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Sample records for ten visual opsins

  1. Visual sensitivities tuned by heterochronic shifts in opsin gene expression

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    McFarland William N

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes differential male mating success, rapid evolution of male color patterns and, possibly, speciation. In addition to differences in color pattern, Lake Malawi cichlids also show some of the largest known shifts in visual sensitivity among closely related species. These shifts result from modulated expression of seven cone opsin genes. However, the mechanisms for this modulated expression are unknown. Results In this work, we ask whether these differences might result from changes in developmental patterning of cone opsin genes. To test this, we compared the developmental pattern of cone opsin gene expression of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, with that of several cichlid species from Lake Malawi. In tilapia, quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that opsin gene expression changes dynamically from a larval gene set through a juvenile set to a final adult set. In contrast, Lake Malawi species showed one of two developmental patterns. In some species, the expressed gene set changes slowly, either retaining the larval pattern or progressing only from larval to juvenile gene sets (neoteny. In the other species, the same genes are expressed in both larvae and adults but correspond to the tilapia adult genes (direct development. Conclusion Differences in visual sensitivities among species of Lake Malawi cichlids arise through heterochronic shifts relative to the ontogenetic pattern of the tilapia outgroup. Heterochrony has previously been shown to be a powerful mechanism for change in morphological evolution. We found that altering developmental expression patterns is also an important mechanism for altering sensory systems. These resulting sensory shifts will have major impacts on visual communication and could help

  2. Maps of cone opsin input to mouse V1 and higher visual areas.

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    Rhim, Issac; Coello-Reyes, Gabriela; Ko, Hee-Kyoung; Nauhaus, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Studies in the mouse retina have characterized the spatial distribution of an anisotropic ganglion cell and photoreceptor mosaic, which provides a solid foundation to study how the cortex pools from afferent parallel color channels. In particular, the mouse's retinal mosaic exhibits a gradient of wavelength sensitivity along its dorsoventral axis. Cones at the ventral extreme mainly express S opsin, which is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Then, moving toward the retina's dorsal extreme, there is a transition to M-opsin dominance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the retina's opsin gradient is recapitulated in cortical visual areas as a functional map of wavelength sensitivity. We first identified visual areas in each mouse by mapping retinotopy with intrinsic signal imaging (ISI). Next, we measured ISI responses to stimuli along different directions of the S- and M-color plane to quantify the magnitude of S and M input to each location of the retinotopic maps in five visual cortical areas (V1, AL, LM, PM, and RL). The results illustrate a significant change in the S:M-opsin input ratio along the axis of vertical retinotopy that is consistent with the gradient along the dorsoventral axis of the retina. In particular, V1 populations encoding the upper visual field responded to S-opsin contrast with 6.1-fold greater amplitude than to M-opsin contrast. V1 neurons encoding lower fields responded with 4.6-fold greater amplitude to M- than S-opsin contrast. The maps in V1 and higher visual areas (HVAs) underscore the significance of a wavelength sensitivity gradient for guiding the mouse's behavior.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Two elements of this study are particularly novel. For one, it is the first to quantify cone inputs to mouse visual cortex; we have measured cone input in five visual areas. Next, it is the first study to identify a feature map in the mouse visual cortex that is based on well-characterized anisotropy of cones in the retina; we have identified

  3. Visual adaptation in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes: depth-related variation of color and scotopic opsins in species from sand/mud bottoms.

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    Terai, Yohey; Miyagi, Ryutaro; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mizoiri, Shinji; Imai, Hiroo; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Takahashi-Kariyazono, Shiho; Sato, Akie; Tichy, Herbert; Mrosso, Hillary D J; Mzighani, Semvua I; Okada, Norihiro

