WorldWideScience

Sample records for ten younger adults

  1. Framing effects in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Goldstein, David; Hasher, Lynn; Zacks, Rose T

    2005-07-01

    A growing literature on decision making in older adults suggests that they are more likely to use heuristic processing than are younger adults. We assessed this tendency in the context of a framing effect, a decision-making phenomenon whereby the language used to describe options greatly influences the decision maker's choice. We compared decision making under a standard ("heuristic") condition and also under a "justification" condition known to reduce reliance on heuristics. In the standard condition, older adults were more susceptible than younger adults to framing but the two groups did not differ when participants were asked to provide a justification. Thus, although older adults may spontaneously rely more on heuristic processing than younger adults, they can be induced to take a more systematic approach to decision making.

  2. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  3. How Arousal Affects Younger and Older Adults' Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding. PMID:21240821

  4. Both Younger and Older Adults Have Difficulty Updating Emotional Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Huffman, Derek; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The main purpose of the study was to examine whether emotion impairs associative memory for previously seen items in older adults, as previously observed in younger adults. \\ud Method. Thirty-two younger adults and 32 older adults participated. The experiment consisted of 2 parts. In Part 1, participants learned picture–object associations for negative and neutral pictures. In Part 2, they learned picture–location associations for negative and neutral pictures; half of these pictur...

  5. How retellings shape younger and older adults' memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2014-04-01

    The way a story is retold influences the way it is later remembered; after retelling an event in a biased manner people subsequently remember the event in line with their distorted retelling. This study tested the hypothesis that this should be especially true for older adults. To test this, older and younger adults retold a story to be entertaining, to be accurate, or did not complete an initial retelling. Later, all participants recalled the story as accurately as possible. On this final test younger adults were unaffected by how they had previously retold the story. In contrast, older adults had better memory for the story's content and structure if they had previously retold the story accurately. Furthermore, for older adults, greater usage of storytelling language during the retelling was associated with lower subsequent recall. In summary, retellings exerted a greater effect on memory in older, compared with younger, adults.

  6. Both younger and older adults have difficulty updating emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Huffman, Derek; Mather, Mara

    2013-03-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine whether emotion impairs associative memory for previously seen items in older adults, as previously observed in younger adults. Thirty-two younger adults and 32 older adults participated. The experiment consisted of 2 parts. In Part 1, participants learned picture-object associations for negative and neutral pictures. In Part 2, they learned picture-location associations for negative and neutral pictures; half of these pictures were seen in Part 1 whereas the other half were new. The dependent measure was how many locations of negative versus neutral items in the new versus old categories participants remembered in Part 2. Both groups had more difficulty learning the locations of old negative pictures than of new negative pictures. However, this pattern was not observed for neutral items. Despite the fact that older adults showed overall decline in associative memory, the impairing effect of emotion on updating associative memory was similar between younger and older adults.

  7. Reward-Enhanced Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Spaniol; Cécile Schain; Holly J. Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how the anticipation of remote monetary reward modulates intentional episodic memory formation in younger and older adults. On the basis of prior findings of preserved reward–cognition interactions in aging, we predicted that reward anticipation would be associated with enhanced memory in both younger and older adults. On the basis of previous demonstrations of a time-dependent effect of reward anticipation on memory, we expected the memory enhancement to increase ...

  8. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Pettijohn, Kyle A; Kim, Joonsung

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on event cognition has found that walking through doorways can cause forgetting. The explanation for this finding is that there is a competition between event models, producing interference, and depressing performance. The current study explored the degree to which this might be affected by the natural aging process. This is of interest because there is some evidence that older adults have trouble coordinating sources of interference, which is what is thought to underlie this effect. This would suggest that older adults should do worse on this task. Alternatively, there is also evidence that older adults are typically not disrupted at the event level of processing per se. This would suggest that older adults should perform similarly to younger adults on this task. In the study reported here, younger and older participants navigated through a virtual environment, and memory was tested with probes either before or after a shift and for objects that were associated with the participant (i.e., just picked up). In general, both younger and older adults had memory disrupted after walking through a doorway. Importantly, the magnitude of this disruption was similar in the 2 age groups. This is consistent with the idea that processing at the event level is relatively unaffected by the natural aging process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Reward-enhanced memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Julia; Schain, Cécile; Bowen, Holly J

    2014-09-01

    We investigated how the anticipation of remote monetary reward modulates intentional episodic memory formation in younger and older adults. On the basis of prior findings of preserved reward-cognition interactions in aging, we predicted that reward anticipation would be associated with enhanced memory in both younger and older adults. On the basis of previous demonstrations of a time-dependent effect of reward anticipation on memory, we expected the memory enhancement to increase with study-test delay. In Experiment 1, younger and older participants encoded a series of picture stimuli associated with high- or low-reward values. At test (24-hr postencoding), recognition hits resulted in either high or low monetary rewards, whereas false alarms were penalized to discourage guessing. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1, but the study-test delay was manipulated within subjects (immediate vs 24hr). In Experiment 1, younger and older adults showed enhanced recognition for high-reward pictures compared with low-reward pictures. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and additionally showed that the effect did not extend to immediate recognition. The current findings provide support for a time-dependent mechanism of reward-based memory enhancement. They also suggest that aging leaves intact the positive influence of reward anticipation on intentional long-term memory formation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Expiratory flow limitation and operating lung volumes during exercise in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Meskimen, Kayla; Harms, Craig A

    2017-06-01

    We determined the effect of aging on expiratory flow limitation (EFL) and operating lung volumes when matched for lung size. We hypothesized that older adults will exhibit greater EFL and increases in EELV during exercise compared to younger controls. Ten older (5M/5W; >60years old) and nineteen height-matched young adults (10M/9W) were recruited. Young adults were matched for%predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) (Y-matched%Pred FVC; n=10) and absolute FVC (Y-matched FVC; n=10). Tidal flow-volume loops were recorded during the incremental exercise test with maximal flow-volume loops measured pre- and post-exercise. Compared to younger controls, older adults exhibited more EFL at ventilations of 26, 35, 51, and 80L/min. The older group had higher end-inspiratory lung volume compared to Y-matched%Pred FVC group during submaximal ventilations. The older group increased EELV during exercise, while EELV stayed below resting in the Y-matched%Pred FVC group. These data suggest older adults exhibit more EFL and increase EELV earlier during exercise compared to younger adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. TOT phenomena: Gesture production in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharopoulou, Foteini; Cocks, Naomi; Pring, Timothy; Dipper, Lucy T

    2015-06-01

    This study explored age-related changes in gesture to better understand the relationship between gesture and word retrieval from memory. The frequency of gestures during tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states highlights this relationship. There is a lack of evidence describing the form and content of iconic gestures arising spontaneously in such TOT states and a parallel gap addressing age-related variations. In this study, TOT states were induced in 45 participants from 2 age groups (older and younger adults) using a pseudoword paradigm. The type and frequency of gestures produced was recorded during 2 experimental conditions (single-word retrieval and narrative task). We found that both groups experienced a high number of TOT states, during which they gestured. Iconic co-TOT gestures were more common than noniconic gestures. Although there was no age effect on the type of gestures produced, there was a significant, task-specific age difference in the amount of gesturing. That is, younger adults gestured more in the narrative task, whereas older adults generated more gestures in the single-word-retrieval task. Task-specific age differences suggest that there are age-related differences in terms of the cognitive operations involved in TOT gesture production. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Variability in reaction time performance of younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Dixon, Roger A

    2002-03-01

    Age differences in three basic types of variability were examined: variability between persons (diversity), variability within persons across tasks (dispersion), and variability within persons across time (inconsistency). Measures of variability were based on latency performance from four measures of reaction time (RT) performed by a total of 99 younger adults (ages 17--36 years) and 763 older adults (ages 54--94 years). Results indicated that all three types of variability were greater in older compared with younger participants even when group differences in speed were statistically controlled. Quantile-quantile plots showed age and task differences in the shape of the inconsistency distributions. Measures of within-person variability (dispersion and inconsistency) were positively correlated. Individual differences in RT inconsistency correlated negatively with level of performance on measures of perceptual speed, working memory, episodic memory, and crystallized abilities. Partial set correlation analyses indicated that inconsistency predicted cognitive performance independent of level of performance. The results indicate that variability of performance is an important indicator of cognitive functioning and aging.

  13. Intelligibility of emotional speech in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Kate; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of vocal emotions on speech understanding. Word recognition accuracy for stimuli spoken to portray seven emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, neutral, happiness, and pleasant surprise) was tested in younger and older listeners. Emotions were presented in either mixed (heterogeneous emotions mixed in a list) or blocked (homogeneous emotion blocked in a list) conditions. Three main hypotheses were tested. First, vocal emotion affects word recognition accuracy; specifically, portrayals of fear enhance word recognition accuracy because listeners orient to threatening information and/or distinctive acoustical cues such as high pitch mean and variation. Second, older listeners recognize words less accurately than younger listeners, but the effects of different emotions on intelligibility are similar across age groups. Third, blocking emotions in list results in better word recognition accuracy, especially for older listeners, and reduces the effect of emotion on intelligibility because as listeners develop expectations about vocal emotion, the allocation of processing resources can shift from emotional to lexical processing. Emotion was the within-subjects variable: all participants heard speech stimuli consisting of a carrier phrase followed by a target word spoken by either a younger or an older talker, with an equal number of stimuli portraying each of seven vocal emotions. The speech was presented in multi-talker babble at signal to noise ratios adjusted for each talker and each listener age group. Listener age (younger, older), condition (mixed, blocked), and talker (younger, older) were the main between-subjects variables. Fifty-six students (Mage= 18.3 years) were recruited from an undergraduate psychology course; 56 older adults (Mage= 72.3 years) were recruited from a volunteer pool. All participants had clinically normal pure-tone audiometric thresholds at frequencies ≤3000 Hz. There were significant main effects of

  14. Designing an information search interface for younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Richard; Price, Margaux M

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined Web-based information retrieval as a function of age for two information organization schemes: hierarchical organization and one organized around tags or keywords. Older adults' performance in information retrieval tasks has traditionally been lower compared with younger adults'. The current study examined the degree to which information organization moderated age-related performance differences on an information retrieval task. The theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence may provide insight into different kinds of information architectures that may reduce age-related differences in computer-based information retrieval performance. Fifty younger (18-23 years of age) and 50 older (55-76 years of age) participants browsed a Web site for answers to specific questions. Half of the participants browsed the hierarchically organized system (taxonomy), which maintained a one-to-one relationship between menu link and page, whereas the other half browsed the tag-based interface, with a many-to-one relationship between menu and page. This difference was expected to interact with age-related differences in fluid and crystallized intelligence. Age-related differences in information retrieval performance persisted; however, a tag-based retrieval interface reduced age-related differences, as compared with a taxonomical interface. Cognitive aging theory can lead to interface interventions that reduce age-related differences in performance with technology. In an information retrieval paradigm, older adults may be able to leverage their increased crystallized intelligence to offset fluid intelligence declines in a computer-based information search task. More research is necessary, but the results suggest that information retrieval interfaces organized around keywords may reduce age-related differences in performance.

  15. Gaze Bias in Preference Judgments by Younger and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Saito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals’ gaze behavior reflects the choice they will ultimately make. For example, people confronting a choice among multiple stimuli tend to look longer at stimuli that are subsequently chosen than at other stimuli. This tendency, called the gaze bias effect, is a key aspect of visual decision-making. Nevertheless, no study has examined the generality of the gaze bias effect in older adults. Here, we used a two-alternative forced-choice task (2AFC to compare the gaze behavior reflective of different stages of decision processes demonstrated by younger and older adults. Participants who had viewed two faces were instructed to choose the one that they liked/disliked or the one that they judged to be more/less similar to their own face. Their eye movements were tracked while they chose. The results show that the gaze bias effect occurred during the remaining time in both age groups irrespective of the decision type. However, no gaze bias effect was observed for the preference judgment during the first dwell time. Our study demonstrated that the gaze bias during the remaining time occurred regardless of decision-making task and age. Further study using diverse participants, such as clinic patients or infants, may help to generalize the gaze bias effect and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the gaze bias.

  16. Swallow Event Sequencing: Comparing Healthy Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Erica G; Lazarus, Cathy L; Steele, Catriona M; Molfenter, Sonja M

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has established that a great deal of variation exists in the temporal sequence of swallowing events for healthy adults. Yet, the impact of aging on swallow event sequence is not well understood. Kendall et al. (Dysphagia 18(2):85-91, 2003) suggested there are 4 obligatory paired-event sequences in swallowing. We directly compared adherence to these sequences, as well as event latencies, and quantified the percentage of unique sequences in two samples of healthy adults: young ( 65). The 8 swallowing events that contribute to the sequences were reliably identified from videofluoroscopy in a sample of 23 healthy seniors (10 male, mean age 74.7) and 20 healthy young adults (10 male, mean age 31.5) with no evidence of penetration-aspiration or post-swallow residue. Chi-square analyses compared the proportions of obligatory pairs and unique sequences by age group. Compared to the older subjects, younger subjects had significantly lower adherence to two obligatory sequences: Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) opening occurs before (or simultaneous with) the bolus arriving at the UES and UES maximum distention occurs before maximum pharyngeal constriction. The associated latencies were significantly different between age groups as well. Further, significantly fewer unique swallow sequences were observed in the older group (61%) compared with the young (82%) (χ 2  = 31.8; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that paired swallow event sequences may not be robust across the age continuum and that variation in swallow sequences appears to decrease with aging. These findings provide normative references for comparisons to older individuals with dysphagia.

  17. The Effects of Feedback on Memory Strategies of Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Meng; Geng, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that feedback could effectively reduce false memories in younger adults. However, it is unclear whether memory performance in older adults also might be affected by feedback. The current study tested the hypothesis that older adults can use immediate feedback to adjust their memory strategy, similar to younger adults, but after feedback is removed, older adults may not be able to maintain using the memory strategy. Older adults will display more false memories than younger adults due to a reduction in attentional resources. In Study 1, both younger and older adults adjusted gist processing and item-specific processing biases based on the feedback given (i.e., biased and objective feedback). In Study 2 after the feedback was removed, only younger adults with full attention were able to maintain the feedback-shaped memory strategy; whereas, both younger adults with divided attention and older adults had increased false memories after feedback was removed. The findings suggest that environmental support helps older adults as well as younger adults to adopt a memory strategy that demands high attentional resources, but when the support is removed, older adults can no longer maintain such a strategy.

  18. A double dissociation of implicit and explicit memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopie, Nigel; Craik, Fergus I M; Hasher, Lynn

    2011-05-01

    This study examined whether age-related differences in cognition influence later memory for irrelevant, or distracting, information. In Experiments 1 and 2, older adults had greater implicit memory for irrelevant information than younger adults did. When explicit memory was assessed, however, the pattern of results reversed: Younger adults performed better than older adults on an explicit memory test for the previously irrelevant information, and older adults performed less well than they had on the implicit test. Experiment 3 investigated whether this differential pattern was attributable to an age-related decline in encoding resources, by reducing the encoding resources of younger adults with a secondary task; their performance perfectly simulated the pattern shown by the older adults in the first two experiments. Both older and younger adults may remember irrelevant information, but they remember it in different ways because of age-related changes in how information is processed at encoding and utilized at retrieval.

  19. Perceptions of emotion and age among younger, midlife, and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Gennarina D; Ready, Rebecca E; Mather, Molly A

    2018-03-01

    Older adults report greater emotional well-being than younger persons, yet negative stereotypes about aging are pervasive. Little is known about age group perceptions of emotion in adulthood, particularly for familiar persons. Thus, this project determined perceptions of general affect in familiar younger and older adults. In two studies, participants (Study 1, younger adult n = 123, older adult n = 43; Study 2, younger adult n = 34, midlife adult n = 41, older adult n = 16) provided self-report data about their affect in general, as well as reported on the affect of a familiar younger person (aged 18--34) and a familiar older person (aged 65 or older). Emotion scales assessed high- and low-arousal positive and negative affect. Results suggest a less favorable perception of emotion experiences of older adults compared to younger adults. Specifically, participants of all age groups rated older adults as having lower positive emotions and higher negative emotions than is found in self-report data. Perceptions of emotion in older adulthood reflect stereotypes of negative functioning. Older adult participants were not immune to holding negative views about older adults. Negative perceptions about emotion experiences in later life may be detrimental to the physical and mental health of older adults.

  20. Memory Dynamics and Decision Making in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, M. Teresa; Gomez-Ariza, Carlos J.; Iglesias-Parro, Sergio; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to study whether memory dynamics influence older people's choices to the same extent as younger's ones. To do so, we adapted the retrieval-practice paradigm to produce variations in memory accessibility of information on which decisions were made later. Based on previous results, we expected to observe…

  1. The effects of emotion on younger and older adults' monitoring of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Sarah K; Dunlosky, John; Urry, Heather L; Opitz, Philipp C

    2017-09-01

    Age-related differences in memory monitoring appear when people learn emotional words. Namely, younger adults' judgments of learning (JOLs) are higher for positive than neutral words, whereas older adults' JOLs do not discriminate between positive versus neutral words. In two experiments, we evaluated whether this age-related difference extends to learning positive versus neutral pictures. We also evaluated the contribution of two dimensions of emotion that may impact younger and older adults' JOLs: valence and arousal. Younger and older adults studied pictures that were positive or neutral and either high or low in arousal. Participants made immediate JOLs and completed memory tests. In both experiments, the magnitude of older adults' JOLs was influenced by emotion, and both younger and older adults demonstrated an emotional salience effect on JOLs. As important, the magnitude of participants' JOLs was influenced by valence, and not arousal. Emotional salience effects were also evident on participants' free recall, and older adults recalled as many pictures as did younger adults. Taken together, these data suggest that older adults do not have a monitoring deficit when learning positive (vs. neutral) pictures and that emotional salience effects on younger and older adults' JOLs are produced more by valence than by arousal.

  2. Comparison for younger and older adults: Stimulus temporal asynchrony modulates audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanna; Ren, Yanling; Yang, Weiping; Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Fengxia; Wu, Qiong; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ejima, Yoshimichi; Wu, Jinglong

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has shown that the magnitudes of responses to multisensory information are highly dependent on the stimulus structure. The temporal proximity of multiple signal inputs is a critical determinant for cross-modal integration. Here, we investigated the influence that temporal asynchrony has on audiovisual integration in both younger and older adults using event-related potentials (ERP). Our results showed that in the simultaneous audiovisual condition, except for the earliest integration (80-110ms), which occurred in the occipital region for older adults was absent for younger adults, early integration was similar for the younger and older groups. Additionally, late integration was delayed in older adults (280-300ms) compared to younger adults (210-240ms). In audition‑leading vision conditions, the earliest integration (80-110ms) was absent in younger adults but did occur in older adults. Additionally, after increasing the temporal disparity from 50ms to 100ms, late integration was delayed in both younger (from 230 to 290ms to 280-300ms) and older (from 210 to 240ms to 280-300ms) adults. In the audition-lagging vision conditions, integration only occurred in the A100V condition for younger adults and in the A50V condition for older adults. The current results suggested that the audiovisual temporal integration pattern differed between the audition‑leading and audition-lagging vision conditions and further revealed the varying effect of temporal asynchrony on audiovisual integration in younger and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  4. Understanding the effect of workload on automation use for younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sara E; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how individuals, younger and older, interacted with an imperfect automated system. The impact of workload on performance and automation use was also investigated. Automation is used in situations characterized by varying levels of workload. As automated systems spread to domains such as transportation and the home, a diverse population of users will interact with automation. Research is needed to understand how different segments of the population use automation. Workload was systematically manipulated to create three levels (low, moderate, high) in a dual-task scenario in which participants interacted with a 70% reliable automated aid. Two experiments were conducted to assess automation use for younger and older adults. Both younger and older adults relied on the automation more than they complied with it. Among younger adults, high workload led to poorer performance and higher compliance, even when that compliance was detrimental. Older adults' performance was negatively affected by workload, but their compliance and reliance were unaffected. Younger and older adults were both able to use and double-check an imperfect automated system. Workload affected how younger adults complied with automation, particularly with regard to detecting automation false alarms. Older adults tended to comply and rely at fairly high rates overall, and this did not change with increased workload. Training programs for imperfect automated systems should vary workload and provide feedback about error types, and strategies for identifying errors. The ability to identify automation errors varies across individuals, thereby necessitating training.

  5. Diagnostic subtypes of bipolar disorder in older versus younger adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in diagnostic subtypes of bipolar disorder as according to ICD-10 between patients whose first contact with psychiatric health care occurs late in life (over 50 years of age) and patients who have first contact earlier in life (50 years of age or below......). METHODS: From 1994 to 2002 all patients who received a diagnosis of a manic episode or bipolar disorder at initial contact with the mental healthcare system, whether outpatient or inpatient, were identified in Denmark's nationwide register. RESULTS: A total of 852 (49.6%) patients, who were over age 50......, and 867 patients, who were 50 or below, received a diagnosis of a manic episode or bipolar disorder at the first contact ever. Older inpatients presented with psychotic symptoms (35.4%) significantly less than younger inpatients (42.6%) due specifically to a lower prevalence of manic episodes...

  6. Risky choice in younger versus older adults: Affective context matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.

  7. Comparing urban form correlations of the travel patterns of older and younger adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    Using disaggregated data from the Danish National Travel Survey conducted between 2006 - 2011, this study compares the travel patterns of older (65 – 84 years of age) and younger (18 – 64 years of age) adults regarding land use, socio-economic conditions and urban structures. The results highlight...... significant differences between travel patterns and their urban form correlates for the older and younger adult populations. Spatial variables such as density and regional accessibility have different and potentially reverse associations with travel among older adults. The car use of older adults...... is not substituted by other modes in high-density settings, as is the case for younger adults. Older adults do not respond to high regional accessibility by reducing distance traveled, but travel longer and are also more likely to continue using a car in high-access conditions. Spatial structural conditions have...

  8. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2017-09-14

    Neuropathic pain, which is due to nerve disease or damage, represents a significant burden on people and society. It can be particularly unpleasant and achieving adequate symptom control can be difficult. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment are often employed by people with neuropathic pain and may include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). This review supersedes one Cochrane Review 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain' (Nnoaham 2014) and one withdrawn protocol 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults' (Claydon 2014). This review replaces the original protocol for neuropathic pain that was withdrawn. To determine the analgesic effectiveness of TENS versus placebo (sham) TENS, TENS versus usual care, TENS versus no treatment and TENS in addition to usual care versus usual care alone in the management of neuropathic pain in adults. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, PEDro, LILACS (up to September 2016) and various clinical trials registries. We also searched bibliographies of included studies for further relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials where TENS was evaluated in the treatment of central or peripheral neuropathic pain. We included studies if they investigated the following: TENS versus placebo (sham) TENS, TENS versus usual care, TENS versus no treatment and TENS in addition to usual care versus usual care alone in the management of neuropathic pain in adults. Two review authors independently screened all database search results and identified papers requiring full-text assessment. Subsequently, two review authors independently applied inclusion/exclusion criteria to these studies. The same review authors then independently extracted data, assessed for risk of bias using the Cochrane standard tool and rated the quality of evidence using GRADE. We included 15 studies with 724 participants. We found a

  9. Understanding the Effect of Workload on Automation Use for Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sara E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study examined how individuals, younger and older, interacted with an imperfect automated system. The impact of workload on performance and automation use was also investigated. Background Automation is used in situations characterized by varying levels of workload. As automated systems spread to domains such as transportation and the home, a diverse population of users will interact with automation. Research is needed to understand how different segments of the population use automation. Method Workload was systematically manipulated to create three levels (low, moderate, high) in a dual-task scenario in which participants interacted with a 70% reliable automated aid. Two experiments were conducted to assess automation use for younger and older adults. Results Both younger and older adults relied on the automation more than they complied with it. Among younger adults, high workload led to poorer performance and higher compliance, even when that compliance was detrimental. Older adults’ performance was negatively affected by workload, but their compliance and reliance were unaffected. Conclusion Younger and older adults were both able to use and double-check an imperfect automated system. Workload affected how younger adults complied with automation, particularly with regard to detecting automation false alarms. Older adults tended to comply and rely at fairly high rates overall, and this did not change with increased workload. Application Training programs for imperfect automated systems should vary workload and provide feedback about error types, and strategies for identifying errors. The ability to identify automation errors varies across individuals, thereby necessitating training. PMID:22235529

  10. Creating grander families: older adults adopting younger kin and nonkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterlong, James; Ryan, Scott

    2008-08-01

    There is a dearth of research on older adoptive parents caring for minor children, despite a growing number of such adoptions finalized each year. This study offers a large-scale investigation of adoptive families headed by older parents. We describe these families and explore how preadoptive kinship between the adoptive parent and the child impacts adoption outcomes. We analyze data from kin (n = 98) and nonkin (n = 310) adoptive families headed by adults aged 60 years and older. We find that older kin adoptive families are smaller, report lower income, and include adoptive mothers with less formal education. Children in these families had less severe needs for special care at the time of placement. Although kin and nonkin older parents offer similar assessments of their parent-child relationships, kin adopters indicate a greater willingness to adopt the same child again and yet report less positive current family functioning. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that preadoptive kinship predicts more negative parental assessment of the adoption's impact on the family and less positive family functioning net of other parent, family, and child characteristics. Externalizing behavior by the child (e.g., delinquency or aggression) is the strongest predictor of deleterious outcomes for both groups. Kin adoption by older adults creates new families under strain but does not reduce parental commitment to the child. We conclude that older adults serve as effective adoptive parents but would benefit from preadoption and postadoption services to assist them in preparing for and positively addressing the challenging behaviors exhibited by adopted children.

  11. Reflections of distraction in memory: transfer of previous distraction improves recall in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruthann C; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval.

  12. Testing the Limits of Optimizing Dual-Task Performance in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Frensch, Peter; Müller, Herrmann Josef; Schubert, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Impaired dual-task performance in younger and older adults can be improved with practice. Optimal conditions even allow for a (near) elimination of this impairment in younger adults. However, it is unknown whether such (near) elimination is the limit of performance improvements in older adults. The present study tests this limit in older adults under conditions of (a) a high amount of dual-task training and (b) training with simplified component tasks in dual-task situations. The data showed that a high amount of dual-task training in older adults provided no evidence for an improvement of dual-task performance to the optimal dual-task performance level achieved by younger adults. However, training with simplified component tasks in dual-task situations exclusively in older adults provided a similar level of optimal dual-task performance in both age groups. Therefore through applying a testing the limits approach, we demonstrated that older adults improved dual-task performance to the same level as younger adults at the end of training under very specific conditions. PMID:22408613

  13. Time perspective and social preference in older and younger adults: Effects of self-regulatory fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Geiger, Paul J; Combs, Hannah L; Boggero, Ian A

    2016-09-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that when perceived time in life is limited, people will prefer emotionally close social partners over less emotionally rewarding partners. Regulating social choices with regard to time perspective can make the best use of time with regard to well-being. However, doing so may depend on the self-regulatory capacity of the individual. Two studies, 1 with younger adults (N = 101) and 1 with younger (N = 42) and older (N = 39) adults, experimentally tested the effects of time perspective and self-regulatory fatigue on preferences for emotionally close partners and knowledgeable partners. In both studies and across younger and older adults, when self-regulatory fatigue was low, the perception of limited time resulted in a greater preference for close social partners relative to knowledgeable social partners. However, this shift was eliminated by self-regulatory fatigue. In Study 2, when fatigued, younger adults preferred close social partners to knowledgeable partners across time perspectives; older adults preferred close and knowledgeable partners more equally across time perspectives. These findings have implications for social decision-making and satisfaction among people who experience chronic self-regulatory fatigue. They also contradict previous suggestions that only younger adults are susceptible to self-regulatory fatigue. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Mistakes as Stepping Stones: Effects of Errors on Episodic Memory among Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Anderson, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    The memorial costs and benefits of trial-and-error learning have clear pedagogical implications for students, and increasing evidence shows that generating errors during episodic learning can improve memory among younger adults. Conversely, the aging literature has found that errors impair memory among healthy older adults and has advocated for…

  15. Older and Younger Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Factors Associated with Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lee, Yue-Chune; Lin, Li-Chan; Kroger, Teppo; Chang, Ai-Ning

    2009-01-01

    A structured interview survey was conducted in a major city in Taiwan to explore and compare older and younger family primary caregivers' well being and their future caregiving plans for these adults with intellectual disability. The sample size was 315 caregivers who were 55 years or older and who cared for adults with intellectual disability and…

  16. Local Medicaid home- and community-based services spending and nursing home admissions of younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states' efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue.

  17. Situation Selection and Modification for Emotion Regulation in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Kimberly M; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated age differences in use and effectiveness of situation selection and situation modification for emotion regulation. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests stronger emotional well-being goals in older age; emotion regulation may support this goal. Younger and older adults assigned to an emotion regulation or "just view" condition first freely chose to engage with negative, neutral, or positive material (situation selection), then chose to view or skip negative and positive material (situation modification), rating affect after each experience. In both tasks, older adults in both goal conditions demonstrated pro-hedonic emotion regulation, spending less time with negative material compared to younger adults. Younger adults in the regulate condition also engaged in pro-hedonic situation selection, but not modification. Whereas situation selection was related to affect, modification of negative material was not. This research supports more frequent pro-hedonic motivation in older age, as well as age differences in use of early-stage emotion regulation.

  18. Functions of Autobiographical Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vranić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional approach to autobiographical memory (AM posits its three broad functions: directive, self, and social. Although these functions are probably universal, life stage and gender variations are expected. This research builds on previous studies investigating the validity of Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck and Alea, 2011. A sample of 365 adults (56% female, mean age 43.3 years, divided in 2 age cohorts (young: 18–45 years, old: 46–90 years, used TALE, to rate their tendency of using AM for three different purposes, and measures of self-concept clarity, attachment in close relationships and time perspective. Confirmatory factor analysis of TALE confirmed the tripartite model of AM functions and further analysis showed partial factorial equivalence across age and gender groups. Young tend to use AM more for directing future behavior and social-bonding, while no age differences were found in the use of AM to serve self-function. As for gender variations, women tend to use AM more for directing their behavior, while no other gender differences in the use of AM were found. TALE showed good internal consistency and convergent validity of the three subscales. The theory-driven hypotheses that individuals with low self-concept clarity would use AM more often to serve a self-function, those with higher levels of attachment anxiety would use AM more often to serve a social function, and those past-oriented would use memory more often for directive purpose, were all confirmed. Also confirmed was the notion of Past Negative Orientation to be more related to the directive use of AM than Past Positive Time Orientation. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  19. Functions of Autobiographical Memory in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranić, Andrea; Jelić, Margareta; Tonković, Mirjana

    2018-01-01

    Functional approach to autobiographical memory (AM) posits its three broad functions: directive, self, and social. Although these functions are probably universal, life stage and gender variations are expected. This research builds on previous studies investigating the validity of Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck and Alea, 2011). A sample of 365 adults (56% female, mean age 43.3 years), divided in 2 age cohorts (young: 18-45 years, old: 46-90 years), used TALE, to rate their tendency of using AM for three different purposes, and measures of self-concept clarity, attachment in close relationships and time perspective. Confirmatory factor analysis of TALE confirmed the tripartite model of AM functions and further analysis showed partial factorial equivalence across age and gender groups. Young tend to use AM more for directing future behavior and social-bonding, while no age differences were found in the use of AM to serve self-function. As for gender variations, women tend to use AM more for directing their behavior, while no other gender differences in the use of AM were found. TALE showed good internal consistency and convergent validity of the three subscales. The theory-driven hypotheses that individuals with low self-concept clarity would use AM more often to serve a self-function, those with higher levels of attachment anxiety would use AM more often to serve a social function, and those past-oriented would use memory more often for directive purpose, were all confirmed. Also confirmed was the notion of Past Negative Orientation to be more related to the directive use of AM than Past Positive Time Orientation. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  20. Reducing the framing effect in older and younger adults by encouraging analytic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ayanna K; Millar, Peter R

    2012-03-01

    The present study explored whether the framing effect could be reduced in older and younger adults using techniques that influenced the accessibility of information relevant to the decision-making processing. Accessibility was manipulated indirectly in Experiment 1 by having participants engage in concurrent tasks, and directly in Experiment 2, through an instructions manipulation that required participants to maintain a goal of analytic processing throughout the experimental trial. We tested 120 older and 120 younger adults in Experiment 1. Participants completed 28 decision trials while concurrently either performing a probability calculation task or a memory task. In Experiment 2, we tested 136 older and 136 younger adults. Participants completed 48 decision trials after either having been instructed to "think like a scientist" or base decisions on "gut reactions." Results demonstrated that the framing effect was reduced in older and younger adults in the probability calculation task in Experiment 1 and under the "think like a scientist" instructions manipulation in Experiment 2. These results suggest that when information relevant to unbiased decision making was made more accessible, both older and younger adults were able to reduce susceptibility to the framing effect.

  1. Do older adults with chronic low back pain differ from younger adults in regards to baseline characteristics and prognosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manogharan, S; Kongsted, A; Ferreira, M L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) in older adults is poorly understood because the vast majority of the LBP research has focused on the working aged population. The aim of this study was to compare older adults consulting with chronic LBP to middle aged and young adults consulting with chronic LBP....... Patients older than 65 were classified as older adults and compared to middle aged (45-65 years old) and younger adults (17-44 years old) for 10 baseline characteristics. Pain intensity and disability were collected at 6 and 12 month follow-ups and compared between age groups. RESULTS: A total of 14......,479 participants were included in the study. Of these 3087 (21%) patients were older adults, 6071 (42%) were middle aged and 5321 (37%) were young adults. At presentation older adults were statistically different to the middle aged and younger adults for most characteristics measured (e.g. less intense back pain...

  2. The effects of value on context-item associative memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessee, Joseph P; Knowlton, Barbara J; Castel, Alan D

    2018-02-01

    Valuable items are often remembered better than items that are less valuable by both older and younger adults, but older adults typically show deficits in binding. Here, we examine whether value affects the quality of recognition memory and the binding of incidental details to valuable items. In Experiment 1, participants learned English words each associated with a point-value they earned for correct recognition with the goal of maximizing their score. In Experiment 2, value was manipulated by presenting items that were either congruent or incongruent with an imagined state of physiological need (e.g., hunger). In Experiment 1, point-value was associated with enhanced recollection in both age groups. Memory for the color associated with the word was in fact reduced for high-value recollected items compared with low-value recollected items, suggesting value selectively enhances binding of task-relevant details. In Experiment 2, memory for learned images was enhanced by value in both age groups. However, value differentially enhanced binding of an imagined context to the item in younger and older adults, with a strong trend for increased binding in younger adults only. These findings suggest that value enhances episodic encoding in both older and younger adults but that binding of associated details may be reduced for valuable items compared to less valuable items, particularly in older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Clear speech and lexical competition in younger and older adult listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether clear speech reduces the cognitive demands of lexical competition by crossing speaking style with lexical difficulty. Younger and older adults identified more words in clear versus conversational speech and more easy words than hard words. An initial analysis suggested that the effect of lexical difficulty was reduced in clear speech, but more detailed analyses within each age group showed this interaction was significant only for older adults. The results also showed that both groups improved over the course of the task and that clear speech was particularly helpful for individuals with poorer hearing: for younger adults, clear speech eliminated hearing-related differences that affected performance on conversational speech. For older adults, clear speech was generally more helpful to listeners with poorer hearing. These results suggest that clear speech affords perceptual benefits to all listeners and, for older adults, mitigates the cognitive challenge associated with identifying words with many phonological neighbors.

  5. Can executive control be influenced by performance feedback? Two experimental studies with younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eDrueke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive control describes a wide range of cognitive processes which are critical for the goal-directed regulation of stimulus processing and action regulation. Previous studies have shown that executive control performance declines with age but yet, it is still not clear whether different internal and external factors - as performance feedback and age - influence these cognitive processes and how they might interact with each other. Therefore, we investigated feedback effects in the flanker task in young as well as in older adults in two experiments. Performance feedback significantly improved executive performance in younger adults at the expense of errors. In older adults, feedback also led to higher error rates, but had no significant effect on executive performance which might be due to stronger interference. Results indicate that executive functions can be positively influenced by performance feedback in younger adults, but not necessarily in older adults.

  6. Evaluating suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation following explicit error detection in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J; Umanath, Sharda

    2018-06-01

    In 2 experiments, we assessed age-related suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation (i.e., remembering of false details from an external source). After reading a fictional story, participants answered questions containing misleading details that were either additive (misleading details that supplemented an original event) or contradictory (errors that changed original details). On a final test, suggestibility was greater for additive than contradictory misinformation, and older adults endorsed fewer false contradictory details than younger adults. To mitigate suggestibility in Experiment 2, participants were warned about potential errors, instructed to detect errors, or instructed to detect errors after exposure to examples of additive and contradictory details. Again, suggestibility to additive misinformation was greater than contradictory, and older adults endorsed less contradictory misinformation. Only after detection instructions with misinformation examples were younger adults able to reduce contradictory misinformation effects and reduced these effects to the level of older adults. Additive misinformation however, was immune to all warning and detection instructions. Thus, older adults were less susceptible to contradictory misinformation errors, and younger adults could match this misinformation rate when warning/detection instructions were strong. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlow, Adam; Bennett, Michael I; Robb, Karen A; Johnson, Mark I; Simpson, Karen H; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2012-03-14

    Cancer-related pain is complex and multi-dimensional but the mainstay of cancer pain management has predominantly used a biomedical approach. There is a need for non-pharmacological and innovative approaches. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) may have a role in pain management but the effectiveness of TENS is currently unknown. This is an update of the original review published in Issue 3, 2008. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of TENS for cancer-related pain in adults. The initial review searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED and PEDRO databases in April 2008. We performed an updated search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDRO databases in November 2011. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTS) investigating the use of TENS for the management of cancer-related pain in adults. The search strategy identified a further two studies for possible inclusion. One of the review authors screened each abstract using a study eligibility tool. Where eligibility could not be determined, a second author assessed the full paper. One author used a standardised data extraction sheet to collect information on the studies and independently assess the quality of the studies using the validated five-point Oxford Quality Scale. The small sample sizes and differences in patient study populations of the three included studies (two from the original review and a third included in this update) prevented meta-analysis. For the original review the search strategy identified 37 possible published studies; we divided these between two pairs of review authors who decided on study selection; all four review authors discussed and agreed final scores. Only one additional RCT met the eligibility criteria (24 participants) for this updated review. Although this was a feasibility study, not designed to investigate intervention effect, it suggested that TENS may improve bone pain on movement in a

  8. Memory for staged events: Supporting older and younger adults' memory with SenseCam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Ali; Poirier, Marie; Conway, Martin A

    2018-03-01

    Two experiments measured the effect of retrieval support provided by a wearable camera, SenseCam, on older and younger adults' memory for a recently experienced complex staged event. In each experiment, participants completed a series of tasks in groups, and the events were recalled 2 weeks later, after viewing SenseCam images (experimental condition) or thinking about the event (control condition). When IQ and education were matched, young adults recalled more event details than older adults, demonstrating an age-related deficit for novel autobiographical material. Reviewing SenseCam images increased the number of details recalled by older and younger adults, and the effect was similar for both groups. These results suggest that memory can be supported by the use of SenseCam, but the age-related deficit is not eliminated.

  9. Memory-guided force control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Samimy, Shaadee; Blouch, Samantha L; Wang, Peiyuan; Chennavasin, Amanda; Diaz, Michele T; Dennis, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Successful performance of a memory-guided motor task requires participants to store and then recall an accurate representation of the motor goal. Further, participants must monitor motor output to make adjustments in the absence of visual feedback. The goal of this study was to examine memory-guided grip force in healthy younger and older adults and compare it to performance on behavioral tasks of working memory. Previous work demonstrates that healthy adults decrease force output as a function of time when visual feedback is not available. We hypothesized that older adults would decrease force output at a faster rate than younger adults, due to age-related deficits in working memory. Two groups of participants, younger adults (YA: N = 32, mean age 21.5 years) and older adults (OA: N = 33, mean age 69.3 years), completed four 20-s trials of isometric force with their index finger and thumb, equal to 25% of their maximum voluntary contraction. In the full-vision condition, visual feedback was available for the duration of the trial. In the no vision condition, visual feedback was removed for the last 12 s of each trial. Participants were asked to maintain constant force output in the absence of visual feedback. Participants also completed tasks of word recall and recognition and visuospatial working memory. Counter to our predictions, when visual feedback was removed, younger adults decreased force at a faster rate compared to older adults and the rate of decay was not associated with behavioral performance on tests of working memory.

  10. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  11. The effects of emotional television advertising on older and younger adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.J.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Kleemans, M.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding older adults’ responses to advertising is vital for the industry because older adults constitute a large and lucrative market: The world population is aging (United Nations, 2012) and consumers of 50 years and older have more disposable income than younger consumers (e.g., Ahmad, 2003;

  12. Load Modulation of BOLD Response and Connectivity Predicts Working Memory Performance in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Irene E.; Preuschhof, Claudia; Li, Shu-Chen; Nyberg, Lars; Backman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory (WM) performance have rarely been related to individual differences in the functional responsivity of the WM brain network. By neglecting person-to-person variation, comparisons of network activity between younger and older adults using functional imaging techniques often confound differences in activity…

  13. Pioglitazone is equally effective for diabetes prevention in older versus younger adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Sara E; Wang, Chen-Pin; Tripathy, Devjit; Clement, Stephen C; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, Mary Ann; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Stentz, Frankie B; Reaven, Peter D; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Musi, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of pioglitazone to prevent type 2 diabetes in older compared to younger adults with pre-diabetes. Six hundred two participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were randomized in double blind fashion to placebo or pioglitazone for diabetes prevention in the ACT NOW study (NEJM 364:1104-1115, 2011). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compare time to development of diabetes over a mean of 2 years between older (≥61 years) and younger participants. We compared effects of pioglitazone versus placebo on metabolic profiles, inflammatory markers, adipokines, β cell function (disposition index), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and body composition by ANOVA. Diabetes incidence was reduced by 85 % in older and 69 % in younger subjects (p = 0.41). β cell function (disposition index) increased by 35.0 % in the older and 26.7 % in younger subjects (p = 0.83). Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) increased by 3.07 (5.2-fold) in older and by 2.54 (3.8-fold) in younger participants (p = 0.58). Pioglitazone more effectively increased adiponectin in older versus younger subjects (22.9 ± 3.2 μg/mL [2.7-fold] vs. 12.7 ± 1.4 μg/mL [2.2-fold], respectively; p = 0.04). Younger subjects tended to have a greater increase in whole body fat mass compared to older subjects (3.6 vs. 3.1 kg; p = 0.061). Younger and older subjects had similar decreases in bone mineral density (0.018 ± 0.0071 vs. 0.0138 ± 0.021 g/cm 2 ). Younger and older pre-diabetic adults taking pioglitazone had similar reductions in conversion to diabetes and older adults had similar or greater improvements in metabolic risk factors, demonstrating that pioglitazone is useful in preventing diabetes in older adults.

  14. Impact of age-relevant goals on future thinking in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Leann K; Spaniol, Julia

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated how personal goals influence age differences in episodic future thinking. Research suggests that personal goals change with age and like autobiographical memory, future thinking is thought to be organised and impacted by personal goals. It was hypothesised that cueing older adults with age-relevant goals should modulate age differences in episodic details and may also influence phenomenological characteristics of imagined scenarios. Healthy younger and older adults completed the Future Thinking Interview [Addis, D. R., Wong, A. T., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). Age-related changes in the episodic simulation of future events. Psychological Science, 19(1), 33-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02043.x ] adapted to activate age-appropriate goals. Narratives were scored with an established protocol to obtain objective measures of episodic and semantic details. Subjective features such as emotionality and personal significance showed age differences as a function of goal domain while other features (e.g., vividness) were unaffected. However, consistent with prior reports, older adults produced fewer episodic details than younger adults and this was not modulated by goal domain. The results do not indicate that goal activation affects level of episodic detail. With respect to phenomenological aspects of future thinking, however, younger adults show more sensitivity to goal activation, compared with older adults.

  15. The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W Murray; Lawrence, Herenia P; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this study was to examine the association between xerostomia and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults while controlling for clinical oral health status and other potential confounding factors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longstanding prospective observational study of a Dunedin (New Zealand) birth cohort: clinical dental examinations and questionnaires were used at age 32. The main measures were xerostomia (the subjective feeling of dry mouth, measured with a single question) and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Results Of the 923 participants (48.9% female), one in ten were categorised as 'xerostomic', with no apparent gender difference. There was a strong association between xerostomia and OHRQoL (across all OHIP-14 domains) which persisted after multivariate analysis to control for clinical characteristics, gender, smoking status and personality characteristics (negative emotionality and positive emotionality). Conclusion Xerostomia is not a trivial condition; it appears to have marked and consistent effects on sufferers' day-to-day lives. PMID:17090332

  16. The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broadbent Jonathan M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this study was to examine the association between xerostomia and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults while controlling for clinical oral health status and other potential confounding factors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longstanding prospective observational study of a Dunedin (New Zealand birth cohort: clinical dental examinations and questionnaires were used at age 32. The main measures were xerostomia (the subjective feeling of dry mouth, measured with a single question and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14. Results Of the 923 participants (48.9% female, one in ten were categorised as 'xerostomic', with no apparent gender difference. There was a strong association between xerostomia and OHRQoL (across all OHIP-14 domains which persisted after multivariate analysis to control for clinical characteristics, gender, smoking status and personality characteristics (negative emotionality and positive emotionality. Conclusion Xerostomia is not a trivial condition; it appears to have marked and consistent effects on sufferers' day-to-day lives.

  17. Do older adults with chronic low back pain differ from younger adults in regards to baseline characteristics and prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogharan, S; Kongsted, A; Ferreira, M L; Hancock, M J

    2017-05-01

    Low back pain (LBP) in older adults is poorly understood because the vast majority of the LBP research has focused on the working aged population. The aim of this study was to compare older adults consulting with chronic LBP to middle aged and young adults consulting with chronic LBP, in terms of their baseline characteristics, and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Data were systematically collected as part of routine care in a secondary care spine clinic. At initial presentation patients answered a self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients older than 65 were classified as older adults and compared to middle aged (45-65 years old) and younger adults (17-44 years old) for 10 baseline characteristics. Pain intensity and disability were collected at 6 and 12 month follow-ups and compared between age groups. A total of 14,479 participants were included in the study. Of these 3087 (21%) patients were older adults, 6071 (42%) were middle aged and 5321 (37%) were young adults. At presentation older adults were statistically different to the middle aged and younger adults for most characteristics measured (e.g. less intense back pain, more leg pain and more depression); however, the differences were small. The change in pain and disability over 12 months did not differ between age groups. This study found small baseline differences in older people with chronic LBP compared to middle aged and younger adults. There were no associations between age groups and the clinical course. Small baseline differences exist in older people with chronic low back pain compared to middle aged and younger adults referred to secondary care for chronic low back pain. Older adults present with slightly less intense low back pain but slightly more intense leg pain. Changes in pain intensity and disability over a 12 month period were similar across all age groups. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  18. Memory for general and specific value information in younger and older adults: measuring the limits of strategic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D; Farb, Norman A S; Craik, Fergus I M

    2007-06-01

    The ability to selectively remember important information is a critical function of memory. Although previous research has suggested that older adults are impaired in a variety of episodic memory tasks, recent work has demonstrated that older adults can selectively remember high-value information. In the present research, we examined how younger and older adults selectively remembered words with various assigned numeric point values, to see whether younger adults could remember more specific value information than could older adults. Both groups were equally good at recalling point values when recalling the range of high-value words, but younger adults outperformed older adults when recalling specific values. Although older adults were more likely to recognize negative value words, both groups exhibited control by not recalling negative value information. The findings suggest that although both groups retain high-value information, older adults rely more on gist-based encoding and retrieval operations, whereas younger adults are able to remember specific numeric value information.

  19. Effects of arousal and context on recognition memory for emotional pictures in younger and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study context Previous studies found that older adults tend to remember more positive than negative information (i.e., positivity bias), leading to an age-related positivity effect. However, the extent to which factors of arousal and contextual information influence the positivity bias in older adults remains to be determined. Methods In this study, 27 Chinese younger adults (20.00±1.75 years) and 33 Chinese older adults (70.76 ± 5.49) learned pictures with negative, positive and neutral valences. Half of the pictures had a human context, and the other half did not. In addition, emotional dimensions of negative and positive pictures were divided into high-arousal and low-arousal. The experimental task was to provide old/new recognition and confidence rating judgments. Results Both groups of subjects showed the positivity bias for low-arousal pictures, but the positivity bias was restricted to low-arousal pictures without the human context in older adults. In addition, the positivity bias was mainly driven by the recollection process in younger adults, and it was mainly driven by both the recollection and familiarity processes in older adults. The recognition of the nonhuman positive pictures was correlated with cognitive control abilities, but the recognition of pictures with human contexts was correlated with general memory abilities in older adults. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of arousal and contextual information in modulating emotional memory in younger and older adults. It suggests that there are different mechanisms for memorizing pictures with and without human contexts in older adults. PMID:28230422

  20. Relationship between perceptual learning in speech and statistical learning in younger and older adults

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    Thordis Marisa Neger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within a few sentences, listeners learn to understand severely degraded speech such as noise-vocoded speech. However, individuals vary in the amount of such perceptual learning and it is unclear what underlies these differences. The present study investigates whether perceptual learning in speech relates to statistical learning, as sensitivity to probabilistic information may aid identification of relevant cues in novel speech input. If statistical learning and perceptual learning (partly draw on the same general mechanisms, then statistical learning in a non-auditory modality using non-linguistic sequences should predict adaptation to degraded speech.In the present study, 73 older adults (aged over 60 years and 60 younger adults (aged between 18 and 30 years performed a visual artificial grammar learning task and were presented with sixty meaningful noise-vocoded sentences in an auditory recall task. Within age groups, sentence recognition performance over exposure was analyzed as a function of statistical learning performance, and other variables that may predict learning (i.e., hearing, vocabulary, attention switching control, working memory and processing speed. Younger and older adults showed similar amounts of perceptual learning, but only younger adults showed significant statistical learning. In older adults, improvement in understanding noise-vocoded speech was constrained by age. In younger adults, amount of adaptation was associated with lexical knowledge and with statistical learning ability. Thus, individual differences in general cognitive abilities explain listeners' variability in adapting to noise-vocoded speech. Results suggest that perceptual and statistical learning share mechanisms of implicit regularity detection, but that the ability to detect statistical regularities is impaired in older adults if visual sequences are presented quickly.

