suppression in a socioeconomically diverse population in a resource-limited setting. Unemployment appears to be related to adverse 10

  9. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori infection in Greece: the changing prevalence during a ten-year period and its antigenic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsilambros Nicolaos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate changes in H pylori infection prevalence in Greece during a ten-year period, and to examine its antigenic profile. Methods Three groups of patients were studied. Group O-87: Banked serum samples of 200 consecutive adult outpatients, from the Hepato-Gastroenterology clinic of a teaching hospital at Athens, collected in 1987. Group O-97: Serum samples of 201 similarly selected outpatients from the same Unit, collected in 1997. Group BD-97: Serum samples of 120 consecutive blood donors from the same hospital, collected in 1997. H pylori IgG antibody seroprevalence was studied by a quantitative ELISA. Antigenic profile was studied by western-blot IgG assay, in 62 IgG positive patients of O-97 and BD-97. Results were analyzed by conventional statistics and multivariate regression analysis. Results The H pylori seroprevalence increased with age in the three tested groups. In O-97, seroprevalence did not differ from that, in BD-97. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in seropositivity between O-87 and O-97 (59.5% vs 49.2%, p = 0.039. Multiple regression analysis showed that age over 35 years (OR:3.45, 95% CI:1.59–7.49, p = 0.002 and year of patients' selection – that is 1987 or 1997 – (OR:1.73, 95% CI:1.14–2.65 for 1987, p = 0.010, were independent risk factors of H pylori infection. The seroprevalence of CagA+ and VacA+ strains was 77.4% and 58.5%, respectively, and type I(CagA+/VacA+ strains were significantly more common than type II(CagA-/VacA- strains (59.7% vs 22.6%, p Conclusions During a ten-year period, we found a significant decrease of H pylori infection in Greece and our data support the birth cohort phenomenon as an explanation for the age-dependent increase of H pylori infection. The prevalence of CagA and/or VacA positive strains is relatively high, in a country with low incidence of gastric cancer.

  10. Ten years of a model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments : The aesthetic episode - Developments and challenges in empirical aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Nadal, Marcos

    2014-11-01

    About a decade ago, psychology of the arts started to gain momentum owing to a number of drives: technological progress improved the conditions under which art could be studied in the laboratory, neuroscience discovered the arts as an area of interest, and new theories offered a more comprehensive look at aesthetic experiences. Ten years ago, Leder, Belke, Oeberst, and Augustin (2004) proposed a descriptive information-processing model of the components that integrate an aesthetic episode. This theory offered explanations for modern art's large number of individualized styles, innovativeness, and for the diverse aesthetic experiences it can stimulate. In addition, it described how information is processed over the time course of an aesthetic episode, within and over perceptual, cognitive and emotional components. Here, we review the current state of the model, and its relation to the major topics in empirical aesthetics today, including the nature of aesthetic emotions, the role of context, and the neural and evolutionary foundations of art and aesthetics. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Malaria in pregnancy; facts from the parasitology laboratory: a ten-year study in Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibecheozor, N.K.O

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, which is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes, is the major cause of mortality among the pregnant women in the sub-Saharan Africa. A ten year study of malaria in pregnancy was carried out in Abuja, North Central Nigeria. Thick and thin blood films were stained with the Giemsa methodology. Of the 16760 pregnant women blood samples, 4571 (27.3% were positive for malaria parasites caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 4571 positive cases, 75 (1.7% had parasite density of >5000 parasites/µl of blood; 148 (3.2% had between 500-5000 parasites/µl of blood; 520 (11.4% had between 50 - 500 parasites/µl of blood; while 3828 (83.7% had between 5-50 parasites/µl of blood. With the current estimate of over 4500 deaths of pregnant women in Nigeria due to malaria annually, we must make deliberate efforts to stop these unacceptable and painful losses. The continued use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (M-RDTs methodologies should be discontinued because of its negative implications. Therefore, the microscopic laboratory diagnostic component should be included in ANC at all level of health care facility.

  12. Ten years water and energy surface balance from the CNR-ISAC micrometeorological station in Salento peninsula (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martano, P.; Elefante, C.; Grasso, F.

    2015-06-01

    Data of surface-atmosphere energy and water transfer from a ten years (2003-2013) period of activity of the ISAC-Lecce micrometeorological station (isac.cnr.it"target="_blank">http://www.basesperimentale.le.isac.cnr.it) have been analyzed: to the authors' knowledge this is the first decadal data set of surface-atmosphere transfer in Salento peninsula. The surface energy budget shows a tendency to a positive bias possibly due to several reasons that require more investigations. Some suitable indices related to the surface water balance, such as the precipitation intensity, the aridity index and the ground water infiltration fraction have been calculated. Possible trends of these annual averages in the decadal period are considered, also taking into account the statistical uncertainty associated to measurement errors and missing data. The results indicate a significant increasing in the precipitation intensity together with an experimental evidence of increasing of the ground water infiltration in the measurement area, that is in agreement with recent estimations for the whole Salento peninsula. On the other hand, recent studies show that seawater intrusion and salinization of the deep underground aquifer keep increasing in the same period.

  13. Prehospital trauma care reduces mortality. Ten-year results from a time-cohort and trauma audit study in Iraq

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    Murad Mudhafar K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blunt implementation of Western trauma system models is not feasible in low-resource communities with long prehospital transit times. The aims of the study were to evaluate to which extent a low-cost prehospital trauma system reduces trauma deaths where prehospital transit times are long, and to identify specific life support interventions that contributed to survival. Methods In the study period from 1997 to 2006, 2,788 patients injured by land mines, war, and traffic accidents were managed by a chain-of-survival trauma system where non-graduate paramedics were the key care providers. The study was conducted with a time-period cohort design. Results 37% of the study patients had serious injuries with Injury Severity Score ≥ 9. The mean prehospital transport time was 2.5 hours (95% CI 1.9 - 3.2. During the ten-year study period trauma mortality was reduced from 17% (95% CI 15 -19 to 4% (95% CI 3.5 - 5, survival especially improving in major trauma victims. In most patients with airway problems, in chest injured, and in patients with external hemorrhage, simple life support measures were sufficient to improve physiological severity indicators. Conclusion In case of long prehospital transit times simple life support measures by paramedics and lay first responders reduce trauma mortality in major injuries. Delegating life-saving skills to paramedics and lay people is a key factor for efficient prehospital trauma systems in low-resource communities.

  14. Influence of marital status on testosterone levels-A ten year follow-up of 1113 men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine A; Priskorn, Lærke; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Based on a large population of 1113 men aged 30-60 at baseline (mean: 44.1 years, standard deviation: 10.5), we investigated whether intra-individual changes in testosterone (T) and related reproductive hormones during a ten year period were dependent of marital status at baseline and follow...... in testosterone was observed. However, independent of age and lifestyle, we observed that men who went from unmarried to married (n=81) during the study period experienced an accelerated age-related decline in testosterone (-6.6nmol/L) whereas men who went from married to unmarried (n=67) experienced...... an attenuated age-related decline (-2.3nmol/L). Men who were either married or unmarried at both time points (n=167, n=798, respectively) had a testosterone decline in between (-3.7nmol/L and -4.6nmol/L, respectively). Changes in T/LH ratio did not differ according to marital status indicating that the lowered...

  15. Vaccine Adverse Events Reported during the First Ten Years (1998–2008 after Introduction in the State of Rondonia, Brazil

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    Mônica P. L. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite good safety records, vaccines given to young children can cause adverse events. We investigated the reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI of vaccines given to children of less than seven years of age during the first ten years (1998 to 2008 in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. We worked with the events related to BCG (Bacillus Calmett-Guérin, HB (hepatitis B, DTwP/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis+Hemophillus influenza b, DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, MMR (mumps, measles, rubella, and YF (yellow fever vaccines because they were part of the recommended scheme. The number of doses of vaccines given was 3,231,567 with an average of AEFI of 57.2/year during the studied period. DTwP/Hib was responsible for 298 (57.8%, DTP 114 (22.9%, HB 31 (6%, MMR 28 (5.4%, BCG 24 (4.7%, and YF 20 (3.9% of the reported AEFI. The combination of the AEFI for DTwP/Hib vaccines showed the highest number of systemic (61.4% and local events (33.8%. Young children (≤1-year old were more susceptible to AEFI occurring in the 6 hours (54.2% following vaccine uptake. This study suggests significant differences in reactogenicity of vaccines and that despite limitations of the AEFI Brazilian registry system we cannot ignore underreporting and should use the system to expand our understanding of adverse events and effects.

  16. Multifocal osteonecrosis related to corticosteroid: ten years later, risk of progression and observation of subsequent new osteonecroses.

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    Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Roubineau, François; Heyberger, Clemence; Bouthors, Charlie; Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    No study has reported the risk of other site osteonecroses after the diagnosis of multifocal osteonecrosis related to corticosteroids in patients who continue this corticosteroid treatment. An analysis of the time-course to other sites of osteonecrosis, as well as the effects of underlying corticosteroid risk factor on the evolution of asymptomatic lesions at the time of diagnosis, is presented. Two hundred patients were followed prospectively every year during a minimum ten years with a radiograph if a joint became symptomatic. In absence of evidence of osteonecrosis on radiographs of a symptomatic or non-symptomatic joint (hips, shoulders, knees, ankles), patients had an MRI performed at the most recent follow up. The average duration of follow-up after inclusion of the patient in the study was 15 years (range 10-20). Of the 200 patients followed for an average of 15 years (minimum 10 years, maximum 20 years), 35 patients developed new osteonecrosis lesions during the period of study. Asymptomatic lesions became symptomatic and a high number of collapse was observed resulting in 258 arthroplasties (187 hips, 51 shoulders, 20 knees) at the most recent follow up. The continuation of peak doses (>200 mg) of corticosteroids predicted (p = 0.04) occurrence of new lesions and the continuation of corticosteroids without peak dose was a risk for quicker progression to collapse.

  17. Increasing trends of diabetes mellitus and body weight: a ten year observation at gondar university teaching referral hospital, northwest ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Alemu, Shitay

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming one of the major causes of premature adult mortality in developing countries. However, there is a very little documentation of the morbidity trend in such countries. To assess the ten-year trend of diabetes mellitus at Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. A hospital-based retrospective record review was done at the main referral hospital in northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from medical records of all registered diabetic patients in the Diabetic Follow up Clinic between 2000 and 2009. An Extended Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test for the linear trend was used to examine the trend over time. Out of the total 354,524 patients who visited the Outpatient Department of the hospital during the study period, 1553 (4.4/1000) were diabetes patients, of which 50.1% was type 1 and 49.9% type 2 diabetes mellitus. The average increase in the proportion of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus cases between 2000 and 2009 was 125%. The mean (±SD) age for Type 1 diabetes mellitus was 29.1 (±12), and 53.5 (±12) for Type 2 diabetes. Overall 42.5% of the diabetes mellitus patients were female and 31.7% were rural residents. The mean body mass index for both type of diabetes mellitus increased from 15.9 to 18.3 kg for type 1 and from 23.8 to 24.6 for type 2 between 2000 and 2009, respectively. The number of diabetes mellitus cases seen at Gondar Referral Hospital is rising steadily. A comprehensive diabetes prevention, treatment, and care program is needed to improve the quality of life of the increasing diabetes mellitus cases in Ethiopia.

  18. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy: Ten years experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

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    Ayman A Al-Talib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Reviewed medical records of all molar pregnancy cases among all the deliveries at a tertiary care hospital in Dammam from 2005 to 2014, after approval by institutional ethical review committee. Data abstracted included patient′s age, parity, presenting symptoms, gestational age at diagnosis, uterine size, ultrasonographic findings, BhCG level at the time of diagnosis and at follow-up after evacuation, and blood loss during evacuation. Data was entered and analyzed using Excel; frequency distribution for categorical variables and descriptive statistics for continuous variables were computed. Results: Of a total of 25,000 deliveries in ten years, 22 cases of complete molar pregnancy were encountered: 0.9 cases of molar pregnancy per 1000 pregnancies. Majority of patients (63.7% were older than 35 years, and were nulliparous (45.5%. The commonest symptom was vaginal bleeding (86.4% followed by hyperemesis gravidarum (41.0%; Hyperthyroidism was seen in 1 patient (4.5%. Ovarian enlargement by theca-lutin cyst was seen in 3 patients (13.6%. The majority of patients (63.6% had normal BhCG within 9 weeks (63 days after suction curettage. The majority of the cases followed a benign course. Conclusion: Aged older than 35 years seems a risk factor and vaginal bleeding is the commonest presenting symptom. Early booking of pregnant women to antenatal care clinics and routine first trimester ultrasound made diagnosis easier and earlier before complications appear.

  19. [Bilateral Congenital Multiple Pigmented Vitreous Cysts in a Three-year-old Girl: Ten Years Follow up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štěpánková, J; Hósová, M; Dotřelová, D

    2017-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a three-year-old female patient with bilateral multiple anterior vitreous cysts. During examination for intermittent esotropia of the right eye was diagnosed not only hypermetropia, astigmatism and anisometropia, but also pigmented changes in peripheral retrolental space of both eyes. Clinical examination under general anaesthesia revealed bilateral multiple pigmented immobile vitreous cysts. There were five almost spherical, translucent, but slightly pigmented cysts on its cover on the right eye and four similar on the left, but visible only with dilated pupils. A dilating of pupils was slow and required more mydriatics than in similar aged children. Follow up period is ten years now. Occlusion therapy of amblyopia was performed to nine years of age. Treatment of refractive error and esotropia with correction for hypermetropia, astigmatism and anisometropia continues. Best corrected visual acuity in thirteen-year-old girl is 1,0 in both eyes without any visual disturbances described by patient. Corrected visual acuity in each eye is 1,0, right eye with +3,5 D sph., -3,5D cyl., axis 175°, left eye with +7,5 D sph., -3,0 D cyl., axis 35°. Patient is otherwise healthy and without any mental deficit. Position of all cysts remains unchanged and stabile during the follow up period (with recommendation to avoid hits to the head for all time, mainly in sports). Formation and slow progression of partial cortical cataract in the area of contact of the lens and one cyst in inferonasal quadrant of the lens on the right eye is monitored. A lamellar retinal extrafoveal defect of posterior pole of the right eye was found by OCT imaging.Key words: vitreous cyst, idiopathic, congenital, bilateral, multiple, pigmented, immobile, hypermetropia, astigmatism, anisometropia, esotropia, cortical cataract, retinal lamellar extrafoveal defect, OCT.

  20. Ten-Year Trends (1999-2010) of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among the Balearic Islands' Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; González, Mónica; Julibert, Alicia; Llompart, Isabel; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2017-07-14

    The aim of this work was to assess ten-year trends (1999-2010) of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (1999-2000, n = 1200 and 2009-2010 n = 1388, including participants aged 16-65 years) were carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Dietary habits were assessed by means of two 24 h diet recalls and a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire that covers 145 food items. Adherence to the MDP was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of nine MDP characteristic components: high monounsaturated fatty acids:saturated fatty acids (MUFA:SFA) ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legumes, cereals and roots, fruits, vegetables, and fish consumption, and low consumption of meat and milk. Socio-economic status, education level, lifestyle factors and health status were also assessed. Adherence to the MDP was 43.1% (SD 5.8) in 1999-2000 and 44.6% (SD 8.3) in 2009-2010. Higher age was directly associated with higher adherence to the MDP, and this association was stronger in males than in females. Young generations and smokers showed the lowest adherence to MDP, whereas people with higher educational and socio-economic level, and who were physically active showed the highest adherence. According to the place of birth, the increase in the percentage of the adherence to the MDP was observed to be smaller among the Balearic Island's natives than among people born abroad. In 2009-2010, individuals in the MDP's fourth quartile were more likely to be older (aged 46-65 years), and were less likely to have a low occupational level, to have a light physical activity level and to be smoker than in 1999-2000. The adherence to the MDP has been stabilized and slightly recovered among the Balearic Islands' adult population in the last decade.

  1. Monitoring of Pb exposure in waterfowl ten years after a mine spill through the use of noninvasive sampling.

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    Monica Martinez-Haro

    Full Text Available Lead exposure in waterfowl was studied using noninvasive fecal sampling in the Guadalquivir Marshes in Spain, an area affected by the 1998 Aznalcóllar mine disaster. Feces of greylag geese (Anser anser, n = 191 and purple gallinule (Porphyrio porphyrio, n = 91 were collected from three different impacted sites (Entremuros, Caracoles and Cerro de los Ánsares during the winters of 2004 to 2008. Lead and aluminium (an indicator of sediment ingestion and Pb isotope signatures (to discriminate between sources of Pb exposure were analyzed in freeze-dried, acid digested samples. The concentrations of fecal porphyrins and biliverdin were determined as noninvasive biomarkers to study Pb exposure effects. Results showed a decrease in Pb exposure over time in wintering greylag geese. In contrast, for purple gallinule resident in the Entremuros a clear trend was not evident. For both species, sediment ingestion appeared to be the main source of exposure to Pb. In the Entremuros, some samples from purple gallinule were detected with higher Pb levels than expected for simple soil ingestion, and these had Pb isotopic profiles compatible with mining sludge or Pb shot. Whilst fecal Pb isotopic profiles were effective in differentiating between samples from sites with different levels and sources of pollution, the combined use of element ratios (such as Pb/Al and other non-traditional stable isotope signatures may also prove worthwhile. Overall, the fecal Pb levels detected were below those described in feces for waterfowl from other uncontaminated areas(<10 µg/g d.w.. Despite this, for both species fecal Pb levels were positively correlated with porphyrin excretion, and for purple gallinule, with the coproporphyrin III/I ratio, suggesting some subtle effects on heme synthesis in birds. Ten years after the mine spill, Pb contamination in birds by this pollution source was still detectable and subtlethal effects may persist.

  2. [Disturbances of thyroid function in adult population of the city of Cracow followed up for ten years observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Gołkowski, Filip; Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define disturbances of thyroid function in adult population of the city of Cracow followed up for ten years. The analysis included the results obtained from 891 individuals, 571 females and 320 males aged 18-78 years examined prior to and after implementation of the obligatory model of iodine prophylaxis (years 1989-1990 and 1998-1999). After the exclusion of patients diagnosed earlier as having hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, the mean TSH level in the years 1998-1999 was significantly higher as compared to data obtained between 1989 and 1990 (1.44 microj/ml vs. 1.30 microj/ml) in the examined population. Our 10 years observation revealed an insignificant increase in frequency of hyperthyroidism only among females (1.6% vs. 0.9%) which did not indicate a clear, endemic in character increase at the population level. In the present investigations, hypothyroidism was demonstrated to occur more frequently as compared to the 1989-90 study (2.1% vs. 1.4% among females and 0.3% vs. 0% in males). Both differences were not statistically significant. As seen from the present results, over the investigated 10-year period, in the Cracow population, there occurred a clear, statistically significant (p<0.001) increase of the percentage of individuals with an elevated TPO antibody titter (3.8% vs. 11.8%). In our investigation no correlation was observed between anti-TPO antibodies and ioduria levels. The results reveal no statistically significant increase in incidence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after implementation of the obligatory model of iodine prophylaxis. The future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in increase of anti-TPO autoantibodies and verify its possible temporary nature.

  3. Urine Iodine Status of 8-10-Year Old School Children in Yazd Province during Ten Years (2007-2016

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    Yousof Naghiaee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine is an essential element for growth and development and its inadequate intake leads to insufficient production of thyroid hormone. In developed countries iodine deficiency (ID is one of the reformable factors. So, this study determined urinary iodine (UI status of 8-10-year old school children in Yazd province during 2007 to 2016. Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted on 2236 students who were randomly selected from urban and rural regions with equal proportion of gender. Questionnaires were administered to gather the required descriptive data and then morning samples of urine were collected. Iodine concentration was determined with titration and acidic digestion. Data were analyzed through SPSS software. Results: During the study period, the percentage of students with UI of lower than 2 µg/dL, was zero and only 2.37 % of them had a UI level in the range of 2-4.90 µg/dL. Median of UI was 18.40 ± 7.70 µg/dL level of UI in normal range showed noticeable increase from 2013 to 2016. Level of normal UI in ten years was 79.02%. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, Yazd province was considered "IDD free" similar to some other provinces. Also, level of UI more than 30 µg/dL was decreased. It is clear that this approaches need continuous evaluation such as annual evaluation of UI in 8-10 years old students at province level and every five years evaluation at national level.

  4. Clinical diagnosis of syphilis: a ten-year retrospective analysis in a South Australian urban sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, C E; Ward, A

    2016-12-01

    National notifications for infectious syphilis in Australia have increased in recent years. Outside of sexual health clinics, junior clinicians seldom encounter this disease in its infectious stage (primary, secondary and early latent). With such a variable clinical presentation, textbook teaching is no substitute for real-life experience. The importance of accurate classification and staging of disease is relevant to the risk of transmission and determines treatment duration. In this article, the authors review the clinical presentation of syphilis over ten years in an urban sexual health clinic with a focus on the clinical presentation and diagnosis of infectious syphilis, in particular secondary syphilis, compared with that outlined in the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System guidelines. This retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with syphilis at an urban sexual health clinic showed that between 2005 and 2015, 226 cases of syphilis were diagnosed. Documentation of impression of clinical staging of disease was present in 46% of the cases. Seventeen of these cases were recorded as secondary syphilis. The criteria used by clinicians to diagnose the secondary syphilis cases were consistent with criteria defined by the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. All cases of secondary syphilis had at least one cutaneous manifestation of disease. The demographic of the cohort of syphilis cases was consistent with that recorded in the literature. This review showed that the clinician's diagnosis of secondary syphilis in this service is consistent with the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System guidelines. Continuing education of junior medical staff is important to facilitate diagnosis and improve documentation of clinical staging, minimise disease transmission and ensure appropriate treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-11-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic

  6. Ten-Year Monitored Natural Recovery of Lead-Contaminated Mine Tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Otwong, Ashijya; Chantharit, Aphichart; Lowry, Gregory V

    2016-10-01

    Klity Creek has become Thailand's first official remediation ordered by the court in 2013, 15 years after the spill of lead (Pb)-contaminated mine tailing into the creek. The Pollution Control Department (PCD) decided to restore the creek through monitored natural recovery (MNR) since 2006 but has not been successful. Interestingly, the most recent remediation plan in 2015 will still apply MNR to five out of the seven portions of the creek, despite no scientific feasibility evaluation of using MNR to restore the creek. This study qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the feasibility of using MNR to clean up the creek in order to protect the Klity children from excess Pb exposure. We analyzed the physical and chemical transformation of Pb contaminated sediment in the creek and developed a remedial action goal and cleanup level using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK). We empirically determined the natural recovery (NR) potentials and rates using 10 years of data monitoring the water and sediment samples from eight monitoring stations (KC1 to KC8). Klity Creek has NR potential for water except at KC2, which is closest to the spill and the other improperly managed Pb sources. However, the creek has no NR potential for sediment except at the KC8 location (NR rate = 11.1 ± 3.0 × 10-3 month-1) farthest from the spill. The MNR method is not suitable to use as the sole remedial approach for Klity Creek (KC2 to KC7). Although MNR is applicable at KC8, it may require up to 377 ± 76 years to restore the sediment to the background Pb concentration. Phenrat T, Otwong A, Chantharit A, Lowry GV. 2016. Ten-year monitored natural recovery of lead-contaminated mine tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Environ Health Perspect 124:1511-1520; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP215.

  7. A ten-year global record of absorbing aerosols above clouds from OMI's near-UV observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torrres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction continues to be one of the leading uncertain components of climate models, primarily due to the lack of an adequate knowledge of the complex microphysical and radiative processes associated with the aerosolcloud system. The situations when aerosols and clouds are found in the same atmospheric column, for instance, when light-absorbing aerosols such as biomass burning generated carbonaceous particles or wind-blown dust overlay low-level cloud decks, are commonly found over several regional of the world. Contrary to the cloud-free scenario over dark surface, for which aerosols are known to produce a net cooling effect (negative radiative forcing) on climate, the overlapping situation of absorbing aerosols over cloud can potentially exert a significant level of atmospheric absorption and produces a positive radiative forcing at top-of-atmosphere. The magnitude of direct radiative effects of aerosols above cloud depends directly on the aerosol loading, microphysical-optical properties of the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud deck, and geometric cloud fraction. We help in addressing this problem by introducing a novel product of optical depth of absorbing aerosols above clouds retrieved from near-UV observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's Aura platform. The presence of absorbing aerosols above cloud reduces the upwelling radiation reflected by cloud and produces a strong `color ratio' effect in the near-UV region, which can be unambiguously detected in the OMI measurements. Physically based on this effect, the OMACA algorithm retrieves the optical depths of aerosols and clouds simultaneously under a prescribed state of atmosphere. The algorithm architecture and results from a ten-year global record including global climatology of frequency of occurrence and above-cloud aerosol optical depth, and a discussion on related future field campaigns are presented.

  8. The Ten Years Survey on Clinical and Epidemiologic Features of Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Sina Hospital, Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Since the elimination of poliomyelitis from Iran, Guillain–Barre Syndrome (GBS has been the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis. There are a few studies concerning clinical and epidemiologic features of Guillain-Barré syndrome in our country, therefore we evaluated ten years clinical and epidemiologic features of GBS in Sina hospital, Hamadan, Iran.Materials & Methods: In a retrospective descriptive study, we reviewed 80 records of patients with GBS who were hospitalized in Sina Hospital (Hamadan, Iran during 1993-2003. Because of incomplete data we excluded 29 patients from the study. We evaluated clinical and epidemiologic features, risk factors, lab data and management protocols. Complete remission defined as complete improved patient four weeks after the GBS treatment and partial remission as the continuation of the symptom after that time. All the data extracted manually and analyzed with SPSS software.Results: From 51 patients, 36 (70.59% were men and 15 (29.41% women, with a proportion of 2.4 men to 1 woman. The age ranged from 3 to 85 years. The highest frequency was observed in patients aged 11 to 20 (35.28%. 13 patients were student, 11 were house keeper, 11 were farmer, 7 were worker. 29 patients (56.84% had risk factors like respiratory and gastrointestinal track infection, surgery and fever before the disease onset. Complete and partial remission occurred in 17 and 28 patients respectively and 5 patients did not improve. Management failure occurred in 3 (8.83%, 2 (22.23% and 5 (62.5% patients who underwent IVIG, plasmapheresis and corticosteroids respectively.Conclusion: Our data was not similar to other studies in term of male to female proportion, age distribution and management protocols, therefore geographical pattern of the disease should be concerned for better patients’ management.

  9. Ten-year hemoglobin A1c trajectories and outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Diabetes & Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiteerapong, Neda; Karter, Andrew J; Moffet, Howard H; Cooper, Jennifer M; Gibbons, Robert D; Liu, Jennifer Y; Gao, Yue; Huang, Elbert S

    2017-01-01

    To classify trajectories of long term HbA1c values in patients after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and examine each trajectory's associations with subsequent microvascular and macrovascular events and mortality. A longitudinal follow-up of 28,016 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes was conducted. Latent growth mixture modeling was used to identify ten-year HbA1c trajectories. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess how HbA1c trajectories were associated with events (microvascular and macrovascular) and mortality. We identified 5 HbA1c trajectories: "low stable" (82.5%), "moderate increasing late" (5.1%), "high decreasing early" (4.9%), "moderate peaking late" (4.1%) and "moderate peaking early" (3.3%). After adjusting for average HbA1c, compared to the low stable trajectory, all non-stable trajectories were associated with higher incidences of microvascular events (hazard ratio (HR) range, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.08-1.53) (high decreasing early) to 1.45 (95% CI, 1.20-1.75) (moderate peaking early)). The high decreasing early trajectory was associated with an increased mortality risk (HR, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.03-1.58)). Trajectories were not associated with macrovascular events. Non-stable HbA1c trajectories were associated with greater risk of microvascular events and mortality. These findings suggest a potential benefit of early diabetes detection, prioritizing good glycemic control, and maintaining control over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Who requests their sperm donor's identity? The first ten years of information releases to adults with open-identity donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheib, Joanna E; Ruby, Alice; Benward, Jean

    2017-02-01

    To report findings from 10 years of requests from adults eligible to obtain their open-identity sperm donor's information. Analysis of archived family and donor data. Semistructured interviews at information releases. Not applicable. A total of 85 DI adults requesting 43 donor identities; program data on 256 DI families. None. We identified [1] demographic predictors of requesting donor identities, [2] information release timing and length, and [3] request motives. Just >35% of eligible DI adults requested their donor's identity. Adults ranged from 18-27 years, requesting at median age 18 years. More women than men requested. Proportionally fewer adults requested when they had heterosexual-couple parents, and proportionally more when they had one rather than two parents. In interviews, the common theme was wanting to know more about the donor, especially about shared characteristics. Most adults planned to contact their donor. More than 94% of adults had donors who were open to contact; adults expressed modest expectations about this contact. In 2001, the first adults became eligible to obtain their open-identity sperm donor's information. Ten years of identity requests at one program indicates that information about one's donor is important to a significant proportion of these DI adults. Most requested their donor's identity soon after becoming eligible, suggesting some urgency to wanting the information. Interview data highlighted the role of donor information in helping adults better understand themselves and their ancestry. Findings hold important implications for practice and policy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Ten-Year Global Record of Absorbing Aerosols Above Clouds from OMI's Near-UV Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction continues to be one of the leading uncertain components of climate models, primarily due to the lack of an adequate knowledge of the complex microphysical and radiative processes associated with the aerosol-cloud system. The situations when aerosols and clouds are found in the same atmospheric column, for instance, when light-absorbing aerosols such as biomass burning generated carbonaceous particles or wind-blown dust overlay low-level cloud decks, are commonly found over several regional of the world. Contrary to the cloud-free scenario over dark surface, for which aerosols are known to produce a net cooling effect (negative radiative forcing) on climate, the overlapping situation of absorbing aerosols over cloud can potentially exert a significant level of atmospheric absorption and produces a positive radiative forcing at top-of-atmosphere. The magnitude of direct radiative effects of aerosols above cloud depends directly on the aerosol loading, microphysical-optical properties of the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud deck, and geometric cloud fraction. We help in addressing this problem by introducing a novel product of optical depth of absorbing aerosols above clouds retrieved from near-UV observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's Aura platform. The presence of absorbing aerosols above cloud reduces the upwelling radiation reflected by cloud and produces a strong 'color ratio' effect in the near-UV region, which can be unambiguously detected in the OMI measurements. Physically based on this effect, the OMACA algorithm retrieves the optical depths of aerosols and clouds simultaneously under a prescribed state of atmosphere. The algorithm architecture and results from a ten-year global record including global climatology of frequency of occurrence and above-cloud aerosol optical depth, and a discussion on related future field campaigns are presented.

  12. [Ten years experience with the first approved biosimilar recombinant human growth hormone drug in normal clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Siguero, Juan Pedro; Palla García, Margarida; Martínez Busto, Elena; Rebollo, Francisco José; Pombo, Manuel

    2017-06-28

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is the first biosimilar drug approved by the European Medicines Agency in 2006, using the biosimilar registration process. It was authorised for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency, and growth disorders associated with Turner's syndrome, chronic renal failure, Prader-Willi syndrome, and growth disorders in children/adolescents born small for gestational age, and replacement therapy in adults with pronounced growth hormone deficiency. This review is focused on the scientific evidence published about this drug in the last ten years, including the clinical trials on which the approval of the regulatory authority is based, and the most relevant studies evaluating the clinical impact of the drug in clinical practice. The equivalence between biosimilar and original product has been confirmed in the clinical trials published by Romer et al. and López-Siguero et al. Furthermore, studies carried out in real-life conditions confirm its long-term efficacy and safety, as well as the absence of clinical impact by switching treatment from the original to the biosimilar product. The number of patients receiving this medication has continuously increased since its approval. Its equivalence with the original product has been verified. Preliminary data from the post-authorisation PATRO study confirm the efficacy and safety of the biosimilar product in comparison with data from clinical trials. However, final results must be evaluated at the end of the study, which will provide additional information about the long-term efficacy and safety of the biosimilar drug. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Monitoring of Pb Exposure in Waterfowl Ten Years after a Mine Spill through the Use of Noninvasive Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.; Lefranc, Hugues; Martín-Doimeadiós, Rosa C.; Green, Andy J.; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Lead exposure in waterfowl was studied using noninvasive fecal sampling in the Guadalquivir Marshes in Spain, an area affected by the 1998 Aznalcóllar mine disaster. Feces of greylag geese (Anser anser, n = 191) and purple gallinule (Porphyrio porphyrio, n = 91) were collected from three different impacted sites (Entremuros, Caracoles and Cerro de los Ánsares) during the winters of 2004 to 2008. Lead and aluminium (an indicator of sediment ingestion) and Pb isotope signatures (to discriminate between sources of Pb exposure) were analyzed in freeze-dried, acid digested samples. The concentrations of fecal porphyrins and biliverdin were determined as noninvasive biomarkers to study Pb exposure effects. Results showed a decrease in Pb exposure over time in wintering greylag geese. In contrast, for purple gallinule resident in the Entremuros a clear trend was not evident. For both species, sediment ingestion appeared to be the main source of exposure to Pb. In the Entremuros, some samples from purple gallinule were detected with higher Pb levels than expected for simple soil ingestion, and these had Pb isotopic profiles compatible with mining sludge or Pb shot. Whilst fecal Pb isotopic profiles were effective in differentiating between samples from sites with different levels and sources of pollution, the combined use of element ratios (such as Pb/Al) and other non-traditional stable isotope signatures may also prove worthwhile. Overall, the fecal Pb levels detected were below those described in feces for waterfowl from other uncontaminated areas(Pb levels were positively correlated with porphyrin excretion, and for purple gallinule, with the coproporphyrin III/I ratio, suggesting some subtle effects on heme synthesis in birds. Ten years after the mine spill, Pb contamination in birds by this pollution source was still detectable and subtlethal effects may persist. PMID:23437364

  14. [Etiological aspects of acute gastroenteritis--a ten-year review (1.01. 2001-31.12.2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Cătălina Mihaela; Nemescu, Roxana; Teodor, Andra; Fântânaru, Rodica; Petrovici, Cristina Mirela; Dorobăţ, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Acute gastroentritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity worldwide. To determine the bacterial pathogens associated with gastroenteritis in patients admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital in the last ten years. A total of 40481 stool samples were examined using conventional methods. Bacteria were found in 7.36% of cases, and parasites in 9.64%; 83% of the cases were viral, micotic, or disbiotic. The bacterial etiology was dominated by Salmonella spp. (58.34%), Shigella spp. (27.08%), Yersinia enterocolitica 03 (8.53%), Campylobacter spp. (1.31%), other bacterial pathogens (EPEC, Aeromonas hydrophilla/caviae/sobria, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, etc) being detected in 3.74% of the cases. Of the Salmonella species, group B (51.99%) followed by group D (45.23%) were most common. Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri were found in almost the same proportion (49.45% and 49.70%, respectively); Shigella boydii was isolated in only 0.85% of cases. The trend of gastroenteritis caused by bacterial pathogens is decreasing: from 355 cases in 2001 to 105 cases in 2010; three peaks have been recorded in 2002, 2005 (when Salmonella typhi was isolated in a patient), and 2008 (469, 409, and 252 cases, respectively). Bacterial gastroenteritis affected both sexes almost equally (122 males and 118 females). The most affected age groups were: 0 - 4 years, 15 - 24 years, 5 - 14 years and 25 - 39 years. Laboratory investigations are essential in determining the etiology of gastroenteritis. Its unpredictable incidence justifies the human and material efforts aimed at controlling the spread of potentially epidemic acute gastroenteritis.