    2017-08-22

    For Lake Victoria cichlid species inhabiting rocky substrates with differing light regimes, it has been proposed that adaptation of the long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene triggered speciation by sensory drive through color signal divergence. The extensive and continuous sand/mud substrates are also species-rich, and a correlation between male nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments has been reported. However, the factors driving genetic and functional diversity of LWS pigments in sand/mud habitats are still unresolved. To address this issue, nucleotide sequences of eight opsin genes were compared in ten Lake Victoria cichlid species collected from sand/mud bottoms. Among eight opsins, the LWS and rod-opsin (RH1) alleles were diversified and one particular allele was dominant or fixed in each species. Natural selection has acted on and fixed LWS alleles in each species. The functions of LWS and RH1 alleles were measured by absorption of reconstituted A1- and A2-derived visual pigments. The absorption of pigments from RH1 alleles most common in deep water were largely shifted toward red, whereas those of LWS alleles were largely shifted toward blue in both A1 and A2 pigments. In both RH1 and LWS pigments, A2-derived pigments were closer to the dominant light in deep water, suggesting the possibility of the adaptation of A2-derived pigments to depth-dependent light regimes. The RH1 and LWS sequences may be diversified for adaptation of A2-derived pigments to different light environments in sand/mud substrates. Diversification of the LWS alleles may have originally taken place in riverine environments, with a new mutation occurring subsequently in Lake Victoria.

  4. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes

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    Taylor John S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Results Juvenile and adult (male and female guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for >85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR. Conclusions Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we

  5. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes.

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    Laver, Christopher R J; Taylor, John S

    2011-03-29

    PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Juvenile and adult (male and female) guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for > 85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA) value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR). Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we were able to propose the first opsin

  6. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

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    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod

  7. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: Evidence from visual opsin gene expression

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    Simoe, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.; Gower, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  8. Multiple rod-cone and cone-rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression.

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    Simões, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L; Loew, Ellis R; Sanders, Kate L; Fisher, Robert N; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M; Partridge, Julian C; Gower, David J

    2016-01-27

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor 'transmutation'. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels. PMID:26817768

  10. Analysis of the opsin repertoire in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini provides insights into the evolution of opsin genes in panarthropoda.

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    Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg

    2014-09-04

    Screening of a deeply sequenced transcriptome using Illumina sequencing as well as the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed a set of five opsin genes. To clarify the phylogenetic position of these genes and to elucidate the evolutionary history of opsins in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we reconstructed the phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected substitution models. According to our findings, the opsin repertoire of H. dujardini comprises representatives of all three major bilaterian opsin clades, including one r-opsin, three c-opsins, and a Group 4 opsin (neuropsin/opsin-5). The identification of the tardigrade ortholog of neuropsin/opsin-5 is the first record of this opsin type in a protostome, but our screening of available metazoan genomes revealed that it is also present in other protostomes. Our opsin phylogeny further suggests that two r-opsins, including an "arthropsin," were present in the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda. Although both r-opsin lineages were retained in Onychophora and Arthropoda, the arthropsin was lost in Tardigrada. The single (most likely visual) r-opsin found in H. dujardini supports the hypothesis of monochromatic vision in the panarthropod ancestor, whereas two duplications of the ancestral panarthropod c-opsin have led to three c-opsins in tardigrades. Although the early-branching nodes are unstable within the metazoans, our findings suggest that the last common ancestor of Bilateria possessed six opsins: Two r-opsins, one c-opsin, and three Group 4 opsins, one of which (Go opsin) was lost in the ecdysozoan lineage. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Broad-Band Activatable White-Opsin.

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    Subrata Batabyal

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of optogenetic sensitization of retinal cells combined with activation/inhibition has the potential to be an alternative to retinal implants that would require electrodes inside every single neuron for high visual resolution. However, clinical translation of optogenetic activation for restoration of vision suffers from the drawback that the narrow spectral sensitivity of an opsin requires active stimulation by a blue laser or a light emitting diode with much higher intensities than ambient light. In order to allow an ambient light-based stimulation paradigm, we report the development of a 'white-opsin' that has broad spectral excitability in the visible spectrum. The cells sensitized with white-opsin showed excitability at an order of magnitude higher with white light compared to using only narrow-band light components. Further, cells sensitized with white-opsin produced a photocurrent that was five times higher than Channelrhodopsin-2 under similar photo-excitation conditions. The use of fast white-opsin may allow opsin-sensitized neurons in a degenerated retina to exhibit a higher sensitivity to ambient white light. This property, therefore, significantly lowers the activation threshold in contrast to conventional approaches that use intense narrow-band opsins and light to activate cellular stimulation.