  1. Expressive Suppression and Enhancement During Music-Elicited Emotions in Younger and Older Adults

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    Sandrine eVieillard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When presented with emotional visual scenes, older adults have been found to be equally capable to regulate emotion expression as younger adults, corroborating the view that emotion regulation skills are maintained or even improved in later adulthood. However, the possibility that gaze direction might help achieve an emotion control goal has not been taken into account, raising the question whether the effortful processing of expressive regulation is really spared from the general age-related decline. Since it does not allow perceptual attention to be redirected away from the emotional source, music provides a useful way to address this question. In the present study, affective, behavioral and physiological consequences of free expression of emotion, expressive suppression and expressive enhancement were measured in 31 younger and 30 older adults while they listened to positive and negative musical excerpts. The main results indicated that compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing less emotional intensity in response to negative music during the free expression of emotion condition. No age difference was found in the ability to amplify or reduce emotional expressions. However, an age-related decline in the ability to reduce the intensity of emotional state and an age-related increase in physiological reactivity were found when participants were instructed to suppress negative expression. Taken together, the current data support previous findings suggesting an age-related change in response to music. They also corroborate the observation that older adults are as efficient as younger adults at controlling behavioral expression. But most importantly, they suggest that when faced with auditory sources of negative emotion, older age does not always confer a better ability to regulate emotions.

  2. ERP evidence that auditory-visual speech facilitates working memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frtusova, Jana B; Winneke, Axel H; Phillips, Natalie A

    2013-06-01

    Auditory-visual (AV) speech enhances speech perception and facilitates auditory processing, as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Considering a perspective of shared resources between perceptual and cognitive processes, facilitated speech perception may render more resources available for higher-order functions. This study examined whether AV speech facilitation leads to better working memory (WM) performance in 23 younger and 20 older adults. Participants completed an n-back task (0- to 3-back) under visual-only (V-only), auditory-only (A-only), and AV conditions. The results showed faster responses across all memory loads and improved accuracy in the most demanding conditions (2- and 3-back) during AV compared with unisensory conditions. Older adults benefited from the AV presentation to the same extent as younger adults. WM performance of older adults during the AV presentation did not differ from that of younger adults in the A-only condition, suggesting that an AV presentation can help to counteract some of the age-related WM decline. The ERPs showed a decrease in the auditory N1 amplitude during the AV compared with A-only presentation in older adults, suggesting that the facilitation of perceptual processing becomes especially beneficial with aging. Additionally, the N1 occurred earlier in the AV than in the A-only condition for both age groups. These AV-induced modulations of auditory processing correlated with improvement in certain behavioral and ERP measures of WM. These results support an integrated model between perception and cognition, and suggest that processing speech under AV conditions enhances WM performance of both younger and older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults.

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    Kirsten E Smayda

    Full Text Available Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18-35 and thirty-three older adults (ages 60-90 to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger

  4. Characteristics of Emergency Department Visits by Older Versus Younger Homeless Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits of older versus younger homeless adults. Methods. We analyzed 2005–2009 data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a nationally representative survey of visits to hospitals and EDs, and used sampling weights, strata, and clustering variables to obtain nationally representative estimates. Results. The ED visits of homeless adults aged 50 years and older accounted for 36% of annual visits by homeless patients. Although demographic characteristics of ED visits were similar in older and younger homeless adults, clinical and health services characteristics differed. Older homeless adults had fewer discharge diagnoses related to psychiatric conditions (10% vs 20%; P = .002) and drug abuse (7% vs 15%; P = .003) but more diagnoses related to alcohol abuse (31% vs 23%; P = .03) and were more likely to arrive by ambulance (48% vs 36%; P = .02) and to be admitted to the hospital (20% vs 11%; P = .003). Conclusions. Older homeless adults’ patterns of ED care differ from those of younger homeless adults. Health care systems need to account for these differences to meet the needs of the aging homeless population. PMID:23597348

  5. Temporo-spatial gait parameters during street crossing conditions: a comparison between younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Edgar R; Lim, Hyun-Hwa; Brunt, Denis; Hallal, Camilla Z; Kinsey, Laura; Errington, Lisa; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Most traffic accidents involving pedestrians happen during street crossing. Safe street crossing by older adults requires complex planning and imposes high cognitive demands. Understanding how street crossing situations affect younger and older adults' gait is important to create evidence-based policies, education and training. The objective of this study was to develop and test a method to evaluate temporo-spatial gait parameters of younger and older adults during simulated street crossing situations. Twenty-two younger (25±2 years old) and 22 older adults (73±6 years old) who lived independently in the community completed 3 walking trials at preferred gait speed and during simulated street crossing with regular and with reduced time. There were significant differences between groups (pstreet crossing walking speed was higher than their preferred speed (pstreet crossing resulted in significant and progressive gait changes. The methods developed and tested can be used to (1) evaluate if people are at risk of falls and accidents during street crossing situations, (2) to compare among different groups, and (3) to help establish appropriate times for older pedestrians to cross streets safely. The current time to cross streets is too short even for healthy older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Action prediction in younger versus older adults: neural correlates of motor familiarity.

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    Nadine Diersch

    Full Text Available Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON, consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises. All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer.

  7. Using warnings to reduce categorical false memories in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Anna M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    Warnings about memory errors can reduce their incidence, although past work has largely focused on associative memory errors. The current study sought to explore whether warnings could be tailored to specifically reduce false recall of categorical information in both younger and older populations. Before encoding word pairs designed to induce categorical false memories, half of the younger and older participants were warned to avoid committing these types of memory errors. Older adults who received a warning committed fewer categorical memory errors, as well as other types of semantic memory errors, than those who did not receive a warning. In contrast, young adults' memory errors did not differ for the warning versus no-warning groups. Our findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of warnings at reducing categorical memory errors in older adults, perhaps by supporting source monitoring, reduction in reliance on gist traces, or through effective metacognitive strategies.

  8. Younger and older adults' beliefs about the experience and expression of emotions across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montepare, Joann M; Dobish, Heidi

    2014-11-01

    Although theorists acknowledge that beliefs about emotions may play a role in age-related emotion behavior, no research has explored these beliefs. This research examined beliefs about the experience and expression of emotions across the life span, especially across the adult years. Younger and older adults rated the extent to which infants, children, adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults were likely to experience and express a range of emotions. Younger and older adults held similar beliefs about the course of emotions across the life span. Moreover, these beliefs differed across emotion categories. In particular, although older adults were believed to experience and express fewer highly charged, negative emotions, they were expected to be more likely to experience and express positive, low arousal emotions, as well as negative, low arousal emotions. The experience and expression of positive, high arousal emotions were seen as more characteristic of very young age groups as opposed to older age groups. These findings beg questions about if and how beliefs about emotion may affect age-related emotion regulation strategies and other everyday emotion-focused behaviors, as well as social reactions to older adults observed experiencing and expressing particular types of emotions. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Greater BOLD variability in older compared with younger adults during audiovisual speech perception.

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    Sarah H Baum

    Full Text Available Older adults exhibit decreased performance and increased trial-to-trial variability on a range of cognitive tasks, including speech perception. We used blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI to search for neural correlates of these behavioral phenomena. We compared brain responses to simple speech stimuli (audiovisual syllables in 24 healthy older adults (53 to 70 years old and 14 younger adults (23 to 39 years old using two independent analysis strategies: region-of-interest (ROI and voxel-wise whole-brain analysis. While mean response amplitudes were moderately greater in younger adults, older adults had much greater within-subject variability. The greatly increased variability in older adults was observed for both individual voxels in the whole-brain analysis and for ROIs in the left superior temporal sulcus, the left auditory cortex, and the left visual cortex. Increased variability in older adults could not be attributed to differences in head movements between the groups. Increased neural variability may be related to the performance declines and increased behavioral variability that occur with aging.

  10. Incidental memory of younger and older adults for objects encountered in a real world context.

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    Xiaoyan Qin

    Full Text Available Effects of context on the perception of, and incidental memory for, real-world objects have predominantly been investigated in younger individuals, under conditions involving a single static viewpoint. We examined the effects of prior object context and object familiarity on both older and younger adults' incidental memory for real objects encountered while they traversed a conference room. Recognition memory for context-typical and context-atypical objects was compared with a third group of unfamiliar objects that were not readily named and that had no strongly associated context. Both older and younger adults demonstrated a typicality effect, showing significantly lower 2-alternative-forced-choice recognition of context-typical than context-atypical objects; for these objects, the recognition of older adults either significantly exceeded, or numerically surpassed, that of younger adults. Testing-awareness elevated recognition but did not interact with age or with object type. Older adults showed significantly higher recognition for context-atypical objects than for unfamiliar objects that had no prior strongly associated context. The observation of a typicality effect in both age groups is consistent with preserved semantic schemata processing in aging. The incidental recognition advantage of older over younger adults for the context-typical and context-atypical objects may reflect aging-related differences in goal-related processing, with older adults under comparatively more novel circumstances being more likely to direct their attention to the external environment, or age-related differences in top-down effortful distraction regulation, with older individuals' attention more readily captured by salient objects in the environment. Older adults' reduced recognition of unfamiliar objects compared to context-atypical objects may reflect possible age differences in contextually driven expectancy violations. The latter finding underscores the

  11. Memory, priority encoding, and overcoming high-value proactive interference in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    It is often necessary to remember important information while directing attention away from encoding less valuable information. To examine how aging influences the ability to control and update the encoding of high-value information, younger and older adults studied six lists of words that varied in terms of the point values associated with each word. The words were paired with the same high and low point values for three study-test cycles, but on the fourth and subsequent cycles the value-word pairings were switched such that the lowest value pairs became the highest values (and vice versa). For the first three study-test cycles, younger adults outperformed older adults in terms of the number of words recalled and overall point totals, but performance was similar in terms of selectively remembering high-value words. When the values were switched, both groups displayed substantial interference from the previous pairings. Although both groups improved with additional study-test cycles, only younger adults were able to fully recover from the interference effects. A similar, and more pronounced, set of results were obtained when positive and negative point values were paired with the words. The findings are interpreted in a value-directed remembering framework, emphasizing the role of benefits and costs of strategic encoding and age-related differences in the effects of interference on memory.

  12. The prone bridge test: Performance, validity, and reliability among older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Steffl, Michal; Glenney, Susan S; Green, Michelle; Cashwell, Leah; Prajerova, Kveta; Bunn, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The prone bridge maneuver, or plank, has been viewed as a potential alternative to curl-ups for assessing trunk muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to assess prone bridge test performance, validity, and reliability among younger and older adults. Sixty younger (20-35 years old) and 60 older (60-79 years old) participants completed this study. Groups were evenly divided by sex. Participants completed surveys regarding physical activity and abdominal exercise participation. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured. On two occasions, 5-9 days apart, participants held a prone bridge until volitional exhaustion or until repeated technique failure. Validity was examined using data from the first session: convergent validity by calculating correlations between survey responses, anthropometrics, and prone bridge time, known groups validity by using an ANOVA comparing bridge times of younger and older adults and of men and women. Test-retest reliability was examined by using a paired t-test to compare prone bridge times for Session1 and Session 2. Furthermore, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to characterize relative reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC 95% ) was used to describe absolute reliability. The mean prone bridge time was 145.3 ± 71.5 s, and was positively correlated with physical activity participation (p ≤ 0.001) and negatively correlated with BMI and waist circumference (p ≤ 0.003). Younger participants had significantly longer plank times than older participants (p = 0.003). The ICC between testing sessions was 0.915. The prone bridge test is a valid and reliable measure for evaluating abdominal performance in both younger and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of tinnitus and psychological aspects between the younger and older adult patients with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Han, Jung Ju; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Whang, Eul Sung; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi Nae

    2017-04-01

    To explore the differences in various tinnitus-related features and psychological aspects between the younger and older adult patients with tinnitus. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of the adult patients who visited our tinnitus clinic in 2013 and completed full tinnitus assessment including audiometry, tinnitus matching, standardized tinnitus questionnaires, and psychometric questionnaires. The younger group included patients aged 20-45 years (n=64), and the older group, those older than 65 years (n=76). Clinical features, hearing levels, matched tinnitus pitches and loudness, self-report tinnitus severity scores, Beck depression inventory scores, and stress scores were compared between the groups. Tinnitus duration was longer in the older group (p=0.002). Mean PTAs were 16dB HL in the younger, and 38dB HL in the older groups (ptinnitus loudness was greater in the older group (64dB HL vs. 36dB HL, ptinnitus, depression, and stress scores did not differ between the groups. The older patients seemed to be more receptive to tinnitus. The majority of older tinnitus patients had concomitant hearing loss, and thus hearing rehabilitation should be considered preferentially for tinnitus management in this age group. Subjective tinnitus severity, depressive symptoms, and the stress levels were similar between the younger and older tinnitus patients. Therefore, treatment could be planned based upon the comprehensive understanding of the tinnitus characteristics and psychological aspects in each patient irrespective of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. State-based versus reward-based motivation in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Darrell A; Cooper, Jessica A; Byrne, Kaileigh A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-12-01

    Recent decision-making work has focused on a distinction between a habitual, model-free neural system that is motivated toward actions that lead directly to reward and a more computationally demanding goal-directed, model-based system that is motivated toward actions that improve one's future state. In this article, we examine how aging affects motivation toward reward-based versus state-based decision making. Participants performed tasks in which one type of option provided larger immediate rewards but the alternative type of option led to larger rewards on future trials, or improvements in state. We predicted that older adults would show a reduced preference for choices that led to improvements in state and a greater preference for choices that maximized immediate reward. We also predicted that fits from a hybrid reinforcement-learning model would indicate greater model-based strategy use in younger than in older adults. In line with these predictions, older adults selected the options that maximized reward more often than did younger adults in three of the four tasks, and modeling results suggested reduced model-based strategy use. In the task where older adults showed similar behavior to younger adults, our model-fitting results suggested that this was due to the utilization of a win-stay-lose-shift heuristic rather than a more complex model-based strategy. Additionally, within older adults, we found that model-based strategy use was positively correlated with memory measures from our neuropsychological test battery. We suggest that this shift from state-based to reward-based motivation may be due to age related declines in the neural structures needed for more computationally demanding model-based decision making.

  15. The housing careers of younger adults and intergenerational support in Germany’s ‘society of renters’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.; Helbrecht, I.

    2018-01-01

    Through narrative interviews with younger adults and their parents, this paper explores how the housing transitions of younger adults, both within the rental sector and into homeownership, are shaped through intergenerational intra-family support in Germany’s society of renters. Our findings

  16. Typography manipulations can affect priming of word stem completion in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J M; Brooks, J O; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    1993-12-01

    The experiments reported here investigated whether changes of typography affected priming of word stem completion performance in older and younger adults. Across all experiments, the typeface in which a word appeared at presentation either did or did not match that of its 3-letter stem at test. In Experiment 1, no significant evidence of a typography effect was found when words were presented with a sentence judgment or letter judgment task. However, subsequent experiments revealed that, in both older and younger adults, only words presented with a syllable judgment task gave rise to the typography effect (Experiments 2-4). Specifically, performance was greater, when the presentation and test typeface matched than when they did not. Experiment 5, which used stem-cued recall, did not reveal a difference between syllable and letter judgment tasks. These findings highlight the complex nature of word stem completion performance.

  17. Elevated False Recollection of Emotional Pictures in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, David A.; Foster, Katherine T.; Johnson, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Current theories predict opposing effects of emotionally arousing information on false memory. If emotion enhances recollection, then false recollection might be lower for emotional compared to neutral pictures. However, if emotion enhances conceptual relatedness, then false recollection might increase for nonstudied but emotionally related pictures. We contrasted these two factors in younger and older adults, using the International Affective Pictures set. Although both age groups used recol...

  18. Amphetamine modulates brain signal variability and working memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Douglas D; Nagel, Irene E; Preuschhof, Claudia; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Marchner, Janina; Wiegert, Steffen; Jungehülsing, Gerhard J; Nyberg, Lars; Villringer, Arno; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Bäckman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-06-16

    Better-performing younger adults typically express greater brain signal variability relative to older, poorer performers. Mechanisms for age and performance-graded differences in brain dynamics have, however, not yet been uncovered. Given the age-related decline of the dopamine (DA) system in normal cognitive aging, DA neuromodulation is one plausible mechanism. Hence, agents that boost systemic DA [such as d-amphetamine (AMPH)] may help to restore deficient signal variability levels. Furthermore, despite the standard practice of counterbalancing drug session order (AMPH first vs. placebo first), it remains understudied how AMPH may interact with practice effects, possibly influencing whether DA up-regulation is functional. We examined the effects of AMPH on functional-MRI-based blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability (SD(BOLD)) in younger and older adults during a working memory task (letter n-back). Older adults expressed lower brain signal variability at placebo, but met or exceeded young adult SD(BOLD) levels in the presence of AMPH. Drug session order greatly moderated change-change relations between AMPH-driven SD(BOLD) and reaction time means (RT(mean)) and SDs (RT(SD)). Older adults who received AMPH in the first session tended to improve in RT(mean) and RT(SD) when SD(BOLD) was boosted on AMPH, whereas younger and older adults who received AMPH in the second session showed either a performance improvement when SD(BOLD) decreased (for RT(mean)) or no effect at all (for RT(SD)). The present findings support the hypothesis that age differences in brain signal variability reflect aging-induced changes in dopaminergic neuromodulation. The observed interactions among AMPH, age, and session order highlight the state- and practice-dependent neurochemical basis of human brain dynamics.

  19. Younger but not older adults benefit from salient feedback during learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHerbert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults are impaired in reinforcement learning (RL when feedback is partially ambiguous (e.g., Eppinger and Kray, 2011. In this study we examined whether older adults benefit from salient feedback information during learning. We used an electrophysiological approach and investigated 15 younger and 15 older adults with a RL task in which they had to learn stimulus-response associations under two learning conditions. In the positive learning conditions, participants could gain 50 Cents for a correct response but did not gain or lose money (*00 Cent for an incorrect response. In negative learning conditions, they could lose 50 Cents for an incorrect response but did not gain or lose money (*00 Cent for a correct response. As the identical outcome 00 Cent is either better or worse than the alternative outcome depending on the learning condition, this feedback type is ambiguous. To examine the influence of feedback salience we compared this condition with a condition in which positive and negative outcomes were color-coded and thereby clearly separable. The behavioral results indicated that younger adults reached higher accuracy levels under salient feedback conditions. Moreover, the error-related negativity (ERN and the feedback-related negativity (FRN for losses were larger if the good-bad dimension of feedback was salient. Hence, in younger adults salient feedback facilitates the rapid evaluation of outcomes on a good-bad dimension and by this supports learning. In contrast, for older adults we obtained neither behavioral nor electrophysiological effects of feedback salience. The older adults’ performance monitoring system therefore appears less flexible in integrating additional information in this evaluation process.

  20. Younger and older adults' collaborative recall of shared and unshared emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Castrellon, Jaime J; Opitz, Philipp; Mather, Mara

    2017-07-01

    Although a group of people working together recalls more items than any one individual, they recall fewer unique items than the same number of people working apart whose responses are combined. This is known as collaborative inhibition, and it is a robust effect that occurs for both younger and older adults. However, almost all previous studies documenting collaborative inhibition have used stimuli that were neutral in emotional valence, low in arousal, and studied by all group members. In the current experiments, we tested the impact of picture-stimuli valence, picture-stimuli arousal, and information distribution in modulating the magnitude of collaborative inhibition. We included both younger and older adults because there are age differences in how people remember emotional pictures that could modulate any effects of emotion on collaborative inhibition. Results revealed that when information was shared (i.e., studied by all group members), there were robust collaborative inhibition effects for both neutral and emotional stimuli for both younger and older adults. However, when information was unshared (i.e., studied by only a single group member), these effects were attenuated. Together, these results provide mixed support for the retrieval strategy disruption account of collaborative inhibition. Supporting the retrieval strategy disruption account, unshared study information was less susceptible to collaborative inhibition than shared study information. Contradicting the retrieval strategy disruption account, emotional valence and arousal did not modulate the magnitude of collaborative inhibition despite the fact that participants clustered the emotional, but not neutral, information together in memory.

  1. Cardiovascular reactivity of younger and older adults to positive-, negative-, and mixed-emotion cognitive challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael J; James, Jack E; McCabe, Tadhg R; Kilmartin, Liam; Howard, Siobhán; Noone, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Although aging is associated with progressive increases in blood pressure level, previous research has been inconsistent as to whether older adults show greater or lesser cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to emotion than do younger adults. There is reason to believe that these inconsistencies could be clarified by examining age-related differences in hemodynamic profile revealed by measuring the pattern of cardiac output and total peripheral resistance associated with changes in blood pressure reactivity. Accordingly, the present study examined the performance, CVR, and hemodynamic profile of younger and older adults during encoding and recognition of word pairs involving four valence types: positive, negative, mixed (positive/negative), and neutral word pairs. Results revealed higher baseline blood pressure, increased CVR characterized by a vascular hemodynamic profile, and more rapid recovery (especially during encoding) for older than for younger participants. Results are discussed in light of research and theory on the relationship between aging and cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Vocal Emotion on Memory in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri L

    2016-01-01

    Emotional content can enhance memory for visual stimuli, and older adults often perform better if stimuli portray positive emotion. Vocal emotion can enhance the accuracy of word repetition in noise when vocal prosody portrays attention-capturing emotions such as fear and pleasant surprise. In the present study, the authors examined the effect of vocal emotion on the accuracy of repetition and recall in younger and older adults when words are presented in quiet or in a background of competing babble. Younger and older adults (Mage = 20 and 72 years, respectively) participated. Lists of 100 items (carrier phrase plus target word) were presented in recall sets of increasing size. Word repetition accuracy was tested after each item and recall after each trial in each set size. In Experiment 1, one list spoken in a neutral voice and another with emotion (fear, pleasant surprise, sad, neutral) were presented in quiet (n = 24 per group). In Experiment 2, participants (n = 12 per group) were presented the emotional list in noise. In quiet, word repetition accuracy was near perfect for both groups and did not vary systematically with set size for the list spoken in a neutral voice; however, for the emotional list, repetition was less accurate, especially for the older group. Recall in quiet was higher for younger than older adults; collapsed over groups, recall was higher for the neutral than for the emotional list and it decreased with increasing set size. In noise, emotion-specific effects emerged; word repetition for the older group and word recall for both groups (more for younger than older) was best for fear or pleasant surprise and worst for sad. In quiet, vocal emotion reduced the word repetition accuracy of the older group and recall accuracy for both groups. In noise, there were emotion-specific effects on the repetition accuracy of older adults and the recall accuracy of both groups. Both groups, but especially the younger group, performed better for items

  3. Lifestyle, cardiovascular drugs and risk factors in younger and elder adults: The PEP family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatment in two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in their mean age. Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groups with mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of two groups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data on physical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary re-cords, physical activity, smoking and actual medication use were recorded. Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a more adverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, over-weight, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia without differences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behav-ior. Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adults were current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activ-ity was different in terms of more continuous sports in seniors contrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twice a week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly less carbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides, more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and protein was higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third of seniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipid modifying drugs. Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs and their risk factors shall be considered for various age groups of population. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessity of preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity in younger adults and dietary habits in seniors.

  4. Superior recognition performance for happy masked and unmasked faces in both younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eSvard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aging literature it has been shown that even though emotion recognition performance decreases with age, the decrease is less for happiness than other facial expressions. Studies in younger adults have also revealed that happy faces are more strongly attended to and better recognized than other emotional facial expressions. Thus, there might be a more age independent happy face advantage in facial expression recognition. By using a backward masking paradigm and varying stimulus onset asynchronies (17–267 ms the temporal development of a happy face advantage, on a continuum from low to high levels of visibility, was examined in younger and older adults. Results showed that across age groups, recognition performance for happy faces was better than for neutral and fearful faces at durations longer than 50 ms. Importantly, the results showed a happy face advantage already during early processing of emotional faces in both younger and older adults. This advantage is discussed in terms of processing of salient perceptual features and elaborative processing of the happy face. We also investigate the combined effect of age and neuroticism on emotional face processing. The rationale was previous findings of age related differences in physiological arousal to emotional pictures and a relation between arousal and neuroticism. Across all durations, there was an interaction between age and neuroticism, showing that being high in neuroticism might be disadvantageous for younger, but not older adults’ emotion recognition performance during arousal enhancing tasks. These results indicate that there is a relation between aging, neuroticism, and performance, potentially related to physiological arousal.

  5. Improving visual spatial working memory in younger and older adults: effects of cross-modal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashley F; Turner, Gary R; Park, Norman W; Murtha, Susan J E

    2017-11-06

    Spatially informative auditory and vibrotactile (cross-modal) cues can facilitate attention but little is known about how similar cues influence visual spatial working memory (WM) across the adult lifespan. We investigated the effects of cues (spatially informative or alerting pre-cues vs. no cues), cue modality (auditory vs. vibrotactile vs. visual), memory array size (four vs. six items), and maintenance delay (900 vs. 1800 ms) on visual spatial location WM recognition accuracy in younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA). We observed a significant interaction between spatially informative pre-cue type, array size, and delay. OA and YA benefitted equally from spatially informative pre-cues, suggesting that attentional orienting prior to WM encoding, regardless of cue modality, is preserved with age.  Contrary to predictions, alerting pre-cues generally impaired performance in both age groups, suggesting that maintaining a vigilant state of arousal by facilitating the alerting attention system does not help visual spatial location WM.

  6. Linguistic Context Versus Semantic Competition in Word Recognition by Younger and Older Adults With Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichetti, Nicole M; Atagi, Eriko; Kong, Ying-Yee; Wingfield, Arthur

    The increasing numbers of older adults now receiving cochlear implants raises the question of how the novel signal produced by cochlear implants may interact with cognitive aging in the recognition of words heard spoken within a linguistic context. The objective of this study was to pit the facilitative effects of a constraining linguistic context against a potential age-sensitive negative effect of response competition on effectiveness of word recognition. Younger (n = 8; mean age = 22.5 years) and older (n = 8; mean age = 67.5 years) adult implant recipients heard 20 target words as the final words in sentences that manipulated the target word's probability of occurrence within the sentence context. Data from published norms were also used to measure response entropy, calculated as the total number of different responses and the probability distribution of the responses suggested by the sentence context. Sentence-final words were presented to participants using a word-onset gating paradigm, in which a target word was presented with increasing amounts of its onset duration in 50 msec increments until the word was correctly identified. Results showed that for both younger and older adult implant users, the amount of word-onset information needed for correct recognition of sentence-final words was inversely proportional to their likelihood of occurrence within the sentence context, with older adults gaining differential advantage from the contextual constraints offered by a sentence context. On the negative side, older adults' word recognition was differentially hampered by high response entropy, with this effect being driven primarily by the number of competing responses that might also fit the sentence context. Consistent with previous research with normal-hearing younger and older adults, the present results showed older adult implant users' recognition of spoken words to be highly sensitive to linguistic context. This sensitivity, however, also resulted in a

  7. Screening for Dyslipidemia in Younger Adults: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Roger; Dana, Tracy; Blazina, Ian; Daeges, Monica; Bougatsos, Christina; Jeanne, Thomas L

    2016-10-18

    Dyslipidemia may occur in younger adults (defined as persons aged 21 to 39 years) and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Screening might identify younger adults with asymptomatic dyslipidemia who may benefit from lipid-lowering therapies. To update the 2008 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force review on dyslipidemia screening in younger adults. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and MEDLINE through May 2016, and reference lists. Randomized, controlled trials; cohort studies; and case-control studies on screening for or treatment of asymptomatic dyslipidemia in adults aged 21 to 39 years. The plan was for 1 investigator to abstract data and a second to check their accuracy, and for 2 investigators to independently assess study quality; however, no studies met the inclusion criteria. No study evaluated the effects of lipid screening versus no screening, treatment versus no treatment, or delayed versus earlier treatment on clinical outcomes in younger adults. In addition, no study evaluated the diagnostic yield of alternative screening strategies (such as targeted screening of persons with a family history of hyperlipidemia vs. general screening) in younger adults. No direct relevant evidence. Direct evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for or treatment of dyslipidemia in younger adults remains unavailable. Estimating the potential effects of screening for dyslipidemia in this population requires extrapolation from studies performed in older adults. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  8. A matter of focus: Detailed memory in the intentional autobiographical recall of older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua, Alaitz; Koutstaal, Wilma

    2015-05-01

    The intricately interwoven role of detailed autobiographical memory in our daily lives and in our imaginative envisioning of the future is increasingly recognized. But how is the detail-rich nature of autobiographical memory best assessed and, in particular, how can possible aging-related differences in autobiographical memory specificity be most effectively evaluated? This study examined whether a modified interview, involving fewer and time-matched events for older and younger adults, yielded age-related outcomes similar to those that have been previously reported. As in earlier studies, modest age-related changes in the specificity of autobiographical recall were observed, yet the largest most robust effect for both age groups was the substantial proportion of specific details retrieved. Both age groups rated recent memories as significantly less important and as less emotional than more temporally distant events. Our findings counter conceptions of older adults' autobiographical memories as invariably less episodically rich than those of younger adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional expressivity in older and younger adults' descriptions of personal memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Emily; Ross, Michael; St Jacques, Peggy; Levine, Brian; Fernandes, Myra

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: According to the socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; Mather & Carstensen, 2003, Psychological Sciences, 14, 409-415), aging is associated with greater motivation to regulate emotions. The authors propose that the language people use to describe personal memories provides an index of age differences in emotional self-regulation. In the present article, the authors reanalyzed three previously published studies in which older (aged 60-88) and younger (aged 17-33) participants described emotional and neutral memories from their recent and distant pasts. The authors analyzed the language of the memories using Pennebaker, Booth, and Francis's (2007) Linguistic Inquiry Word Count program (Austin, TX: LIWC Inc.), which calculates the percentage of positive and negative emotion words. In Studies 1 and 2, older adults used more positive emotion words than did younger adults to describe their autobiographical memories from the recent past, particularly when these were of a neutral valence. In Study 3, older adults used more positive emotion words when describing more recent memories (from the past 5 years) but not when describing distant childhood or adolescent memories. The authors suggest that these age differences in emotional expressivity support SST, and represent an as-yet unreported age difference that may stem from differences in motivation to regulate emotion.

  10. Associative memory advantage in grapheme-colour synaesthetes compared to older, but not younger adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby ePfeifer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available People with grapheme-colour synaesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colours in response to graphemes (letters, digits. In this study, we examined whether these synaesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synaesthetic colour. We used a novel between group design (14 young synaesthetes, 14 young and 14 older adults with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed. Non-synaesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synaesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synaesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synaesthetes and young adults for similar pair (low memory load learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synaesthetes for non-synaesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synaesthesia, declining as part of the aging process can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits associated with healthy aging.

  11. Inconsistency in serial choice decision and motor reaction times dissociate in younger and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bunce, D; MacDonald, SWS; Hultsch, DF

    2004-01-01

    Intraindividual variability (inconsistency) in reaction time (RT) latencies was investigated in a group of younger (M = 25.46 years) and older (M = 69.29 years) men. Both groups performed 300 trials in 2-, 4-, and 8-choice RT conditions where RTs for decision and motor components of the task were recorded separately. A dissociation was evident in that inconsistency was greater in older adults for decision RTs when task demands relating to the number of choices and fatigue arising from time-on...

  12. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Differences between Older and Younger Adults When Processing Violations of Tonal Structure in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Peretz, Isabelle; Zendel, Benjamin Rich

    2018-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in both cognitive and auditory abilities. However, evidence suggests that music perception is relatively spared, despite relying on auditory and cognitive abilities that tend to decline with age. It is therefore likely that older adults engage compensatory mechanisms which should be evident in the underlying functional neurophysiology related to processing music. In other words, the perception of musical structure would be similar or enhanced in older compared to younger adults, while the underlying functional neurophysiology would be different. The present study aimed to compare the electrophysiological brain responses of younger and older adults to melodic incongruities during a passive and active listening task. Older and younger adults had a similar ability to detect an out-of-tune incongruity (i.e., non-chromatic), while the amplitudes of the ERAN and P600 were reduced in older adults compared to younger adults. On the other hand, out-of-key incongruities (i.e., non-diatonic), were better detected by older adults compared to younger adults, while the ERAN and P600 were comparable between the two age groups. This pattern of results indicates that perception of tonal structure is preserved in older adults, despite age-related neurophysiological changes in how melodic violations are processed. PMID:29487498

  13. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Differences between Older and Younger Adults When Processing Violations of Tonal Structure in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Élaine Lagrois

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with decline in both cognitive and auditory abilities. However, evidence suggests that music perception is relatively spared, despite relying on auditory and cognitive abilities that tend to decline with age. It is therefore likely that older adults engage compensatory mechanisms which should be evident in the underlying functional neurophysiology related to processing music. In other words, the perception of musical structure would be similar or enhanced in older compared to younger adults, while the underlying functional neurophysiology would be different. The present study aimed to compare the electrophysiological brain responses of younger and older adults to melodic incongruities during a passive and active listening task. Older and younger adults had a similar ability to detect an out-of-tune incongruity (i.e., non-chromatic, while the amplitudes of the ERAN and P600 were reduced in older adults compared to younger adults. On the other hand, out-of-key incongruities (i.e., non-diatonic, were better detected by older adults compared to younger adults, while the ERAN and P600 were comparable between the two age groups. This pattern of results indicates that perception of tonal structure is preserved in older adults, despite age-related neurophysiological changes in how melodic violations are processed.

  14. Evaluating authentication options for mobile health applications in younger and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassan; Hengartner, Urs; Ong, Stephanie; Logan, Alexander G.; Vogel, Daniel; Gebotys, Robert; Yang, Jilan

    2018-01-01

    Objective Apps promoting patient self-management may improve health outcomes. However, methods to secure stored information on mobile devices may adversely affect usability. We tested the reliability and usability of common user authentication techniques in younger and older adults. Methodology Usability testing was conducted in two age groups, 18 to 30 years and 50 years and older. After completing a demographic questionnaire, each participant tested four authentication options in random order: four-digit personal identification number (PIN), graphical password (GRAPHICAL), Android pattern-lock (PATTERN), and a swipe-style Android fingerprint scanner (FINGERPRINT). Participants rated each option using the Systems Usability Scale (SUS). Results A total of 59 older and 43 younger participants completed the study. Overall, PATTERN was the fastest option (3.44s), and PIN had the fewest errors per attempt (0.02). Participants were able to login using PIN, PATTERN, and GRAPHICAL at least 98% of the time. FINGERPRINT was the slowest (26.97s), had an average of 1.46 errors per attempt, and had a successful login rate of 85%. Overall, PIN and PATTERN had higher SUS scores than FINGERPRINT and GRAPHICAL. Compared to younger participants, older participants were also less likely to find PATTERN to be tiring, annoying or time consuming and less likely to consider PIN to be time consuming. Younger participants were more likely to rate GRAPHICAL as annoying, time consuming and tiring than older participants. Conclusions On mobile devices, PIN and pattern-lock outperformed graphical passwords and swipe-style fingerprints. All participants took longer to authenticate using the swipe-style fingerprint compared to other options. Older participants also took two to three seconds longer to authenticate using the PIN, pattern and graphical passwords though this did not appear to affect perceived usability. PMID:29300736

  15. Evaluating authentication options for mobile health applications in younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Grindrod

    Full Text Available Apps promoting patient self-management may improve health outcomes. However, methods to secure stored information on mobile devices may adversely affect usability. We tested the reliability and usability of common user authentication techniques in younger and older adults.Usability testing was conducted in two age groups, 18 to 30 years and 50 years and older. After completing a demographic questionnaire, each participant tested four authentication options in random order: four-digit personal identification number (PIN, graphical password (GRAPHICAL, Android pattern-lock (PATTERN, and a swipe-style Android fingerprint scanner (FINGERPRINT. Participants rated each option using the Systems Usability Scale (SUS.A total of 59 older and 43 younger participants completed the study. Overall, PATTERN was the fastest option (3.44s, and PIN had the fewest errors per attempt (0.02. Participants were able to login using PIN, PATTERN, and GRAPHICAL at least 98% of the time. FINGERPRINT was the slowest (26.97s, had an average of 1.46 errors per attempt, and had a successful login rate of 85%. Overall, PIN and PATTERN had higher SUS scores than FINGERPRINT and GRAPHICAL. Compared to younger participants, older participants were also less likely to find PATTERN to be tiring, annoying or time consuming and less likely to consider PIN to be time consuming. Younger participants were more likely to rate GRAPHICAL as annoying, time consuming and tiring than older participants.On mobile devices, PIN and pattern-lock outperformed graphical passwords and swipe-style fingerprints. All participants took longer to authenticate using the swipe-style fingerprint compared to other options. Older participants also took two to three seconds longer to authenticate using the PIN, pattern and graphical passwords though this did not appear to affect perceived usability.

  16. Evaluating authentication options for mobile health applications in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Kelly; Khan, Hassan; Hengartner, Urs; Ong, Stephanie; Logan, Alexander G; Vogel, Daniel; Gebotys, Robert; Yang, Jilan

    2018-01-01

    Apps promoting patient self-management may improve health outcomes. However, methods to secure stored information on mobile devices may adversely affect usability. We tested the reliability and usability of common user authentication techniques in younger and older adults. Usability testing was conducted in two age groups, 18 to 30 years and 50 years and older. After completing a demographic questionnaire, each participant tested four authentication options in random order: four-digit personal identification number (PIN), graphical password (GRAPHICAL), Android pattern-lock (PATTERN), and a swipe-style Android fingerprint scanner (FINGERPRINT). Participants rated each option using the Systems Usability Scale (SUS). A total of 59 older and 43 younger participants completed the study. Overall, PATTERN was the fastest option (3.44s), and PIN had the fewest errors per attempt (0.02). Participants were able to login using PIN, PATTERN, and GRAPHICAL at least 98% of the time. FINGERPRINT was the slowest (26.97s), had an average of 1.46 errors per attempt, and had a successful login rate of 85%. Overall, PIN and PATTERN had higher SUS scores than FINGERPRINT and GRAPHICAL. Compared to younger participants, older participants were also less likely to find PATTERN to be tiring, annoying or time consuming and less likely to consider PIN to be time consuming. Younger participants were more likely to rate GRAPHICAL as annoying, time consuming and tiring than older participants. On mobile devices, PIN and pattern-lock outperformed graphical passwords and swipe-style fingerprints. All participants took longer to authenticate using the swipe-style fingerprint compared to other options. Older participants also took two to three seconds longer to authenticate using the PIN, pattern and graphical passwords though this did not appear to affect perceived usability.

  17. Comparable Rest-related Promotion of Spatial Memory Consolidation in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Wolbers, Thomas; Harris, Mathew A.; Hauff, Patrick; Della Sala, Sergio; Dewar, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Flexible spatial navigation depends on cognitive mapping, a function that declines with increasing age. In young adults, a brief period of post-navigation rest promotes the consolidation/integration of spatial memories into accurate cognitive maps. We examined (1) whether rest promotes spatial memory consolidation/integration in older adults and (2) whether the magnitude of the rest benefit changes with increasing age. Young and older adults learned a route through a virtual environment, followed by a 10min delay comprising either wakeful rest or a perceptual task, and a subsequent cognitive mapping task, requiring the pointing to landmarks from different locations. Pointing accuracy was lower in the older than younger adults. However, there was a comparable rest-related enhancement in pointing accuracy in the two age groups. Together our findings suggest that (i) the age-related decline in cognitive mapping cannot be explained by increased consolidation interference in older adults, and (ii) as we grow older rest continues to support the consolidation/integration of spatial memories. PMID:27689512

  18. Lifestyle, Cardiovascular Drugs and Risk Factors in Younger and Elder Adults: The PEP Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease(CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatmentin two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in theirmean age.Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groupswith mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of twogroups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data onphysical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary records,physical activity, smoking and actual medication use wererecorded.Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a moreadverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, overweight,hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia withoutdifferences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behavior.Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adultswere current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activitywas different in terms of more continuous sports in seniorscontrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twicea week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly lesscarbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides,more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and proteinwas higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third ofseniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipidmodifying drugs.Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs andtheir risk factors shall be considered for various age groups ofpopulation. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessityof preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity inyounger adults and dietary habits in seniors.

  19. Younger vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are more likely than adults to explore novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald G; Forss, Sofia; Page, Rachel A; Ratcliffe, John M

    2018-01-01

    The effects of age on neophobia and exploration are best described in birds and primates, and broader comparisons require reports from other taxa. Here we present data showing age-dependent exploration in a long-lived social species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). A previous study found that vampire bats regurgitated food to partners trapped in a cage. Interestingly, while only a few adult bats visited the trapped bat, in every trial all or most of the eight young males in the colony would visit the trapped bat without feeding it. To test whether this behavioral difference resulted from age class differences in exploration, we compared responses of the bats to a trapped conspecific versus an inanimate novel object. Some adults and young showed interest in trapped conspecifics, but only the young males explored the novel objects. Additional novel object tests in a second captive colony showed that higher rates of novel object exploration were shown by young of both sexes. Our results corroborate past findings from other mammals and birds that age predicts exploration. If age-dependent exploration is indeed adaptive, then the role of age as a predictor of exploration tendency should depend on species-specific life history traits. Finally, because younger vampire bats also appear to have higher exposure to pathogens such as rabies virus, there may be implications for pathogen transmission if younger and more exploratory vampire bats are more likely to feed on novel hosts.

  20. The Difference between Right and Wrong: Accuracy of Older and Younger Adults' Story Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Danielle K; Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2015-09-02

    Sharing stories is an important social activity in everyday life. This study used fine-grained content analysis to investigate the accuracy of recall of two central story elements: the gist and detail of socially-relevant stories. Younger (M age = 28.06) and older (M age = 75.03) American men and women (N = 63) recalled fictional stories that were coded for (i) accuracy of overall gist and specific gist categories and (ii) accuracy of overall detail and specific detail categories. Findings showed no age group differences in accuracy of overall gist or detail, but differences emerged for specific categories. Older adults more accurately recalled the gist of when the event occurred whereas younger adults more accurately recalled the gist of why the event occurred. These differences were related to episodic memory ability and education. For accuracy in recalling details, there were some age differences, but gender differences were more robust. Overall, women remembered details of these social stories more accurately than men, particularly time and perceptual details. Women were also more likely to accurately remember the gist of when the event occurred. The discussion focuses on how accurate recall of socially-relevant stories is not clearly age-dependent but is related to person characteristics such as gender and episodic memory ability/education.

  1. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems.

  2. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults-Disparities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Amanda B; Roche, Lisa M; Johnson, Linda M; Pawlish, Karen S; Paddock, Lisa E; Stroup, Antoinette M

    2018-06-22

    Millennials (ages 18-35) are now the largest living generation in the US, making it important to understand and characterize the rising trend of colorectal cancer incidence in this population, as well as other younger generations of Americans. Data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (n = 181 909) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (n = 448 714) were used to analyze invasive CRC incidence trends from 1979 to 2014. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, subsite, and stage differences between younger adults (20-49) and screening age adults (≥50) in New Jersey (NJ) were examined using chi-square; and, we compared secular trends in NJ to the United States (US). Whites, men, and the youngest adults (ages 20-39) are experiencing greater APCs in rectal cancer incidence. Rates among younger black adults, overall, were consistently higher in both NJ and the US over time. When compared to older adults, younger adults with CRC in NJ were more likely to be: diagnosed at the late stage, diagnosed with rectal cancer, male, non-white, and Hispanic. Invasive CRC incidence trends among younger adults were found to vary by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite. Large, case-level, studies are needed to understand the role of genetics, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cultural and behavioral factors in the rise of CRC among younger adults. Provider and public education about CRC risk factors will also be important for preventing and reversing the increasing CRC trend in younger adults. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Valuation of active blind spot detection systems by younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souders, Dustin J; Best, Ryan; Charness, Neil

    2017-09-01

    Due to their disproportional representation in fatal crashes, younger and older drivers both stand to benefit from in-vehicle safety technologies, yet little is known about how they value such technologies, or their willingness to adopt them. The current study investigated older (aged 65 and greater; N=49) and younger (ages 18-23; N=40) adults' valuation of a blind spot monitor and asked if self-reported visual difficulties while driving predicted the amount participants were willing to pay for a particular system (BMW's Active Blind Spot Detection System) that was demonstrated using a short video. Large and small anchor values ($250 and $500, respectively) were used as between subjects manipulations to examine the effects of initial valuation, and participants proceeded through a short staircase procedure that offered them either the free installation of the system on their current vehicle or a monetary prize ($25-$950) that changed in value according to which option they had selected in the previous step of the staircase procedure. Willingness to use other advanced driver assistance systems (lane-departure warning, automatic lane centering, emergency braking, adaptive cruise control, and self-parking systems) was also analyzed, additionally controlling for prior familiarity of those systems. Results showed that increased age was associated with a higher valuation for the Active Blind Spot Detection System in both the large and small anchor value conditions controlling for income, gender, and technology self-efficacy. Older adults valued blind spot detection about twice as much ($762) as younger adults ($383) in the large anchor condition, though both groups' values were in the range for the current cost of an aftermarket system. Similarly, age was the most robust positive predictor of willingness to adopt other driving technologies, along with system familiarity. Difficulties with driving-related visual factors also positively predicting acceptance levels for

  4. Working-memory training in younger and older adults: Training gains, transfer, and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne eBrehmer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM, a key determinant of many higher-order cognitive functions, declines in old age. Current research attempts to develop process-specific WM training procedures, which may lead to general cognitive improvement. Adaptivity of the training as well as the comparison of training gains to performance changes of an active control group are key factors in evaluating the effectiveness of a specific training program. In the present study, 55 younger adults (20-30 years of age and 45 older adults (60-70 years of age received five weeks of computerized training on various spatial and verbal WM tasks. Half of the sample received adaptive training (i.e., individually adjusted task difficulty, whereas the other half worked on the same task material but on a low task difficulty level (active controls. Performance was assessed using criterion, near-transfer, and far-transfer tasks before training, after 5 weeks of intervention, as well as after a 3-month follow-up interval. Results indicate that (a adaptive training generally led to larger training gains than low-level practice, (b training and transfer gains were somewhat greater for younger than for older adults in some tasks, but comparable across age groups in other tasks, (c far transfer was observed to a test on sustained attention and for a self-rating scale on cognitive functioning in daily life for both young and old, and (d training gains and transfer effects were maintained across the 3-month follow-up interval across age.

  5. Phishing suspiciousness in older and younger adults: The role of executive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E Gavett

    Full Text Available Phishing is the spoofing of Internet websites or emails aimed at tricking users into entering sensitive information, with such goals as financial or identity theft. The current study sought to determine whether age is associated with increased susceptibility to phishing and whether tests of executive functioning can predict phishing susceptibility. A total of 193 cognitively intact participants, 91 younger adults and 102 older adults, were primarily recruited through a Psychology department undergraduate subject pool and a gerontology research registry, respectively. The Executive Functions Module from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery and the Iowa Gambling Task were the primary cognitive predictors of reported phishing suspiciousness. Other predictors included age group (older vs. younger, sex, education, race, ethnicity, prior knowledge of phishing, prior susceptibility to phishing, and whether or not browsing behaviors were reportedly different in the laboratory setting versus at home. A logistic regression, which accounted for a 22.7% reduction in error variance compared to the null model and predicted phishing suspiciousness with 73.1% (95% CI [66.0, 80.3] accuracy, revealed three statistically significant predictors: the main effect of education (b = 0.58, SE = 0.27 and the interactions of age group with prior awareness of phishing (b = 2.31, SE = 1.12 and performance on the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Mazes test (b = 0.16, SE = 0.07. Whether or not older adults reported being suspicious of the phishing attacks used in this study was partially explained by educational history and prior phishing knowledge. This suggests that simple educational interventions may be effective in reducing phishing vulnerability. Although one test of executive functioning was found useful for identifying those at risk of phishing susceptibility, four tests were not found to be useful; these results speak to the need for more ecologically valid

  6. Event-related fields evoked by vocal response inhibition: a comparison of younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Meneses, Leidy J; Johnson, Blake W; Sowman, Paul F

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined event-related fields (ERFs) evoked by vocal response inhibition in a stimulus-selective stop-signal task. We compared inhibition-related ERFs across a younger and an older group of adults. Behavioural results revealed that stop-signal reaction times (RTs), go-RTs, ignore-stop RTs and failed stop RTs were longer in the older, relative to the younger group by 38, 123, 149 and 116 ms, respectively. The amplitude of the ERF M2 peak (approximately 200 ms after the stop signal) evoked on successful stop trials was larger compared to that evoked on both failed stop and ignore-stop trials. The M4 peak (approximately 450 ms after stop signal) was of larger amplitude in both successful and failed stops compared to ignore-stop trials. In the older group, the M2, M3 and M4 peaks were smaller in amplitude and peaked later in time (by 24, 50 and 76 ms, respectively). We demonstrate that vocal response inhibition-related ERFs exhibit a similar temporal evolution to those previously described for manual response inhibition: an early peak at 200 ms (i.e. M2) that differentiates successful from failed stopping, and a later peak (i.e. M4) that is consistent with a neural marker of response checking and error processing. Across groups, our data support a more general decline of stimulus processing speed with age.

  7. Enhancing Spatial Attention and Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Camarin E; Anguera, Joaquin A; Skinner, Sasha N; Voytek, Bradley; Gazzaley, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Daily experiences demand both focused and broad allocation of attention for us to interact efficiently with our complex environments. Many types of attention have shown age-related decline, although there is also evidence that such deficits may be remediated with cognitive training. However, spatial attention abilities have shown inconsistent age-related differences, and the extent of potential enhancement of these abilities remains unknown. Here, we assessed spatial attention in both healthy younger and older adults and trained this ability in both age groups for 5 hr over the course of 2 weeks using a custom-made, computerized mobile training application. We compared training-related gains on a spatial attention assessment and spatial working memory task to age-matched controls who engaged in expectancy-matched, active placebo computerized training. Age-related declines in spatial attention abilities were observed regardless of task difficulty. Spatial attention training led to improved focused and distributed attention abilities as well as improved spatial working memory in both younger and older participants. No such improvements were observed in either of the age-matched control groups. Note that these findings were not a function of improvements in simple response time, as basic motoric function did not change after training. Furthermore, when using change in simple response time as a covariate, all findings remained significant. These results suggest that spatial attention training can lead to enhancements in spatial working memory regardless of age.