  15. Dying from cancer or other chronic diseases in the Netherlands: ten-year trends derived from death certificate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hingstman Lammert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the further development of palliative care, it is relevant to gain insight into trends in non-acute mortality. The aim of this article is twofold: (a to provide insight into ten-year trends in the characteristics of patients who died from cancer or other chronic diseases in the Netherlands; (b to show how national death statistics, derived from physicians' death certificates, can be used in this type of investigations. Methods Secondary analysis of data from 1996 to 2006 on the "primary" or "underlying" cause of death from official death certificates filled out by physicians and additional data from 2003 to 2006 on the place of death from these certificates. Results Of the 135,000 people who died in the Netherlands in 2006, 77,000 (or 57% died from a chronic disease. Cancer was the most frequent cause of death (40,000. Stroke accounted for 10,000 deaths, dementia for 8,000 deaths and COPD and heart failure each accounted for 6,000 deaths. Compared to 1996, the number of people who died from chronic diseases has risen by 6%. Of all non-acute deaths, almost three quarters were at least 70 years old when they died. Almost one third of the people died at home (31%, 28% in a hospital, 25% in a nursing home and 16% somewhere else. Conclusion Further investments to facilitate dying at home are desirable. Death certificate data proved to be useful to describe and monitor trends in non-acute deaths. Advantages of the use of death certificate data concern the reliability of the data, the opportunities for selection on the basis of the ICD-10, and the availability and low cost price of the data.

  16. Earthquakes in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This pamphlet provides information about the causes of earthquakes, where earthquakes occur, British Columbia plate techtonics, earthquake patterns, earthquake intensity, geology and earthquake impact...

  17. [Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsy: contribution of an ultrasound diagnostic unit after ten years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, Rafael; Mayayo Dehesa, Teodoro; García González, Ricardo; Arias Fúnez, Fernándo; Lennie Zuccarino, Alberto; Sanz Mayayo, Enrique

    2006-05-01

    Although transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) prostatic biopsy is the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC), neither the ideal number of cores nor the number of repeated biopsies, nor the required diagnostic yield have been established. After our experience of ten years with TRUS biopsy we perform a review of the technique and its indications. PSA, ultrasound features, and pathologic data of 6000 patients undergoing modified sextant TRUS biopsy between 1994 to December 2002 were collected. 222 patients undergoing ten-core TRUS biopsy were included in an experimental group to study the role of the extended biopsy. The contribution of the extra cores to the diagnostic yield in the experimental group was studied to determine the effectiveness of the extended biopsy, using as a control group 552 patients undergoing sextant TRUS biopsy during 2002. Both groups were comparable for the study variables at the start of the study. The incidence of PC in the first biopsy in the group of 6000 patients was 39.1% (2345/6000). Patients with PSA between 4 and 10 ng/ml have an incidence of PC greater than 50% among prostates smaller than 20 cc, diminishing down to 8.9% in those greater than 50 cc. The percentage of PC among patients with negative digital rectal examination (DRE), normal TRUS, and PSA below 4 ng/ml was 16.7%. The diagnostic yield for PSA density lower than 0.11 ng/ml/cc was lower than 8%. The free/total PSA ratio shows a 13.7% incidence of PC with values higher than 0.24. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the only non-significant parameter was free/total PSA. Sixty (27.15%) patients of the extended TRUS biopsy group had PC. Only 2.25% of the 221 patients benefited from the augmented number of biopsies. There were no significant differences in the figures of prostate cancer between groups. Only PSA and volume where significant in the multivariate logistic regression analysis; number of samples, PSA density and age lacked of

  18. Ten years of health workforce planning in the Netherlands: a tentative evaluation of GP planning as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Greuningen Malou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In many countries, health-care labour markets are constantly being challenged by an alternation of shortage and oversupply. Avoiding these cyclic variations is a major challenge. In the Netherlands, a workforce planning model has been used in health care for ten years. Case description Since 1970, the Dutch government has explored different approaches to determine the inflow in medical schools. In 2000, a simulation model for health workforce planning was developed to estimate the required and available capacity of health professionals in the Netherlands. In this paper, this model is explained, using the Dutch general practitioners as an example. After the different steps in the model are clarified, it is shown how elements can be added to arrive at different versions of the model, or ‘scenarios’. A comparison is made of the results of different scenarios for different years. In addition, the subsequent stakeholder decision-making process is considered. Discussion and evaluation Discussion of this paper shows that workforce planning in the Netherlands is a complex modelling task, which is sensitive to different developments influencing the balance between supply and demand. It seems plausible that workforce planning has resulted in a balance between supply and demand of general practitioners. Still, it remains important that the modelling process is accepted by the different stakeholders. Besides calculating the balance between supply and demand, there needs to be an agreement between the stakeholders to implement the advised training inflow. The Dutch simulation model was evaluated using six criteria to be met by models suitable for policy objectives. This model meets these criteria, as it is a comprehensive and parsimonious model that can include all relevant factors. Conclusion Over the last decade, health workforce planning in the Netherlands has become an accepted instrument for calculating the required supply of

  19. Ten-Year Trends (1999–2010) of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among the Balearic Islands’ Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; González, Mónica; Julibert, Alicia; Llompart, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess ten-year trends (1999–2010) of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) among the Balearic Islands’ adult population. Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (1999–2000, n = 1200 and 2009–2010 n = 1388, including participants aged 16–65 years) were carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Dietary habits were assessed by means of two 24 h diet recalls and a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire that covers 145 food items. Adherence to the MDP was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of nine MDP characteristic components: high monounsaturated fatty acids:saturated fatty acids (MUFA:SFA) ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legumes, cereals and roots, fruits, vegetables, and fish consumption, and low consumption of meat and milk. Socio-economic status, education level, lifestyle factors and health status were also assessed. Adherence to the MDP was 43.1% (SD 5.8) in 1999–2000 and 44.6% (SD 8.3) in 2009–2010. Higher age was directly associated with higher adherence to the MDP, and this association was stronger in males than in females. Young generations and smokers showed the lowest adherence to MDP, whereas people with higher educational and socio-economic level, and who were physically active showed the highest adherence. According to the place of birth, the increase in the percentage of the adherence to the MDP was observed to be smaller among the Balearic Island’s natives than among people born abroad. In 2009–2010, individuals in the MDP’s fourth quartile were more likely to be older (aged 46–65 years), and were less likely to have a low occupational level, to have a light physical activity level and to be smoker than in 1999–2000. The adherence to the MDP has been stabilized and slightly recovered among the Balearic Islands’ adult population in the last decade. PMID:28708083

  20. The Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Project: Overview and results from ten years of ACE operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kaley; Strong, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    As of February 2014, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for ten years. As ACE operations have extended beyond the initial two-year mission, there is a continuing need to validate the trace gas data products from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instruments. Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. In particular, validation comparisons are needed for ACE during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, eleven Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2014) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W). This period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer, a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer, a Systeme d'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument, and several Brewer spectrophotometers. In the past several years, these results have been used to validate the measurements by the ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO instruments on SCISAT as well

  1. What do you want to be in ten years? - Advising meteorology students in the post-Twister era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J. T.; Hempe, M.

    2012-12-01

    "What do you want to be in ten years?' This is a question we ask our students, freshmen and transfer, when they first arrive in the College student services center. Often the answer is "I don't know. I just want to be in meteorology." This response leads to a discussion of career opportunities in meteorology and related fields, including what might be called faux-careers, such as professional storm chasing and weather tour operations. (Students often have been misled by what they have seen in television shows.) Many students arrive on our doorstep with their heart set on a degree in meteorology, but lack knowledge of what the field is about or how challenging a meteorology degree program really is. We find ourselves spending a great deal of time convincing students that they need to explore the real opportunities in meteorology and related fields, which are many. Fortunately, because of the concentration of University and federal weather organizations in the National Weather Center and private sector weather companies in adjacent buildings, we are able to show concrete examples of real careers by means of tours, job shadowing, and introductions to alumni employed in these organizations. Also, as the students' progress in their studies, they discover the many opportunities for undergraduate employment, research experiences, and internships in these same organizations, through which they gain an appreciation for what constitutes a real career in modern meteorology. Further, many of today's careers in meteorology require a broad, global perspective. Unfortunately, many meteorology students have not traveled widely, but again have only seen what the media provides about distant lands and peoples. Accordingly, we encourage our undergraduate students to take advantage of our unique opportunities for overseas experiences in meteorology. Through arrangements with the met programs at the University of Reading (England), Monash University (Australia), and University of

  2. Factors associated with severe malaria among children below ten years in Mutasa and Nyanga districts, Zimbabwe, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsigiri-Murewanhema, Faith; Mafaune, Patron Trish; Shambira, Gerald; Juru, Tsitsi; Bangure, Donewell; Mungati, More; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2017-01-01

    Severe malaria is a rare life threatening illness. Only a small proportion of patients with clinical malaria progress to this medical emergency. On reviewing 61 malaria death investigation forms submitted to the provincial office in 2014, 22(36%) were children below ten years who succumbed to severe malaria. Mutasa and Nyanga Districts reported 73% of these deaths. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with severe malaria so as to come up with evidence based interventions to prevent severe malaria and associated mortality. A 1:2 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was defined as a child 10 years and below, who was admitted at Hauna (Mutasa) or Nyanga District Hospitals between September 2014 and May 2015 with a primary diagnosis of severe malaria. Controls were children of similar age with uncomplicated malaria. Permission to conduct the study was sought and granted by the Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe (Approval number B/874), Joint Research Ethics Committee, Health Studies Office and the Manicaland Directorate Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was sought from all caregivers of enrolled children. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to ascertain exposures. A total of 52 cases and 104 controls were enrolled into the study. The median age of cases was 4 years (Q1=3, Q3=9) and 6 years for controls (Q1=3, Q3=8). The Case Fatality Rate among cases was 28.8%. The independent risk factors for severe malaria were; distance >10km to the nearest health facility [Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)=14.35, 95% CI=1.30, 158.81], duration of symptoms before seeking medical care >2 days [aOR=9.03, 95% CI=2.21, 36.93], having comorbidities [aOR=5.38, 95% CI=1.90, 15.19], staying in a house under construction [aOR=4.51, 95%CI=1.80, 11.32] and duration of illness before receiving antimalarial medicines >24 hours [aOR=3.82, 95% CI=1.44, 10.12]. Owning at least one ITN in the household [aOR=0.32, 95% CI=0.11, 0.95] and

  3. Students' Constitutional Right to a Sound Basic Education: New York State's Unfinished Agenda. Part 1. A Roadmap to Constitutional Compliance Ten Years after "CFE v. State"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Ten years have passed since New York's highest court ruled in the landmark school-funding and educational-rights case, "Campaign for Fiscal Equity (CFE) v. State of New York," that the state was violating students' constitutional right to the "opportunity for a sound basic education" and ordered significant reforms of the…

  4. The ten-year course of depression in primary care and long-term effects of psychoeducation, psychiatric consultation and cognitive behavioral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradi, Henk Jan; Bos, Elisabeth H; Kamphuis, Jan H; de Jonge, Peter

    BACKGROUND: While the majority of depressed patients are treated in primary care, long-term follow-up data on the naturalistic course of depression and treatment effectiveness in this setting are scarce. This study examined the ten-year course of depression in primary care patients who had

  5. Let Book Joy Begin @ Your Library[R]!: Ten Years of El Dia de los Ninos/El Dia de los Libros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Loriene

    2007-01-01

    Ten years ago, in 1996, poet and children's book author, Pat Mora began celebrating "book joy" by founding a children's book and reading day, El Dia de los Ninos/El Dia de los Libros or Children's Day/Book Day. Dia is modeled on National Children's Day Celebrations in Mexico held since 1925 when it was launched in conjunction with a…

  6. Ten-year follow-up study of three alternative bearing surfaces used in total hip arthroplasty in young patients: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrey, A; Ward, S E; Khoshbin, A; Hussain, N; Bogoch, E; Schemitsch, E H; Waddell, J P

    2017-12-01

    We present the ten-year data of a cohort of patients, aged between 18 and 65 years (mean age 52.7 years; 19 to 64), who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Patients were randomised to be treated with a cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral head with an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) or ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearing surface. A total of 102 hips (91 patients) were randomised into the three groups. At ten years, 97 hips were available for radiological and functional follow-up. Two hips (two patients) had been revised (one with deep infection and one for periprosthetic fracture) and three were lost to follow-up. Radiological analysis was performed using a validated digital assessment programme to give linear, directional and volumetric wear of the two polyethylene groups. There was a significantly reduced rate of steady-state linear wear with XLPE (0.07 mm/yr) compared with UHMWPE (0.37 mm/yr) (p = 0.001). Volumetric wear was also significantly reduced in the XLPE group (29.29 mm 3 /yr) compared with the UHMWPE group (100.75mm 3 /yr) (p = 0.0001). There were six patients with UHMWPE who had non-progressive osteolysis and none in the XLPE group. All three bearing groups had significant improvements in 12-item short form health survey scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score and Harris Hip Score. However, the improvement in HSS was significantly less in the UHMWPE group (p = 0.0188) than in the other two groups. At ten years, the rates of volumetric and linear wear in the XLPE group remain low and predominantly below the estimated threshold for osteolysis (1 mm/yr). The rate of linear wear in the XLPE group was three times less than in the UHMWPE group at five-year follow-up and five times less at ten years. The rate of volumetric wear was also three times less in the XLPE group at ten years. While CoC also performs well, XLPE at ten years remains a safe and excellent bearing option

  7. Nowcasting Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Turcotte, D. L.; Luginbuhl, M.; Gail, G.

    2016-12-01

    Nowcasting is a term originating from economics and finance. It refers to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or markets at the current time by indirect means. We apply this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of the fault system, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle. In our implementation of this idea, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. Our method does not involve any model other than the idea of an earthquake cycle. Rather, we define a specific region and a specific large earthquake magnitude of interest, ensuring that we have enough data to span at least 20 or more large earthquake cycles in the region. We then compute the earthquake potential score (EPS) which is defined as the cumulative probability distribution P(nearthquakes in the region. From the count of small earthquakes since the last large earthquake, we determine the value of EPS = P(nearthquake cycle in the defined region at the current time.

  8. The present state and future prospects of occupational therapy using technical aids : From an analysis of Japanese Occupational Therapy Society journals for the last ten years.

    OpenAIRE

    笹田, 哲; 宮前, 珠子

    2014-01-01

    The present state of occupational therapy using technical aids was assessed by examining journals of the Japanese Occupational Therapy Society for the last ten years. The findings were that occupational therapists offered not only bathing aids and excretion aids, but also locomotion and communication aids. Technical aids manufactured by occupational therapists accounted for a little over 50% of the total number. Of the technical aids which the journals had deemed effective, in 70% of cases pl...

  9. Ten-Year Follow-Up of Desarthrodesis of the Knee Joint 41 Years after Original Arthrodesis for a Bone Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Hamed Kassem Abdelaal; Norio Yamamoto; Katsuhiro Hayashi; Akihiko Takeuchi; Shinji Miwa; Hiroyuki Inatani; Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The main indication for knee arthrodesis in tumor surgery is a tumor that requires an extensive resection in which the joint surface cannot be preserved. We report a patient that had knee desarthrodesis 41 years after giant cell tumor resection followed by a knee arthrodesis. This is the longest reported follow-up after desarthrodesis and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA), almost ten years. Case Report. A 71-year-old man with a distal femoral giant cell tumor had under...

  10. RNA extraction from ten year old formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples: a comparison of column purification and magnetic bead-based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haiyu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of protocols for RNA extraction from paraffin-embedded samples facilitates gene expression studies on archival samples with known clinical outcome. Older samples are particularly valuable because they are associated with longer clinical follow up. RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue is problematic due to chemical modifications and continued degradation over time. We compared quantity and quality of RNA extracted by four different protocols from 14 ten year old and 14 recently archived (three to ten months old FFPE breast cancer tissues. Using three spin column purification-based protocols and one magnetic bead-based protocol, total RNA was extracted in triplicate, generating 336 RNA extraction experiments. RNA fragment size was assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for the housekeeping gene glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, testing primer sets designed to target RNA fragment sizes of 67 bp, 151 bp, and 242 bp. Results Biologically useful RNA (minimum RNA integrity number, RIN, 1.4 was extracted in at least one of three attempts of each protocol in 86–100% of older and 100% of recently archived ("months old" samples. Short RNA fragments up to 151 bp were assayable by RT-PCR for G6PD in all ten year old and months old tissues tested, but none of the ten year old and only 43% of months old samples showed amplification if the targeted fragment was 242 bp. Conclusion All protocols extracted RNA from ten year old FFPE samples with a minimum RIN of 1.4. Gene expression of G6PD could be measured in all samples, old and recent, using RT-PCR primers designed for RNA fragments up to 151 bp. RNA quality from ten year old FFPE samples was similar to that extracted from months old samples, but quantity and success rate were generally higher for the months old group. We preferred the magnetic bead-based protocol because of its speed and higher quantity of

  11. Porous tantalum uncemented acetabular components in revision total hip arthroplasty: a minimum ten-year clinical, radiological and quality of life outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, S; Duncan, C P; Masri, B A; Garbuz, D S

    2016-06-01

    Reconstruction of the acetabulum after failed total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be a surgical challenge in the presence of severe bone loss. We report the long-term survival of a porous tantalum revision acetabular component, its radiological appearance and quality of life outcomes. We reviewed the results of 46 patients who had undergone revision of a failed acetabular component with a Paprosky II or III bone defect and reconstruction with a hemispherical, tantalum acetabular component, supplementary screws and a cemented polyethylene liner. After a minimum follow-up of ten years (ten to 12), the survivorship of the porous tantalum acetabular component was 96%, with further revision of the acetabular component as the end point. The ten-year survivorship, with hip revision for any reason as the end point, was 92%. We noted excellent pain relief (mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score pain 92.6, (40 to 100)) and good functional outcomes (mean WOMAC function 90.3 (30.9 to 100), mean University of California Los Angeles activity scale 5 (2 to 10)) and generic quality of life measures (mean Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical component 48.3 (18.1 to 56.8), mean SF-12 mental component 56.7 (32.9 to 70.3)). Patient satisfaction with pain relief, function and return to recreational activities were excellent. Uncemented acetabular reconstruction using a tantalum acetabular component gives excellent clinical and quality of life outcomes at a minimum follow-up of ten years. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:767-71. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  12. Management and treatment goals in Polish patients with type 2 diabetes of more than ten years' duration - results of ARETAEUS2-Grupa Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bała, Małgorzata M; Płaczkiewicz-Jankowska, Ewa; Leśniak, Wiktoria; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Jankowski, Miłosz; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Sieradzki, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown insufficient diabetes control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Diabetes Poland changed the target HbA1c and blood pressure (BP) values in diabetic patients in their practice guidelines in 2011, that were further sustained. To assess the management and treatment choices in T2DM of more than ten years' duration and the degree to which diabetic control criteria recommended by the Diabetes Poland clinical practice guidelines 2012 are being met. ARETAEUS2-Grupa was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted in Poland in 2012 (April-June). It involved 1,740 patients of any age and both genders, with T2DM diagnosed more than ten years before the study, and recruited by randomly selected physicians. All patients received pharmacological treatment, most of them combination therapy or insulin in monotherapy. 40% of patients met the goal for HbA1c control (≤ 7%) and the median value of HbA1c was above the recommended threshold (7.2%). Only 8% of thetotal population met all three goals (HbA1c, BP and lipid levels), 26% - two goals, and 40% - only one goal. Over 25% of patients did not meet any of the treatment goals. We observed considerable deviations from treatment targets recommended by current clinical practice guidelines for patients with T2DM of more than ten years' duration. The frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and late diabetes complications was high, while a relatively high percentage of patients was not examined for late diabetes complications.

  13. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children six to ten years of age in the north-east health region of Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake-Scarlettl, B E; Younger, N; McKenzie, C A; Van den Broeck, J; Powell, C; Edwards, S; Win, S S; Wilks, R J

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among children six to ten years old in the North-East Health Region (NEHR) ofJamaica. Weights and heights were measured in a representative sample of 5710 children between the ages of six and ten years in 34 schools between October 2008 and March 2009. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI) Z-score > 1SD and >2SD, respectively based on the World Health Organization (WHO)-endorsed age and gender-specific growth standards for children. Point prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity were calculated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate associations between overweight and obesity and age, gender and school location. Overweight and obesity prevalence among children six to ten years old in NEHR, Jamaica, was 10.6% and 7.1%, respectively. Overweight (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) and obesity (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.26) prevalence increased significantly with age. Overweight (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.80) and obesity (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.67) prevalence was significantly higher among girls than boys. Children attending rural-public schools had less risk of being overweight (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.70) and obese (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.44) when compared with urban-public schools and private schools. Both overweight (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.60, 2.78) and obesity (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.28) were significantly more common among children attending private schools. After adjusting for age and gender the results still remained statistically significant. Overweight/obesity prevalence among children six to ten years old in NEHR of Jamaica is 17.7% with older children and girls having higher rates. Children attending urban-public and private schools have higher prevalence than those attending rural schools. Appropriately targeted interventions are needed to combat this problem.

  14. Preparing Science-Trained Professionals for the Biotechnology Industry: A Ten-Year Perspective on a Professional Science Master’s Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Hamilton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnology industry has a need for business-savvy scientists; however, this is not the way scientists are traditionally trained at universities and colleges. To address this need, universities have developed Professional Science Master’s (PSM degree programs that offer advanced training in a technical field along with professional skills development through team-based projects and internships. Nearly ten years ago, the Department of Microbiology at NCSU started a PSM program in Microbial Biotechnology (MMB. This article provides an overview of the MMB program, and shares some of the lessons that we have learned.

  15. Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and ten years post-disaster – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Bellis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster experiences have been associated with higher prevalence rates of (mental health problems. The objective of this study was to examine the independent relation between a series of single disaster experiences versus the independent predictive value of a accumulation of disaster experiences, i.e. a sum score of experiences and symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Methods Survivors of a fireworks disaster participated in a longitudinal study and completed a questionnaire three weeks (wave 1, eighteen months (wave 2 and four years post-disaster (wave 3. Ten years post-disaster (wave 4 the respondents consisted of native Dutch survivors only. Main outcome measures were general distress and symptoms of PTSD. Results Degree of disaster exposure (sum score and some disaster-related experiences (such as house destroyed, injured, confusion were related to distress at waves 2 and 3. This relation was mediated by distress at an earlier point in time. None of the individual disaster-related experiences was independently related to symptoms of distress. The association between the degree of disaster exposure and symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3 was still statistically significant after controlling for symptoms of distress and PTSD at earlier point in time. The variable ‘house destroyed’ was the only factor that was independently related to symptoms of PTSD at wave 2. Ten years after the disaster, disaster exposure was mediated by symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3. Disaster exposure was not independently related to symptoms of PTSD ten years post-disaster. Conclusions Until 4 years after the disaster, degree of exposure (a sum score was a risk factor for PTSD symptoms while none of the individual disaster experiences could be identified as an independent risk factor. Ten years post-disaster, disaster exposure was no longer an independent risk factor for symptoms of PTSD. Since symptoms of PTSD and

  16. Long-term effects of a ten-year osteoporosis intervention program in a Swedish population—A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Grahn Kronhed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore long-term effects seven years after the completion of a ten-year community-based osteoporosis intervention program in Vadstena, Sweden. The association between calcaneal bone mineral density and several life style factors, and the impact of risk factors for sustaining a fracture after the age of 50 were also studied. Previous participants in the intervention group, and matched subjects were invited to calcaneal bone mass measurement by a portable device including the dual X-ray and laser (DXL technology by Calscan, and to complete a questionnaire in 2006. A total of 417 persons (63% of those invited in the intervention (I group, and 120 persons (47% of those invited in the control (C group participated. Mean age was 63 years (37–94 years. There was somewhat more knowledge of osteoporosis in the I-group (M = 18 than in the C-group (M = 17 (p −2.5. The long-term effects of a ten-year, community-based, osteoporosis intervention program on knowledge and behavior were modest seven years after its completion.

  17. [Ten years of commitment to persons living with HIV-AIDS: evaluation of the management in three ambulatory treatment centers of the French Red Cross in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouala, C; Madec, Y; Adam, G; Courpotin, C; Fikouma, V; Gentilini, M; Ould Mohamedoune, A; Nzounza, P; Schaer, E; Simon, B; Mattei, J-F

    2008-01-01

    The French Red Cross (FRC) has developed a strategy for the follow-up of people living with HIV-AIDS in Africa by setting-up and managing healthcare centers specialized in the management of HIV infection. Nearly one hundred and seventy thousand patients have had access to care in fifteen Ambulatory Treatment Centers (ATCs). For the ten years anniversary of the FRC's AIDS programs, we present the results of the evaluation of three ATCs in Africa. These results which show a low mortality rate in the patients on antiretroviral therapy and a very low rate of second line patients (1.5%) confirm the efficiency of the management of people living with HIV in the ATCs and generally of the AIDS programs of the FRC. However, the mortality remains high in patients who have a CD4+ cell count of less than 50/mm3 when antiretrovirals (ARVs) initiation. Services and care dispensed in the ATCs and particularly the antiretroviral therapy have demonstrated their feasibility and efficiency. In ten years, the challenge of the management of HIV has changed. Today, there is a need to integrate additional actions in the area of the supply of primary healthcare, of training and of motivation of the care providers. In addition, the follow-up/evaluation of the patient management programs remains useful to determine the impact and long-term efficacy of ARVs in resource-limited countries.

  18. Ten Years of Net Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anklam, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective on the emergence of social media and their adoption as a critical element in knowledge management strategy. Social media are defined as the collection of software tools and web-based applications that are personalized, that is, that communications identify individuals by name and…

  19. A Ten Year Epidemiological Appraisal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive analysis of road traffic accidents data in. Tanzania was done using routine police records. The trends, road users injured or killed and conservative factors were recorded. The results showed that between 1990 and 2000 the number of road traffic accidents rose by 44% from a total 10,107. At the same time the ...

  20. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  1. Ten-year observation of dentin bonding durability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin cement--a SEM and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kanako; Kitasako, Yuichi; Ichinose, Shizuko; Burrow, Michael F; Ariyoshi, Meu; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess dentin bond durability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin cement over ten years, by evaluating the tensile bond strength, and SEM and TEM observations. Tensile bond strength of Super Bond C&B (SB) to bovine dentin was evaluated at 1 day and after 10 years. The mode of failure after debonding was observed by SEM. Interfacial ultrastructure and nanoleakage was observed by TEM at the baseline and after 10 y. The tensile bond strength significantly dropped after 10 y. The failure pattern shifted from cohesive failure in resin towards adhesive failure or cohesive failure in dentin. TEM observation revealed degradation of both resin and collagen networks within the hybrid layer and nanoleakage at the base of the hybrid layer after 10 y. The bond strength of SB to dentin significantly decreased, and the hybrid layer degraded, while the overlying hydrophobic resin layer showed little disintegration over 10 y.

  2. Organic matter components, aggregate stability and biological activity in a horticultural soil fertilized with different rates of two sewage sludges during ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiach, R; Canet, R; Pomares, F; Ingelmo, F

    2001-04-01

    The effects of the application as fertilizer during ten years of two sewage sludges (aerobically and anaerobically digested, at rates of 400, 800, and 1200 kg of N/ha yr), on the aggregate stability and contents of related organic matter components, microbial biomass and levels of five enzymatic activities (alkaline phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, urease, arylsulphatase and dehydrogenase) were investigated. The application of both sludges at mid and high rates gave rise to significant increases of organic matter, humified substances and humic acids, but no effects on carbohydrates, microbial gums and aggregate stability were observed. As for biological activity in soils, the high variability of data led to a general absence of statistical significance despite the large differences between treatments observed. Significant increases of phosphodiesterase activity were nevertheless produced by the high rate of aerobic sludge and the mid and high rates of the anaerobic sludge.

  3. Endovascular treatment of false-aneurysm ten years after dacron patch aortoplasty for coarctation of the aortic isthmus. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    False aneurysm degeneration is a known complication of patch aortoplasty for coarctation of the aortic isthmus. Open surgical treatment consists of prosthetic graft repair of the involved aorta, often requires circulatory arrest to achieve a safe proximal aortic control and perform proximal anastomosis, and finally is associated with substantial perioperative morbidity. Endografting of the diseased aorta is a valuable alternative to open repair, when feasible, with good short and long term results. We now report one more case of false aneurysm ten years after Dacron patch aortoplasty for isthmic coarctation in a 26-year-old woman, successfully treated by endovascular repair via the left common iliac artery, and a complete exclusion of the aneurysm at two year follow-up.

  4. Ten-Year Summary and Evaluation of Operations and Performance of the Utica Aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands Restoration Project, 2004-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This document reviews the performance of the groundwater (and wetlands) restoration program implemented by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the first ten years of this initiative (2004-2014). The results of the program for the first five-year period of operation were previously discussed in detail (Argonne 2011). The present report focuses on treatment system operational data and regulatory compliance monitoring results for the site during the second five-year period of operation (2010-2014), together with the results of (1) ongoing monitoring and (2) targeted groundwater sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses conducted at Utica in 2015 (following completion of the tenth year of systems operation), to assess the 10-year progress of the Utica remediation effort.

  5. Durability of the reaction to fire performance for fire retardant treated (FRT wood products in exterior applications – a ten years report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several long term experimental studies on the maintained reaction to fire performance of fire retardant treated (FRT wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated ageing according to different procedures and natural weathering up to ten years. Main conclusions are: The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood products used commercially. The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural ageing if the retention levels are high enough, but several FRT wood products loose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering. Paint systems contribute considerably to maintain of the fire performance at exterior application and are usually needed to maintain the fire performance after weathering.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Ten-year Site Plan (2012 through 2021) -- DOE-NE's National Nuclear Capability -- Developing and Maintaining the INL Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal Ozaki

    2010-06-01

    To meet long-term objectives to transform the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), we are providing an integrated, long-term vision of infrastructure requirements that support research, development and demonstration (RD&D) goals outlined in the DOE strategic plans, including the NE Roadmap and reports such as Facilities for the Future of Nuclear Energy Research: A Twenty-year Outlook. The goal of the INL Ten-year Site Plan (TYSP) is to clearly link RD&D mission goals and INL core capabilities with infrastructure requirements (single and multi-program), establish the 10-year end-state vision for INL complexes, identify and prioritize infrastructure and capability gaps, as well as the most efficient and economic approaches to closing those gaps.

  7. Advancing the education in molecular diagnostics: the IFCC-Initiative "Clinical Molecular Biology Curriculum" (C-CMBC); a ten-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianidou, Evi; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Izuhara, Kenji; Cremonesi, Laura; Schroeder, Maria-Eugenia; Richter, Karin; Ferrari, Maurizio; Neumaier, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Molecular techniques are becoming commonplace in the diagnostic laboratory. Their applications influence all major phases of laboratory medicine including predisposition/genetic risk, primary diagnosis, therapy stratification and prognosis. Readily available laboratory hardware and wetware (i.e. consumables and reagents) foster rapid dissemination to countries that are just establishing molecular testing programs. Appropriate skill levels extending beyond the technical procedure are required for analytical and diagnostic proficiency that is mandatory in molecular genetic testing. An international committee (C-CMBC) of the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) was established to disseminate skills in molecular genetic testing in member countries embarking on the respective techniques. We report the ten-year experience with different teaching and workshop formats for beginners in molecular diagnostics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. HAZGRIDX: earthquake forecasting model for ML≥ 5.0 earthquakes in Italy based on spatially smoothed seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aybige Akinci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a five-year, time-independent, earthquake-forecast model for earthquake magnitudes of 5.0 and greater in Italy using spatially smoothed seismicity data. The model is called HAZGRIDX, and it was developed based on the assumption that future earthquakes will occur near locations of historical earthquakes; it does not take into account any information from tectonic, geological, or geodetic data. Thus HAZGRIDX is based on observed earthquake occurrence from seismicity data, without considering any physical model. In the present study, we calculate earthquake rates on a spatial grid platform using two declustered catalogs: 1 the Parametric catalog of Italian earthquakes (Catalogo Parametrico dei Terremoti Italiani, CPTI04 that contains the larger earthquakes from MW 7.0 since 1100; and 2 the Italian seismicity catalogue (Catalogo della Sismicità Italiana, CSI 1.1 that contains the small earthquakes down to ML 1.0, with a maximum of ML 5.9, over the past 22 years (1981-2003. The model assumes that earthquake magnitudes follow the Gutenberg-Richter law, with a uniform b-value. The forecast rates are presented in terms of the expected numbers of ML>5.0 events per year for each grid cell of about 10 km × 10 km. The final map is derived by averaging the earthquake potentials that come from these two different catalogs: CPTI04 and CSI 1.1. We also describe the earthquake occurrences in terms of probabilities of occurrence of one event within a specified magnitude bin, DM0.1, in a five year time period. HAZGRIDX is one of several forecasting models, scaled to five and ten years, that have been submitted to the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Probability (CSEP forecasting center in ETH, Zurich, to be tested for Italy.

  9. Epidemiological Study of RRT-Treated ESRD in Nanjing - A Ten-Year Experience in Nearly Three Million Insurance Covered Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Han

    Full Text Available The growing burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD has been a great challenge to the health care system of China. However, the exact epidemiological data for ESRD in China remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of ESRD treated by renal replacement therapy (RRT in Nanjing based on analysing ten-year data of Nanjing three million insurance covered population.Using the electronic registry system of Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI, we included all subjects insured by UEBMI in Nanjing from 2005 to 2014 and identified subjects who developed ESRD and started RRT in this cohort.The UEBMI population in Nanjing increased from 1,301,882 in 2005 to 2,921,065 in 2014, among which a total of 5,840 subjects developed ESRD and received RRT. Over the 10-year period, the adjusted incidence rates of RRT in the UEBMI cohort gradually decreased from 289.3pmp in 2005 to 218.8pmp in 2014. However, the adjusted prevalence rate increased steadily from 891.7pmp in 2005 to 1,228.6pmp in 2014. The adjusted annual mortality rate decreased from 138.4 per 1000 patient-years in 2005 to 97.8 per 1000 patient-years in 2014. The long-term survival rate fluctuated over the past decade, with the 1-year survival rate ranging from 85.1% to 91.7%, the 3-year survival rate from 69.9% to 78.3% and the 5-year survival rate from 58% to 65.4%.Nanjing is facing an increasing burden of ESRD with its improvement of medical reform. The ten-year complete registry data on RRT in urban employees in Nanjing provided a unique opportunity to understand the real threat of ESRD confronting China during its process of health care transition.

  10. Long-term effects of a ten-year osteoporosis intervention program in a Swedish population-A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte; Salminen, Helena

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to explore long-term effects seven years after the completion of a ten-year community-based osteoporosis intervention program in Vadstena, Sweden. The association between calcaneal bone mineral density and several life style factors, and the impact of risk factors for sustaining a fracture after the age of 50 were also studied. Previous participants in the intervention group, and matched subjects were invited to calcaneal bone mass measurement by a portable device including the dual X-ray and laser (DXL) technology by Calscan, and to complete a questionnaire in 2006. A total of 417 persons (63% of those invited) in the intervention (I) group, and 120 persons (47% of those invited) in the control (C) group participated. Mean age was 63 years (37-94 years). There was somewhat more knowledge of osteoporosis in the I-group (M = 18) than in the C-group (M = 17) (p cane spikes in elderly women in the I-group (67%) than in the C-group (40.5%). The fully adjusted model of logistic regression showed that participants with an osteoporotic DXL T-score (≤- 2.5) had a 3-fold increased risk (95%CI 1.48-6.89) of having a history of a self-reported fracture after the age of fifty compared to women with a calcaneal T-score >- 2.5. The long-term effects of a ten-year, community-based, osteoporosis intervention program on knowledge and behavior were modest seven years after its completion.