  12. C-opsin expressing photoreceptors in echinoderms.

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    Ullrich-Lüter, Esther M; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Arnone, Maria I

    2013-07-01

    Today's progress in molecular analysis and, in particular, the increased availability of genome sequences have enabled us to investigate photoreceptor cells (PRCs) in organisms that were formerly inaccessible to experimental manipulation. Our studies of marine non-chordate deuterostomes thus aim to bridge a gap of knowledge regarding the evolution of deuterostome PRCs prior to the emergence of vertebrates' eyes. In this contribution, we will show evidence for expression of a c-opsin photopigment, which, according to our phylogenetic analysis, is closely related to an assemblage of chordate visual c-opsins. An antibody raised against sea urchins' c-opsin protein (Sp-Opsin1) recognizes epitopes in a variety of tissues of different echinoderms. While in sea urchins this c-opsin is expressed in locomotory and buccal tube feet, spines, pedicellaria, and epidermis, in brittlestars and starfish we found the immuno-reaction to be located exclusively in cells within the animals' spines. Structural characteristics of these c-opsin+ PRC types include the close vicinity/connection to nerve strands and a, so far unexplored, conspicuous association with the animals' calcite skeleton, which previously has been hypothesized to play a role in echinoderm photobiology. These features are discussed within the context of the evolution of photoreceptors in echinoderms and in deuterostomes generally.

  13. Neuronal Organization of Deep Brain Opsin Photoreceptors in Adult Teleosts

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    Hang, Chong Yee; Kitahashi, Takashi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological impacts of light beyond vision, i.e., non-visual functions of light, signify the need to better understand light detection (or photoreception) systems in vertebrates. Photopigments, which comprise light-absorbing chromophores bound to a variety of G-protein coupled receptor opsins, are responsible for visual and non-visual photoreception. Non-visual opsin photopigments in the retina of mammals and extra-retinal tissues of non-mammals play an important role in non-image-forming functions of light, e.g., biological rhythms and seasonal reproduction. This review highlights the role of opsin photoreceptors in the deep brain, which could involve conserved neurochemical systems that control different time- and light-dependent physiologies in in non-mammalian vertebrates including teleost fish. PMID:27199680

  14. Beauty in the eye of the beholder: the two blue opsins of lycaenid butterflies and the opsin gene-driven evolution of sexually dimorphic eyes.

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    Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Bernard, Gary D; Lampel, Jochen; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2006-08-01

    Although previous investigations have shown that wing coloration is an important component of social signaling in butterflies, the contribution of opsin evolution to sexual wing color dichromatism and interspecific divergence remains largely unexplored. Here we report that the butterfly Lycaena rubidus has evolved sexually dimorphic eyes due to changes in the regulation of opsin expression patterns to match the contrasting life histories of males and females. The L. rubidus eye contains four visual pigments with peak sensitivities in the ultraviolet (UV; lambdamax=360 nm), blue (B; lambdamax=437 nm and 500 nm, respectively) and long (LW; lambdamax=568 nm) wavelength range. By combining in situ hybridization of cloned opsin-encoding cDNAs with epi-microspectrophotometry, we found that all four opsin mRNAs and visual pigments are expressed in the eyes in a sex-specific manner. The male dorsal eye, which contains only UV and B (lambdamax=437 nm) visual pigments, indeed expresses two short wavelength opsin mRNAs, UVRh and BRh1. The female dorsal eye, which also has the UV and B (lambdamax=437 nm) visual pigments, also contains the LW visual pigment, and likewise expresses UVRh, BRh1 and LWRh mRNAs. Unexpectedly, in the female dorsal eye, we also found BRh1 co-expressed with LWRh in the R3-8 photoreceptor cells. The ventral eye of both sexes, on the other hand, contains all four visual pigments and expresses all four opsin mRNAs in a non-overlapping fashion. Surprisingly, we found that the 500 nm visual pigment is encoded by a duplicate blue opsin gene, BRh2. Further, using molecular phylogenetic methods we trace this novel blue opsin gene to a duplication event at the base of the Polyommatine+Thecline+Lycaenine radiation. The blue opsin gene duplication may help explain the blueness of blue lycaenid butterflies.