  8. Enhancing Spatial Attention and Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Camarin E.; Anguera, Joaquin A.; Skinner, Sasha N.; Voytek, Bradley; Gazzaley, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Daily experiences demand both focused and broad allocation of attention for us to interact efficiently with our complex environments. Many types of attention have shown age-related decline, although there is also evidence that such deficits may be remediated with cognitive training. However, spatial attention abilities have shown inconsistent age-related differences, and the extent of potential enhancement of these abilities remains unknown. Here, we assessed spatial attention in both healthy younger and older adults and trained this ability in both age groups for 5 hr over the course of 2 weeks using a custom-made, computerized mobile training application. We compared training-related gains on a spatial attention assessment and spatial working memory task to age-matched controls who engaged in expectancy-matched, active placebo computerized training. Age-related declines in spatial attention abilities were observed regardless of task difficulty. Spatial attention training led to improved focused and distributed attention abilities as well as improved spatial working memory in both younger and older participants. No such improvements were observed in either of the age-matched control groups. Note that these findings were not a function of improvements in simple response time, as basic motoric function did not change after training. Furthermore, when using change in simple response time as a covariate, all findings remained significant. These results suggest that spatial attention training can lead to enhancements in spatial working memory regardless of age. PMID:28654361

  9. Exercise holds immediate benefits for affect and cognition in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Gist-based memory for prices and "better buys" in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Cynthia C; Hargis, Mary B; McGillivray, Shannon; Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2017-04-01

    Ageing typically leads to various memory deficits which results in older adults' tendency to remember more general information and rely on gist memory. The current study examined if younger and older adults could remember which of two comparable grocery items (e.g., two similar but different jams) was paired with a lower price (the "better buy"). Participants studied lists of grocery items and their prices, in which the two items in each category were presented consecutively (Experiment 1), or separated by intervening items (Experiment 2). At test, participants were asked to identify the "better buy" and recall the price of both items. There were negligible age-related differences for the "better buy" in Experiment 1, but age-related differences were present in Experiment 2 when there were greater memory demands involved in comparing the two items. Together, these findings suggest that when price information of two items can be evaluated and compared within a short period of time, older adults can form stable gist-based memory for prices, but that this is impaired with longer delays. We relate the findings to age-related changes in the use of gist and verbatim memory when remembering prices, as well as the associative deficit account of cognitive ageing.

  11. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2010-01-01

    prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192 067 women and 74 919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol......BACKGROUND: -Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men ... of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8...

  12. Enactment effects and integration processes in younger and older adults' memory for actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    The positive effects of gesturing on memory are robust but their interpretation is still controversial. To clarify the issue, recognition and cued recall of action phrases were compared in 24 younger (M=20 years) and 20 older adults (M=68 years), in three encoding conditions--purely verbal tasks (VTs), subject-performed tasks (SPTs), and experimenter-performed tasks (EPTs)--for well- and poorly integrated phrases. As expected, the effects of these factors were significant, but there was no interaction between age-related differences, enactment effects, and semantic association. In particular, both SPT and EPT displayed similar advantages over VT conditions in both age groups and in the two memory tasks. These results are discussed in relation to the debate between Engelkamp on one side, and Kormi-Nouri and Nilsson on the other side, about the role of motor components in the episodic integration of verbs and nouns in action phrases.

  13. Divided Attention in Younger and Older Adults: Effects of Strategy and Relatedness on Memory Performance and Secondary Task Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Guez, Jonathan; Kreuger, Sharyn

    2005-01-01

    Divided attention at encoding leads to a significant decline in memory performance, whereas divided attention during retrieval has relatively little effect; nevertheless, retrieval carries significant secondary task costs, especially for older adults. The authors further investigated the effects of divided attention in younger and older adults by…

  14. An Examination of the Social Networks and Social Isolation in Older and Younger Adults Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…

  15. Comparison of Younger and Older Adults' Acceptability of Treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Co-Occurring with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Ament, Patrick A.; Holt, Peter S.; Hunt, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    Acceptability ratings of medication or Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT), for general anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring with Parkinson's Disease (PD) were obtained from younger ("n" = 79) and older ("n" = 54) adults. Participants read a case description of an older adult with PD and comorbid GAD followed by a description…

  16. The relationship between need for closure and memory for schema-related information among younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Jaśko, Katarzyna; Bar-Tal, Yoram; Szastok, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the relationships among need for closure (NFC) and schematic information processing in younger and older adults. The results show increased NFC to be associated with less schematic processing (i.e., less memory for schema-consistent items, and more memory for schema-irrelevant items, out of all items memorized correctly), among older than younger adults. The findings of the studies are interpreted as demonstrating the age-associated deficit in information processing consistent with the level of NFC. Moreover, the results indicate that positive mood may play a role in facilitating information processing consistent with the level of NFC among older and younger adults. Finally, we present a framework for predicting when older adults will and will not effectively use schematic processing, considered a compensatory strategy for decline in cognitive abilities.

  17. Phoneme categorization and discrimination in younger and older adults: a comparative analysis of perceptual, lexical, and attentional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattys, Sven L; Scharenborg, Odette

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the extent to which age-related language processing difficulties are due to a decline in sensory processes or to a deterioration of cognitive factors, specifically, attentional control. Two facets of attentional control were examined: inhibition of irrelevant information and divided attention. Younger and older adults were asked to categorize the initial phoneme of spoken syllables ("Was it m or n?"), trying to ignore the lexical status of the syllables. The phonemes were manipulated to range in eight steps from m to n. Participants also did a discrimination task on syllable pairs ("Were the initial sounds the same or different?"). Categorization and discrimination were performed under either divided attention (concurrent visual-search task) or focused attention (no visual task). The results showed that even when the younger and older adults were matched on their discrimination scores: (1) the older adults had more difficulty inhibiting lexical knowledge than did younger adults, (2) divided attention weakened lexical inhibition in both younger and older adults, and (3) divided attention impaired sound discrimination more in older than younger listeners. The results confirm the independent and combined contribution of sensory decline and deficit in attentional control to language processing difficulties associated with aging. The relative weight of these variables and their mechanisms of action are discussed in the context of theories of aging and language. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Short-term and long-term collaboration benefits on individual recall in younger and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    A recent study of younger adults suggests that, compared to repeated individual recall trials, repeated collaborative recall trials produce better individual recall after a short delay (Blumen & Rajaram, 2008). Our study was designed to determine if such collaboration benefits would remain after a one-week delay, in both younger and older adults. Sixty younger (M age = 24.60) and 60 older (M age = 67.35) adults studied a list of words and then completed either two collaborative recall trials followed by two individual recall trials, or four individual recall trials. A five-min delay was inserted between the first three recall trials. The fourth recall trial was administered 1 week later. Collaborative recall was completed in groups of three individuals working together. Both younger and older adults benefitted from repeated collaborative recall trials to a greater extent than repeated individual recall trials, and such collaboration benefits remained after a one-week delay. This is the first demonstration of collaboration benefits on later individual recall at delays as long as 1 week, in both younger and older adults. Findings are discussed within the context of the negative effects of collaboration associated with group memory (collaborative inhibition) and the positive effects of collaboration associated with later individual memory (collaboration benefits). PMID:21264617

  19. Pharmacokinetics and effect on the corrected QT interval of single-dose escitalopram in healthy elderly compared with younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Anhye; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Park, Sang-In; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Chung, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Escitalopram is the (S)-enantiomer of citalopram that has a potential QT prolonging effect. In this study, 12 healthy elderly individuals received a single oral dose of escitalopram (20 mg), and their pharmacokinetics and QT effect data were compared with data from 33 younger adults obtained in a previous study. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and ECG was performed up to 48 h postdose. The elderly and younger adults showed similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the elderly compared with the younger adults were 1.02 (0.89-1.17) and 1.01 (0.86-1.17) for the maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve, respectively. The mean baseline-adjusted QT (dQT) time profiles were similar and the mean values of maximum dQT were not significantly different between the elderly and the younger adults. The linear mixed-effect model indicated a weak but positive relationship between the escitalopram concentration and dQT, with an estimated coefficient of concentration of 0.43-0.54. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics and QT effect of a single dose of escitalopram observed in the elderly without comorbidities and younger adults were generally similar.

  20. Time perspective and psychological well-being in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Lee Pethtel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the present fatalistic time perspective as a mechanism that may partially account for age differences in purpose in life and personal growth. An additional purpose of this study was to explore the relations among age, time perspective, and psychological well-being. Seventy-five older adults (M=73.43, SD=7.91 and 77 younger adults (M=19.58, SD=1.19 completed surveys measuring time perspective (past positive, past negative, present fatalistic, present hedonistic, future and psychological well-being (autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the present fatalistic time perspective predicted purpose in life and personal growth above and beyond age and income. Several significant correlations were found among the time perspective and psychological well-being variables. Results showed that age was positively correlated with the past negative and present fatalistic time perspectives, but negatively correlated with the future time perspective. Results showed that age negatively correlated with purpose in life and personal growth, but positively correlated with autonomy. Results are discussed in light of socioemotional selectivity theory, theory of time perspective, and implications for incorporating time perspective into mental health counseling.

  1. Familiar real-world spatial cues provide memory benefits in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-05-01

    Episodic memory, future thinking, and memory for scenes have all been proposed to rely on the hippocampus, and evidence suggests that these all decline in healthy aging. Despite this age-related memory decline, studies examining the effects of context reinstatement on episodic memory have demonstrated that reinstating elements of the encoding context of an event leads to better memory retrieval in both younger and older adults. The current study was designed to test whether more familiar, real-world contexts, such as locations that participants visited often, would improve the detail richness and vividness of memory for scenes, autobiographical events, and imagination of future events in young and older adults. The predicted age-related decline in internal details across all 3 conditions was accompanied by persistent effects of contextual familiarity, in which a more familiar spatial context led to increased detail and vividness of remembered scenes, autobiographical events, and, to some extent, imagined future events. This study demonstrates that autobiographical memory, imagination of the future, and scene memory are similarly affected by aging, and all benefit from being associated with more familiar (real-world) contexts, illustrating the stability of contextual reinstatement effects on memory throughout the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Fluid cognitive ability is a resource for successful emotion regulation in older and younger adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Philipp C.; Lee, Ihno A.; Gross, James J.; Urry, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER) framework suggests that (1) emotion regulation (ER) strategies require resources and that (2) higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR), a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults) completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease) their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity), expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity), and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity) as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger). As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability—indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory—was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation. PMID:24987387

  3. Fluid Cognitive Ability is a Resource for Successful Emotion Regulation in Older and Younger Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp C. Opitz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER framework suggests that (1 emotion regulation (ER strategies require resources and that (2 higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR, a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity, expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity, and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger. As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability – indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory – was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation.

  4. The Influence of Emotional Material on Encoding and Retrieving Intentions: An ERP Study in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S.; Cona, Giorgia

    2018-01-01

    Prospective memory is a cognitive process that comprises the encoding and maintenance of an intention until the appropriate moment of its retrieval. It is of highly relevance for an independent everyday life, especially in older adults; however, there is ample evidence that prospective memory declines with increasing age. Because most studies have used neutral stimuli, it is still an open question how emotional factors influence age-related differences in prospective remembering. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of emotional material on prospective memory encoding, monitoring, maintaining, and retrieval in younger and older adults using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. We tested 24 younger adults (M = 26.4 years) and 20 older adults (M = 68.1 years) using a picture one-back task as ongoing activity with an embedded prospective memory instruction. The experimental task consisted of three sessions. In each session, participants had to encode series of images that represented the prospective memory cues for the consecutive block. The images were either of pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral valence. The pictures used in the ongoing task were likewise of pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral valence. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the neural correlates of intention encoding, maintenance, and self-initiated retrieval. We did not find age differences between younger and older adults on the behavioral level. However, the ERP results revealed an interesting pattern that suggested for both age groups elevated attentional processing of emotional cues during encoding indicated by an elevated LPP for the emotional cues. Additionally, younger adults showed increased activity for unpleasant cues. During the maintenance phase, both age groups engaged in strategic monitoring especially for pleasant cues, which led to enhanced sustained positivity. During retrieval, older adults showed increased activity of ERP components related

  5. The Influence of Emotional Material on Encoding and Retrieving Intentions: An ERP Study in Younger and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hering

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prospective memory is a cognitive process that comprises the encoding and maintenance of an intention until the appropriate moment of its retrieval. It is of highly relevance for an independent everyday life, especially in older adults; however, there is ample evidence that prospective memory declines with increasing age. Because most studies have used neutral stimuli, it is still an open question how emotional factors influence age-related differences in prospective remembering. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of emotional material on prospective memory encoding, monitoring, maintaining, and retrieval in younger and older adults using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. We tested 24 younger adults (M = 26.4 years and 20 older adults (M = 68.1 years using a picture one-back task as ongoing activity with an embedded prospective memory instruction. The experimental task consisted of three sessions. In each session, participants had to encode series of images that represented the prospective memory cues for the consecutive block. The images were either of pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral valence. The pictures used in the ongoing task were likewise of pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral valence. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to assess the neural correlates of intention encoding, maintenance, and self-initiated retrieval. We did not find age differences between younger and older adults on the behavioral level. However, the ERP results revealed an interesting pattern that suggested for both age groups elevated attentional processing of emotional cues during encoding indicated by an elevated LPP for the emotional cues. Additionally, younger adults showed increased activity for unpleasant cues. During the maintenance phase, both age groups engaged in strategic monitoring especially for pleasant cues, which led to enhanced sustained positivity. During retrieval, older adults showed increased activity of ERP

  6. The circumvention of obstacles during walking in different environmental contexts: a comparison between older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin-Lajoie, Martin; Richards, Carol L; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2006-11-01

    Avoiding pedestrians is an integral part of our daily activities, yet this locomotor activity has received little attention in gait research. A recent study [Motor Control 2005;9:242] described the motor strategies used by young adults to circumvent an obstruction in different environmental contexts including obstacle movement, certainty about this obstacle movement and auditory distractions. The relationship between normal aging and such locomotor activity within these different environmental contexts, however, is not known. The purpose of this study was thus to compare the walking speed and the personal space-a protective zone preserved around the body-in healthy younger and older adults during obstacle circumvention in the above mentioned environmental contexts. The movements of nine younger adults (24.6+/-4.1 years) and nine older adults (69.7+/-3.2 years) were measured as they circumvented a stationary or moving mannequin with and without initial knowledge of the obstacle's displacements. Participants also had to pay attention to auditory messages, played in half of the trials, and to answer related questions. Results showed that all three environmental factors resulted in decreased gait speed in both groups, but the effect of auditory distractions was greater in older adults. Older adults also increased their personal space more than younger adults while paying attention to messages and they made more mistakes when answering related questions. Therefore, even if such an avoidance task is performed routinely, the increased information processing demanded by the environmental context affected both the motor and cognitive performance of older adults more than that of younger adults. Copyright 2005 Elsevier B.V.

  7. The ironic effect of guessing: increased false memory for mediated lists in younger and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Huff, Mark J.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Younger and older adults studied lists of words directly (e.g., creek, water) or indirectly (e.g., beaver, faucet) related to a nonpresented critical lure (CL; e.g., river). Indirect (i.e., mediated) lists presented items that were only related to CLs through nonpresented mediators (i.e., directly related items). Following study, participants completed a condition-specific task, math, a recall test with or without a warning about the CL, or tried to guess the CL. On a final recognition test, warnings (vs. math and recall without warning) decreased false recognition for direct lists, and guessing increased mediated false recognition (an ironic effect of guessing) in both age groups. The observed age-invariance of the ironic effect of guessing suggests that processes involved in mediated false memory are preserved in aging and confirms the effect is largely due to activation in semantic networks during encoding and to the strengthening of these networks during the interpolated tasks. PMID:26393390

  8. False feedback and beliefs influence name recall in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; West, Robin Lea; Smith, Kimberly A; Ebner, Natalie C

    2017-09-01

    Feedback is an important self-regulatory process that affects task effort and subsequent performance. Benefits of positive feedback for list recall have been explored in research on goals and feedback, but the effect of negative feedback on memory has rarely been studied. The current research extends knowledge of memory and feedback effects by investigating face-name association memory and by examining the potential mediation of feedback effects, in younger and older adults, through self-evaluative beliefs. Beliefs were assessed before and after name recognition and name recall testing. Repeated presentation of false positive feedback was compared to false negative feedback and a no feedback condition. Results showed that memory self-efficacy declined over time for participants in the negative and no feedback conditions but was sustained for those receiving positive feedback. Furthermore, participants who received negative feedback felt older after testing than before testing. For name recall, the positive feedback group outperformed the negative feedback and no feedback groups combined, with no age interactions. The observed feedback-related effects on memory were fully mediated by changes in memory self-efficacy. These findings advance our understanding of how beliefs are related to feedback in memory and inform future studies examining the importance of self-regulation in memory.

  9. Increased Incidence of Interatrial Block in Younger Adults with Cryptogenic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Cotter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is often unexplained in younger adults, although it is often associated with a patent foramen ovale (PFO. The reason for the association is not fully explained, and mechanisms other than paradoxical embolism may be involved. Young stroke patients with PFO have more atrial vulnerability than those without PFO. It is plausible that stretching of the interatrial septum may disrupt the interatrial conduction pathways causing interatrial block (IAB. IAB is associated with atrial fibrillation, dysfunctional left atria and stroke. Methods: Electrocardiogram (ECG characteristics of prospectively recruited young patients (≤55 years of age with unexplained stroke (TOAST and A-S-C-O were compared with control data. All stroke cases underwent bubble contrast transthoracic and transoesophageal echography. IAB was defined as a P-wave duration of ≧110 ms. ECG data were converted to electronic format and analysed in a blind manner. Results: Fifty-five patients and 23 datasets were analysed. Patients with unexplained stroke had longer P-wave duration (p = 0.013 and a greater prevalence of IAB (p = 0.02 than healthy controls. Case status was an independent predictor of P-wave duration in a significant multivariate model. There was a significant increase in the proportion of cases with a PFO with IAB compared with cases without PFO and with controls (p = 0.005. Conclusions: Young patients with unexplained stroke, particularly those with PFO, exhibit abnormal atrial electrical characteristics suggesting atrial arrhythmia or atrial dysfunction as a possible mechanism of stroke.

  10. Gender-specific disruptions in emotion processing in younger adults with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A; Deldin, Patricia J; Rapport, Lisa J; Nielson, Kristy A; Kade, Allison M; Own, Lawrence S; Akil, Huda; Young, Elizabeth A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2009-01-01

    One of the principal theories regarding the biological basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) implicates a dysregulation of emotion-processing circuitry. Gender differences in how emotions are processed and relative experience with emotion processing might help to explain some of the disparities in the prevalence of MDD between women and men. This study sought to explore how gender and depression status relate to emotion processing. This study employed a 2 (MDD status) x 2 (gender) factorial design to explore differences in classifications of posed facial emotional expressions (N=151). For errors, there was an interaction between gender and depression status. Women with MDD made more errors than did nondepressed women and men with MDD, particularly for fearful and sad stimuli (Ps women with MDD compared to nondepressed women (P=.01). Men with MDD, conversely, performed similarly to control men (P=.61). These results provide novel and intriguing evidence that depression in younger adults (emotion processing in women as compared to men. This interaction could be driven by neurobiological and social learning mechanisms, or interactions between them, and may underlie differences in the prevalence of depression in women and men. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Spatial-sequential working memory in younger and older adults: age predicts backward recall performance within both age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years and older (64-85 years adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998. Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial, and recall type (forward and backward, were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward. Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age

  12. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  13. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  14. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  15. Listening Effort in Younger and Older Adults: A Comparison of Auditory-Only and Auditory-Visual Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Mitchell S; Phelps, Damian

    2016-01-01

    One goal of the present study was to establish whether providing younger and older adults with visual speech information (both seeing and hearing a talker compared with listening alone) would reduce listening effort for understanding speech in noise. In addition, we used an individual differences approach to assess whether changes in listening effort were related to changes in visual enhancement-the improvement in speech understanding in going from an auditory-only (A-only) to an auditory-visual condition (AV) condition. To compare word recognition in A-only and AV modalities, younger and older adults identified words in both A-only and AV conditions in the presence of six-talker babble. Listening effort was assessed using a modified version of a serial recall task. Participants heard (A-only) or saw and heard (AV) a talker producing individual words without background noise. List presentation was stopped randomly and participants were then asked to repeat the last three words that were presented. Listening effort was assessed using recall performance in the two- and three-back positions. Younger, but not older, adults exhibited reduced listening effort as indexed by greater recall in the two- and three-back positions for the AV compared with the A-only presentations. For younger, but not older adults, changes in performance from the A-only to the AV condition were moderately correlated with visual enhancement. Results are discussed within a limited-resource model of both A-only and AV speech perception.

  16. Friend or foe? Decoding the facilitative and disruptive effects of emotion on working memory in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eTruong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of work on emotion-cognition interactions has revealed both facilitative and disruptive effects of emotion on working memory in younger adults. These differing effects may vary by the goal relevancy of emotion within a task. Additionally, it is possible that these emotional effects would be larger for older adults, considering findings of preserved emotional processing with age. To test these hypotheses, the current study examined the effects of emotional content and aging on working memory for target information in the presence of distraction. Thirty-six younger (ages 18-29 and 36 older adults (ages 65-87 completed a delayed-response working memory task. Participants viewed two target words intermixed with two distracter words, and then judged whether a subsequently presented probe word was one of the target words. The emotional content (valence and arousal of targets and distracters was systematically manipulated. Results indicated that emotional targets facilitated working memory in both age groups. In contrast, emotional distracters disrupted performance. Negative distracters were particularly disruptive for older adults, but younger adults did not show an emotional interference effect. These findings help clarify discrepancies in the literature and contribute to the sparse research on emotional working memory in older adults.

  17. An fMRI comparison of neural activity associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Ritu; Cuddy, Lola L; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Vanstone, Ashley D

    2015-01-01

    Several studies of semantic memory in non-musical domains involving recognition of items from long-term memory have shown an age-related shift from the medial temporal lobe structures to the frontal lobe. However, the effects of aging on musical semantic memory remain unexamined. We compared activation associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults. Recognition follows successful retrieval from the musical lexicon that comprises a lifetime of learned musical phrases. We used the sparse-sampling technique in fMRI to determine the neural correlates of melody recognition by comparing activation when listening to familiar vs. unfamiliar melodies, and to identify age differences. Recognition-related cortical activation was detected in the right superior temporal, bilateral inferior and superior frontal, left middle orbitofrontal, bilateral precentral, and left supramarginal gyri. Region-of-interest analysis showed greater activation for younger adults in the left superior temporal gyrus and for older adults in the left superior frontal, left angular, and bilateral superior parietal regions. Our study provides powerful evidence for these musical memory networks due to a large sample (N = 40) that includes older adults. This study is the first to investigate the neural basis of melody recognition in older adults and to compare the findings to younger adults.

  18. An fMRI comparison of neural activity associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu eSikka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of semantic memory in non-musical domains involving recognition of items from long-term memory have shown an age-related shift from the medial temporal lobe structures to the frontal lobe. However, the effects of aging on musical semantic memory remain unexamined. We compared activation associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults. Recognition follows successful retrieval from the musical lexicon that comprises a lifetime of learned musical phrases. We used the sparse-sampling technique in fMRI to determine the neural correlates of melody recognition by comparing activation when listening to familiar versus unfamiliar melodies, and to identify age differences. Recognition-related cortical activation was detected in the right superior temporal, bilateral inferior and superior frontal, left middle orbitofrontal, bilateral precentral, and left supramarginal gyri. Region-of-interest analysis showed greater activation for younger adults in the left superior temporal gyrus and for older adults in the left superior frontal, left angular, and bilateral superior parietal regions. Our study provides powerful evidence for these musical memory networks due to a large sample (N = 40 that includes older adults. This study is the first to investigate the neural basis of melody recognition in older adults and to compare the findings to younger adults.

  19. Anterior knee pain in younger adults as a precursor to subsequent patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Martin J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA is a common form of knee OA in middle and older age, but its relation to PF disorders and symptoms earlier in life is unclear. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the strength of evidence for an association between anterior knee pain (AKP in younger adults and subsequent PFOA. Methods The search strategy included electronic databases (Pubmed, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane, PEDro, SportDiscus: inception to December 2009, reference lists of potentially eligible studies and selected reviews. Full text articles in any language, - identified via English titles and abstracts, were included if they were retrospective or prospective in design and contained quantitative data regarding structural changes indicative of PFOA, incident to original idiopathic AKP. Eligibility criteria were applied to titles, abstracts and full-texts by two independent reviewers. Data extraction included study location, design, date, sampling procedure, sample characteristics, AKP/PFOA definitions, follow-up duration and rate, and main findings. Foreign language articles were translated into English prior to examination. Results Seven articles satisfied eligibility (5 English, 2 German. Only one case-control study directly investigated a link between PFOA and prior AKP, providing level 3b evidence in favour of an association (OR 4.4; 95%CI 1.8, 10.6. Rough estimates of the annual risk of PFOA from the remaining six small, uncontrolled, observational studies (mean follow-up range: 5.7 to 23 years ranged from 0% to 3.4%. This was not the primary aim of these studies, and limitations in design and methodology mean this data should be interpreted with caution. Conclusions There is a paucity of high-quality evidence reporting a link between AKP and PFOA. Further, well-designed cohort studies may be able to fill this evidence gap.

  20. Risky decision making across three arenas of choice: are younger and older adults differently susceptible to framing effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erik; Laggnäs, Erica; Larsson, Lisa; Lindström, Therese

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of framing of options on risky decision making in groups of younger adults (M = 23.8 years, n = 192) and older adults (M = 69.1 years, n = 192). The participants were assigned to one of three scenarios varying in the goods at stake (human lives, paintings, money). The authors observed a majority preference in favor of the risky options after negative, but not positive framing. They also found, as they had predicted, that the type of framing effect varied across scenarios, with a bidirectional framing effect for the life-death scenario and unidirectional (risk averse) framing effects when public property (paintings) or personal property (money) were at stake. It is important to note that these choice preference patterns were highly similar across the age groups, which reinforced the conclusion that younger and older adults are equally susceptible to framing effects.

  1. The influence of monetary incentives on context processing in younger and older adults: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Hannah; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Kray, Jutta

    2015-06-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that neuronal activity related to reward anticipation benefits subsequent stimulus processing, but the effect of penalties remains largely unknown. Since the dual-mechanisms-of-control theory (DMC; Braver & Barch, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 809-81, 2002) assumes that temporal differences in context updating underlie age differences in cognitive control, in this study we investigated whether motivational cues (signaling the chance to win or the risk to lose money, relative to neutral cues) preceding context information in a modified AX-CPT paradigm influence the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. In the behavioral data, younger adults benefited from gain cues, evident in their enhanced context updating, whereas older adults exhibited slowed responding after motivational cues, irrespective of valence. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the enhanced processing of motivational cues in the P2 and P3b was mainly age-invariant, whereas age-differential effects were found for the ERP correlates of context processing. Younger adults showed improved context maintenance (i.e., a larger negative-going CNV), as well as increased conflict detection (larger N450) and resolution (indicated by a sustained positivity), whenever incorrect responding would lead to a monetary loss. In contrast, motivationally salient cues benefited context representations (in cue-locked P3b amplitudes), but increased working memory demands during response preparation (via a temporally prolonged P3b) in older adults. In sum, motivational valence and salience effects differentially modulated the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. These results are discussed in terms of the DMC theory, recent findings of emotion regulation in old age, and the relationship between cognitive and affective processing.

  2. Memory for positive, negative and neutral events in younger and older adults: Does emotion influence binding in event memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, Julie L; Kersten, Alan W; Vernon, Laura L; Starkings, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    When remembering an event, it is important to remember both the features of the event (e.g., a person and an action) and the connections among features (e.g., who performed which action). Emotion often enhances memory for stimulus features, but the relationship between emotion and the binding of features in memory is unclear. Younger and older adults attempted to remember events in which a person performed a negative, positive or neutral action. Memory for the action was enhanced by emotion, but emotion did not enhance the ability of participants to remember which person performed which action. Older adults were more likely than younger adults to make binding errors in which they incorrectly remembered a familiar actor performing a familiar action that had actually been performed by someone else, and this age-related associative deficit was found for both neutral and emotional actions. Emotion not only increased correct recognition of old events for older and younger adults but also increased false recognition of events in which a familiar actor performed a familiar action that had been performed by someone else. Thus, although emotion may enhance memory for the features of an event, it does not increase the accuracy of remembering who performed which action.

  3. Adaptive autobiographical memory in younger and older adults: the indirect association of integrative and instrumental reminiscence with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallford, D J; Mellor, D; Cummins, R A

    2013-01-01

    Despite the established effectiveness of reminiscence-based interventions for depression, little research exists into the pathways through which specific reminiscence functions are related to depressive symptoms. Drawing on theory of the mechanisms of change in cognitive-reminiscence therapy, the current study tests the hypothesised indirect associations of adaptive integrative and instrumental reminiscence functions with depressive symptoms and whether these relationships might differ among younger and older adults. Questionnaires were completed by a large community sample of the Australian population. Multiple mediation models were tested in two groups: younger adults (n = 730, M age = 52.24, SD=9.84) and older adults (n = 725, M age= 73.59, SD=6.29). Results were consistent across age groups, indicating that there was direct relationship between these reminiscence functions and depressive symptoms, but that integrative reminiscence is indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through meaning in life, self-esteem, and optimism, and that instrumental reminiscence is indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through primary control and self-efficacy. This study provides support for the relationships between constructs underlying the proposed mechanisms of change in cognitive-reminiscence therapy for the treatment of depression, and suggests these relationships are similar for younger and older adults.

  4. Following your heart or your head: focusing on emotions versus information differentially influences the decisions of younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikels, Joseph A; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Maglio, Sam J; Goldstein, Mary K; Garber, Alan; Carstensen, Laura L

    2010-03-01

    Research on aging has indicated that whereas deliberative cognitive processes decline with age, emotional processes are relatively spared. To examine the implications of these divergent trajectories in the context of health care choices, we investigated whether instructional manipulations emphasizing a focus on feelings or details would have differential effects on decision quality among younger and older adults. We presented 60 younger and 60 older adults with health care choices that required them to hold in mind and consider multiple pieces of information. Instructional manipulations in the emotion-focus condition asked participants to focus on their emotional reactions to the options, report their feelings about the options, and then make a choice. In the information-focus condition, participants were instructed to focus on the specific attributes, report the details about the options, and then make a choice. In a control condition, no directives were given. Manipulation checks indicated that the instructions were successful in eliciting different modes of processing. Decision quality data indicate that younger adults performed better in the information-focus than in the control condition whereas older adults performed better in the emotion-focus and control conditions than in the information-focus condition. Findings support and extend extant theorizing on aging and decision making as well as suggest that interventions to improve decision-making quality should take the age of the decision maker into account.

  5. A comparison of health outcomes in older versus younger adults following a road traffic crash injury: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamini Gopinath

    Full Text Available Given the aging demographics of most developed countries, understanding the public health impact of mild/moderate road traffic crash injuries in older adults is important. We aimed to determine whether health outcomes (pain severity and quality of life measures over 24 months differ significantly between older (65+ and younger adults (18-64.Prospective cohort study of 364, 284 and 252 participants with mild/moderate injury following a vehicle collision at baseline, 12 and 24 months, respectively. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre- and post-injury psychological and heath characteristics.At baseline, there were 55 (15.1% and 309 (84.9% participants aged ≥65 and 18-64 years, respectively. At 12- and 24-month follow-up, older compared to younger participants who had sustained a mild/moderate musculoskeletal injury had lower physical functioning (3.9-units lower Short Form-12 Physical Composite Score, multivariable-adjusted p = 0.03 at both examinations. After multivariable adjustment, older (n = 45 versus younger (n = 207 participants had lower self-perceived health status (8.1-units lower European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Visual Acuity Scale scores at 24 months, p = 0.03, 24 months later.Older compared to younger participants who sustained a mild/moderate injury following a road-traffic crash demonstrated poorer physical functioning and general health at 24 months.

  6. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted...

  7. Spatial-sequential working memory in younger and older adults: age predicts backward recall performance within both age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Louise A. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Sc...

  8. Memory for Positive, Negative, and Neutral Events in Younger and Older Adults: Does Emotion Influence Binding in Event Memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Earles, Julie L.; Kersten, Alan W.; Vernon, Laura L.; Starkings, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    When remembering an event, it is important to remember both the features of the event (e.g., a person and an action), and the connections among features (e.g., who performed which action). Emotion often enhances memory for stimulus features, but the relationship between emotion and the binding of features in memory is unclear. Younger and older adults attempted to remember events in which a person performed a negative, positive, or neutral action. Memory for the action was enhanced by emotion...

  9. iNOS-dependent sweating and eNOS-dependent cutaneous vasodilation are evident in younger adults, but are diminished in older adults exercising in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Alexander, Lacy M; Akbari, Pegah; Foudil-Bey, Imane; Louie, Jeffrey C; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to sweating and cutaneous vasodilation during exercise in younger adults. We hypothesized that endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) mediate NOS-dependent sweating, whereas eNOS induces NOS-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in younger adults exercising in the heat. Further, aging may upregulate inducible NOS (iNOS), which may attenuate sweating and cutaneous vasodilator responses. We hypothesized that iNOS inhibition would augment sweating and cutaneous vasodilation in exercising older adults. Physically active younger (n = 12, 23 ± 4 yr) and older (n = 12, 60 ± 6 yr) adults performed two 30-min bouts of cycling at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). Sweat rate and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were evaluated at four intradermal microdialysis sites with: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) nNOS inhibitor (nNOS-I, NPLA), 3) iNOS inhibitor (iNOS-I, 1400W), or 4) eNOS inhibitor (eNOS-I, LNAA). In younger adults during both exercise bouts, all inhibitors decreased sweating relative to control, albeit a lower sweat rate was observed at iNOS-I compared with eNOS-I and nNOS-I sites (all P exercise protocol (all P exercise bouts (all P > 0.05). We show that iNOS and eNOS are the main contributors to NOS-dependent sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, respectively, in physically active younger adults exercising in the heat, and that iNOS inhibition does not alter sweating or cutaneous vasodilation in exercising physically active older adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Inconsistency in Serial Choice Decision and Motor Reaction Times Dissociate in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, D.; MacDonald, S.W.S.; Hultsch, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    Intraindividual variability (inconsistency) in reaction time (RT) latencies was investigated in a group of younger (M=25.46 years) and older (M=69.29 years) men. Both groups performed 300 trials in 2-, 4-, and 8-choice RT conditions where RTs for decision and motor components of the task were recorded separately. A dissociation was evident in that…

  11. Younger adults and homeownership in Europe through the global financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.; Arundel, R.; Ronald, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of poorly performing national economies and sustained employment insecurity since the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008, various UK and US studies have suggested that the transitions of younger people into independent living and into homeownership, in particular, have been in

  12. Thinking about a limited future enhances the positivity of younger and older adults' recall: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Opitz, Philipp C; Martins, Bruna; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2016-08-01

    Compared with younger adults, older adults have a relative preference to attend to and remember positive over negative information. This is known as the "positivity effect," and researchers have typically evoked socioemotional selectivity theory to explain it. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, as people get older they begin to perceive their time left in life as more limited. These reduced time horizons prompt older adults to prioritize achieving emotional gratification and thus exhibit increased positivity in attention and recall. Although this is the most commonly cited explanation of the positivity effect, there is currently a lack of clear experimental evidence demonstrating a link between time horizons and positivity. The goal of the current research was to address this issue. In two separate experiments, we asked participants to complete a writing activity, which directed them to think of time as being either limited or expansive (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not orient them to think about time in a particular manner (Experiment 2). Participants were then shown a series of emotional pictures, which they subsequently tried to recall. Results from both studies showed that regardless of chronological age, thinking about a limited future enhanced the relative positivity of participants' recall. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not driven by changes in mood. Thus, the fact that older adults' recall is typically more positive than younger adults' recall may index naturally shifting time horizons and goals with age.

  13. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Beeken

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. Methods: UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584 or >45 years (older adults; n = 107 participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Results: Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01. Conclusion: Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight.

  14. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeken, Rebecca J; Mahdi, Sundus; Johnson, Fiona; Meisel, Susanne F

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584) or >45 years (older adults; n = 107) participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01). Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Acute stress disorder in older, middle-aged and younger adults in reaction to the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri

    2008-01-01

    To compare rate of acute stress disorder (ASD) and intensity of acute stress symptoms (ASS) in younger, middle-aged and older Israeli citizens exposed to missile attacks during the second Lebanon war. A telephone survey of a random sample of residents in the northern area of Israel was conducted in July 2006, during the third week of Lebanon war. Respondents were divided into groups aged 18-40, 41-69 and 70+. ASD and ASS were measured by the Acute Stress Interview questionnaire and by war-related exposure variables and demographic data. Exposure variables were similar in the three age groups. Older respondents reported lower intensity of ASS and obtained lower means for each of the symptoms criteria than the young adults, while the middle-aged adults were in between the younger and the older group. ASD criteria were met by 13.2% of the younger, 4.7% of middle-aged and 4.3% of older respondents (p > 0.05), and subsyndromal ASD was found in 20.5%, 14.1% and 4.4% (p war situation with lower level of acute stress symptoms. Long-term effects of war on different age groups should be further studied.

  16. Managing hypercholesterolemia and preventing cardiovascular events in elderly and younger Chinese adults: focus on rosuvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhen Wang, Junbo GeDepartment of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of death worldwide. The efficacy and safety of statins in primary and secondary prevention of CHD is confirmed in several large studies, and rosuvastatin is the latest statin on market. We review the published literature on rosuvastatin in Chinese people. The pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in Chinese is somewhat different from that in Caucasians, but this does not influence the linear relationship between dosage and efficacy and with no drug accumulation. Rosuvastatin 5–20 mg/day is effective and safe in decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both younger and elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia, even in very elderly patients. Rosuvastatin also shows anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerosis features, such as reducing carotid intima-media thickness and plaque area. Rosuvastatin can also improve the prognosis of Chinese CHD patients, such as in the case of acute myocardial infarction. Its adverse-event rate is low and comparable to other statins. In conclusion, rosuvastatin is effective and safe for younger or elderly Chinese patients.Keywords: rosuvastatin, Chinese, younger, elderly

  17. Frequency analysis of the visual steady-state response measured with the fast optical signal in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chun-Yu; Gordon, Brian A; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2010-09-01

    Relatively high frequency activity (>4Hz) carries important information about the state of the brain or its response to high frequency events. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is commonly used to study these changes because it possesses high temporal resolution and a good signal-to-noise ratio. However, it provides limited spatial information. Non-invasive fast optical signals (FOS) have been proposed as a neuroimaging tool combining spatial and temporal resolution. Yet, this technique has not been applied to study high frequency brain oscillations because of its relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. Here we investigate the sensitivity of FOS to relatively high-frequency brain oscillations. We measured the steady-state optical response elicited in medial and lateral occipital cortex by checkerboard reversals occurring at 4, 6, and 8Hz in younger and older adults. Stimulus-dependent oscillations were observed at the predicted stimulation frequency. In addition, in the younger adults the FOS steady-state response was smaller in lateral than medial areas, whereas in the older adults it was reversed in these two cortical regions. This may reflect diminished top-down inhibitory control in the older adults. The results indicate that FOS can be used to study the modulation of relatively high-frequency brain oscillations in adjacent cortical regions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-projection in younger and older adults: a study of episodic memory, prospection, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Shoshana N; Miller, Jeremy K

    2017-07-01

    Self-projection is the ability to orient the self in different places in time and space. Episodic memory, prospection, and theory of mind (ToM) are all cognitive abilities that share an element of self-projection. Previous research has posited that each of these abilities stems from the same neural network. The current study compared performance of cognitively healthy older adults and younger adults on several self-projection tasks to examine the relatedness of these constructs behaviorally. Episodic memory and prospection were measured using an episodic interview task where the participants were asked to remember or imagine events that either had happened in the past or could happen in the future and then gave ratings describing the extent to which they were mentally experiencing the event and from what perspective they viewed it. ToM was measured by asking participants to make judgments regarding the intentions of characters described in stories that involved cognitive, affective, or ironic components. Our results demonstrate that aging influences episodic memory, prospection, and ToM similarly: older adult participants showed declines on each of these measures compared to younger adults. Further, we observed correlations between performance on the measures of episodic memory and prospection as well as between episodic memory and ToM, although no correlation between prospection and ToM was observed after controlling for chronological age. We discuss these results in the light of theories suggesting that each of these abilities is governed by a common brain system.

  19. Task-set switching under cue-based versus memory-based switching conditions in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta

    2006-08-11

    Adult age differences in task switching and advance preparation were examined by comparing cue-based and memory-based switching conditions. Task switching was assessed by determining two types of costs that occur at the general (mixing costs) and specific (switching costs) level of switching. Advance preparation was investigated by varying the time interval until the next task (short, middle, very long). Results indicated that the implementation of task sets was different for cue-based switching with random task sequences and memory-based switching with predictable task sequences. Switching costs were strongly reduced under cue-based switching conditions, indicating that task-set cues facilitate the retrieval of the next task. Age differences were found for mixing costs and for switching costs only under cue-based conditions in which older adults showed smaller switching costs than younger adults. It is suggested that older adults adopt a less extreme bias between two tasks than younger adults in situations associated with uncertainty. For cue-based switching with random task sequences, older adults are less engaged in a complete reconfiguration of task sets because of the probability of a further task change. Furthermore, the reduction of switching costs was more pronounced for cue- than memory-based switching for short preparation intervals, whereas the reduction of switch costs was more pronounced for memory- than cue-based switching for longer preparation intervals at least for older adults. Together these findings suggest that the implementation of task sets is functionally different for the two types of task-switching conditions.

  20. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Mulvey, Matthew R; Bagnall, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-18

    This is the first update of a Cochrane review published in Issue 5, 2010 on transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. Pain may present in a body part that has been amputated (phantom pain) or at the site of amputation (stump pain), or both. Phantom pain and stump pain are complex and multidimensional and the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. The condition remains a severe burden for those who are affected by it. The mainstay treatments are predominately pharmacological, with increasing acknowledgement of the need for non-drug interventions. TENS has been recommended as a treatment option but there has been no systematic review of available evidence. Hence, the effectiveness of TENS for phantom pain and stump pain is currently unknown. To assess the analgesic effectiveness of TENS for the treatment of phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. For the original version of the review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, PEDRO and SPORTDiscus (February 2010). For this update, we searched the same databases for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from 2010 to 25 March 2015. We only included RCTs investigating the use of TENS for the management of phantom pain and stump pain following an amputation in adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We planned that where available and appropriate, data from outcome measures were to be pooled and presented as an overall estimate of the effectiveness of TENS. In the original review there were no RCTs that examined the effectiveness of TENS for the treatment of phantom pain and stump pain in adults. For this update, we did not identify any additional RCTs for inclusion. There were no RCTs to judge the effectiveness of TENS for the management of phantom pain and stump pain. The published literature on TENS

  1. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria eKalpouzos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (negativity effect is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after one- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using fMRI. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false and true recognition. This study revealed 4 key findings: 1 Increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, cancelling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only on discrimination in both younger and older adults; 2 In younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; 3 Engagement of amygdala was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits versus misses in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to amygdala activity and performance; and 4 After 3 weeks, but not after one week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits versus false alarms. As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual detail in making

  2. Penfigoide bolhoso no adulto mais jovem: relato de três casos Bullous pemphigoid in younger adults: three case reports

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    Roberta Richter Zanella

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O penfigoide bolhoso é uma dermatose bolhosa autoimune subepidérmica, mais comumente observada na população idosa (acima dos 70 anos. Autoanticorpos são formados contra antígenos específicos da zona de membrana basal: BP180 e BP230 (proteínas do hemidesmossomo. Apresentamos três casos de penfigoide bolhoso, em adultos com menos de 50 anos de idade, destacan do as peculiaridades clínicas na faixa etária mais jovem.Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune subepidermal bullous dermatosis more commonly observed in the elderly (over 70 years old. Autoantibodies are produced for specific antigens of the epidermal basement membrane zone: BP 180 and BP 230 (hemidesmosome proteins. We report three cases of bullous pemphigoid in adults younger than 50 years old, discussing the clinical characteristics of the disease in younger patients.

  3. Similarity-based interference in a working memory numerical updating task: age-related differences between younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrina, Santiago; Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Lechuga, M Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Similarity among representations held simultaneously in working memory (WM) is a factor which increases interference and hinders performance. The aim of the current study was to investigate age-related differences between younger and older adults in a working memory numerical updating task, in which the similarity between information held in WM was manipulated. Results showed a higher susceptibility of older adults to similarity-based interference when accuracy, and not response times, was considered. It was concluded that older adults' WM difficulties appear to be due to the availability of stored information, which, in turn, might be related to the ability to generate distinctive representations and to the process of binding such representations to their context when similar information has to be processed in WM.

  4. Older adults catch up to younger adults on a learning and memory task that involves collaborative social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, B J; Duff, M C; Weldon, K; Zhang, J; Zamba, K D; Tranel, D; Denburg, N L

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory abilities tend to decline as people age. The current study examines the question of whether a learning situation that emphasises collaborative social interaction might help older persons overcome age-related learning and memory changes and thus perform similarly to younger persons. Younger and Older participants (n = 34 in each group) completed the Barrier Task (BT), a game-like social interaction where partners work together to develop labels for a set of abstract tangrams. Participants were also administered standard clinical neuropsychological measures of memory, on which the Older group showed expected inferiority to the Younger group. On the BT, the Older group performed less well than the Younger group early on, but as the task progressed, the performance of the Older group caught up and became statistically indistinguishable from that of the Younger group. These results can be taken to suggest that a learning milieu characterised by collaborative social interaction can attenuate some of the typical memory disadvantages associated with being older.

  5. Physicians' response to sexual dysfunction presented by a younger vs. An older adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz-Meydan, Ateret; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether physicians have an age bias regarding sexual dysfunction presented by older vs. younger patients in terms of attributed diagnosis, etiology, proposed treatment and perceived prognosis. An on-line survey consisting of one of two, randomly administered, case vignettes, which differed only by the age of the patient (28 or 78). In both cases, the patient was described as suffering from occasional erectile dysfunction with a clear psychosocial indication. A total of 236 physicians responded to the survey. Overall, 110 physicians received an "old" vignette and 126 physicians received a "young" vignette. Even though both cases presented with a clear psychosocial etiology, the "older" vignette was more likely to be diagnosed with erectile dysfunction whereas the "younger" vignette was more likely to be diagnosed with performance anxiety. The "older" vignette's dysfunction was more likely to be attributed to hormonal changes, health problems and decreased sexual desire. Physicians were more likely to recommend testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i; such as Sildenafil; Vardenafil; Tadalafil) as well as a referral to urology to the "older" vignette. In contrast, the "younger" vignette was more often referred to a sexologist and received a more positive prognosis than the older patient. This study demonstrates an age bias among physicians regarding sexuality in later life. Of particular note is the tendency to prescribe PDE5i to the older patient, despite the clear psychosocial indication presented in the case vignette. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent Jonathan M; Lawrence Herenia P; Thomson W Murray; Poulton Richie

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this s...

  7. The spatialities of ageing: Evidencing increasing spatial polarisation between older and younger adults in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Sabater

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the proportion of older adults in Europe expected to grow significantly over the next few decades, a number of pertinent questions are raised about the socio-spatial processes that underlie residential age segregation, especially in circumstances where it may be increasing. Objective: We present evidence on whether, and to what degree, residential age segregation has changed across neighbourhoods in England and Wales since the 1990s. Methods: We examine the residential patterns of older adults (aged 65 and over compared to those of younger adults (aged 25-40 for neighbourhoods across the country, for neighbourhoods within districts, and for neighbourhoods within districts classified by type. The analyses use harmonised population data for small areas (Output Areas from the 1991, 2001, and 2011 Censuses of England and Wales. Results: The results reveal increasing segregation over time (1991-2011 between older and younger groups across neighbourhoods nationally. Although the index values of segregation tend to be higher in less urban areas, highlighting a strong age and life course dimension of the rural-urban divide, a rapid increase in age segregation is found in urban areas. Moreover, our findings suggest the existence of convergent clusters of increasing age segregation, particularly in urban settings (from small to large cities and former industrial areas in the North of England, thus providing evidence suggesting a further dimension of the North-South divide. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate a growing age bifurcation over time and space, as both older and younger age groups are increasingly living apart. Although the drivers and consequences of these trends in residential age segregation remain unclear, the potential challenge to policies of social cohesion underlines the importance of further research. Contribution: The findings contribute to current debates about relations between age groups and generations in

  8. Managing hypercholesterolemia and preventing cardiovascular events in elderly and younger Chinese adults: focus on rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Ge, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The efficacy and safety of statins in primary and secondary prevention of CHD is confirmed in several large studies, and rosuvastatin is the latest statin on market. We review the published literature on rosuvastatin in Chinese people. The pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in Chinese is somewhat different from that in Caucasians, but this does not influence the linear relationship between dosage and efficacy and with no drug accumulation. Rosuvastatin 5-20 mg/day is effective and safe in decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both younger and elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia, even in very elderly patients. Rosuvastatin also shows anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerosis features, such as reducing carotid intima-media thickness and plaque area. Rosuvastatin can also improve the prognosis of Chinese CHD patients, such as in the case of acute myocardial infarction. Its adverse-event rate is low and comparable to other statins. In conclusion, rosuvastatin is effective and safe for younger or elderly Chinese patients.