  11. Ten years onwards: Comparison of the South Eastern European regional public health strategy 2004 and the South Eastern European 2020 strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Wiskow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Regional collaboration has continuously contributed to the development of public health in the South Eastern Europe (SEE region since 2000 when the Public Health Collaboration in SEE (PH-SEE was initiated. This article looks into two frameworks for regional collaboration in the area of public health: a framework developed in 2004 by a network of public health professionals and academics, and another one developed by the SEE Health Network as integral part of the SEE 2020 strategy on Jobs and Prosperity in a European Perspective, adopted in 2013. It compares the commonalities and differences of the two frameworks; considers what is still valid and relevant after ten years and which new features have emerged in the new strategy. Methods: A literature review was carried out and a qualitative analysis was applied for the comparison of the two frameworks. Results: Notwithstanding the time gap of nearly ten years, the commonalities between the two regional health strategies are significant. Major consistent goals include: improving equity in health; strengthening human resources for health; improving intersectoral cooperation and governance. The differences between the two regional strategies, including issues around social participation and regional health information systems, are partially due to their different development context. Cross-border policies and quality management have emerged as new or more pronounced topics in the SEE 2020 strategy’s health dimension. Conclusions: Many aspects addressed in the 2004 framework are pertinent with regard to the SEE 2020 health dimension and remain relevant in the current context. The integration of health as part of the economic SEE 2020 strategy reflects a significant paradigm shift and important step forward for public health.

  12. Ten-year chemical signatures associated with long-range transport observed in the free troposphere over the central North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten-year observations of trace gases at Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO, a free troposphere site in the central North Atlantic, were classified by transport patterns using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART. The classification enabled identifying trace gas mixing ratios associated with background air and long- range transport of continental emissions, which were defined as chemical signatures. Comparison between the chemical signatures revealed the impacts of natural and anthropogenic sources, as well as chemical and physical processes during long transport, on air composition in the remote North Atlantic. Transport of North American anthropogenic emissions (NA-Anthro and summertime wildfire plumes (Fire significantly enhanced CO and O3 at PMO. Summertime CO enhancements caused by NA-Anthro were found to have been decreasing by a rate of 0.67 ± 0.60 ppbv/year in the ten-year period, due possibly to reduction of emissions in North America. Downward mixing from the upper troposphere and stratosphere due to the persistent Azores-Bermuda anticyclone causes enhanced O3 and nitrogen oxides. The 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] value was used to investigate O3 sources and chemistry in different transport patterns. The transport pattern affected by Fire had the lowest 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO], which was likely due to intense CO production and depressed O3 production in wildfire plumes. Slightly enhanced O3 and 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] were found in the background air, suggesting that weak downward mixing from the upper troposphere is common at PMO. Enhancements of both butane isomers were found during upslope flow periods, indicating contributions from local sources. The consistent ratio of butane isomers associated with the background air and NA-anthro implies no clear difference in the oxidation rates of the butane isomers during long transport. Based on observed relationships between non-methane hydrocarbons, the averaged photochemical age of the air masses at

  13. Sleep, physical activity and BMI in six to ten-year-old children measured by accelerometry: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstedt, Mirjam; Nyberg, Gisela; Ingre, Michael; Ekblom, Örjan; Marcus, Claude

    2013-06-22

    The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between objective measures of sleep, physical activity and BMI in Swedish pre-adolescents. The day-to-day association between physical activity and sleep quality as well as week-day and weekend pattern of sleep is also described. We conducted a cross sectional study consisted of a cohort of 1.231 children aged six to ten years within the Stockholm county area. Sleep and physical activity were measured by accelerometry during seven consecutive days. Outcome measures are total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep start and sleep end; physical activity intensity divided into: sedentary ( 3 METS); and Body Mass Index standard deviations score, BMIsds. Total sleep time decreased with increasing age, and was shorter in boys than girls on both weekdays and weekends. Late bedtime but consistent wake-up time during weekends made total sleep time shorter on weekends than on weekdays. Day-to-day within-subject analysis revealed that moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activity promoted an increased sleep efficiency the following night (CI sleep time was not affected (CI -0.003 to 0.043). Neither sleep duration (CI -0.024 to 0.022) nor sleep efficiency (CI -0.019 to 0.028) affected mean physical activity level the subsequent day. The between-subject analysis indicates that the sleep of children characterized by high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the day was frequently interrupted (SE = -.23, P sleep duration was found (-.10, p sleep duration was associated with high BMI in six to ten year old children. This study underscores the importance of consistent bedtimes throughout the week for promoting sleep duration in preadolescents. Furthermore, this study suggests that a large proportion of intensive physical activity during the day might promote good sleep quality.

  14. Comparison of the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances on the El Arish coast and seaweed vegetation after ten years in 2010, North Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human activities on coasts and climate changes during the past ten years have given rise to considerable shoreline changes along the El Arish coast (the northern coast of the Sinai Peninsula. In the El Arish Power Plant, sediment accretion has reached the tip of the breakwaterof the cooling water intake basin, necessitating extensive dredging inside the basin. To the east of El Arish Harbour, the shoreline has been incontinuous retreat. The differences between the year 2000 and 2010 in the shoreline along the El Arish coast weredetermined by analysing satellite images from NOAA-AVHRR images. The analyses revealed erosion and accretionpatterns along the coast. The physical parameters showed that the minimum water temperature of 18°C wasrecorded at site I in winter and that the maximum was 40°C at site II in summer. The latter temperature can be attributed to the effluent dischargeof cooling water from the El Arish power plant. Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution and abundance of macroalgae were measured at four sites(I, II, III and IV along the El Arish coast. The percentage cover of the successional macroalgae exhibited environmental fluctuations. After ten years,the phytocommunity showed that red and green algae were dominant at the study sites. Significant differences between past and current flora were observed.39 taxa recorded in 2000 were absent in 2010, while 9 taxa not previously reported were present in 2010. These changes are discussed in the context ofpossible global warming effects.PERMANOVA showed significant changes (p < 0.001 between sites, seasons, species abundance and macroalgal groups along the El Arish coast in 2000 and2010. The similarity matrix showed a significant difference between the flora in 2010 and that recorded in 2000, indicating poor similarity and changes inspecies composition among the seasons at the different sites. Most of the algae belonged to the filamentous, coarsely branched and sheet

  15. Population Trend, Phenology and Dispersion of Common Waterfowl Species in Hungary Based on a Ten Year Long Time Series of the Hungarian Waterfowl Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSZTONYI, Lívia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The HUNGARIAN WATERFOWL MONITORING (HWM takes place at 48 observation units. The current study shows the 25 common waterfowl species, their trend, phenology, and dispersion in Hungary using the data of a ten-year period between the 1996/1997 and 2005/2006 seasons. The six commonest species were: Anas platyrhynchos, Anser albifrons, Anser fabalis, Anser anser, Anas crecca and Fulica atra. During the ten-year period there were 8 species with about 1000 individuals or less (Anser erythropus, Mergus albellus, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Netta rufina, Podiceps nigricollis, Cygnus olor, Mergus merganser. We report a heavy increase of Aythya nyroca, Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Netta rufina, Podiceps nigricollis, Anas clypeata, Cygnus olor, Anser albifrons, Podiceps cristatus, Anser anser, Anas strepera and a slight increase of Phalacrocorax pygmeus and Tachybaptus ruficollis. A strong decrease can be seen in Anser erythropus, Aythya fuligula, Anser fabalis, Anas querquedula, Aythya ferina, Anas crecca, Mergus albellus, Anas penelope, Mergus merganser, a slight decrease in the case of Anas platyrhynchos and Bucephala clangula. The 25 species were put into six different groups based on their types of phenology: late summer migrating species, species migrating dominantly in autumn, over wintering species, species passing through Hungary dominantly in spring, spring and late summer migrants, species with a stable population. Eco-geographical differences between Transdanubia and the Great Hungarian Plain explain the differences in the dispersion of species: distribution dominance in Transdanubia, dispersion dominance in the Great Hungarian Plain, even distribution. Our conclusions confirmed some of the earlier results, but in some cases we made conclusions different from the earlier suggestions. It is obvious that changing environmental conditions affect the changes in population parameters of waterfowl species.

  16. Epidemiological Study of RRT-Treated ESRD in Nanjing - A Ten-Year Experience in Nearly Three Million Insurance Covered Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-Chen; Huang, Han-Ming; Sun, Ling; Tan, Chao-Ming; Gao, Min; Liu, Hong; Tang, Ri-Ning; Wang, Yan-Li; Wang, Bei; Ma, Kun-Ling; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The growing burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been a great challenge to the health care system of China. However, the exact epidemiological data for ESRD in China remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of ESRD treated by renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Nanjing based on analysing ten-year data of Nanjing three million insurance covered population. Using the electronic registry system of Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), we included all subjects insured by UEBMI in Nanjing from 2005 to 2014 and identified subjects who developed ESRD and started RRT in this cohort. The UEBMI population in Nanjing increased from 1,301,882 in 2005 to 2,921,065 in 2014, among which a total of 5,840 subjects developed ESRD and received RRT. Over the 10-year period, the adjusted incidence rates of RRT in the UEBMI cohort gradually decreased from 289.3pmp in 2005 to 218.8pmp in 2014. However, the adjusted prevalence rate increased steadily from 891.7pmp in 2005 to 1,228.6pmp in 2014. The adjusted annual mortality rate decreased from 138.4 per 1000 patient-years in 2005 to 97.8 per 1000 patient-years in 2014. The long-term survival rate fluctuated over the past decade, with the 1-year survival rate ranging from 85.1% to 91.7%, the 3-year survival rate from 69.9% to 78.3% and the 5-year survival rate from 58% to 65.4%. Nanjing is facing an increasing burden of ESRD with its improvement of medical reform. The ten-year complete registry data on RRT in urban employees in Nanjing provided a unique opportunity to understand the real threat of ESRD confronting China during its process of health care transition.

  17. Positive effect of removal of subchondral bone plate for cemented acetabular component fixation in total hip arthroplasty: a randomised RSA study with ten-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flivik, G; Kristiansson, I; Ryd, L

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that the removal of the subchondral bone plate (SCBP) for cemented acetabular component fixation in total hip arthroplasty (THA) offers advantages over retention by improving the cement-bone interface, without jeopardising implant stability. We have previously published two-year follow-up data of a randomised controlled trial (RCT), in which 50 patients with primary osteoarthritis were randomised to either retention or removal of the SCBP. The mean age of the retention group (n = 25, 13 males) was 70.0 years (sd 6.8). The mean age in the removal group (n = 25, 16 males) was 70.3 years (sd 7.9). Now we have followed up the patients at six (retention group, n = 21; removal group, n = 20) and ten years (retention group: n = 17, removal group: n = 18), administering clinical outcome questionnaires and radiostereometric analysis (RSA), and determining the presence of radiolucent lines (RLLs) on conventional radiographs. RSA demonstrated similar translation and rotation patterns up to six years. Between six and ten years, proximal acetabular component migration and changes of inclination were larger in the retention group, although the mean differences did not reach statistical significance. Differences in migration were driven by two patients in the SCBP retention group with extensive migration versus none in the SCBP removal group. The significant difference (p < 0.001) in the development of radiolucent lines in the retention group, previously observed at two years, increased even further during the course of follow-up (p < 0.001). While recognising SCBP removal is a more demanding technique, we conclude that, wherever possible, the SCBP should be removed to improve the cement-bone interface in order to maximise acetabular component stability and longevity. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Atlantic Ocean, around Africa, Asia, and Australia, and under the Pacific Ocean to the west ... are similar to earthquakes, but occur within the ice sheet itself instead of the land underneath the ...

  19. Limits, achievements and perspectives of the RST (Robust Satellite Technique) approach in monitoring seismically active areas after ten years of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramutoli, V.; Aliano, C.; Corrado, R.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Mazzeo, G.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2009-04-01

    Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), firstly proposed by Tramutoli in 1998 as a general approach for monitoring natural and environmental risks, significantly improved present capabilities to investigate possible relations between an earthquake occurrence and space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) radiation observed from satellite. This work tries to offer an assessment of main achievements, residual limits and perspectives of the RST approach starting from results which were achieved by applying different RST-based algorithms to different satellite sensors (both on polar and geostationary platforms) and to tens of earthquakes occurred in different continents, in various geo-tectonic settings (compressive, transcurrent and distensive fault zones) and with a huge range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9). A critical reading of such studies seems to demonstrate that, even if it is not possible to surely relate (or to exclude) observed anomalous TIR transients to impending earthquakes, it is crucial the role played by a space-time persistence test in order to select TIR anomalies candidate to be associated to impending earthquakes. The long series of test cases allowed us to highlight a strong improvement of the signal/noise ratio moving from polar to geostationary satellites as well as using TIR sensors with split-windows channels. In addition, it was possible to identify (and correctly discard) TIR anomalies related to clouds and to image navigation errors. Finally, the numerous analysed earthquakes permitted us to verify the poor importance of spatial resolution of observations which encourages the use of passive MW sensors less affected by atmospheric conditions.

  20. Earthquakes for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dug across a fault to learn about past earthquakes. Science Fair Projects A GPS instrument measures slow movements of the ground. Become an Earthquake Scientist Cool Earthquake Facts Today in Earthquake History ...

  1. Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A scenario represents one realization of a potential future earthquake by assuming a particular magnitude, location, and fault-rupture geometry and estimating...

  2. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  3. Toxic Nodularia spumigena blooms in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk: a ten-year survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mazur-Marzec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Baltic Sea, summer blooms of the filamentous, nitrogen-fixingcyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena are favoured by high P concentrationsat low N:P ratios and a salinity range of 5-13 PSU. The bloomsare initiated by calm and sunny weather, an elevated surfacewater temperature and thermal stratification. The mass occurrenceof N. spumigena in coastal waters is a matter of special concern,as the cyanobacterium produces nodularin, a potent pentapeptidehepatotoxin. In the Gulf of Gdansk, the large-scale occurrenceof N. spumigena was recorded for the first time in 1994. Bloomsof a similar intensity occurred in 2001, 2003 and 2004. Nodularinconcentrations in freeze-dried bloom samples varied from 0.01to 4.01 mg g-1 d.w. In the coastal waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk,cell-bound nodularin concentrations in 2004 and 2005 attainedmaxima of 25852 ± 107 µg dm-3 and3964 ± 125 µg dm-3, respectively. Microscopic analysis revealedthe presence of diverse N. spumigena forms, with the dominance of curvedfilaments in bloom samples. The results of in situ studies and remotesensing measurements indicate a high frequency and intensity of cyanobacterialblooms in the Gulf of Gdańsk in the last ten years.

  4. Ten-Year Follow-Up of Desarthrodesis of the Knee Joint 41 Years after Original Arthrodesis for a Bone Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hamed Kassem Abdelaal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main indication for knee arthrodesis in tumor surgery is a tumor that requires an extensive resection in which the joint surface cannot be preserved. We report a patient that had knee desarthrodesis 41 years after giant cell tumor resection followed by a knee arthrodesis. This is the longest reported follow-up after desarthrodesis and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA, almost ten years. Case Report. A 71-year-old man with a distal femoral giant cell tumor had undergone a resection of the distal femur and knee arthrodesis using Kuntscher nail in 1962. In July 2003 he experienced gradually increasing pain of his left knee. We performed a desarthrodesis and conversion to TKA in 2005. The postoperative period passed uneventfully as his pain and gait improved, with gradually increasing range of motion (ROM and no infection. He now walks independently, with no brace or contractures. Conclusion. Desarthrodesis of the knee joint and conversion to TKA are a difficult surgical choice with a high complication risk. However, our patient’s life style has improved, he has no pain, and he can ascend and descend stairs more easily. The surgeon has to be very meticulous in selecting a patient for knee arthrodesis and counseling them to realize that their expectations may not be achievable.

  5. Management techniques for the control of Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (molasses grass: ten years of research on an invasive grass species in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Martins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The invasion of exotic species is considered to be a major threat to the preservation of biodiversity. In the Parque Nacional de Brasília (National Park of Brasília, the invasive Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass occupies more than 10 % of the area of the park. The present, long-term, study compared two treatments of exposure to molasses grass: 1 fire and 2 integrated management (fire + herbicide sprays + manual removal. The aerial biomass of molasses grass in the experimental area initially represented ca. 55 % of the total aerial biomass, a percentage that apparently did not influence native plant species richness at this site. Fire alone was not sufficient to control molasses grass, which attained its pre-treatment biomass values after two years. Integrated management reduced, and maintained, biomass to less than 1 % of its original value after ten years, and maintained this level throughout the study, demonstrating that it is a promising strategy for the recovery of areas invaded by molasses grass in the Cerrado. However, because of the recolonization by molasses grass, long-term monitoring efforts are targeting outbreaks, which would require immediate intervention in order to maintain the native biological diversity of the region.

  6. Framingham ten-year general cardiovascular disease risk: agreement between BMI-based and cholesterol-based estimates in a South Asian convenience sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte A; Ross, Leanne; Surani, Nadia; Dharamshi, Narissa; Karmali, Karima

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this analysis was to determine the agreement between body mass index-based and cholesterol-based ten-year Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk scores among a convenience sample of 773 South Asian Canadian adults attending community-based screening clinics. Scores were calculated using age, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive use, current smoking, diabetes, and total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (for cholesterol-based risk) or height and weight (for body mass index-based risk). Mean risk score differences (body mass index-based risk minus cholesterol-based risk) were estimated using paired t-tests. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between scores. Finally, agreement across risk categories (low [ = 20%]) was examined using the kappa statistic. Average agreement between the two risk scores was quite good overall (mean differences of 0.6% for men and 0.5% for women), but increased to about 3% among participants 60-74 years of age. However, Bland-Altman plots revealed that the differences between the two scores and the variability of the differences increased with increasing average 10-year risk. In terms of clinical importance, the limits of agreement were reasonable for women values: 0.51 for women cholesterol-based) at all screening sessions.

  7. The influencing factors in the business environment of the Visegrád Group in the last ten years and their comparison to Russia's experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Igorevich Bolotov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective examination of development of the business environment in the Central and Eastern European Visegraacuted Group Czech Republic Slovak Republic Poland and Hungary in the last ten years 2004ndash2014 by determining its influencing factors and comparison of the results with the experience of the Russian Federation. Methods approximation of the business environment with the help of five businessentity oriented indicators and analysis of relationship between them and their influencing factors i.e. areas of competitiveness in the definition of the Heritage Foundation based on correlation analysis time series cointegration model and a specific panel cointegration model. Research results the characteristic feature of the business environment in the Visegraacuted Group was adapting to integration into regional and global value chains. The main influencing factors of these changes were fiscal trade and investment freedoms to a lesser extent ndash freedom from corruption as well as membership in the European Union. The development in the Russian Federation was focused on concentration of business activities improving all indicators of the business environment and being caused by third factors. Scientific novelty first major complex study on the business environment in the Visegraacuted Group and in Russia published in the Russian Federation. Practical value better insight in the development of the business environment in the Central and Eastern European economies and in Russia which can be used in macroeconomic policies of the Russian Federation. nbsp

  8. Ten-Year Follow-Up of Desarthrodesis of the Knee Joint 41 Years after Original Arthrodesis for a Bone Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem Abdelaal, Ahmed Hamed; Yamamoto, Norio; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Miwa, Shinji; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The main indication for knee arthrodesis in tumor surgery is a tumor that requires an extensive resection in which the joint surface cannot be preserved. We report a patient that had knee desarthrodesis 41 years after giant cell tumor resection followed by a knee arthrodesis. This is the longest reported follow-up after desarthrodesis and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA), almost ten years. Case Report. A 71-year-old man with a distal femoral giant cell tumor had undergone a resection of the distal femur and knee arthrodesis using Kuntscher nail in 1962. In July 2003 he experienced gradually increasing pain of his left knee. We performed a desarthrodesis and conversion to TKA in 2005. The postoperative period passed uneventfully as his pain and gait improved, with gradually increasing range of motion (ROM) and no infection. He now walks independently, with no brace or contractures. Conclusion. Desarthrodesis of the knee joint and conversion to TKA are a difficult surgical choice with a high complication risk. However, our patient's life style has improved, he has no pain, and he can ascend and descend stairs more easily. The surgeon has to be very meticulous in selecting a patient for knee arthrodesis and counseling them to realize that their expectations may not be achievable.

  9. Ten-year comparison of the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on the content of flavonoids in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alyson E; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Barrett, Diane M; Bryant, D E; Denison, R Ford; Kaffka, Stephen

    2007-07-25

    Understanding how environment, crop management, and other factors, particularly soil fertility, influence the composition and quality of food crops is necessary for the production of high-quality nutritious foods. The flavonoid aglycones quercetin and kaempferol were measured in dried tomato samples (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Halley 3155) that had been archived over the period from 1994 to 2004 from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems project (LTRAS) at the University of California-Davis, which began in 1993. Conventional and organic processing tomato production systems are part of the set of systems compared at LTRAS. Comparisons of analyses of archived samples from conventional and organic production systems demonstrated statistically higher levels (P organic tomatoes. Ten-year mean levels of quercetin and kaempferol in organic tomatoes [115.5 and 63.3 mg g(-1) of dry matter (DM)] were 79 and 97% higher than those in conventional tomatoes (64.6 and 32.06 mg g(-1) of DM), respectively. The levels of flavonoids increased over time in samples from organic treatments, whereas the levels of flavonoids did not vary significantly in conventional treatments. This increase corresponds not only with increasing amounts of soil organic matter accumulating in organic plots but also with reduced manure application rates once soils in the organic systems had reached equilibrium levels of organic matter. Well-quantified changes in tomato nutrients over years in organic farming systems have not been reported previously.

  10. Bacteriological profile of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis: A ten-year retrospective study in a tertiary neurocare centre in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ten years retrospective study to evaluate the bacteriological spectrum of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis (CAABM. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 385 clinically suspected cases of pyogenic meningitis were processed for cell counts, cytospin Gram stain, culture, antigen detection by latex agglutination (LAT and antibiotic susceptibility test. Eighteen of these CSF samples were also subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for detection of pneumococcal DNA. Results: The etiological agent could be identified in 284 (73.8% of the total 385 cases by culture and/or smear and /or LAT. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen accounting for 238 (61.8% cases. Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis accounted for 7 (1.8% and 4 (1% cases respectively. Other gram negative bacilli, Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 19 (4.9%, 9 (2.3% and 7 (1.8% cases respectively. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the major aetiological agent of CAABM both in adults and children in our set-up. No penicillin resistance was detected among the isolates. Further research should focus on preventable aspects of CAABM, especially pneumococcal vaccines, to help reduce the disease burden.

  11. [Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum. Ten-year period (1996-2006) data collection in a Dermatology Department in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Carbajal-Pruneda, Patricia; Fernández Martínez, Ramón; Arenas, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis in the world up to 80% caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics of the dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum in a dermatological outpatient clinic during a ten years period, from 1996 to 2005. We collected the data from patients with a dermatophytosis from which we have isolated T. rubrum. A total of 776 patients with dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum were found. A slight predominance of female patients (56.2%) was observed. The most commonly affected age group was those in the third to the fifth decade of life, and house working women (33.5%) were predominant. Onychomycosis was found in 63% of the cases, tinea pedis in 22.7%, tinea corporis in 5.2% and tinea cruris in 2.8%. In onychomycosis, the first toe nail was the most commonly affected (58.9%) and the dystrophic type was seen in 50.7% of them.

  12. [Development of the situation of doctoral students in medicine: Results of two surveys at an interval of ten years (2001 and 2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüttemann, A; Richter, F; Wagner, C; Dewey, M

    2014-04-01

    The topic medical dissertation is often discussed controversially without quantitative data in Germany. The aim of this survey was to analyze the situation of doctoral students in medicine again after ten years. Students at Charité - Berlin in their 11th to 14th semester completed an online survey about the progress and the support of their dissertations (n = 1081). The questionnaire included current and aborted dissertations. The present evaluation had almost the same percentage of respondents (28 %) as in 2001 (31 %) and showed improvements in the preparation for scientific work by curricular courses (p statistics because 50 % received no statistical support during the pursue of their thesis. The graduate program at Charité has been making a significant contribution towards improved preparation for scientific work and medical dissertations. However, there are still improvements necessary such as better financial support and statistical preparation of medical dissertations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Retrospective comparative ten-year study of cumulative survival rates of remaining teeth in large edentulism treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures or removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Seiya; Arakawa, Hikaru; Maekawa, Kenji; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Noda, Kinji; Minakuchi, Hajime; Sonoyama, Wataru; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Kuboki, Takuo

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the survival rates of remaining teeth between implant-supported fixed dentures (IFDs) and removable partial dentures (RPDs) in patients with large edentulous cases. The second goal was to assess the risk factors for remaining tooth loss. The study subjects were selected among those who received prosthodontic treatment at Okayama University Dental Hospital for their edentulous space exceeding at least four continuous missing teeth. Twenty-one patients were included in the IFD group and 82 patients were included in the RPD group. Survival rates of remaining teeth were calculated in three subcategories: (1) whole remaining teeth, (2) adjacent teeth to intended edentulous space, and (3) opposing teeth to intended edentulous space. The ten-year cumulative survival rate of the whole remaining teeth was significantly higher in the IFD group (40.0%) than in the RPD group (24.4%). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between two groups in the survival rate of teeth adjacent or opposing to intended edentulous space. A Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that RPD restoration and gender (male) were the significant risk factors for remaining tooth loss (whole remaining teeth). These results suggest that IFD treatment can reduce the incidence of remaining tooth loss in large edentulous cases. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of life in the late follow-up of ulcerative colitis patients submitted to restorative proctocolectomy with sphincter preservation over ten years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Luiz Monteiro Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, by means of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ, the quality of life of ulcerative colitis patients submitted to proctocolectomy with sphincter preservation using J-pouch reconstruction over ten years ago. METHODS: The study consisted of 36 patients interviewed using the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. The score scale, resulting from the addition of each answer, ranged from 32 to 224, where the highest score indicates the best quality of life. The chi square test was used to verify the existence of meaningful differences between the results of the questionnaire and age, and gender proportion. For each section, as well as for all of them combined, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify if there were differences in the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire scores among the groups in relation to the proportions. RESULTS: After applying the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, it was determined that quality of life was considered excellent for 9 (25%, good for 11 (30.6%, regular for 13 (36.1%, and bad for 3 (8.3% patients. In our study, we determined that 85% of the patients were pleased with and thankful for the surgery that they underwent. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that the possibility of sphincter preservation should always be taken into account, since patients remain clinically stable and have a high quality of life even after long periods.

  15. Secular trends: a ten-year comparison of the amount and type of physical activity and inactivity of random samples of adolescents in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frömel Karel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An optimal level of physical activity (PA in adolescence influences the level of PA in adulthood. Although PA declines with age have been demonstrated repeatedly, few studies have been carried out on secular trends. The present study assessed levels, types and secular trends of PA and sedentary behaviour of a sample of adolescents in the Czech Republic. Methods The study comprised two cross-sectional cohorts of adolescents ten years apart. The analysis compared data collected through a week-long monitoring of adolescents' PA in 1998-2000 and 2008-2010. Adolescents wore either Yamax SW-701 or Omron HJ-105 pedometer continuously for 7 days (at least 10 hours per day excluding sleeping, hygiene and bathing. They also recorded their number of steps per day, the type and duration of PA and sedentary behaviour (in minutes on record sheets. In total, 902 adolescents (410 boys; 492 girls aged 14-18 were eligible for analysis. Results Overweight and obesity in Czech adolescents participating in this study increased from 5.5% (older cohort, 1998-2000 to 10.4% (younger cohort, 2008-2010. There were no inter-cohort significant changes in the total amount of sedentary behaviour in boys. However in girls, on weekdays, there was a significant increase in the total duration of sedentary behaviour of the younger cohort (2008-2010 compared with the older one (1998-2000. Studying and screen time (television and computer were among the main sedentary behaviours in Czech adolescents. The types of sedentary behaviour also changed: watching TV (1998-2000 was replaced by time spent on computers (2008-2010. The Czech health-related criterion (achieving 11,000 steps per day decreased only in boys from 68% (1998-2000 to 55% (2008-2010. Across both genders, 55%-75% of Czech adolescents met the health-related criterion of recommended steps per day, however less participants in the younger cohort (2008-2010 met this criterion than in the older cohort

  16. Ten Year Projections for US Residency Positions: Will There be Enough Positions to Accommodate the Growing Number of U.S. Medical School Graduates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Sarah; Lane, Samantha; Fluck, Marcus; Hunsinger, Marie; Blansfield, Joseph; Shabahang, Mohsen

    2017-09-14

    Recently, a multitude of new U.S. medical schools have been established and existing medical schools have expanded their enrollments. The National Residency Match Program (NRMP) reports that in 2016 there were 23,339 categorical residency positions offered in the match and 26,836 overall applicants with 17,789 (66.29%) of the total candidates being U.S. allopathic graduates. In view of the rapid growth of medical school graduates, the aim of this study is to determine if current trends suggest a shortage of residency positions within the next ten years. The total number of graduates from U.S. medical schools was obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) for 2005-2014 academic years and was trended linearly for a 10-year prediction for the number of graduates. The yearly number of categorical positions filled by U.S. graduates for calendar years 2006-2015 was obtained from the NRMP and was trended longitudinally 10 years into the future. Analysis of subspecialty data focused on the comparison of differences in growth rates and potential foreseeable deficits in available categorical positions in U.S. residency programs. According to trended data from AAMC, the total number of graduates from U.S. medical schools has increased 1.52 percent annually (15,927 in 2005 to 18,705 in 2014); with a forecast of 22,280 U.S. medical school graduates in 2026. The growth rate of all categorical positions available in U.S. residency programs was 2.55 percent annually, predicting 29,880 positions available in 2026. In view of these results, an analysis of specific residencies was done to determine potential shortages in specific residencies. With 17.4 percent of all U.S. graduates matching into internal medicine and a 3.17 percent growth rate in residency positions, in 2026 the number of internal medicine residency positions will be 9,026 with 3,874 U.S. graduates predicted to match into these positions. In general surgery, residency positions note a growth

  17. Developing the Next Generation of Inspired and Enthusiastic Young African Scientists: Insights from the First Ten Years of AfricaArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, M. S.; Webb, S. J.; Durrheim, R. J.; Gibson, R.

    2016-12-01

    The African continent is endowed with a wealth of resources that are the focus of vigorous exploration by international mining companies. However, it is unfortunate that many African countries have been unable to capitalize on resource development due to a lack of expertise in research, exploration, resource management and develop their mineral deposits. The capacity to develop natural resources in Africa is, inextricably linked to the ability to fully develop intellectual capacity. Thus, training young African geoscientists to investigate and manage Africa's natural resources, and developing scientific programs about Africa resources, their settings, controls and origins, should lie at the heart of all African universities. Ten years in to the AfricaArray program, it is worth reviewing some of the insights and successes we have gained. In Africa, there is a lack of knowledge of what a "scientist" is and University is often viewed as a continuation of high school. With no real exposure to research, students don't understand the huge difference between high school and university, and they treat the university as a high school. One way to mitigate this may be to include undergraduate research opportunities in the summer break but funding is difficult to allocate. This observation highlights the need to critically review our approach to research, teaching and learning, and social engagement at school level. At University level a key focus has been the development of capacity through international collaborative research and training. The School of Geosciences, at Wits University, is already the leading institution in Africa for its breadth of geosciences research and training, and the applied nature of its research, being ranked in the top 1% of institutions worldwide in its field. It is currently a lead partner in flagship international research geophysics programme focused on Africa - the AfricaArray Field School and AfricaArray Programme. Field school has spawned

  18. Ten-year health-related quality of life in cochlear implant recipients: prospective SF-36 data with SF-6D conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldner, Christoph; Lin, Vincent Y; Honeder, Clemens; Shipp, David; Nedzelski, Julian; Chen, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term impact of cochlear implantation on quality of life measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Scores were also converted to the SF-6D to derive health utility scores. Prospective cohort study. Thirty-two patients undergoing cochlear implantation completed the SF-36 preoperatively, 1 year, and 10 years after cochlear implantation. SF-36 results showed improvements in seven of the eight attributes when preoperative scores where compared with 1- and 10-year results. Between 1 and 10 years postoperatively, six of eight domains deteriorated in scores. When converted to the SF-6D, the mean preoperative utility scores were 0.592 for standard gamble, 0.636 using the ordinal health state paradigm, and 0.579 using the Bayesian technique. Ten years postoperatively, health utility scores were 0.643 (standard gamble), 0.684 (ordinal health state), and 0.6 (Bayesian). Between preoperatively and 10-year postoperatively, improvements were therefore 0.051, 0.048, and 0.021 for standard gamble, ordinal health state, and Bayesian paradigm, respectively. This study establishes the long-term sustained benefits of cochlear implantation on quality of life. Nevertheless, both the SF-36 and SF-6D seem to underestimate the benefit accrued through this intervention. Our data are consistent with others regarding the unsuitability of the SF-36 in benefit assessment, notwithstanding that conversion to the SF-6D is feasible, and the SF-6D seemed to better depict possible benefits from cochlear implantation as compared to the SF-36. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Ten-year trends in overweight/obesity among Ontario middle and high school students and their use in establishing baseline measures for government reduction targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kenneth R; Irving, Hyacinth M; Adlaf, Edward M; Faulkner, Guy E J; Boak, Angela; Manson, Heather E; Hamilton, Hayley A; Ng, Bessie

    2016-03-16

    Public health concern about increasing levels of child/youth overweight and obesity has resulted in initiatives to address this issue. In 2012, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) established a target to reduce childhood obesity by 20% within five years. In this paper, we examine trends and establish baseline levels of overweight/obesity to assess the impacts of population-level interventions. We analyzed 10 years (2003-2013) of data accumulated from six cycles of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey using logistic regression to assess trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among middle and high school students. The 2013 data are used to begin monitoring progress toward achieving the MOHLTC target. From 2003 through 2013, the prevalence of overweight/obesity among middle school students in the province remained stable overall and among all subgroups except 7th-grade females, who showed a significant linear decline. Among high school students, the prevalence of overweight/obesity showed a significant linear increase and an increase among 11th graders, females, and 10th- and 11th-grade females specifically. The prevalence remained stable but elevated among 9th- and 12th-grade females as well as among males in all grades. In 2013 (baseline for the MOHLTC target), 25.1% of students in grades 7-12 were overweight or obese, implying a presumed 2018 target of 20.1%. Ten-year trends in overweight/obesity indicate stability among males and significant linear increases in some female subgroups. Also, baseline data (2013) will facilitate the monitoring of future interventions aimed at achieving the 2018 MOHLTC target.

  20. Ten Years of Rainfall and Community-Based Streamflow Monitoring in the Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Region of Central Veracruz, Mexico: What Do These Data Tell Us?

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    Holwerda, F.; Aranda-Delgado, E.; Castilleja-Delgado, E.; Munoz-Villers, L.