  15. Molecular Evidence that Only Two Opsin Subfamilies, the Blue Light- (SWS2) and Green Light-Sensitive (RH2), Drive Color Vision in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

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    Søviknes, Anne Mette; Drivenes, Øyvind; Helvik, Jon Vidar

    2014-01-01

    Teleosts show a great variety in visual opsin complement, due to both gene duplication and gene loss. The repertoire ranges from one subfamily of visual opsins (scotopic vision) including rod opsin only retinas seen in many deep-sea species to multiple subfamilies of visual opsins in some pelagic species. We have investigated the opsin repertoire of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) using information in the recently sequenced cod genome and found that despite cod not being a deep sea species it lacks visual subfamilies sensitive towards the most extreme parts of the light spectra representing UV and red light. Furthermore, we find that Atlantic cod has duplicated paralogs of both blue-sensitive SWS2 and green-sensitive RH2 subfamilies, with members belonging to each subfamily linked in tandem within the genome (two SWS2-, and three RH2A genes, respectively). The presence of multiple cone opsin genes indicates that there have been duplication events in the cod ancestor SWS2 and RH2 opsins producing paralogs that have been retained in Atlantic. Our results are supported by expressional analysis of cone opsins, which further revealed an ontogenetic change in the array of cone opsins expressed. These findings suggest life stage specific programs for opsin regulation which could be linked to habitat changes and available light as the larvae is transformed into an early juvenile. Altogether we provide the first molecular evidence for color vision driven by only two families of cone opsins due to gene loss in a teleost. PMID:25551396

  16. Molecular evidence that only two opsin subfamilies, the blue light- (SWS2 and green light-sensitive (RH2, drive color vision in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua.

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    Ragnhild Valen

    Full Text Available Teleosts show a great variety in visual opsin complement, due to both gene duplication and gene loss. The repertoire ranges from one subfamily of visual opsins (scotopic vision including rod opsin only retinas seen in many deep-sea species to multiple subfamilies of visual opsins in some pelagic species. We have investigated the opsin repertoire of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua using information in the recently sequenced cod genome and found that despite cod not being a deep sea species it lacks visual subfamilies sensitive towards the most extreme parts of the light spectra representing UV and red light. Furthermore, we find that Atlantic cod has duplicated paralogs of both blue-sensitive SWS2 and green-sensitive RH2 subfamilies, with members belonging to each subfamily linked in tandem within the genome (two SWS2-, and three RH2A genes, respectively. The presence of multiple cone opsin genes indicates that there have been duplication events in the cod ancestor SWS2 and RH2 opsins producing paralogs that have been retained in Atlantic. Our results are supported by expressional analysis of cone opsins, which further revealed an ontogenetic change in the array of cone opsins expressed. These findings suggest life stage specific programs for opsin regulation which could be linked to habitat changes and available light as the larvae is transformed into an early juvenile. Altogether we provide the first molecular evidence for color vision driven by only two families of cone opsins due to gene loss in a teleost.

  17. Molecular evidence that only two opsin subfamilies, the blue light- (SWS2) and green light-sensitive (RH2), drive color vision in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

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    Valen, Ragnhild; Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Søviknes, Anne Mette; Drivenes, Øyvind; Helvik, Jon Vidar