  9. Metachronous colon polyps in younger versus older adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Sajan Jiv Singh; Mukhija, Dhruvika; Sanaka, Madhusudhan; Lopez, Rocio; Burke, Carol A

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer in the United States has decreased substantially in individuals aged 50 and older. In contrast, it is increasing in young adults. The polyp characteristics on baseline and follow-up colonoscopy in young adults are not well characterized. We describe the polyp characteristics on baseline and follow-up colonoscopy in adults 1 polyp removed on colonoscopy followed by a postpolypectomy colonoscopy were eligible. The primary outcome was the occurrence of advanced neoplasia or HR polyp features on follow-up colonoscopy. Secondary endpoints included factors associated with metachronous advanced neoplasia in young adults. The occurrence of metachronous advanced neoplasia in young adults was compared with a cohort of patients aged 50 years and older. Included were 128 patients with a mean age of 34.9 years; 124 patients (97%) had adenomas and 7% had sessile serrated polyps (SSPs). Advanced neoplasia was seen in 35% of patients at baseline. The median follow-up time was 33.6 months. Metachronous advanced neoplasia was identified in 7% of patients on follow-up colonoscopy. Baseline factors associated with metachronous advanced neoplasia included the presence of an SSP (hazard ratio, 7.8; 95% CI, 1.09-56.3; P = .041) with a trend in those with advanced neoplasia (hazard ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, .89-12.8; P = .072). The occurrence of metachronous advanced neoplasia did not differ between the young and older cohorts (7% vs 12.2%, P = .58); however, young adults were less likely to have HR polyp features on follow-up (8.6% vs 20.3%, P = .008). More than 1 in 3 adults <40 years old undergoing colonoscopy had advanced neoplasia on baseline colonoscopy. The occurrence of metachronous advanced neoplasia in young adults is similar to older adults and appears to be associated with the size, pathology, and number of baseline polyps. Our data suggest young polyp-bearing adults may undergo postpolypectomy colonoscopy at intervals

  10. The impact of augmented information on visuo-motor adaptation in younger and older adults.

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    Mathias Hegele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjustment to a visuo-motor rotation is known to be affected by ageing. According to previous studies, the age-related differences primarily pertain to the use of strategic corrections and the generation of explicit knowledge on which strategic corrections are based, whereas the acquisition of an (implicit internal model of the novel visuo-motor transformation is unaffected. The present study aimed to assess the impact of augmented information on the age-related variation of visuo-motor adjustments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants performed aiming movements controlling a cursor on a computer screen. Visual feedback of direction of cursor motion was rotated 75 degrees relative to the direction of hand motion. Participants had to adjust to this rotation in the presence and absence of an additional hand-movement target that explicitly depicted the input-output relations of the visuo-motor transformation. An extensive set of tests was employed in order to disentangle the contributions of different processes to visuo-motor adjustment. Results show that the augmented information failed to affect the age-related variations of explicit knowledge, adaptive shifts, and aftereffects in a substantial way, whereas it clearly affected initial direction errors during practice and proprioceptive realignment. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, older participants apparently made no use of the augmented information, whereas younger participants used the additional movement target to reduce initial direction errors early during practice. However, after a first block of trials errors increased, indicating a neglect of the augmented information, and only slowly declined thereafter. A hypothetical dual-task account of these findings is discussed. The use of the augmented information also led to a selective impairment of proprioceptive realignment in the younger group. The mere finding of proprioceptive realignment in adaptation to a visuo

  11. Digital clock drawing: Differentiating ‘thinking’ versus ‘doing’ in younger and older adults with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jamie; Penney, Dana L.; Davis, Randall; Libon, David J.; Swenson, Rodney A.; Ajilore, Olusola; Kumar, Anand; Lamar, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Psychomotor slowing has been documented in depression. The digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) provides: i) a novel technique to assess both cognitive and motor aspects of psychomotor speed within the same task and ii) the potential to uncover subtleties of behavior not previously detected with non-digitized modes of data collection. Method Using digitized pen technology in 106 participants grouped by Age (younger/older) and Affect (euthymic/unmedicated depressed), we recorded cognitive and motor output by capturing how the clock is drawn rather than focusing on the final product. We divided time to completion (TTC) for Command and Copy conditions of the dCDT into metrics of percent of drawing (%Ink) versus non-drawing (%Think) time. We also obtained composite z-scores of cognition, including attention/ information processing (AIP), to explore associations of %Ink and %Think times to cognitive and motor performance. Results Despite equivalent TTC, %Ink and %Think Command times (Copy n.s.) were significant (AgeXAffect interaction:p=.03)—younger depressed spent a smaller proportion of time drawing relative to thinking compared to the older depressed group. Command %Think time negatively correlated with AIP in the older depressed group (r=−.46;p=.02). Copy %Think time negatively correlated with AIP in the younger depressed (r=−.47;p=.03) and older euthymic groups (r=−.51;p=.01). Conclusion The dCDT differentiated aspects of psychomotor slowing in depression regardless of age, while dCDT/cognitive associates for younger adults with depression mimicked patterns of older euthymics. PMID:25222513

  12. Trends in risk of recurrence after the first ischemic stroke in adults younger than 55 years of age in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kok Wai; Björck, Lena; Ståhl, Christina H; Nielsen, Susanne; Sandström, Tatiana Z; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on stroke recurrence in younger adults often contain small sample size which makes it difficult to study trends in stroke recurrence over a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate temporal trends in the risk of recurrence in younger patients with a first ischemic stroke. All men and women aged 18-54 years who had survived at least 28 days after a first ischemic stroke from 1987 to 2006 were identified in the Swedish Inpatient Register. The patients were stratified into four 5-year periods according to their admission period and were followed up for a total of four years after the index event with regard to recurrent ischemic stroke. A Cox regression model was used to analyze the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke. Of the 17,149 ischemic stroke patients who were identified, 2432 (14.2%) had a recurrent ischemic stroke event within four years. From the first to the last periods (1987-1991 versus 2002-2006), the four-year risk of recurrent ischemic stroke decreased by 55% (hazard ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.53) in men and 59% (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.50) in women. The cumulative four-year risk was 11.8% (95% CI 10.55-13.25) in men and 9.8% (95% CI 8.40-11.46) in women during the last five-year period (2002-2006). The risk of recurrence among younger ischemic stroke patients has decreased over the past 20 years. Despite these improvements, younger patients are still at a high risk for recurrent ischemic stroke. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  13. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Fabricio

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Methods: Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Results: Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Conclusion: Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  14. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio, Aline Teixeira; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  15. Comorbidity, Pain, Utilization, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Older versus Younger Sickle Cell Adults: The PiSCES Project

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    Donna K. McClish

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with SCD now usually live well into adulthood. Whereas transitions into adulthood are now often studied, little is published about aging beyond the transition period. We therefore studied age-associated SCD differences in utilization, pain, and psychosocial variables. Methods. Subjects were 232 adults in the Pain in Sickle Cell Epidemiology Study (PiSCES. Data included demographics, comorbidity, and psychosocial measures. SCD-related pain and health care utilization were recorded in diaries. We compared 3 age groups: 16–25 (transition, 26–36 (younger adults, and 37–64 (older adults years. Results. Compared to the 2 adult groups, the transition group reported fewer physical challenges via comorbidities, somatic complaints, and pain frequency, though pain intensity did not differ on crisis or noncrisis pain days. The transition group utilized opioids less often, made fewer ambulatory visits, and had better quality of life, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for pain and comorbidities. However, the transition group reported more use of behavioral coping strategies. Conclusion. We found fewer biological challenges, visits, and better quality of life, in transition-aged versus older adults with SCD, but more behavioral coping. Further study is required to determine whether age-appropriate health care, behavioral, or other interventions could improve age-specific life challenges of patients with SCD.

  16. Focused and divided attention in a simulated cocktail-party situation: ERP evidence from younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzmann, Stephan; Golob, Edward J; Wascher, Edmund

    2016-05-01

    Speech perception under complex listening conditions usually decreases in aging. This is especially true for listening conditions requiring divided attention among 2 and more relevant speakers. Using a speech perception task and event-related potential measures, we studied the ability of younger and older adults to attend to speech information from a single-target speaker (focused attention) or from 2 different (alternative) target speakers (divided attention). The focused and divided attention conditions were presented either in silence or in the presence of 3 concurrent speakers. In the presence of concurrent speakers, older participants showed worse performance with divided versus focused attention. In contrast, there was no effect of attention condition for the younger adults. Relative to the young, event-related potential analysis in older subjects indicated a decline in preparatory activity for the critical speech information (a delayed and smaller contingent negative variation), and delayed attentional control (indicated by a longer P2 latency). Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography revealed that the age-related decline in preparatory activity was associated with reduced activation of medial and superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus. The results suggest that age-related differences in these prefrontal brain areas reflect declines in preparatory attention and gating of subsequent task-related speech information, especially under conditions of divided attention. These findings may reflect mechanisms relating to impaired speech perception by older people in "cocktail-party" listening situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An investigation of far response and stimulus modality transfer effects after dual-task training in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eLussier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that dual-task training leads to significant improvement in dual-task performances in younger and older adults. However, the extent to which training benefits to untrained tasks requires further investigation. The present study assessed (a whether dual-task training leads to cross-modality transfer in untrained tasks using new stimuli and/or motor responses modalities, (b whether transfer effects are related to improvement in working memory and/or enhanced response coordination, (c whether there are age-related differences in transfer effects. Twenty-three younger and 23 older adults were randomly assigned to dual-task training or control conditions. All participants were assessed before and after training on three dual-task transfer conditions; (1 stimulus modality transfer (2 response modality transfer (3 stimulus and response modalities transfer task. Training group showed larger improvement than the control group in the three transfer dual-task conditions, which suggests that training leads to more than specific learning of stimuli/response associations. Attentional cost analyses showed that training led to improved dual-task cost, only in conditions that involved new stimuli or response modalities, but not both. Moreover, training did not lead to a reduced task-set cost in the transfer conditions, which suggests some limitations in transfer effects that can be expected. Overall, the present study supports the notion that cognitive plasticity for attentional control is preserved in late adulthood.

  18. Life Contexts Make a Difference : Emotional Stability in Younger and Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brose, Annette; Scheibe, Susanne; Schmiedek, Florian

    Emotional stability, as indicated by low affect variability and low affective reactivity to daily events, for example, tends to increase across the adult life span. This study investigated a contextual explanation for such age differences, relating affect variability and affective reactivity to

  19. Younger smokers continue to smoke as adults: implications for raising the smoking age to 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A review article published in Pediatrics assesses the evidence that smoking is particularly harmful the younger a smoker begins (1. Not only do youths tend to accumulate more pack-years but they have more difficulty quitting. The recent shift in smoking trends from tobacco cigarettes to e-cigarettes may not be helpful since both contain the addictive component, nicotine. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as a smoking cessation tool, there is no strong evidence to support these claims, the authors report."I think most people realize nicotine is addictive, but I don't know if there's an understanding of just how addictive it is – particularly for youths," said Lorena M. Siqueira, MD, MSPH, lead author of the report (2. Evidence shows that the earlier in life a person is exposed to nicotine, the more likely they will consume greater quantities and the less likely they will be able to quit (1,2. The vast majority …

  20. Elevated lung cancer in younger adults and low concentrations of arsenic in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig; Ferreccio, Catterina; Yuan, Yan; Acevedo, Johanna; González, Francisca; Perez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra; Balmes, John R; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L in drinking water are a known cause of cancer, but the risks associated with lower concentrations are less well understood. The unusual geology and good information on past exposure found in northern Chile are key advantages for investigating the potential long-term effects of arsenic. We performed a case-control study of lung cancer from 2007 to 2010 in areas of northern Chile that had a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Previously, we reported evidence of elevated cancer risks at arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L. In the present study, we restricted analyses to the 92 cases and 288 population-based controls who were exposed to concentrations less than 100 µg/L. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking behavior, these exposures from 40 or more years ago resulted in odds ratios for lung cancer of 1.00, 1.43 (90% confidence interval: 0.82, 2.52), and 2.01 (90% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.52) for increasing tertiles of arsenic exposure, respectively (P for trend = 0.02). Mean arsenic water concentrations in these tertiles were 6.5, 23.0, and 58.6 µg/L. For subjects younger than 65 years of age, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.00, 1.62 (90% confidence interval: 0.67, 3.90), and 3.41 (90% confidence interval: 1.51, 7.70). Adjustments for occupation, fruit and vegetable intake, and socioeconomic status had little impact on the results. These findings provide new evidence that arsenic water concentrations less than 100 µg/L are associated with higher risks of lung cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Kinematic analysis of postural reactions to a posterior translation in rocker bottom shoes in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel-Scott, Dorothy R; Gulledge, Elisha N; Bolena, Ryan E; Albright, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Shoes with rocker bottom soles are utilized by persons with diabetic peripheral neuropathy to reduce plantar pressures during gait. The risk of falls increases with age and is compounded by diabetic neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to analyze how rocker bottom shoes affect posture control of older adults (50-75 years old) and younger adults (20-35 years old) in response to posterior slide perturbations. The postural response to a posterior platform translation was normalized among subjects by applying the below threshold stepping velocity (BTSV) for each subject. The BTSV was the fastest velocity of platform translation that did not cause a stepping response while wearing the rocker bottom shoes. Joint excursion, time to first response, response time, and variability of mean peak joint angles were analyzed at the ankle, knee, hip, trunk, and head in the sagittal plane. The statistical analysis was a 2-factor mixed repeated measures design to determine interactions between and within shoe types and age groups. While wearing rocker bottom shoes, both age groups exhibited increased joint excursion, differences in time to initial response, and longer response time. The older group demonstrated decreased joint excursion and increased time to initial response compared to the younger group, as well as a significantly slower mean BTSV. These findings support the conclusion that in healthy older adults and in populations at risk for falls, the use of rocker bottom or other unstable shoes may increase the potential of falls when confronted with a standing perturbation such as a forceful slip or trip. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Holding an External Load on the Standing Balance of Older and Younger Adults With and Without Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Leonardo; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; de Oliveira Gil, André Wilson; Araújo, Cynthia Gobbi Alves; Carmargo, Mariana Zingari; Sturion, Leandro Amaral; de Oliveira, Marcio Roǵerio; da Silva, Rubens A

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of holding an external load on the standing balance of younger and older adults with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twenty participants with and 20 without CLBP participated in the study. Each group contained 10 younger (50% men) and 10 older adults (50% men). Participants were instructed to look straight ahead while standing on a force platform during two 120-second trials with and without holding an external load (10% of body mass). The center of pressure area, mean velocity, and mean frequency in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were measured. Older adults had worse standing balance than younger adults did (P external load significantly increased postural instability for both age groups and CLBP status, with mean effect size across center of pressure variables of d = 0.82 for older participants without CLBP and d = 2.65 for younger participants without CLBP. These effects for people with CLBP were d = 1.65 for subgroup of older and d = 1.60 for subgroup of younger participants. Holding an external load of 10% of body mass increased postural instability of both younger and older adults with and without CLBP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Local context effects during emotional item directed forgetting in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Sara N; Dyson, Benjamin J; Yang, Lixia

    2017-09-01

    This paper explored the differential sensitivity young and older adults exhibit to the local context of items entering memory. We examined trial-to-trial performance during an item directed forgetting task for positive, negative, and neutral (or baseline) words each cued as either to-be-remembered (TBR) or to-be-forgotten (TBF). This allowed us to focus on how variations in emotional valence (independent of arousal) and instruction (TBR vs. TBF) of the previous item (trial n-1) impacted memory for the current item (trial n) during encoding. Different from research showing impairing effects of emotional arousal, both age groups showed a memorial boost for stimuli when preceded by items high in positive or negative valence relative to those preceded by neutral items. This advantage was particularly prominent for neutral trial n items that followed emotional items suggesting that, regardless of age, neutral memories may be strengthened by a local context that is high in valence. A trending age difference also emerged with older adults showing greater sensitivity when encoding instructions changed between trial n-1 and n. Results are discussed in light of age-related theories of cognitive and emotional processing, highlighting the need to consider the dynamic, moment-to-moment fluctuations of these systems.

  4. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20–27 years) and older (28–35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained ≈25% and ≈30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20–35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention. PMID:19440527

  5. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Lovell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years and older (28-35 years adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement. Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained »25% and »30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  6. Barriers to exercise in younger and older non-exercising adult women: a cross sectional study in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-04-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants' number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women's total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained approximately 25% and approximately 30% of the variance of younger and older women's total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  7. Vigorous physical activity predicts higher heart rate variability among younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard; McBerty, Victoria; Zaky, Adam; Gianotti, Melino

    2017-06-14

    Baseline heart rate variability (HRV) is linked to prospective cardiovascular health. We tested intensity and duration of weekly physical activity as predictors of heart rate variability in young adults. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were calculated based on 5-min resting electrocardiograms collected from 82 undergraduate students. Hours per week of both moderate and vigorous activity were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In regression analyses, hours of vigorous physical activity, but not moderate activity, significantly predicted greater time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability. Adjusted for weekly frequency, greater daily duration of vigorous activity failed to predict HRV indices. Future studies should test direct measurements of vigorous activity patterns as predictors of autonomic function in young adulthood.

  8. Successful weight maintainers among young adults-A ten-year prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2018-03-07

    To assess factors associated with successful weight maintenance over ten years in a prospective general population sample of young adults. Our study comprised 2452 women and 2227 men born in 1975-1979 (mean age at baseline 24 years, attrition 27.1%). Weight maintenance was defined as weight maintained within ±5% of baseline body mass index (BMI). We examined the role of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in successful weight maintenance. Relatively few young adults were able to maintain their weight over ten years (28.6% of women vs. 23.0% of men); net weight loss was uncommon (7.5% and 3.8%). Most participants gained weight (mean annual weight gain was 0.9 kg in women and 1.0 kg in men). Among women, exercise was associated with successful weight maintenance, but having two or more children, frequent use of sweet drinks, irregular eating, history of dieting (intentional weight loss) and low life satisfaction were associated with weight gain. Among men, higher baseline BMI and higher education were associated with successful weight maintenance, whereas irregular eating, history of dieting and smoking were associated with weight gain. Only about a quarter of young adults were able to resist weight gain. Regular eating and having no history of dieting were associated with successful weight maintenance in young women and men. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-11-01

    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  10. Participation in voluntary organizations and volunteer work as a compensation for the absence of work or partnership? Evidence from two German samples of younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2012-07-01

    We tested whether formal volunteering, in terms of its associations with mental health, compensates for the absence of major work and family roles among older adults or rather complements such roles among both younger and older adults. Two cross-sectional samples of younger (aged 18-42 years, N = 2,346) and older (aged 56-75 years, N = 1,422) German adults were used. We regressed mental health indicators on control variables, 2 indicators of formal volunteering (participation in voluntary organizations and volunteer work), and their interactions with employment/partnership status. Participation in voluntary organizations was associated with higher positive affect, higher life satisfaction, and fewer depressive symptoms in younger adults. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction only among working individuals, although the difference from nonworking individuals was not significant. Volunteer work was associated with higher positive affect in both age groups. In younger adults, it had no relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction among nonworking individuals and to fewer depressive symptoms among those without a steady partner. Volunteer work but not participation in voluntary organizations yielded compensatory effects on mental health among older adults.

  11. Comparable cerebral oxygenation patterns in younger and older adults during dual-task walking with increasing load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuroimaging literature on dual-task gait clearly demonstrates increased prefrontal cortex (PFC involvement when performing a cognitive task while walking. However, findings from direct comparisons of the cerebral oxygenation patterns of younger (YA and older (OA adults during dual-task walking are mixed and it is unclear how YA and OA respond to increasing cognitive load (difficulty while walking. This functional near infra-red (fNIRS study examined cerebral oxygenation of YA and OA during self-paced dual-task treadmill walking at two different levels of cognitive load (auditory n-back. Changes in accuracy (% as well as oxygenated (HbO and deoxygenated (HbR hemoglobin were examined. For the HbO and HbR measures, eight regions of interest (ROIs were assessed: the anterior and posterior dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC (aDLPFC, pDLPFC, aVLPFC, pVLPFC in each hemisphere. Nineteen YA (M = 21.83 yrs and 14 OA (M = 66.85 yrs walked at a self-selected pace while performing auditory 1-back and 2-back tasks. Walking alone (single motor: SM and performing the cognitive tasks alone (single cognitive: SC were compared to dual-task walking (DT = SM + SC. In the behavioural data, participants were more accurate in the lowest level of load (1-back compared to the highest (2-back; p ˂ .001. YA were more accurate than OA overall (p = .009, and particularly in the 2-back task (p = .048. In the fNIRS data, both younger and older adults had task effects (SM < DT in specific ROIs for ∆HbO (3 YA, 1 OA and ∆HbR (7 YA, 8 OA. After controlling for walk speed differences, direct comparisons between YA and OA did not reveal significant age differences, but did reveal a difficulty effect in HbO in the left aDLPFC (p = .028 and significant task effects (SM < DT in HbR for 6 of the 8 ROIs. Findings suggest that YA and OA respond similarly to manipulations of cognitive load when walking on a treadmill at a self-selected pace.

  12. 8-year trends in physical activity, nutrition, TV viewing time, smoking, alcohol and BMI: A comparison of younger and older Queensland adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L.; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18–65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007–2014 (n = 12,552). Regression analyses were conducted to compare the proportion of older versus younger adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight in all years combined and examine trends in the proportion of younger and older adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight over time. Older adults were more likely to meet recommended intakes of fruit and vegetable (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.23–1.67), not consume fast food (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 2.25–2.86) and be non-smokers (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 2.53–3.60) in comparison to younger adults. Conversely, older adults were less likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.95) and watch less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.74). Overall, older adults were more likely to report engaging in 3, or at least 4 out of 5 healthy behaviours. The proportion of both older and younger adults meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95–0.98 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.91–0.97 respectively), watching less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.99 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.90–0.99 respectively) and who were a healthy weight (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92–0.99 and OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.98 respectively) decreased over time. The proportion of older adults meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84–0.96) and not consuming fast food (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0

  13. False memory for idiomatic expressions in younger and older adults: evidence for indirect activation of figurative meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coane, Jennifer H; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Stillman, Chelsea M; Corriveau, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Idiomatic expressions can be interpreted literally or figuratively. These two meanings are often processed in parallel or very rapidly, as evidenced by online measures of idiomatic processing. Because in many cases the figurative meaning cannot be derived from the component lexical elements and because of the speed with which this meaning is accessed, it is assumed such meanings are stored in semantic memory. In the present study, we examined how literal equivalents and intact idiomatic expressions are stored in memory and whether episodic memory traces interact or interfere with semantic-level representations and vice versa. To examine age-invariance, younger and older adults studied lists of idioms and literal equivalents. On a recognition test, some studied items were presented in the alternative form (e.g., if the idiom was studied, its literal equivalent was tested). False alarms to these critical items suggested that studying literal equivalents activates the idiom from which they are derived, presumably due to spreading activation in lexical/semantic networks, and results in high rates of errors. Importantly, however, the converse (false alarms to literal equivalents after studying the idiom) were significantly lower, suggesting an advantage in storage for idioms. The results are consistent with idiom processing models that suggest obligatory access to figurative meanings and that this access can also occur indirectly, through literal equivalents.

  14. False memory for idiomatic expressions in younger and older adults: Evidence for indirect activation of figurative meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Coane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiomatic expressions can be interpreted literally or figuratively. These two meanings are often processed in parallel or very rapidly, as evidenced by online measures of idiomatic processing. Because in many cases the figurative meaning cannot be derived from the component lexical elements and because of the speed with which this meaning is accessed, it is assumed such meanings are stored in semantic memory. In the present study, we examined how literal equivalents and intact idiomatic expressions are stored in memory and whether episodic memory traces interact or interfere with semantic-level representations and vice versa. To examine age-invariance, younger and older adults studied lists of idioms and literal equivalents. On a recognition test, some studied items were presented in the alternative form (e.g., if the idiom was studied, its literal equivalent was tested. False alarms to these critical items suggested that studying literal equivalents activates the idiom from which they are derived, presumably due to spreading activation in lexical/semantic networks, and results in high rates of errors. Importantly, however, the converse (false alarms to literal equivalents after studying the idiom were significantly lower, suggesting an advantage in storage for idioms. The results are consistent with idiom processing models that suggest obligatory access to figurative meanings and that this access can also occur indirectly, through literal equivalents.

  15. Brain signal variability is modulated as a function of internal and external demand in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L; Garrett, Douglas D

    2018-04-01

    Variability in the Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) signal from fMRI is often associated with better cognitive performance and younger age. It has been proposed that neural variability enables flexible responding to uncertainty in a changing environment. However, signal variability reflecting environmental uncertainty may reduce to the extent that a task depends on internally-directed attention and is supported by neural "solutions" that are schematic and relatively stable within each individual. Accordingly, we examined the hypothesis that BOLD variability will be low at rest, higher during internally-directed tasks, and higher still during externally-directed tasks, and that this effect will be reduced with aging. Modulation of BOLD variability across conditions was consistent with these hypotheses, and was associated with faster and more stable behavioral performance in both young and older adults. These data support the idea that brain signal variability may modulate in response to environmental uncertainty, which is presumed to be greater in the external environment than in the internal milieu. Reduced flexibility of signal variability with age may indicate less ability to switch between internal and external brain states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Back to the future: past and future era-based schematic support and associative memory for prices in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D; McGillivray, Shannon; Worden, Kendell M

    2013-12-01

    Older adults typically display various associative memory deficits, but these deficits can be reduced when conditions allow for the use of prior knowledge or schematic support. To determine how era-specific schematic support and future simulation might influence associative memory, we examined how younger and older adults remember prices from the past as well as the future. Younger and older adults were asked to imagine the past or future, and then studied items and prices from approximately 40 years ago (market value prices from the 1970s) or 40 years in the future. In Experiment 1, all items were common items (e.g., movie ticket, coffee) and the associated prices reflected the era in question, whereas in Experiment 2, some item-price pairs were specific to the time period (e.g., typewriter, robot maid), to test different degrees of schematic support. After studying the pairs, participants were shown each item and asked to recall the associated price. In both experiments, older adults showed similar performance as younger adults in the past condition for the common items, whereas age-related differences were greater in the future condition and for the era-specific items. The findings suggest that in order for schematic support to be effective, recent (and not simply remote) experience is needed in order to enhance memory. Thus, whereas older adults can benefit from "turning back the clock," younger adults better remember future-oriented information compared with older adults, outlining age-related similarities and differences in associative memory and the efficient use of past and future-based schematic support. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Short-Term Changes in General and Memory-Specific Control Beliefs and Their Relationship to Cognition in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Allison A. M.; Hultsch, David F.; Levy-Ajzenkopf, Judi; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hunter, Michael A.; Strauss, Esther

    2007-01-01

    We examined short-term changes in younger and older adults' control beliefs. Participants completed measures of general and memory-specific competence and locus of control on 10 bi-monthly occasions. At each occasion, participants rated their control beliefs prior to and following completion of a battery of cognitive tasks. Exposure to the set of…

  18. Ultra-long pharmacokinetic properties of insulin degludec are comparable in elderly subjects and younger adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsatko, S; Deller, S; Mader, J K; Glettler, K; Koehler, G; Treiber, G; Urschitz, M; Wolf, M; Hastrup, H; Søndergaard, F; Haahr, H; Pieber, T R

    2014-01-01

    Management of diabetes in elderly subjects is complex and careful management of glucose levels is of particular importance in this population because of an increased risk of diabetes-related complications and hypoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of insulin degludec (IDeg), a basal insulin with an ultra-long duration of action, in elderly subjects with type 1 diabetes compared with younger adults. This trial was a randomised, double-blind, two-period, crossover trial conducted in a single centre and included both inpatient and outpatient periods. Subjects were men and women aged 18-35 years inclusive (younger adult group) or ≥65 years (elderly group) with type 1 diabetes who received IDeg (0.4 U/kg) via subcutaneous injection in the thigh once-daily for six days. Following 6-day dosing, a 26-hour euglycaemic glucose clamp procedure was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacodynamic effects of IDeg. Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis up to 120 h post-dose. Pharmacokinetic endpoints included the total exposure of IDeg, ie the area under the IDeg serum concentration curve during one dosing interval at steady state (AUC(IDeg,τ,SS)) (τ = 0-24 h, equal to one dosing interval) and the maximum IDeg serum concentration at steady state (C(max,IDeg,SS)). Pharmacodynamic endpoints included the total glucose-lowering effect of IDeg, ie the area under the glucose infusion rate (GIR) curve at steady state (AUC(GIR,τ,SS)), and the maximum GIR at steady state (GIR(max,IDeg,SS)). Total exposure (AUC(IDeg,τ,SS)) and maximum concentration (C(max,IDeg,SS)) of IDeg were comparable between elderly subjects and younger adults. Estimated mean age group ratios (elderly/younger adult) for AUC(IDeg,τ,SS) and C(max,IDeg,SS) and corresponding two-sided 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.04 (95 % CI 0.73-1.47) and 1.02 (95 % CI 0.74-1.39), respectively. Mean AUC(IDeg,0-12h

  19. Clinical differences between younger and older adults with HIV/AIDS starting antiretroviral therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe: a secondary analysis of the DART trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal M Parikh

    Full Text Available Clinical and immunological data about HIV in older adults from low and middle income countries is scarce. We aimed to describe differences between younger and older adults with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy in two low-income African countries.HIV clinics in Uganda and Zimbabwe.Secondary exploratory cross-sectional analysis of the DART randomized controlled trial.Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between adults aged 18-49 years (younger and ≥ 50 years (older, using two exploratory multivariable logistic regression models, one with HIV viral load (measured in a subset pre-ART and one without.A total of 3316 eligible participants enrolled in DART were available for analysis; 219 (7% were ≥ 50 years and 1160 (35% were male. Across the two adjusted regression models, older adults had significantly higher systolic blood pressure, lower creatinine clearance and were consistently less likely to be females compared to younger adults with HIV. Paradoxically, the models separately suggested that older adults had statistically significant (but not clinically important higher CD4+ cell counts and higher plasma HIV-1 viral copies at initiation. Crude associations between older age and higher baseline hemoglobin, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure and lower WHO clinical stage were not sustained in the adjusted analysis.Our study found clinical and immunological differences between younger and older adults, in a cohort of Africans starting antiretroviral therapy. Further investigations should explore how these differences could be used to ensure equity in service delivery and affect outcomes of antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Health inequalities among sexual minority adults: evidence from ten U.S. states, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John R; Farmer, Grant W; Lee, Joseph G L; Silenzio, Vincent M B; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-04-01

    Improving the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals is a Healthy People 2020 goal; however, the IOM highlighted the paucity of information currently available about LGB populations. To compare health indicators by gender and sexual orientation statuses. Data are from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys conducted January-December of 2010 with population-based samples of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged over 18 years (N=93,414) in ten states that asked about respondents' sexual orientation (response rates=41.1%-65.6%). Analyses were stratified by gender and sexual orientation to compare indicators of mental health, physical health, risk behaviors, preventive health behaviors, screening tests, health care utilization, and medical diagnoses. Analyses were conducted in March 2013. Overall, 2.4% (95% CI=2.2, 2.7) of the sample identified as LGB. All sexual minority groups were more likely to be current smokers than their heterosexual peers. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbian women had more than 30% decreased odds of having an annual routine physical exam, and bisexual women had more than 2.5 times the odds of not seeking medical care owing to cost. Compared with heterosexual men, gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese, and bisexual men were twice as likely to report a lifetime asthma diagnosis. This study represents one of the largest samples of LGB adults and finds important health inequalities, including that bisexual women bear particularly high burdens of health disparities. Further work is needed to identify causes of and intervention for these disparities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Does language help regularity learning? The influence of verbalizations on implicit sequential regularity learning and the emergence of explicit knowledge in children, younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Nicola K; Kray, Jutta

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed at investigating the ability to learn regularities across the life span and examine whether this learning process can be supported or hampered by verbalizations. For this purpose, children (aged 8-10 years) and younger (aged 19-30 years) and older (aged 70-80 years) adults took part in a sequence learning experiment. We found that verbalizing sequence-congruent information during learning is a powerful tool to generate explicit knowledge and it is especially helpful for younger adults. Although recent research suggests that implicit learning can be influenced by directing the participants' attention to relevant aspects of the task, verbalizations had a much weaker influence on implicit than explicit learning. Our results show that verbalizing during learning slows down reaction times (RTs) but does not influence the amount of implicit learning. Especially older adults were not able to overcome the cost of the dual-task situation. Younger adults, in contrast, show an initial dual-tasking cost that, in the case of a helpful verbalization, is overcome with practice and turns into a RT and learning benefit. However, when the verbalization is omitted this benefit is lost, that is, better implicit learning seems to be confined to situations in which the supporting verbalization is maintained. Additionally, we did not find reliable age differences in implicit learning in the no verbalization groups, which speaks in favor of age-invariant models of implicit learning across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Age Group Comparisons of TENS Response among Individuals with Chronic Axial Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Corey B.; Riley, Joseph L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark D.; George, Steven Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly prevalent and disabling musculoskeletal pain condition among older adults. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used to treat CLBP, however, TENS response for older adults compared to younger adults is untested. In a dose-response study stratified by age, sixty participants with axial CLBP (20 young, 20 middle-aged, 20 older) received four 20-minute sessions of high frequency, high intensity TENS over a two to three-week perio...

  3. Back muscle fatigue of younger and older adults with and without chronic low back pain using two protocols: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rubens A; Vieira, Edgar R; Cabrera, Marcos; Altimari, Leandro R; Aguiar, Andreo F; Nowotny, Alexandre H; Carvalho, Adriana F; Oliveira, Marcio R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare back muscle fatigue of younger and older participants with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twenty participants without and 20 with nonspecific CLBP participated in this study. Each group contained 10 younger (50% males; mean age: 31 ± 6 yrs) and 10 older adults (50% males; age mean: 71 ± 7 yrs). Two isometric fatigue protocols were presented randomly: (1) to maintain the unsupported trunk at the horizontal position while on a 45° Roman chair for a minute, and (2) to maintain a 10% of body weight box close to the trunk in the upright position for a minute. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals from the back (multifidus and iliocostalis) and one hip (biceps femoris) muscles were recorded bilaterally, and the median frequency fatigue estimate from linear regression slopes of the EMG time-series was computed. There were no significant (P > 0.05) age effects, and group-by-age interaction in both isometric and functional fatigue tasks. However, the CLBP groups (both younger and old) displayed more back fatigue than people without CLBP in both fatigue protocols (P size varying of d = 0.17-0.32). This study was sensitive to discriminate that individuals with CLBP did present significantly more pronounced EMG back fatigue than people without CLBP, in both younger and older adults. These results have significant clinical implications for low back pain rehabilitation programs with regard to endurance assessment in both younger and older. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-Related Differences in Brain Electrical Activity during Extended Continuous Face Recognition in Younger Children, Older Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Glimmerveen, Johanna C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Martens, Vanessa E. G.; de Bruin, Eveline A.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with…

  5. Tailoring the Mode of Information Presentation : Effects on Younger and Older Adults' Attention and Recall of Online Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Minh Hao; van Weert, Julia C M; Bol, Nadine; Loos, Eugène F.; Tytgat, Kristien M A J; van de Ven, Anthony W H; Smets, Ellen M A

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have mainly focused on tailoring message content to match individual characteristics and preferences. This study investigates the effect of a website tailored to individual preferences for the mode of information presentation, compared to 4 nontailored websites on younger and older

  6. Age-related differences in brain electrical activity during extended continuous face recognition in younger children, older children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan); J.C. Glimmerveen (Johanna C.); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); V.E. Martens (Vanessa E.G.); E.A. de Bruin (Eveline)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30

  7. Differential behavioral and physiological effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in healthy adults of younger and older age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Kirstin-Friederike; Niehoff, Martina; Feldheim, J.-F.; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated synaptic transmission have been associated with age-related motor and cognitive functional decline. Since anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) has been suggested to target cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, its potential for the treatment of deficient inhibitory activity and functional decline is being increasingly discussed. Therefore, after-effects of a single session of atDCS on resting-state and event-related short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) as evaluated with double-pulse TMS and dexterous manual performance were examined using a sham-controlled cross-over design in a sample of older and younger participants. The atDCS effect on resting-state inhibition differed in direction, magnitude, and timing, i.e., late relative release of inhibition in the younger and early relative increase in inhibition in the older. More pronounced release of event-related inhibition after atDCS was exclusively seen in the older. Event-related modulation of inhibition prior to stimulation predicted the magnitude of atDCS-induced effects on resting-state inhibition. Specifically, older participants with high modulatory capacity showed a disinhibitory effect comparable to the younger. Beneficial effects on behavior were mainly seen in the older and in tasks requiring higher dexterity, no clear association with physiological changes was found. Differential effects of atDCS on SICI, discussed to reflect GABAergic inhibition at the level of the primary motor cortex, might be distinct in older and younger participants depending on the functional integrity of the underlying neural network. Older participants with preserved modulatory capacity, i.e., a physiologically “young” motor network, were more likely to show a disinhibitory effect of atDCS. These results favor individually tailored application of tDCS with respect to specific target groups. PMID:25071555

  8. TENS to the Lateral Aspect of the Knees During Stance Attenuates Postural Sway in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yocheved Laufer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory input is known to be essential for postural control. The present study examined the effects on postural sway of sensory input delivered via transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied to the knees during stance. Electrodes from a dual-channel portable TENS unit were adhered to the skin overlying the lateral and medial aspect of both knees of 20 young healthy volunteers (mean age 24.0 years, standard deviation 4.0. Postural sway parameters were obtained during static bipedal stance with an AMTI force platform. Four stimulation conditions were tested with eyes open and with eyes closed: no TENS; TENS applied bilaterally; and TENS applied to either the right or the left knee. Participants underwent two eight-trial blocks, with each trial lasting 30 seconds. The order of conditions was randomized for each participant. Stimulation consisted of a biphasic symmetrical stimulus delivered at the sensory detection level, with a pulse duration of 200μsec and a pulse frequency of 100Hz. The application of TENS induced significant reductions in mean sway velocity and in the medio-lateral dispersion of the center of pressure, with no corresponding effect on the anterior-posterior dispersion. These findings suggest that electrical stimulation delivered at the sensory detection level to the lateral aspects of the knees may be effective in improving balance control, and that this effect may be directionally specific.

  9. Feeling younger and identifying with older adults: Testing two routes to maintaining well-being in the face of age discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana M Armenta

    Full Text Available Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger subjective age when facing discrimination, and a collective response, which involves increasing identification with the group of older adults. In three experimental studies with a total number of 488 older adults (50 to 75 years of age, we manipulated age discrimination in a job application scenario and measured the effects of both responses on perceived health and self-esteem. Statistical analyses include individual study results as well as a meta-analysis on the combined results of the three studies. Findings show consistent evidence only for the individual response, which was in turn associated with well-being. Furthermore, challenging previous research, the two responses (adopting a younger subjective age and increasing group identification were not only theoretically, but also empirically distinct. This research complements prior research by signaling the value of considering both responses to discrimination as complementary rather than mutually exclusive.

  10. Age shall not weary us: deleterious effects of self-regulation depletion are specific to younger adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Dahm

    Full Text Available Self-regulation depletion (SRD, or ego-depletion, refers to decrements in self-regulation performance immediately following a different self-regulation-demanding activity. There are now over a hundred studies reporting SRD across a broad range of tasks and conditions. However, most studies have used young student samples. Because prefrontal brain regions thought to subserve self-regulation do not fully mature until 25 years of age, it is possible that SRD effects are confined to younger populations and are attenuated or disappear in older samples. We investigated this using the Stroop color task as an SRD induction and an autobiographical memory task as the outcome measure. We found that younger participants (<25 years were susceptible to depletion effects, but found no support for such effects in an older group (40-65 years. This suggests that the widely-reported phenomenon of SRD has important developmental boundary conditions casting doubt on claims that it represents a general feature of human cognition.

  11. Age Group Comparisons of TENS Response Among Individuals With Chronic Axial Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Corey B; Riley, Joseph L; Fillingim, Roger B; Bishop, Mark D; George, Steven Z

    2015-12-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly prevalent and disabling musculoskeletal pain condition among older adults. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used to treat CLBP, however response to TENS in older adults compared with younger adults is untested. In a dose-response study stratified by age, 60 participants with axial CLBP (20 young, 20 middle-aged, 20 older) received four 20-minute sessions of high-frequency high-intensity TENS over a 2- to 3-week period in a laboratory-controlled setting. Experimental measures of pain sensitivity (mechanical pressure pain detection threshold) and central pain excitability (phasic heat temporal summation and heat aftersensations) were assessed before and after TENS. Episodic or immediate axial CLBP relief was assessed after TENS via measures of resting pain, movement-evoked-pain, and self-reported disability. Cumulative or prolonged axial CLBP relief was assessed by comparing daily pain reports across sessions. Independent of age, individuals experienced episodic increase in the pressure pain detection threshold and reduction in aftersensation after TENS application. Similarly, all groups, on average, experienced episodic axial CLBP relief via improved resting pain, movement-evoked pain, and disability report. Under this design, no cumulative effect was observed as daily pain did not improve for any age group across the 4 sessions. However, older adults received higher TENS amplitude across all sessions to achieve TENS responses similar to those in younger adults. These findings suggest that older adults experience similar episodic axial CLBP relief to that of younger individuals after high-frequency, high-intensity TENS when higher dose parameters are used. This study examined age group differences in experimental and axial CLBP response to TENS, delivered under the current recommended parameters of strong, but tolerable amplitude. Older adults had comparable TENS response although at higher TENS

  12. MRI-measured pelvic bone marrow adipose tissue is inversely related to DXA-measured bone mineral in younger and older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wei; Chen, Jun; Gantz, Madeleine; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Albu, Jeanine; Engelson, Ellen; Kotler, Donald; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective Recent research has shown an inverse relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). There is a lack of evidence at the macro-imaging level to establish whether increased BMAT is a cause or effect of bone loss. This cross-sectional study compared the BMAT and BMD relationship between a younger adult group at or approaching peak bone mass (PBM) (age 18.0-39.9 yrs) and an older group with potential bone loss (PoBL) (age 40.0-88 yrs). S...

  13. MRI-measured pelvic bone marrow adipose tissue is inversely related to DXA-measured bone mineral in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Chen, J; Gantz, M; Punyanitya, M; Heymsfield, S B; Gallagher, D; Albu, J; Engelson, E; Kotler, D; Pi-Sunyer, X; Gilsanz, V

    2012-09-01

    Recent research has shown an inverse relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). There is a lack of evidence at the macro-imaging level to establish whether increased BMAT is a cause or effect of bone loss. This cross-sectional study compared the BMAT and BMD relationship between a younger adult group at or approaching peak bone mass (PBM; age 18.0-39.9 years) and an older group with potential bone loss (PoBL; age 40.0-88.0 years). Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 560 healthy men and women with T1-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An inverse correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and pelvic, total and spine BMD in the younger PBM group (r=-0.419 to -0.461, PBMAT significantly contributed to the regression models with BMD as dependent variable and pelvic BMAT as independent variable (P=0.434-0.928). Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship between pelvic BMAT and BMD is present both in younger subjects who have not yet experienced bone loss and also in older subjects. These results provide support at the macro-imaging level for the hypothesis that low BMD may be a result of preferential differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from osteoblasts to adipocytes.

  14. MRI-measured pelvic bone marrow adipose tissue is inversely related to DXA-measured bone mineral in younger and older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Chen, Jun; Gantz, Madeleine; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Albu, Jeanine; Engelson, Ellen; Kotler, Donald; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective Recent research has shown an inverse relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). There is a lack of evidence at the macro-imaging level to establish whether increased BMAT is a cause or effect of bone loss. This cross-sectional study compared the BMAT and BMD relationship between a younger adult group at or approaching peak bone mass (PBM) (age 18.0-39.9 yrs) and an older group with potential bone loss (PoBL) (age 40.0-88 yrs). Subjects/Methods Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 560 healthy men and women with T1-weighted whole body magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results An inverse correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and pelvic, total, and spine BMD in the younger PBM group (r=-0.419 to -0.461, P<0.001) and in the older PoBL group (r=-0.405 to -0.500, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, menopausal status, total body fat, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, neither subject group (younger PBM vs. older PoBL) nor its interaction with pelvic BMAT significantly contributed to the regression models with BMD as dependent variable and pelvic BMAT as independent variable (P=0.434 to 0.928). Conclusion Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship between pelvic BMAT and BMD is present both in younger subjects who have not yet experienced bone loss and also in older subjects. These results provide support at the macro-imaging level for the hypothesis that low BMD may be a result of preferential differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from osteoblasts to adipocytes. PMID:22491495

  15. Emotional arousal and recognition memory are differentially reflected in pupil diameter responses during emotional memory for negative events in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerer, Dorothea; Hopkins, Alexandra; Betts, Matthew J; Maaß, Anne; Dolan, Ray J; Düzel, Emrah

    2017-10-01

    A better memory for negative emotional events is often attributed to a conjoint impact of increased arousal and noradrenergic modulation (NA). A decline in NA during aging is well documented but its impact on memory function during aging is unclear. Using pupil diameter (PD) as a proxy for NA, we examined age differences in memory for negative events in younger (18-30 years) and older (62-83 years) adults based on a segregation of early arousal to negative events, and later retrieval-related PD responses. In keeping with the hypothesis of reduced age-related NA influences, older adults showed attenuated induced PD responses to negative emotional events. The findings highlight a likely contribution of NA to negative emotional memory, mediated via arousal that may be compromised with aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Younger and older adults' perception of the Wundt-Hering illusion as a function of display illumination and reflectance contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor-Stetson, E; Lane, S

    1991-08-01

    Reflectance contrast (i.e., black as compared to grey figures on white ground) and display illumination were manipulated to vary the brightness contrast of Wundt-Hering figures. 16 college students and 16 older adults were presented with high, medium, and low reflectance contrast figures. For half the participants, display illumination was manipulated by covering the figures with a .5 yellow neutral density filter. Magnitude of the illusion increased significantly with increased reflectance contrast for college students, and college students were significantly more susceptible to the high contrast figures than were older adults. Display illumination had no effect on the performance of either group.

  17. Comparing the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise with an acute bout of interactive mental and physical exercise on electrophysiology and executive functioning in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Julia; Hogan, Michael; Khader, Patrick; O'Hora, Denis; Kilmartin, Liam; Walsh, Jane C; Roche, Richard; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2017-10-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive and neural functioning in older adults. The current study compared the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise with a bout of interactive mental and physical exercise (i.e., "exergaming") on executive (Stroop) task performance and event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes in younger and older adults. Results revealed enhanced executive task performance in younger and older adults after exercise, with no differences in performance between exercise conditions. Stroop (RT) performance in older adults improved more than in younger adults from pre- to post-exercise. A significant increase in EEG amplitude from pre- to post-exercise was found at the Cz site from 320 to 700 ms post-stimulus for both younger and older adults, with older adults demonstrating a larger Stroop interference effect. While younger adults exhibited overall greater EEG amplitudes than older adults, they showed no differences between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., minimal interference). Compared to peers with higher BMI (body mass index), older adults with lower BMI showed a greater reduction in Stroop interference effects from pre- to post-exercise. The beneficial effects of an acute bout of physical exercise on cognitive and neural functioning in younger and older adults were confirmed, with no difference between standard exercise and exergaming. Findings suggest that BMI, sometimes used as a proxy for fitness level, may modulate benefits that older adults derive from an acute bout of exercise. Findings have implications for future research that seeks to investigate unique effects of exergaming when compared to standard physical exercise.

  18. The impact of HIV-related stigma on older and younger adults living with HIV disease: does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A; Brennan, David J; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Rueda, Sergio; Hart, Trevor A; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent influence of age on levels of HIV-related stigma experienced by adults living with HIV/AIDS. To accomplish this, cross-sectional data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study were used to determine whether older age is associated with overall stigma among HIV-positive adults living in Ontario, Canada (n = 960). The relationship was also tested for enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma. Covariates included sociodemographic (e.g., gender, sexual orientation, race) and psychosocial variables (e.g., depression). Modifying effects of covariates were also investigated. Those 55 and older have significantly lower overall and internalized stigma than adults under age 40, even when accounting for gender, sexual orientation, income, time since diagnosis, depression, maladaptive coping, and social support. Age does not predict enacted or Anticipated Stigma when accounting for the demographic and psychosocial variables. A significant interaction between depression and age suggests that stigma declines with age among those who are depressed but increases to age 50 and then decreases in older age groups among those who are not depressed. Age matters when it comes to understanding stigma among adults living with HIV/AIDS; however, the relationship between age and stigma is complex, varying according to stigma type and depression level.

  19. Effects of a Lutein and Zeaxanthin Intervention on Cognitive Function: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Younger Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi-Hammond, Lisa M; Bovier, Emily R; Fletcher, Laura M; Miller, L Stephen; Mewborn, Catherine M; Lindbergh, Cutter A; Baxter, Jeffrey H; Hammond, Billy R

    2017-11-14

    Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD) are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have addressed the issue of xanthophylls and cognitive function in younger adults, and no controlled trials have been conducted to date to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z can change cognitive function in this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z could improve cognitive function in young (age 18-30), healthy adults. Design: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial design was used. Fifty-one young, healthy subjects were recruited as part of a larger study on xanthophylls and cognitive function. Subjects were randomized into active supplement ( n = 37) and placebo groups ( n = 14). MPOD was measured psychophysically using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Cognitive function was measured using the CNS Vital Signs testing platform. MPOD and cognitive function were measured every four months for a full year of supplementation. Results: Supplementation increased MPOD significantly over the course of the year, vs. placebo ( p cognitive function in young, healthy adults. Magnitudes of effects are similar to previous work reporting correlations between MPOD and cognition in other populations.

  20. Lipid profile in adult patients with Fabry disease - Ten-year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Stepien

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Adult patients with Fabry disease have remarkably elevated HDL-cholesterol and as a result, elevated total cholesterol. It is possible that elevated HDL-cholesterol has a cardioprotective effect in patients with this condition. Long term ERT does not have a significant impact on lipid profile in female and male population with Fabry disease.

  1. Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a significant problem in the older population. Most falls occur during gait, which is primarily regulated by foot placement. Variability of foot placement has been associated with falls, but these associations are inconsistent and generally for smooth, level flooring. This study investigates the control of foot placement and the associated gait variability in younger and older men and women (N=7/group, total N=28 while walking at three different speeds (slow, preferred, and fast across a control surface with no obstacles and surfaces with multiple (64 small (10cm long ×13mm high visible and hidden obstacles. Results Minimum obstacle distance between the shoe and nearest obstacle during each footfall was greater on the visible obstacles surface for older subjects because some of them chose to actively avoid obstacles. This obstacle avoidance strategy was implemented primarily by modulating step width and to a lesser extent step length as indicated by linear regressions of step width and length variability on minimum obstacle distance. Mean gait speed, step length, step width, and step time did not significantly differ by subject group, flooring surface, or obstacle avoidance strategy. Conclusions Some healthy older subjects choose to actively avoid small obstacles that do not substantially perturb their gait by modulating step width and, to a lesser extent, step length. It is not clear if this obstacle avoidance strategy is appropriate and beneficial or overcautious and maladaptive, as it results in fewer obstacles encountered at a consequence of a less efficient gait pattern that has been shown to indicate increased fall risk. Further research is needed on the appropriateness of strategy selection when the environmental demands and/or task requirements have multiple possible completion strategies with conflicting objectives (i.e. perceived safety vs. efficiency.