    2016-12-01

    Montane ecosystems and the water resources provided by them play a crucial role in the development and growth of cities and the productive sector in Mexico. For the planning and sustainable management of these resources, it is necessary to quantify the key hydrological components and have (at least some) basic understanding of the water cycle at the operational watershed-scale. However, the difficulty of implementing and maintaining rainfall-discharge observation networks due to the lack of financial resources and well-trained personnel, coupled with poor accessibility and safety, as well as the complexity of the biophysical and climatic conditions in montane regions have hampered progress in hydrological research and the generation of basic knowledge for the benefit of society. In 2005, research-motivated measurements of rainfall (P) and community-based observations of streamflow (Q) were initiated independently in the tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) region of central Veracruz, Mexico. In this presentation, we will explore these data to study the seasonal and annual P inputs and Q outputs of the ca. 11,000 ha Pixquiac river watershed as observed during the past ten years (2005-2015). The P data used in this analysis include continuous measurements from the major recharge zone within the study area (2000-2300 m asl), supplemented with observations from lower and higher altitudes to determine the P-elevation relationship. The Q data of the Pixquiac river consist of monthly measurements made near the outlet of the watershed (1300-1400 m asl) by citizen volunteers using the Global Water Watch methodology. We expect that these observations will contribute to an improved understanding of the hydrometeorology of mesoscale TMCF watersheds in central Veracruz, which is a prerequisite for sustainable planning and management of the water resources in this region.

  1. Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population based longitudinal observational study

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    Straand Jørund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK, 4.4% (SCORE and 14.5% (Framingham had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females.

  2. BIFoR FACE: A ten-year Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Experiment in Old Growth Deciduous English Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Ellsworth, D.; Hemming, D.; Crous, K.; Pope, F.; Blaen, P.; Poynter, A.; Hamilton, L.; Blenkhorn, D.; Jarvis-Rouse, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Birmingham Institute of Forest research (BIFoR) will perform fundamental physical, biological, ecological, social and cultural research of direct relevance to forested landscapes worldwide. A core platform for BIFoR to study the ten-year response of a mature temperate deciduous forest ecosystem to against a large step-change in atmospheric [CO2] is the BIFoR Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. BIFoR FACE is being established in Mill Haft, a mature (~150 year-old) oak (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) coppice-with-standards woodland in central England. The facility will enable elevated CO2 (eCO2) treatments to be introduced in 30 m diameter rings (3 treatment and 6 control plots), commencing in spring 2016. Under eCO2 conditions primary research questions will investigate carbon uptake and storage, corresponding nutrient limitations, and biodiversity and ecosystem responses. As well as describing the facility and experimental design, we present baseline data collected throughout 2015, prior to fumigation. These data include: biophysical tree properties; atmospheric CO2/H2O fluxes; airborne and ground laser scatterometry; leaf area index; geophysical survey data; phenology camera derivatives; soil and water chemical and physical properties; and invertebrate surveys. Data from an intensive campaign conducted during august 2015 are also shown, including in- and above- canopy characterisation of biogenic VOCs using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer, aerosol loading including bioaerosols, and enhanced atmospheric chemistry. Further campaign results are presented from leaf level photosynthetic carbon-dioxide response curve (A/Ci) performed at different canopy heights on oak trees, and on the dominant understory species - hazel and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatinus) across the site. BIFoR FACE is an exciting new international facility for forest science - ideas for collaborations are encouraged. Please see http

  3. Poor performance of Enduron polyethylene liner in total hip arthroplasty: a minimum ten-year follow up and ultra-morphological analysis of wear particles.

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    Yan, Yufei; Chen, Hao; Feng, Jianmin; Chen, Kaizhe; Zhou, Kaidi; Hong, Weixiang; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Jiong; Yang, Qingming; Guo, Lei; He, Chuan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term outcome and the wear characteristics of two distinct types of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) liners in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We conducted a retrospective clinical study on patients which were treated with total hip arthroplasty using either Enduron polyethylene (Enduron PE) or Trilogy polyethylene (Trilogy PE) liners based on a minimum of ten year follow up data. Morphological analyses of wear particles from tissue samples, which were harvested during revision surgeries, were also performed. A total of 79 THAs in the Enduron group and 55 THAs in the Trilogy group were available for analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival with revision for wear-related complications as the endpoint of the Enduron PE liners was lower than that of Trilogy PE liners at ten years (93.5 % and 100 %, P = 0.03). The Enduron group had higher mean linear wear rate than that of the Trilogy group (0.20 ± 0.09 and 0.09 ± 0.03 mm/year, P < 0.01). The incidence of osteolysis for the Enduron group was higher than that of the Trilogy group (33.3 % and 12 %, P = 0.04). Under transmission electron microscopy, the Enduron group had more than 82 % of the particles less than 1.0 μm in size and more than 57 % of the particles less than 0.5 μm. The long-term performance of Enduron liners was worse than that of Trilogy liners. Further clinical follow-up may be necessary in patients with Enduron PE liners in order to avoid catastrophic complications.

  4. The First Epidemic and New-emerging Human Fascioliasis in Kermanshah (Western Iran) and a Ten-year Follow Up, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Hossein; Asmar, Mahdi; Masoud, Jafar; Mansouri, Feizollah; Namdaritabar, Hengameh; Ramazankhani, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Fascioliasis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and other parts of the world. Although the largest epidemic of this disease has occurred in northern provinces of Iran (Guilan) during the past two decades and a few cases have also been reported in Tehran and the other provinces, there has been no evidence of its' occurrence in western provinces of Iran such as Kermanshah before the outbreak which is being reported. The study was conducted by teamwork of infectious disease specialist, parasitologist, general practitioner, entomologist, and laboratory technician. It is an "epidemic investigation" and a cross sectional descriptive one. Clinical data and para-clinical changes are recorded considering all of the population of a village in Kangavar, one of the suburbs of Kermanshah (western Iran). The mean age was 21.65, (SD=12.44). Fifty three percent were female, and all of them were farmers. Eighty two percent had a history of watercress ingestion in a period of 1-2 months before the admission and 18% consumed other vegetables. The average of eosinophils was 32.35% (SD=26). The patients' Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Counter Current Immuno-electrophoresis (CCIE) serological tests were reported positive by the department of parasitology, Pasteur Institute of Iran. Treatment response to triclabendazole was excellent. A ten-year clinical and laboratory follow-up revealed no evidence of abnormality in treated patients. It was the first case of human fascioliasis in west Iran and was a real epidemic and an emerging infectious disease for this area at that time. The clinical symptoms were less severe compared with other reports. Health education to inhabitants and health care workers can lead to rapid detection of such outbreaks.

  5. Ten-year blood pressure trajectories, cardiovascular mortality, and life years lost in 2 extinction cohorts: the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study and the Zutphen Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Menotti, Alessandro; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Jacobs, David R; Blackburn, Henry; Kromhout, Daan

    2015-03-09

    Blood pressure (BP) trajectories derived from measurements repeated over years have low measurement error and may improve cardiovascular disease prediction compared to single, average, and usual BP (single BP adjusted for regression dilution). We characterized 10-year BP trajectories and examined their association with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and life years lost. Data from 2 prospective and nearly extinct cohorts of middle-aged men—the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study (n=261) and the Zutphen Study (n=632)—were used. BP was measured annually during 1947-1957 in Minnesota and 1960-1970 in Zutphen. BP trajectories were identified by latent mixture modeling. Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models examined BP trajectories with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and life years lost. Associations were adjusted for age, serum cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. Mean initial age was about 50 years in both cohorts. After 10 years of BP measurements, men were followed until death on average 20 years later. All Minnesota men and 98% of Zutphen men died. Four BP trajectories were identified, in which mean systolic BP increased by 5 to 49 mm Hg in Minnesota and 5 to 20 mm Hg in Zutphen between age 50 and 60. The third systolic BP trajectories were associated with 2 to 4 times higher cardiovascular mortality risk, 2 times higher all-cause mortality risk, and 4 to 8 life years lost, compared to the first trajectory. Ten-year BP trajectories were the strongest predictors, among different BP measures, of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and life years lost in Minnesota. However, average BP was the strongest predictor in Zutphen. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Adaptively smoothed seismicity earthquake forecasts for Italy

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    Yan Y. Kagan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a model for estimation of the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m ≥ 4.95 in Italy. This model is a modified version of that proposed for California, USA, by Helmstetter et al. [2007] and Werner et al. [2010a], and it approximates seismicity using a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We have estimated the spatial distribution of future seismicity by smoothing the locations of past earthquakes listed in two Italian catalogs: a short instrumental catalog, and a longer instrumental and historic catalog. The bandwidth of the adaptive spatial kernel is estimated by optimizing the predictive power of the kernel estimate of the spatial earthquake density in retrospective forecasts. When available and reliable, we used small earthquakes of m ≥ 2.95 to reveal active fault structures and 29 probable future epicenters. By calibrating the model with these two catalogs of different durations to create two forecasts, we intend to quantify the loss (or gain of predictability incurred when only a short, but recent, data record is available. Both forecasts were scaled to five and ten years, and have been submitted to the Italian prospective forecasting experiment of the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP. An earlier forecast from the model was submitted by Helmstetter et al. [2007] to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Model (RELM experiment in California, and with more than half of the five-year experimental period over, the forecast has performed better than the others.

  7. Children's emotional experience two years after an earthquake: An exploration of knowledge of earthquakes and associated emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burro, Roberto; Hall, Rob

    2017-01-01

    A major earthquake has a potentially highly traumatic impact on children’s psychological functioning. However, while many studies on children describe negative consequences in terms of mental health and psychiatric disorders, little is known regarding how the developmental processes of emotions can be affected following exposure to disasters. Objectives We explored whether and how the exposure to a natural disaster such as the 2012 Emilia Romagna earthquake affected the development of children’s emotional competence in terms of understanding, regulating, and expressing emotions, after two years, when compared with a control group not exposed to the earthquake. We also examined the role of class level and gender. Method The sample included two groups of children (n = 127) attending primary school: The experimental group (n = 65) experienced the 2012 Emilia Romagna earthquake, while the control group (n = 62) did not. The data collection took place two years after the earthquake, when children were seven or ten-year-olds. Beyond assessing the children’s understanding of emotions and regulating abilities with standardized instruments, we employed semi-structured interviews to explore their knowledge of earthquakes and associated emotions, and a structured task on the intensity of some target emotions. Results We applied Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Exposure to the earthquake did not influence the understanding and regulation of emotions. The understanding of emotions varied according to class level and gender. Knowledge of earthquakes, emotional language, and emotions associated with earthquakes were, respectively, more complex, frequent, and intense for children who had experienced the earthquake, and at increasing ages. Conclusions Our data extend the generalizability of theoretical models on children’s psychological functioning following disasters, such as the dose-response model and the organizational-developmental model for child resilience, and

  8. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000–2009

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    Linhares Inês

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of the empirical therapy, the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTI in the community (in Aveiro, Portugal was evaluated throughout a ten-year period. Methods In this retrospective study, all urine samples from patients of the District of Aveiro, in ambulatory regime, collected at the Clinical Analysis Laboratory Avelab during the period 2000–2009 were analysed. Samples with more than 105 CFU/mL bacteria were considered positive and, for these samples, the bacteria were identified and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. Results From the 155597 samples analysed, 18797 (12.1% were positive for bacterial infection. UTI was more frequent in women (78.5% and its incidence varied with age, affecting more the elderly patients (38.6%. Although E. coli was, as usual, the most common pathogen implicated in UTI, it were observed differences related to the other bacteria more implicated in UTI relatively to previous studies. The bacteria implicated in the UTI varied with the sex of the patient, being P. aeruginosa a more important cause of infection in men than in women. The incidence of the main bacteria changed over the study period (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp and Providencia spp increased and Enterobacter spp decreased. Although E. coli was responsible for more than an half of UTI, its resistance to antibiotics was low when compared with other pathogens implicated in UTI, showing also the lowest percentage of multidrug resistant (MDR isolates (17%. Bacteria isolated from females were less resistant than those isolated from males and this difference increased with the patient age. Conclusions The differences in sex and age must be taken into account at the moment of empirical prescription of antimicrobials. From the recommended

  10. Patterns and predictors of sitting time over ten years in a large population-based Canadian sample: Findings from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos

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    Klaus Gebel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to describe patterns and predictors of sedentary behavior (sitting time over 10 years among a large Canadian cohort. Data are from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a prospective study of women and men randomly selected from the general population. Respondents reported socio-demographics, lifestyle behaviors and health outcomes in interviewer-administered questionnaires; weight and height were measured. Baseline data were collected between 1995 and 1997 (n = 9418; participation rate = 42%, and at 5- (n = 7648 and 10-year follow-ups (n = 5567. Total sitting time was summed across domain-specific questions at three time points and dichotomized into “low” (≤7 h/day and “high” (>7 h/day, based on recent meta-analytic evidence on time sitting and all-cause mortality. Ten-year sitting patterns were classified as “consistently high”, “consistently low”, “increased”, “decreased”, and “mixed”. Predictors of sedentary behavior patterns were explored using chi-square tests, ANOVA and logistic regression. At baseline (mean age = 62.1 years ± 13.4 average sitting was 6.9 h/day; it was 7.0 at 5- and 10-year follow-ups (p for trend = 0.12. Overall 23% reported consistently high sitting time, 22% consistently low sitting, 14% decreased sitting, 17% increased sitting with 24% mixed patterns. Consistently high sitters were more likely to be men, university educated, full-time employed, obese, and to report consistently low physical activity levels. This is one of the first population-based studies to explore patterns of sedentary behavior (multi-domain sitting within men and women over years. Risk classification of sitting among many adults changed during follow-up. Thus, studies of sitting and health would benefit from multiple measures of sitting over time.

  11. Metabolic syndrome, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle aged and elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnoriene, Jurate; Bunevicius, Adomas; Saudargiene, Ausra; Nemeroff, Charles B; Norkus, Antanas; Ciceniene, Vile; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating specifically whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and common psychiatric disorders are independently associated with mortality are lacking. In a middle-aged general population, we investigated the association of the MetS, current major depressive episode (MDE), lifetime MDE, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. From February 2003 until January 2004, 1115 individuals aged 45 years and older were randomly selected from a primary care practice and prospectively evaluated for: (1) MetS (The World Health Organization [WHO], National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation [IDF] definitions); (2) current MDE and GAD, and lifetime MDE (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview); and (3) conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Follow-up continued through January, 2013. During the 9.32 ± 0.47 years of follow-up, there were 248 deaths, of which 148 deaths were attributed to cardiovascular causes. In women, WHO-MetS and IDF-MetS were associated with greater all-cause (HR-values range from 1.77 to 1.91; p-values ≤ 0.012) and cardiovascular (HR-values range from 1.83 to 2.77; p-values ≤ 0.013) mortality independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MDE/GAD. Current GAD predicted greater cardiovascular mortality (HR-values range from 1.86 to 1.99; p-values ≤ 0.025) independently from MetS and cardiovascular risk factors. In men, the MetS and MDE/GAD were not associated with mortality. In middle aged women, the MetS and GAD predicted greater 10-year cardiovascular mortality independently from each other; 10-year all-cause mortality was independently predicted by the MetS. MetS and GAD should be considered important and independent mortality risk factors in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ten-year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites

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    A. S. Cole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Global emissions of mercury continue to change at the same time as the Arctic is experiencing ongoing climatic changes. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric mercury provides important information about long-term trends in the balance between transport, chemistry, and deposition of this pollutant in the Arctic atmosphere. Ten-year records of total gaseous mercury (TGM from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed from two high Arctic sites at Alert (Nunavut, Canada and Zeppelin Station (Svalbard, Norway; one sub-Arctic site at Kuujjuarapik (Nunavik, Québec, Canada; and three temperate Canadian sites at St. Anicet (Québec, Kejimkujik (Nova Scotia and Egbert (Ontario. Five of the six sites examined showed a decreasing trend over this time period. Overall trend estimates at high latitude sites were: −0.9% yr−1 (95% confidence limits: −1.4, 0 at Alert and no trend (−0.5, +0.7 at Zeppelin Station. Faster decreases were observed at the remainder of the sites: −2.1% yr−1 (−3.1, −1.1 at Kuujjuarapik, −1.9% yr−1 (−2.1, −1.8 at St. Anicet, −1.6% yr−1 (−2.4, −1.0 at Kejimkujik and −2.2% yr−1 (−2.8, −1.7 at Egbert. Trends at the sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites agree with reported decreases in background TGM concentration since 1996 at Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Point, South Africa, but conflict with estimates showing an increase in global anthropogenic emissions over a similar period. Trends in TGM at the two high Arctic sites were not only less negative (or neutral overall but much more variable by season. Possible reasons for differences in seasonal and overall trends at the Arctic sites compared to those at lower latitudes are discussed, as well as implications for the Arctic mercury cycle. The first calculations of multi-year trends in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and total particulate mercury (TPM at Alert were also performed, indicating increases from 2002 to 2009

  13. Ten-year results of a randomized trial comparing tacrolimus versus cyclosporine a in combination with mycophenolate mofetil after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guethoff, Sonja; Meiser, Bruno M; Groetzner, Jan; Eifert, Sandra; Grinninger, Carola; Ueberfuhr, Peter; Reichart, Bruno; Hagl, Christian; Kaczmarek, Ingo

    2013-02-27

    Long-term results of prospective randomized trials comparing triple immunosuppressive strategies combining tacrolimus (TAC) or cyclosporine A (CsA) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and steroids after heart transplantation (HTX) are rarely published. Therefore, we collected long-term follow-up data of an intervention cohort 10 years after randomization. Ten-year follow-up data of 60 patients included in a prospective, randomized trial between 1998 and 2000 were analyzed as intention-to-treat (TAC-MMF n=30; CsA-MMF n=30). Baseline characteristics were well balanced. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) was graduated in accordance with the new ISHLT classification. Survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 96.7%, 80.0%, and 66.7% for TAC-MMF and 90.0%, 83.3%, and 80.0% for CsA-MMF (P=ns). Freedom from acute rejection (AR) was significantly higher in TAC-MMF versus CsA-MMF (65.5% vs. 21.7%, log-rank 8.3, P=0.004). Freedom from ISHLT≥CAV1 after 5 and 10 years was in TAC-MMF 64.0% and 45.8%, and in CsA-MMF 36.0% (log-rank 3.0, P=0.085) and 8.0% (log-rank 9.0, P=0.003). No difference in long-term results for freedom from coronary angioplasty or stenting, renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, CMV infection, or malignancy was detected. Cross-over effects because of treatment switch may result in impairment of significance between the groups. The long-term analysis resulted in a significant difference in manifestation of CAV between the groups after 10 years. Less rejection in the TAC-group might have contributed to the lower incidence of CAV. Superior freedom from AR and CAV in the TAC-MMF group did not result in better long-term survival.

  14. Defeating Earthquakes

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    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  15. Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part 1: Retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raspollini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding instrument on the Envisat (Environmental satellite satellite has provided vertical profiles of the atmospheric composition on a global scale for almost ten years. The MIPAS mission is divided in two phases: the full resolution phase, from 2002 to 2004, and the optimized resolution phase, from 2005 to 2012, which is characterized by a finer vertical and horizontal sampling attained through a reduction of the spectral resolution. While the description and characterization of the products of the ESA processor for the full resolution phase has been already described in previous papers, in this paper we focus on the performances of the latest version of the ESA (European Space Agency processor, named ML2PP V6 (MIPAS Level 2 Prototype Processor, which has been used for reprocessing the entire mission. The ESA processor had to perform the operational near real time analysis of the observations and its products needed to be available for data assimilation. Therefore, it has been designed for fast, continuous and automated analysis of observations made in quite different atmospheric conditions and for a minimum use of external constraints in order to avoid biases in the products. The dense vertical sampling of the measurements adopted in the second phase of the MIPAS mission resulted in sampling intervals finer than the instantaneous field of view of the instrument. Together with the choice of a retrieval grid aligned with the vertical sampling of the measurements, this made ill-conditioned the retrieval problem of the MIPAS operational processor. This problem has been handled with minimal changes to the original retrieval approach but with significant improvements nonetheless. The Levenberg–Marquardt method, already present in the retrieval scheme for its capability to provide fast convergence for nonlinear problems, is now also exploited for the reduction of the ill-conditioning of

  16. Itens alimentares no consumo alimentar de crianças de 7 a 10 anos Food items in the food intake of children aged seven to ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Fragas Hinnigi

    2012-06-01

    and macronutrients was calculated. The list was based on information provided by a 3-day-Food Diary completed by 85 schoolchildren ranging from seven to ten years old and enrolled in a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. After dividing the food into 129 items, we calculated the percentage in which each item contributed to diet nutrient intake and identified those which contributed to up to 95% of the total intake of calories and selected nutrients. RESULTS: The items "White rice, Greek rice, rice with vegetables" and "Brown, black and white beans, lentils" contributed significantly to the total intake of energy and carbohydrates. The item "Whole milk, powdered milk" had a significant participation in the total intake of lipids, protein and energy. We emphasize the importance of carbohydrates and energy intake from sugar-sweetened beverages (sodas and processed juices in the total diet intake of the children. CONCLUSIONS: the contribution of rice in the total food intake of energy and carbohydrates; of beans in energy, carbohydrates and proteins; of milk and meat in energy, protein and lipids; and bread in energy and carbohydrates is noticeable. The participation of sugar-sweetened beverage in the total intake in energy and carbohydrates and of candies in the total intake of lipids is also evident.

  17. Effectiveness of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Children under Ten Years of Age in Senegal: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster-Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Badara; Ba, El Hadj; Sokhna, Cheikh; NDiaye, Jean Louis; Gomis, Jules F; Dial, Yankhoba; Pitt, Catherine; NDiaye, Mouhamed; Cairns, Matthew; Faye, Ernest; NDiaye, Magatte; Lo, Aminata; Tine, Roger; Faye, Sylvain; Faye, Babacar; Sy, Ousmane; Konate, Lansana; Kouevijdin, Ekoue; Flach, Clare; Faye, Ousmane; Trape, Jean-Francois; Sutherland, Colin; Fall, Fatou Ba; Thior, Pape M; Faye, Oumar K; Greenwood, Brian; Gaye, Oumar; Milligan, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ), given each month during the transmission season, is recommended for children living in areas of the Sahel where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. The recommendation for SMC is currently limited to children under five years of age, but, in many areas of seasonal transmission, the burden in older children may justify extending this age limit. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of SMC in Senegalese children up to ten years of age. SMC was introduced into three districts over three years in central Senegal using a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised design. A census of the population was undertaken and a surveillance system was established to record all deaths and to record all cases of malaria seen at health facilities. A pharmacovigilance system was put in place to detect adverse drug reactions. Fifty-four health posts were randomised. Nine started implementation of SMC in 2008, 18 in 2009, and a further 18 in 2010, with 9 remaining as controls. In the first year of implementation, SMC was delivered to children aged 3-59 months; the age range was then extended for the latter two years of the study to include children up to 10 years of age. Cluster sample surveys at the end of each transmission season were done to measure coverage of SMC and the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia, to monitor molecular markers of drug resistance, and to measure insecticide-treated net (ITN) use. Entomological monitoring and assessment of costs of delivery in each health post and of community attitudes to SMC were also undertaken. About 780,000 treatments were administered over three years. Coverage exceeded 80% each month. Mortality, the primary endpoint, was similar in SMC and control areas (4.6 and 4.5 per 1000 respectively in children under 5 years and 1.3 and 1.2 per 1000 in children 5-9 years of age; the overall mortality rate ratio [SMC: no SMC] was 0.90, 95

  18. The prevalence of excessive weight in Balearic Islands' young and middle-aged women and its association with social and socioeconomic factors: a ten-year trend (2000-2010)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coll, Josep Ll; del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Salas, Rogelio; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    .... Therefore the aim was to assess a ten-year trend (2000-2010) in the prevalence of excessive weight in Balearic Islands' women and its association with socioeconomic factors. Young (18-35 year-old) and middle-aged (36-55 year-old...

  19. Less wear with aluminium-oxide heads than cobalt-chrome heads with ultra high molecular weight cemented polyethylene cups: a ten-year follow-up with radiostereometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jon; Söderlund, Per; Nivbrant, Bo; Nordsletten, Lars; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2012-03-01

    Wear is a major contributor to osteolysis and aseptic loosening of total hip replacements (THR). Both alumina (Al(2)O(3)) and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral heads are commonly used. We investigated wear comparing alumina heads to cobalt-chrome heads against conventional cemented polyethylene (PE) cups for up to ten years. Linear wear was measured with radiostereometry (RSA). Our material was derived from two prospective randomised trials that investigated fixation of femoral stems, not wear, and was evaluated retrospectively (Level III). The mean (95% CI) proximal head penetration was 0.96 mm (0.68-1.23) in the cobalt-chrome group and 0.42 mm (0.30-0.53) in the alumina group at ten years (P = 0.001). The mean (95% CI) 3D penetration was 1.07 mm (0.79-1.35) and 0.53 mm (0.38-0.63), respectively, at ten years (P = 0.001). Alumina heads performed better than cobalt-chrome heads in this study after ten-year follow-up.

  20. Effectiveness of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Children under Ten Years of Age in Senegal: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster-Randomised Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badara Cissé

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP plus amodiaquine (AQ, given each month during the transmission season, is recommended for children living in areas of the Sahel where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. The recommendation for SMC is currently limited to children under five years of age, but, in many areas of seasonal transmission, the burden in older children may justify extending this age limit. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of SMC in Senegalese children up to ten years of age.SMC was introduced into three districts over three years in central Senegal using a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised design. A census of the population was undertaken and a surveillance system was established to record all deaths and to record all cases of malaria seen at health facilities. A pharmacovigilance system was put in place to detect adverse drug reactions. Fifty-four health posts were randomised. Nine started implementation of SMC in 2008, 18 in 2009, and a further 18 in 2010, with 9 remaining as controls. In the first year of implementation, SMC was delivered to children aged 3-59 months; the age range was then extended for the latter two years of the study to include children up to 10 years of age. Cluster sample surveys at the end of each transmission season were done to measure coverage of SMC and the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia, to monitor molecular markers of drug resistance, and to measure insecticide-treated net (ITN use. Entomological monitoring and assessment of costs of delivery in each health post and of community attitudes to SMC were also undertaken. About 780,000 treatments were administered over three years. Coverage exceeded 80% each month. Mortality, the primary endpoint, was similar in SMC and control areas (4.6 and 4.5 per 1000 respectively in children under 5 years and 1.3 and 1.2 per 1000 in children 5-9 years of age; the overall mortality rate ratio [SMC: no SMC

  1. NCALM's Lessons Learned and Insights into the Future from Ten + Years of Providing Geodetic Images for the monitoring of Hazards and the Response to Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Diaz, J. C.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.; Glennie, C. L.; Sartori, M. P.; Singhania, A.

    2012-12-01

    The National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping NCALM was created in 2003 through a grant from and National Science Foundation to support the use of airborne laser swath mapping technology (ALSM aka LiDAR) by the scientific community. NCALM's main goals are to provide research quality airborne LiDAR observations to the scientific community, to advance the state of the art in airborne laser mapping, and to train and educate graduate students with knowledge of airborne mapping to meet the needs of private industry, government agencies and academic institutions. Even before its creation, NCALM researchers had been exploring the application of LiDAR technologies for the monitoring of Geohazards and the response and recovery from man-made and natural disasters. Some of these applications include: mapping debris caused by the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York; mapping thousands of km of faults along the Pacific coast of the US extending from Southern California to Alaska, through the OSU/USGS B4 and UNAVCO EarthScope projects; mapping of lava fields in Hawaii; mapping post-forest-fire zones in the San Gabriel Mountains, CA and Valles Caldera, NM; mapping beach erosion/deposition induced by hurricanes along the Panhandle and Atlantic coasts of Florida; rapid-response mapping of the Iowa river floods in 2008 and the El Mayor - Cucapah Earthquake in 2010. The experience gained and lessons learned by NCALM regarding the long term monitoring of hazards for the preparation, response and recovery of disasters range from navigating the regulatory and logistic challenges of being present in a disaster area, to the production of real-time geodetic imagery and data for support of the authorities, to performing change detection (surface deformation, sediment transport, infrastructure damage) using LiDAR data products obtained by different vendors, with different equipment and operated under different specifications. End users of the information uniquely provided by

  2. Continuous distal migration and internal rotation of the C-stem prosthesis without any adverse clinical effects: an RSA study of 33 primary total hip arthroplasties followed for up to ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schewelov, T; Carlsson, A; Sanzén, L; Besjakov, J

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, we demonstrated that the polished triple-tapered C-stem at two years had migrated distally and rotated internally. From that series, 33 patients have now been followed radiologically, clinically and by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for up to ten years. The distal migration within the cement mantle had continued and reached a mean of 2 mm (0.5 to 4.0) at ten years. Internal rotation, also within the cement mantle, was a mean 3.8° (external 1.6° to internal 6.6°) The cement mantle did not show any sign of migration or loosening in relation to the femoral bone. There were no clinical or radiological signs indicating that the migration or rotation within the cement mantle had had any adverse effects for the patients.

  3. Tohoku earthquake: a surprise?

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) how to evaluate the earthquake maximum size in subduction zones, (2) what is the repeat time for the largest earthquakes in Tohoku area, and (3) what are the possibilities of short-term forecasts during the 2011 sequence. There are two quantitative methods which can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size: a statistical analysis of the available earthquake record and the moment conservation principle. The latter technique studies how much of the tectonic deformation rate is released by earthquakes. For the subduction zones, the seismic or historical record is not sufficient to provide a reliable statistical measure of the maximum earthquake. The moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates of maximum earthquake size: for all the subduction zones the magnitude is of the order 9.0--9.7, and for major subduction zones the maximum earthquake size is statistically indistinguishable. Starting in 1999 we have carried out...

  4. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  5. Earthquake Damage - General

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake is the motion or trembling of the ground produced by sudden displacement of rock in the Earth's crust. Earthquakes result from crustal strain,...

  6. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  7. Earthquake Notification Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) is a free service that sends you automated notifications to your email or cell phone when earthquakes happen.

  8. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  9. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  10. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  11. Localization of b-values and maximum earthquakes; B chi to saidai jishin no chiikisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurimoto, H.

    1996-05-01

    There is a thought that hourly and spacial blanks in earthquake activity contribute to earthquake occurrence probability. Based on an idea that if so, this tendency may appear also in statistical parameters of earthquake, earthquake activities in every ten years were investigated in the relation between locational distribution of inclined b values of a line relating to the number of earthquake and the magnitude, and the center focus of earthquakes which are M{ge}7.0. The field surveyed is the Japanese Islands and the peripheral ocean, and the area inside the circle with a radius of 100km with a lattice-like point divided in 1{degree} in every direction of latitude and longitude as center was made a unit region. The depth is divided by above 60km or below 60km. As a result, the following were found out: as to epicenters of earthquakes with M{ge}7.0 during the survey period of 100 years, many are in a range of b(b value){le}0.75, and sometimes they may be in a range of b{ge}0.75 in the area from the ocean near Izu peninsula to the ocean off the west Hokkaido; the position of epicenters in a range of b{le}0.75 seems not to come close to the center of contour which indicates the maximum b value. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  12. The Consulting Teacher Program: Ten Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Phyllis F.; And Others

    A program designed to train learning specialists called consulting teachers who, in turn, train classroom teachers to educate handicapped children in the regular classroom setting is described. Consulting teacher trainees are selected on the basis of teaching experience, leadership capability, academic promise, and commitment to special education.…

  13. Hong Kong: Ten Years After the Handover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    ... to where they stood prior to the Handover. There also is unease about the independence of Hong Kong's judicial system and the protection provided by Hong Kong's Basic Law in light of decisions made by the Chinese government...

  14. Ten years of integrated care in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Berchtold

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, a growing part of primary care is provided by networks of physicians and health maintenance organizations (HMOs acting on the principles of gatekeeping. To date, an average of one out of eight insured person in Switzerland, and one out of three in the regions in north-eastern Switzerland, opted for the provision of care by general practitioners in one of the 86 physician networks or HMOs. About 50% of all general practitioners and more than 400 other specialists have joined a physician networks. Seventy-three of the 86 networks (84% have contracts with the healthcare insurance companies in which they agree to assume budgetary co-responsibility, i.e. to adhere to set cost targets for particular groups of patients. Within and outside the physician networks, at regional and/or cantonal levels, several initiatives targeting chronic diseases have been developed, such as clinical pathways for heart failure and breast cancer patients or chronic disease management programs for patients with diabetes. The relevance of these developments towards more integration of healthcare as well as their implications for the future are discussed.

  15. Biased Regression: A Ten year Perspective,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    the true coefficient vector 8 should be orthogonal to both VIand V 2’ a property not reflected in the least squares estimates because of the great...the formation of inter- action and quadratic terms. So long as one recognizes that the model para- meters are transformed as well, this is another

  16. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  17. "ON-AIR SECRETS": TEN YEARS LATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a scientific review on the training manual On-air secret by Andrey Bubukin, published in 2003. This guide has been written by a man who never had anything to do with radio, but by the will of fate suddenly became at once the program director of Russia's first non-state radio station Europa Plus Moscow, the commercial music radio. Then came to the fore not the questions of art qualities of broadcast, but technical-mathematical details of the automated programming of song material. Therefore, at the end of the Soviet broadcasting, it became possible appearance some people obviously alien to the electronic mass media. They are, however, strongly influenced the further "format" broadcasting in new Russia, so as the principles of songs rotation and playlist making on the radio still can’t do without recourse to the Bubukin's textbook. There are serious concerns about the fact that the book is intended not only for program directors, but for the music editors also. Extremely dubious assertions and recommendations related to the problems of arts, journalism, radio-presenter's skill, history of radio.

  18. Beijing--ten years after Mao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    10 years after Mao's death, Beijing is a different place; the average resident has more money to spend in a considerably freer marketplace, but still not a lot by Western standards. Clearly the biggest advertisers in China over the longest period, the Japanese sell more consumer products in China than any other country. The 1982 Chinese census placed the population of the municipality of Beijing at 9,230,687 people. Due mainly to the extensive development of heavy industry in Beijing and the creation of over 1 million jobs in this sector between 1949 and 1979, Beijing's population jumped to 8.7 million by 1979. Beijing's population will continue to grow despite its 1 child policy and drastically reduced fertility rates. A 1981 survey polling 8000 Beijing women found that the average age of 1st marriage and 1st childbirth is gradually rising while the interval between marriage and 1st childbirth is gradually rising while the interval between marriage and 1st birth is shortening. China's 1982 census indicates that 26% of city dwellers are under age 15, 21.6% between the ages of 15 and 24, 47.7% are between the ages of 25 and 64, and 4.7% 65 or over. As the burden shifts from supporting the dependent old, China will need to revamp its policies to alleviate the stress placed on Chinese families and to increase financial aid the elderly. In 1982, Beijing households averaged 3.9 persons per household, slightly lower than the 4.1. persons per urban household 1982 national figure. Demographic sources for China are listed and critiqued.