    2014-01-01

    Teleosts show a great variety in visual opsin complement, due to both gene duplication and gene loss. The repertoire ranges from one subfamily of visual opsins (scotopic vision) including rod opsin only retinas seen in many deep-sea species to multiple subfamilies of visual opsins in some pelagic species. We have investigated the opsin repertoire of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) using information in the recently sequenced cod genome and found that despite cod not being a deep sea species it lacks visual subfamilies sensitive towards the most extreme parts of the light spectra representing UV and red light. Furthermore, we find that Atlantic cod has duplicated paralogs of both blue-sensitive SWS2 and green-sensitive RH2 subfamilies, with members belonging to each subfamily linked in tandem within the genome (two SWS2-, and three RH2A genes, respectively). The presence of multiple cone opsin genes indicates that there have been duplication events in the cod ancestor SWS2 and RH2 opsins producing paralogs that have been retained in Atlantic. Our results are supported by expressional analysis of cone opsins, which further revealed an ontogenetic change in the array of cone opsins expressed. These findings suggest life stage specific programs for opsin regulation which could be linked to habitat changes and available light as the larvae is transformed into an early juvenile. Altogether we provide the first molecular evidence for color vision driven by only two families of cone opsins due to gene loss in a teleost.

  18. Multi-characteristic opsin enabled vision restoration

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    Wright, Weldon; Pradhan, Sanjay; Bhattacharya, Sulgana; Mahapatra, Vasu; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Gajjeraman, Sivakumar; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2017-02-01

    Photodegenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and dry age related macular degeneration (dry- AMD) lead to loss of vision in millions of individuals. Currently, no surgical or medical treatment is available though optogenetic therapies are in clinical development. Here, we demonstrate vision restoration using Multi- Characteristics Opsin (MCO1) in animal models with photo-degenerated retina. MCO1 is reliably delivered to specific retinal cells via intravitreal injection of Adeno-Associated Virus, leading to significant improvement in visually guided behavior conducted using a radial-arm water maze. The time to reach platform significantly reduced after delivery of MCO1. Notably, the improvement in visually guided behavior was observed even at light intensity levels orders of magnitude lower than that required for Channelrhodopsin-2 opsin. Chronic light exposure study showed that chronic light exposure did not compromise viability of vMCO1-treated retina. Safe virus-mediated MCO1-delivery has potential for effective gene therapy of diverse retinal degenerations in patients.

  19. A cure for the blues: opsin duplication and subfunctionalization for short-wavelength sensitivity in jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

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    Lord, Nathan P; Plimpton, Rebecca L; Sharkey, Camilla R; Suvorov, Anton; Lelito, Jonathan P; Willardson, Barry M; Bybee, Seth M

    2016-05-18

    Arthropods have received much attention as a model for studying opsin evolution in invertebrates. Yet, relatively few studies have investigated the diversity of opsin proteins that underlie spectral sensitivity of the visual pigments within the diverse beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera). Previous work has demonstrated that beetles appear to lack the short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) opsin class that typically confers sensitivity to the "blue" region of the light spectrum. However, this is contrary to established physiological data in a number of Coleoptera. To explore potential adaptations at the molecular level that may compensate for the loss of the SWS opsin, we carried out an exploration of the opsin proteins within a group of beetles (Buprestidae) where short-wave sensitivity has been demonstrated. RNA-seq data were generated to identify opsin proteins from nine taxa comprising six buprestid species (including three male/female pairs) across four subfamilies. Structural analyses of recovered opsins were conducted and compared to opsin sequences in other insects across the main opsin classes-ultraviolet, short-wavelength, and long-wavelength. All nine buprestids were found to express two opsin copies in each of the ultraviolet and long-wavelength classes, contrary to the single copies recovered in all other molecular studies of adult beetle opsin expression. No SWS opsin class was recovered. Furthermore, the male Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer-EAB) expressed a third LWS opsin at low levels that is presumed to be a larval copy. Subsequent homology and structural analyses identified multiple amino acid substitutions in the UVS and LWS copies that could confer short-wavelength sensitivity. This work is the first to compare expressed opsin genes against known electrophysiological data that demonstrate multiple peak sensitivities in Coleoptera. We report the first instance of opsin duplication in adult beetles, which occurs in both the UVS and LWS opsin classes

  20. Molecular expression of opsin gene in growing juvenile mackerel ( Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)