  2. Marginal Bone Loss after Ten Years in an Adult Danish Population: A Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Golnosh; Vaeth, Michael; Wenzel, Ann; Isidor, Flemming

    To evaluate marginal bone loss over a 10-year period in individuals and in tooth groups in relation to age and level of marginal bone. In 1997, 616 randomly selected individuals (mean age: 42 years, range: 21-63 years) underwent a full-mouth radiographic survey. In 2008, the survey was repeated in 362 of the same individuals (182 women and 180 men). The marginal bone level of each tooth was measured in mm from the cementoenamel junction to the marginal bone. These measurements were used to calculate marginal bone loss during the 10-year period for individuals and tooth groups in relation to age and to baseline marginal bone level, calculated as the average between measurements in 1997 and 2008 to circumvent regression towards the mean. The average annual marginal bone loss was 0.09 mm (SD ± 0.04 mm) during the 10-year study period. The association between marginal bone loss and baseline marginal bone level was more pronounced in the youngest age group, compared to the other age groups. Molars displayed the most severe bone loss during the study period. Marginal bone loss over a 10-year period is associated with age and baseline marginal bone level. Younger individuals with a reduced marginal bone level were at higher risk for further bone loss. Molars lose marginal bone more rapidly than other tooth groups.

  3. Trans-fatty acid consumption and heart rate variability in two separate cohorts of older and younger adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Stein, Phyllis K; Imamura, Fumiaki; Sattelmair, Jacob; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Siscovick, David S; Mota, Jorge; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Background Trans-fatty acid (TFA) consumption is associated with risk of coronary heart disease, and trans-18:2, but not trans-18:1, in red blood cells membranes has been associated with sudden cardiac arrest. Abnormal heart rate variability (HRV) reflects autonomic dysfunction and predicts cardiac death. Relationships between TFA consumption and HRV remain under-studied. We determined whether total TFA consumption, as well as trans-18:1 and trans-18:2 TFA consumption, were independently associated with HRV in two independent cohorts in the US and Portugal. Methods and Results In two independent cohorts of older US adults (Cardiovascular Health Study ([CHS], age=72±5yrs, 1989/1995) and young Portuguese adults (Porto, age=19±2yrs, 2008/2010), we assessed habitual TFA intake by food frequency questionnaires in CHS (separately estimating trans-18:1 and trans-18:2) and multiple 24-hour recalls in Porto (estimating total TFA only, which in a subset correlated with circulating trans-18:2, but not trans-18:1, suggesting that we captured the former). HRV was assessed using 24-hour Holters in CHS (N=1,076) and repeated short-term (5-min) ECGs in Porto (N=160). We used multivariate-adjusted linear regression to relate TFA consumption to HRV cross-sectionally (CHS, Porto) and longitudinally (CHS). In CHS, higher trans-18:2 consumption was associated with lower 24-hour standard-deviation-of-all-normal-to-normal-intervals (SDNN) both cross-sectionally (−12%, 95%CI=6–19%, p=0.001) and longitudinally (−15%, 95%CI=4–25 %, p= 0.009), and lower 24-hour SDANN and SDNN-index (pHRV, in particular time-domain indices (SDNN, SDANN, SDNN-index; pHRV in both older and young adults. Trans-18:1 consumption is associated with more favorable HRV indices in older adults. Our results support the need to investigate potential HRV related mechanisms whereby trans-18:2 may increase arrhythmic risk. PMID:22772898

  4. Making working memory work: A meta-analysis of executive control and working memory training in younger and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Karbach, Julia; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effects of process-based cognitive training (49 studies) in the domains of executive function and working memory in older adults (>60 years). The interventions resulted in significant effects on the trained task (pre-to-posttest net gain: MSD = 0.5 compared to active control, MSD = 0.8 compared to passive control; net posttest effect: MSD = 1.2 compared to active control, MSD = 1.1 compared to passive control), significant near transfer (pre-post: MSD = 0.3, 0....

  5. Management of spleen injuries in the adult trauma population: a ten-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Margherita; Garnett, Anna; Al-Anezi, Khaled; Farrokhyar, Forough

    2006-12-01

    Increasing awareness of the postoperative risks associated with splenectomies has led physicians and surgeons to use an alternative nonoperative strategy in handling traumatic spleen injuries. Our primary objective was to compare clinical outcomes between operative and nonoperative managements in adult patients with blunt splenic injuries. The secondary objective was to assess the changes in the patterns of managing splenic injuries in the past 10 years. We performed a retrospective chart review on 266 adult patients with a spleen injury who were admitted to a tertiary trauma centre in Ontario between 1992 and 2001. We grouped and compared the patients according to the treatment received, either operative or nonoperative. Frequencies and confidence intervals are reported. Categorical variables were compared with chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Continuous variables were reported as median and quartile (Q) and were compared with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Of 266 patients, 118 had surgery and 148 were managed nonoperatively. The mortality rate was similar between operative and nonoperative groups (9.3% v. 6.8%, p = 0.49), respectively. The rate of any complication was 47.9% for the operative group and 37.9% for the nonoperative group. The median length of stay in hospital was significantly higher in the operative group than in the nonoperative group (21.0 [Q 11.0-40.5] v. 14.0 [Q 7.0-31.5] d, p trauma has increased over time and has acceptable mortality and complication rates in selected patients. Additional prospective studies are needed to assess the feasibility and safety of nonoperative management in adult spleen injuries. Furthermore, the management of traumatic spleen injuries with respect to associated injuries, such as head injuries or intra-abdominal injuries, needs ongoing evaluation.

  6. Episodic memory and self-reference via semantic autobiographical memory: Insights from an fMRI study in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eKalenzaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-referential processing relies mainly on the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and enhances memory encoding (i.e., Self-Reference Effect, SRE as it improves the accuracy and richness of remembering in both young and older adults. However, studies on age-related changes in the neural correlates of the SRE on the subjective (i.e., autonoetic consciousness and the objective (i.e., source memory qualitative features of episodic memory are lacking. In the present fMRI study, we compared the effects of a self-related (semantic autobiographical memory task and a non self-related (general semantic memory task encoding condition on subsequent episodic memory retrieval. We investigated encoding-related activity during each condition in two groups of 19 younger and 16 older adults. Behaviorally, the SRE improved subjective memory performance in both groups but objective memory only in young adults. At the neural level, a direct comparison between self-related and non self-related conditions revealed that SRE mainly activated the cortical midline system, especially the MPFC, in both groups. Additionally, in older adults and regardless of the condition, greater activity was found in a fronto-parietal network. Overall, correlations were noted between source memory performance and activity in the MPFC (irrespective of age and visual areas (mediated by age. Thus, the present findings expand evidence of the role of the MPFC in self-referential processing in the context of source memory benefit in both young and older adults using incidental encoding via semantic autobiographical memory. However, our finding suggests that its role is less effective in aging.

  7. Episodic memory and self-reference via semantic autobiographical memory: insights from an fMRI study in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenzaga, Sandrine; Sperduti, Marco; Anssens, Adèle; Martinelli, Penelope; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Gallarda, Thierry; Delhommeau, Marion; Lion, Stéphanie; Amado, Isabelle; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Self-referential processing relies mainly on the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and enhances memory encoding (i.e., Self-Reference Effect, SRE) as it improves the accuracy and richness of remembering in both young and older adults. However, studies on age-related changes in the neural correlates of the SRE on the subjective (i.e., autonoetic consciousness) and the objective (i.e., source memory) qualitative features of episodic memory are lacking. In the present fMRI study, we compared the effects of a self-related (semantic autobiographical memory task) and a non self-related (general semantic memory task) encoding condition on subsequent episodic memory retrieval. We investigated encoding-related activity during each condition in two groups of 19 younger and 16 older adults. Behaviorally, the SRE improved subjective memory performance in both groups but objective memory only in young adults. At the neural level, a direct comparison between self-related and non self-related conditions revealed that SRE mainly activated the cortical midline system, especially the MPFC, in both groups. Additionally, in older adults and regardless of the condition, greater activity was found in a fronto-parietal network. Overall, correlations were noted between source memory performance and activity in the MPFC (irrespective of age) and visual areas (mediated by age). Thus, the present findings expand evidence of the role of the MPFC in self-referential processing in the context of source memory benefit in both young and older adults using incidental encoding via semantic autobiographical memory. However, our finding suggests that its role is less effective in aging.

  8. Adult Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis in Qatar:clinical pattern of ten cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahmi Yousef Khan; Mohammed Abukhattab; Mohammed AbuKamar; Deshmukh Anand

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical presentation, underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, treatment and outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis patients. Methods:This retrospective study involved all patients with 15 years of age or older who admitted to Hamad General Hospital with culture proven Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012. Results: A total of ten cases were identified (nine males and one female). Their mean age was (43.3±12.8) years. Eight patients (80%) had nosocomial meningitis with neurosurgery being the most frequent associated condition. Fever and altered consciousness were the most frequent symptom. Cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated protein and glucose levels. Gram stain showed Gram-negative rods in 50%of cases, while positive cerebrospinal fluid culture results were found in all patients. Multidrug resistance was observed in two cases, and all patients had received appropriate empirical and definitive antibiotic treatments. The mean duration of intravenous antimicrobial treatment was (19.3±7.0) d and all patients with external ventricular drains underwent removal of the device, while in-hospital mortality was 50%. Conclusions: The number of cases was too small to come up with therapeutic and prognostic conclusions. Further large-scale prospective study is needed.

  9. Adult Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis in Qatar:clinical pattern of ten cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahmi; Yousef; Khan; Mohammed; Abukhattab; Mohanuned; Abukamar; Deshmukh; Anand

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To describe the clinical presentation,underlying diseases,antimicrobial susceptibility,treatment and outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis patients.Methods:This retrospective study involved all patients with 15 years of age or older who admit ted to Hamad General Hospital with culture proven Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis from January 1,2007 to December 31,2012.Results:A total of ten cases were identified mine males and one female).Their mean age was i43.3±12.8) years.Eight patients(80%) had nosocomial meningitis with neurosurgery being the most frequent associated condition.Fever and altered consciousness were the most frequent symptom.Cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated protein and glucose levels.Oram slain showed Gram—negative rods in 50%of cases,while positive cerebrospinal fluid culture results were found in all patients.Multidrug resistance was observed in two cases,and all patients had received appropriate empirical and definitive antibiotic treatments.The mean duration of intravenous antimicrobial treatment was(19.3±7.0) d and all patients with external ventricular drains underwent removal of the device,while in—hospital mortality was 50%.Conclusions:The number of cases was too small to come up with therapeutic and prognostic conclusions.Further large-scale prospective study is needed.

  10. Ten-year mortality in a sample of an adult population in relation to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyzanowski, M; Wojtyniak, B

    1982-12-01

    The 10-year mortality in a sample of adult inhabitants of Cracow, Poland, was analysed according to the levels of air pollution in the area of residence. Smoking habit and several social and occupational factors were considered in the analysis, which was carried out with the use of a multivariate method for categorical variables. Among men the main effect of air pollution was marginally significant, but there was a significant interaction between air pollution and smoking. Among women no such relation could be detected. Also, the association between female mortality and smoking was not significant. From other factors considered in the analysis, only exposure at work to dust, high humidity, and variable temperature was related to mortality in both men and women. In addition among women higher mortality was related to a lower level of education.

  11. Effects of a Lutein and Zeaxanthin Intervention on Cognitive Function: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Younger Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Renzi-Hammond

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have addressed the issue of xanthophylls and cognitive function in younger adults, and no controlled trials have been conducted to date to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z can change cognitive function in this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z could improve cognitive function in young (age 18–30, healthy adults. Design: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial design was used. Fifty-one young, healthy subjects were recruited as part of a larger study on xanthophylls and cognitive function. Subjects were randomized into active supplement (n = 37 and placebo groups (n = 14. MPOD was measured psychophysically using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Cognitive function was measured using the CNS Vital Signs testing platform. MPOD and cognitive function were measured every four months for a full year of supplementation. Results: Supplementation increased MPOD significantly over the course of the year, vs. placebo (p < 0.001. Daily supplementation with L + Z and increases in MPOD resulted in significant improvements in spatial memory (p < 0.04, reasoning ability (p < 0.05 and complex attention (p < 0.04, above and beyond improvements due to practice effects. Conclusions: Supplementation with L + Z improves CNS xanthophyll levels and cognitive function in young, healthy adults. Magnitudes of effects are similar to previous work reporting correlations between MPOD and cognition in other populations.

  12. Development and validity of methods for the estimation of temporal gait parameters from heel-attached inertial sensors in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misu, Shogo; Asai, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Rei; Sawa, Ryuichi; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Ando, Hiroshi; Doi, Takehiko

    2017-09-01

    The heel is likely a suitable location to which inertial sensors are attached for the detection of gait events. However, there are few studies to detect gait events and determine temporal gait parameters using sensors attached to the heels. We developed two methods to determine temporal gait parameters: detecting heel-contact using acceleration and detecting toe-off using angular velocity data (acceleration-angular velocity method; A-V method), and detecting both heel-contact and toe-off using angular velocity data (angular velocity-angular velocity method; V-V method). The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of the A-V and V-V methods against the standard method, and to compare their accuracy. Temporal gait parameters were measured in 10 younger and 10 older adults. The intra-class correlation coefficients were excellent in both methods compared with the standard method (0.80 to 1.00). The root mean square errors of stance and swing time in the A-V method were smaller than the V-V method in older adults, although there were no significant discrepancies in the other comparisons. Our study suggests that inertial sensors attached to the heels, using the A-V method in particular, provide a valid measurement of temporal gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Between-person and within-person associations among processing speed, attention switching, and working memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Hofer, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Theories of cognitive aging predict associations among processes that transpire within individuals, but are often tested by examining between-person relationships. The authors provide an empirical demonstration of how associations among measures of processing speed, attention switching, and working memory are different when considered between persons versus within persons over time. A sample of 108 older adults (M (age) = 80.8, range = 66-95) and 68 younger adults (M (age) = 20.2, range = 18-24) completed measures of processing speed, attention switching, and working memory on six occasions over a 14-day period. Multilevel modeling was used to examine processing speed and attention switching performance as predictors of working memory performance simultaneously across days (within-person) and across individuals (between-person). The findings indicates that simple comparison and response speed predicted working memory better than attention switching between persons, whereas attention switching predicted working memory better than simple comparison and response speed within persons over time. Furthermore, the authors did not observe strong evidence of age differences in these associations either within or between persons. The findings of the current study suggest that processing speed is important for understanding between-person and age-related differences in working memory, whereas attention switching is more important for understanding within-person variation in working memory. The authors conclude that theories of cognitive aging should be evaluated by analysis of within-person processes, not exclusively age-related individual differences.

  14. The effect of time perspectives on mental health information processing and help-seeking attitudes and intentions in younger versus older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Julie; Mackenzie, Corey S; Menec, Verena H; Bailis, Daniel S

    2017-03-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory posits that changes in time perspective over the lifespan are associated with distinct goals and motivations. Time perspectives and their associated socioemotional motivations have been shown to influence information processing and memory, such that motivation-consistent information is more likely to be remembered and evaluated more positively. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of motivation-consistent mental health information on memory for and evaluations of this information, as well as help-seeking attitudes and intentions to seek mental health services. We randomly assigned an Internet-based sample of 160 younger (18-25) and 175 older (60-89) adults to read a mental health information pamphlet that emphasized time perspectives and motivations relevant to either young adulthood (future-focused) or late adulthood (present-focused). Participants completed measures assessing their time perspective, memory for and subjective evaluation of the pamphlet, and help-seeking attitudes and intentions. The time perspective manipulation had no effect on memory for pamphlet information or help-seeking attitudes and intentions. There was, however, a significant interaction between time perspective and pamphlet version on the rated liking of the pamphlet. Although motivation-consistent information only affected perceptions of that information for present-focused (mostly older) individuals, this finding has important implications for enhancing older adults' mental health literacy.

  15. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  16. A Ten Year Descriptive Study of Adult Leukaemia at Al-Jomhori Teaching Hospital in Sana'a, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Al-Ghazaly

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scarcity of data of the epidemiology of leukaemia in Arab countries including Yemen. Understanding patterns of leukaemia underpins epidemiology and can provide insight into disease etiology. The aim of this research is to determine the epidemiologic pattern of adult leukaemia in Yemen. Methods: The research is a descriptive cross-sectional study. We analyzed the data of 702 adult patients with leukaemia, who were newly diagnosed over a ten-year period between October 1999 and October 2009 at the referral haematology centre in Sana’a at Al-Jomhori Teaching Hospital, according to type of leukaemia, age, sex, geographic distribution and time of diagnosis. Results: Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML was found to be the most common (45.1% followed by Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML (26.5%, Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia (ALL (17.7% and Chronic Lymphoid Leukaemia (CLL (10.7%, respectively. There was an almost equal prevalence of AML and CML for males and females but males had significantly more cases of ALL and CLL (p =0.008. A significant variation in geographic pattern showed that the highest number of cases is seen the Central mountainous region and the least number of cases in the South-eastern region which is coastal and lowland (p<0.001. The seasonal variation showed that higher number of ALL cases was seen in the summer months (33% compared with other seasons (21% in the spring, 24.2% in autumn and 21.8% in winter. Conclusions: The pattern of adult leukaemia in Yemen is different from that seen in western countries which could be attributed to different environmental exposure. The geographic pattern indicates a possible role of certain environmental factors which warrant further investigations. The pattern of seasonal variation needs further studies for evaluating the seasonality.

  17. Age invariance in semantic and episodic metamemory: both younger and older adults provide accurate feeling-of-knowing for names of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Deborah K; Hertzog, Christopher; Harris, William

    2014-01-01

    Age differences in feeling-of-knowing (FOK) accuracy were examined for both episodic memory and semantic memory. Younger and older adults either viewed pictures of famous faces (semantic memory) or associated non-famous faces and names (episodic memory) and were tested on their memory for the name of the presented face. Participants viewed the faces again and made a FOK prediction about future recognition of the name associated with the presented face. Finally, four-alternative forced-choice recognition memory for the name, cued by the face, was tested and confidence judgments (CJs) were collected for each recognition response. Age differences were not obtained in semantic memory or the resolution of semantic FOKs, defined by within-person correlations of FOKs with recognition memory performance. Although age differences were obtained in level of episodic memory, there were no age differences in the resolution of episodic FOKs. FOKs for correctly recognized items correlated reliably with CJs for both types of materials, and did not differ by age group. The results indicate age invariance in monitoring of retrieval processes for name-face associations.

  18. Age Invariance in Semantic and Episodic Metamemory: Both Younger and Older Adults Provide Accurate Feeling of Knowing For Names of Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Deborah K.; Hertzog, Christopher; Harris, William

    2013-01-01

    Age differences in feeling-of-knowing (FOK) accuracy were examined for both episodic memory and semantic memory. Younger and older adults either viewed pictures of famous faces (semantic memory) or associated nonfamous faces and names (episodic memory) and were tested on their memory for the name of the presented face. Participants viewed the faces again and made a FOK prediction about future recognition of the name associated with the presented face. Finally, four-alternative forced-choice recognition memory for the name, cued by the face, was tested and confidence judgments (CJs) were collected for each recognition response. Age differences were not obtained in semantic memory or the resolution of semantic FOKs, defined by within-person correlations of FOKs with recognition memory performance. Although age differences were obtained in level of episodic memory, there were no age differences in the resolution of episodic FOKs. FOKs for correctly recognized items correlated reliably with CJs for both types of materials, and did not differ by age group. The results indicate age invariance in monitoring of retrieval processes for name-face associations. PMID:23537379

  19. The facilitative effects of glucose ingestion on memory retrieval in younger and older adults: is task difficulty or task domain critical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M; McMurtrie, Hazel; Smallwood, Jonathan; Ballantyne, Carrie; Meikle, Andrew; Smith, Emily

    2006-02-01

    The ingestion of a glucose-containing drink has been shown to improve cognitive performance, particularly memory functioning. However, it remains unclear as to the extent to which task domain and task difficulty moderate the glucose enhancement effect. The aim of this research was to determine whether boosts in performance are restricted to particular classes of memory (episodic v. semantic) or to tasks of considerable cognitive load. A repeated measures (25 g glucose v. saccharin), counterbalanced, double-blind design was used with younger and older adults. Participants performed a battery of episodic (e.g. paired associate learning) and semantic memory (e.g. category verification) tasks under low and high cognitive load. Electrophysiological measures (heart rate and galvanic skin response) of arousal and mental effort were also gathered. The results indicated that whilst glucose appeared to aid episodic remembering, cognitive load did not exaggerate the facilitative effect. For semantic memory, there was little evidence to suggest that glucose can boost semantic memory retrieval even when the load was manipulated. One exception was that glucose facilitated performance during the difficult category fluency task. Regardless, the present findings are consistent with the domain-specific account in which glucose acts primarily on the hippocampal region, which is known to support episodic memory. The possible contribution of the hippocampus in semantic memory processing is also discussed.

  20. The impact of glucose ingestion and gluco-regulatory control on cognitive performance: a comparison of younger and middle aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Andrew; Riby, Leigh M; Stollery, Brian

    2004-12-01

    A great deal of research has been devoted to the issue of whether the ingestion of a glucose containing drink facilitates cognitive performance. However, it remains unclear exactly how age and individual differences in gluco-regulatory control mediate a boost in cognitive functioning. The present study investigates these issues further. A repeated measures (25 g vs 50 g glucose vs placebo) counterbalanced, double-blind design was used with 25 younger and middle-aged adults. A battery of memory and non-memory tasks was administered; including tests of episodic and semantic memory, attention and visuospatial functioning. Glucose ingestion largely facilitated performance on tasks with a memory component. Notably, task demands and age (young vs middle-aged) contributed to the magnitude of memory enhancement. This finding suggests an age- and load-specific benefit of glucose intake. In addition, evidence suggests greater facilitation in individuals with good glucose regulation. These data are discussed in relation to the idea that glucose specifically affects neural mechanisms supporting memory functioning (i.e. the hippocampus), which are known to decline in ageing. Importantly, the present investigation adds to the growing body of literature showing the utility of glucose supplementation as memory enhancers. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. When Age and Culture Interact in an Easy and Yet Cognitively Demanding Task: Older Adults, But Not Younger Adults, Showed the Expected Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between age and culture can have various implications for cognition as age represents the effect of biological processes whereas culture represents the effect of sustaining experiences. Nevertheless, their interaction has rarely been examined. Thus, based on the fact that Asians are more intuitive in reasoning than Americans, we examined how this cultural difference might interact with age. Young and old participants from the US and Singapore performed a categorization task (living vs. non-living). To measure their reliance on intuition, we manipulated the typicality of targets (animate vs. inanimate). We showed that (1) RTs for inanimate organisms were slower than RTs for animate organisms (atypicality cost), (2) the cost was particularly large for older adults and (3) an age × culture interaction was observed such that cultural differences in the cost (Singaporeans > Americans) was found only among older participants. Further, we demonstrated that the age effect was associated with cognitive function and the culture effect among older adults was associated with cultural values. Finally, a moderated mediation analysis suggests that cognitive function and cultural values interact with each other in order to jointly influence one's cognition.

  2. When Age and Culture Interact in an Easy and Yet Cognitively Demanding Task: Older Adults, But Not Younger Adults, Showed the Expected Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise C.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between age and culture can have various implications for cognition as age represents the effect of biological processes whereas culture represents the effect of sustaining experiences. Nevertheless, their interaction has rarely been examined. Thus, based on the fact that Asians are more intuitive in reasoning than Americans, we examined how this cultural difference might interact with age. Young and old participants from the US and Singapore performed a categorization task (living vs. non-living). To measure their reliance on intuition, we manipulated the typicality of targets (animate vs. inanimate). We showed that (1) RTs for inanimate organisms were slower than RTs for animate organisms (atypicality cost), (2) the cost was particularly large for older adults and (3) an age × culture interaction was observed such that cultural differences in the cost (Singaporeans > Americans) was found only among older participants. Further, we demonstrated that the age effect was associated with cognitive function and the culture effect among older adults was associated with cultural values. Finally, a moderated mediation analysis suggests that cognitive function and cultural values interact with each other in order to jointly influence one’s cognition. PMID:28396649

  3. Flexible guided self-determination intervention for younger adults with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes, decreased HbA1c and psychosocial distress in women but not in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, V; Vistisen, D; Due-Christensen, M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report results from an 18-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the effectiveness of a flexible guided self-determination (GSD) intervention on glycaemic control and psychosocial distress in younger adults with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Between January 2010 and...

  4. Becoming disabled: The association between disability onset in younger adults and subsequent changes in productive engagement, social support, financial hardship and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Kariuki, Maina; Honey, Anne; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2014-10-01

    Very few population-based studies have investigated the association between the onset of health conditions/impairments associated with disability and subsequent well-being. To examine the association between the onset of disability and four indicators of well-being (full-time engagement in employment or education, financial hardship, social support, subjective well-being) among a nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents and young adults. Secondary analysis of the first eight waves (2001-2008) of the survey of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia. For financial hardship and subjective well-being, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was no evidence that the onset of disability was associated with a subsequent lowering of well-being. For participation in employment and education, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest immediate reduction in participation rates followed by subsequent stability. For social support, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest temporary reduction in support followed by rebound back to initial levels. Membership of classes associated with poorer outcomes was associated with a number of covariates including: male gender; younger age of disability onset; being born overseas; not living with both parents at age 14; lower proficiency in the English language; and parental education being year 12 or below. The results of our analyses illustrate the existence of clear empirically defined trajectory classes following the onset of disability across a range of indicators of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. All-trans retinoic acid as adjunct to intensive treatment in younger adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia: results of the randomized AMLSG 07-04 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenk, Richard F; Lübbert, Michael; Benner, Axel; Lamparter, Alexander; Krauter, Jürgen; Herr, Wolfgang; Martin, Hans; Salih, Helmut R; Kündgen, Andrea; Horst, Heinz-A; Brossart, Peter; Götze, Katharina; Nachbaur, David; Wattad, Mohammed; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Fiedler, Walter; Bentz, Martin; Wulf, Gerald; Held, Gerhard; Hertenstein, Bernd; Salwender, Hans; Gaidzik, Verena I; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Weber, Daniela; Döhner, Konstanze; Ganser, Arnold; Döhner, Hartmut

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the impact of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in combination with chemotherapy and to assess the NPM1 status as biomarker for ATRA therapy in younger adult patients (18-60 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients were randomized for intensive chemotherapy with or without open-label ATRA (45 mg/m 2 , days 6-8; 15 mg/m 2 , days 9-21). Two cycles of induction therapy were followed by risk-adapted consolidation with high-dose cytarabine or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Due to the open label character of the study, analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) and a per-protocol (PP) basis. One thousand one hundred patients were randomized (556, STANDARD; 544, ATRA) with 38 patients treated vice versa. Median follow-up for survival was 5.2 years. ITT analyses revealed no difference between ATRA and STANDARD for the total cohort and for the subset of NPM1-mutated AML with respect to event-free (EFS; p = 0.93, p = 0.17) and overall survival (OS; p = 0.24 and p = 0.32, respectively). Pre-specified PP analyses revealed better EFS in NPM1-mutated AML (p = 0.05) and better OS in the total cohort (p = 0.03). Explorative subgroup analyses on an ITT basis revealed better OS (p = 0.05) in ATRA for genetic low-risk patients according to ELN recommendations. The clinical trial is registered at clinicaltrialsregister.eu (EudraCT Number: 2004-004321-95).

  6. Development of a modified prognostic index for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma aged 70 years or younger: possible risk-adapted management strategies including allogeneic transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Utsunomiya, Atae; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Owatari, Satsuki; Miyagi, Takashi; Taguchi, Jun; Choi, Ilseung; Otsuka, Eiichi; Nakachi, Sawako; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurosawa, Saiko; Tobinai, Kensei; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2017-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma is a distinct type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation after chemotherapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, there is no consensus about indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because there is no established risk stratification system for transplant eligible patients. We conducted a nationwide survey of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in order to construct a new, large database that includes 1,792 patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 and received intensive first-line chemotherapy. We randomly divided patients into two groups (training and validation sets). Acute type, poor performance status, high soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels (> 5,000 U/mL), high adjusted calcium levels (≥ 12 mg/dL), and high C-reactive protein levels (≥ 2.5 mg/dL) were independent adverse prognostic factors used in the training set. We used these five variables to divide patients into three risk groups. In the validation set, median overall survival for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups was 626 days, 322 days, and 197 days, respectively. In the intermediate- and high-risk groups, transplanted recipients had significantly better overall survival than non-transplanted patients. We developed a promising new risk stratification system to identify patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who may benefit from upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm the benefit of this treatment strategy. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  7. Encouraging effects of a short-term, adapted Nordic diet intervention on skin microvascular function and skin oxygen tension in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, David; McNeill, Scott; Könönen, Heidi; Klonizakis, Markos

    2018-05-01

    The microvascular benefits of regional diets appear in the literature; however, little is known about Nordic-type diets. We investigated the effects of a short-term, adapted, Nordic diet on microvascular function in younger and older individuals at rest and during activity. Thirteen young (mean age: 28 y; standard deviation: 5 y) and 15 older (mean age: 68 y; standard deviation: 6 y) participants consumed a modified Nordic diet for 4 wk. Laser Doppler flowmetry and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring were used to assess cutaneous microvascular function and oxygen tension pre- and postintervention; blood pressure, body mass, body fat percentage, ratings of perceived exertion, and peak heart rate during activity were examined concurrently. Axon-mediated vasodilation improved in older participants (1.17 [0.30] to 1.30 [0.30]; P Nordic diet might improve microvascular health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel use of the Nintendo Wii board as a measure of reaction time: a study of reproducibility in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Martin Gronbech; Paramanathan, Sentha; Ryg, Jesper; Masud, Tahir; Andersen, Stig

    2015-07-10

    Reaction time (RT) has been associated with falls in older adults, but is not routinely tested in clinical practice. A simple, portable, inexpensive and reliable method for measuring RT is desirable for clinical settings. We therefore developed a custom software, which utilizes the portable and low-cost standard Nintendo Wii board (NWB) to record RT. The aims in the study were to (1) explore if the test could differentiate old and young adults, and (2) to study learning effects between test-sessions, and (3) to examine reproducibility. A young (n = 25, age 20-35 years, mean BMI of 22.6) and an old (n = 25, age ≥65 years, mean BMI of 26.3) study-population were enrolled in this within- and between-day reproducibility study. A standard NWB was used along with the custom software to obtain RT from participants in milliseconds. A mixed effect model was initially used to explore systematic differences associated with age, and test-session. Reproducibility was then expressed by Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Coefficient of Variance (CV), and Typical Error (TE). The RT tests was able to differentiate the old group from the young group in both the upper extremity test (p Nintendo wii board showed good reproducibility, no or little systematic learning effects across test-sessions, and could differentiate between young and older adults in both upper and lower extremity tests.

  9. Estimating the relative weights of visual and auditory tau versus heuristic-based cues for time-to-contact judgments in realistic, familiar scenes by older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Campos, Jennifer L; DeLucia, Patricia R; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Estimating time to contact (TTC) involves multiple sensory systems, including vision and audition. Previous findings suggested that the ratio of an object's instantaneous optical size/sound intensity to its instantaneous rate of change in optical size/sound intensity (τ) drives TTC judgments. Other evidence has shown that heuristic-based cues are used, including final optical size or final sound pressure level. Most previous studies have used decontextualized and unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., geometric shapes on a blank background). Here we evaluated TTC estimates by using a traffic scene with an approaching vehicle to evaluate the weights of visual and auditory TTC cues under more realistic conditions. Younger (18-39 years) and older (65+ years) participants made TTC estimates in three sensory conditions: visual-only, auditory-only, and audio-visual. Stimuli were presented within an immersive virtual-reality environment, and cue weights were calculated for both visual cues (e.g., visual τ, final optical size) and auditory cues (e.g., auditory τ, final sound pressure level). The results demonstrated the use of visual τ as well as heuristic cues in the visual-only condition. TTC estimates in the auditory-only condition, however, were primarily based on an auditory heuristic cue (final sound pressure level), rather than on auditory τ. In the audio-visual condition, the visual cues dominated overall, with the highest weight being assigned to visual τ by younger adults, and a more equal weighting of visual τ and heuristic cues in older adults. Overall, better characterizing the effects of combined sensory inputs, stimulus characteristics, and age on the cues used to estimate TTC will provide important insights into how these factors may affect everyday behavior.

  10. Issues in the economic evaluation of influenza vaccination by injection of healthy working adults in the US: a review and decision analysis of ten published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    The objective was to review recent economic evaluations of influenza vaccination by injection in the US, assess their evidence, and conclude on their collective findings. The literature was searched for economic evaluations of influenza vaccination injection in healthy working adults in the US published since 1995. Ten evaluations described in nine papers were identified. These were synopsized and their results evaluated, the basic structure of all evaluations was ascertained, and sensitivity of outcomes to changes in parameter values were explored using a decision model. Areas to improve economic evaluations were noted. Eight of nine evaluations with credible economic outcomes were favourable to vaccination, representing a statistically significant result compared with a proportion of 50% that would be expected if vaccination and no vaccination were economically equivalent. Evaluations shared a basic structure, but differed considerably with respect to cost components, assumptions, methods, and parameter estimates. Sensitivity analysis indicated that changes in parameter values within the feasible range, individually or simultaneously, could reverse economic outcomes. Given stated misgivings, the methods of estimating influenza reduction ascribed to vaccination must be researched to confirm that they produce accurate and reliable estimates. Research is also needed to improve estimates of the costs per case of influenza illness and the costs of vaccination. Based on their assumptions, the reviewed papers collectively appear to support the economic benefits of influenza vaccination of healthy adults. Yet the underlying assumptions, methods and parameter estimates themselves warrant further research to confirm they are accurate, reliable and appropriate to economic evaluation purposes.

  11. Disclosure and Self-Efficacy Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison Between Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Serovich, Julianne M; Kimberly, Judy A; Umasabor-Bubu, Ogie

    2015-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the US. HIV among older adults also continues to be an important public health problem. Age is associated with disclosure of HIV serostatus and self-efficacy for condom use. However, studies examining self-efficacy and disclosure among older MSM (age 50 and older) living with HIV are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between being 50 and older, and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices among HIV-positive MSM. Data were gathered from 340 participants at the baseline assessment of a longitudinal disclosure intervention study. Linear regression was used to determine the association between being older (age 50 and older) and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices. After adjusting for time since diagnosis and number of sexual partners, MSM aged 50 and older scored lower in disclosure behavior (β = -7.49; 95% CI: -14.8, -0.18) and in self-efficacy for negotiation of safer sex practices (β = -0.80; 95% CI: -1.57, -0.04) compared to MSM 18-34 years. Intervention and prevention programs should endeavor to improve disclosure and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices among older HIV-positive MSM. More health care providers should initiate sexual health discussions, especially among older HIV-positive MSM populations, which may help to improve their disclosure behavior and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices.

  12. Exploring older and younger adults' preferences for health information and participation in decision making using the Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Mo; Feldman, Robert; Zhou, Le

    2014-12-01

    Existing measurements of patient preferences cover only a limited range of health information and participation in decision making. A broader approach is necessary to understand the breadth and variations in patient preferences. To explore the breadth and variances in patient preferences for health information and participation in decision making and to understand the relationship between age and each type of preference. The Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ) was administered during May-December 2010 to gather data about the information and corresponding decision-making autonomy participants would want in seven areas: diagnosis, treatment, laboratory tests, self-care, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), psychosocial factors and health-care providers. A large state university, public libraries and senior centres in Maryland, USA. A convenience sample of 438 individuals, including 226 undergraduates (mean age = 20; SD = 2.15) and 212 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 72; SD = 9.00). Ratings on the information and decision-making items of the HIWQ. Participants expressed higher levels of preference for information than for participation in decision making on six of seven subscales. On the psychosocial subscale, they expressed stronger desire for participation in decision making than for information. Age had no predictive effect on the overall preferences or specific preferences for information and participation in decision making about standard treatments and CAM. The predictive effect of age on the other types of preferences varied significantly. Physicians should take into account the breadth and variations in patient preferences. The predictive effect of age on patient preferences varied depending on the specific area of preferences. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Disclosure and Self-Efficacy Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison Between Older and Younger Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serovich, Julianne M.; Kimberly, Judy A.; Umasabor-Bubu, Ogie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the US. HIV among older adults also continues to be an important public health problem. Age is associated with disclosure of HIV serostatus and self-efficacy for condom use. However, studies examining self-efficacy and disclosure among older MSM (age 50 and older) living with HIV are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between being 50 and older, and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices among HIV-positive MSM. Data were gathered from 340 participants at the baseline assessment of a longitudinal disclosure intervention study. Linear regression was used to determine the association between being older (age 50 and older) and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices. After adjusting for time since diagnosis and number of sexual partners, MSM aged 50 and older scored lower in disclosure behavior (β = −7.49; 95% CI: −14.8, −0.18) and in self-efficacy for negotiation of safer sex practices (β = −0.80; 95% CI: −1.57, −0.04) compared to MSM 18–34 years. Intervention and prevention programs should endeavor to improve disclosure and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices among older HIV-positive MSM. More health care providers should initiate sexual health discussions, especially among older HIV-positive MSM populations, which may help to improve their disclosure behavior and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices. PMID:26348705

  14. A qualitative study of younger men's experience of heart attack (myocardial infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Christopher J; de Zoysa, Nicole; Hutton, Jane M

    2017-09-01

    The effects of heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), across psychosocial domains may be particularly acute in younger adults, for whom serious health events are non-normative. MI morbidity is declining in Western countries, but in England MI numbers have plateaued for the under-45 cohort, where approximately 90% of patients are male. Qualitative research on younger adults' experience of MI is limited, and no study has sampled exclusively under-45s. This study aimed to understand how a sample of men under 45 adjusted to and made sense of MI. Qualitative research design based on semi-structured in-depth interviews. Ten men aged under 45 who had experienced MI in the past 3-6 months were purposively recruited and interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Seven superordinate themes were identified. This article focuses in depth on the three most original themes: (1) 'I'm less of a man', which described experiences of losing 'maleness' (strength, independence, ability to provide) post-MI; (2) 'Shortened horizons', which covered participants' sense of foreshortened future and consequent reprioritization; and (3) 'Life loses its colour', describing the loss of pleasure from lifestyle-related changes. Themes broadly overlapped with the qualitative literature on younger adult MI. However, some themes (e.g., loss of 'maleness' post-MI, and ambivalence towards MI risk factors) appeared unique to this study. Themes were also discussed in relation to risk factors for anxiety and depression and how this might inform clinical care for a younger, male population. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Myocardial infarction (MI) morbidity is not declining in England for under-45s. Adjustment to MI is particularly challenging for younger adults, perhaps because it is non-normative. However, little is known about the experience of MI in younger adults. What does this study add? This

  15. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  16. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae) - A comparison with haploid males, queens and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andreia A; Humann, Fernanda C; Oliveira Campos, Lucio A; Tavares, Mara G; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid) on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i) gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii) in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  17. Younger Adults Derive Pleasure and Utilitarian Benefits from Browsing for Music Information Seeking in Physical and Digital Spaces. A Review of: Laplante, A., & Downie, J. S. (2011). The utilitarian and hedonic outcomes of music information-seeking in everyday life. Library & Information Science Research, 33, 202-210. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2010.11.002

    OpenAIRE

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2012-01-01

    Objective – This study’s objective was to identify the utilitarian and hedonic features of satisfying music information seeking experiences from the perspective of younger adults when using physical and digital music information retrieval (MIR) systems in their daily lives.Design – In-depth, semi-structured interviews.Setting – Large public library in Montreal, Canada.Subjects – 15 French-speaking younger adults,10 males and 5 females (aged 18 to 29 years, mean age of 24 years).Methods – A pr...

  18. Emotional Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.E. Langeslag (Sandra)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the interaction between emotion and cognition, which changes with advancing age. The goals of this project were to examine age differences in emotional modulation of long-term memory (LTM), short-term memory (STM), and emotion regulation. The main approach was to

  19. Destination memory in social interaction: better memory for older than for younger destinations in normal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger destinations. This hypothesis is based on empirical research showing better memory for older faces than for younger faces in older adults. Forty-one older adults and 44 younger adults were asked to tell proverbs to older and younger destinations (i.e., coloured faces). On a later recognition test, participants had to decide whether they had previously told some proverb to an older/younger destination or not. Prior to this task, participants reported their frequency of contact with other-age groups. The results showed lower destination memory in older adults than in younger adults. Interestingly, older adults displayed better memory for older than for younger destinations. The opposite pattern was seen in younger adults. The low memory for younger destinations, as observed in older adults, was significantly correlated with limited exposure to younger individuals. These findings suggest that for older adults, the social experience can play a crucial role in the destination memory, at least as far as exposure to other-age groups is concerned.

  20. Contributions of COPD, asthma, and ten comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes among US adults with obstructive airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terrence E; McAvay, Gail J; Allore, Heather G; Stamm, Jason A; Simonelli, Paul F

    2017-01-01

    Among persons with obstructive airway disease, the relative contributions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and common comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes (PCOs) have not been previously reported. We followed a total of 3,486 persons aged ≥40 years with COPD, asthma, or both at baseline, from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) cohorts enrolled annually from 2008 through 2012 for 1 year. MEPS is a prospective observational study of US households recording self-reported COPD, asthma, and ten medical conditions: angina, arthritis, cancer, coronary heart disease, cognitive impairment, diabetes, hypertension, lung cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. We studied the separate contributions of these conditions to health care utilization (all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization, any emergency department [ED] visit, and six or more outpatient visits) and PCOs (seven or more days spent in bed due to illness, incident loss of mobility, and incident decline in self-perceived health). COPD made the largest contributions to all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization and ED visits, while arthritis made the largest contribution to outpatient health care. Arthritis and COPD, respectively, made the greatest contributions to the PCOs. COPD made the largest and second largest contributions to health care utilization and PCOs among US adults with obstructive airway disease. The twelve medical conditions collectively accounted for between 52% and 61% of the health care utilization outcomes and between 53% and 68% of the PCOs. Cognitive impairment, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke also made significant contributions.

  1. Icon arrays help younger children's proportional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Xu, Fei

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the effects of two context variables, presentation format (icon arrays or numerical frequencies) and time limitation (limited or unlimited time), on the proportional reasoning abilities of children aged 7 and 10 years, as well as adults. Participants had to select, between two sets of tokens, the one that offered the highest likelihood of drawing a gold token, that is, the set of elements with the greater proportion of gold tokens. Results show that participants performed better in the unlimited time condition. Moreover, besides a general developmental improvement in accuracy, our results show that younger children performed better when proportions were presented as icon arrays, whereas older children and adults were similarly accurate in the two presentation format conditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is a developmental improvement in proportional reasoning accuracy. Icon arrays facilitate reasoning in adults with low numeracy. What does this study add? Participants were more accurate when they were given more time to make the proportional judgement. Younger children's proportional reasoning was more accurate when they were presented with icon arrays. Proportional reasoning abilities correlate with working memory, approximate number system, and subitizing skills. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Contributions of COPD, asthma, and ten comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes among US adults with obstructive airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy TE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrence E Murphy,1 Gail J McAvay,1 Heather G Allore,1 Jason A Stamm,2 Paul F Simonelli2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Thoracic Medicine, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA Background: Among persons with obstructive airway disease, the relative contributions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and common comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes (PCOs have not been previously reported.Methods: We followed a total of 3,486 persons aged ≥40 years with COPD, asthma, or both at baseline, from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS cohorts enrolled annually from 2008 through 2012 for 1 year. MEPS is a prospective observational study of US households recording self-reported COPD, asthma, and ten medical conditions: angina, arthritis, cancer, coronary heart disease, cognitive impairment, diabetes, hypertension, lung cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. We studied the separate contributions of these conditions to health care utilization (all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization, any emergency department [ED] visit, and six or more outpatient visits and PCOs (seven or more days spent in bed due to illness, incident loss of mobility, and incident decline in self-perceived health.Results: COPD made the largest contributions to all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization and ED visits, while arthritis made the largest contribution to outpatient health care. Arthritis and COPD, respectively, made the greatest contributions to the PCOs.Conclusion: COPD made the largest and second largest contributions to health care utilization and PCOs among US adults with obstructive airway disease. The twelve medical conditions collectively accounted for between 52% and 61% of the health care utilization outcomes and between 53

  3. Clinical experience with TENS and TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen. Report of 371 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Quarnstrom, F. C.; Milgrom, P.

    1989-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alone or TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2O) was administered for restorative dentistry without local anesthesia to 371 adult patients. A total of 55% of TENS alone and 84% of TENS/N2O visits were rated successful. A total of 53% of TENS alone and 82% of TENS/N2O patients reported slight or no pain. In multivariable analyses, pain reports were related to the anesthesia technique and patient fear and unrelated to sex, race, age, toot...

  4. Obesity and sexual dysfunction in younger Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Heitman, B. L.; Wagner, Gorm

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Proportion of populations that are overweight and obese are on the rise and generally affecting more than 50% of the adult Western male population. It is, therefore, of interest to look at possible associations between obesity and sexual function in a homogeneous population. AIM......: To examine a possible association between sexual disorders (erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorders, and sexual desire disorders) and obesity among younger men born and living in Denmark. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study of sexual health among Danish younger men. Questionnaires were...... the younger obese nonsmokers than obese smokers. Premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, and sexual desire disorders were all unrelated to overweight or obesity. CONCLUSION: Obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) seems associated with ED among younger men aged 20-45 years. Health programs directed toward...

  5. Ten-Year Trends (2000-2010) of Overweight and Obesity Prevalence among the Young and Middle-Aged Adult Population of the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Josep L; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed at assessing the 10-year trends (2000-2010) in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) for young (18-35 year-olds) and middle-aged (36-55 year-olds) adults living in the Balearics was calculated. Data represented 1,089 people during 1999-2000 and 1,081 people during 2009-2010. The BMI categories were as follows: normal weight (18.5 obese (≥30). Weighted frequency estimates and logistic regression analysis were used to calculate overweight and obesity trends. While the prevalence of overweight and obesity mostly remained stable over the 2000-2010 period, the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.1 to 8.3% in young adults (aged 18-35), a 1.66-fold increase in prevalence (95% CI 1.02-2.70) over the study period. Total overweight and obesity prevalence remained stable in the Balearic adult population; however, a rising prevalence of obesity has been observed in young adults, which suggests a need to develop and change current strategies in order to reverse the current trends in obesity among this age group. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  7. HIPs at Ten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, George; O'Donnell, Ken; Schneider, Carol Geary

    2017-01-01

    2017 is the anniversary of the introduction of what are now commonly known as high-impact practices (HIPs). Many of the specific activities pursued under the HIPs acronym have been around in some form for decades, such as study abroad, internships, and student-faculty research. It was about ten years ago that, after conferring HIPs at Ten with…

  8. The pediatric athlete: younger athletes with sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Proctor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although much of the lay media attention surrounding sport-related concussion (SRC) focuses on professional athletes, SRC is a common injury in pediatric sports. The anatomy, biomechanics, and response to injury of the developing pediatric brain differ from those of the adult. Similarly, the neurocognitive abilities of the child are developing more rapidly than in an adult. The effects of concussive brain injury on the life of a child are different from those of an adult. This article focuses on the aspects of SRC that are specific to the younger athletes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chernobyl ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The accident in the fourth reactor plant in Chernobyl in Ukraine occurred ten years years ago, caused the death of 31 people while the health consequences have turned out to be difficult to assess. This review describes the accident, its consequences and effects to health, studies carried out at the present state as well as the comparison with the other accidents and disaster. (author)

  10. Tens bij bevallingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin-Nuis, F.D.F.

    2000-01-01

    TENS (Transcutane Electrische Neuro Stimulatie) is een pijnverlichtingsmethode die berust op de Gate Control Theory van Melzack en Wall. Door middel van electrische pulsen via de huid zou de geleiding van nociceptieve signalen (pijnprikkels) worden beïnvloed en zou het lichaam endorfinen aanmaken:

  11. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  12. Older Siblings Influence Younger Siblings' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah E.; Nuzzo, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Evidence exists for two competing theories about the effects of having an older sibling on development. Previous research has found that having an older sibling has both advantages and disadvantages for younger siblings' development. This study examined whether and how older siblings influenced the onset of their own younger siblings' motor…

  13. Irrational ideas. Older vs. younger inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, L A; Jacobsen, R; Harrison, W R

    1985-04-01

    The relationship to age of irrational beliefs among psychiatric inpatients has not been explored using the rational-emotive model. This study addressed the following two questions: 1) Do older and younger psychiatric inpatients differ in irrational beliefs? 2) Do older depressives differ from older nondepressives in irrational beliefs? Upon admission to a large medical center, 58 younger (less than 45 years old) and 54 older (greater than 55 years old) subjects were assessed on a battery of psychological tests, including the Idea Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results showed that older and younger inpatients did not differ on irrational beliefs. Results also showed that older and younger groups of depressives did not differ on the irrationality scores. When a correlational analysis was used, depression was related to irrationality within the older group but not within the younger group.

  14. Powers of ten

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    Powers of Ten is a 1977 short documentary film written and directed by Charles Eames and his wife, Ray. The film depicts the relative scale of the Universe in factors of ten (see also logarithmic scale and order of magnitude). The idea for the film appears to have come from the 1957 book Cosmic View by Kees Boeke. The film begins with an aerial image of a man reclining on a blanket; the view is that of one meter across. The viewpoint, accompanied by expository voiceover, then slowly zooms out to a view ten meters across ( or 101 m in standard form), revealing that the man is picnicking in a park with a female companion. The zoom-out continues, to a view of 100 meters (102 m), then 1 kilometer (103 m), and so on, increasing the perspective—the picnic is revealed to be taking place near Soldier Field on Chicago's waterfront—and continuing to zoom out to a field of view of 1024 meters, or the size of the observable universe. The camera then zooms back in to the picnic, and then to views of negative pow...

  15. Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pikala, Małgorzata; Bielecki, Wojciech; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Rębowska, Ewa; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Pająk, Andrzej; Piwoński, Jerzy; Tykarski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA) patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland. The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20-74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003-2005; n = 14572) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014; n = 5694). In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey). Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity. Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001). The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003-2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men); 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%). In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01). No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01). Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001). About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey. The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance.

  16. Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kwaśniewska

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland.The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20-74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003-2005; n = 14572 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014; n = 5694. In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey. Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity.Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001. The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003-2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men; 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%. In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01. No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01. Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001. About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey.The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance.