  19. Ovarian Kaleidoscope database: ten years and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Aaron J; Rauch, Rami

    2012-06-01

    Ovarian Kaleidoscope database (OKdb) is an online, searchable, public database containing text-based and DNA microarray data to facilitate research by ovarian researchers. Using key words and predetermined categories, users can search ovarian gene information based on gene function, cell type of expression, cellular localization, hormonal regulation, mutant phenotypes, chromosomal location, ligand-receptor relationship, and other criteria, either alone or in combination. For individual genes, users can access more than 10 extensive DNA microarray datasets to interrogate gene expression patterns in a development-specific and cell type-specific manner. All ligand and receptor genes expressed in the ovary are matched to facilitate investigation of paracrine/autocrine signaling. More than 3500 ovarian genes in the database are matched to 185 gene pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes to allow for elucidation of gene interactions and relationships. In addition to >400 genes with infertility or subfertility phenotypes when mutated in mice or humans, the OKdb also lists ~50 and ~40 genes associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency, respectively. The expanding OKdb is updated weekly and allows submission of new genes by ovarian researchers to allow instant access to DNA microarray datasets for newly submitted genes. The present database is a virtual community for ovarian researchers and allows users to instantaneously provide their comments for individual gene pages based on an automated Web-discussion system. In the coming years, we will continue to add new features to serve the ovarian research community.

  20. Ten years of snakebites in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Fathi, Behrooz; Shahi, Morteza Panjeh; Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2014-11-01

    Many species of venomous snakes are found in Iran. The most medically important species which are responsible for the most snakebite incidents in Iran belong to the Viperidae family, including Vipera lebetina, Echis carinatus, Pseudocerastes persicus, Vipera albicornuta and the Elapidae family, especially Naja naja oxiana. At least one kind of venomous snake is found in each of the 31 provinces, and many provinces have more than one venomous species. As a result, snakebite is a considerable health hazard in Iran, especially in the rural area of south and south-west of Iran. A retrospective, descriptive study of snakebite in Iran during 2002-2011 was carried out in order based on data collected from medical records of bite victims admitted to hospitals and health centers. From 2002 to 2011, 53,787 cases of snake bites were reported by medical centers in Iran. The annual incidence of snake bites in 100,000 of population varied from 4.5 to 9.1 during this decade and the number of recorded deaths were about 67 cases. The highest rate of snakebite was found in provinces of south and southwest of Iran. We suggest that people, especially in the rural areas, need to be trained and educated about venomous snakes, their hazards, prevention of bite and the importance of early hospital referral and treatment of victims. Also adequate antivenins as the main life saving medicine should be made available based on the recorded numbers of victims in each area of the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TEN YEARS OF PREOPERATIVE AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD DONA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2006-12-01

    Dec 1, 2006 ... the council of Europe as a transfusion in which the donor and recipient is the same person, who will .... 20. 3.1. Genitourinary Surgery. 13. 2.0. Plastic Surgery. 4. 0.6. Eye Surgery. 1. 0.2. Total. 635. 100. 0. Patients undergoing gynaecological procedures were the largest subgroup, representing 76.7% of ...

  2. Virgin galactic the first ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago when Sir Richard Branson called up Boeing and asked if they had a spare 747, few would have predicted the brash entrepreneur would so radically transform the placid business of air travel. But today, Branson flies airlines on six continents, employs hundreds of jets and, in 2014, was predicting that his spaceship company – Virgin Galactic – would soon open the space frontier to commercial astronauts, payload specialists, scientists and space tourists. With more than 600 seats sold at $250,000 each, what started off as a dream to send people just for the excitement to look back and marvel at Earth, was on the cusp of finally being turned into a business. Then, on October 21, 2014, tragedy struck. SpaceShipTwo was on its most ambitious test flight to date. Seconds after firing its engine, Virgin Galactic’s spaceship was breaking through the sound barrier. In just the three seconds that it took for the vehicle to climb from Mach 0.94 to Mach 1.02, co-pilot Mike Alsbury made what many close...

  3. VOICE PROSTHESES – TEN YEARS AFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Fajdiga

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of tracheoesophageal puncture method by Bloom and Singer in 1980, the success of restoring vocal communication in laryngectomees has improved significantly. At the University Department of Otorhinolaringology and Cervicofacial Surgery in Ljubljana, the method has been used since 1993. We have performed 76 secondary tracheoesophageal punctures in patients with no objective contraindications and with an interest for this method. The success rate was 92%. With regard to our 10-years experience, we wanted to (re define present and future role of tracheoesophageal voice/speech in the alaryngeal voice rehabilitation. To compare both alaryngeal speech modes, 32 patients using tracheoesophageal speech and 35 patients using esophageal speech were included into the study. In both groups the patients were established speakers. The complications that occurred in the patients with voice prostheses are presented. Most of them required only replacement of prostheses for their solution.The tracheoesophageal puncture and voice prosthesis insertion is a reliable and fast way of restoring good voice and speech after laryngectomy. In spite of some objective disadvantage in comparison to esophageal speech – like the use of hand, need for regular maintenance, and relying to medical service, its good characteristics should rank it immediately after a good esophageal speech. This means that tracheoesophageal voice prostheses should be offered to all patients, which are not able to learn a good esophageal voice in short time, to avoid a frustrating time with no vocal communication. After tracheoesophageal puncture and voice prosthesis insertion, the patient should still get a possibility to learn esophageal speech if he wants to avoid the drawbacks of the tracheoesophageal speech.

  4. TEN YEARS OF "CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS"

    OpenAIRE

    Editors

    2003-01-01

    This year the journal "Condensed Matter Physics" celebrates its tenth anniversary. It was founded in 1993 by the Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for the purpose of publishing the regular and review papers in the field of statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory.

  5. [Munchausen disease diagnosed ten years after debut].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrgan, Monija; Taasti, Lena Merete

    2013-09-02

    Munchausen disease is difficult to diagnose especially because it is often an exclusion diagnosis. We present a case of skin ulcers in a young woman, who was eventually diagnosed with Munchausen disease.

  6. Ten years of CR physics with PAMELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A.; Spillantini, P.

    2017-09-01

    The satellite borne Pamela instrument is dedicated to the precise and high statistics study of CR fluxes on a four decades energy range. Pamela experiment is the last step of the "Russian-Italian Mission" (RIM) program established in 1992 between several Italian and Russian institutes and with the participation of Sweden and Germany. Designed as a cosmic ray observatory at 1 AU, it extensive program is made possible thanks to the outstanding performance of the instrument, the low energy threshold, the quasi-polar orbit and the 10 years duration of the observation. The physics program pays particular attention to the study of particles and antiparticles fluxes and includes search for dark matter, primordial antimatter, new matter in the Universe, study of cosmic-ray propagation, solar physics and solar modulation, and terrestrial magnetosphere. Very important is the discovery of the anomalous increase of the positron flux at energies higher that 50 GeV (the so called "Pamela anomaly"), and the abrupt spectral hardening of H and He, challenging the current paradigm of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy.

  7. Povl Ole Fanger's impact ten years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2017-01-01

    This paper pays tribute to Povl Ole Fanger, the late professor at the Technical University of Denmark. His scientific studies, focused on the main parameters affecting indoor environmental quality, have inspired (and still inspire) professional design engineers and academic researchers on human...... after his death, this paper is a memorial of his research in the field of thermal comfort and some aspects of indoor air quality. Only the original papers of this Danish scientist will be discussed. The analysis of each single topic of his research and of its impact on past and present research would...

  8. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  9. Ten years of SLR production in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A.; Podestá, R.; Yin, Z.; Liu, W.; Actis, E.; Adarvez, S.; Quinteros, J.; Podestá, F.

    2017-07-01

    SLR technique is a proved astro-geodetic art with a significant power to contribute to Earth and Space Sciences. Therefore, scientific applications of SLR System are able to perform multiple tasks in the fields of Astrometry, Geodesy and Geophysics. The results we show here were obtained from satellite observations made at SLR 7406 Station of Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina. The telescope was installed early on 2006, in concordance with an International Cooperation Agreement between Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina and Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this abstract we show the current research being done with ILRS 7406 station: Length of day (LOD) and Angular velocity of Earth Rotation, calculated weekly; Pole Motion. ILRS7406 is daily surveying Pole coordinates x and y; Tracking SLR to GNSS constellations. SLR System contributes to the adjustment and validation of satellite GALILEO, GPS, GLONASS, and BEIDOU orbits. Our station is nowadays member of the new ITRF 2014 frame, and these past years has been one of the 3 highest producing SLR Stations on the ILRS net, composed of about 40 stations distributed all around the world. The obtained results during this first 10 years of experience are useful to enhance the traditional collaboration between OAFA and international services such as ILRS, IERS and NASA.

  10. A TEN-YEAR STUDY OF ANENCEPHALY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilkstein, Gabriel

    1962-01-01

    The incidence of anencephaly at the Los Angeles County General Hospital during the period of July, 1948 through June, 1958 was 0.049 per cent. Worldwide the range of reported incidence is 0.012 per cent to 0.671 per cent. In this study 65 per cent of the total number of anencephalics delivered were females, a predominance agreeing with reports by other investigators. Polyhydramnios appeared in 38 per cent of the anencephalic pregnancies of this study, while 15 per cent of the deliveries were complicated by placenta praevia. A significant number (48 per cent) of the multiparae gave a history of previous stillbirths or abortions. The present study does not support observations by other investigators which indicated an increase in anencephalic births during the winter months. Evidence from stillbirth statistics would seem to indicate that anencephaly is primarily a genetically induced phenomenon. Further evaluation and analysis of the predominance of females in anencephalic stillbirths and abortions is suggested, in order to study whether the observed secondary or birth sex ratio (in which males predominate) is, in fact, due to genetic effect. PMID:13914041

  11. Ten years of the project Chain Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, Katarina; Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the project Chain Experiment is presented. It can be viewed as a competition or as a popularization activity for science, technology, and physics in particular. We present the basic idea of a toppling-domino-like chain of contraptions that are operated one after another, and each demonstrates different physical phenomena. The evolution into its current form with three different types of activities is briefly described. The emphasis of the paper is on the impact of the project on physics education. The ways in which physics students, physics teachers, and participating pupils profit from the different project activities are presented in detail.

  12. Ten years of the new Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Serra Massansalvador

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes developments in Russia since the breaking-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. Given this objective, the author places particular emphasis on the debate on social and identity issues raised by the political and ideological transition from a USSRconsidered a superpower to a country that aspire to achieving political and economic stability and, ultimately, to retaining a limited area of influence as a regional power. In this, Russia has received strong, unconditional international support, which has allowed it to overcome various obstacles, but the difficult transition that the country has been through has made it impossible to avoid a severe collective trauma in terms of ideology and identity. The process has clearly been also accompanied by a significant disregard for the individual and collective rights of the Russian people, a price that, in the long term, may be too high a one to pay for a population that aspires to stability and for a countrythat aspires to respect and to equality with the rest of the world.

  13. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  14. Does the use of laminar flow and space suits reduce early deep infection after total hip and knee replacement?: the ten-year results of the New Zealand Joint Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, G J; Rothwell, A G; Frampton, C; Wyatt, M C

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated whether the use of laminar-flow theatres and space suits reduced the rate of revision for early deep infection after total hip (THR) and knee (TKR) replacement by reviewing the results of the New Zealand Joint Registry at ten years. Of the 51 485 primary THRs and 36 826 primary TKRs analysed, laminar-flow theatres were used in 35.5% and space suits in 23.5%. For THR there was a significant increase in early infection in those procedures performed with the use of a space suit compared with those without (p space suit (p space suit (p space suits were used in those theatres (p deep infection has not been reduced by using laminar flow and space suits. Our results question the rationale for their increasing use in routine joint replacement, where the added cost to the health system seems to be unjustified.

  15. An investigation of whether factors associated with short-term attrition change or persist over ten years: data from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatfield Mark

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with the loss of participants in long-term longitudinal studies of ageing, due to refusal or moves, have been discussed less than those with short term follow-up. Methods In a population-based study of cognition and ageing (the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS, factors associated with dropout due to refusal and moving in the first follow-up period (over two years are compared with factors associated with dropout over ten years. Participants at 10-year follow-up are compared with their age-standardised baseline contemporaries. Results Some consistent trends are found over the longer term. Refusers tended to have poorer cognition, less years of education, not have a family history of dementia and be women. Characteristics of people who moved differed between waves, but the oldest and people in worse health moved more. When surviving and responding individuals at ten years are compared with those of the same age at baseline many differences are found. Individuals of lower social class, education, cognitive ability, in residential care, with sight/hearing problems and poor/fair self-reported health are less likely to be seen after 10 years of follow-up. Individuals report more health problems when they participate in multiple interviews. Conclusion The characteristics of refusers in the longer term are similar to those refusing to participate over the shorter term. Long-term follow-up studies will under represent the disadvantaged and disabled but represent full health status of participating individuals better. There are advantages and disadvantages to both short-term and long-term follow-up.

  16. Changes in the first-pass success rate with the GlideScope video laryngoscope and direct laryngoscope: a ten-year observational study in two academic emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Ki; Kang, Hyunggu; Choi, Hyuk Joong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the success rate of the GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) and direct laryngoscope (DL) over ten years in two academic emergency departments. We used adult intubation data using DL and GVL collected from airway management registries at two academic emergency departments. We analyzed changes in first-pass success (FPS) rate by device and operator training level. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict the FPS according to time period. Over the study period (2006 to 2010, season I; 2013-2015, season II) the DL usage rate dropped from 91.6% to 45.0% while the GVL usage rate increased from 8.4% to 55.4%. The FPS rate using DL also declined from 90.8% in 2007 to 75.5% in 2015. On the other hand, the FPS rate using GVL increased from 87.8% to 95.2%. With DL, all operators' FPS rate declined by approximately 10% in season II compared to season I. The FPS rate with GVL was significantly higher in the providers of postgraduate year over 3 years (P=0.043). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio for GVL FPS of 0.799 during season I (P=0.274). However, the adjusted odds ratio for GVL FPS was 3.744 during season II (P<0.001). We found that the FPS rates of GVL have slightly increased but DL's FPS rate has significantly decreased during the last ten years.

  17. Earthquakes and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  18. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  19. Demand surge following earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  20. Earthquakes and emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

  1. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  2. Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the worst tsunami disaster in the world's history with more than 200,000 casualties. This disaster was attributed to giant size (magnitude M ~ 9, source length >1000 km) of the earthquake, lacks of expectation of such an earthquake, tsunami warning system, knowledge and preparedness for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean countries. In the last ten years, seismology and tsunami sciences as well as tsunami disaster risk reduction have significantly developed. Progress in seismology includes implementation of earthquake early warning, real-time estimation of earthquake source parameters and tsunami potential, paleoseismological studies on past earthquakes and tsunamis, studies of probable maximum size, recurrence variability, and long-term forecast of large earthquakes in subduction zones. Progress in tsunami science includes accurate modeling of tsunami source such as contribution of horizontal components or "tsunami earthquakes", development of new types of offshore and deep ocean tsunami observation systems such as GPS buoys or bottom pressure gauges, deployments of DART gauges in the Pacific and other oceans, improvements in tsunami propagation modeling, and real-time inversion or data assimilation for the tsunami warning. These developments have been utilized for tsunami disaster reduction in the forms of tsunami early warning systems, tsunami hazard maps, and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments. Some of the above scientific developments helped to reveal the source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which caused devastating tsunami damage in Japan and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Toward tsunami disaster risk reduction, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches are needed for scientists with other stakeholders.

  3. Analysis of a Possibility of Electromagnetic Earthquake Triggering by Ionospheric Disturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V.; Ruzhin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that some ionospheric perturbations precede strong earthquakes, and there are attempts to detect and apply them as precursors for short-term earthquake prediction. In that case it is assumed that the processes of earthquake preparation in lithosphere can provide disturbances in ionosphere. From another hand, theoretical, field, and laboratory experimental results obtained during implementation of research projects in Russia within recent ten years demonstrated an evidence of artificial electromagnetic triggering of earthquakes, when electric current density provided by special pulsed power systems at the earthquake source depth (5-10 km) is 10^-7 - 10^-8 A/m^2 is comparable with the density of telluric currents induced in the crust by ionospheric disturbances. In this case it may be supposed that some reported preseismic ionosperic anomalies provide triggering effect for earthquake occurrence. To clear the details of ionosphere-lithosphere coupling and a possibility of electromagnetic triggering of seismic events an analysis of ionospheric precursors of earthquakes, statistical analysis of geomagnetic field variations and seismic activity, laboratory studies of dynamics of deformation of stressed rocks under the electromagnetic impact, as well as theoretical analysis of the possible mechanisms of interaction of rocks with electromagnetic field and their verification in laboratory experiments at the special test equipment, which simulates behavior of the fault zone under external triggering factors were catrried out. A model of electromagnetic triggering of seismic events caused by ionospheric electromagnetic perturbations is proposed based on the fluid migration to the fault under critical stressed state due to interaction of conductive fluid with telluric currents and geomagnetic field. A possibility of development of physical method of short-term earthquake prediction based on electromagnetic triggering effects is discussed.

  4. DIEZ AÑOS DEL PROGRAMA INGENIERÍA DE PRODUCCIÓN DE LA UNIVERSIDAD CENTROCCIDENTAL LISANDRO ALVARADO // TEN YEARS OF THE PROGRAM OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING AT UNIVERSIDAD CENTROCCIDENTAL LISANDRO ALVARADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Martínez Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta reseña presenta los logros alcanzados en el programa Ingeniería de Producción de la Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA, luego de diez años de haber dado inicio a éste, en el cual han egresado hasta éste momento un total de 205 profesionales, quienes se han formado en diferentes áreas de aplicación para el sector productivo. La misma parte de la reseña histórica del programa, abarcando el perfil y competencias que se alcanzan en el desarrollo del mismo, además de su relación con el sector productivo y los retos futuros que se presentan. // This review presents the achievements of UCLA's Production Engineering Program after ten years of having started it, in which a total of 205 professionals have graduated, who have trained in different areas of application for the productive sector. The same part of the historical overview of the program, covering the profile and competencies that are achieved in the development of the program, as well as its relationship with the productive sector and the future challenges that are presented.

  5. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of a Commercially Pure Cancellous-Structured Titanium Press Fit Total Hip Prosthetic Stem: Ten-Year Followup of the “Natural Hip” Femoral Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Pace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the outcomes of 92 hip arthroplasties using a press fit, tapered, split tip, proximally porous ingrowth (CSTi femoral stem (Zimmer Natural Hip in consecutive hip arthroplasty patients followed for an average of ten years postoperatively (range 5–16 years. Patients were functionally and radiographically evaluated using Harris Hip Scores and plain radiographs assessing postarthroplasty groin or thigh pain and radiographic signs of stem subsidence, proximal femoral fixation, stress shielding, and related calcar resorption. At followup of 5–10 years, the incidence of groin pain and thigh pain was 9.1% and 3.6%, respectively. This incidence improved over time. Beyond 10 years of followup, groin pain was 2.7% and thigh pain zero. In 89% of cases, there was solid contact between the calcar and the undersurface of the stem collar. Five cases were revised for instability (5.4%. The Harris Hip Scores and the incidence of thigh or groin pain were very favorable compared to other reported press fit total hip arthroplasty stems and not significantly different across a broad age range. There were no cases of stem loosening of failure of bony ingrowth into the stem.

  6. Injection-induced earthquakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-01-01

    ...s. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids...

  7. 1988 Spitak Earthquake Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1988 Spitak Earthquake database is an extensive collection of geophysical and geological data, maps, charts, images and descriptive text pertaining to the...

  8. Earthquakes and plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1977-01-01

    The world's earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the Earth's surface. They tend to be concentrated in narrow zones. Why is this? And why are volcanoes and mountain ranges also found in these zones too?

  9. Tweet Earthquake Dispatch (TED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS is offering earthquake alerts via two twitter accounts: @USGSted and @USGSBigQuakes. On average, @USGSted and @USGSBigQuakes will produce about one tweet...

  10. Earthquake Damage to Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of slides graphically illustrates the potential danger that major earthquakes pose to school structures and to the children and adults who happen to be...

  11. Earthquake Ground Motion Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Nonlinear analyses of soils, structures, and soil-structure systems offer the potential for more accurate characterization of geotechnical and structural response under strong earthquake shaking. The increasing use of advanced performance-based desig...

  12. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  13. Deburring and surface finishing: The past ten years and projections for the next ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1990-09-01

    The 1970s were a decade of significant growth in deburring and surface finishing. In the 1980s progress was made in robotic finishing, burr formation models, surface finish measurement, new processes, equipment and tooling. The centers of burr and surface related research changed. The decade of the 1990s will bring greater competition, environmental restrictions, more processes, more automation, and better characterization and simulation of processes.

  14. A comparative and retrospective study of three hundred and twenty primary Charnley type hip replacements with a minimum follow up of ten years to assess whether a dual mobility cup has a decreased dislocation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Jacques H; Prudhon, Jean Louis; Ferreira, André; Aslanian, Thierry; Verdier, Régis

    2014-06-01

    Mid- and long-term follow-up of Charnley total hip arthroplasty (THA) demonstrated good functional results with 85 % survivorship at 25-year follow-up. However, dislocation still remains an unsolved problem. Dislocation may occur throughout the patient's and implant's life. The aim of this study is to answer the question: does a dual mobility cup (DMC) decrease the dislocation risk? We report comparative results at ten years of follow-up of two groups of primary cemented Charnley-type THA, one with a standard polyethylene cup (group 1, n = 215) and the other one with a DMC (group 2, n = 105). In group 1, 26 dislocations (12.9 %) occurred. In group 2 only one dislocation (0.9 %) occurred. This dislocation was successfully reduced by closed reduction, without any recurrence. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0018). In group 1, the reason for revision was recurrent dislocation in 21 cases. Five patients were revised for other reasons. The global revision rate was 12.9 %. In group 2, two patients needed revision surgery for aseptic loosening. The global revision rate was 2.1 %. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.054). The goal was reached for the patients of group 2 who had more risks factors for dislocation (age, aetiology, American Society of Anesthesiologists and Devane scores) than those of group 1. When using a DMC, we observed a low rate of dislocation in primary THA (0.9 %). This surgical choice seems to be a safe and effective technique in Charnley-type THA, especially in a high-risk population.

  15. [Heterogeneity of the Departments of Mental Health in the Veneto Region ten years after the National Plan 1994-96 for Mental Health. Which implication for clinical practice? Findings from the PICOS Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalvia, Antonio; Gentile, Bruno; Ruggeri, Mirella; Marcolin, Alessandro; Nosè, Flavio; Cappellari, Lodovico; Lamonaca, Dario; Toniolo, Emanuele; Busana, Claudio; Campedelli, Antonio; Cuccato, Giancarlo; Danieli, Andrea; De Nardi, Fabio; De Nardo, Vincenzo; Destro, Ernesto; Favaretto, Gerardo; Frazzingaro, Silvio; Giacopuzzi, Mario; Pristinger, Paolo; Pullia, Giuseppe; Rodighiero, Sandro; Tito, Paolo; Aprile, Francesco; Nicolaou, Stylianos; Coppola, Giuseppe; Garzotto, Nicola; Gottardi, Umberto; Lazzarin, Ermanna; Migliorini, Giuseppe; Pavan, Luigi; Ramaciotti, Fabrizio; Roveroni, Paolo; Russo, Salvatore; Urbani, Pierpaolo; Tansella, Michele

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to present data on structural and human resources of public mental health services located in the Veneto Region, Italy, and to discuss them in the light of implementation of the first National Target Plan for Mental Health ("Progetto Obiettivo 1994-1996") ten years after its launch. The study was conducted in the context of the PICOS (Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study) Project, a large first-presentation multisite study on patients with psychotic disorders attending community mental heath services in the Veneto Region. Human and structural resources were surveyed in 26 study sites using a structured interview administered by the PICOS local referents. CMHCs and Day Centres were homogeneously distributed across the Region and their overall rates per resident population met the national standards; a wide variability in the distribution of Day Hospitals was found, with the overall rate per resident population very far from meeting the national standard; the overall rate for Residential Facilities beds was higher than the recommended national standard, showing however an high variability across sites. The overall rate of mental health professionals per resident population was only slightly below the national standard: this was mainly achieved thanks to non-profit organizations which supplement the public system with unspecialised professionals; however, a wide variability in the local rates per resident population was found, with the 50% of the sites showing rates far lower the national standard. Specific lack of trained professionals involved in the provision of psychosocial interventions was found in most sites. A marked variability in human and structural resources across community mental health services in the Veneto Region was found. Possible reasons for this heterogeneity were analysed and implications for mental health care provision were further discussed.

  16. Time-to-event versus ten-year-absolute-risk in cardiovascular risk prevention - does it make a difference? Results from the Optimizing-Risk-Communication (OptRisk) randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Jegan, Nikita; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kühne, Felicitas; Siebert, Uwe; Popert, Uwe; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Kürwitz, Sarah

    2016-11-29

    The concept of shared-decision-making is a well-established approach to increase the participation of patients in medical decisions. Using lifetime risk or time-to-event (TTE) formats has been increasingly suggested as they might have advantages, e.g. in younger patients, to better show consequences of unhealthy behaviour. In this study, the most-popular ten-year risk illustration in the decision-aid-software arriba(TM) (emoticons), is compared within a randomised trial to a new-developed TTE illustration, which is based on a Markov model. Thirty-two General Practitioners (GPs) took part in the study. A total of 304 patients were recruited and counseled by their GPs with arriba(TM), and randomized to either the emoticons or the TTE illustration, followed by a patient questionnaire to figure out the degree of shared-decision-making (PEF-FB9, German questionnaire to measure the participation in the shared decision-making process, primary outcome), as well as the decisional conflict, perceived risk, accessibility and the degree of information, which are all secondary outcomes. Regarding our primary outcome PEF-FB9 the new TTE illustration is not inferior compared to the well-established emoticons taking the whole study population into account. Furthermore, the non-inferiority of the innovative TTE could be confirmed for all secondary outcome variables. The explorative analysis indicates even advantages in younger patients (below 46 years of age). The TTE format seems to be as useful as the well-established emoticons. For certain patient populations, especially younger patients, the TTE may be even superior to demonstrate a cardiovascular risk at early stages. Our results suggest that time-to-event illustrations should be considered for current decision support tools covering cardiovascular prevention. The study was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register and at the WHO International Clinical Trials Register Platform ( ICTRP, ID DRKS00004933 ); registered 2

  17. Good diagnostic performance of early migration as a predictor of late aseptic loosening of acetabular cups: results from ten years of follow-up with Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijse, Marc J; Valstar, Edward R; Kaptein, Bart L; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2012-05-16

    Excessive early migration of femoral stems following total hip arthroplasty and tibial components following total knee arthroplasty is associated with their long-term survival and allows reliable early evaluation of implant performance. However, a similar relationship involving acetabular components following hip arthroplasty has not been evaluated. This prospective, long-term study with clinical and Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) follow-up establishes the existence of this relationship and its associated diagnostic performance. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (forty-one hips) who underwent total hip arthroplasty with a cemented Exeter stem and a cemented Exeter all-polyethylene cup had prospective clinical and RSA follow-up. Patients were evaluated postoperatively at six weeks, at three, six, and twelve months, and annually thereafter. Conventional anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were made at six weeks and at two, five, and ten years postoperatively as well as when indicated. The mean duration of follow-up (and standard deviation) was 9.4 ± 3.2 years. No patients were lost to follow-up; fifteen patients died during the follow-up period. Eleven acetabular components were observed to be loose on conventional radiographs after a mean of seventy-six months (range, twelve to 140 months). During the first two postoperative years, the failed acetabular components showed markedly greater and more rapid cranial translation and sagittal rotation. Both cranial translation (hazard ratio = 19.9 [95% confidence interval, 4.94 to 80.0], p RSA at two years postoperatively, has good diagnostic capabilities for the detection of acetabular components at risk for future aseptic loosening, and this method appears to be an appropriate means of assessing the performance of new implants or implant-related changes.

  18. Earthquake impact scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  19. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  20. Rupture, waves and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    UENISHI, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but “extraordinary” phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable. PMID:28077808

  1. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  2. Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation...

  3. Hydrogeochemical precursors of strong earthquakes in Kamchatka: further analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, ion and gas content data have been collected from the groundwater of three deep wells in the southern area of the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. In the last ten years, five earthquakes with M > 6.5 have occurred within 250 km of the wells. In a previous study, we investigated the possibility that the hydrogeochemical time series contained precursors. The technique used was to assume that each signal with an amplitude of three times the standard deviation is an irregularity and we then defined anomalies as irregularities occurring simultaneously in the data for more than one parameter at each well. Using this method, we identified 11 anomalies with 8 of them being possible successes and 3 being failures as earthquake precursors. Precursors were obtained for all five earthquakes that we considered. In this paper, we allow for the cross-correlation found between the gas data sets and in some cases, between the ion data sets. No cross-correlation has been found between gas and ion content data. Any correlation undermines the idea that an anomaly might be identified from irregularities appearing simultaneously on different parameters at each site. To refine the technique, we re-examine the hydrogeochemical data and define as anomalies those irregularities occurring simultaneously only in the data of two or more uncorrelated parameters. We then restricted the analysis to the cases of just the gas content data and the ion content data. In the first case, we found 6 successes and 2 failures, and in the second case, we found only 3 successes. In the first case, the precursors appear only for three of the five earthquakes we considered, and in the second case, only for two, but these are the earthquakes nearest to the wells. Interestingly, it shows that when a strict set of rules for defining an anomaly is used, the method produces only successes and when less restrictive rules are used, earthquakes further from the well are implicated, but

  4. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  5. Sensing the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichisao, Marta; Stallone, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Making science visual plays a crucial role in the process of building knowledge. In this view, art can considerably facilitate the representation of the scientific content, by offering a different perspective on how a specific problem could be approached. Here we explore the possibility of presenting the earthquake process through visual dance. From a choreographer's point of view, the focus is always on the dynamic relationships between moving objects. The observed spatial patterns (coincidences, repetitions, double and rhythmic configurations) suggest how objects organize themselves in the environment and what are the principles underlying that organization. The identified set of rules is then implemented as a basis for the creation of a complex rhythmic and visual dance system. Recently, scientists have turned seismic waves into sound and animations, introducing the possibility of "feeling" the earthquakes. We try to implement these results into a choreographic model with the aim to convert earthquake sound to a visual dance system, which could return a transmedia representation of the earthquake process. In particular, we focus on a possible method to translate and transfer the metric language of seismic sound and animations into body language. The objective is to involve the audience into a multisensory exploration of the earthquake phenomenon, through the stimulation of the hearing, eyesight and perception of the movements (neuromotor system). In essence, the main goal of this work is to develop a method for a simultaneous visual and auditory representation of a seismic event by means of a structured choreographic model. This artistic representation could provide an original entryway into the physics of earthquakes.

  6. PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

    2010-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

  7. Earthquake history of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Virginia is a State of considerable seismic activity, although the earthquakes are rarely strong. Thirty-five shocks, intensity MM V or greater (Modified Mercalli Scale), are listed with epicenters within its borders. The locations of several of the older events are not precise; thus, the above count i subject to alteration. A detailed study of Virginia earthquakes by G. A. Bollinger and M. G. Hopper of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University listed 137 shocks (71 from 1774 to 1899, 66 from 1900 to 1970). Many of these were felt with intensities below MM V. 

  8. O pessegueiro em pomar compacto. IX. dez anos de produção de cultivares sob poda drástica bienal The peach meadow orchard system. IX. yield of cultivars during ten years on biennial drastic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e reprodutivo de quatorze cultivares e seleções de pessegueiro (Prunus persica L. Batsch e nectarineira cultivadas no espaçamento de 4 x 1,5 m (1.667 pl/ha, sob poda drástica bienal da copa. Pelos resultados obtidos no decênio 1986-95, verificou-se que as cultivares e seleções mais produtivas foram (número e kg de frutos/planta respectivamente: Aurora-1 (112; 9,2, IAC 680-178 (94; 8,5, IAC 680-13 (95; 8,1, Talismã (99; 8,1, Régis (98; 7,8 e Flordaprince (91; 7,7. No ano agrícola de 1995, as variáveis analisadas, área da secção transversal do tronco, área da folha, número e massa dos frutos por cm² de tronco, apresentaram diferenciação estatística entre cultivares e seleções. A poda drástica bienal da copa ocasionou, tanto em material precoce quanto mediano, diminuição de produção a cada duas safras, não chegando, porém, a prejudicar a produtividade média do pomar.Fourteen peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch and nectarine cultivars and selections, budded on Okinawa rootstock, were grown under the meadow orchard system, with biennial drastic pruning at 4 x 1.5 m spacing. Results obtained during ten years of experiments (1986-95 clearly indicate that 'Aurora-1', IAC 680-178, IAC 680-13, 'Talismã', 'Régis' and 'Flordaprince' peaches were the best, with an average yield (fruits per tree of 112, 9.2; 94, 8.5; 95, 8.1; 99, 8.1; 98, 7.8 and 91, 7.7 number and kg/tree respectively. The biennial drastic pruning decreased the yield of trees every two years, without affecting the average decennial productivity. In 1995, data on trunk cross-sectional area, fruits and mass per cm² of trunk and leaf area presented significant differences among cultivars and selections.

  9. The prevalence of excessive weight in Balearic Islands' young and middle-aged women and its association with social and socioeconomic factors: a ten-year trend (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Josep Ll; del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Salas, Rogelio; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-09-02

    Knowledge about trends in the socioeconomic patterning of overweight and obesity in women provides insights into the nature of the obesity epidemic. Therefore the aim was to assess a ten-year trend (2000-2010) in the prevalence of excessive weight in Balearic Islands' women and its association with socioeconomic factors. Young (18-35 year-old) and middle-aged (36-55 year-old) women were selected from two population-based cross-sectional nutritional surveys carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The participation rate was 80% during 1999-2000 and 92.5% during 2009-2010. Measured weight and height was obtained, and body mass index (kg/m(2)) was classified as follows: overweight (25.0 < 30), obese (≥ 30) and excessive weight (≥ 25). In both surveys, a general questionnaire including questions relating to socioeconomic status factors was used. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of excessive weight with socioeconomic variables and to test the interaction between the survey period and the socioeconomic factors. Overall, while the prevalence of obesity mainly remained stable over the study period, the prevalence of overweight increased from 21.0 to 24.8%. Young women showed an increased prevalence of overweight and excessive weight, from 14.1 to 20.9% and from 20.9 to 28.6%, respectively. Significant differences were not found in middle-aged women. Over the whole period, the incidence of excessive weight was higher among middle-aged and foreign women, but lower in women with a high educational profile and in employment. The prevalence of excessive weight in young women was also around 2.5 times higher in women who were living with at least one child at home. The tendency towards excessive weight in employed women decreased significantly between 2000 and 2010 in the younger age group (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22-0.82). No significant increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in middle-aged women, with a low level of education

  10. Real-Time Performance of PRESTo Earthquake Early Warning System at the Ibero-Maghrebian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Marta; Cruz, Eva; Buforn, Elisa; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the first correlations for an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) at the Ibero-Maghrebian region have been developed. In order to validate them, we have adapted the Earthquake Early Warning System software platform PRESTo to operate in real time at the Ibero-Maghrebian region. After the period of configuration, it became operative on October 2015, sending warnings to few private users. Here we show the performance of the system during the first 15 months that the EEWS has been operative. More than 400 earthquakes have been detected at the region during the period, for which we have analysed the time needed to issue the alert. We have also compared the first and final estimation of PRESTo with those of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, for the hipocentral location, origin time and magnitude. A detailed study of the performance of PRESTo for the Alboran 01/25/2016 (Mw=6.3) earthquake, the largest occurred in the region in the last ten years, has been carried out. From the analysis of PRESTo during this period we conclude that an EEWS is feasible and very useful for the Ibero-Maghrebian region.