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    Kim, Eung-Oh; Yoon, Seong-Jong; Park, Kyoung-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Do, Jeung-Wan; Cho, Eun-Seob

    2009-12-01

    Fish have developed color vision that is closely adapted to their photic environments, where both spectral sensitivity and the number of visual opsins are influenced. The mackerel used in this study is one of the most important fishery stocks in Korea. The opsin gene of the mackerel juveniles after 20 days in hatching was isolated and characterized based on the molecular study of visual photoreceptor. The full-length mackerel opsin gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, as well as cDNA synthesis. Sequence analysis of the opsin gene showed that it contained a 1,080 bp open reading frame encoding 360 amino acids. Based on Schiff’s base formation (S114, K119), glycosylation (E3, F37) and palmitoylation (S281, 282), the deduced amino acid sequence had a typical rod opsin. The mackerel and Gempylus serpens showed 73.7% DNA homology on opsin gene, which was higher than any other of investigated species. In the analysis of phylogenetic relationship, the genetic placement of the mackerel is closer to that of Scombroidei than Labroidei, with supporting somewhat strong bootstrap value. In the analysis of Northern and RT-PCR, the probed products were observed only in rapidly growing juveniles. These findings indicate that in mackerel opsin mRNA expression can be detected in day-20 hatching larvae. It may play an important role in stimulating growth hormone.

  1. An engineered opsin monomer scrambles phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kalpana; Ploier, Birgit; Goren, Michael A; Levitz, Joshua; Khelashvili, George; Menon, Anant K

    2017-12-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor opsin is a phospholipid scramblase that facilitates rapid transbilayer phospholipid exchange in liposomes. The mechanism by which opsin scrambles lipids is unknown. It has been proposed that lipid translocation may occur at protein-protein interfaces of opsin dimers. To test this possibility, we rationally engineered QUAD opsin by tryptophan substitution of four lipid-facing residues in transmembrane helix 4 (TM4) that is known to be important for dimerization. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of wild type and QUAD opsins combined with continuum modeling revealed that the tryptophan substitutions lower the energetically unfavorable residual hydrophobic mismatch between TM4 and the membrane, reducing the drive of QUAD opsin to dimerize. We purified thermostable wild type and QUAD opsins, with or without a SNAP tag for fluorescence labeling. Single molecule fluorescence measurements of purified SNAP-tagged constructs revealed that both proteins are monomers. Fluorescence-based activity assays indicated that QUAD opsin is a fully functional scramblase. However, unlike wild type opsin which dimerizes en route to insertion into phospholipid vesicles, QUAD opsin reconstitutes as a monomer. We conclude that an engineered opsin monomer can scramble phospholipids, and that the lipid-exposed face of TM4 is unlikely to contribute to transbilayer phospholipid exchange.

  2. Visual disability rates in a ten-year cohort of patients with anterior visual pathway meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor-Shavit, Elite; Hammel, Naama; Nahum, Yoav; Rappaport, Zvi Harry; Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas

    2015-01-01

    To examine the visual outcome of anterior visual pathway meningioma (AVPM) patients followed for at least one year. Data were collected on demographics, clinical course and management. Visual disability was classified at the first and last examination as follows: I--no visual disability; II--mild visual defect in one eye; III--mild visual defect in both eyes; IV--loss of driver's license; V--legally blind. Eight-one AVPM patients had their tumor originate in the clinoid process in 23 (28%), sphenoid-wing area in 18 (22%), cavernous sinus in 15 (19%), tuberculum sellae in 8 (10%), and mixed in 17 (21%). On last examination, 46 patients (57%) had good visual acuity in one or both eyes (Class I or II) and 17 (21%) were mildly affected in both eyes. The rate of Class IV disability was 16%, and Class V disability was 6%. Attention needs to be addressed to the considerable proportion of patients with AVPM (22% in this study) who may lose their driver's license or become legally blind. Occupational therapists should play an important role in the multidisciplinary management of those patients to help them adapt to their new physical and social situation. Anterior visual pathway meningiomas (AVPMs) are commonly not life-threatening but they can lead to profound visual disability, especially when the tumor originates in the tuberculum sellae and cavernous sinus. Particular attention should be paid to visual acuity and visual field deficits, as these can profoundly affect the patient's quality of life including ability to drive and activities of daily living. The interdisciplinary management of patients with AVPM should include the neurosurgeon, neuro-ophthalmologist and occupational therapist. Also, early intervention by the occupational therapist can help patients adapt to their current physical and social situation and return to everyday tasks more rapidly.