  17. Colorectal cancer in younger population: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, A.Q.; Samo, K.A.; Memon, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To promote awareness regarding increased occurrence of colorectal cancer in younger population and its clinicopathological features compared to older patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2010 to January 2011 on patients with diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma admitted through emergency or outpatient departments to Surgical Unit 5, Civil Hospital, Karachi. Data regarding age, gender, presentation, site of tumour, surgery performed and Dukes staging was collected and analysed. Results: A total of 23 patients were operated during the study period: 13 (56.52%) males and 10 (43.47%) females. Of them 12 (52.17%) were below the age of 40 years, while 3 (13.04%) patients were in the 11-20 age group. In 7 (30.4%) patients, tumour was irresectable at the time of presentation so a palliative procedure (diversion colostomy or ileostomy) was performed. There was a higher proportion of younger patients with metastatic disease at the time of presentation (n=9; 75%) while 10 out of 12 patients in the younger age group (83.3%) had a tumour of left colon, particularly rectum. Conclusion: Although colorectal cancer is usually a disease of older patients, it is increasingly becoming more common in younger population. Data suggests a leftward distribution for colorectal carcinoma and that younger patients present with more advanced disease and poorer prognosis. (author)

  18. The ten thousand Kims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-07-01

    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  19. The ten thousand Kims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-01-01

    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  20. Stress Modulates Reinforcement Learning in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lighthall, Nichole R.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J.; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentiv...

  1. Phasic alerting increases visual attention capacity in younger but not in older individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Petersen, Anders; Bundesen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated effects of phasic alerting on visual attention in younger and older adults. We modelled parameters of visual attention based on the computational Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and measured event-related lateralizations (ERLs) in a partial report task, in w...... and attention, which governs the responsiveness to external cues and is critical for general cognitive functioning in aging.......In the present study, we investigated effects of phasic alerting on visual attention in younger and older adults. We modelled parameters of visual attention based on the computational Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and measured event-related lateralizations (ERLs) in a partial report task...

  2. Younger Adults Derive Pleasure and Utilitarian Benefits from Browsing for Music Information Seeking in Physical and Digital Spaces. A Review of: Laplante, A., & Downie, J. S. (2011. The utilitarian and hedonic outcomes of music information-seeking in everyday life. Library & Information Science Research, 33, 202-210. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2010.11.002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study’s objective was to identify the utilitarian and hedonic features of satisfying music information seeking experiences from the perspective of younger adults when using physical and digital music information retrieval (MIR systems in their daily lives.Design – In-depth, semi-structured interviews.Setting – Large public library in Montreal, Canada.Subjects – 15 French-speaking younger adults,10 males and 5 females (aged 18 to 29 years, mean age of 24 years.Methods – A pre-test was completed to test the interview guide. The guide was dividedinto five sections asking the participants questions about their music tastes, how music fit into their daily lives, how they discovered music, what music information sources were used and how they were used, what made their experiences satisfying, and theirbiographical information. Participants were recruited between April 1, 2006 and August 8,2007 following maximum variation samplingfor the main study. Recruitment stopped whendata saturation was reached and no new themes arose during analysis. Interviews were recorded and the transcripts were analyzed via constant comparative method (CCM to determine themes and patterns. Main Results – The researchers found that both utilitarian and hedonic factors contributed to satisfaction with music information seeking experiences for the young adults. Utilitarian factors were divided between two main categories: finding music and finding information about music. Finding information about music could be further divided into three sub-categories: increasing cultural knowledge and social acceptance through increased knowledge about music, enriching the listening experience by finding information about the artist and the music, and gathering information to help with future music purchases including information that would help the participants recommend music to others. Hedonic outcomes that contributed to satisfying information seeking

  3. Older and Younger Adults’ Accuracy in Discerning Health and Competence in Older and Younger Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Franklin, Robert G.; Boshyan, Jasmine; Luevano, Victor; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined older and younger adults’ accuracy judging the health and competence of faces. Accuracy differed significantly from chance and varied with face age but not rater age. Health ratings were more accurate for older than younger faces, with the reverse for competence ratings. Accuracy was greater for low attractive younger faces, but not for low attractive older faces. Greater accuracy judging older faces’ health was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and looking older as predictors of their health. Greater accuracy judging younger faces’ competence was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and a positive expression as predictors of their competence. Although the ability to recognize variations in health and cognitive ability is preserved in older adulthood, the effects of face age on accuracy and the different effects of attractiveness across face age may alter social interactions across the life span. PMID:25244467

  4. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-12-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.

  5. Verbal play as a discourse resource in the social interactions of older and younger communication pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa Collins

    2014-01-01

    Verbal play, or the playful manipulation of elements of language, is a pervasive component of social interaction, serving important interpersonal functions. We analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of ten healthy younger pairs and ten healthy older pairs as they completed a collaborative referencing task. A total of 1,893 verbal play episodes were coded. While there were no group differences in verbal play frequency, age-related differences in the quality and function of these episodes emerged. While older participants engaged in more complex, extended, and reciprocal episodes that supported the social nature of communicative interactions (e.g., teasing), younger participants were more likely to engage in verbal play episodes for the purpose of successful task completion. Despite these age-related variations in the deployment of verbal play, verbal play is a robust interactional discourse resource in healthy aging, highlighting an element of human cognition that does not appear to decline with age.

  6. Younger and Sicker: Comparing Micronesians to Other Ethnicities in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Megan Kiyomi Inada; Miyamura, Jill; Yamada, Seiji; Sentell, Tetine

    2016-03-01

    We compared the age at admission and the severity of illness of hospitalized Micronesians with 3 other racial/ethnic groups in Hawaii. With Hawaii Health Information Corporation inpatient data, we determined the age at admission and the severity of illness for 162,152 adult, non-pregnancy-related hospital discharges in Hawaii from 2010 to 2012. We performed multivariable linear regression analyses within major disease categories by racial/ethnic group. We created disease categories with all patient refined-diagnosis related groups. Hospitalized Micronesians were significantly younger at admission than were comparison racial/ethnic groups across all patient refined-diagnosis related group categories. The severity of illness for Micronesians was significantly higher than was that of all comparison racial/ethnic groups for cardiac and infectious diseases, higher than was that of Whites and Japanese for cancer and endocrine hospitalizations, and higher than was that of Native Hawaiians for substance abuse hospitalizations. Micronesians were hospitalized significantly younger and often sicker than were comparison populations. Our results will be useful to researchers, state governments, and hospitals, providers, and health systems for this vulnerable group.

  7. Younger and Older Users’ Recognition of Virtual Agent Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jenay M.; Smarr, Cory-Ann; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    As technology advances, robots and virtual agents will be introduced into the home and healthcare settings to assist individuals, both young and old, with everyday living tasks. Understanding how users recognize an agent’s social cues is therefore imperative, especially in social interactions. Facial expression, in particular, is one of the most common non-verbal cues used to display and communicate emotion in on-screen agents (Cassell, Sullivan, Prevost, & Churchill, 2000). Age is important to consider because age-related differences in emotion recognition of human facial expression have been supported (Ruffman et al., 2008), with older adults showing a deficit for recognition of negative facial expressions. Previous work has shown that younger adults can effectively recognize facial emotions displayed by agents (Bartneck & Reichenbach, 2005; Courgeon et al. 2009; 2011; Breazeal, 2003); however, little research has compared in-depth younger and older adults’ ability to label a virtual agent’s facial emotions, an import consideration because social agents will be required to interact with users of varying ages. If such age-related differences exist for recognition of virtual agent facial expressions, we aim to understand if those age-related differences are influenced by the intensity of the emotion, dynamic formation of emotion (i.e., a neutral expression developing into an expression of emotion through motion), or the type of virtual character differing by human-likeness. Study 1 investigated the relationship between age-related differences, the implication of dynamic formation of emotion, and the role of emotion intensity in emotion recognition of the facial expressions of a virtual agent (iCat). Study 2 examined age-related differences in recognition expressed by three types of virtual characters differing by human-likeness (non-humanoid iCat, synthetic human, and human). Study 2 also investigated the role of configural and featural processing as a

  8. Habitual fat intake predicts memory function in younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Leigh eGibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old, recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23 and controls (n=15. Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd., i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test. Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA, were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a delayed pattern matching test. The significant nutrient-cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for mono- (MUFA and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public

  9. Low Levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in Younger Burnout Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Lennartsson

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s is an anabolic protective hormone of importance for maintenance of health. DHEA-s levels peak in young adults and decline thereafter with age. DHEA-s has previously been shown to be lower in individuals reporting prolonged stress. This study investigates DHEA-s levels in patients with clinical burnout, a disorder caused by long-term psychosocial stress.122 patients (51% men and 47 controls (51% men in the age 25-54 years were included in the study. DHEA-s levels were compared between patients and controls in the whole sample and within each of the three 10-year-interval age groups.In the youngest age group (25-34 years, DHEA-s levels were on average 25% lower in the patients (p = 0.006. The differences in DHEA-s levels between patients and controls were more pronounced among female than male participants (on average 32% and 13% lower, respectively. There were no differences in DHEA-s levels between patients and controls in the age group 35-44 years (p = 0.927 or 45-54 years (p = 0.897 or when analyzing all age groups together (p = 0.187.The study indicates that levels of the health promoting "youth" hormone DHEA-s are low in younger burnout patients. The fact that younger adults have much higher DHEA-s levels and more pronounced inter-subject variability in DHEA-s levels than older individuals might explain why burnout status differentiates patients from controls only among the youngest patients included in this study.

  10. Destination memory in social interaction: Better memory for older than for younger destinations in normal aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Raffard, S.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.

    2018-01-01

    Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger

  11. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  12. ABACC ten years applying safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias

    2001-01-01

    The Argentinian-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of nuclear special materials has been in operations for ten years. The rational behind the creation and the work performed by the Agency during the last decade is described. (author)

  13. Perceived barriers to physical activity in older and younger veterans with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Anjana; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Molinari, Victor; Goldberg, Richard W

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness endorse many more medical and psychosocial barriers to physical activity (PA) than the general population. However, it is unknown if older adults with serious mental illness are at greater risk of experiencing barriers to PA than their younger counterparts. The present study utilized a national VA dataset to compare veterans with serious mental illness ages 55 and older (n = 9,044) to veterans with serious mental illness ages 54 and younger (n = 8,782) on their responses to a questionnaire assessment of barriers to PA. Older veterans were more likely to endorse arthritis and cardiopulmonary disease, and less likely to endorse work schedule, as barriers to PA. Interventions designed to increase PA for young/middle-aged adults with serious mental illness may be broadly useful for older adults with serious mental illness, with some modification to address specific health concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Multiple causes of the Younger Dryas cold period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renssen, H.; Mairesse, A.; Goosse, H.J.M.; Mathiot, P.; Heiri, O.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Nisancioglu, K.H.; Valdes, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Younger Dryas cooling event disrupted the overall warming trend in the North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation. Climate change during the Younger Dryas was abrupt, and thus provides insights into the sensitivity of the climate system to perturbations. The sudden Younger Dryas cooling

  15. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are

  16. Ten Lessons from Ten Years PPP Experience in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, T.; Verhoest, K.; Voets, J.; Coppens, T.; van Dooren, W.; van den Hurk, M.

    2017-01-01

    In 2004 Flanders, the northern region of Belgium launched a range of large public–private partnership (PPP) projects for a total value of 6 billion euros. Ten years later, PPP has become a well-embedded procurement method for long-term public infrastructure projects. This article makes a critical

  17. Family Caregivers' Experiences of Caring for a Relative With Younger Onset Dementia: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabote, Christy Joy; Bramble, Marguerite; McCann, Damhnat

    2015-08-01

    Family caregiving for people with younger onset dementia affects everyone in the family unit. This article presents findings of a qualitative systematic review exploring the experiences of family caregivers of persons with younger onset dementia. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of five relevant articles, and two groups within the family unit were identified-child caregivers and adult and spousal caregivers. Using the thematic synthesis approach, five themes emerged: dementia damage, grief for loss of relationship, changes in family roles, positive and negative impacts of family caregiving, and transition to formal care. The review findings support increasing evidence that despite the stress of caring for a person with dementia damage, family members have the capacity to cope, adapt, and grow through their experiences. Nurses can assist families to identify their unique strengths and enhance family resiliency so they can navigate the "lonely road" of younger onset dementia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. A Ten-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  19. Thinking about a Limited Future Enhances the Positivity of Younger and Older Adults’ Recall: Support for Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Sarah J.; Opitz, Philipp C.; Martins, Bruna; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Compared with younger adults, older adults have a relative preference to attend to and remember positive over negative information. This is known as the “positivity effect,” and researchers have typically evoked socioemotional selectivity theory to explain it. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, as people get older they begin to perceive their time left in life as more limited. These reduced time horizons prompt older adults to prioritize achieving emotional gratification and thus...

  20. Ten years later: Evaluation of the effectiveness of 12.5% amitraz against a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using field studies, artificial infestation (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-12-15

    Using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and in vitro adult immersion tests, the present study evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of 12.5% amitraz administered via whole body spraying against a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population that did not have any contact with chemical products belonging to this acaricide family for 10 years (approximately 40 generations). Two natural infestation trials, two artificial infestation trials (Stall tests) and two adult immersion tests were performed in two different stages in 2005 and 2015. Between 2002 and 2015, the bovine herd of this property was formed by approximately 450 animals from the Simmental breed that were divided into nine paddocks formed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. For the natural infestation experiments in 2005 and 2015, we selected nearly 70 animals naturally infested with ticks from the same herd that belonged to the "São Paulo" farm located in São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. Field studies were performed in the same paddock (9). To evaluate anti-R. (B.) microplus activity in the artificially infested cattle (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, two experiments of each methodology were performed at CPPAR (the Center of Research in Animal Health located on the FCAV/UNESP campus in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil) in 2005 and 2015. R. (B.) microplus used in the artificial infestation, and adult immersion test experiments were obtained from paddocks 1-9 in 2005 and 2015 from the commercial farm where the field studies were performed. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that amitraz use in rotation with pyrethroids every 28 days for three consecutive years (2002-2004) previous to the beginning of the first trial (2005) was sufficient to generate a R. (B.) microplus strain resistant to amitraz. Moreover, using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, we verified that 40 generations of the tick species with no

  1. Ten per cent more grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-08-15

    At a low estimate, ten per cent of stored grain is lost every year to insect pests. In this article, based on a lecture given earlier this year in Switzerland, Dr. Harry E. Goresline, Food Radiation Specialist of the Food and Agriculture Organisation, now assisting the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, explains how use of radiation can help to prevent losses and the research which has taken place to ensure its safety

  2. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A requiem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Podoll, Andrew; Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, R. Scott; Ishman, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) impact hypothesis is a recent theory that suggests that a cometary or meteoritic body or bodies hit and/or exploded over North America 12,900 years ago, causing the YD climate episode, extinction of Pleistocene megafauna, demise of the Clovis archeological culture, and a range of other effects. Since gaining widespread attention in 2007, substantial research has focused on testing the 12 main signatures presented as evidence of a catastrophic extraterrestrial event 12,900 years ago. Here we present a review of the impact hypothesis, including its evolution and current variants, and of efforts to test and corroborate the hypothesis. The physical evidence interpreted as signatures of an impact event can be separated into two groups. The first group consists of evidence that has been largely rejected by the scientific community and is no longer in widespread discussion, including: particle tracks in archeological chert; magnetic nodules in Pleistocene bones; impact origin of the Carolina Bays; and elevated concentrations of radioactivity, iridium, and fullerenes enriched in 3He. The second group consists of evidence that has been active in recent research and discussions: carbon spheres and elongates, magnetic grains and magnetic spherules, byproducts of catastrophic wildfire, and nanodiamonds. Over time, however, these signatures have also seen contrary evidence rather than support. Recent studies have shown that carbon spheres and elongates do not represent extraterrestrial carbon nor impact-induced megafires, but are indistinguishable from fungal sclerotia and arthropod fecal material that are a small but common component of many terrestrial deposits. Magnetic grains and spherules are heterogeneously distributed in sediments, but reported measurements of unique peaks in concentrations at the YD onset have yet to be reproduced. The magnetic grains are certainly just iron-rich detrital grains, whereas reported YD magnetic spherules are

  3. Coronary angiography in Qatar: the first ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikhouni, A; Gehani, A A; Horak, J; Hajar, H A

    1998-08-01

    Cardiac catheterization in Qatar was initiated in July 1982. In ten years, a total of 3900 procedures were performed at Hamad General Hospital. Computerized data registry has been maintained since 1982. Isolated coronary angiography was done in 2911 patients; of these, 2635 (90.5%) were men, and 276 (9.5%) were women, the average age of the patients was 47+/-9.2 years (range, twenty-five to eighty-eight). Patients' nationality was Qatari in 492 (17%), and other Arabs in 610 (21%), and 1512 (52%) were from the Asian subcontinent. Myocardial infarction was the most common indication (43%). Single-vessel disease was found in 638 (22%), two-vessel disease in 630 (22%), three-vessel disease in 950 (33%), and nonsignificant coronary artery disease in 693 (24%) patients. Morbidity related to the coronary angiography was reported in 147 (5%) patients, but there was no mortality related to the procedure. In 822 (28%) patients, the age was forty years or younger. The angiographic findings of these younger patients were compared with those of the older ones. Younger patients were usually men of Asian subcontinental origin with a recent myocardial infarction (MI). Often, they had normal coronary arteries or single-vessel disease. Patients of Asian subcontinent origin were usually young male patients with a recent MI, who receive streptokinase, and have single-vessel disease.

  4. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  5. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  6. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, G.; Pasqualetti, M.J.

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Ten questions on nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors give explanations and answers to ten issues related to nuclear wastes: when a radioactive material becomes a waste, how radioactive wastes are classified and particularly nuclear wastes in France, what are the risks associated with radioactive wastes, whether the present management of radioactive wastes is well controlled in France, which wastes are raising actual problems and what are the solutions, whether amounts and radio-toxicity of wastes can be reduced, whether all long life radionuclides or part of them can be transmuted, whether geologic storage of final wastes is inescapable, whether radioactive material can be warehoused over long durations, and how the information on radioactive waste management is organised

  9. After total knee replacement younger patients demonstrate superior balance control compared to older patients when recovering from a forward fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Brian D; Gage, William

    2017-05-01

    National joint replacement registries have reported a substantial growth in younger knee osteoarthritic patients (controlled perturbation have shown age-related differences between younger and older healthy adults, whether similar age-related differences exist among total knee replacement patients is unknown. A total of 59 participants, including 29 unilateral total knee replacement patients (six-months post-surgery) made up the four experimental groups: 1) younger patient (54.3 (SD 7.9) years), 2) younger control (55.2 (SD 4.0) years), 3) older patient (76.9 (SD 4.7) years), and 4) older control (77.7 (SD 4.1) years). Using a tether-release method to perturb balance and simulate a forward fall, center of mass and stepping characteristics were analyzed. Younger patients recovered following the perturbation with a significantly smaller center of mass displacement compared to the older patients (14.85 (SD 0.01) v. 18.13 (SD 0.02) %ht, p=0.02); utilizing a longer (0.43 (SD 0.02) v. 0.39 (SD 0.03) m, pcontrols in center of mass displacement or recovery step characteristics (p>0.05). The younger patients demonstrated superior center of mass control in response to a forward perturbation, suggesting that younger patients would be at a reduced risk of falling when recovering from a forward-directed postural perturbation compared to older patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Older (but Not Younger) Siblings Facilitate False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Perner, Josef; Naito, Mika; Parkin, Lindsay; Clements, Wendy A.

    1998-01-01

    Four experiments and an analysis of pooled data from English and Japanese children show a linear increase in understanding false beliefs with number of older siblings; no such effect for children younger than 38 months; no helpful effect of younger siblings at any age; no effect of siblings' gender; and no helpful effect of siblings on a source…

  11. Soil Radon In The Nigerian Younger Granites | Dewu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not had enough time to attain equilibrium with its daughters. In general, the results suggest that with proper control, soil radon measurements over the Younger Granite can be used for uranium exploration in the region. Keywords: Radon, younger granite, soil uranium, half-lifeand thorium. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  12. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, A.; Hoek, W.Z.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that multiple extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts resulted in the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive wildfires, megafaunal extinctions and changes in human population. After the hypothesis was first published in 2007, it gained much criticism, as the

  13. Ten years of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    Ten years have elapsed since the world's first nuclear power station began to supply electricity in Russia, and this in turn marked the end of a twelve year stage following the first controlled nuclear chain reaction at Chicago. These periods mark major stages in the development of atomic energy from the realm of abstract ideas to that of everyday industrial application. They followed a period of fundamental research and laboratory work, culminating in Enrico Fermi's demonstration of a system whereby the forces of the atom could be brought under control. Then it was necessary to find ways and means of using the chain reaction for practical purposes and on an industrial scale. And after this had been shown in 1954 to be technically possible, it had still to be developed into an economic process. The nuclear power station has proved itself from the technical and engineering standpoint. The third phase of development has been to bring it to the stage of being economically competitive with alternative sources of energy, and it would appear that we are now reaching that goal - though more slowly than had been envisaged ten years ago

  14. Beliefs in advance care planning among Chinese Americans: Similarities and differences between the younger and older generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ching Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore behavioral, normative, and control beliefs in the discussion of advance care planning (ACP among older and younger Chinese Americans. Ethnic minority groups have been identified as less engaged in ACP and this represents an ethnic and cultural gap. Older Chinese American adults often have different beliefs and values compared to the younger generation who are more acculturated to American mainstream culture. These differences may hinder the discussion of ACP with Chinese older adults. A qualitative design was used. The Theory of Planned Behavior guided the development of the interview guide. We recruited 60 Chinese Americans. Prior experience was identified as a theme that influenced attitudes about ACP. We found that older and younger Chinese participants had different beliefs in the norm and control related to ACP discussions, but not in the belief of attitudes about ACP discussions. Both younger and older Chinese American participants believed that ACP was important and necessary. Participants in both clusters expressed that they were ready and willing to engage in ACP discussions with their family members but hesitant to initiate these discussions. The reluctance in discussing ACP with Chinese older adults may be related to the expectations and obligations of Xiao (filial piety in Chinese culture. This study describes the similarities and differences of beliefs in ACP between older and younger Chinese Americans. We identified barriers and facilitators in behavioral, normative, and control beliefs that can be used to promote ACP for Chinese Americans.

  15. A prospective follow-up study of younger and older subjects with pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a common and costly public health problem associated with impaired quality of life and high suicide rates. Despite its frequency in the general population, PG course is poorly understood in older adults who are especially vulnerable to its devastating consequences. We enrolled 175 subjects in a longitudinal study of gambling behavior: our case group of 53 older adults with PG (≥ 60 years), and two comparison groups including 72 younger adults with PG (Gambling Screen (SOGS) and National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS) scores ≥ 5. Subjects were evaluated at intake and reassessed every 6 months and drop outs were replaced. Follow-up lasted a mean (SD) of 2.6 (1.4) years. At intake older PGs were more likely to be female, Caucasian, divorced, and to have a lower level of education. Older and younger PGs were similar in gambling severity, but older PGs were more likely to have sought PG treatment. Older PGs had lower rates of lifetime drug use disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They preferred slots, were more likely to receive PG treatment, and were less likely to discontinue participation in the study. Week by week gambling activity levels showed a significant general downward movement for older and younger PGs, although there were no differences between the groups. Elders without PG had no change in their level of gambling activity. We conclude that younger and older PGs moved toward a reduced level of gambling activity during follow-up. Our data challenge the notion that PG is chronic and progressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatigue in Younger and Older Drivers: Effectiveness of an Alertness-Maintaining Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woojin; Woon, Fu L; Doong, Alice; Persad, Carol; Tijerina, Louis; Pandit, Pooja; Cline, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an alertness-maintaining task (AMT) in older, fatigued drivers. Fatigue during driving increases crash risk, and previous research suggests that alertness and driving in younger adults may be improved using a secondary AMT during boring, fatigue-eliciting drives. However, the potential impact of an AMT on driving has not been investigated in older drivers whose ability to complete dual tasks has been shown to decline and therefore may be negatively affected with an AMT in driving. Younger ( n = 29) and older drivers ( n = 39) participated in a 50-minute simulated drive designed to induce fatigue, followed by four 10-minute sessions alternating between driving with and without an AMT. Younger drivers were significantly more affected by fatigue on driving performance than were older drivers but benefitted significantly from the AMT. Older drivers did not demonstrate increased driver errors with fatigue, and driving did not deteriorate significantly during participation in the AMT condition, although their speed was significantly more variable with the AMT. Consistent with earlier research, an AMT applied during fatiguing driving is effective in improving alertness and reducing driving errors in younger drivers. Importantly, older drivers were relatively unaffected by fatigue, and use of an AMT did not detrimentally affect their driving performance. These results support the potential use of an AMT as a new automotive technology to improve fatigue and promote driver safety, though the benefits of such technology may differ between different age groups.

  17. Estudio exploratorio sobre la presencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en niños entre 10 y 12 años y en sus padres o adultos responsables Preliminary study about the presence of the use of psychoactive substances among children between ten and twelve years old and in their parents or responsible adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Slapak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados preliminares de un estudio cuyo propósito es indagar la presencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en niños entre 10 y años y en sus padres o adultos responsables. Metodología: Muestras: niños de a años que reciben asistencia psicoterapéutica en una unidad de docencia en servicio de una cátedra universitaria; padres o adultos responsables de dichos niños. Instrumentos: CORIN. Fuente: CONICET. Cuestionario que indaga hábitos de consumo en los adultos. Anamnesis a los adultos. Protocolo de datos sociodemográficos. Conclusiones: Se registra consumo ocasional de alcohol durante el año de administración del instrumento entre los niños. De la misma manera, se observa un consumo habitual de diversas sustancias psicoactivas en su entorno familiar. Se concluye que el consumo ocasional de alcohol en los niños no se encuentra relacionado con su sintomatología, sino más bien con las características del contexto familiar.This paper presents the preliminaries results of a study which purpose is to inquire the presence of the use of psychoactive substances among children between ten and twelve years old and in their parents or responsible adults. Methodology: Samples: Children between ten and twelve years old that receive psychotherapeutical assistance in an academic unit in a service witch belongs to an university chair; parents or responsible adults of these children. Tools: CORIN. Source: CONICET. Questionnaire that inquires about consume habits in the adults. Adults anamnesis. Sociodemographic data protocol. Conclusions: During the year of the administration of the instrument, it is registred an occasional consume of alcohol among the children. In the same way, it is observed a habitual consume of diverse psychoactive substances in their family context. It is concluded that the occasionally use of alcohol in children it is not related with their sinthomatology, but with the characteristics of their family

  18. Ten out of ten for LHC decapole magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN's Albert Ijspeert (left) and Avinash Puntambekar of the Indian CAT laboratory with the ten Indian decapole magnets on the test bench. Tests will be carried out by the LHC-MTA group. A batch of 10 superconducting decapole magnets for the LHC has just arrived at CERN from India. These will be used to correct for slight imperfections in the dipole magnets that will steer proton beams around CERN's new accelerator. All magnets have slight imperfections in the fields they produce, and in the LHC dipoles these will be corrected for using sextupoles and decapoles. The sextupoles were the first LHC magnets to be given the production green-light following successful tests of pre-series magnets last year (Bulletin 21/2000, 22 May 2000). Now it is the turn of pre-series decapoles to go on trial at CERN. Of the LHC's 1232 dipole magnets, half will use sextupole correctors only and the other half will use both sextupoles and decapoles. That means that a total of 616 pairs of decapoles are needed. Like the sextupole...

  19. Comparing Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Social Values Between Younger and Older Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H; Chan, Darius K-S

    2016-08-17

    Socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that older adults emphasize emotional goals and interpersonal closeness to a greater extent than do younger adults, suggesting that holding social work-related values (SWVs) may be beneficial to older employees. This project aimed at examining two dimensions of SWVs, intrinsic and extrinsic SWVs, and tested whether age and work situation would moderate their effects on self-rated job performance. A cross-sectional survey (Study 1, N = 357) and a 14-day experience sampling study (Study 2, N = 77) were conducted among Chinese managerial employees. Study 1 showed that the direct effect of intrinsic SWVs on self-rated job performance was stronger in older employees than in younger employees. Study 2 demonstrated that older employees who valued intrinsic SWVs while being in social situations performed much better than when they did not value intrinsic SWVs but being in social situations; however such positive effect was not shown in younger employees. Findings of this project reveal that the effect of SWVs varies across locus of effect (intrinsic versus extrinsic), age, and work situation. Among older employees, the positive effect of intrinsic SWVs is more crucial than that of extrinsic SWVs on self-rated job performance. Findings of this project imply that intrinsically rewarding incentives would be more effective in motivating older employees to reach peak performance.

  20. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Labriola, Merete; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem...... at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life....

  1. Ten-year follow-up of thyroid epidemiology in Slovenia after increase in salt iodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Katja; Gaberšček, Simona; Pirnat, Edvard; Krhin, Blaž; Hojker, Sergej

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess iodine supply and follow thyroid epidemiology for ten years after an iodine increase from 10 to 25 mg of potassium iodide per kilogram of salt in 1999. Methods In 2002 and 2003, we determined the thyroid size by palpation and ultrasound and measured urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in 676 schoolchildren from 34 schools throughout Slovenia. From 1999 to 2009, we followed the incidence of diffuse and nodular goiter, thyroid autonomy, Graves’ disease, and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis among adults in the stable catchment area of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana with 1 000 000 inhabitants. Results In children, only 1% had a goiter grade 2 (visible and palpable thyroid gland), median thyroid volume was 5.8 mL, and median UIC was 148 µg/L. In adults, the incidence of diffuse goiter and thyroid autonomy decreased significantly (2009 vs 1999, rate ratio [RR], 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.21 and RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62-0.86, respectively), with a lower incidence in younger participants in 2009 (P < 0.001). The incidence of multinodular goiter and solitary nodule increased (2009 vs 1999, RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.35-1.79 and RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.49-1.99, respectively). No long-term changes were observed for Graves’ disease (2009 vs 1999, RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81-1.13), while the incidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis increased strongly (2009 vs 1999, RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.64-2.12). Conclusions The change from mildly deficient to sufficient iodine supply was associated with a marked change in the incidence of thyroid epidemiology – a significant decline in the incidence of diffuse goiter and thyroid autonomy and a marked increase in the incidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. PMID:21990079

  2. Resolution 1540, ten years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Adopted on the 28 April 2004 by the United Nations Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, Resolution 1540 is a composite tool that was hitherto unprecedented. To recap, States are bound to 'refrain from providing any form of support to non-State actors that attempt to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery' (par. 1), and to prohibit and prevent non-State actors from the aforementioned through 'appropriate and effective' (par. 2,3) legal, judiciary, and administrative means. A Committee was established to which States had to submit a first report outlining the steps 'they have taken or intend to take to implement this resolution' (par. 4). This Committee was initially established for two years and has been regularly renewed since, and its mandate was extended in 2011 for ten years. It is not a surveillance mechanism. Finally, with the aim of remedying difficulties that certain States may experience in implementing the Resolution, 'States in a position to do so' are invited to offer assistance (par. 7). The level of the application of Resolution 1540 was originally based on a delicate three-pronged balance of obligation, good will, and partnership. It is not a matter of designating certain States to the rest of the international community, whilst avoiding that the exercise be limited to the submission of national reports, instead aiming to initiate a dynamic. The wager was a risky one. Ten years on, 90% of UN member States have submitted one or several implementation reports. 170 States and 50 international and regional organisations have taken part in outreach and implementation support events. Whatever quantitative or qualitative conclusions that can be reached, we should continue to promote the Re-solution's universal adoption, and to ensure that the implementation of its provisions is undertaken in a lasting manner, taking account of the national

  3. Exploring sibling attitudes towards participation when the younger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from a study involving parents of preschool children who were receiving ... Typically developing children who have a younger sibling with a disability often feel inadequately supported and excluded ..... from pressure where children.

  4. Individually-Personal Peculiarities of Younger Preschoolers’ Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Novikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the speech of the younger preschoolers is a major factor in designing educational methods and preparing children for school. There exist individual and gender differences in the way children acquire speech skills. Word comprehension and idea interpretation depend on the child’s upbringing, his or her environment, the interaction within the family. This article submits the research data obtained from the study of the individual peculiarities of the younger preschool children’s speech.

  5. Cannabis use patterns and motives: A comparison of younger, middle-aged, and older medical cannabis dispensary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A; Padula, Claudia B; Sottile, James E; Vandrey, Ryan; Heinz, Adrienne J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2017-09-01

    Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis. Little is known about medical cannabis use patterns and motives among adults across the lifespan. The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California. Participants included 217 medical cannabis patients who were grouped into age-defined cohorts (younger: 18-30, middle-aged: 31-50, and older: 51-72). The age groups were compared on several measures of cannabis use, motives and medical conditions using one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and linear regression analyses. All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults. The association between age and problematic cannabis use was moderated by age of regular use initiation such that earlier age of regular cannabis use onset was associated with more problematic use in the younger users, but not among older users. Middle-aged adults were more likely to report using medical cannabis for insomnia, while older adults were more likely to use medical cannabis for chronic medical problems such as cancer, glaucoma and HIV/AIDS. Younger participants reported cannabis use when bored at a greater rate than middle-aged and older adults. Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cannabis Use Patterns and Motives: A Comparison of Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Medical Cannabis Dispensary Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A.; Padula, Claudia B.; Sottile, James E.; Vandrey, Ryan; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis. Little is known about medical cannabis use patterns and motives among adults across the lifespan. Methods The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California. Participants included 217 medical cannabis patients who were grouped into age-defined cohorts (younger: 18–30, middle-aged: 31–50, and older: 51–72). The age groups were compared on several measures of cannabis use, motives and medical conditions using one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and linear regression analyses. Results All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults. The association between age and problematic cannabis use was moderated by age of regular use initiation such that earlier age of regular cannabis use onset was associated with more problematic use in the younger users, but not among older users. Middle-aged adults were more likely to report using medical cannabis for insomnia, while older adults were more likely to use medical cannabis for chronic medical problems such as cancer, glaucoma and HIV/AIDS. Younger participants reported cannabis use when bored at a greater rate than middle-aged and older adults. Conclusions Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences. PMID:28340421

  7. Compactified vacuum in ten dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurmser, D.

    1987-01-01

    Since the 1920's, theories which unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have called for more than the four observed dimensions of space-time. According to such a theory, the vacuum consists of flat four-dimensional space-time described by the Minkowski metric M 4 and a compactified space B. The dimensions of B are small, and the space can only be observed at distance scales smaller than the present experimental limit. These theories have had serious difficulties. The equations of gravity severely restrict the possible choices for the space B. The allowed spaces are complicated and difficult to study. The vacuum is furthermore unstable in the sense that a small perturbation causes the compactified dimensions to expand indefinitely. There is an addition a semi-classical argument which implies that the compactified vacuum by annihilated by virtual black holes. It follows that a universe with compactified extra dimensions could not have survived to the present. These results were derived by applying the equations of general relativity to spaces of more than four dimensions. The form of these equations was assumed to be unchanged by an increase in the number of dimensions. The authors illustrate the effect of such terms by considering the example B = S 6 where S 6 is the six-dimensional sphere. Only when the extra terms are included is this choice of the compactified space allowed. He explore the effect of a small perturbation on such a vacuum. The ten-dimensional spherically symmetric potential is examined, and I determine conditions under which the formation of virtual black holes is forbidden. The examples M 4 x S 6 is still plagued by the semi-classical instability, but this result does not hold in general. The requirement that virtual black holes be forbidden provides a test for any theory which predicts a compactified vacuum

  8. Younger and older jurors: the influence of environmental supports on memory performance and decision making in complex trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J M

    2000-11-01

    This study compared memory and decision making by younger (aged 19-35) and older (aged 55-75) adults who had viewed a 2-hr video of a complex civil trial. Participants were tested for free recall, recognition memory, source identification, and the accuracy of their verdicts. The experiment manipulated (a) note taking during the trial and (b) timing of judicial instructions: either before (preinstructed) or after (standard) the presentation of relevant evidence. Judicial instructions provide jurors with a framework for understanding legal concepts such as liability and compensatory damages. Both younger and older adults provided more detailed and cohesive accounts when they were given judicial instructions before the evidence. Other benefits of preinstruction to memory and decision making were limited to older adults. Note-taking effects were generally limited but were consistent across age groups. The results highlight the potential value of relatively simple interventions for improving cognitive performance in a real-world setting.

  9. Ten years of effective multilateralism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    successes of multilateralism and international law provide security assurances or do they mask the flaws of an insufficiently intrusive system? While the U.S. signaled their defiance under the guidance of John Bolton, European thinking settled on a conclusion with the air of a slogan: yes to multilateralism, providing it is effective. This was to be the cornerstone of the policies to undertake and the instruments to implement to forge a global role for the Union. Its originality is based simultaneously in realism and in a refusal to resort to force as the foremost means of action on the international stage. Another way of defining the 2003 Strategy is a skillful compromise between differing positions to banish the Iraqi 'cacophony' as quickly as possible. Ten years on, it is now time for 'impact assessments' and other 'scorecards' of public policies. In the midst of the Eurozone economic crisis, evaluating a strategy of 'effective multilateralism' is not easy. The Union's bi-annual reports on its implementation have recently begun to try to provide a quantitative analysis that is not entirely convincing (for instance, the number of ratifications of such-and-such an instrument with regard to the budget allocated by the EU to facilitate its universalization, over such-and-such a period). Fundamentally, the 2003 Strategy is essentially beyond this kind of analysis even if it can prove useful. The strength of the European approach consists in establishing a long-term willingness to maintain and strengthen collective security tools approved by the greatest possible number of States. Its weakness is to occasionally confront a strategic reality that is as contradictory as it is stubborn. Effective multilateralism is linked to voluntarism and vows. (author)

  10. Distinctive Risk Factors and Phenotype of Younger Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Age Is Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Lama; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A; Lin, Chee Paul; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg despite using ≥3 antihypertensive medications, is a well-recognized clinical entity. Patients with resistant hypertension are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those with more easily controlled hypertension. Coronary heart disease mortality rates of younger adults are stagnating or on the rise. The purpose of our study was to characterize the phenotype and risk factors of younger patients with resistant hypertension, given the dearth of data on cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with predefined age groups of a large, ethnically diverse cohort of 2170 patients referred to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients (n=2068) met the inclusion criteria and were classified by age groups, that is, ≤40 years (12.7% of total cohort), 41 to 55 years (32.1%), 56 to 70 years (36.1%), and ≥71 years (19.1%). Patients aged ≤40 years compared with those aged ≥71 years had significantly earlier onset of hypertension (24.7±7.4 versus 55.0±14.1 years; P hypertension, younger individuals have a distinct phenotype characterized by overlapping risk factors and comorbidities, including obesity, high aldosterone, and high dietary sodium intake compared with elderly. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Elderly vs. younger problem drinker 'treatment' and recovery experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J L; Mulford, H A

    1992-09-01

    To address the question of whether or not elderly problem drinkers experience any treatment contact discrimination or recovery rate disadvantages, the programme utilization and recovery rate experiences of a representative sample of older and younger persons arrested for drinking and driving (OWI) in Iowa were compared. Subjects were interviewed by phone or mail shortly after their OWI arrest and then again approximately 12 months later. Younger persons (18-54 years old) were compared with elderly persons (55 and over and 65 and over). The elderly subjects were also dichotomized as early onset (at least one problem drinking indicator occurred prior to age 55) or late onset (all problem drinking indicators occurred at age 55 or later). The elderly were as likely as, or more likely than, their younger counterparts to make a treatment contact, to remain in treatment and to recover.

  12. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  13. Detailed Tropical Sea Level Record Spanning the Younger Dryas Chronozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Variability in sea level is a fundamental measure of past changes in continental ice volume and provides an important benchmark to test climate change hypotheses. Records of the most recent deglaciation show two pulses of accelerated sea-level rise (Meltwater Pulses 1A and 1B) separated by an interval of slower sea level rise. The Younger Dryas chronozone falls within the interval between MWP 1A and 1B. It was first described over 100 years ago and remains one of the most studied periods in Earth’s history. The Younger Dryas was originally constrained with 14C dating to the interval between 11,000 and 10,000 14C years BP, which converts to 13,000 to 11,640 calendar years BP. The climatic expression of the Younger Dryas was most pronounced in the circum North Atlantic where climate proxies returned in some regions to near glacial values. Interpretations of the Younger Dryas’ significance range from a catastrophic global cooling event accompanied by Northern hemisphere ice sheet growth to simply regional changes in ocean and air mass mixing zones confined mainly to the North Atlantic. A detailed sea level record containing the interval from the end of MWP 1A to the beginning of MWP 1B (~14,000 to 11,300 years BP) was generated using 26 new U/Th dates from our 2007 Barbados offshore drilling expedition combined with our 1988 expedition measurements. 16 of these dates fall within the Younger Dryas Chronozone. Younger Dryas sea level positions were based on Acropora palmata samples from 3 overlapping and contemporaneous offshore drill cores (RGF 12 and BBDS 9 & 10) and corrected for minor tectonic uplift. From 14,000 to 11,300 years BP, sea level rose from ~81 to 56.5 m below present sea level with an initial rate of 10 m/kyr that decreased smoothly to <5 m/kyr at the base of MWP 1B. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas, sea level was at 69 m below present and rose 8 m by the end of this interval. In the context of the Barbados sea level record, the Younger Dryas

  14. Expression of emotions related to the experience of cancer in younger and older Arab breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Cohen, Miri; Azaiza, Faisal

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have suggested that older adults express less negative emotions. Yet, emotional expression patterns in older and younger breast cancer survivors, have barely been examined. This study aimed to explore types and intensity of negative and positive emotional expression related to the breast cancer experience by younger and older Arab breast cancer survivors. Participants were 20 younger (aged 32-50) and 20 older (aged 51-75) Muslim and Christian Arab breast cancer survivors (stages I-III), currently free of disease. Data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Mixed methods analyses were conducted, including: (1) frequency analysis of participants' emotional expressions; (2) content analysis of emotional expressions, categorized according to negative and positive emotions. Three emotional expression modalities were revealed: (1) Succinct versus comprehensive accounts; (2) expression of emotions versus avoidance of emotions; (3) patterns of expression of positive emotions and a sense of personal growth. Younger women provided more detailed accounts about their illness experiences than older women. Older women's accounts were succinct, action-focused, and included more emotion-avoiding expressions than younger women. Understanding the relationships between emotional expression, emotional experience, and cancer survivors' quality of life, specifically of those from traditional communities, is necessary for developing effective psycho-social interventions.

  15. Applying a workbook at Aikido lessons when teaching younger pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova O. P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to creating the structure and the contents of a workbook for the first year children learning Aikido. The results prove the effectiveness of using the workbook: children learn the material successfully, younger pupils get enough theoretical and practical Aikido skills during the course of this martial art.

  16. The Experiences of the Younger Supervisor: Implications for Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lea

    2012-01-01

    With four generations in today's workforce, roles are being redefined to include a growing number of younger supervisor/older subordinate relationships, referred to as the intergenerational dyad. What current and limited literature exists about the intergenerational dyad exclusively addresses the issues of generational workplace differences…

  17. Burden of invasive bacterial disease among children younger than 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pneumococcus and meningococcus are responsible for high mortality and morbidity in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. Hib containing vaccine was introduced in July 2008 in Togo; and baseline data are available on bacterial meningitis prior to PCV13 vaccine ...

  18. Older and Younger Workers: The Equalling Effects of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Vanessa; Quinn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the statistical evidence on the effects that ill health has on labour market participation and opportunities for younger and older workers in the East Midlands (UK). Design/methodology/approach: A statistical analysis of Labour Force Survey data was undertaken to demonstrate that health issues…

  19. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  20. The Difference between Right and Wrong: Accuracy of Older and Younger Adults’ Story Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Danielle K.; Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Sharing stories is an important social activity in everyday life. This study used fine-grained content analysis to investigate the accuracy of recall of two central story elements: the gist and detail of socially-relevant stories. Younger (M age = 28.06) and older (M age = 75.03) American men and women (N = 63) recalled fictional stories that were coded for (i) accuracy of overall gist and specific gist categories and (ii) accuracy of overall detail and specific detail categories. Findings showed no age group differences in accuracy of overall gist or detail, but differences emerged for specific categories. Older adults more accurately recalled the gist of when the event occurred whereas younger adults more accurately recalled the gist of why the event occurred. These differences were related to episodic memory ability and education. For accuracy in recalling details, there were some age differences, but gender differences were more robust. Overall, women remembered details of these social stories more accurately than men, particularly time and perceptual details. Women were also more likely to accurately remember the gist of when the event occurred. The discussion focuses on how accurate recall of socially-relevant stories is not clearly age-dependent but is related to person characteristics such as gender and episodic memory ability/education. PMID:26404344

  1. The Difference between Right and Wrong: Accuracy of Older and Younger Adults’ Story Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle K. Davis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sharing stories is an important social activity in everyday life. This study used fine-grained content analysis to investigate the accuracy of recall of two central story elements: the gist and detail of socially-relevant stories. Younger (M age = 28.06 and older (M age = 75.03 American men and women (N = 63 recalled fictional stories that were coded for (i accuracy of overall gist and specific gist categories and (ii accuracy of overall detail and specific detail categories. Findings showed no age group differences in accuracy of overall gist or detail, but differences emerged for specific categories. Older adults more accurately recalled the gist of when the event occurred whereas younger adults more accurately recalled the gist of why the event occurred. These differences were related to episodic memory ability and education. For accuracy in recalling details, there were some age differences, but gender differences were more robust. Overall, women remembered details of these social stories more accurately than men, particularly time and perceptual details. Women were also more likely to accurately remember the gist of when the event occurred. The discussion focuses on how accurate recall of socially-relevant stories is not clearly age-dependent but is related to person characteristics such as gender and episodic memory ability/education.

  2. Impacts of suppression on emotional responses and performance outcomes: an experience-sampling study in younger and older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H

    2012-11-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that older adults used less emotional suppression to regulate their emotions than did younger adults, but the effectiveness of using this emotion regulatory strategy on psychosocial well-being across age remains largely unexplored. The present study adopted an experience-sampling method to examine whether the impacts of momentary employment of emotional suppression on momentary positive and negative emotions and job performance would be different by age. Eighty-seven Chinese insurance workers, aged between 18 and 61 years, participated in a 5-day sampling study. Their affective responses at work, momentary task performance, and sales productivity were recorded. Results showed that older workers' greater use of suppression at work was associated with lower intensity of negative emotions, whereas such association was not found among younger workers. Moreover, greater use of suppression over the sampling period was significantly predictive of sales productivity of older workers, but such a positive association was not shown in younger workers. These findings reveal that the use of suppression at work may be more effective for older workers than for younger workers.

  3. ALGORITHMS FOR TETRAHEDRAL NETWORK (TEN) GENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Tetrahedral Network(TEN) is a powerful 3-D vector structure in GIS, which has a lot of advantages such as simple structure, fast topological relation processing and rapid visualization. The difficulty of TEN application is automatic creating data structure. Al though a raster algorithm has been introduced by some authors, the problems in accuracy, memory requirement, speed and integrity are still existent. In this paper, the raster algorithm is completed and a vector algorithm is presented after a 3-D data model and structure of TEN have been introducted. Finally, experiment, conclusion and future work are discussed.

  4. Lower extremity venous thrombosis in patients younger than 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreidy R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Raghid Kreidy1, Pascale Salameh2, Mirna Waked31Department of Vascular Surgery, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, 2Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, LebanonAim: Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in the young adult is uncommon and has not been well studied in the literature. The aim of this study is to define risk factors for deep venous thrombosis among patients younger than 50 years of age, to compare them with a control group, and to suggest recommendations for the management and treatment of venous thrombosis in this particular group of patients.Methods: From January 2003 to January 2011, 66 consecutive Lebanese patients (29 males and 37 females younger than 50 years, diagnosed in an academic tertiary-care center with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis by color flow duplex scan, were retrospectively reviewed. Their age varied between 21 and 50 years (mean 38.7 years. The control group included 217 patients (86 males and 131 females older than 50 years (range: 50–96 years; mean 72.9 years.Results: The most commonly reported risk factors in the younger age group were inherited thrombophilia (46.9% compared with 13.8% in the control group; P < 0.001, pregnancy (18.2% compared with 0.5%; P < 0.001, treatment with estrogen drugs (13.6% compared with 2.3%; P = 0.001, and family history of venous thromboembolism (9.1% compared with 3.8%; P = 0.084.Conclusion: Inherited thrombophilia is the most commonly observed risk factor among patients younger than 50 years, with a prevalence of three times more than the control group. Young adults should be screened for thrombophilia even in the presence of transient acquired risk factors. Pregnancy and treatment with estrogen drugs essentially when associated with inherited thrombophilia

  5. [The importance of wear couples for younger endoprosthesis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, J; Bergschmidt, P; Bader, R; Kluess, D; Besser-Mahuzir, E; Leder, A; Mittelmeier, W

    2007-04-01

    The success and long-term survival rates of modern joint arthroplasty leads to a high patient satisfaction and, together with its technical improvements, has broadened the indications to an increasingly younger population. Limitations to the established systems are the long-term survival rates, which are mainly influenced by wear of the articulating parts and the resulting problems. Beside "classic" long-stemmed cemented shafts articulating with metal against polyethylene, short-stemmed or cup designs with a hard-hard self pairing are increasingly used in total hip arthroplasty. This paper reflects the current state of the art in joint arthroplasty for younger patients with the focus on wear couples and discusses future perspectives. Special interest is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of ceramic bearings, problems with allergies to implant components and the design of endoprostheses with regard to avoidance of impingement.