  11. Earthquake science in resilient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, T.; Clark, M. K.; Zekkos, D.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Willis, M.; Medwedeff, William; Knoper, Logan; Townsend, Kirk; Jin, Jonson

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake science is critical in reducing vulnerability to a broad range of seismic hazards. Evidence-based studies drawing from several branches of the Earth sciences and engineering can effectively mitigate losses experienced in earthquakes. Societies that invest in this research have lower fatality rates in earthquakes and can recover more rapidly. This commentary explores the scientific pathways through which earthquake-resilient societies are developed. We highlight recent case studies of evidence-based decision making and how modern research is improving the way societies respond to earthquakes.

  12. The HayWired earthquake scenario—Earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  13. Análise postural fotogramétrica de crianças saudáveis de 7 a 10 anos: confiabilidade interexaminadores Photogrammetric postural analysis on healthy seven to ten-year-old children: interrater reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Testar a concordância interexaminadores da fotogrametria aplicada para avaliar o alinhamento postural em crianças. MÉTODOS: Foram mensurados 33 variáveis obtidas de imagens de 122 crianças saudáveis, 58 meninos (8,39±0,97 anos e 64 meninas (8,42±1,06 anos, na faixa etária de 7 a 10 anos. Foi utilizada uma máquina fotográfica digital Sony® 6.0MP DSC-T9, posicionada sobre um tripé (Vanguard VT-131 com altura de 90 cm, a uma distância de 300 cm da criança. Os pontos anatômicos de interesse foram marcados com adesivos coloridos (Pimaco® sobre esferas de isopor de 1 cm de diâmetro. Registros fotográficos foram obtidos com a criança em trajes de banho, em posição ortostática, nas vistas frontal anterior, posterior, lateral esquerda e direita. Cada registro fotográfico foi analisado por três examinadores previamente treinados que usaram o Software de Avaliação Postural (SAPo. O programa estatístico SAS/STAT v.9 foi usado para obtenção dos coeficientes de correlação interclasse (CCI. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstram uma excelente concordância interexaminadores (CCI>0,90 para 28 variáveis (84,85% e boa concordância (0,80> CCI>0,89 para 5 variáveis (15,15%, mesmo na vigência de uma categorização rigorosa. CONCLUSÃO: O método testado demonstrou ser viável e com potencial para gerar dados de referência sobre o alinhamento postural de crianças.OBJECTIVES: To test the interrater agreement of photogrammetry used to assess postural alignment among children. METHODS: Thirtythree variables were measured from images of 122 healthy children aged seven to ten years, that is, 58 boys (8.39±0.97 years and 64 girls (8.42±1.06 years. A digital camera (Sony® 6.0 MP DSC-T9 was positioned on a tripod (Vanguard VT-131 at a height of 90 cm and at a distance of 300 cm from the child. The anatomical points of interest were marked with colored adhesives (Pimaco® on polystyrene spheres of 1 cm in diameter. The

  14. Dez anos de heterocontrole da fluoretação de águas em Chapecó, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil Ten years of external control over water fluoridation in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvaine Panizzi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a concentração de flúor na água de abastecimento público em Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brasil, no período de 1995 a 2005 e, adicionalmente, avaliar a efetividade de uma intervenção ocorrida em 2003 na qualidade da fluoretação. Foram analisadas 989 amostras de água. Para adequação da concentração de flúor as amostras foram classificadas obedecendo a três critérios utilizados no Brasil. Uma intervenção político-jurídica foi realizada pela municipalidade no ano de 2003. A fim de avaliar a tendência da fluoretação ao longo de todo período e antes e depois da intervenção, utilizou-se o procedimento de Prais-Winsten. Nos dez anos analisados, o sistema de fluoretação de águas apresentou 46%, 32% e 43% de amostras adequadas, dependendo do critério adotado. Previamente à intervenção municipal, a proporção de amostras adequadas foi de 40%, 26% e 36%, aumentando para 63%, 49% e 61% após intervenção, segundo os diferentes critérios de análise. Verificou-se uma melhora na adequação da concentração de flúor após a intervenção municipal. Recomenda-se a continuidade da vigilância da fluoretação de águas, considerando-a processual e de caráter permanente.This study aimed to analyze fluoride concentration in the public water supply in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2005 and to assess the effectiveness of a fluoridation quality intervention in 2003. A total of 989 water samples were analyzed. Fluoride concentrations were classified according to three different criteria used in Brazil. The city conducted a political and legal intervention in 2003. The Prais-Winsten procedure was used to evaluate the fluoride concentrations over time. In the ten years, the water fluoridation system showed 46%, 32%, and 43% of adequate samples, depending on the criterion. Prior to the municipal intervention, the proportion of adequate samples was 40%, 26%, and 36

  15. Qualitative postural analysis among boys and girls of seven to ten years of age Análise postural qualitativa entre meninos e meninas de sete a dez anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Penha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postural abnormalities are often found in children. At this stage of life, posture undergoes many adjustments and adaptations due to body changes. Objective: To qualitatively identify the postural abnormalities which occur most frequently among children aged OBJECTIVE: Reven and ten years, comparing boys and girls, and to evaluate these subjects' lumbar flexibility. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-one children were photographed in the sagittal and frontal planes. The variables analyzed were: ankle (valgus and varus, tibiotarsal angle (opened and closed, knee (hyperextension and semiflexion, valgus and varus, pelvis (anteversion and retroversion; lateral pelvic inclination, trunk (antepulsion and retropulsion, lumbar spine (hyperlordosis and rectification, thoracic spine (hyperkyphosis and rectification, cervical spine (hyperlordosis and rectification, scoliosis, shoulder (imbalance and protraction, scapula (winged, abducted and adducted and head (tilt and protraction. The lumbar flexibility was assessed using Schöber's index. RESULTS: The boys had greater incidence of winged scapula, shoulder imbalance, protraction of shoulders and head and cervical hyperlordosis than the girls did. Conversely, the girls had greater incidence of head tilt and larger Schöber index values. CONCLUSIONS: There were abnormalities in children's postural development that are probably related to muscle, skeletal and flexibility differences between the genders. These differences may influence each child's postural pattern during growth.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Alterações posturais são freqüentemente encontradas em crianças. Nessa fase, a postura sofre uma série de ajustes e adaptações às mudanças no próprio corpo. OBJETIVO: Identificar, de maneira qualitativa, quais as alterações posturais mais freqüentes em crianças entre sete e dez anos, comparando meninos e meninas, e avaliar a flexibilidade lombar desses sujeitos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Cento e

  16. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  17. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  18. Earthquake engineering for nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of earthquake- and tsunami-related technologies and knowledge for the design and construction of nuclear facilities. As such, it covers a wide range of fields including civil engineering, architecture, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineering, for the development of new technologies providing greater resistance against earthquakes and tsunamis. It is crucial both for students of nuclear energy courses and for young engineers in nuclear power generation industries to understand the basics and principles of earthquake- and tsunami-resistant design of nuclear facilities. In Part I, "Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants", the design of nuclear power plants to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis is explained, focusing on buildings, equipment's, and civil engineering structures. In Part II, "Basics of Earthquake Engineering", fundamental knowledge of earthquakes and tsunamis as well as the dynamic response of structures and foundation ground...

  19. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  20. Earthquake technology fights crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, John C.; Ward, Peter L.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have adapted their methods for quickly finding the exact source of an earthquake to the problem of locating gunshots. On the basis of this work, a private company is now testing an automated gunshot-locating system in a San Francisco Bay area community. This system allows police to rapidly pinpoint and respond to illegal gunfire, helping to reduce crime in our neighborhoods.

  1. Earthquake Source Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The past 2 decades have seen substantial progress in our understanding of the nature of the earthquake faulting process, but increasingly, the subject has become an interdisciplinary one. Thus, although the observation of radiated seismic waves remains the primary tool for studying earthquakes (and has been increasingly focused on extracting the physical processes occurring in the “source”), geological studies have also begun to play a more important role in understanding the faulting process. Additionally, defining the physical underpinning for these phenomena has come to be an important subject in experimental and theoretical rock mechanics.In recognition of this, a Maurice Ewing Symposium was held at Arden House, Harriman, N.Y. (the former home of the great American statesman Averill Harriman), May 20-23, 1985. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the international community of experimentalists, theoreticians, and observationalists who are engaged in the study of various aspects of earthquake source mechanics. The conference was attended by more than 60 scientists from nine countries (France, Italy, Japan, Poland, China, the United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, and the Federal Republic of Germany).

  2. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

  3. Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

  4. Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

  5. Are Earthquakes a Critical Phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, O.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes, granular avalanches, superconducting vortices, solar flares, and even stock markets are known to evolve through power-law distributed events. During decades, the formalism of equilibrium phase transition has coined these phenomena as critical, which implies that they are also unpredictable. This work revises these ideas and uses earthquakes as the paradigm to demonstrate that slowly driven systems evolving through uncorrelated and power-law distributed avalanches (UPLA) are not necessarily critical systems, and therefore not necessarily unpredictable. By linking the correlation length to the pdf of the distribution, and comparing it with the one obtained at a critical point, a condition of criticality is introduced. Simulations in the classical Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) earthquake model confirm the findings, showing that earthquakes are not a critical phenomenon. However, one single catastrophic earthquake may show critical properties and, paradoxically, the emergence of this temporal critical behaviour may eventually carry precursory signs of catastrophic events.

  6. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  7. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  8. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes.

    Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon.

    Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected, and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured.

    Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto ($214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>$300 billion USD at time of writing, 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product, exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index, and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons.

    This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global

  9. The 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake: Insights from Earthquake Damage Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuichiro eGoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake caused tremendous damage and loss. To gain valuable lessons from this tragic event, an earthquake damage investigation team was dispatched to Nepal from 1 May 2015 to 7 May 2015. A unique aspect of the earthquake damage investigation is that first-hand earthquake damage data were obtained 6 to 11 days after the mainshock. To gain deeper understanding of the observed earthquake damage in Nepal, the paper reviews the seismotectonic setting and regional seismicity in Nepal and analyzes available aftershock data and ground motion data. The earthquake damage observations indicate that the majority of the damaged buildings were stone/brick masonry structures with no seismic detailing, whereas the most of RC buildings were undamaged. This indicates that adequate structural design is the key to reduce the earthquake risk in Nepal. To share the gathered damage data widely, the collected damage data (geo-tagged photos and observation comments are organized using Google Earth and the kmz file is made publicly available.

  10. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  11. Earthquake Emergency Education in Dushanbe, Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Bendick, Rebecca; Halvorson, Sarah J.; Saydullaev, Umed; Hojiboev, Orifjon; Stickler, Christine; Adam, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a middle school earthquake science and hazards curriculum to promote earthquake awareness to students in the Central Asian country of Tajikistan. These materials include pre- and post-assessment activities, six science activities describing physical processes related to earthquakes, five activities on earthquake hazards and mitigation…

  12. Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Silina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.

  13. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  14. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-06

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  15. Earthquakes, July-August 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    There were two major earthquakes (7.0≤Mearthquake occurred in Kyrgyzstan on August 19 and a magnitude 7.0 quake struck the Ascension Island region on August 28. In southern California, aftershocks of the magnitude 7.6 earthquake on June 28, 1992, continued. One of these aftershocks caused damage and injuries, and at least one other aftershock caused additional damage. Earthquake-related fatalities were reportred in Kyrgzstan and Pakistan. 

  16. USGS Earthquake Program GPS Use Case : Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    USGS GPS receiver use case. Item 1 - High Precision User (federal agency with Stafford Act hazard alert responsibilities for earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides nationwide). Item 2 - Description of Associated GPS Application(s): The USGS Eart...

  17. EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DEFORMATION STRUCTURES AND RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  18. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel C. Bowden; Paul S. Earle; Michelle Guy

    2011-01-01

    ... messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages...

  19. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  20. Earthquake in Haiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2012-01-01

    In the vocabulary of modern disaster research, Heinrich von Kleist's seminal short story "The Earthquake in Chile" from 1806 is a tale of disaster vulnerability. The story is not just about a natural disaster destroying the innocent city of Santiago but also about the ensuing social disaster...... orchestrated by the citizens of Santiago themselves. Three cognitive schemes play a role for the way Kleist – and his fictional characters – imagine the vulnerability of human society: the theodicy, the sublime, and the state of exception. These three symbolic forms are part of the surprisingly small...... and surprisingly stable repertoire of cultural concepts and images that, for several centuries now, govern the way we think about disasters and the way we act when they strike. The task of a cultural disaster research, the essay suggests, is to study the deep grammar of our common imagination of disaster surfacing...

  1. Dynamics of Earthquake Faults

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, J M; Shaw, B E

    1993-01-01

    We present an overview of our ongoing studies of the rich dynamical behavior of the uniform, deterministic Burridge--Knopoff model of an earthquake fault. We discuss the behavior of the model in the context of current questions in seismology. Some of the topics considered include: (1) basic properties of the model, such as the magnitude vs. frequency distribution and the distinction between small and large events; (2) dynamics of individual events, including dynamical selection of rupture propagation speeds; (3) generalizations of the model to more realistic, higher dimensional models; (4) studies of predictability, in which artificial catalogs generated by the model are used to test and determine the limitations of pattern recognition algorithms used in seismology.

  2. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams. This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  3. Medical complications associated with earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan A; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2012-02-25

    Major earthquakes are some of the most devastating natural disasters. The epidemiology of earthquake-related injuries and mortality is unique for these disasters. Because earthquakes frequently affect populous urban areas with poor structural standards, they often result in high death rates and mass casualties with many traumatic injuries. These injuries are highly mechanical and often multisystem, requiring intensive curative medical and surgical care at a time when the local and regional medical response capacities have been at least partly disrupted. Many patients surviving blunt and penetrating trauma and crush injuries have subsequent complications that lead to additional morbidity and mortality. Here, we review and summarise earthquake-induced injuries and medical complications affecting major organ systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building collapses....

  5. Sociological aspects of earthquake prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    Henry Spall talked recently with Denis Mileti who is in the Department of Sociology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. Dr. Mileti is a sociologst involved with research programs that study the socioeconomic impact of earthquake prediction. 

  6. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  7. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Bowden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word “earthquake” clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  8. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  9. Earthquake, GIS and multimedia. The 1883 Casamicciola earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rebuffat

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of multimedia monographs concerning the main seismic events that have affected the Italian territory are in the process of being produced for the Documental Integrated Multimedia Project (DIMP started by the Italian National Seismic Survey (NSS. The purpose of the project is to reconstruct the historical record of earthquakes and promote an earthquake public education. Producing the monographs. developed in ARC INFO and working in UNIX. involved designing a special filing and management methodology to integrate heterogeneous information (images, papers, cartographies, etc.. This paper describes the possibilities of a GIS (Geographic Information System in the filing and management of documental information. As an example we present the first monograph on the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake. on the island of Ischia (Campania, Italy. This earthquake is particularly interesting for the following reasons: I historical-cultural context (first destructive seismic event after the unification of Italy; 2 its features (volcanic earthquake; 3 the socioeconomic consequences caused at such an important seaside resort.

  10. Laboratory generated M -6 earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider whether mm-scale earthquake-like seismic events generated in laboratory experiments are consistent with our understanding of the physics of larger earthquakes. This work focuses on a population of 48 very small shocks that are foreshocks and aftershocks of stick–slip events occurring on a 2.0 m by 0.4 m simulated strike-slip fault cut through a large granite sample. Unlike the larger stick–slip events that rupture the entirety of the simulated fault, the small foreshocks and aftershocks are contained events whose properties are controlled by the rigidity of the surrounding granite blocks rather than characteristics of the experimental apparatus. The large size of the experimental apparatus, high fidelity sensors, rigorous treatment of wave propagation effects, and in situ system calibration separates this study from traditional acoustic emission analyses and allows these sources to be studied with as much rigor as larger natural earthquakes. The tiny events have short (3–6 μs) rise times and are well modeled by simple double couple focal mechanisms that are consistent with left-lateral slip occurring on a mm-scale patch of the precut fault surface. The repeatability of the experiments indicates that they are the result of frictional processes on the simulated fault surface rather than grain crushing or fracture of fresh rock. Our waveform analysis shows no significant differences (other than size) between the M -7 to M -5.5 earthquakes reported here and larger natural earthquakes. Their source characteristics such as stress drop (1–10 MPa) appear to be entirely consistent with earthquake scaling laws derived for larger earthquakes.

  11. Operation earthquake 2011: Christchurch earthquake disaster victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trengrove, H

    2011-12-01

    At 12.51pm on Tuesday 22 February 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck the Christchurch region of New Zealand causing massive destruction with hundreds of people injured and killed. The New Zealand Society of Forensic Odontology response commenced two hours after the earthquake with the implementation of the national Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) forensic odontology plan. The importance of good planning, the integration of odontology as part of the immediate response and the deployment of odontology personnel to the scene were features of this operation. Stringent quality assurance processes were integrated into the planning which assisted in the robust outcomes. Smile photograph comparisons played a role in a number of difficult identifications. In the four months following the earthquake teams of odontology personnel worked tirelessly in an effort to identify the remains of those killed during the disaster. At the conclusion of the operation 97% of the deceased have been identified and returned to their families.

  12. The music of earthquakes and Earthquake Quartet #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquake Quartet #1, my composition for voice, trombone, cello, and seismograms, is the intersection of listening to earthquakes as a seismologist and performing music as a trombonist. Along the way, I realized there is a close relationship between what I do as a scientist and what I do as a musician. A musician controls the source of the sound and the path it travels through their instrument in order to make sound waves that we hear as music. An earthquake is the source of waves that travel along a path through the earth until reaching us as shaking. It is almost as if the earth is a musician and people, including seismologists, are metaphorically listening and trying to understand what the music means.

  13. Earthquake and Tsunami booklet based on two Indonesia earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y.; Aci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many destructive earthquakes occurred during the last decade in Indonesia. These experiences are very important precepts for the world people who live in earthquake and tsunami countries. We are collecting the testimonies of tsunami survivors to clarify successful evacuation process and to make clear the characteristic physical behaviors of tsunami near coast. We research 2 tsunami events, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2010 Mentawai slow earthquake tsunami. Many video and photographs were taken by people at some places in 2004 Indian ocean tsunami disaster; nevertheless these were few restricted points. We didn't know the tsunami behavior in another place. In this study, we tried to collect extensive information about tsunami behavior not only in many places but also wide time range after the strong shake. In Mentawai case, the earthquake occurred in night, so there are no impressive photos. To collect detail information about evacuation process from tsunamis, we contrived the interview method. This method contains making pictures of tsunami experience from the scene of victims' stories. In 2004 Aceh case, all survivors didn't know tsunami phenomena. Because there were no big earthquakes with tsunami for one hundred years in Sumatra region, public people had no knowledge about tsunami. This situation was highly improved in 2010 Mentawai case. TV programs and NGO or governmental public education programs about tsunami evacuation are widespread in Indonesia. Many people know about fundamental knowledge of earthquake and tsunami disasters. We made drill book based on victim's stories and painted impressive scene of 2 events. We used the drill book in disaster education event in school committee of west Java. About 80 % students and teachers evaluated that the contents of the drill book are useful for correct understanding.

  14. Book review: Earthquakes and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    It is really nice to see assembled in one place a discussion of the documented and hypothesized hydrologic effects of earthquakes. The book is divided into chapters focusing on particular hydrologic phenomena including liquefaction, mud volcanism, stream discharge increases, groundwater level, temperature and chemical changes, and geyser period changes. These hydrologic effects are inherently fascinating, and the large number of relevant publications in the past decade makes this summary a useful milepost. The book also covers hydrologic precursors and earthquake triggering by pore pressure. A natural need to limit the topics covered resulted in the omission of tsunamis and the vast literature on the role of fluids and pore pressure in frictional strength of faults. Regardless of whether research on earthquake-triggered hydrologic effects ultimately provides insight into the physics of earthquakes, the text provides welcome common ground for interdisciplinary collaborations between hydrologists and seismologists. Such collaborations continue to be crucial for investigating hypotheses about the role of fluids in earthquakes and slow slip. 

  15. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  16. Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid utilizing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Earthquake Catalog data of actual...

  17. Global Earthquake Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid utilizing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Earthquake Catalog data of actual...

  18. Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute global utilizing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Earthquake Catalog data of actual...

  19. Earthquakes in Central California, 1980-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in central California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Livermore, 1980, Coalinga,...

  20. Global Earthquake Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  1. Global Earthquake Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake mortality risks. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) data...

  2. Global Earthquake Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of earthquake hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  3. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-peak ground acceleration is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  4. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-Peak Ground Acceleration is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  5. Unbonded Prestressed Columns for Earthquake Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Modern structures are able to survive significant shaking caused by earthquakes. By implementing unbonded post-tensioned tendons in bridge columns, the damage caused by an earthquake can be significantly lower than that of a standard reinforced concr...

  6. Response of Water Levels in Devils Hole, Death Valley National Park, Nevada, to Atmospheric Loading, Earth Tides, and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillo, P. A.; Ge, S.

    2004-12-01

    Devils Hole, home to the endangered Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) in Death Valley National Park, Nevada, is one of about 30 springs and the largest collapse depression in the Ash Meadows area. The small pool leads to an extensive subterranean cavern within the regional Paleozoic carbonate-rock aquifer. Previous work has established that the pool level fluctuates in response to changes in barometric pressure, Earth tides and earthquakes. Analyses of these fluctuations indicate that the formation is a sensitive indicator of crustal strain, and provide important information regarding the material properties of the surrounding aquifer. Over ten years of hourly water-level measurements were analyzed for the effects of atmospheric loading and Earth tides. The short-term water-level fluctuations caused by these effects were found to be on the order of millimeters to centimeters, indicating relatively low matrix compressibility. Accordingly, the Devils Hole water-level record shows strong responses to the June 28, 1992 Landers/Little Skull Mountain earthquake sequence and to the October 16, 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. A dislocation model was used to calculate volumetric strain for each earthquake. The sensitivity of Devils Hole to strain induced by the solid Earth tide was used to constrain the modeling. Water-level decreases observed following the 1992 and 1999 earthquakes were found to be consistent with areas of crustal expansion predicted by the dislocation model. The magnitude of the water-level changes was also found to be proportional to the predicted coseismic volumetric strain. Post-seismic pore-pressure diffusion, governed by the hydraulic diffusivity of the aquifer, was simulated with a numerical model using the coseismic change in pore pressure as an initial condition. Results of the numerical model indicate that factors such as fault-plane geometry and aquifer heterogeneity may play an important role in controlling pore pressure diffusion in the

  7. US-Hungarian Relations Ten Years After 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Glant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 1966, the tenth anniversary of the 1956 Revolution, was a key year in US–Hungarian relations. Diplomatic relations were raised from the lowest to the highest level, but suspicion and tension remained. Neither side knew what to expect from the other on account of the anniversary, the Vietnam War, economic and cultural negotiations, and the fate of Cardinal Mindszenty. A traditional diplomatic historical approach is supplemented here with cultural materials to present the full scale of contacts ranging from high political issues to the visit of Hollywood movie star Kirk Douglas in Budapest. First Secretary of the Legation for Press and Cultural Affairs Edward Alexander receives special attention, because he played a crucial role in the events of 1966. As press secretary, he helped calm Hungarian fears over what American journalists might report about the anniversary, while as cultural affairs officer he worked on documenting and expanding American cultural presence in Hungary. In the latter capacity, he opened the USIA Library at the Legation, fraternized with blacklisted painters of the Zuglói Kör [‘Zugló Circle’], monitored the Hungarian stage production of My Fair Lady, and reported on the publication of American literature in Hungarian.

  8. 1959 - 1969 Ten years in the life of a machine

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Operation and development of the PS have brought a dramatic improvement in its capabilities. This article describes the years of getting to know the machine and of developing its potential, picking out some major landmarks on the way. The article was put together with the help of P.H. Standley (PS Division Head), C.S. Taylor (Linac), G. Plass, W. Richter (Mam Ring), M. Georgijevic (Power Supply), J.H.B. Madsen (Operation), and G.L. Munday (Experimental Areas).

  9. Ten-year changes in anthropometric characteristics of elderly Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Enzi, G.; Matthys, C.; Moreiras, O.; Roszkowski, W.; Schroll, M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assess longitudinal (10-y) changes in height, body weight and circumferences in elderly Europeans. DESIGN: Longitudinal assessments including baseline measurements taken in 1988/1989 which were repeated in 1993 (follow-up) and in 1999 (Finale). SETTING: Longitudinal data were collected in

  10. Ten years of transition and... / Rika Ishii, Nick Sten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ishii, Rika

    1999-01-01

    Ülevaade majandusreformidest Baltimaades ja Baltimaade majandussuhetest Euroopa Liidu ning Venemaaga. Tabel: SKP, inflatsioon, väliskaubandus ja välisinvesteeringud Eestis, Lätis, Leedus ja Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikides aastatel 1991-1998

  11. Preface: Special issue: ten years of advances in computer entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katayose, Haruhiro; Rauterberg, M; Reidsma, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This special issue celebrates the 10th edition of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE) by collecting six selected and revised papers from among this year’s accepted contributions.

  12. Ten-year growth of planted slash pine after thinnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans G. Enghardt; W.F. Mann

    1972-01-01

    volume growth of slash pine between ages 17 and 27 years was directly related to residual basal area per acre after thinning. Diameter growth was inversely related to stand density, and very heavy cutting was required to attain a rate of 3 inches in 10 years.

  13. Exploiting ten years of MERIS data over Land Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobron, Nadine

    2012-07-01

    Envisat's Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) acquires multi-spectral imagery of the Earth in the optical domain over terrestrial surfaces since a decade at global scale. Characteristics of the instrument will be first summarized and then several achievements for terrestrial applications will be presented as scientists have used data or products for characterizing the state of the global system and its variability. The ESA- GlobCover which has developed a service capable of delivering land cover maps on the basis of 300m spectral reflectance measurements will be summarized (Bicheron et al, 2008; Arino et al, 2010). We will highlight recent research results for continental land cover mapping over South America using MERIS data from 2009 and 2010 (Hojas Gascon et al, 2012). The objective and originality of this work was to generate a new land cover using selected MERIS data instead of all available images and supplementary information from associated Level-2 product, i.e. FAPAR, provided at a reduced resolution of 1 km. As the actual two level-2 products provided by ESA correspond to geophysical products such as the FAPAR (Fraction of Synthetically Active Radiation) and the MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI). With this latter, phenology studies as this product is sensitive to canopy chlorophyll content, a vegetation property that is a useful proxy for the canopy physical and chemical alterations associated with phenological change. (Dash and Curran, 2004; Boyd et al, 2011). For exploiting the use of the MGVI, ESA-Joint Research Center (JRC) FAPAR project has been created for producing time-series of geophysical products and will be summarized (Gobron et al, 2006, 2010; Fusco et al, 2003). It uses through various examples such as assessing drought at regional scale (Rossi etl a, 2010) or monitoring the state and changes of land surfaces global scale (Gobron et al, 2012). As the FAPAR value constitutes a state variable in advanced Earth system models that contains a detailed enough description of the terrestrial biosphere, it has been exploited for exploratory and diagnostic assessments of the biosphere through machine learning technique (Jung et al, 2010) and data assimilation technique (Kaminski at al, 2011). In this latter, the simultaneous assimilation of FAPAR and Carbon fluxes provides parameter estimates and uncertainty ranges that are consistent with the observational information. This works quantifies for the first time how MERIS products improve the accuracy of the current and future (net and gross) carbon flux estimates (within and beyond the assimilation period). Finally, the exploitation of MERIS data over land surfaces since 10 years has creating new area of research for the use of earth observation and is going towards new challenges for assessing the state of the global climate system.

  14. Methadone-related deaths. A ten year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Groppi, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 10 years we have registered in our district (about 500,000 inhabitants) 36 cases of fatal methadone poisoning, involving both patients on treatment and naive subjects: this is a significant increase of deaths due to methadone use, misuse or abuse compared with previous years. Twenty-four patients (66.7%) were on methadone maintenance programs for heroin detoxification, while 12 (33.3%) were taking the drug without a medical prescription. The average blood concentration of methadone in patients undergoing a maintenance program was 1.06 mg/L (0.21-3.37 mg/L), against 0.79 mg/L (0.2-3.15 mg/L) in those taking the non-prescribed drug. Since 111 heroin-related deaths were recorded in our district in the same period, the fact that there appear to be many methadone deaths (about a third of heroin-related deaths) cannot be overlooked. The aim of this work is to understand the possible reasons for such a large number of methadone-related deaths. On this subject, we have noticed that risks associated with methadone intake are often underestimated by clinicians prescribing the drug: sometimes methadone is prescribed without taking into account patient's tolerance to opiates, and a large number of subjects enrolled in methadone maintenance programs in Italy, have also been given take-home doses, thus increasing the risk of abuse and diversion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ten years of integrated care for the older in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somme, Dominique; de Stampa, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes progress made toward the integration of the French health care system for the older and chronically ill population. Over the last 10 years, the French health care system has been principally influenced by two competing linkage models that failed to integrate social and health care services: local information and coordination centers, governed by the social field, and the gerontological health networks governed by the health field. In response to this fragmentation, Homes for the Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients (MAIAs) is currently being implemented at experimental sites in the French national Alzheimer plan, using an evidence-based model of integrated care. In addition, the state's reforms recently created regional health agencies (ARSs) by merging seven strategic institutions to manage the overall delivery of care. The French health care system is moving from a linkage-based model to a more integrated care system. We draw some early lessons from these changes, including the importance of national leadership and governance and a change management strategy that uses both top-down and bottom-up approaches to implement these reforms.

  16. Ten years of pathway analysis: current approaches and outstanding challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Purvesh; Sirota, Marina; Butte, Atul J

    2012-01-01

    Pathway analysis has become the first choice for gaining insight into the underlying biology of differentially expressed genes and proteins, as it reduces complexity and has increased explanatory power. We discuss the evolution of knowledge base-driven pathway analysis over its first decade, distinctly divided into three generations. We also discuss the limitations that are specific to each generation, and how they are addressed by successive generations of methods. We identify a number of annotation challenges that must be addressed to enable development of the next generation of pathway analysis methods. Furthermore, we identify a number of methodological challenges that the next generation of methods must tackle to take advantage of the technological advances in genomics and proteomics in order to improve specificity, sensitivity, and relevance of pathway analysis.

  17. Ten years of pathway analysis: current approaches and outstanding challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvesh Khatri

    Full Text Available Pathway analysis has become the first choice for gaining insight into the underlying biology of differentially expressed genes and proteins, as it reduces complexity and has increased explanatory power. We discuss the evolution of knowledge base-driven pathway analysis over its first decade, distinctly divided into three generations. We also discuss the limitations that are specific to each generation, and how they are addressed by successive generations of methods. We identify a number of annotation challenges that must be addressed to enable development of the next generation of pathway analysis methods. Furthermore, we identify a number of methodological challenges that the next generation of methods must tackle to take advantage of the technological advances in genomics and proteomics in order to improve specificity, sensitivity, and relevance of pathway analysis.

  18. Ten Years Trend Analysis of Malaria Prevalence and its Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is one of the most devastating diseases in the World and caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium. The disease remains one of the most important causes of human morbidity and mortality with enormous medical, economic and emotional impact in the world, and in most African countries including ...

  19. Hospital usage of marketing research over a ten year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, P M

    1995-01-01

    The acceptance and use of marketing techniques and concepts in the health care area is a phenomenon well known to most marketers. Prior to 1979, marketing in the health care field was relatively unknown. Since that time, however, the growth of health care marketing has not been accompanied by commensurate growth in marketing research efforts.

  20. Causes of Pig Mortality in Kenya - A Ten Year Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, the etiological agent(s) were not fully characterized, bacteria (B. anthracis, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp, Salmonella spp, Mycoplasma spp, Pasteurella spp, Haemophilus spp and Brachyspira spp), viruses (African swine fever virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus) and nematode parasites (Trichuris ...

  1. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the ne...

  2. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the new politics opened up new opportunities for businesses and citizens. The aim of the article is to analyze the balance of the Polish membership in the European Union in the economic, financial, political and social dimensions.

  3. A Ten Year Retrospective Survey of Childhood Oro-facial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Reports in the literature on childhood orofacial neoplasms do not seem to agree on a prevalent pathology, with several authors expressing a divide on the prevalence of orofacial malignancies. Objective To review the relevant clinico-pathologic features of neoplasms of the orofacial region amongst children in a ...

  4. Odontogenic Mixoma in a Ten-Year-Old Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Ennya Lieseth Leonel; Melo-Uribe, Mario; Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are benign, rarely seen intraosseous tumors arising from the embryonic connective tissue associated to tooth formation. The authors present the case of a 10-year-old patient affected by this entity.

  5. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water shortage in most countries of the southern Mediterranean basin has led to the reuse of municipal wastewater for irrigation. Despite numerous advantages for soil fertility and crop productivity, recycling wastewater in the soil also has several ecotoxicological and sanitary problems. To evaluate the chronic soil ...

  6. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    Water shortage in most countries of the southern Mediterranean basin has led to the reuse of municipal wastewater for irrigation. Despite numerous advantages for soil fertility and crop productivity, recycling wastewater in the soil also has several ecotoxicological and sanitary problems. To evaluate the chronic.

  7. Ten-year (1993 - 2002) retrospective evaluation of vaccination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Record books in form of one thousand, four hundred and seventy eight (1478) registers, case notes and vaccination certificates of registered dogs were assessed for rabies vaccination and its booster coverage. The dogs which consisted of 850 males and 628 females were presented at the Small Animal and Preventive ...

  8. Research, records and responsibility ten years of PARADISEC

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research, records and responsibility' explores developments in collaborative archiving practice between archives and the communities they serve and represent, incorporating case studies of historical recordings, visual data and material culture.

  9. Ten-year survival rate for cantilevered fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James D

    2005-01-01

    PubMed (1966-April 2004) provided the primary data source along with the bibliographies from identified articles and reviews. A manual search of two relevant journals (Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry published; published 2001-2003) provided a further source of data. Because there were no randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared fixed partial dentures (FPD) with and without cantilever extensions, other studies were selected if they met the following criteria: were published in the English language; were prospective and retrospective cohort studies; had a mean follow-up of >5 years; included patients who were clinically examined at follow-up; and reported details on suprastructures and described at least one-third of reconstructions as FPD. Two independent reviewers screened articles for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by discussion and agreement determined by kappa. Two reviewers extracted data on the survival and success of the reconstructions and on biological and technical complications. Failure and complication rates were calculated by dividing the number of events by the total exposure time. Three prospective and 10 retrospective cohort studies incorporating 700 patients and 816 FPD were included. The mean number of cantilever extensions ranged from 1.1 to 6.0. Meta-analyses gave an estimated survival, after 10 years, of 81.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 78.2-84.9] and a proportion success of 63% (95% CI, 54.7-70.2). Considering biological complications using Poisson model analyses, the estimated rate of FPD lost because of caries after 10 years was 3.1% (95%CI, 1.0-8.8) and that for loss of vitality was 32.6% (95% CI, 13.9-64.9). The rate of FPD lost because of periodontitis was 1% (95% CI, 0.3-3.0). Cumulative 10-year complication rates were: 2.9% (95% CI, 1.7-5.0) for fracture of abutment tooth; 2.4% (95% CI, 0.6-9.8) for rate of loss as a result of abutment fracture; 16.1% (95% CI, 8.8-28.4) for loss of retention; and 5.9% (95% CI, 3.3-10.4) for material complications. Success and survival rates for cantilever FPD are poorer than those for conventional FPD and this is accompanied by frequent biological and technical complications.