  3. Opsin vs opsin: New materials for biotechnological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfinito, Eleonora, E-mail: eleonora.alfinito@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento, via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); CNISM, Via della Vasca Navale, 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Reggiani, Lino, E-mail: lino.reggiani@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Ennio de Giorgi, Università del Salento, via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); CNISM, Via della Vasca Navale, 84, 00146 Roma (Italy)

    2014-08-14

    The need of new diagnostic methods satisfying, as an early detection, a low invasive procedure and a cost-efficient value, is orienting the technological research toward the use of bio-integrated devices, in particular, bio-sensors. The set of know-why necessary to achieve this goal is wide, from biochemistry to electronics and is summarized in an emerging branch of electronics, called proteotronics. Proteotronics is here applied to state a comparative analysis of the electrical responses coming from type-1 and type-2 opsins. In particular, the procedure is used as an early investigation of a recently discovered family of opsins, the proteorhodopsins activated by blue light, BPRs. The results reveal some interesting and unexpected similarities between proteins of the two families, suggesting the global electrical response are not strictly linked to the class identity.

  4. Opsin vs opsin: New materials for biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Reggiani, Lino

    2014-08-01

    The need of new diagnostic methods satisfying, as an early detection, a low invasive procedure and a cost-efficient value, is orienting the technological research toward the use of bio-integrated devices, in particular, bio-sensors. The set of know-why necessary to achieve this goal is wide, from biochemistry to electronics and is summarized in an emerging branch of electronics, called proteotronics. Proteotronics is here applied to state a comparative analysis of the electrical responses coming from type-1 and type-2 opsins. In particular, the procedure is used as an early investigation of a recently discovered family of opsins, the proteorhodopsins activated by blue light, BPRs. The results reveal some interesting and unexpected similarities between proteins of the two families, suggesting the global electrical response are not strictly linked to the class identity.

  5. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D.; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L.; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D.; Timm, Robert M.; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B.; Perry, George H.; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination. PMID:26739880

  6. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D; Timm, Robert M; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B; Perry, George H; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Spectral sensitivity in Onychophora (velvet worms) revealed by electroretinograms, phototactic behaviour and opsin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Holger; Hering, Lars; Henze, Miriam J; Kelber, Almut; Stevenson, Paul A; Mayer, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Onychophorans typically possess a pair of simple eyes, inherited from the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda (Onychophora+Tardigrada+Arthropoda). These visual organs are thought to be homologous to the arthropod median ocelli, whereas the compound eyes probably evolved in the arthropod lineage. To gain insights into the ancestral function and evolution of the visual system in panarthropods, we investigated phototactic behaviour, opsin gene expression and the spectral sensitivity of the eyes in two representative species of Onychophora: Euperipatoides rowelli (Peripatopsidae) and Principapillatus hitoyensis (Peripatidae). Our behavioural analyses, in conjunction with previous data, demonstrate that both species exhibit photonegative responses to wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to green light (370-530 nm), and electroretinograms reveal that the onychophoran eye is maximally sensitive to blue light (peak sensitivity ∼480 nm). Template fits to these sensitivities suggest that the onychophoran eye is monochromatic. To clarify which type of opsin the single visual pigment is based on, we localised the corresponding mRNA in the onychophoran eye and brain using in situ hybridization. Our data show that the r-opsin gene (onychopsin) is expressed exclusively in the photoreceptor cells of the eye, whereas c-opsin mRNA is confined to the optic ganglion cells and the brain. Together, our findings suggest that the onychopsin is involved in vision, whereas c-opsin might have a photoreceptive, non-visual function in onychophorans. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Ten_m3 regulates eye-specific patterning in the mammalian visual pathway and is required for binocular vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Leamey