  6. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  7. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  8. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, T N; Labriola, M; Nohr, E A; Andersen, J H

    2015-06-01

    Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of physical and psychosocial work environments. We obtained information on subjects' school performance, vulnerability, health and parental socioeconomic status from registers and a questionnaire completed in 2004. A questionnaire concerning eight measures of subjects' psychosocial and physical work environment in 2010 was used to determine the outcomes of interest. The study population consisted of 679 younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem at age 14-15 was associated with experiencing high demands and lack of trust and fairness at work, whereas low parental socioeconomic status was associated with a demanding physical work environment. This study showed a social gradient in experiencing a demanding physical work environment at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Characteristics of emergency poisoning cases in elderly versus younger patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supervía Caparrós, August; Pallàs Villaronga, Oriol; Clemente Rodríguez, Carlos; Aranda Cárdenas, María Dolores; Pi-Figueras Valls, María; Cirera Lorenzo, Isabel

    2017-10-01

    To compare cases of poisoning according to age to detect differences in frequency of visits to the emergency department, patient characteristics, case management, and immediate outcome in terms of related mortality. Descriptive study of a retrospective series of patients who visited a university hospital emergency department for treatment of poisoning between 2009 and 2014. We collected patient characteristics and data related to the event, case management, and poisoning-related death. Patients were grouped according to age (cut-off 65 y). Of a total of 3847 poisoning episodes, 341 (8.9%) were in patients aged 65 years or older. The percentage of women among these older patients (61.3%) was greater than among younger patients (36.3%; P<.001). Poisoning was accidental in older patients more often than younger ones (64.4% vs 9.5%, respectively; P<.001), occurred more often in the home (82.1% vs 37%, P<.001), and more often required active treatment (73.3% vs 57.4%; P<.001) and admission to hospital (21.4% vs 7.3%, P<.001). The related mortality rate was also higher in the older patients (2.1% vs 0.1% in younger patients, P<.001). The percentage of poisonings in patients aged 65 years or older is not negligible. Poisoning in patients of advanced age tends to be accidental and take place in the home. Older patients more often require active treatment and hospital admission; poisoning-related death is more common in older patients than younger ones.

  10. Vadose Zone Journal: The first ten years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, J.A.; Or, D.; Young, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Celebrating ten years of publication, the authors introduce a special section commemorating the anniversary of Vadose Zone Journal and reviewing the journal’s role in an evolving understanding of vadose zone science.

  11. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2016 [ ...

  12. Ten key issues in modern flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Jens; Ceylan, Sascha; Kirschning, Andreas

    2011-04-28

    Ten essentials of synthesis in the flow mode, a new enabling technology in organic chemistry, are highlighted as flashlighted providing an insight into current and future issues and developments in this field. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  13. Ten into four won't go

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, D.Z.; West, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that nontrivial spontaneous compactification of ten-dimensional N = 1 supergravity with or without Yang-Mills matter is not possible unless maximal symmetry (i.e. Lorentz invariance) is violated in the four-dimensional spacetime

  14. The Supersymmetric Top-Ten Lists

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Howard E.

    1993-01-01

    Ten reasons are given why supersymmetry is the leading candidate for physics beyond the Standard Model. Ultimately, the experimental discovery of supersymmetric particles at future colliders will determine whether supersymmetry is relevant for TeV scale physics. The grand hope of supersymmetry enthusiasts is to connect TeV scale supersymmetry with Planck scale physics. The ten most pressing theoretical problems standing in the way of this goal are briefly described.

  15. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-15

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be

  16. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-01

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be

  17. The next ten years in neonatology: new directions in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a prelude to proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology to be held in Cagliari, Italy from October 21st to 25th, 2014. These proceedings will be a significant milestone, highlighting the new frontiers of perinatal and neonatal research. Over the five days of this meeting, we aim to (1 examine the roots of the new directions in perinatal and neonatal research; (2 predict the trajectories of advancement in medical technologies, research, clinical care and teaching that will be the future of perinatology and neonatology. The discussion will be in four sections:back to the future: the placenta and perinatal programming;paradigm shift: the revolution of metabolomics in perinatalogy and neonatology;brave new world: the microbiome and microbiomics from perinatal to adult life;new inhabitants on the planet earth: adults who were born with extremely low birth weight. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  18. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  19. Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Imtiaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD. The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD. This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA. Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO4 > 1.78 mmol/L. In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13, younger age (0.07, presence of DM (0.005, higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08, higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08, lower phosphate intake (0.03, lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15, higher phosphate excretion (0.11, and a higher body mass index (0.15. After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012, presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003, and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66 were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are

  20. Lower subcortical gray matter volume in both younger smokers and established smokers relative to non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Colleen A.; Owens, Max M.; Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; George, Mark S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Although established adult smokers with long histories of nicotine dependence have lower neural tissue volume than non-smokers, it is not clear if lower regional brain volume is also observed in younger, less established smokers. The primary goal of this study was to investigate neural tissue volume in a large group of smokers and non-smokers, with a secondary goal of measuring the impact of age on these effects. We used voxel-based morphometry to compare regional gray matter volume in 118 individuals (59 smokers, 59 age- and gender-matched non-smokers). Younger smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume in the left thalamus and the left amygdala than their non-smoking peers (family-wise error-corrected clusters, P smokers. Established smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume than age-matched non-smokers in the insula, parahippocampal gyrus and pallidum. Medial prefrontal cortex gray matter volume was negatively correlated with pack-years of smoking among the established smokers, but not the younger smokers. These data reveal that regional tissue volume differences are not limited exclusively to established smokers. Deficits in young adults indicate that cigarette smoking may either be deleterious to the thalamus and amygdala at an earlier age than previously reported, or that pre-existing differences in these areas may predispose individuals to the development of nicotine dependence. PMID:25125263

  1. ANALGETSKI UCINAK TRANSAKUTNE ELEKTRICNE NERVNE STIMULACIJE (TENS)

    OpenAIRE

    ĆURKOVIĆ, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transkutana električna nervna stimulacija. (TENS) danas je široko prihvaćen terapijski postupak za suzbijanje boli. Način njezina djelovanja nije još jasno definiran, premda se većina autora priklanja centralnom mehranizmu smanjenja boli. Rezultati, u literaturi, variraju od nesignifikantno boljeg učinka od placeba do 95°/o dobrog analgetskog djelovanja. U Zavodu za reumatske bolesti i rehabilitaciju Kliničkog bolničkog centra, Zagreb, evaluiran je učinak TENS-a u bolesnika s križ...

  2. Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Mejias, Asuncion; Suarez, Nicolas; Chaussabel, Damien; Casper, T. Charles; Smith, Bennett; Alpern, Elizabeth R.; Anders, Jennifer; Atabaki, Shireen M.; Bennett, Jonathan E.; Blumberg, Stephen; Bonsu, Bema; Borgialli, Dominic; Brayer, Anne; Browne, Lorin; Cohen, Daniel M.; Crain, Ellen F.; Cruz, Andrea T.; Dayan, Peter S.; Gattu, Rajender; Greenberg, Richard; Hoyle, John D.; Jaffe, David M.; Levine, Deborah A.; Lillis, Kathleen; Linakis, James G.; Muenzer, Jared; Nigrovic, Lise E.; Powell, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, Alexander J.; Roosevelt, Genie; Ruddy, Richard M.; Saunders, Mary; Tunik, Michael G.; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vitale, Melissa; Dean, J. Michael; Ramilo, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns (“RNA biosignatures”) in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. OBJECTIVE To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures. A random sample of infants with and without bacterial infections was selected for RNA biosignature analysis. Afebrile healthy infants served as controls. Blood samples were collected for cultures and RNA biosignatures. Bioinformatics tools were applied to define RNA biosignatures to classify febrile infants by infection type. EXPOSURE RNA biosignatures compared with cultures for discriminating febrile infants with and without bacterial infections and infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Bacterial infection confirmed by culture. Performance of RNA biosignatures was compared with routine laboratory screening tests and Yale Observation Scale (YOS) scores. RESULTS Of 1883 febrile infants (median age, 37 days; 55.7%boys), RNA biosignatures were measured in 279 randomly selected infants (89 with bacterial infections—including 32 with bacteremia and 15 with urinary tract infections—and 190 without bacterial infections), and 19 afebrile healthy infants. Sixty-six classifier genes were identified that distinguished infants with and without bacterial infections in the test set with 87%(95%CI, 73%-95%) sensitivity and 89% (95%CI, 81%-93%) specificity. Ten classifier genes distinguished

  3. The Younger Dryas phase of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Zachary, C.; Mahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Field investigations at the Public Shooting Grounds (a wildlife-management area on the northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake) and radiocarbon dating show that the Great Salt Lake rose to the Gilbert shoreline sometime between 12.9 and 11.2 cal ka. We interpret a ripple-laminated sand unit exposed at the Public Shooting Grounds, and dated to this time interval, as the nearshore sediments of Great Salt Lake deposited during the formation of the Gilbert shoreline. The ripple-laminated sand is overlain by channel-fill deposits that overlap in age (11.9-11.2 cal ka) with the sand, and by wetland deposits (11.1 to 10.5 cal ka). Consistent accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages were obtained from samples of plant fragments, including those of emergent aquatic plants, but mollusk shells from spring and marsh deposits yielded anomalously old ages, probably because of a variable radiocarbon reservoir effect. The Bonneville basin was effectively wet during at least part of the Younger Dryas global-cooling interval, however, conflicting results from some Great Basin locations and proxy records indicate that the regional effects of Younger Dryas cooling are still not well understood. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  5. Older Adults and Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of ... quickly than when they were younger. Drinking puts older adults at greater risk for falls, car crashes, and ...

  6. Adult-onset tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, [No Value; Lees, AJ; Lakke, JPWF; Trimble, MR; Robertson, MM

    We report on 8 patients with adult-onset motor tics and vocalisations. Three had compulsive tendencies in childhood and 3 had a family history of tics or obsessive-compulsive behaviour. In comparison with DSM-classified, younger-onset Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, adult-onset tic disorders are

  7. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software.

  8. Kaluza-Klein supergravity in ten dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M.; Namazie, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    We construct a massive version of N=2 supergravity in ten dimensions by compactification of the eleven dimensional, N=1 theory. This theory describes the usual N=2 massless super-multiplet, in addition to which there is an infinite tower of massive, charged N=2 supermultiplets. (author)

  9. Top-Ten IT Issues: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Anne Scrivener; Yang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the institution, as revealed by the tenth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. These IT-related issues include: (1) Funding IT; (2) Administrative/ERP Information Systems; (3) Security; (4) Infrastructure/Cyberinfrastructure; (5) Teaching and Learning with…

  10. Ten years after the Jali Commission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years have lapsed since the Jali Commission's final report became publicly available, and it is therefore an .... as the 'core business' of the department. This was seen as .... the 2009/10–2013/14 DCS Strategic Plan did the department ...

  11. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  12. Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields...

  13. Top Ten Concerns for Trustees in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Joel W.

    1988-01-01

    Ten issues most likely to influence institutions this year include tuition policy and financing, capital renewal and replacement, charitable giving, scientific equipment and laboratories, endowment management and spending policy, research funding, corporate contributions, minority enrollment and hiring, debt financing and debt capacity, and cost…

  14. Giant multipole resonances: perspectives after ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    Nearly ten years ago evidence was published for the first of the so-called giant multipole resonances, the giant quadrupole resonance. During the ensuing years research in this field has spread to many nuclear physics laboratories throughout the world. The present status of electric giant multipole resonances is reviewed. 24 figures, 1 table

  15. VINKA, ten years on. Main scientific results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The VINKA facility in the TRITON swimming-pool reactor at Fontenay-aux-Roses allows the irradiation of solids at low temperatures in order to study crystalline defects. After ten years of operation the main scientific results obtained in the fields of creep and growth (chapter I), point defects (chapter II), amorphisation (chapter III) and dechanneling of particles (chapter IV) are summarised [fr

  16. Results of total joint arthroplasty and joint preserving surgery in younger patients evaluated by alternative outcome measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of alternative outcome measures in the evaluation of outcome after PAO, TKA, and THA in young adults seem warranted to better understand the patients perception of successful treatment. Due to the lack of focus in contemporary literature on alternative aspects of outcome measurement...... in younger PAO, TKA, and THA patients our aims were, to explore patient satisfaction, fulfillment of expectations, symptoms of depression, the effect on socioeconomic status, and abilities in sex-life in younger PAO, TKA, and THA patients using PROMs. These alternative endpoints were collected in addition...... the surgeon and patient with information, when deciding the right time for surgery. 3. To investigate functional and quality of life aspects after PAO surgery in relation to the effect on the patient’s sex-life, the patient’s ability to participate in sports, the patient’s ability to interact socially...

  17. Utilization and Outcomes of Breast Brachytherapy in Younger Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Grace L.; Huo, Jinhai; Giordano, Sharon H.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To directly compare (1) radiation treatment utilization patterns; (2) risks of subsequent mastectomy; and (3) costs of radiation treatment in patients treated with brachytherapy versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI), in a national, contemporary cohort of women with incident breast cancer, aged 64 years and younger. Methods and Materials: Using MarketScan health care claims data, we identified 45,884 invasive breast cancer patients (aged 18-64 years), treated from 2003 to 2010 with lumpectomy, followed by brachytherapy (n=3134) or whole-breast irradiation (n=42,750). We stratified patients into risk groups according to age (Age<50 vs Age≥50) and endocrine therapy status (Endocrine− vs Endocrine+). “Endocrine+” patients filled an endocrine therapy prescription within 1 year after lumpectomy. Pathologic hormone receptor status was not available in this dataset. In brachytherapy versus WBI patients, utilization trends and 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks were compared. Stratified, adjusted subsequent mastectomy risks were calculated using proportional hazards regression. Results: Brachytherapy utilization increased from 2003 to 2010: in patients Age<50, from 0.6% to 4.9%; patients Age≥50 from 2.2% to 11.3%; Endocrine− patients, 1.3% to 9.4%; Endocrine+ patients, 1.9% to 9.7%. Age influenced treatment selection more than endocrine status: 17% of brachytherapy patients were Age<50 versus 32% of WBI patients (P<.001); whereas 41% of brachytherapy patients were Endocrine–versus 44% of WBI patients (P=.003). Highest absolute 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks occurred in Endocrine−/Age<50 patients (24.4% after brachytherapy vs 9.0% after WBI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.47); intermediate risks in Endocrine−/Age≥50 patients (8.6% vs 4.9%; HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.26-2.46); and lowest risks in Endocrine+ patients of any age: Endocrine+/Age<50 (5.5% vs 4.5%; HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.61-2.31); Endocrine+/Age≥50 (4.2% vs 2

  18. Utilization and Outcomes of Breast Brachytherapy in Younger Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Grace L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Huo, Jinhai [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To directly compare (1) radiation treatment utilization patterns; (2) risks of subsequent mastectomy; and (3) costs of radiation treatment in patients treated with brachytherapy versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI), in a national, contemporary cohort of women with incident breast cancer, aged 64 years and younger. Methods and Materials: Using MarketScan health care claims data, we identified 45,884 invasive breast cancer patients (aged 18-64 years), treated from 2003 to 2010 with lumpectomy, followed by brachytherapy (n=3134) or whole-breast irradiation (n=42,750). We stratified patients into risk groups according to age (Age<50 vs Age≥50) and endocrine therapy status (Endocrine− vs Endocrine+). “Endocrine+” patients filled an endocrine therapy prescription within 1 year after lumpectomy. Pathologic hormone receptor status was not available in this dataset. In brachytherapy versus WBI patients, utilization trends and 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks were compared. Stratified, adjusted subsequent mastectomy risks were calculated using proportional hazards regression. Results: Brachytherapy utilization increased from 2003 to 2010: in patients Age<50, from 0.6% to 4.9%; patients Age≥50 from 2.2% to 11.3%; Endocrine− patients, 1.3% to 9.4%; Endocrine+ patients, 1.9% to 9.7%. Age influenced treatment selection more than endocrine status: 17% of brachytherapy patients were Age<50 versus 32% of WBI patients (P<.001); whereas 41% of brachytherapy patients were Endocrine–versus 44% of WBI patients (P=.003). Highest absolute 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks occurred in Endocrine−/Age<50 patients (24.4% after brachytherapy vs 9.0% after WBI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.47); intermediate risks in Endocrine−/Age≥50 patients (8.6% vs 4.9%; HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.26-2.46); and lowest risks in Endocrine+ patients of any age: Endocrine+/Age<50 (5.5% vs 4.5%; HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.61-2.31); Endocrine+/Age≥50 (4.2% vs 2

  19. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  20. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  1. Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cantisani Di Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Methods: Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position, type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. Results: 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score <7 and day care attendance. The multivariate analysis showed that artificial feeding is the factor most often associated to otitis media with effusion. Conclusions: Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding.

  2. [Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Renata Cantisani; Barros, Vivian Boschesi; Ramos, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position), type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2,500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Younger apes and human children plan their moves in a maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2014-02-01

    Planning defined as the predetermination of a sequence of actions towards some goal is crucial for complex problem solving. To shed light on the evolution of executive functions, we investigated the ontogenetic and phylogenetic origins of planning. Therefore, we presented all four great apes species (N=12) as well as 4- and 5-year-old human preschoolers (N=24) with a vertical maze task. To gain a reward placed on the uppermost level of the maze, subjects had to move the reward to the bottom through open gaps situated at each level of the maze. In total, there were ten gaps located over three of the maze's levels, and free passage through these gaps could be flexibly blocked using multiple traps. Due to the decision tree design of the maze, the subjects had to plan their actions depending on the trap configuration up to two steps ahead to successfully retrieve the reward. We found that (1) our measure of planning was negatively correlated with age in nonhuman apes, (2) younger apes as well as 5-year-old children planned their moves up to two steps ahead whereas 4-year-olds were limited to plan one step ahead, and (3) similar performance but different underlying limitations between apes and children. Namely, while all species of nonhuman apes were limited by a lack of motor control, human children exhibited a shortage in shifting their attention across a sequence of subgoals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Younger Dryas re-advance of local glaciers in north Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Funder, Svend; Linge, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) is a well-constrained cold event from 12,900 to 11,700 years ago but it remains unclear how the cooling and subsequent abrupt warming recorded in ice cores was translated into ice margin fluctuations in Greenland. Here we present 10Be surface exposure ages from three moraines...... in front of local glaciers on a 50 km stretch along the north coast of Greenland, facing the Arctic Ocean. Ten ages range from 11.6 ± 0.5 to 27.2 ± 0.9 ka with a mean age of 12.5 ± 0.7 ka after exclusion of two outliers. We consider this to be a minimum age for the abandonment of the moraines. The ages...... the interval 11.8-13.0 ka ago. This is the first time a synchronous YD glacier advance and subsequent retreat has been recorded for several independent glaciers in Greenland. In most other areas, there is no evidence for re-advance and glaciers were retreating during YD. We explain the different behaviour...

  5. Data processing potential ten years from now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajde, C.

    1982-01-01

    What today is still experimental will tomorrow be routine. Use of emission tomography, automatic determination of regions of interest, generalisation of Fourrier phase and amplitude analysis, parametric images these will become routine medical protocols. The next ten years will see a saturation in the field of research and a stabilisation in system development. Equipment renewal will be seen from the same angle as in the automotive industry - more for reasons of wear and tear than for reasons of technical advancement

  6. School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Travis G.

    2004-01-01

    School Psychologistsâ Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later (ABSTRACT) This study was designed to replicate nationwide surveys completed in 1982 and 1992. The purpose was to examine and describe the levels of job satisfaction and the relationship between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The sample for this study consisted of respondents who reported being full-time school practitioners. ...

  7. Simplification of the helical TEN2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, K.-H.

    1980-04-01

    The observation that the helical TEN2 laser can effectively be simplified by giving up the use of decoupling elements as well as by abolishing the segmentation of the electrode structure is examined. Although, as a consequence of this simplification, the operating pressure range was slightly decreased, the output power could be improved by roughly 30%, a result which is attributed to the new electrode geometry exhibiting lower inductance and lower damping losses.

  8. Modification of the 'ten-day rule'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klempfner, G.

    1985-01-01

    In a 1964 decision the National Health and Medical Research Council recommended that radiological examinations of the lower abdomen and pelvis of women of childbearing age should be confined to the 10-day interval following the onset of menstruation. Recent evidence suggests that the first four weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period is not a critically radiosensitive period and consequently strict adherence to the ten-day rule is no longer indicated

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Verbascum macrurum Ten. (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, C

    2002-01-01

    The Author presents the results regarding the antibacterial action of extracts of Verbascum macrurum Ten.. The leaves of this species, gathered on the slopes of Mt. Matese, were ground and four extracts were made as follows: with dicholoromethane, ethonol and water (70:30 v/v), water and methanol. The antibacterial activity of each of the samples was tested and it is demonstrated that the extract with the ethanol/water was the most activity one.

  10. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Screening among Younger African American Men: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Patricia; Foster, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cancer killer among African Americans in the U.S. Compared to White men, African American men have incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher from CRC. Despite the benefits of early detection and the availability of effective screening, most adults over age 50 have not undergone testing, and disparities in colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) persist. Owing to CRC’s high incidence and younger age at presentation among African American men, CRCS is warranted at age 45 rather than 50. However, the factors influencing young adult (i.e., age methodological quality. Utilizing Garrard’s Matrix Method, a total of 28 manuscripts met our inclusion/exclusion criteria: 20 studies followed a non-experimental research design, 4 comprised a quasi-experimental design, and 4, an experimental design. Studies were published between 2002 and 2012; the majority, between 2007 and 2011. The factors most frequently assessed were behaviors (79%), beliefs (68%), and knowledge (61%) of CRC and CRCS. Six factors associated with CRC and CRCS emerged: previous CRCS, CRC test preference, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, CRC/CRCS knowledge, and physician support/recommendation. Studies were assigned a methodological quality score (MQS – ranging from 0 to 21). The mean MQS of 10.9 indicated these studies were, overall, of medium quality and suffered from specific flaws. Alongside a call for more rigorous research, this review provides important suggestions for practice and culturally relevant interventions. PMID:26435888

  11. Sociality and intergenerational transfer of older adults' nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Robertson, Sara

    2018-05-03

    Interest in nostalgia has blossomed, yet its nature in older adulthood and potential for intergenerational transfer to younger adults has remained neglected. In Experiment 1, we focused on the content of older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) recollections and asked whether older adults' nostalgia could be transferred to younger adults. We showed that nostalgia expressed in older adults' narratives was positively associated with nostalgia reported by young-adult readers. In Experiment 2, undergraduates read a nostalgic or ordinary narrative written by an older adult. Then they rated their own nostalgia as well as their perceived social connectedness, self-continuity, and meaning in life. Exposure to older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) narratives promoted concurrent nostalgia among young adults, along with associated psychological benefits (social connectedness, self-continuity, meaning). The findings illustrate the potential for intergenerational transfer of nostalgia through written narratives, and attest to the universality of nostalgic themes across younger and older adults.

  12. Thinking about a Limited Future Enhances the Positivity of Younger and Older Adults’ Recall: Support for Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J.; Opitz, Philipp C.; Martins, Bruna; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Compared with younger adults, older adults have a relative preference to attend to and remember positive over negative information. This is known as the “positivity effect,” and researchers have typically evoked socioemotional selectivity theory to explain it. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, as people get older they begin to perceive their time left in life as more limited. These reduced time horizons prompt older adults to prioritize achieving emotional gratification and thus exhibit increased positivity in attention and recall. Although this is the most commonly cited explanation of the positivity effect, there is currently a lack of clear experimental evidence demonstrating a link between time horizons and positivity. The goal of the current research was to address this issue. In two separate experiments, we asked participants to complete a writing activity, which directed them to think of time as being either limited or expansive (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not orient them to think about time in a particular manner (Experiment 2). Participants were then shown a series of emotional pictures, which they subsequently tried to recall. Results from both studies showed that regardless of chronological age, thinking about a limited future enhanced the relative positivity of participants’ recall. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not driven by changes in mood. Thus, the fact that older adults’ recall is typically more positive than younger adults’ recall may index naturally shifting time horizons and goals with age. PMID:27112461

  13. Searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine: a pilot study on cognitive flexibility in younger and older users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommes, Aurelie; Chevalier, Aline; Rossetti, Marilyne

    2010-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the age-related differences in searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine. 11 older adults (6 men, 5 women; M age=59 yr., SD=2.76, range=55-65 yr.) and 12 younger adults (2 men, 10 women; M=23.7 yr., SD=1.07, range=22-25 yr.) had to conduct six searches differing in complexity, and for which a search method was or was not induced. The results showed that the younger and older participants provided with an induced search method were less flexible than the others and produced fewer new keywords. Moreover, older participants took longer than the younger adults, especially in the complex searches. The younger participants were flexible in the first request and spontaneously produced new keywords (spontaneous flexibility), whereas the older participants only produced new keywords when confronted by impasses (reactive flexibility). Aging may influence web searches, especially the nature of keywords used.

  14. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants' ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as 'encouragement' for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, 'playfulness' for amusement, joy, interest, and 'harmony' for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions.

  15. Stronger evidence for own-age effects in memory for older as compared to younger adults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freund, A.M.; Kouřilová, Sylvie; Kuhl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2011), s. 429-448 ISSN 0965-8211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : own- age effect * memory bias * age relevance * age ing Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2011

  16. Smoking and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated associations of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) by age. Methods. Data came from the Pooling Project on Diet and Coronary Heart Disease (8 prospective studies, 1974-1996; n = 192 067 women and 74 720 men, aged 40-89 years). Results. During follow-up, 4326 cases...... years or older. The largest absolute risk differences between current smokers and never smokers were observed among the oldest participants. Finally, the majority of CHD cases among smokers were attributable to smoking. For example, attributable proportions of CHD by age group were 88% (40-49 years), 81......% (50-59 years), 71% for (60-69 years), and 68% (70+ years) among women who smoked. Conclusions. Among smokers, the majority of CHD cases are attributable to smoking in all age groups. Smoking prevention is important, irrespective of age. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 13...

  17. [Does the brain have a gender? A literature review in younger and older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compère, Laurie; Piolino, Pascale

    2014-12-01

    There are no longer doubts about the existence of gender's differences in cognition, only their origin is still controversial. The literature provides evidence of differences in cognitive performance and brain activation patterns and links these differences in men and women with biological, social and psychological measures. To date, the favored hypothesis explaining these differences is the cognitive style hypothesis according to which women and men would favor different strategies while resolving some tasks. Some of these tasks are autobiographical memory tasks, which are also the most sensitive to the effects of age but very few studies had explored the impact of aging on the differences in cognition between men and women. We discuss the importance of such studies about the gender's differences in aging. A better understanding of gender differences in cognition in pathological aging as in health would provide the opportunity to offer a more personalized care.

  18. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricio, Aline Teixeira; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously ...

  19. “TOT” phenomena: Gesture production in younger and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Theochaaropoulou, F.; Cocks, N.; Pring, T.; Dipper, L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored age-related changes in gesture in order to better understand the relationship between gesture and word retrieval from memory. The frequency of gestures during “Tip-of-the-Tongue” (TOT) states highlights this relationship. There is a lack of evidence describing the form and content of iconic gestures arising spontaneously in such TOT states, and a parallel gap addressing age-related variations. In this study, TOT states were induced in 45 participants from two age groups (o...

  20. The proportion of the face in younger adults using the thumb rule of Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, O

    1996-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine whether the thumb rule of Leonardo da Vinci could be an objective method in the determination of the natural and artistic proportions of human face. In this study, a sample of 400 subjects (200 male and 200 female, 22-25 years old) was used. Measurements were made of the length of thumb, the length of ear, the approximate distances between the hair line and the glabella or eyebrows, between the glabella or eyebrows and the tip of the nose and the distance between the nose and the chin, and the distance between the ear and the lateral aspect of the eye. The results obtained in the males and females showed significant (p thumb and the proportions of the face examined in the study. Additionally, the height of the face was found to be almost three times the length of the thumb. However, the measurements obtained from female subjects were on average smaller than those taken from males. The results obtained in this experiment could be of value in understanding of the evaluation of the face for the people working in plastic surgery or art.

  1. Bidirectional Interference between Speech and Nonspeech Tasks in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dallin J.; Dromey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine divided attention over a large age range by looking at the effects of 3 nonspeech tasks on concurrent speech motor performance. The nonspeech tasks were designed to facilitate measurement of bidirectional interference, allowing examination of their sensitivity to speech activity. A cross-sectional…

  2. Anthropomorphic Interfaces on Automation Trust, Dependence, and Performance inYounger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Nomadic radio: Speech and audio interaction for contextual messaging in nomadic environments. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7(3...be assessed: perceptual speed ( digit -symbol substitution; Wechsler, 1997), working memory (automated operation span (Aospan); Unsworth, Heitz...cognitive abilities test. These tests include the digit symbol test, reverse digit span test, and the Shipley vocabulary test. These tests will gather

  3. Emphasis on Autonomy and Propensity for Suicidal Behavior in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riley, Alisa A.; Fiske, Amy

    2012-01-01

    A cognitive style marked by emphasis on autonomy has been linked to negative outcomes throughout the life span. Two preliminary studies are presented that examined factors on a measure of autonomy (Personal Style Inventory-Revised) in relation to propensity for suicidal behavior (Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-14; SBQ-14). Perfectionism, B =…

  4. Avanafil for erectile dysfunction in elderly and younger adults: differential pharmacology and clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz EG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eric G Katz,1 Ronny BW Tan,2 Daniel Rittenberg,1 Wayne J Hellstrom3 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Department of Urology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 3Section of Andrology, Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: The treatment modalities of erectile dysfunction range from oral pharmacotherapy to intracavernosal injections, intraurethral pellets, vacuum erectile devices, and the surgical option of penile prosthesis insertion. Oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors still remain the preferred treatment for patients since they are the least invasive, not to mention that they can be prescribed by non-urologists. Due to these factors, there has been development of newer drugs with fewer side effects. This is a review of the second generation phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, avanafil, looking into its pharmacology as well as its clinical utility. Avanafil's faster onset and shorter duration of action has made it preferred as compared to other PDE5 inhibitors for patients with multiple comorbidities. Keywords: phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, impotence, sildenafil, sexual dysfunction, nitric oxide

  5. Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: an imaging review of ten new patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, N.; Joyama, S.; Araki, N. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka (Japan); Ueda, T.; Yoshikawa, H. [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka (Japan); Beppu, Y. [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Tatezaki, S. [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chiba (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, K. [Osaka Seamen' s Insurance Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Tomita, Y. [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Osaka (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare soft-tissue tumor that most arises in young adults. Because of its rarity, few imaging studies have been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the imaging features of this tumor. We conducted a multi-institutional study in cooperation with five referral cancer centers in Japan. Imaging findings of ten new EMC cases, including conventional radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed at each institute, were reviewed along with clinical features. Ten patients with EMC, who had been treated at each hospital from 1990 to 2001, participated in this study. Soft-tissue masses with well-demarcated, dense and granular calcification were most frequently observed on plain radiographs and CT scans. T2-weighted MR images most clearly depicted a two-component structure composed of calcified and uncalcified areas, and enhanced MRI showed inhomogeneous enhancement in both areas. Although the sensitivity and specificity of these findings are unknown, they might be characteristic and have diagnostic value for this rare tumor. (orig.)

  6. [Omalizumab: What have we learned after ten years of prescription?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, P; Garcia, G; Humbert, M; Aubier, M; Taillé, C

    2016-02-01

    Omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody, has now been used for ten years as an add-on therapy for severe adult atopic asthma, poorly controlled by high-doses inhaled steroids and long-acting beta-agonists. This innovative therapy has been the first biotherapy used on a large scale in severe asthma. It has shown clinical benefits, especially in the prevention of severe exacerbation, with a satisfactory safety profile. Despite its cost, it is an interesting alternative to continuous oral steroids, which cause more long-term side effects. After ten-years of prescription of omalizumab, we review here the mechanism of action, the benefits, the main side effects, the cost-effectiveness and also the alternative indications of this interesting molecule. We also consider the practicalities of using omalizumab, particularly the importance a rigorous assessment of its efficacy after 16 weeks of treatment, and possible future therapeutic indications. Omalizumab has proven its efficacy in large randomized studies but also in real life practice in severe allergic asthma. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Ten Years of ODAS in Retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Arthur B.

    1974-01-01

    Reviewed are growth, activities, and changes of the Oral Deaf Adults Section (ODAS) of the Alexander Graham Bell Association since its establishment in 1964 to aid adjustment of the deaf to society. (MC)

  8. Immunization Uptake in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaik, Ghassan Abu; Roberts, Wendy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Modi, Bonnie M.; Tanel, Nadia; Brian, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental concerns persist that immunization increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder, resulting in the potential for reduced uptake by parents of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder ("younger sibs"). Objective: To compare immunization uptake by parents for their younger child relative to their…

  9. The Younger Dryas climate change: was it caused by an extraterrestrial impact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Younger Dryas is an abrupt cooling event at the end of the last Glacial associated to a change in ocean circulation. According to the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, however, one or more extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts occuring around 12.8 ka caused the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive

  10. Fertility concerns and preservation in younger women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchan, Raymond Manohar; Ginsburg, Elizabeth Sarah

    2010-06-01

    Nearly 30% of breast cancer cases present in women younger than 50 years old. While newer treatment regimens employed are less gonadotoxic, regimens still consist of combination medications that include cyclophosphamide, known to deplete the number of primordial follicles, thereby potentially leading to infertility. For common regimens such as adriamycin/cytoxan (AC), the risk of premature ovarian failure was thought to be largely dependent on patient age, with the risk of complete ovarian failure women women >40 (Hortobagyi et al. (1986) [1]); however recent studies indicate that AC is considered to have intermediate risk for gonadotoxicity in women >40 years age. This review examines major strides in the field of reproductive medicine over the past 20 years including the use of leuprolide acetate, embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue banking. We also discuss the role of gestational carriers and adoption in establishing families as a viable option for many of these cancer patients who may be unable to avail themselves of other alternatives to fertility preservation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  12. A Blind Test of the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance Holliday

    Full Text Available The Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis (YDIH states that North America was devastated by some sort of extraterrestrial event ~12,800 calendar years before present. Two fundamental questions persist in the debate over the YDIH: Can the results of analyses for purported impact indicators be reproduced? And are the indicators unique to the lower YD boundary (YDB, i.e., ~12.8k cal yrs BP? A test reported here presents the results of analyses that address these questions. Two different labs analyzed identical splits of samples collected at, above, and below the ~12.8ka zone at the Lubbock Lake archaeological site (LL in northwest Texas. Both labs reported similar variation in levels of magnetic micrograins (>300 mg/kg >12.8ka and <11.5ka, but <150 mg/kg 12.8ka to 11.5ka. Analysis for magnetic microspheres in one split, reported elsewhere, produced very low to nonexistent levels throughout the section. In the other split, reported here, the levels of magnetic microspherules and nanodiamonds are low or nonexistent at, below, and above the YDB with the notable exception of a sample <11,500 cal years old. In that sample the claimed impact proxies were recovered at abundances two to four orders of magnitude above that from the other samples. Reproducibility of at least some analyses are problematic. In particular, no standard criteria exist for identification of magnetic spheres. Moreover, the purported impact proxies are not unique to the YDB.

  13. Ten steps to successful poster presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric; Coad, Jane

    Receiving a letter confirming acceptance for you to present a poster at a conference can evoke mixed emotions. Joy, panic, fear and dread are among the many possible emotions and this is not exclusive to first time presenters. Developing an effective poster presentation is a skill that you can learn and can provide a rewarding way to present your work in a manner less intimidating than oral presentation (Shelledy, 2004). The key to successful poster presentation is meticulous, timely, well informed preparation. This article outlines ten steps to help guide you through the process to maximize your success.

  14. The Top Ten Algorithms in Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong

    2009-01-01

    From classification and clustering to statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, this book covers the most important topics in data mining research. It presents the ten most influential algorithms used in the data mining community today. Each chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithm, a discussion of available software implementation, advanced topics, and exercises. With a simple data set, examples illustrate how each algorithm works and highlight the overall performance of each algorithm in a real-world application. Featuring contributions from leading researc

  15. Novitäten im Breslauer Stadttheater

    OpenAIRE

    Zduniak, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Am Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts zählte das Breslauer Stadttheater, obwohl mit nur einer kleinen Orchester-Besetzung ausgestattet, zu den bemerkenswerten europäischen Opernbühnen. Es war aufgeschlossen für musikalische Novitäten. Als Beweis dafür sind u.a. die Breslauer Premieren Salome (1906) von Richard Strauss, L\\'Orfeo (1913) von Claudio Monteverdi und die Uraufführung der Oper Eros und Psyche (1917) von Ludomir Różycki zu nennen.

  16. Ten financial management principles for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O

    1988-03-01

    Financial insolvency is the primary cause of hospital failure. Managers may analyze a hospital's financial statements to anticipate and prevent fiscal problems. Ten measures of fiscal status may be used to evaluate the following: operating profitability nonoperating income equity growth liquidity debt capacity age of facilities revenue generation replacement funds receivables survivability Based on data from the Financial Analysis Service, Catholic hospitals are doing better than other U.S. hospitals in some areas of financial preparedness. In most areas, however, all hospitals suffer by comparison with manufacturers. The 10 principles of solvent and successful operations can help hospitals improve financial resiliency.

  17. Ten essential skills for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Dorr, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Engineers know that, as in any other discipline, getting a good job requires practical, up-to-date skills. An engineering degree provides a broad set of fundamentals. Ten Essential Skills applies those fundamentals to practical tasks required by employers. Written in a user-friendly, no-nonsense format, the book reviews practical skills using the latest tools and techniques, and features a companion website with interview practice problems and advanced material for readers wishing to pursue additional skills. With this book, aspiring and current engineers may approach job interviews confident

  18. Optical spectroscopy of ten extragalactic radiosources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, S.; Riley, J.M.; Saunders, R.

    1989-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of ten objects associated with extra-galactic radiosources, using the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. Redshifts are measured for four radiogalaxies (B20217 + 36A + B, 3C73, 0648 + 19A, 0648 + 19B) and for a galaxy which is probably associated with a double radio-source with highly unusual properties (0951 + 37); existing redshifts are confirmed for two radiogalaxies (4C39.04, 4C40.08); and a tentative redshift of z=2.87 measured for the quasar 3C82. (author)

  19. Audits reveal ten common environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buys, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The old saying that open-quotes an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cureclose quotes rings particularly true in environmental matters in the 1990s. Environmental problems can potentially lead to expensive fines, costly cleanups, negative public relations, and even criminal sanctions against members of the corporation. A recurring pattern of problems has been noted during the performance of environmental disposition, acquisition, and compliance assessments of many different operators in most of the producing states. The ten most common problems found in oilfield audits are discussed here in an effort to enhance the awareness of operators

  20. Ten new withanolides from Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Sheng-Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Ten new withanolides, including four perulactone-type withanolides, perulactones E-H (1-4), three 28-hydroxy-withanolides, withaperuvins I-K (5-7), and three other withanolides, withaperuvins L-N (8-10), together with six known compounds (11-16) were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis peruviana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D and 2D NMR, IR, HR-MS) and chemical methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute atomoxetine treatment of younger and older children with ADHD: A meta-analysis of tolerability and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Brigette S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atomoxetine is FDA-approved as a treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in patients aged 6 years to adult. Among pediatric clinical trials of atomoxetine to date, six with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design were used in this meta-analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and compare the treatment response and tolerability of atomoxetine between younger children (6–7 years and older children (8–12 years with ADHD, as reported in these six acute treatment trials. Methods Data from six clinical trials of 6–9 weeks duration were pooled, yielding 280 subjects, ages 6–7 years, and 860 subjects, ages 8–12 years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-diagnosed ADHD. Efficacy was analyzed using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-revised (CPRS-R:S, and the Clinical Global Impression of ADHD Severity (CGI-ADHD-S. Results Atomoxetine was superior to placebo in both age categories for mean (SD change in ADHD-RS total, total T, and subscale scores; 3 CPRS-R:S subscales; and CGI-ADHD-S from baseline. Although there were no significant treatment differentials between the age groups for these efficacy measures, the age groups themselves, regardless of treatment, were significantly different for ADHD-RS total (younger: ATX = -14.2 [13.8], PBO = -4.6 [10.4]; older: ATX = -15.4 [13.2], PBO = -7.3 [12.0]; p = .001, total T (younger: ATX = -15.2 [14.8], PBO = -4.9 [11.2]; older: ATX = -16.4 [14.6], PBO = -7.9 [13.1]; p = .003, and subscale scores (Inattentive: younger: ATX = -7.2 [7.5], PBO = -2.4 [5.7]; older: ATX = -8.0 [7.4], PBO = -3.9 [6.7]; p = .043; Hyperactive/Impulsive: younger: ATX = -7.0 [7.2], PBO = -2.1 [5.4]; older: ATX = -7.3 [7.0], PBO = -3.4 [6.3]; p Conclusion Atomoxetine is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment of ADHD in both younger and older children as assessed by three

  2. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) for labour pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.

  3. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Booth, Andrew; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Tony; Enderby, Pam; Roots, Alison

    2013-05-10

    Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate.

  4. Expanded criteria donor kidneys for younger recipients: acceptable outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplani, K R; Kute, V B; Vanikar, A V; Shah, P R; Gumber, M R; Patel, H V; Modi, P R; Trivedi, H L

    2010-12-01

    European senior programme (ESP) is well known for acceptable outcomes using expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys from donors older than 65 years for recipients older than 65 years. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is 229/million in India with a mean age of 45 years. We performed a retrospective analysis of transplantation of ECD versus standard criteria donor (SCD) kidneys into younger recipients. Forty-three ECD transplantations among 158 deceased donor organ transplantation (DDOT) were performed between January 2006 and December 2009. Among 43 transplantation from 30 donors, 14 were dual kidney transplantations (DKT) performed based upon biopsy evaluation. All recipients received thymoglobulin (rATG) induction followed by immunosuppression with a steroid, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and a calcineurin inhibitor. Statistical analysis used chi-square test and unpaired Student t test. Kaplan-Meier curves were used for survival analysis. For ECD the mean donor age was 64 ± 11 years. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) were the cause of death among 60% of donors, 73.13% of whom were hypertensive and 23.13% diabetic. Mean DKT donor age was 75 ± 9.17 years versus 60 ± 8.0 years for single kidney transplantation (SKT). Mean recipient age of DKT versus SKT was 44 ± 12.4 years versus 43 ± 14 years. Mean serum creatinine (SCr; mg/dL) of SKT patients was 1.64 ± 0.75 versus 1.68 ± 0.46 in DKT. Mean follow-up was 455 ± 352 days. Mean SCr of 43 ECD recipients of mean age, 43.4 ± 14.2 years was 1.61 ± 0.61 mg/dL. Among 43 recipients, 23.25% were diabetic, 41.86% displayed delayed graft function (DGF), and 23.25% experienced biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR). Patient survival rate was 72.09% and graft survival rate was 67.44%. For SCD transplantations (n = 115), the mean donor age was 36 ± 14 years and recipient mean age was 32.8 ± 14.07 years. Mean SCr was 1.32 ± 0.46 mg/dL with 26.95% recipients displaying DGF, whereas 20.86% had BPAR. In the SCD

  5. Factors Associated with Younger Adolescents’ Exposure to Online Alcohol Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Shadel, William G.; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a two-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past two weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths’ risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% white, 27% black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for under-reporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents’ exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. PMID:27819430

  6. Radiation-associated chronic myelogenous leukaemia in younger people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimaoka, K.; Sokal, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) is known to be induced by exposure to ionizing radiation, as is acute leukaemia. However, CML has been recorded only rarely as a complication of radiation exposure early in life. During the period from 1973 to 1976, 75 patients with CML were admitted to Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI). In addition, 64 patients admitted to RPMI previously were also available for study in 1973. Among 79 patients who were born after 1925, information regarding radiation exposure was obtained in 89%; 49 were interviewed and 21 responded to a mailed questionnaire. Consultation with parents was achieved in 52 of the 70 responding cases (74%). Replies were obtained from 15 of the 18 patients below the age of 25, and were confirmed by parents or siblings in all instances. Replies to the mailed questionnaire were obtained from 45 age- and sex-matched controls. In addition to two patients already known to have radiation exposure for treatment of malignant neoplasms, these inquiries yielded a total of nine patients with histories of radiation exposure for benign conditions. Three had therapeutic irradiation, two for thymic enlargement and one for eczema. Three had exposure in utero by pelvimetry. Two had diagnostic exposure during the perinatal period and one had occupational exposure as a nurse. Four of these patients were below the age of 25. All nine patients had the Ph' chromosome. The course of CML in these patients was not different from that of other patients with Ph' chromosome-positive CML without a history of radiation exposure. A history of radiation exposure was elicited in one-fourth of the younger patients (<25) in this study, compared with one of 45 age- and sex-matched controls without leukaemia (p<0.02)

  7. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Antihypertensive effect of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in comparison with drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverdal, Jonas; Mourtzinis, Georgios; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Mannheimer, Clas; Manhem, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for vascular disease, yet blood pressure (BP) control is unsatisfactory low, partly due to side-effects. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is well tolerated and studies have demonstrated BP reduction. In this study, we compared the BP lowering effect of 2.5 mg felodipin once daily with 30 min of bidaily low-frequency TENS in 32 adult hypertensive subjects (mean office BP 152.7/90.0 mmHg) in a randomized, crossover design. Office BP and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were performed at baseline and at the end of each 4-week treatment and washout period. Felodipin reduced office BP by 10/6 mmHg (p TENS reduced office BP by 5/1.5 mmHg (p TENS washout, BP was further reduced and significantly lower than at baseline, but at levels similar to BP after felodipin washout and therefore reasonably caused by factors other than the treatment per se. ABPM revealed a significant systolic reduction of 3 mmHg by felodipin, but no significant changes were noted after TENS. We conclude that our study does not present any solid evidence of BP reduction of TENS.

  9. An investigation of response and stimulus modality transfer effects after dual-task training in younger and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Maxime; Gagnon, Christine; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that dual-task training leads to significant improvement in dual-task performance in younger and older adults. However, the extent to which training benefits to untrained tasks requires further investigation. The present study assessed (a) whether dual-task training leads to cross-modality transfer in untrained tasks using new stimuli and/or motor responses modalities, (b) whether transfer effects are related to improved ability to prepare and maintain multiple task-set and/or enhanced response coordination, (c) whether there are age-related differences in transfer effects. Twenty-three younger and 23 older adults were randomly assigned to dual-task training or control conditions. All participants were assessed before and after training on three dual-task transfer conditions; (1) stimulus modality transfer (2) response modality transfer (3) stimulus and response modalities transfer task. Training group showed larger improvement than the control group in the three transfer dual-task conditions, which suggests that training leads to more than specific learning of stimuli/response associations. Attentional costs analyses showed that training led to improved dual-task cost, only in conditions that involved new stimuli or response modalities, but not both. Moreover, training did not lead to a reduced task-set cost in the transfer conditions, which suggests some limitations in transfer effects that can be expected. Overall, the present study supports the notion that cognitive plasticity for attentional control is preserved in late adulthood.

  10. Geographical variability of the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in subjects younger than 30 years in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellana, Rosa; Ascaso, Carlos; Carrasco, Josep L; Castell, Conxa; Tresserras, Ricard

    2009-04-04

    We decided to assess the geographical variability of the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in Catalonia (Spain) in subjects younger than 30 years at onset during the period 1989-1998. The effect of sex, age at onset, periods of years, and population density was also analyzed. Data were obtained from the prospective Catalan Registry of Diabetes Mellitus. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of the risk factors and to find out the geographical distribution. The best model was selected by the AKAIKE information criterion. The crude incidence of type 1 diabetes in subjects younger than 30 years was 11.8/100,000/year (95% CI 11.4-12.3). The incidence was similar between males and females in the 0-14 age group. However, there was a male preponderance in young adults. The incidence did not vary annually and was not associated with population density. The incidence did not present a spatial pattern around Catalonia. There was an unstructured geographical variability. Some regions of Catalonia displayed values of type I diabetes higher or lower than the expected incidence. Counties with extreme values of incidence were specific for each demographic group and in no case did these counties make up clusters, suggesting that there are explanatory factors with patterns of geographic distribution. The incidence of diabetes in young male adults in some counties was similar to that of European countries with a high incidence.

  11. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  12. Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The meeting "Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After" took place at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, CA June 27-28, 2003. The meeting was sponsored by the Committee on the Status of Women of the American Astronomical Society and was attended by about 155 participants. The purpose of the meeting was: "To review the current status of women in astronomy, understand their work environment, assess development since the 1992 Baltimore conference, and recommend future actions that will improve the environment for all astronomers." A description of the meeting and its background can be found at http://www.aas.org/%7Ecswa/WIA2003.html. The proceedings are being edited by Profs. Meg Urry (Yale University) and Ran Bagenal (University of Colorado). The principal outcome of WIAII was a series of recommendations, "The Pasadena Recommendations", which have been approved by the AAS Council and which can be found at http://www.aas.org/%7Ecswa/.

  13. Spacelab - Ten years of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignier, M.; Harrington, J. C.; Sander, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The history, current status, and future plans of the Spacelab program are reviewed, with a focus on the cooperative relationship between ESA and NASA. The initial decision to undertake the program and the three agreements signed to begin its implementation are examined, and the division of responsibilities and financial contributions is discussed insofar as it affected the management structure. Consideration is given to the major facilities, the 50-mission operational cycle, communications, the currently scheduled activities (through 1985), the prospective later uses, and the ten dedicated discipline laboratories. The importance of continuous mutual support during the planning and development phases is stressed. The program so far is considered a success, in terms of the goals set by the participants and in terms of the resolution of the problems inherent in international technological endeavors.

  14. Ten years of x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Bortel, G.; Tegze, M.; Fadley, C.S.; Simionovici, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    With the appearance of nano-science the role of local methods has become more and more important. Hard x-ray holography based on the inside reference point concept is a local probe of the atomic order in solids. It gives the 3D real space image of atoms without the phase ambiguity inherent to diffraction methods. In this paper a brief description of the basics of hard x-ray holography is given. The last ten years' experimental and evaluation-related developments are reviewed. We also introduce different variants of the method, such as Bremsstrahlung and gamma ray holography (GRH). The power of the method is illustrated by examples. We outline new directions and future possibilities. (authors)

  15. A Younger Dryas re-advance of local glaciers in north Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Funder, Svend; Linge, Henriette; Möller, Per; Schomacker, Anders; Fabel, Derek; Xu, Sheng; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2016-09-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) is a well-constrained cold event from 12,900 to 11,700 years ago but it remains unclear how the cooling and subsequent abrupt warming recorded in ice cores was translated into ice margin fluctuations in Greenland. Here we present 10Be surface exposure ages from three moraines in front of local glaciers on a 50 km stretch along the north coast of Greenland, facing the Arctic Ocean. Ten ages range from 11.6 ± 0.5 to 27.2 ± 0.9 ka with a mean age of 12.5 ± 0.7 ka after exclusion of two outliers. We consider this to be a minimum age for the abandonment of the moraines. The ages of the moraines are furthermore constrained using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of epishelf sediments, which were deposited prior to the ice advance that formed the moraines, yielding a maximum age of 12.4 ± 0.6 ka, and bracketing the formation and subsequent abandonment of the moraines to within the interval 11.8-13.0 ka ago. This is the first time a synchronous YD glacier advance and subsequent retreat has been recorded for several independent glaciers in Greenland. In most other areas, there is no evidence for re-advance and glaciers were retreating during YD. We explain the different behaviour of the glaciers in northernmost Greenland as a function of their remoteness from the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), which in other areas has been held responsible for modifying the YD drop in temperatures.