  10. The future of the Dutch public library: ten years on

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Carlien Hillebrink

    2008-01-01

    The public library is the biggest cultural institution in the Netherlands, with around 4 million members and 130 million items lent each year. Inspite of this, the library is under pressure: membership numbers and borrowings have been declining steadily for several years. In the last six

  11. Analysis of ten years of publishing in Pharmacy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes AE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the patterns and trends in the editorial process and features of the first decade of Pharmacy Practice, with the final goal of initiating a benchmarking process to enhance the quality of the journal. Methods: Metadata of all of the articles published from 2006 issue #3 to 2016 issue #2 were extracted from PubMed and complemented by a manual data extraction process on the full-text articles. Citations of these articles were retrieved from Web of Science (WOS, Scopus, and Google Scholar on August 15, 2016. The references from all of the articles published by Pharmacy Practice in 2015 were also extracted. International collaboration was explored with a network analysis. Results: A total of 40 issues were published in this timespan, including 349 articles, 91.1% of which were original research articles. The number of citations received by these articles varies from 809, as reported by the WOS, to the 1162 reported by Scopus and the 2610 reported by Google Scholar. The journals cited by Pharmacy Practice are mainly pharmacy journals, including Pharm Pract (Granada, Int J Clin Pharm, Am J Health-Syst Pharm, Am J Pharm Educ, and Ann Pharmacother. Only 17.3% of the articles involved international collaboration. Delays in the editorial process increased in 2013, mainly due to an increase in acceptance delay (mean=138 days. Conclusion: Pharmacy Practice has improved its visibility and impact over the past decade, especially after 2014, when the journal became indexed in PubMed Central. The editorial process duration is one of the weaknesses that should be tackled. Further studies should investigate if the low international collaboration rate is common across other pharmacy journals.

  12. Ten-year survival of patients with oesophageal squamous cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oesophageal junction ... after treatment of cancer. Reports of actual 10-year survivors of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are rare, and demographic .... nodes, number of resected lymph nodes, adjuvant treatment and length of survival.

  13. [After ten years of AIDS, a vision emanating from feminism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A L

    1991-01-01

    AIDS and the economic crisis in Mexico are threatening the epidemiologic transition in which infectious diseases ceased to be the only major cause of death and chronic degenerative diseases began to account for a growing proportion of deaths. Many factors combined to produce the sexual, gay, and women's liberation movements beginning in the 1970s. At the beginning of the feminist movement, women proposed different kinds of interpersonal relations both between women and with men. Women together realized their rights to control their own bodies, to sexual enjoyment, to abortion, and to free themselves of feelings of shame and guilt. The weight of moral pressures was lessened and the personal desires of the woman assumed a greater role in selection of sexual partners. Conservative forces grew stronger in the 1980s, and the proliferation of sexually transmitted diseases began to imperil the sexual revolution. But these setbacks were minor compared to AIDS. Now, 10 years after its appearance, it is clear that AIDS is not limited to homosexual men. The number of cases in Mexico increased from none 10 years ago to some 10,000 estimated cases reported and unreported today. 1/6 of the cases are in women. Many women and heterosexuals felt immune from AIDS in the beginning, and some still do, but many more have become aware of the danger. Women now fear contracting AIDS, but they also fear confronting their partners to suggest that they use condoms. Denial may play a role, but deeply rooted cultural factors that women may recognize but fee powerless to change may also be at play. Many women over 30 have difficulty taking the initiative in sexual matters. They are embarrassed to buy condoms and even more embarrassed to propose their use. They imagine that men will consider them "loose" if they carry condoms. Mexican women are poorly prepared to tell their men explicitly what they want sexually, and Mexican men are also poorly equipped to ask what women want, accustomed as they are to exercising sexuality exclusively to satisfy their own needs. The entire problem of condom use is related to ethical-moral and ideological factors and to broader attitudes toward knowledge. Those with more rational orientations see AIDS as a disease rather than a divine punishment and can more easily accept condom use as a preventive.

  14. Prevalence of loneliness over ten years among the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Fredrica; Cattan, Mima; Conradsson, Mia; Näsman, Marina; Gustafsson, Yngve

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of loneliness among the oldest old within a 10-year period and studied the influence of various sociodemographic, social and health characteristics on loneliness. The study used population-based data from the Umeå85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase-study (GERDA) for the years 2000-2002, 2005-2007 and 2010-2012 including 85-year-old, 90-year-old and ⩾95-year-old participants. A final sample of 304 participants in 2000-2002, 329 participants in 2005-2007 and 401 participants in 2010-2012 was included in the analyses. Although the level of loneliness was already high in 2000-2002 (49.3% reported frequent loneliness), the results showed limited changes in loneliness during the 10-year study period. Loneliness was closely related to living alone, depressive symptoms and living in institutional settings. Although societal changes such as solitary living and growing urbanization suggest a changing trend in loneliness, we found that the prevalence of loneliness was relatively stable in this study. Nevertheless, loneliness is common among the oldest old and a focus on social issues related to living arrangements and on depressive symptoms is important in understanding loneliness.

  15. Acute care to prevent back disability. Ten years of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigos, S J; Battié, M C

    1987-08-01

    Efforts to curb back problems through preemployment screening, safety measures, and educational programs have had little effect on this most expensive musculoskeletal malady. Present knowledge raises doubts about the possibility of preventing back pain. However, recent scientific investigations indicate that chronic back pain disability, which accounts for 80% of the costs for back problems, can be prevented. In Gothenburg, Sweden, the collective use of proven treatment methods during the acute stage of back symptoms markedly reduced the period of time patients were disabled from back problems. Effective early intervention centers around: teaching patients about back care, including how to control symptoms through improved body mechanics; applying these educational principles, specifically to the patient's livelihood; avoiding the debilitation that results from overusing bed rest and medication; recommendations to increase cardiovascular fitness; and the judicious use of orthopedic surgery. This approach targets the few patients who tend to be disabled the longest, suffer the most, and become the most costly to society.

  16. Ten-year experience of insulin treatment in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, C; Wibell, L; Lindmark, G

    1985-01-01

    Between 1975-1984, 119 women with gestational diabetes (GDM) were treated with insulin in Uppsala, representing a mean yearly incidence of 4.5/1,000 pregnancies. Women with GDM were older and more obese than the general pregnant population. Insulin treatment was instituted during a 5-7 day stay in hospital. The mean total daily dose of insulin prepartum, when fasting blood glucose had been normalized, was 53 (SD +/- 25) units (34 +/- 15 units of rapid-acting and 20 +/- 11 units of medium-acting insulin), divided into two doses daily. Mean duration of treatment was 6.4 weeks. The perinatal mortality was 0.8%, compared with 7.4% in previous pregnancies in the same women. The perinatal morbidity was generally mild and included hypoglycaemia (10.9%), hyperbilirubinaemia requiring treatment (2.5%), shoulder dystocia (2.5%) and one case of mild respiratory distress syndrome. The rate of macrosomia was reduced in the present pregnancies compared with previous ones in the women with GDM, but not abolished completely, probably because of too short a duration of improved metabolic control. Spontaneous delivery was favoured and the rate of Caesarean section was 13.5%. Thus, treatment with high doses of insulin in an unselected group of women with GDM is feasible. Normal perinatal mortality, reduced macrosomia, and no gross perinatal morbidity was found in the infants. Though the extent to which insulin treatment per se contributed to the favourable outcome is difficult to assess, it is suggested that the case for a high level of ambition for metabolic normalization in GDM should be a subject of further study.

  17. [Acute pyelonephritis treated under "home hospitalization." Ten years' experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, José; Mendoza, Humberto; Aizpuru, Felipe; Altuna, Elena; Gómez, Montserrat; Cía, Juan M

    2006-12-01

    We present the experience of the Vitoria-Gasteiz Hospital at Home Unit in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis, including an analysis of potential predictors of failure. A total of 369 episodes of acute pyelonephritis without septic shock or renoureteral obstruction are described. After initiating intravenous antibiotic therapy in the hospital emergency department, all patients were referred to the HH. We analyzed the characteristics of the cases and the relationship between several clinical factors and failure of HH care, defined as the need to readmit the patient to conventional hospitalization. During the study period, 280 women and 89 men (age 16-88 years) met the inclusion criteria. Mean length of HH stay was 5 days and duration of intravenous therapy was 3 days. Sixteen of the 369 cases (4%) had to be readmitted to the hospital because of hypotension, vomiting, pain, fever, or signs of obstruction on ultrasound or because they requested it (four patients). Patients who were readmitted had a higher maximum temperature (mean 39.4 vs. 38.7 degrees C; p = 0.006) than those who remained at the HH. There were no differences between the groups with respect to the other clinical variables studied. The evolution of all 16 hospitalized patients was favorable; only one required a urological intervention. Hospital at home care was an effective alternative for managing acute pyelonephritis without shock in 96% of cases referred by the emergency department, and obviated conventional hospital admission, which is usually indicated for this disease.

  18. Inflammatory dentigerous cyst in a ten-year-old child

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Rajeev K.; Pandey, Ramesh K.; Mohammad, Shadab; Ram, Hari

    2012-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst may be developmental or inflammatory in origin. The latter is found only in mixed dentition with a low frequency. Treatment of inflammatory type of dentigerous cyst in children should be done with the aim of saving developing permanent teeth which should not be sacrificed as far as possible. This is a case report of a large inflammatory dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old female patient treated conservatively by marsupialization method saving all teeth (mandibular permanent lef...

  19. Inflammatory dentigerous cyst in a ten-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Rajeev K; Pandey, Ramesh K; Mohammad, Shadab; Ram, Hari

    2012-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst may be developmental or inflammatory in origin. The latter is found only in mixed dentition with a low frequency. Treatment of inflammatory type of dentigerous cyst in children should be done with the aim of saving developing permanent teeth which should not be sacrificed as far as possible. This is a case report of a large inflammatory dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old female patient treated conservatively by marsupialization method saving all teeth (mandibular permanent left canine, first and second premolars) in relation to the cyst.

  20. Ten years of extensive green roof experience in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau, U.; Siemsen, M. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Agrarian and Urban Ecological Projects; Gomez, G.N. [Chapingo Autonomous Univ., Chapingo (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described the installation of an extensive green roof in Mexico City as part of a collaboration between a German and a Mexican university. While the plants used in the project were indigenous to Mexico, most of the materials and green roof technologies came from Germany. The aim of the project was to create an extensive green roof system on a low maintenance basis without additional irrigation, and to determine the limits of growth and development of the vegetation. The project was conducted on 4 identical adjacent flat roofs. After a layer of filter cloth was installed to avoid damage to the waterproof membrane, a drainage layer of expanded clay was installed with different thicknesses on each of the 4 roofs. The growing medium was composed of Mexican volcanic material, a mineral material from Germany, and organic material consisting of coco fibers and sugarcane residues. Eight different substrate mixtures were tested. After several years it became clear that it was possible to implement an extensive green roof under extreme climatic conditions. However, it was observed that some plant specimens only survived in certain areas of the roof. The roofs underwent a complete renovation, and surviving specimens were salvaged. Vulnerable areas where leakage occurred were detected near air conditioning units and perimeter areas. Overheating of the areas led to distortion and contraction of the membrane, which led to its failure. All perimeter areas were covered by a zinc sheet to avoid direct solar radiation on the unprotected membrane. The selected plant material required supplemental irrigation during the first 2 months. No further additional watering was given. Ten months later, the vegetation was well established and had covered the surface density. One of the roofs was instrumented to measure a series of factors such as precipitation, stormwater runoff, temperature underneath a roof membrane. It was concluded that some plant species are capable of surviving the extreme climatic conditions in the region on an extensive green roof without additional watering. 12 figs.

  1. Otological Findings Ten Years after Myringotomy with Tympanostomy Tube Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goljanian Tabrizi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the long-term complications of tympanostomy tube insertion in young children 10 years after surgery.   Materials and Methods: In September 2011, the medical records of all patients who had undergone myringotomy with tympanostomy tube insertion between February 2000 and March 2001 at the two general hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Of the 98 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 82 patients agreed to participate and were enrolled in the study. The complications of the operation were evaluated in these patients.   Results: Of the 164 ears that were operated on, myringosclerosis was found in 17.1%, atrophy of the tympanic membrane in 1.2%, permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane in 0.6% and tympanic membrane atelectasis in 0.6%. None of the patients developed cholesteatoma as a complication of tympanostomy tube insertion.   Conclusion:  Considering the low risk of serious complications after 10 years, tympanostomy tube insertion is a safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of otitis media with effusion.

  2. The Politics of French University Reform: Ten Years after May.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, John S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines French higher education in terms of Michel Crozier's theory that views the French as torn between two conflicting desires: to maximize personal autonomy and to assure an ordered and orderly environment. Participation on all levels in the university system is described. (AMH)

  3. Purpose in life predicts allostatic load ten years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Ong, Anthony D; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2015-11-01

    Living a purposeful life is associated with better mental and physical health, including longevity. Accumulating evidence shows that these associations might be explained by the association between life purpose and regulation of physiological systems involved in the stress response. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospective associations between life purpose and allostatic load over a 10-year period. Analyses were conducted using data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Assessment of life purpose, psychological covariates and demographics were obtained at baseline, while biomarkers of allostatic load were assessed at the 10-year follow-up. We found that greater life purpose predicted lower levels of allostatic load at follow-up, even when controlling for other aspects of psychological well-being potentially associated with allostatic load. Further, life purpose was also a strong predictor of individual differences in self-health locus of control-i.e., beliefs about how much influence individuals can exert on their own health-which, in turn, partially mediated the association between purpose and allostatic load. Although life purpose was also negatively linked to other-health locus of control-i.e., the extent to which individuals believe their health is controlled by others/chance-this association did not mediate the impact of life purpose on allostatic load. The current study provides the first empirical evidence for the long-term physiological correlates of life purpose and supports the hypothesis that self-health locus of control acts as one proximal psychological mechanism through which life purpose may be linked to positive biological outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Stakeholder perceptions of a school food policy ten years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Talati, Zenobia; Sauzier, Megan; Ferguson, Amanda

    2018-01-24

    To assess (i) the extent to which stakeholders have accepted and implemented a Healthy Food and Drink Policy for schools a decade after its introduction and (ii) any resulting implications for canteen profitability. Online survey distributed via electronic newsletter to school principals. Western Australian public schools. Principals, teachers, canteen managers, and parents and citizens committee presidents (n 307). Large majorities of respondents reported that the policy has made the foods and drinks provided in schools healthier (85 %) and that the policy constitutes a good opportunity to teach children about healthy eating (90 %). Only small proportions of respondents felt it had been difficult to implement the policy in their schools (13 %) or that the policy fails to accommodate parents' rights to choose the foods consumed by their children (16 %). Most of the policy outcomes assessed in both the initial post-implementation evaluation (2008) and the 10-year follow-up evaluation (2016) demonstrated significant improvement over time. The study results indicate that comprehensive school food policies can favourably influence the foods and drinks provided on school premises and can be highly acceptable to key stakeholders, without adversely affecting profitability. The results are encouraging for policy makers in other jurisdictions considering the implementation of similar policies.

  5. Hospital centralization and performanced in Denmark - ten years on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Denmark implemented a major reform of the administrative and political structure in 2007 when the previous 13 counties were merged into five new regions and the number of municipalities was reduced from 271 to 98. A main objective was to create administrative units that were large enough to support....... The reform emphasized an improved acute service and high quality. The number of acute hospitals was reduced from about 40 to 21 hospitals with joint acute facilities. The restructuring and geographical placement of acute hospitals took place in a democratic process subject to central guidelines...

  6. Hospital centralization and performanced in Denmark - ten years on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Denmark implemented a major reform of the administrative and political structure in 2007 when the previous 13 counties were merged into five new regions and the number of municipalities was reduced from 271 to 98. A main objective was to create administrative units that were large enough to suppo...

  7. Chandra: Ten Years of Amazing Science with a Great Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We review briefly review the history of the development of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, highlighting certain details that many attendees of this Conference might not be aware of. We then present a selection of scientific highlights of the first 10 years of this remarkable and unique mission.

  8. Kwashiorkor: A Prospective Ten-Year Follow-up Study*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recent estimate that 60% of the total pre-school popula- tion of the world (i.e. 300 million children) suffer from ... may reach near normal growth in spite of prolonged periods of undernutrition"" and, in Rhesus monkeys ..... the lowest weights recorded immediately after loss of .oedema were used in all the calculations instead ...

  9. Ten years integrated care for mental disorders in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and problem statement: Integrated care for mental disorders aims to encompass forms of collaboration between different health care settings for the treatment of mental disorders. To this end, it requires integration at several levels, i.e. integration of psychiatry in medicine, of the psychiatric discourse in the medical discourse; of localization of mental health care and general health care facilities; and of reimbursement systems.   Description of policy practice: Steps have been taken in the last decade to meet these requirements, enabling psychiatry to move on towards integrated treatment of mental disorder as such, by development of a collaborative care model that includes structural psychiatric consultation that was found to be applicable and effective in several Dutch health care settings. This collaborative care model is a feasible and effective model for integrated care in several health care settings. The Bio Psycho Social System has been developed as a feasible instrument for assessment in integrated care as well. Discussion: The discipline of Psychiatry has moved from anti-psychiatry in the last century, towards an emancipated medical discipline. This enabled big advances towards integrated care for mental disorder, in collaboration with other medical disciplines, in the last decade. Conclusion: Now is the time to further expand this concept of care towards other mental disorders, and towards integrated care for medical and mental co-morbidity. Integrated care for mental disorder should be readily available to the patient, according to his/her preference, taking somatic co-morbidity into account, and with a focus on rehabilitation of the patient in his or her social roles.

  10. Ten years integrated care for mental disorders in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and problem statement: Integrated care for mental disorders aims to encompass forms of collaboration between different health care settings for the treatment of mental disorders. To this end, it requires integration at several levels, i.e. integration of psychiatry in medicine, of the psychiatric discourse in the medical discourse; of localization of mental health care and general health care facilities; and of reimbursement systems.  Description of policy practice: Steps have been taken in the last decade to meet these requirements, enabling psychiatry to move on towards integrated treatment of mental disorder as such, by development of a collaborative care model that includes structural psychiatric consultation that was found to be applicable and effective in several Dutch health care settings. This collaborative care model is a feasible and effective model for integrated care in several health care settings. The Bio Psycho Social System has been developed as a feasible instrument for assessment in integrated care as well.Discussion: The discipline of Psychiatry has moved from anti-psychiatry in the last century, towards an emancipated medical discipline. This enabled big advances towards integrated care for mental disorder, in collaboration with other medical disciplines, in the last decade.Conclusion: Now is the time to further expand this concept of care towards other mental disorders, and towards integrated care for medical and mental co-morbidity. Integrated care for mental disorder should be readily available to the patient, according to his/her preference, taking somatic co-morbidity into account, and with a focus on rehabilitation of the patient in his or her social roles.

  11. Ten years of multidisciplinary mental health guidelines in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, Gerdien; Niesink, Peter; Swinkels, Jan; Burgers, Jako; Wensing, Michel; Grol, Richard

    2011-08-01

    From 1999 until 2009 the National Steering Group for Multidisciplinary Guideline Development in Mental Health led a national guideline programme in the Netherlands. Ten service user and carer groups and 30 professional organizations were involved. Within the programme 13 practice guidelines and a range of other deliverables, such as patient versions, checklists and implementation materials, were produced. Lessons learned included the methodology of developing guidelines, service user and carer involvement, and the dissemination and implementation of the guidelines. There are important future challenges such as following a strict and transparent methodology, adhering to process management, improving integration of the service user and professional perspectives, and bridging the gap between guideline and practice.

  12. Beijing--ten years after Mao: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusoff, D

    1987-03-01

    An examination of demographic trends in Beijing--China's capital and the center of its political and cultural life--can yield important information on future consumer trends for the country as a whole. Age and income are the most influential demographic characteristics in determining what people will buy. As a result of economic reforms under Deng Xiaoping, per capita income available for living expenses in urban China almost doubled between 1978 and 1984, from 316 to 608 yuan. By the year 2000, the purchase of commodities in urban staff and worker households is projected to account for 88% of total expenditures, with noncommodity expenditures accounting for the remaining 12%. The average age of 1st marriage and 1st childbirth is gradually rising, while the interval between marriage and 1st birth is decreasing. The fertility rate in Beijing was 1.6 births/woman in 1981 and 91% of all births in 1983 were 1st births. Despite its one-child policy and drastically reduced fertility rates, Beijing's population will continue to grow until the large numbers of young people born during the high fertility period of the 1950s and 1960s pass out of their childbearing years. Given a life expectancy of 78 years for men and 80 years for women and an average of 1.5 births/woman, the proportion of those over age 65 years in China is projected to stand at 29% by 2040. This trend toward demographic aging suggests a need to revamp social policies to alleviate the stress placed on Chinese families and increase financial aid to the elderly. There have been proposals to adopt a norm that would allow couples 2 children spaced 8-10 years apart. The average household size in Beijing in 1982 was 3.9 persons, with 2.3 jobholders/household. Between 1981 and 1984, the percentage of urban households having annual per capita incomes above 600 yuan rose from 18% to 49%.

  13. Stevens Johnson syndrome in Pakistan: a ten-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y I; Azeem, S; Khan, O; Majid, T H; Ahmed, D; Amin, A; Mahmood, A; Hameed, K

    2004-06-01

    A pre-tested questionnaire-based, retrospective study to highlight the causative factors, mode of presentation, complications and outcome of patients with Stevens Johnson syndrome. Aga Khan University Hospital over a 10 year period. All case records with a diagnosis of Steven Johnson Syndrome in the period 1990 to 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. Data was retrieved on a comprehensive questionnaire. The demographic variatbles and drugs taken within the previous 21 days were noted. Date analysis was done by Epi-Info Version 6.0. Of the 101 studied patient files, the most common offender was found to be the Penicillins as a group and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar) when considering all drugs individually. Most common complications included electrolyte disturbances (13.9%) and congestive heart failure (6.9%). Mortality rate was high at 10.1%. SJS was found to be a rare condition but having a mortality rate of 10.1%. As it can be induced by a large number of drugs, caution should be practiced while prescribing.

  14. Laser Fusion: The First Ten Years 1962-1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidder, R E

    2006-07-06

    This account of the beginning of the program on laser fusion at Livermore in 1962, and its subsequent development during the decade ending in 1972, was originally prepared as a contribution to the January 1991 symposium 'Achievements in Physics' honoring Professor Keith Brueckner upon his retirement from the University of San Diego at La Jolla. It is a personal recollection of work at Livermore from my vantage point as its scientific leader, and of events elsewhere that I thought significant. This period was one of rapid growth in which the technology of high-power short-pulse lasers needed to drive the implosion of thermonuclear fuel to the temperature and density needed for ignition was developed, and in which the physics of the interaction of intense light with plasmas was explored both theoretically and experimentally.

  15. Ten Years in the Academic Integrity Trenches: Experiences and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Doug; Nau, S. Zaung; Symons, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, our university launched its Academic Integrity Program (AIP) in order to promote and protect academic integrity. All commencing students must complete this online AIP within 14 days of starting their course. Satisfactory completion of this module with a test score of 80% is required before students can access their course materials.…

  16. TESTICULAR TUMORS IN PORT HARCOURT (A ten-year review)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    testicular tumors.12 '. RESULTS. A'total of twelve testicular tumours were reviewed. The yOungest patient was 3 years old while the oldest was. 48 years old. I. Table 1 ... 66.7% preschool age group and drivers had 16.7% each. Table I : Age distribution of; patients with testicular tumours. Age group Number Percent in years.

  17. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast cancer , taking adjuvant ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” ...

  18. Permitting of Landfill Bioreactor Operations: Ten Years after ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to promulgation of the Rule, there were approximately 20 full-scale bioreactor projects in North America, including one in Canada. Of these, six were permitted by EPA (four Project XL sites and two projects listed separately under a cooperative research agreement at the Outer Loop Landfill in Kentucky). In March 2014, there were about 40 bioreactor projects reported, including 30 active RD&D projects in 11 approved states and one project on tribal lands. Wisconsin features the largest number of projects at 13, due primarily to the fact that landfill owners in the state must either eliminate landfill disposal of biodegradable materials or to achieve the complete stabilization of deposited organic waste at MSW landfills within 40 years after closure. Most landfill operators have selected a bioreactor approach to attempt to achieve the latter goal. In summary, only 16 of 50 (32%) states have currently adopted the Rule, meaning that development of RD&D permitting procedures that are consistent with EPA’s requirements has generally not occurred. The predominant single reason cited for not adopting the Rule was lack of interest amongst landfill facilities in the state. Subtitle D and its state derivatives already allow leachate recirculation over prescriptive (i.e., minimum technology) liner systems, which is often the primary goal of site operators seeking to control leachate treatment costs. Other reasons related to concerns over increased time, cost

  19. Radiosurgery as treatment for acoustic neuroma. Ten years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llópez Carratalá, Ignacio; Escorihuela García, Vicente; Orts Alborch, Miguel; de Paula Vernetta, Carlos; Marco Algarra, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic neuroma is a benign tumour that usually affects the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve. It represents 8% of all intracranial tumours and 80% of those arising at the cerebellopontine angle. There are 3 treatment options: microsurgery (the technique of choice), radiosurgery and observation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the results and side effects obtained using radiosurgery as treatment for acoustic neuroma. We performed a review of all patients treated with radiosurgery (Gamma Knife and linear accelerator) at doses of 1200-1300 cGy for unilateral acoustic neuroma in our hospital from January 1999 until January 2010. In all patients we evaluated the overall state, tumour growth control rate (tumour smaller or remaining the same size), the involvement of v and vii cranial nerves and central nervous system disorders. We also assessed follow-up time and changes in hearing thresholds after radiosurgery. From a total of 35 patients studied, with a mean age of 58.29 years and lacking statistically significant differences in gender, the tumour growth control rate was over 90%. The main reason for visit (65.71%) was unilateral and progressive hearing loss. After treatment, 34.28% of patients had hearing loss. The involvement of the cranial nerves (v-vii) was transitory in 100% of cases. Gamma Knife radiosurgery was administered in 82.85% of patients. Although microsurgery is the treatment of choice for acoustic neuroma, we consider radiosurgery as a valid alternative in selected patients (elderly, comorbidity, small tumour size and sensorineural hearing loss, among others). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  20. INTERLIBRARY LOAN, 1952-62: TEN YEARS OF PROGRESS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEENAN, E L

    1964-01-01

    Although the revised General Interlibrary Loan Code of 1952 was designed to alleviate the "crisis" in interlibrary loan services existing at the time, libraries today find that they are still facing the same problems as they did in 1952, namely, excessive use of large, distant libraries for materials available locally, unverified references, stringent restrictions on the materials lent and their subsequent use, and the rising cost of operating interlibrary loan programs. A brief description of the use and abuse of interlibrary loans at the National Library of Medicine is followed by consideration of the alternatives to the concept of interlibrary loan presently under study in various regions. To relieve the current situation, it is proposed that federal funds be made available to medical and scientific libraries on the basis of the percentage of interlibrary loan transactions handled (2 percent of their total circulation figure), that present lending restrictions on materials be relaxed, that photocopying of articles in lieu of loan of the original be done to a greater extent, and that standardized procedures in handling requests be instituted.

  1. Ten years at war: comprehensive analysis of amputation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Chad A; Wenke, Joseph C; Ficke, James R

    2012-12-01

    While multiple studies have examined amputations that have occurred during the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, none of these studies have provided an overarching characterization of all of these injuries. A retrospective study of all major extremity amputations sustained by US Service Members from January 2001 through July 30, 2011, was performed. Data obtained from these amputees included amputation level(s), mechanism of injury, time to amputation, Injury Severity Score (ISS), age, rank, number of trauma admissions, and number of troops deployed. There were 1,221 amputees who met inclusion criteria. These amputees sustained a total of 1,631 amputations. The number of amputations performed each year has increased dramatically in 2010 (196) and the first half of 2011 (160) from 2008 (105) and 2009 (94). The number of amputations performed per every 100 traumatic admissions (3.5-14) and the number of amputations per 100,000 deployed troops (2-14) has also increased in 2010 and the first half of 2011. Most amputations occurred at the transtibial (683, 41.8%) and transfemoral (564, 34.5%) levels. Thirty percent of the amputees (366) sustained multiple amputations, and 14% of all amputations (228) performed involved the upper extremity. There were 127 amputees (10%) who underwent their amputation more than 90 days after the date of injury. The number of amputations occurring during the current Iraqi and Afghanistan conflicts has increased in 2010 and the first half of 2011. Most amputations involve the lower extremities, and there is a much higher percentage of amputees who have sustained multiple amputations during current operations than previous conflicts. Epidemiologic study, level IV.

  2. The Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases: A Ten Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Mohammadjafari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD defines a heterogenenous group ofinterrelated lesions that arise from the trophoblastic epithelium of the placenta. There are severalhistologically distinct types of GTD: hydatiform mole (complete or partial, persistant/invasivegestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN, choriocarcinoma and placenta site trophoblastictumors. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and risk factors of GTD amongwomen admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Imam KhomeiniHospital in Ahvaz, Iran. All hospital records related to GTD (132 from 1996 until 2006 werereviewed. Demographic and histo-pathologic characteristics were extracted. Chi-square andFisher-exact tests were used to analyze all variables. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statisticallysignificant. SPSS, version 11 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean age of patients was 27.6 years. Most patients who presented with GTDwere of ages 18-35 years (71.3%. There was no relationship between age and hydatiformmole during the reproductive years. There were 28 (18.9% patients over the age 40, of which18 (15.90% of these had a complete hydatiform mole. Within this group, 9 (6.8% changedto a persistent mole. There was a significant relationship between age over 40 and completemole (p<0.02. The percentage of patients with blood groups A and O was the same (37.9%.There was a significant relationship between blood groups (O+ and A+ and complete mole(p<0.05.Conclusion: The most common age range for hydatiform mole was 18-35 years. Women overthe age of 40 had a more complete hydatiform mole, which is similar to the other countries.Age and blood group are two risk factors for hydatiform mole.

  3. The Last Ten Years in the Bristish Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Rico, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Después de la Segunda Guerra mundial, Gran Bretaña se encontró con una escasez de trabajadores cualificados sin precedente. El problema más importante era como animar a la población más joven a continuar su educación ya que cada uno de ellos era una pieza imprescindible en la reconstrucción nacional y en la imagen internacional del país. La discriminación racial y la filosofía de Charles Darwin ayudó a elaborar la idea que el británico blanco tenía la superioridad económica , moral e inte...

  4. Minimal intervention dentistry procedures: a ten year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mfl; Santos, Jm; Fuks, A; Bezerra, Acb; Azevedo, Tdpl

    2014-01-01

    Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) is an effective treatment approach with increasing acceptance among dental professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the MID impact on Dentistry by analyzing procedures performed on patients treated at a Pediatric Dentistry Graduate Program clinic which implemented MID. The number of procedures including sealants, modified atraumatic restorative treatment (mART), resin crowns, direct pulp capping, pulpotomy, pulpectomy, and deciduous/ permanent extractions from 333 pediatric patients treated between the years 2001 to 2003 and 2008 to 2010 in Distrito Federal, Brazil were analyzed. Statistical analysis involved chi-square and G Williams tests. 783 procedures were analyzed and demonstrated that there was a significant reduction of sealant placement in the last triennium when compared to the first one (ppulpectomy (p=0.0002). Based on the results, MID represented a positive impact on the intervention on caries lesions in patients, mainly reflected by the significant reduction in the number of direct pulp capping, pulpotomy and pulpectomy.

  5. “Crowdsourcing” ten years in: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazny, Kerri

    2017-01-01

    Background First coined by Howe in 2006, the field of crowdsourcing has grown exponentially. Despite its growth and its transcendence across many fields, the definition of crowdsourcing has still not been agreed upon, and examples are poorly indexed in peer–reviewed literature. Many examples of crowdsourcing have not been scaled–up past the pilot phase. In spite of this, crowdsourcing has great potential, especially in global health where resources are lacking. This narrative review seeks to review both indexed and grey crowdsourcing literature broadly in order to explore the current state of the field. Methods This is a review of reviews of crowdsourcing. Semantic searches were conducted using Google Scholar rather than indexed databases due to poor indexing of the topic. 996 articles were retrieved, of which 69 were initially identified as being reviews or theoretically–based. 21 of these were found to be irrelevant and 48 articles were reviewed. Results This narrative review focuses on defining crowdsourcing, taxonomies of crowdsourcing, who constitutes the crowd, research that is amenable to crowdsourcing, regulatory and ethical aspects of crowdsourcing and some notable examples of crowdsourcing. Conclusions Crowdsourcing has the potential to be hugely promising, especially in global health, due to its ability to collect information rapidly, inexpensively and accurately. Rigorous ethical and regulatory controls are needed to ensure data are collected and analysed appropriately and crowdsourcing should be considered complementary to traditional research methods. PMID:29302322

  6. Ten Years of Cloud Optical and Microphysical Retrievals from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Hubanks, Paul; Arnold, G. Thomas; Amarasinghe, Nandana

    2010-01-01

    The MODIS cloud optical properties algorithm (MOD06/MYD06 for Terra and Aqua MODIS, respectively) has undergone extensive improvements and enhancements since the launch of Terra. These changes have included: improvements in the cloud thermodynamic phase algorithm; substantial changes in the ice cloud light scattering look up tables (LUTs); a clear-sky restoral algorithm for flagging heavy aerosol and sunglint; greatly improved spectral surface albedo maps, including the spectral albedo of snow by ecosystem; inclusion of pixel-level uncertainty estimates for cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and water path derived for three error sources that includes the sensitivity of the retrievals to solar and viewing geometries. To improve overall retrieval quality, we have also implemented cloud edge removal and partly cloudy detection (using MOD35 cloud mask 250m tests), added a supplementary cloud optical thickness and effective radius algorithm over snow and sea ice surfaces and over the ocean, which enables comparison with the "standard" 2.1 11m effective radius retrieval, and added a multi-layer cloud detection algorithm. We will discuss the status of the MOD06 algorithm and show examples of pixellevel (Level-2) cloud retrievals for selected data granules, as well as gridded (Level-3) statistics, notably monthly means and histograms (lD and 2D, with the latter giving correlations between cloud optical thickness and effective radius, and other cloud product pairs).

  7. Characteristics of ten-year old self-directed learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydze Oxana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the skill to learn in the context of the Federal State Educational Standard (FSES requirements of primary education. The author analyses three groups of typical difficulties of the dependent students and gives the examples of their emergence during carrying out mathematics practice test. The article also defines the strategies to develop successful and effective self-directed learners.

  8. Ten-year retrospective: OPEC and the world oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gately, D.

    1984-09-01

    This paper reviews the main events in the world oil market since 1973 and some major explanations as to what happened and why (Section I). Then there is a discussion of some projections for the next two decades and of some implications of various theories about OPEC's decisionmaking process (Section II). Section III summarizes what we have learned about modeling OPEC and the world oil market. This includes: the dominant theoretical approach based on the wealth-maximization model of Harold Hotelling (1931); the simulation approach most common in the applied literature, which envisages target-capacity-utilization pricing by OPEC; and the difficult problem of modeling price behavior during disruptions. Finally, Section IV discusses some important unresolved issues, both theoretical and empirical. A variety of contributions to the literature are considered, but the discussion pays special attention to two important recent works. One is the book OPEC Behavior and World Oil Prices (1982) (EAPA 9:3899) edited by James Griffin and David Teece, an important collection of papers on OPEC and world oil, prepared for a 1981 conference at the University of Houston. The other is the 1980 to 1981 world oil study by the Energy Modeling Forum of Stanford Univesity, which involved ten prominent models of the world oil market. 31 references.