  16. Successful replantation in ten-digit amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Umit; Cepel, Selim; Buldu, Halil

    2010-01-01

    Amputations involving ten digits are very rare because of different lengths of the digits. A 34-year-old man working in a printing house presented one hour after guillotine amputation involving all ten digits. Surgery was initiated 80 minutes after admission and took seven hours. Under axillary anesthesia, the operation was performed by two teams each consisting of two microsurgeons and two assistants. Replantation was completed without the use of any skin graft or flap. Fingertip examination showed poor arterial circulation in the second, third, and fourth digits of the left hand after 24 hours of replantation and surgical exploration was performed, during which anastomosis of the ulnar digital artery of the second digit was re-established and a Y-shaped vein graft was placed at the level of the third web to restore revascularization of the third and fourth digits. However, these interventions did not prevent the development of necrosis in the distal segment of the fourth digit which resulted in dry gangrene that required amputation. After 38 months of replantation, radiographic examination showed complete union in all fingers without malunion or damage to the joint surface and about 8 degrees of medial angulation in the proximal phalanx of the fourth digit of the right hand. The patient did not have difficulty in performing daily activities and had a considerably good pinching. Losses of active range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints were within the rage of 10 to 30 degrees in both hands. In the assessment of sensation, static and dynamic two-point discrimination test results were 6.1 mm and 4.0 mm, respectively.

  17. Half-marathoners are younger and slower than marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Age and performance trends of elite and recreational marathoners are well investigated, but not for half-marathoners. We analysed age and performance trends in 508,108 age group runners (125,894 female and 328,430 male half-marathoners and 10,205 female and 43,489 male marathoners) competing between 1999 and 2014 in all flat half-marathons and marathons held in Switzerland using single linear regression analyses, mixed-effects regression analyses and analyses of variance. The number of women and men increased across years in both half-marathons and marathons. There were 12.3 times more female half-marathoners than female marathoners and 7.5 times more male half-marathoners than male marathoners. For both half-marathons and marathons, most of the female and male finishers were recorded in age group 40-44 years. In half-marathons, women (10.29 ± 3.03 km/h) were running 0.07 ± 0.06 km/h faster (p marathon, women (14.77 ± 4.13 km/h) were running 0.28 ± 0.16 km/h faster (p marathon, women (42.18 ± 10.63 years) were at the same age than men (42.06 ± 10.45 years) (p > 0.05). Also in half-marathon, women (41.40 ± 10.63 years) were at the same age than men (41.31 ± 10.30 years) (p > 0.05). However, women and men marathon runners were older than their counterpart half-marathon runners (p marathons than in marathons, (2) women were running faster than men, (3) half-marathoners were running slower than marathoners, and (4) half-marathoners were younger than marathoners.

  18. Negative Facial Expressions - But Not Visual Scenes - Enhance Human Working Memory in Younger and Older Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belham, Flávia Schechtman; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H; Satler, Corina; Garcia, Ana; Rodrigues, Rosângela C; Canabarro, Soraya L de Sá; Tomaz, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the influence of emotion on memory processes across the human lifespan. Some results have shown older adults (OA) performing better with positive stimuli, some with negative items, whereas some found no impact of emotional valence. Here we tested, in two independent studies, how younger adults (YA) and OA would perform in a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task with positive, negative, and neutral images. The task consisted of identifying the new location of a stimulus in a crescent set of identical stimuli presented in different locations in a touch-screen monitor. In other words, participants should memorize the locations previously occupied to identify the new location. For each trial, the number of occupied locations increased until 8 or until a mistake was made. In study 1, 56 YA and 38 OA completed the task using images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Results showed that, although YA outperformed OA, no effects of emotion were found. In study 2, 26 YA and 25 OA were tested using facial expressions as stimuli. Data from this study showed that negative faces facilitated performance and this effect did not differ between age groups. No differences were found between men and women. Taken together, our findings suggest that YA and OA's VSWM can be influenced by the emotional valence of the information, though this effect was present only for facial stimuli. Presumably, this may have happened due to the social and biological importance of such stimuli, which are more effective in transmitting emotions than IAPS images. Critically, our results also indicate that the mixed findings in the literature about the influence of aging on the interactions between memory and emotion may be caused by the use of different stimuli and methods. This possibility should be kept in mind in future studies about memory and emotion across the lifespan.

  19. Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tamara L.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2017-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps. The mean antennal length of males attracted to field traps baited with a single female was longer than that of males attracted to traps baited with two females, a pattern consistent with Darwin's prediction assuming the latter emits higher pheromone concentrations. Furthermore, younger females attracted males with longer antennae, which may reflect age-specific changes in pheromone emission. These field experiments provide the first direct evidence of an unappreciated role for sexual selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in moth antennae and raise the intriguing possibility that females select males with longer antennae through strategic emission of pheromones.

  20. Masculine Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Older and Younger Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Elizabeth C; Gregg, Jeffrey J; Smith, Merideth D; Fiske, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests that men who strongly endorse masculine traits display an atypical presentation of depression, including more externalizing symptoms (e.g., anger or substance use), but fewer typical, internalizing symptoms (e.g., depressed mood or crying). This phenomenon has not been adequately explored in older adults or women. The current study used the externalizing subscale of the Masculine Depression Scale in older and younger men and women to detect atypical symptoms. It was predicted that individuals who more strongly endorsed masculine traits would have higher scores on the measure of externalizing symptoms relative to a measure of typical depressive symptoms Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. It was anticipated that results would differ by age-group but not by gender. Multigroup path analysis was used to test the hypothesis. The hypothesized path model, in which endorsement of masculine traits was associated with lower scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale and with scores on the externalizing, but not internalizing, factor of the Masculine Depression Scale, fit the data well. Results differed significantly by age-group and gender. Masculine individuals reported lower levels of typical depressive symptoms relative to externalizing symptoms, but further research is needed within age- and gender groups. Results are consistent with the gendered responding framework and suggest that current assessment tools, which tend to focus on internalizing symptoms of depression, may not detect depression in individuals who endorse masculine traits.

  1. Effects of Word Frequency and Transitional Probability on Word Reading Durations of Younger and Older Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, Cornelia; Meyer, Antje; Janse, Esther

    2017-06-01

    High-frequency units are usually processed faster than low-frequency units in language comprehension and language production. Frequency effects have been shown for words as well as word combinations. Word co-occurrence effects can be operationalized in terms of transitional probability (TP). TPs reflect how probable a word is, conditioned by its right or left neighbouring word. This corpus study investigates whether three different age groups-younger children (8-12 years), adolescents (12-18 years) and older (62-95 years) Dutch speakers-show frequency and TP context effects on spoken word durations in reading aloud, and whether age groups differ in the size of these effects. Results show consistent effects of TP on word durations for all age groups. Thus, TP seems to influence the processing of words in context, beyond the well-established effect of word frequency, across the entire age range. However, the study also indicates that age groups differ in the size of TP effects, with older adults having smaller TP effects than adolescent readers. Our results show that probabilistic reduction effects in reading aloud may at least partly stem from contextual facilitation that leads to faster reading times in skilled readers, as well as in young language learners.

  2. Femoral shaft fractures in children, treaties with elastic nails of titanium - TENs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano Urrutia, Antonio Luis; Gallon, Luis Alfonso; Echandia, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are a common and temporarily disabling injury in children. Recent advances in orthopedic traumatology have led us at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, in Cali, Colombia, to perform a case series observational study with the use of a more aggressive approach with the new endomedullar titanium nails (TENs) in children suffering femur shaft fractures, in a closed procedure performed under image intensification. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of 30 children treated with these nails. Pediatric femoral shaft fractures are more common in males with approximately a 2.75:1 male to female ratio. The age distribution is bimodal, with peaks in the younger than 5 years and mid-teenage groups (10-14 years) because of the increased incidence of high-energy trauma in teenage children (mean age: 9 years). Overall, TENs allowed rapid mobilization with few complications. The results were excellent or satisfactory in our cases. No child lost rotational alignment in the postoperative period. Irritation of the soft tissue near the knee by the nail tip occurred in one patient. As indications, implantation technique, and aftercare are refined, TENs may prove to be the ideal implant to stabilize most pediatric femur shaft fractures, avoiding the prolonged immobilization and complications of traction and spica cast

  3. Human Population Decline in North America during the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. G.; Goodyear, A. C.; Stafford, T. W., Jr.; Kennett, J.; West, A.

    2009-12-01

    There is ongoing debate about a possible human population decline or contraction at the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) at 12.9 ka. We used two methods to test whether the YD affected human population levels: (1) frequency analyses of Paleoindian projectile points, and (2) summed probability analyses of radiocarbon (14C) dates. The results suggest that a significant decline or reorganization of human populations occurred at 12.9 ka, continued through the initial centuries of the YD chronozone, then rebounded by the end of the YD. FREQUENCY ANALYSES: This method employed projectile point data from the Paleoindian Database of the Americas (PIDBA, http://pidba.utk.edu). We tallied diagnostic projectile points and obtained larger totals for Clovis points than for immediately post-Clovis points, which share an instrument-assisted fluting technique, typically using pressure or indirect percussion. Gainey, Vail, Debert, Redstone, and Cumberland point-styles utilized this method and are comparable to the Folsom style. For the SE U.S., the ratio of Clovis points (n=1993) to post-Clovis points (n=947) reveals a point decline of 52%. For the Great Plains, a comparison of Clovis and fluted points (n=4020) to Folsom points (n=2527) shows a point decline of 37%, which may translate into a population contraction of similar magnitude. In addition, eight major Clovis lithic quarry sites in the SE U.S. exhibit little to no evidence for immediate post-Clovis occupations, implying a major population decline. SUMMED PROBABILITIES: This method involved calibrating relevant 14C dates and combining the probabilities, after which major peaks and troughs in the trends are assumed to reflect changes in human demographics. Using 14C dates from Buchanan et al. (2008), we analyzed multiple regions, including the Southeast and Great Plains. Contrary to Buchanan et al., we found an abrupt, statistically significant decline at 12.9 ka, followed 200 to 900 years later by a rebound in the number of

  4. Differences in Risk Aversion between Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Steven M; Duffy, John

    2012-01-15

    Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan.

  5. Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) impact : physical and statistical impossibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2010-08-01

    The YDB impact hypothesis of Firestone et al. (2007) is so extremely improbable it can be considered statistically impossible in addition to being physically impossible. Comets make up only about 1% of the population of Earth-crossing objects. Broken comets are a vanishingly small fraction, and only exist as Earth-sized clusters for a very short period of time. Only a small fraction of impacts occur at angles as shallow as proposed by the YDB impact authors. Events that are exceptionally unlikely to take place in the age of the Universe are 'statistically impossible'. The size distribution of Earth-crossing asteroids is well-constrained by astronomical observations, DoD satellite bolide frequencies, and the cratering record. This distribution can be transformed to a probability density function (PDF) for the largest expected impact of the past 20,000 years. The largest impact of any kind expected over the period of interest is 250 m. Anything larger than 2 km is exceptionally unlikely (probability less than 1%). The impact hypothesis does not rely on any sound physical model. A 4-km diameter comet, even if it fragmented upon entry, would not disperse or explode in the atmosphere. It would generate a crater about 50 km in diameter with a transient cavity as deep as 10 km. There is no evidence for such a large, young crater associated with the YDB. There is no model to suggest that a comet impact of this size is capable of generating continental-wide fires or blast damage, and there is no physical mechanism that could cause a 4-km comet to explode at the optimum height of 500 km. The highest possible altitude for a cometary optimum height is about 15 km, for a 120-m diameter comet. To maximize blast and thermal damage, a 4-km comet would have to break into tens of thousands fragments of this size and spread out over the entire continent, but that would require lateral forces that greatly exceed the drag force, and would not conserve energy. Airbursts are

  6. Ten years for the public Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago, CERN issued a statement declaring that a little known piece of software called the World Wide Web was in the public domain. Nowadays, the Web is an indispensable part of modern communications. The idea for the Web goes back to March 1989 when CERN Computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal for a 'Distributed Information Management System' for the high-energy physics community. The Web was originaly conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between scientists working all over the world. There were many obstacles in the 1980s to the effective exchange of information. There was, for example a great variety of computer and network systems, with hardly any common features. The main purpose of the web was to allow scientists to access information from any source in a consistent and simple way. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee's idea had become the World Wide Web, with its first server and browser running at CERN. Through 1991, the Web spread to other particle physics ...

  7. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.

  8. Ten steps to a cooler planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The overwhelming scientific consensus is that human activities, especially activities that produce greenhouse gases are accumulating in the atmosphere and are changing the intricate balance that has sustained life on earth for millions of years. The estimate is that in Canada about 35 per cent of the greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere come from personal sources. This booklet provides brief account of the ways that individuals contribute to green house gas emissions and provides some helpful hints on how to reduce this personal contribution to the climate change problem. The ten ways suggested are: (1) use public transport as much as possible, (2) buy smaller cars , (3) use the train instead of flying, make fewer long distance trips by combining business and vacation travel, (4) set the thermostat one degree lower and save 525 kg of carbon dioxide per year, (5) avoid overhousing by choosing a smaller house and by making every square foot count, (6) buy energy efficient appliances, (7) reduce water heater's energy consumption by insulating it, (8) reduce meat intake and buy locally produced food in season, (9) minimize garbage production by reusing and recycling, (10) use green power wherever available and contribute to the development of renewable energy sources

  9. Ten tips for authors of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-08-01

    Writing a good quality scientific article takes experience and skill. I propose 'Ten Tips' that may help to improve the quality of manuscripts for scholarly journals. It is advisable to draft first version of manuscript and revise it repeatedly for consistency and accuracy of the writing. During the drafting and revising the following tips can be considered: 1) focus on design to have proper content, conclusion, points compliant with scope of the target journal, appropriate authors and contributors list, and relevant references from widely visible sources; 2) format the manuscript in accordance with instructions to authors of the target journal; 3) ensure consistency and logical flow of ideas and scientific facts; 4) provide scientific confidence; 5) make your story interesting for your readers; 6) write up short, simple and attractive sentences; 7) bear in mind that properly composed and reflective titles increase chances of attracting more readers; 8) do not forget that well-structured and readable abstracts improve citability of your publications; 9) when revising adhere to the rule of 'First and Last' - open your text with topic paragraph and close it with resolution paragraph; 10) use connecting words linking sentences within a paragraph by repeating relevant keywords.

  10. Choledochal cysts: our ten year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cianci, F

    2012-04-01

    We present our experience in the management of choledochal cysts from 1999 to 2009. A retrospective review of all charts with a diagnosis of choledochal cysts in our institution in this ten-year period. Data was collated using Excel. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cyst: 9 females and 8 males. The average age at diagnosis was 28 months (range from 0 to 9 years). The most common presenting symptoms were obstructive jaundice 6 (35%) and abdominal pain and vomiting 4 (23%). Ultrasound (US) was the initial diagnostic test in all cases with 4 patients requiring further investigations. All patients underwent Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy. The average length of stay was 11 days. Patients were followed up with Liver Function Tests (LFTS) and US 4-6 weeks post-operatively. Three patients developed complications including post-op collection, high drain output requiring blood transfusion and adhesive bowel obstruction. Our overall experience with choledochal cyst patients has been a positive one with effective management and low complication rates.

  11. Femoral Neck Stress Fractures in Children Younger Than 10 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Matthew J; Hogue, Grant D; Heyworth, Benton E; Ackerman, Kathryn; Quinn, Bridget; Yen, Yi-Meng

    2017-03-01

    Femoral neck stress fractures are rare in healthy children, with only 9 cases previously reported. The present article reviews our institutional experience with femoral neck stress fractures in children younger than 10 years of age, to highlight the unique features of this condition. We undertook a retrospective review of clinical records of patients who had been treated at our institution for an idiopathic femoral neck stress fracture between 2000 and 2014. To focus on children rather than adolescents, the World Health Organization's definition of adolescent as a person between 10 and 19 years of age was used; we thereby limited our analysis to patients younger than 10 years of age. The study included 6 patients (3 males, 3 females) treated for an idiopathic femoral neck stress fracture, with a mean age at diagnosis of 7.7 years (range, 5.2 to 8.9 y). All patients presented with a limp, which worsened with activity and had persisted for a mean of 5 weeks (range, 2 to 9 wk). None of the patients had experienced an increase in activity level or sporting volume before symptom onset. On examination, 3 patients experienced pain with terminal hip flexion and 3 patients demonstrated pain-free hip range of motion. Plain radiography demonstrated inferior femoral neck cortical disruption, suggesting a compression-type stress fracture mechanism. The diagnosis was confirmed by cross-sectional imaging in all cases. All patients were initially treated with 6 to 8 weeks of non-weight-bearing followed by 4 to 6 weeks of partial weight-bearing, leading to complete healing in 4 patients. Two patients demonstrated incomplete healing and were managed with spica casting for an additional 6 weeks. Our case series illustrates the unique features of this rare condition in children, with a history and examination profile distinct from those of adolescents and adults. Compliance with weight-bearing restrictions is difficult in this population and hip spica casting may be required to permit

  12. Self-esteem and depression: ten year follow-up of mothers and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L; Warner, V; Wickramaratne, P; Weissman, M

    1999-01-01

    The association between maternal bonding style, offspring low self-esteem and offspring depression status was assessed by maternal depression status. Sixty mothers and 137 offspring were independently assessed over the course of a ten year follow-up study. Assessments included the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-LA), Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Among daughters of mothers with a history of depression, maternal affectionless-control was associated with daughter low self-esteem which was associated with daughter depression at ten year follow-up. Among daughters of mothers without a history of depression, maternal affectionless-control was not associated with daughter low self-esteem, which was not associated with daughter depression at ten year follow-up but which was associated with a history of childhood depression. None of these associations were found to be significant among sons. As self-esteem was not measured at ten year follow-up, among offspring the stability of self-esteem could not be assessed, nor could the association between adult self-esteem and adult depression. Clinical presentation of low self-esteem in girls should be assessed in the context of maternal depression status.

  13. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2012-02-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  14. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2010-09-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  15. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  16. Healthy building environments for ageing adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Helianthe S.M.

    2017-01-01

    A healthy building environment, when looking from a gerontechnology perspective, should facilitate ageing adults' functioning, self-esteem, and prosperity. Creating healthy environments is becoming more and more relevant in society. Older adults tend to stay more indoors when compared to younger

  17. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  18. The five times ten things everyone should have had in their hands before they are ten and two years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.; Poot, A.

    2017-12-01

    To train the young ones to become people that make stuff, I present the five times ten things we use a lot that everyone should have used before they are ten and two years old. I will bring at least two times ten of these things and show them live to you! And: I will bring a large paper for you to bring home with those five times ten things on it to put in the hands of your kids!

  19. Holistic System of Care: a ten-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebelkopf, Ethan; Wright, Serena

    2011-01-01

    The Holistic System of Care for Native Americans in an Urban Environment is a community-focused intervention that provides behavioral health care, promotes health, and prevents disease. This approach is based on a community strategic planning process that honored Native American culture and relationships. Substance abuse, mental illness, homelessness, poverty, crime, physical illness, and violence are symptoms of historical trauma, family dysfunction, and spiritual imbalance. The holistic model links treatment, prevention, and recovery. The link between prevention and treatment is early intervention. Peer support is the link between treatment and recovery. Recovering individuals serve as role models linking recovery to prevention. Culture and spirituality build a strong and resilient foundation for recovery. This article documents the effectiveness of the holistic model over a ten-year period that it has been implemented at the Family & Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center in the San Francisco Bay Area. The holistic model has produced statistically significant reductions in substance abuse among adult Native American women, men, reentry, and homeless populations; reductions in substance abuse among Native American adolescents; reductions in HIV/AIDS high-risk behavior among Native American men, women, and adolescents; and decreases in acting out behavior among Native American severely emotionally disturbed children.

  20. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) accelerates cutaneous wound healing and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Sayın, Oya; Cetin, Ferihan; Tuç Yücel, Ayşe

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and other common treatment methods used in the process of wound healing in terms of the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the study, 24 female and 24 male adult Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups: (1) the non-wounded group having no incision wounds, (2) the control group having incision wounds, (3) the TENS (2 Hz, 15 min) group, (4) the physiological saline (PS) group and (5) the povidone iodine (PI) group. In the skin sections, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods. In the non-wounded group, the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α signaling molecules was weaker in the whole tissue; however, in the control group, significant inflammatory response occurred, and strong cytokine expression was observed in the dermis, granulation tissue, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands (P TENS group, the decrease in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 immunoreaction in the skin was significant compared to the other forms of treatment (P TENS group suggest that TENS shortened the healing process by inhibating the inflammation phase.

  1. The -Younger-Minority Boy" as a Clue to the Source of Achievement Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammeyer, Kenneth C. W.

    This study is a follow-up of the work by Morris Rosenberg who found that younger-minority boys tend to have high self-esteem, but a relatively low achievement orientation and low grades in school. Sampling a total 898 high school senior boys, this study found that younger minority boys do have lower grades and lower occupational and educational…

  2. Scientific Conference Younger generation SNUS 2007. 3. Proceedings of the Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific conference Younger generation SNUS 2007 was carried out on April 27, 2006 as a part of the 18 th Annual General Meeting of the Slovak Nuclear Society (SNUS). Totally, 11 persons took part in Scientific conference Younger generation SNUS 2007. Eleven scientific lectures were presented.

  3. 'Being young': a qualitative study of younger nurses' experiences in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendon, J; Walker, L

    2012-12-01

    The overall goal of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the experiences of nurses aged under 30 in the New Zealand workforce with a view to developing age-appropriate retention strategies. Nurses aged under 30 constitute around 10% of the world's nursing workforce yet little is known about their experiences in the workplace. Poor retention of younger nurses is a cause for concern. The implications of the perceptions and needs of this generation of nurses must be considered in order to ensure effective succession planning. An explorative descriptive design framed within a broad qualitative methodology was utilized to explore experiences of younger nurses in the New Zealand workforce. Data were analysed thematically. Findings are reported under five themes: challenges of nursing, rewards of nursing, being young, coping and addressing generational differences. The study provides new knowledge about the experiences of younger nurses in the workforce and in particular the challenges facing younger Asian nurses. Managers and nurse leaders must address broader workforce issues as well as improving support for younger nurses to help improve younger nurse retention. Strategies designed to extend and challenge younger nurses in the workplace such as professional development and project work will also help, but will only be effective if nurses are given sufficient paid time to undertake this work. Being Asian provides added challenges for younger nurses in New Zealand and further research into the experiences of this subgroup is highly recommended. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  4. The TEN-T core network and the Fehmarnbelt region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    This note is a snapshot picture, taken in early 2014, that places the Green STRING corridor project within the context of the TEN-T strategy and gives a summarized overview on the impact of this strategy in the region. Chapter 1 contains a summary of the TEN-T strategy today, chapter 2 presents...... the sources used for this note, chapter 3 presents all the relevant EU regulations with direct impact on the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 4 gives practical examples of the challenges for the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 5 pre-sents the national initiatives related to the TEN-T corridor...

  5. Ten years of energy policy in Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masalles Roman, I.; Marin Sanchez, J.M.; Gurgui Ferrer, A.; Figuerola Perez, E.

    1992-01-01

    Catalonia is located in the north-east corner of Spain, on the Mediterranean coast and bordering with France in the north. It is one of the most industrialized and developed regions of Spain, with a per capita income of 10879 ECU per year (1989), 21.9% higher than the Spanish average. It contributes to 20.3% of the Spanish GDP. Primary energy consumption was 16.5 M toe in 1989, covered by the following sources: 3.5% coal, 51.8% oil, 9.4% natural gas, 3.6% hydro, 30.8% nuclear, 0.1% electrical import/export balance and 0.8% waste residuals. Oil dependence is distorted by the existence of a major petrochemical industry that uses more than 2.6 Mtoe of oil derivatives for non-energy purposes. Final energy demand in 1989 was 8.8 Mtoe, 40.9% for industry, 36.9% for transportation and 22.3% for the domestic and services sector. In the 60's, Catalonia's socio-economic development was accompanied by a spectacular increase in the demand for primary energy: from slightly above 2.5 million toe in 1960 to 5.6 Mtoe ten years later. If this decade can be characterized by a steady increase in the total value of consumption, the 70's also constitute years of major changes in the field of energy on an international scale (the oil crisis) and in politics in the Spanish State. 6 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Older members perform better in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program compared to younger members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Jonasson, Josefine; Svensson, Madeleine; Linné, Yvonne; Rossner, Stephan; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2009-01-01

    New technology offers increased opportunities for weight control. However, it is not clear whether older people with less computer training can make use of this tool. Our objective was to examine how members above the age of 65 years performed in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program, compared to younger members. Data from members (n = 23,233) of an internet-based behavioral weight loss program were analyzed. We restricted our study to active participants accessing the weight club, during a 6-month period (n = 4,440). The number of logins, food intake, and weight records were examined. Participants were divided into age tertiles separately for men and women. The oldest tertile was further subdivided into two groups: above and below the age of 65 years. Participants aged 65 or older were more likely to remain active in the weight club for at least 6 months compared to younger age groups. They had the highest frequency of recordings of food intake and current weight. Among women, those older than 65 years had on average the highest percentage of weight loss (5.6 kg, 6.8%). Men above 65 years of age had the highest number of logins, on average 161 times during the 6-month period. Older participants are performing equally well or even better in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program than younger participants. Internet-based programs could be a promising and attractive option for older adults requiring assistance in losing weight. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. How did General Surgery Department of a Training Hospital Change in Ten Years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ergül

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  Aim: To investigate the changes in a training hospital’s surgical patient profile in ten years. To delineate the effects of the transfer of Social Security Institution Hospitals to the Ministry of Health on this process. Material and Method: Ten-year apart, two-year periods were selected and all elective and emergency cases were retrospectively searched. In between periods, the hospital was transferred from Social Security Institution Hospital to the Ministry of Health and then became a trauma center. The indications, techniques, the number of performed surgeries, and the patient related factors were compared. The ratio of the number emergency cases and the number of cases performed by residents in training to the total number of cases were investigated. Results: The number of elective and emergent operations during the former and the latter periods were 2668 and 2041, respectively. The percentage of the decrease was 23.5%. After ten years, the patients were younger, more commonly male, emergency cases were more common, and operations performed primarily by the residents in training were less frequent than the former period (p<0,05. Oncological surgery of stomach, colon-rectum, breast, thyroid and primary-metastatic-malign carcinoma were more frequent during former period whereas urgent operations except peptic ulcer perforation and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and benign anorectal diseases were more common during later period (p<0,05. Discussion: The comparison revealed a significant decrease in the number of operations in ten years. The number of oncological patients increased whereas the number of emergency cases declined. The changes were thought to be related more to the transition in health and becoming a trauma center than to major developments in the country and the world.

  8. Fingolimod Prescribed for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis in Patients Younger Than Age 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira; Barreira, Amilton Antunes; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Brito Ferreira, Maria Lucia; Finkelsztejn, Alessandro; Gomes, Sidney; Magno Goncalves, Marcus Vinicius; Moraes Machado, Maria Iris; Marques, Vanessa Daccach; Cunha Matta, Andre Palma; Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Apostolos Pereira, Samira Luisa; Tauil, Carlos Bernardo

    2015-08-01

    There have been no clinical trials for approval of medications for treating multiple sclerosis in patients younger than age 18 years. All treatments are based on personal experience and data from open observational studies. Fingolimod is an oral drug for multiple sclerosis that has been shown to be efficient and safe in adults. The aim of our study is to describe patients with multiple sclerosis who started treatment with fingolimod before the age of 18 years. Seventeen patients treated with fingolimod were identified in the Brazilian database of children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis. The average time of use of the drug was 8.6 months. Fingolimod showed a good safety and efficacy profile in these patients, all of whom had very active multiple sclerosis. After starting treatment with fingolimod, only one patient had a relapse and a new lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. The patients' degree of disability did not progress. No major adverse events were reported in relation to the first dose of the drug, nor in the short- and medium-term treatment. No patient has been followed for longer than 18 months, thus limiting long-term conclusions. Off-label use of fingolimod in patients younger than age 18 years may be a good therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sharing an integral Christian worldview with a younger generation: Why and how should it be done and received?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennie J. van der Walt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation discusses the question how an older generation should transfer to or share their own worldview with a younger generation. For various reasons this has become a problem today. One is the inability of some of the old guard to share their perspective on and way of life with the youth. Another factor is that the Christian youth of today is strongly influenced by contemporary cultural tendencies, often incompatible with a biblically based worldview. The question how a worldview should be transferred as well as how it should be received is of equal and crucial importance to ensure that an age-old, valuable tradition does not become the living worldview of the dead and the dead worldview of the living. Therefore, answers to the following questions should be found: (1 What is the essence of such a worldview to be shared? (2 Why should it be shared? (3 How should it not be done? (4 What are the prerequisites for effective sharing? (5 What are the typical characteristics of the young receivers, the group today called Generation Y, Me, or the Millennials (those born between about 1980–2000? (6 How should this group of emerging adults receive such a heritage? The abstract above mentions the six questions to be answered by both the older and younger generation when they seriously try to share a Christian worldview. What follows is an attempt to provide answers to these problems.

  10. FORMATION OF COMMUNICATIVE ABILITIES OF YOUNGER SCHOOL STUDENTS IN TEACHING AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF CONTINUITY OF FGOS OF HOO AND FGOS TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Pavlovna Zaytseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will consider features of formation of communicative abilities of younger school students as a basis of their social adaptation. For this purpose we will reveal features of the teaching and educational activity of younger school students creating conditions for formation of their communicative abilities and we will show as the communicative abilities formed in teaching and educational activity can be directed on training of younger school students for social adaptation.Purpose. In the Federal state educational standard of the general education (FGOS of the second generation transition from minimizatsionny approach in education is designated. Communicative abilities are a basis not only productive inclusion of pupils in interpersonal relationship with contemporaries and adults in educational activity, socially important for them, but also basis for an exit in system of broader social relationship with people and the world in general.Methodology. The basis of research is formed by the empirical – studying and the analysis of literature, normative documents and textbooks for elementary school; supervision, poll (oral and written.Results. Results of work consists preparation of methodical ensuring process of formation of communicative abilities of younger school students in teaching and educational activity as bases of their social adaptation: Socialization programs.Practical implications. Results of research can be used by elementary school teachers in teaching and educational activity, and also students when writing theses and carrying out experiment.

  11. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  12. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2009-04-15

    Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. The TENS unit is frequently operated by women, which may increase sense of control in labour. To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2008). Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain relief in labour versus routine care, alternative pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. The search identified 25 studies; we excluded six and included 19 studies including 1671 women. Fifteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.55). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No adverse events were reported. There is only limited evidence that TENS reduces pain in labour and it does not seem to have any impact (either positive or

  13. Privileging Younger Children's Voices in Research: Use of Drawings and a Co-Construction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Tay-Lim PhD Student

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing acknowledgement of the value of listening to children's views and experiences in social research, popularly termed as “listening to their voices,” brings with it methodological consequences. Regarding children as expert informants about their own lives carries with it the simultaneous call for researchers to be experts in developing and employing appropriate strategies that can effectively elicit the insights that children can bring to a research topic. With younger children, the use of participatory methodologies has been foregrounded as the key to unlocking their potential to contribute rich and useful perspectives to inform research into their lives. This article explores the usefulness of employing preschoolers' drawings within the context of a co-construction process to facilitate the children's construction of ideas and reinforce their voices in research. The case is made that the quality of the dialogical engagement is as important as the drawing itself, and both visual images and the verbal exchanges are central to the children's meaning-making process. In the co-construction process, both adult and child are (ideally equal players and the resulting dialogical process plays a major role in the constitution of the phenomena. The role of the researcher as the co-constructor can be a challenging one because it entails engaging and supporting children's views and the expression of these views. The discussion and illustrations from the first author's research projects contribute to the literature base on positioning preschool children as valid social actors in their communities. We operate through an ethos of empowerment of all participants, and aim for participatory research practice which has at its heart an active involvement in promoting the rights of children as citizens with voice and power. (Pascal & Bertram, 2009, p. 249

  14. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks.

  15. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  16. Perceived duration of emotional events: evidence for a positivity effect in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Jeffrey R; Tanner, Jessica; Clarke, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Arousal and negative affect modulate the effect of emotion on the subjective experience of the passage of time. Given that older adults are less aroused by negative emotional stimuli, and report lower levels of negative affect, compared with younger adults, the present study examined whether the effect of emotion on time perception differed in older and younger adults. Participants performed a temporal bisection task for emotional (i.e., angry, sad, happy) and neutral facial expressions presented at varying temporal intervals. Older adults perceived the duration of both positive and threatening events longer than neutral events, whereas younger adults only perceived threatening events longer than neutral events. The results, which are partially consistent with the positivity effect of aging postulated by the socioemotional selectivity theory, are the first to show how the effect of emotion on perceived duration affects older adults, and support previous research indicating that only threatening events prolong perceived duration in younger adults.

  17. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/ deletion dimorphism tracks with higher serum ace activities in both younger and older subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frossard, Philippe M.; Hill, Susan H.; Obineche, Enyioma N.; Lestringant, Gilles G.

    1998-01-01

    The absence of a 287 base pair alu sequence in the ACE gene (D allele) is associated with higher ACE levels than its presence (I allele) in adults. We carried out a case control study of thr ACE*I/D dimorphism in relation to circulating ACE activities to evaluate associations between the two variables in adults, compared to younger (18 years or less) individuals. Genotypes of the ACE*I/D dimorphism were determined on DNA samples from a population of 164 random (unrelated) Emirtaes nationals, composed of groups: 112 subjects above 18 years of age (range=20-77), and 52 subjects of 18 years or less (range=1-18) and analyzed for putative associations with serum ACE activities. ACE*I/D genotypes of the 164 individualds were determined by assays based on polymerase chain reaction. ACE activities were determined on serum samples of these subjects bu colorimetric assays. The D allele was associared with increasd ACE values in both adult and younger individuals. Mean ACE activity levels associated with II, ID and DD genotypes, however, were 42%-61% higher in the 18 years and under group of subjects. The ACE*I/D marker accounted for 28% of the variance of the phenomenon determining ACE levels in adults, and for 30% among youngsters. The ACE*I/D dimorphism is correlated strongly with circulating ACE activities in both and young Emirati, subjects and the corresponding mean ACE activities were significantly higher among the youngsters. (author)

  18. Vaccination Patterns in Children After Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis and in Their Younger Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Modaressi, Sharareh; Goddard, Kristin; Lewis, Edwin; Fireman, Bruce H; Daley, Matthew F; Irving, Stephanie A; Jackson, Lisa A; Donahue, James G; Qian, Lei; Getahun, Darios; DeStefano, Frank; McNeil, Michael M; Klein, Nicola P

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, rates of vaccination have been declining. Whether this phenomenon disproportionately affects children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or their younger siblings is unknown. To investigate if children after receiving an ASD diagnosis obtain their remaining scheduled vaccines according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations and to compare the vaccination patterns of younger siblings of children with ASD with the vaccination patterns of younger siblings of children without ASD. This investigation was a retrospective matched cohort study. The setting was 6 integrated health care delivery systems across the United States within the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Participants were children born between January 1, 1995, and September 30, 2010, and their younger siblings born between January 1, 1997, and September 30, 2014. The end of follow-up was September 30, 2015. Recommended childhood vaccines between ages 1 month and 12 years. The proportion of children who received all of their vaccine doses according to ACIP recommendations. The study included 3729 children with ASD (676 [18.1%] female), 592 907 children without ASD, and their respective younger siblings. Among children without ASD, 250 193 (42.2%) were female. For vaccines recommended between ages 4 and 6 years, children with ASD were significantly less likely to be fully vaccinated compared with children without ASD (adjusted rate ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.85-0.88). Within each age category, vaccination rates were significantly lower among younger siblings of children with ASD compared with younger siblings of children without ASD. The adjusted rate ratios varied from 0.86 for siblings younger than 1 year to 0.96 for those 11 to 12 years old. Parents who had a child with ASD were more likely to refuse at least 1 recommended vaccine for that child's younger sibling and to limit the number of vaccines administered during the younger sibling's first year of life

  19. The origin of the future ten questions for the next ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2006-01-01

    How did the universe begin? Where do galaxies come from? How do stars and planets form? Where do the material particles we are made of come from? How did life begin? Today we have only provisional answers to such questions. But scientific progress will improve these answers dramatically over the next ten years, predicts John Gribbin in this riveting book. He focuses on what we know—or think we know—about ten controversial, unanswered issues in the physical sciences and explains how current cutting-edge research may yield solutions in the very near future. With his trademark facility for engaging readers with or without a scientific background, the author explores ideas concerning the creation of the universe, the possibility of other forms of life, and the fate of the expanding cosmos. He examines “theories of everything,” including grand unified theories and string theory, and he discusses the Big Bang theory, the origin of structure and patterns of matter in the galaxies, and dark mass and dark ene...

  20. Increasing intensity of TENS prevents analgesic tolerance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Karina L.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Rakel, Barbara A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces hyperalgesia and pain. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) TENS, delivered at the same intensity (90% motor threshold (MT)) daily, result in analgesic tolerance with repeated use by the 5th day of treatment. Thecurrentstudytestedif 1) increasingintensityby 10% per daypreventsthedevelopmentoftolerance to repeated TENS, and 2) iflowerintensity TENS (50 % MT) produces an equivalentreduction in hyperalgesia when compared to 90% MT TENS. Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral knee joint inflammation (3% carrageenan) were separated according to the intensity of TENS used: Sham, 50% LF, 50% HF, 90% LF, 90% HF, and increased intensity by 10% per day (LF and HF). The reduced mechanical withdrawal threshold following the induction of inflammation was reversed by application of TENS applied at 90% MT and increasing intensity for the first 4 days. On the 5th day, the groups that received 90% MT intensity showed tolerance. Nevertheless, the group that received an increased intensity on each day still showed a reversal of the mechanical withdrawal threshold with TENS. These results show that the development of tolerance can be delayed by increasing intensity of TENS. PMID:22858165

  1. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  2. Firework injuries: a ten-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani; Deshpande, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Fireworks are used worldwide to celebrate popular events (e.g. festivals, official celebrations, weddings). The festival of lights (Diwali) is celebrated with fireworks in India. During this period, many patients from all age groups present to hospital with injuries due to fireworks. Prevalence, period of occurrence, sex and age variation, adult supervision, causative fireworks, mode of lighting, age groups prone to injury, patterns of injury caused by individual fireworks, and the body parts injured were studied. One hundred and fifty-seven cases (92 retrospective, 65 prospective) with injury due to fireworks presenting to the Department of Plastic Surgery at KEM Hospital between 1997 and 2006 were studied. The prevalence of injuries has decreased steadily over the last 10 years (41 cases in 1997, 3 cases in 2006). The maximum number of injuries (35%) was seen in the age group 5-14 years; 92% of these children were unsupervised. The commonest cause of injury was firework misuse (41% of cases), followed by device failure (35%). Device failure was commonest with flares/fountains (ground firework emitting sparks upwards) and aerial devices. Flare/fountains caused most injury (39%), sparklers the least (0.6%). Flare/fountains, ground spinners, sparklers, and gunpowder (explosive material from cracker, obtained by tearing paper wrapper and obtaining chemicals) caused only soft tissue burns; stringbombs (high-intensity fire cracker made by wrapping chemicals with jute strings/coir in layers) and rockets (aerial device that zooms upwards and bursts) caused blast injuries, leading to soft tissue disruption and bony injuries. Emergency surgery was done if indicated: tendon and/or neurovascular repair, fracture fixation, flap cover or amputation. Superficial burns were treated with dressings. Certain wounds needed only thorough cleansing of the wound and primary suturing. We concluded that, over a 10-year period, the prevalence of firework injury decreased due to increased

  3. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants' motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the "digital divide" between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants' attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults ("gerontechnologies"). This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness

  4. Incidence of Cancers of the Lower Stomach Increasing among Younger Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events Cancer Currents Blog Cancer Currents Blog Incidence of Cancers of the Lower Stomach Increasing among ... younger individuals, she added. Risk Factors and Shifting Incidence Rates Two of the main causes of noncardia ...

  5. Assessment of effects of differences in trunk posture during Fowler’s position on hemodynamics and cardiovascular regulation in older and younger subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Satoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Kubota, Mitsue; Shigemasa, Tomohiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Downward shifts in blood volume with changing position generally cause tachycardic responses. Age-related decreases in vagal nerve activity could contribute to orthostatic hypotension in older individuals. Fowler’s position is a reclined position with the back between 30° and 60°, used to facilitate breathing, eating, and other routine daily activities in frail and elderly patients. Objective This study examined whether stroke volume (SV) was higher and heart rate (HR) lower in Fowler’s position with an upright upper trunk than in Fowler’s position with the whole trunk upright in both older and younger subjects, based on the assumption that lower HR would result from reduced sympathetic activation in older individuals. Methods We assessed hemodynamics and HR variability from electrocardiography, noninvasive arterial pressure and impedance cardiography in 11 younger male subjects (age range, 20–22 years) and 11 older male subjects (age range, 64–79 years), using three positions: supine, or Fowler’s positions with either 30° of lower trunk inclination and 60° of upper trunk inclination (UT60) or 60° of whole trunk inclination (WT60). Comparisons were then made between age groups and between positions. Results Reductions in SV and tachycardic response were smaller with UT60 than with WT60, in both younger and older subjects. In addition, reduced tachycardic response with upright upper trunk appeared attributable to decreased vagal withdrawal in younger subjects and to reduced sympathetic activation in older subjects. Conclusion Our findings indicate that an upright upper trunk during Fowler’s position allowed maintenance of SV and inhibited tachycardic response compared to an upright whole trunk regardless of age, although the autonomic mechanisms underlying tachycardic responses differed between younger and older adults. An upright upper trunk in Fowler’s position might help to reduce orthostatic stress and facilitate routine

  6. Younger people with Type 2 diabetes have poorer self-care practices compared with older people: results from the Australian National Diabetes Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, N; Pease, A J; Ranasinha, S; Wischer, N; Andrikopoulos, S; de Courten, B; Zoungas, S

    2018-05-05

    This cross-sectional study compares the self-care practices of younger and older people with Type 2 diabetes. Data were analysed from the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA) including 2552 adults with Type 2 diabetes from Australian Diabetes Centres. Pre-specified demographic and clinical variables were obtained. Self-care variables (physical activity, following dietary recommendations, medication adherence and monitoring blood glucose levels) were compared in people ≤ 64 and > 64 years of age. Mean age (± sd) of participants was 63 ± 13 years overall, 53 ± 9 years for the younger group and 73 ± 6 years for the older group. A greater proportion of younger people had HbA 1c levels > 53 mmol/mol (> 7.0%) (76% vs. 68%), reported difficulty following dietary recommendations (50% vs. 32%) and forgetting medications (37% vs. 22%) compared with older people (all P-values  64 years required insulin therapy (59% vs. 57%, P = 0.200). Younger age was associated with a twofold increase in the odds of not following the recommended self-care practices after adjustment for gender, smoking, insulin therapy, depression and allied health attendance (all P < 0.001). Despite shorter diabetes duration, younger age was associated with worse glycaemic control and poorer diabetes self-care practices among people with Type 2 diabetes. Targeted strategies are required to optimize diabetes self-care practices and thereby glycaemic control. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  7. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, S; Welch, V; Brosseau, L; Saginur, M; Shea, B; Tugwell, P; Wells, G

    2001-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) affects a large proportion of the population. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was introduced more than 30 years ago as an alternative therapy to pharmacological treatments for chronic pain. However, despite its widespread use, the effectiveness of TENS is still controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of TENS in the treatment of chronic LBP. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to June 1, 2000. Only randomized controlled clinical trials of TENS for the treatment of patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic LBP were included. Abstracts were excluded unless further data could be obtained from the authors. Two reviewers independently selected trials and extracted data using predetermined forms. Heterogeneity was tested with Cochran's Q test. A fixed effects model was used throughout for continuous variables, except where heterogeneity existed, in which case, a random effects model was used. Results are presented as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), where the difference between the treated and control groups was weighted by the inverse of the variance. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated by dividing the difference between the treated and control by the baseline variance. SMD were used when different scales were used to measure the same concept. Dichotomous outcomes were analyzed with odds ratios. Five trials were included, with 170 subjects randomized to the placebo group receiving sham-TENS and 251 subjects receiving active TENS (153 for conventional mode, 98 for acupuncture-like TENS). The schedule of treatments varied greatly between studies ranging from one treatment/day for two consecutive days, to three treatments/day for four weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between the active TENS group when compared to the placebo TENS group for any outcome measures

  8. Atmospheric 14C variations derived from tree rings during the early Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Quan; Barbetti, Mike; Fink, David; Kaiser, Klaus Felix; Friedrich, Michael; Kromer, Bernd; Levchenko, Vladimir A.; Zoppi, Ugo; Smith, Andrew M.; Bertuch, Fiona

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric radiocarbon variations over the Younger Dryas interval, from ˜13,000 to 11,600 cal yr BP, are of immense scientific interest because they reveal crucial information about the linkages between climate, ocean circulation and the carbon cycle. However, no direct and reliable atmospheric 14C records based on tree rings for the entire Younger Dryas have been available. In this paper, we present (1) high-precision 14C measurements on the extension of absolute tree-ring chronology from 12,400 to 12,560 cal yr BP and (2) high-precision, high-resolution atmospheric 14C record derived from a 617-yr-long tree-ring chronology of Huon pine from Tasmania, Australia, spanning the early Younger Dryas. The new tree-ring 14C records bridge the current gap in European tree-ring radiocarbon chronologies during the early Younger Dryas, linking the floating Lateglacial Pine record to the absolute tree-ring timescale. A continuous and reliable atmospheric 14C record for the past 14,000 cal yr BP including the Younger Dryas is now available. The new records indicate that the abrupt rise in atmospheric Δ 14C associated with the Younger Dryas onset occurs at ˜12,760 cal yr BP, ˜240 yrs later than that recorded in Cariaco varves, with a smaller magnitude of ˜40‰ followed by several centennial Δ 14C variations of 20-25‰. Comparing the tree-ring Δ 14C to marine-derived Δ 14C and modelled Δ 14C based on ice-core 10Be fluxes, we conclude that changes in ocean circulation were mainly responsible for the Younger Dryas onset, while a combination of changes in ocean circulation and 14C production rate were responsible for atmospheric Δ 14C variations for the remainder of the Younger Dryas.

  9. Value of TENS for relief of chronic low back pain with or without radicular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, A; Navez, M; Milletre-Bernardin, M; Pouplin, S; Presles, E; Lantéri-Minet, M; Tardy, B; Laurent, B; Camdessanché, J P

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Prospective, randomized, multicentre, single-blind study. Twenty-one French pain centres. Two hundred thirty-six consecutive adult patients consulting for chronic LBP, with or without radicular pain (mean age ± standard deviation: 53 ± 13 years; range: 28-86 years). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either active (n = 117) or sham (n = 119) TENS in four 1-h daily treatment sessions for 3 months. The primary outcome measured was improvement of functional status at 6 weeks (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire). Secondary outcome measures were improvement of functional status at 3 months, pain relief (weekly visual analogue scale assessments), positive functional repercussions of pain levels on quality of life, a diminution of the use of analgesic and anti-inflammatory medication, satisfaction with the overall treatment strategy and compliance. Functional status did not differ between the groups, whether at 6 weeks or 3 months (p = 0.351 at 6 weeks). A significant improvement between the first and last visual analogue scale assessments was observed in patients with either lumbar pain alone or lumbar and radicular pain treated with active TENS. Other outcome measures did not differ significantly between the two groups. There was no functional benefit of TENS in the treatment of patients with chronic LBP. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  10. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Chelsea & Westminster TEN management protocol [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sica-Chapman, A; Williams, G; Soni, N; Bunker, C B

    2010-04-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare but life-threatening, allergic drug reaction. Skin blistering with epidermal and mucosal necrolysis with subsequent detachment from an inflamed underlying dermis is a hallmark of the condition. The pathogenesis of TEN is not well understood, accounting for controversies about its management and significant delay in initiating potentially beneficial therapy. There are no management protocols based on a robust evidence base. Prompt recognition of the diagnosis and consensus on early management initiatives are necessary in order to improve outcomes and survival in TEN. To date, TEN management has been directed at arresting the allergic reaction and treating the complications. We have identified a need for specific medical interventions to accelerate wound regeneration. This approach has not previously been adopted in the management of TEN. We observed that in two cases of severe TEN, dramatic re-epithelialization and recovery coincided with the introduction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for neutropenia. We explain how addition of the G-CSF promotes recovery from TEN by enhanced bioregeneration of the damaged tissues through accelerated re-epithelialization. G-CSF has been used for severe neutropenia in TEN, but we recommend and explain why, as in our Chelsea and Westminster protocol, G-CSF should be considered in treating severe TEN irrespective of the severity of neutropenia.

  12. Lung cancer in patients younger than 40 years in a multiracial Asian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liam, C K; Lim, K H; Wong, C M

    2000-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the clinicopathological features of lung cancer in patients younger than 40 years differ from that of older patients in an Asian country. We undertook a review of the clinicopathological data of all patients with confirmed primary lung cancer at the Department of Medicine, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from October 1991 to September 1999. Of the 580 patients with lung cancer, 36 (6.2%; 23 males, 13 females) were 21-39 years old at diagnosis. The percentage of people who had never smoked was higher among the younger patients (58.3% vs 19.1%, P < 0.001). Although adenocarcinoma was the most common cell type in both groups, its incidence was higher in the younger patients (24/36 (66.7%) vs 228/544 (41.9%), P = 0.007). The mean World Health Organization performance status at presentation was worse in the younger patients (2.4 vs 2, P = 0.007). In the case of non-small cell lung cancer, all the younger patients presented with either stage IIIb or metastatic disease compared to 77.2% of the older patients (P < 0.001). Younger lung cancer patients were more likely than older patients to have never smoked, to have adenocarcinoma, and to present with poorer performance status and with more advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

  13. Screening for autism in older and younger toddlers with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Juhi; Verbalis, Alyssa; Robins, Diana L; Boorste