  9. Interventions and outcomes infetal hydrops - a ten year experience

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, C

    2011-02-01

    Institute of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, RCPI Four Provinces Meeting, Junior Obstetrics & Gynaecology Society Annual Scientific Meeting, Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland Dublin Maternity Hospitals Reports Meeting, Nov 2010

  10. A Ten Year Citation Analysis of Major Australian Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Excellence in Research for Australia scheme has heightened debate amongst research institutions over the use of metrics such as citations, especially given the ready availability of citation data. An analysis is presented of the citation performance of nine Australian universities and the Commonwealth Scientific, Industrial…

  11. Ten years on, the web spans the globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Dalton, A W

    2003-01-01

    Short article on the history of the WWW. Prof Berner-Lee states that one of the main reasons the web was such a success was due to CERN's decision to make the web foundations and protocols available on a royalty-free basis (1/2 page).

  12. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year[F-(4,F- (38)) = 5.8, p = 0.001, eta(2) = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early......Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year...... longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 +/- 9...

  13. NHS litigation in bariatric surgery over a ten year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingham, Kumaran; Knight, James; Liu, Mamie; Karatsai, Eleni; Humadi, Samer; Irukulla, Shashi

    2017-04-01

    Negligence claims in the UK NHS has increased over the last 30 years. The aim of this present study was determine the number of claims and the cost of litigation in Bariatric Surgery and compare it to similar other specialties. Data was received from NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) in response to Freedom of Information data request. There was a total of 7 claims, of which 4 were successful. The total pay out sum was £210,000 in 10 years. This is a very low amount compared to other surgical specialties. This low level of litigation probably indicates that the current bariatric surgical services in the NHS are delivering safe care with good patient satisfaction. This needs to be carefully considered prior to changing the payment tariffs for bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspective on the next ten years in plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killeen, J.

    1985-04-01

    A brief survey of developments in the plasma physics of magnetic fusion research is presented. The major experimental facilities of the next decade are listed. Eight fusion physics issues are identified which must be addressed as a complete plasma system in order to reach the goal of a fusion reactor. In order to resolve the physics issues the results from these new experimental facilities must be augmented by an extensive program of computer modeling. The use of computer models of a magnetically confined plasma and the implementation of these models on the new supercomputers of the next decade are the main topics of this paper.

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE PAEDIATRIC MALARIA: A TEN-YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    and contributes to drug resistance. Finally, appropriate antimalarial drugs for treatment should be given free to all malaria positive children. Keywords: Malaria, paediatric patients, parasite density, prevalence, laboratory diagnosis, treatment. INTRODUCTION. The bare facts are that malaria is a public health problem in more ...

  16. Vietnam 1963-1973: Ten Years of Operational Contract Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    determine which contractors operate within the market.29 This study uses the framework of the microeconomic phenomenon of monopsony to explain the...increases. Third, when the size of the military decreases, then the dependence on PMCs increases. In order to 27Edwin Mansfield, Microeconomics ...operates in an imbalanced market where the U.S. Government becomes the sole buyer on the demand side. This is a microeconomic phenomenon known as

  17. Molar pregnancy: a ten year review at Onitsha, Nigeria | Obiechina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of molar pregnancy was 1:332 deliveries or 1.416 pregnancies. There was no definite age pattern in the distribution of molar pregnancy. The commonest clinical presentation was recurrent vaginal bleeding 90.6% while the least was uterine size less than date in 3.8% of the cases. Syntocinon induction with ...

  18. Development of a ten-year pulse research strategy | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhanced Preservation of Fruits Using Nanotechnology (CIFSRF Phase 2). Poor handling of fruit results in post-harvest losses of nearly 40% in tropical countries. View moreEnhanced Preservation of Fruits Using Nanotechnology (CIFSRF Phase 2) ...

  19. TEN-YEAR MORTALITY REVIEW IN A PIONEER PSYCHIATRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-07-01

    Jul 1, 2003 ... FWACP, Consultant Psychiatrist/ Director of Clinical Services, Psychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria, and A. O. Owoeye, MBChB, Senior Registrar in ... 1:1.6. Schizophrenia (26%) and major depression (25%) constituted the main psychiatric diagnoses at the time of admission among the cohort.

  20. Ten-year publication trends in dermatology in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Mauro, Jacqueline A; Mauro, Theodora M; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    China has been experiencing huge changes in all aspects, including dermatologic research, since its reform in 1978. However, it is not known how the economic and intellectual development has influenced the publication trends in the field of dermatology, which could mirror the scientific development in other medical disciplines. In the present study, we analyzed publication trends from dermatology departments in mainland China from 2002 to 2011. All publication data were obtained from www.pubmed.com. Only papers published from dermatology departments in mainland China were used for analysis. The number of publications increased 10-fold over this 10-year period. A total of 1231 articles were published in English in 251 journals between 2002 and 2011. A total of 129 journals published only one paper from dermatology departments in mainland China. Over 60% of articles were original research, and 21.7% were case reports. Among these 251 journals, foremost was the Journal of Clinical Experimental Dermatology, which published 5.9% of all papers from mainland China; 2.7% of papers were published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. The number of publications positively correlated with the changes in gross domestic product per capita during the study period. These results suggest that the number of publications in the dermatology field has increased markedly in mainland China over the last 10 years. This dramatic increase in publications could be attributed, at least partially, to the significant improvement in economic conditions in mainland China. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Ten-Year Course of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, John G.; Stout, Robert L.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Shea, M. Tracie; Morey, Leslie C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Markowitz, John C.; Sanislow, Charles; Ansell, Emily; Pinto, Anthony; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Context Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is traditionally considered chronic and intractable. Objective To compare the course of BPD’s psychopathology and social function with that of other personality disorders and with major depressive disorder (MDD) over 10 years. Design A collaborative study of treatment-seeking, 18-to 45-year-old patients followed up with standardized, reliable, and repeated measures of diagnostic remission and relapse and of both global social functioning and subtypes of social functioning. Setting Nineteen clinical settings (hospital and outpatient) in 4 northeastern US cities. Participants Three study groups, including 175 patients with BPD, 312 with cluster C personality disorders, and 95 with MDD but no personality disorder. Main Outcome Measures The Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and its follow-along version (the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders–Follow-Along Version) were used to diagnose personality disorders and assess changes in them. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation were used to diagnose MDD and assess changes in MDD and in social function. Results Eighty-five percent of patients with BPD remitted. Remission of BPD was slower than for MDD (Ppersonality disorders (Ppersonality disorders (P=.008). All BPD criteria declined at similar rates. Social function scores showed severe impairment with only modest albeit statistically significant improvement; patients with BPD remained persistently more dysfunctional than the other 2 groups (Pdisorder. PMID:21464343

  2. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Congxin Wei; Yuansheng Zhang; Xiao Guo; Shaoxing Hui; Manzhong Qin; Ying Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method...

  3. PRECURSORS OF EARTHQUAKES: VLF SIGNALSIONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ULAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  4. Earthquake geology: science, society and critical facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Grützner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake geology studies the effects, the mechanics and the impacts of earthquakes in the geological environment. Its role is also to decode the fault history, therefore its approach is fault specific and its outcomes are of decisive value for seismic hazard assessment and planning. The term Earthquake geology includes aspects of modern instrumental studies, tectonics and structural geology, historical surface deformation and tectonic geomorphology, whereas paleoseismology is considered part of earthquake geology [...].

  5. How can we transfer scientific knowledge to citizens? : Case studies from huge earthquake and tsunami researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Fujikura, Katsunori

    2017-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, huge earthquake and tsunamis took place coastal regions of Northeast Japan. Coastal infrastructure collapsed due to high waves of tsunamis. Marine ecosystems were also strongly disturbed by the earthquakes and tsunamis. TEAMS (Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences) has started for monitoring recovering process of marine ecosystems. The project continues ten years. First five years are mainly monitored recovery process, then we should transfer our knowledge to fishermen and citizens for restoration of fishery and social systems. But, how can we actually transfer our knowledge from science to citizens? This is new experience for us. Socio-technology constructs a "high quality risk communication" model how scientific knowledge or technologies from scientific communities to citizens. They are progressing as follows, "observation, measurements and data", → "modeling and synthesis" → "information process" → "delivery to society" → " take action in society". These steps show detailed transition from inter-disciplinarity to trans-disciplinarity in science and technology. In our presentation, we plan to show a couple of case studies that are going forward from science to society.

  6. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  7. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of

  8. Earthquakes in the New Zealand Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cleland

    1995-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of earthquakes in New Zealand, discussing plate tectonics, seismic measurement, and historical occurrences. Includes 10 figures illustrating such aspects as earthquake distribution, intensity, and fissures in the continental crust. Tabular data includes a list of most destructive earthquakes and descriptive effects…

  9. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (“NEHRP...

  10. Earthquakes in Zimbabwe | Clark | Zimbabwe Science News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural forces, in both human and economic terms. For example, since 1900, 10 earthquakes have occurred that each killed over 50 000 people. Earthquakes in modern industrialized areas can be also be very costly, even if well designed and constructed buildings save many ...

  11. Associating an ionospheric parameter with major earthquake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With time, ionospheric variation analysis is gaining over lithospheric monitoring in serving precursors for earthquake forecast. The current paper highlights the association of major (Ms ≥ 6.0) and medium (4.0 ≤ Ms > 6.0) earthquake occurrences throughout the world in different ranges of the Ionospheric Earthquake ...

  12. Computational methods in earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Plevris, Vagelis; Lagaros, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This is the third book in a series on Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the scientific communities of Computational Mechanics and Structural Dynamics, offering a wide coverage of timely issues on contemporary Earthquake Engineering. This volume will facilitate the exchange of ideas in topics of mutual interest and can serve as a platform for establishing links between research groups with complementary activities. The computational aspects are emphasized in order to address difficult engineering problems of great social and economic importance. .

  13. Earthquake Education in Prime Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring season 2001 on Discovery Channel's Assignment Discovery. Seismic Sleuths is based on a highly successful curriculum package developed jointly by the American Geophysical Union and The Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. The California Earthquake Authority (CEA) and the Institute for Business and Home Safety supported the video project. Summer Productions, a company with a reputation for quality science programming, produced the Seismic Sleuths program in close partnership with scientists, engineers, and preparedness experts. The program has aired on the National Geographic Channel as recently as Fall 2004. Currently, SCEC is collaborating with Pat Abbott, a geology professor at San Diego State University (SDSU) on the video project Written In Stone: Earthquake Country - Los Angeles. Partners on this project include the California Seismic Safety Commission, SDSU, SCEC, CEA, and the Insurance Information Network of California. This video incorporates live-action demonstrations, vivid animations, and a compelling host (Abbott) to tell the story about earthquakes in the Los Angeles region. The Written in Stone team has also developed a comprehensive educator package that includes the video, maps, lesson plans, and other supporting materials. We will present the process that facilitates the creation of visually effective, factually accurate, and entertaining video programs. We acknowledge the need to have a broad understanding of the literature related to communication, media studies, science education, and

  14. Dancing Earthquake Science Assists Recovery from the Christchurch Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Candice J.; Quigley, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The 2010-2012 Christchurch (Canterbury) earthquakes in New Zealand caused loss of life and psychological distress in residents throughout the region. In 2011, student dancers of the Hagley Dance Company and dance professionals choreographed the performance "Move: A Seismic Journey" for the Christchurch Body Festival that explored…

  15. Testing hypotheses of earthquake occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.

    2003-12-01

    We present a relatively straightforward likelihood method for testing those earthquake hypotheses that can be stated as vectors of earthquake rate density in defined bins of area, magnitude, and time. We illustrate the method as it will be applied to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). Several earthquake forecast models are being developed as part of this project, and additional contributed forecasts are welcome. Various models are based on fault geometry and slip rates, seismicity, geodetic strain, and stress interactions. We would test models in pairs, requiring that both forecasts in a pair be defined over the same set of bins. Thus we offer a standard "menu" of bins and ground rules to encourage standardization. One menu category includes five-year forecasts of magnitude 5.0 and larger. Forecasts would be in the form of a vector of yearly earthquake rates on a 0.05 degree grid at the beginning of the test. Focal mechanism forecasts, when available, would be also be archived and used in the tests. The five-year forecast category may be appropriate for testing hypotheses of stress shadows from large earthquakes. Interim progress will be evaluated yearly, but final conclusions would be made on the basis of cumulative five-year performance. The second category includes forecasts of earthquakes above magnitude 4.0 on a 0.05 degree grid, evaluated and renewed daily. Final evaluation would be based on cumulative performance over five years. Other types of forecasts with different magnitude, space, and time sampling are welcome and will be tested against other models with shared characteristics. All earthquakes would be counted, and no attempt made to separate foreshocks, main shocks, and aftershocks. Earthquakes would be considered as point sources located at the hypocenter. For each pair of forecasts, we plan to compute alpha, the probability that the first would be wrongly rejected in favor of

  16. Earthquake Fingerprints: Representing Earthquake Waveforms for Similarity-Based Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K.; Beroza, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    New earthquake detection methods, such as Fingerprint and Similarity Thresholding (FAST), use fast approximate similarity search to identify similar waveforms in long-duration data without templates (Yoon et al. 2015). These methods have two key components: fingerprint extraction and an efficient search algorithm. Fingerprint extraction converts waveforms into fingerprints, compact signatures that represent short-duration waveforms for identification and search. Earthquakes are detected using an efficient indexing and search scheme, such as locality-sensitive hashing, that identifies similar waveforms in a fingerprint database. The quality of the search results, and thus the earthquake detection results, is strongly dependent on the fingerprinting scheme. Fingerprint extraction should map similar earthquake waveforms to similar waveform fingerprints to ensure a high detection rate, even under additive noise and small distortions. Additionally, fingerprints corresponding to noise intervals should have mutually dissimilar fingerprints to minimize false detections. In this work, we compare the performance of multiple fingerprint extraction approaches for the earthquake waveform similarity search problem. We apply existing audio fingerprinting (used in content-based audio identification systems) and time series indexing techniques and present modified versions that are specifically adapted for seismic data. We also explore data-driven fingerprinting approaches that can take advantage of labeled or unlabeled waveform data. For each fingerprinting approach we measure its ability to identify similar waveforms in a low signal-to-noise setting, and quantify the trade-off between true and false detection rates in the presence of persistent noise sources. We compare the performance using known event waveforms from eight independent stations in the Northern California Seismic Network.

  17. Earthquake Warning Performance in Vallejo for the South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, G.; Price, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. installed first-generation QuakeGuardTM earthquake warning devices at all eight fire stations in Vallejo, CA. These devices are designed to detect the P-wave of an earthquake and initiate predetermined protective actions if the impending shaking is estimated at approximately Modifed Mercalli Intensity V or greater. At the Vallejo fire stations the devices were set up to sound an audio alert over the public address system and to command the equipment bay doors to open. In August 2014, after more than 11 years of operating in the fire stations with no false alarms, the five units that were still in use triggered correctly on the MW 6.0 South Napa earthquake, less than 16 km away. The audio alert sounded in all five stations, providing fire fighters with 1.5 to 2.5 seconds of warning before the arrival of the S-wave, and the equipment bay doors opened in three of the stations. In one station the doors were disconnected from the QuakeGuard device, and another station lost power before the doors opened completely. These problems highlight just a small portion of the complexity associated with realizing actionable earthquake warnings. The issues experienced in this earthquake have already been addressed in subsequent QuakeGuard product generations, with downstream connection monitoring and backup power for critical systems. The fact that the fire fighters in Vallejo were afforded even two seconds of warning at these epicentral distances results from the design of the QuakeGuard devices, which focuses on rapid false positive rejection and ground motion estimates. We discuss the performance of the ground motion estimation algorithms, with an emphasis on the accuracy and timeliness of the estimates at close epicentral distances.

  18. A critical history of British earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in th...

  19. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  20. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F.; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C. P.; Malik, Javed K.; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-01

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.

  1. Earthquake design for controlled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design philosophy, for structures equipped with control devices, capable to resist an expected earthquake while remaining in the elastic range, is described. The idea is that a portion of the earthquake loading is under¬taken by the control system and the remaining by the structure which is designed to resist elastically. The earthquake forces assuming elastic behavior (elastic forces and elastoplastic behavior (design forces are first calculated ac¬cording to the codes. The required control forces are calculated as the difference from elastic to design forces. The maximum value of capacity of control devices is then compared to the required control force. If the capacity of the control devices is larger than the required control force then the control devices are accepted and installed in the structure and the structure is designed according to the design forces. If the capacity is smaller than the required control force then a scale factor, α, reducing the elastic forces to new design forces is calculated. The structure is redesigned and devices are installed. The proposed procedure ensures that the structure behaves elastically (without damage for the expected earthquake at no additional cost, excluding that of buying and installing the control devices.

  2. Using Smartphones to Detect Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We are using the accelerometers in smartphones to record earthquakes. In the future, these smartphones may work as a supplement network to the current traditional network for scientific research and real-time applications. Given the potential number of smartphones, and small separation of sensors, this new type of seismic dataset has significant potential provides that the signal can be separated from the noise. We developed an application for android phones to record the acceleration in real time. These records can be saved on the local phone or transmitted back to a server in real time. The accelerometers in the phones were evaluated by comparing performance with a high quality accelerometer while located on controlled shake tables for a variety of tests. The results show that the accelerometer in the smartphone can reproduce the characteristic of the shaking very well, even the phone left freely on the shake table. The nature of these datasets is also quite different from traditional networks due to the fact that smartphones are moving around with their owners. Therefore, we must distinguish earthquake signals from other daily use. In addition to the shake table tests that accumulated earthquake records, we also recorded different human activities such as running, walking, driving etc. An artificial neural network based approach was developed to distinguish these different records. It shows a 99.7% successful rate of distinguishing earthquakes from the other typical human activities in our database. We are now at the stage ready to develop the basic infrastructure for a smartphone seismic network.

  3. Characteristics of Regional Crustal Deformation before 2016 Menyuan Ms6.4 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weitao; Gan, Weijun; Wang, Yuebing; Lian, Weiping

    2017-04-01

    On January 21, 2016,a strong earthquake with a magnitude of Ms 6.4 happened at Menyuan, Qinghai Province of China. In almost the same place, there was another strong earthquake happened in 1986, with similar magnitude and focal mechanism. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of regional crustal deformation before the 2016 Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake by using the data from 10 continuous GPS stations and 74 campaign-mode GPS stations within 200 km of this event: (a) Based on the velocity field from over ten years GPS observations, a regional strain rate field is calculated. The results indicate that the crustal strain rate and seismic moment accumulation rate of the Qilian-Haiyuan active fault, which is the seismogenic tectonics of the event, are significantly higher than the surrounding regions.In a 20km×20km area around the seismogenic region, the maximum and minimum principal strain rates are 21.5 nanostrain/a (NW-SE extension) and -46.6 nanostrain/a (NE-SW compression), respectively, and the seismic moment accumulation rates is 17.4E15 N·m/a. The direction of principal compression is consistent with the focal mechanism of this event. (b) Based on theposition timeseries of the continuous GPS stations for a time-span of about 6 years before the event, we calculate the strain time series. The results show that the dilatation of the seismogenic region is continuously reduced with a "non-linear" trend since 2010, which means the seismogenic region has been in a state of compression. However, about 2-3 months before the event, both the dilatation and maximum shear strain shown significant inverse trends.These abnormal changes of crustal deformation may reflect the non-linear adjustment of the stress-strain accumulation of the seismogenic region, when the accumulation is approaching the critical value of rupture.

  4. Energy consumption of office buildings and shopping centres - Developments over the last ten years and potential for optimisation; Energieverbrauch von Buerogebaeuden und Grossverteilern. Erhebung des Strom- und Waermeverbrauchs, der Verbrauchsanteile, der Entwicklung in den letzen 10 Jahren und Identifizierung der Optimierungspotentiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiulfi, D.; Maschio, I.; Dellsperger, V.; Brunet, L. [Sorane SA, rationalisation energetique, Ecublens (Switzerland); Primas, A.; Hagel, M; Benz-Karlstroem, P. [Basler und Hofmann Ing. und Planer AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Honegger-Ott, A.; Grodofzig Fuerst, B. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE) und TEP Energy GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study which investigated developments concerning the energy consumption of office buildings and supermarkets over the past ten years and the potential available for optimisation. The aims of the project are discussed as is its implementation. Data collection principles and case studies are discussed, as are terminologies and norms used and recommendations made. Performance figures for space heating and electricity consumption are looked at. In particular, the energy consumption of office buildings and developments in this area are examined. Also, the energy consumption of large-scale consumers such as shopping centres is looked at, including the analysis of energy consumption for lighting, heating, air-conditioning and ventilation. The report is augmented with recommendations and a literature list.

  5. Earthquake Prognosis With Applied Microseism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, N.; Nagiyev, A.

    Earthquakes are the most dangerous natural catastrophy in terms of numerous casualties, amount of damages, areal coverage and difficulties associated with a need to provide secure measures. Inability to forecast these events makes the situation worse due to the following circumstances:-their buried focuses are invisible in the subsurface, they occur suddenly as a thunder, and some tens of the seconds later they leave devastated areas and casualties of tens of thousands of people. Currently earthquake forecausting is actually absolutely inefficient. Microseism application is one of the possible ways to forecast earthquakes. These small oscillation of up-going low-ampitude, irregular wawes observed on seismograms are refered to as microseism. Having been different from earhquakes itself, they are continuous, that is, have no origin coordinate on time axis. Their occurence is associated with breakers observed along shorelines, strong wind and hurricane patterns and so on. J.J.Linch has discovered a new tool to monitor hurricane motion trend over the seas with applied microseism recorded at ad hocstations. Similar to these observations it became possible to monitor the formation of the earthquake focuses based on correlation between low-frequency horizontal ahannels'N-S and E-W components. Microseism field and preceding abnormal variations monitoring data derived from "Cherepaha" 3M and 6/12 device enable to draw out some systematic trend in amplitude/frecuency domain. This relationship observed in a certain frequency range made it possible to define the generation of earthquake focuses with regard to the monitoring station. This variation trend was observed while Turkish and Iranian events happened during 1990,1992, and 1997. It is suggested to be useful to verify these effects in other regions to further correlate available data and work out common forecausting criteria.

  6. The co-seismic Coulomb stress change and expected seismicity rate caused by 14 April 2010 Ms = 7.1 Yushu, China, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bin; Xiong, Xiong; Zheng, Yong; Wei, Shengji; Wen, Yangmao; Jin, Bikai; Ge, Can

    2011-10-01

    A moderate and widely felt earthquake of Ms7.1 (Mw6.9) occurred on April 14, 2010 in Yushu district of Qinghai province (China) which destroyed a large number of buildings and killed more than two thousand people. The distribution of the aftershock sequence is sparse, but with relatively large magnitudes (Ms6.3 and Ms5.7 aftershocks were recorded), strong aftershocks are still highly potential to occur in the near future. Therefore, it is critical to delineate areas where potential aftershocks could occur. Based on static stress triggering theory, we calculated the coseismic stress changes induced by the mainshock in Yushu County and its surrounding regions by adopting elastic dislocation theory and a multilayered crustal model. According to the rate- and state-variable friction law, we calculated the expected seismicity rate and probability of occurrences of M ≥ 5.0 earthquake in the next ten years. It is observed that the Coulomb stress changes increase apparently on the segment of the Wudaoliang-Qumalai Fault, the Batang-Luoxu and Dangjiang-Longbao segments of the Ganzi-Yushu Fault and the whole Wulanwula Lake-Yushu Fault. Based on the theory of Coulomb stress triggering, the probability of earthquake occurrence on these faults would increase in the near future. Considering the historical seismicity, the strain accumulation and the Coulomb stress changes, the probability of M ≥ 5 earthquake and M ≥ 6 earthquake occurrence in the entire study area in the next 10 years are 79-87% and 26.7-33.6%, respectively. Actually, a moderate earthquake of Ms5.3 occurred to the northwest of the Nangqian County on June 26, 2011.

  7. The USGS Earthquake Scenario Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D. J.; Petersen, M. D.; Wald, L. A.; Frankel, A. D.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Lin, K.; Luco, N.; Mathias, S.; Bausch, D.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) is producing a comprehensive suite of earthquake scenarios for planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and scientific investigations. The Earthquake Scenario Project (ESP), though lacking clairvoyance, is a forward-looking project, estimating earthquake hazard and loss outcomes as they may occur one day. For each scenario event, fundamental input includes i) the magnitude and specified fault mechanism and dimensions, ii) regional Vs30 shear velocity values for site amplification, and iii) event metadata. A grid of standard ShakeMap ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, and three spectral response periods) is then produced using the well-defined, regionally-specific approach developed by the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NHSMP), including recent advances in empirical ground motion predictions (e.g., the NGA relations). The framework also allows for numerical (3D) ground motion computations for specific, detailed scenario analyses. Unlike NSHMP ground motions, for ESP scenarios, local rock and soil site conditions and commensurate shaking amplifications are applied based on detailed Vs30 maps where available or based on topographic slope as a proxy. The scenario event set is comprised primarily by selection from the NSHMP events, though custom events are also allowed based on coordination of the ESP team with regional coordinators, seismic hazard experts, seismic network operators, and response coordinators. The event set will be harmonized with existing and future scenario earthquake events produced regionally or by other researchers. The event list includes approximate 200 earthquakes in CA, 100 in NV, dozens in each of NM, UT, WY, and a smaller number in other regions. Systematic output will include all standard ShakeMap products, including HAZUS input, GIS, KML, and XML files used for visualization, loss estimation, ShakeCast, PAGER, and for other systems. All products will be

  8. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2017-07-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  9. Napa earthquake: An earthquake in a highly connected world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Steed, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Napa earthquake recently occurred close to Silicon Valley. This makes it a good candidate to study what social networks, wearable objects and website traffic analysis (flashsourcing) can tell us about the way eyewitnesses react to ground shaking. In the first part, we compare the ratio of people publishing tweets and with the ratio of people visiting EMSC (European Mediterranean Seismological Centre) real time information website in the first minutes following the earthquake occurrence to the results published by Jawbone, which show that the proportion of people waking up depends (naturally) on the epicentral distance. The key question to evaluate is whether the proportions of inhabitants tweeting or visiting the EMSC website are similar to the proportion of people waking up as shown by the Jawbone data. If so, this supports the premise that all methods provide a reliable image of the relative ratio of people waking up. The second part of the study focuses on the reaction time for both Twitter and EMSC website access. We show, similarly to what was demonstrated for the Mineral, Virginia, earthquake (Bossu et al., 2014), that hit times on the EMSC website follow the propagation of the P waves and that 2 minutes of website traffic is sufficient to determine the epicentral location of an earthquake on the other side of the Atlantic. We also compare with the publication time of messages on Twitter. Finally, we check whether the number of tweets and the number of visitors relative to the number of inhabitants is correlated to the local level of shaking. Together these results will tell us whether the reaction of eyewitnesses to ground shaking as observed through Twitter and the EMSC website analysis is tool specific (i.e. specific to Twitter or EMSC website) or whether they do reflect people's actual reactions.

  10. A smartphone application for earthquakes that matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Rémy; Etivant, Caroline; Roussel, Fréderic; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Steed, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Smartphone applications have swiftly become one of the most popular tools for rapid reception of earthquake information for the public, some of them having been downloaded more than 1 million times! The advantages are obvious: wherever someone's own location is, they can be automatically informed when an earthquake has struck. Just by setting a magnitude threshold and an area of interest, there is no longer the need to browse the internet as the information reaches you automatically and instantaneously! One question remains: are the provided earthquake notifications always relevant for the public? What are the earthquakes that really matters to laypeople? One clue may be derived from some newspaper reports that show that a while after damaging earthquakes many eyewitnesses scrap the application they installed just after the mainshock. Why? Because either the magnitude threshold is set too high and many felt earthquakes are missed, or it is set too low and the majority of the notifications are related to unfelt earthquakes thereby only increasing anxiety among the population at each new update. Felt and damaging earthquakes are the ones that matter the most for the public (and authorities). They are the ones of societal importance even when of small magnitude. A smartphone application developed by EMSC (Euro-Med Seismological Centre) with the financial support of the Fondation MAIF aims at providing suitable notifications for earthquakes by collating different information threads covering tsunamigenic, potentially damaging and felt earthquakes. Tsunamigenic earthquakes are considered here to be those ones that are the subject of alert or information messages from the PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre). While potentially damaging earthquakes are identified through an automated system called EQIA (Earthquake Qualitative Impact Assessment) developed and operated at EMSC. This rapidly assesses earthquake impact by comparing the population exposed to each expected

  11. The influence of the impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir on the M5.1 Badong earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huihong; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2014-05-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir constructed on Yangzi River is the world's largest power station on installed capacity (39.3×109m3), it extends 660km from the western part of Hubei province and eastern part of Chongqing municipality. It is a major concern if it can trigger reservoir earthquakes. After the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir since 7 June 2003, there were many micro-earthquakes in the head segment of the reservoir area including Badong area. The prior researches had suggested the micro-seismic activity will be weak as time goes on, even disappear, and the maximum magnitude of earthquake triggered by the reservoir should not be more than M5.5. However, ten year later, a moderate M5.1 earthquake happened around BaDong Country on 16 December 2013, after the annual highest water level. The epicenter was about 5.5km away from the Yangzi River and nearly 100km from the Three Gorges Reservoir dam. The focal depth of this earthquake was about 5km and the focal mechanism solutions show the NNW-striking thrust seismogenic fault (www.ceic.ac.cn). So, if this earthquake was related to the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir? Would this pose an important impact on the earthquake triggered by the Three Gorges Reservoir? In order to quantitatively analyze these considerations, a three-dimensional fully coupled poroelastic finite element model is proposed in this study by taking the consideration of the realistic observation data, such as the high resolution topography, water level fluctuation, flood zone boundary and water depth variation, fault parameters and etc. The change of Coulomb Failure Stress (ΔCFS) in correspondence to elastic stress and pore pressure change induced by fluid diffusion is calculated. Meanwhile, the elastic strain energy accumulation in reservoir region due to the water-filling load is obtained. Our primary results indicate that both pore pressure and coulomb stress on the hypocenter gradually increases with the respect of time

  12. Earthquake ground motion: Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, Nicolas; Kircher, Charles A.; Crouse, C. B.; Charney, Finley; Haselton, Curt B.; Baker, Jack W.; Zimmerman, Reid; Hooper, John D.; McVitty, William; Taylor, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Most of the effort in seismic design of buildings and other structures is focused on structural design. This chapter addresses another key aspect of the design process—characterization of earthquake ground motion into parameters for use in design. Section 3.1 describes the basis of the earthquake ground motion maps in the Provisions and in ASCE 7 (the Standard). Section 3.2 has examples for the determination of ground motion parameters and spectra for use in design. Section 3.3 describes site-specific ground motion requirements and provides example site-specific design and MCER response spectra and example values of site-specific ground motion parameters. Section 3.4 discusses and provides an example for the selection and scaling of ground motion records for use in various types of response history analysis permitted in the Standard.

  13. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    KATO, Aitaro; NAKAMURA, Kouji; HIYAMA, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in April 2016, a series of shallow, moderate to large earthquakes with associated strong aftershocks struck the Kumamoto area of Kyushu, SW Japan. An Mj 7.3 mainshock occurred on 16 April 2016, close to the epicenter of an Mj 6.5 foreshock that occurred about 28 hours earlier. The intense seismicity released the accumulated elastic energy by right-lateral strike slip, mainly along two known, active faults. The mainshock rupture propagated along multiple fault segments with different geometries. The faulting style is reasonably consistent with regional deformation observed on geologic timescales and with the stress field estimated from seismic observations. One striking feature of this sequence is intense seismic activity, including a dynamically triggered earthquake in the Oita region. Following the mainshock rupture, postseismic deformation has been observed, as well as expansion of the seismicity front toward the southwest and northwest. PMID:27725474

  14. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

    2008-05-01

    Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

  15. Earthquake forewarning in the Cascadia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Atwater, Brian F.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Bodin, Paul; Davis, Earl; Frankel, Arthur; Hayes, Gavin P.; McConnell, Laura; Melbourne, Tim; Oppenheimer, David H.; Parrish, John G.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Rogers, Gary D.; Sherrod, Brian; Vidale, John; Walsh, Timothy J.; Weaver, Craig S.; Whitmore, Paul M.

    2015-08-10

    This report, prepared for the National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC), is intended as a step toward improving communications about earthquake hazards between information providers and users who coordinate emergency-response activities in the Cascadia region of the Pacific Northwest. NEPEC charged a subcommittee of scientists with writing this report about forewarnings of increased probabilities of a damaging earthquake. We begin by clarifying some terminology; a “prediction” refers to a deterministic statement that a particular future earthquake will or will not occur. In contrast to the 0- or 100-percent likelihood of a deterministic prediction, a “forecast” describes the probability of an earthquake occurring, which may range from >0 to changes in geologic processes or conditions, which may include Increased rates of M>4 earthquakes on the plate interface north of the Mendocino region 

  16. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  17. Localization of intermediate-term earthquake prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossobokov, V.G.; Keilis-Borok, V.I. (International Inst. of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Moscow (USSR)); Smith, S.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1990-11-10

    Relative seismic quiescence within a region which has already been diagnosed as having entered a Time of Increased Probability (TIP) for the occurrence of a strong earthquake can be used to refine the locality in which the earthquake may be expected to occur. A simple algorithm with parameters fitted from the data in Northern California preceding the 1980 magnitude 7.0 earthquake offshore from Eureka depicts relative quiescence within the region of a TIP. The procedure was tested, without readaptation of parameter, on 17 other strong earthquake occurrences in North America, Japan, and Eurasia, most of which were in regions for which a TIP had been previously diagnosed. The localizing algorithm successfully outlined a region within which the subsequent earthquake occurred for 16 of these 17 strong earthquakes. The area of prediction in each case was reduced significantly, ranging between 7% and 25% of the total area covered by the TIP.

  18. If pandas scream. an earthquake is coming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magida, P.

    Feature article:Use of the behavior of animals to predict weather has spanned several ages and dozens of countries. While animals may behave in diverse ways to indicate weather changes, they all tend to behave in more or less the same way before earthquakes. The geophysical community in the U.S. has begun testing animal behavior before earthquakes. It has been determined that animals have the potential of acting as accurate geosensors to detect earthquakes before they occur. (5 drawings)

  19. Global Significant Earthquake Database, 2150 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Earthquake Database is a global listing of over 5,700 earthquakes from 2150 BC to the present. A significant earthquake is classified as one that...

  20. Methodology to determine the parameters of historical earthquakes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Guoliang; Zhang, Zhe

    2017-12-01

    China is one of the countries with the longest cultural tradition. Meanwhile, China has been suffering very heavy earthquake disasters; so, there are abundant earthquake recordings. In this paper, we try to sketch out historical earthquake sources and research achievements in China. We will introduce some basic information about the collections of historical earthquake sources, establishing intensity scale and the editions of historical earthquake catalogues. Spatial-temporal and magnitude distributions of historical earthquake are analyzed briefly. Besides traditional methods, we also illustrate a new approach to amend the parameters of historical earthquakes or even identify candidate zones for large historical or palaeo-earthquakes. In the new method, a relationship between instrumentally recorded small earthquakes and strong historical earthquakes is built up. Abundant historical earthquake sources and the achievements of historical earthquake research in China are of valuable cultural heritage in the world.