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Binocular vision requires an exquisite matching of projections from each eye to form a cohesive representation of the visual world. Eye-specific inputs are anatomically segregated, but in register in the visual thalamus, and overlap within the binocular region of primary visual cortex. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein Ten_m3 regulates the alignment of ipsilateral and contralateral projections. It is expressed in a gradient in the developing visual pathway, which is consistently highest in regions that represent dorsal visual field. Mice that lack Ten_m3 show profound abnormalities in mapping of ipsilateral, but not contralateral, projections, and exhibit pronounced deficits when performing visually mediated behavioural tasks. It is likely that the functional deficits arise from the interocular mismatch, because they are reversed by acute monocular inactivation. We conclude that Ten_m3 plays a key regulatory role in the development of aligned binocular maps, which are required for normal vision.

  9. Diurnal lighting patterns and habitat alter opsin expression and colour preferences in a killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ashley M; Stanis, Shannon; Fuller, Rebecca C

    2013-07-22

    Spatial variation in lighting environments frequently leads to population variation in colour patterns, colour preferences and visual systems. Yet lighting conditions also vary diurnally, and many aspects of visual systems and behaviour vary over this time scale. Here, we use the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) to compare how diurnal variation and habitat variation (clear versus tannin-stained water) affect opsin expression and the preference to peck at different-coloured objects. Opsin expression was generally lowest at midnight and dawn, and highest at midday and dusk, and this diurnal variation was many times greater than variation between habitats. Pecking preference was affected by both diurnal and habitat variation but did not correlate with opsin expression. Rather, pecking preference matched lighting conditions, with higher preferences for blue at noon and for red at dawn/dusk, when these wavelengths are comparatively scarce. Similarly, blue pecking preference was higher in tannin-stained water where blue wavelengths are reduced. In conclusion, L. goodei exhibits strong diurnal cycles of opsin expression, but these are not tightly correlated with light intensity or colour. Temporally variable pecking preferences probably result from lighting environment rather than from opsin production. These results may have implications for the colour pattern diversity observed in these fish.

  10. Transcriptome analysis and RNA interference of cockroach phototransduction indicate three opsins and suggest a major role for TRPL channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S French

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of insect phototransduction is based on a small number of species, but insects occupy many different visual environments. We created the retinal transcriptome of a nocturnal insect, the cockroach, Periplaneta americana to identify proteins involved in the earliest stages of compound eye phototransduction, and test the hypothesis that different visual environments are reflected in different molecular contributions to function. We assembled five novel mRNAs: two green opsins, one UV opsin, and one each TRP and TRPL ion channel homologs. One green opsin mRNA (pGO1 was 100-1000 times more abundant than the other opsins (pGO2 and pUVO, while pTRPL mRNA was 10 times more abundant than pTRP, estimated by transcriptome analysis or quantitative PCR (qPCR. Electroretinograms were used to record photoreceptor responses. Gene-specific in vivo RNA interference (RNAi was achieved by injecting long (596-708 bp double-stranded RNA into head hemolymph, and verified by qPCR. RNAi of the most abundant green opsin reduced both green opsins by more than 97% without affecting UV opsin, and gave a maximal reduction of 75% in ERG amplitude seven days after injection that persisted for at least 19 days. RNAi of pTRP and pTRPL genes each specifically reduced the corresponding mRNA by 90%. Electroretinogram reduction by pTRPL RNAi was slower than for opsin, reaching 75% attenuation by 21 days, without recovery at 29 days. pTRP RNAi attenuated ERG much less; only 30% after 21 days. Combined pTRP plus pTRPL RNAi gave only weak evidence of any cooperative interactions. We conclude that silencing retinal genes by in vivo RNAi using long dsRNA is effective, that visible light transduction in Periplaneta is dominated by pGO1, and that pTRPL plays a major role in cockroach phototransduction.

  11. The comb jelly opsins and the origins of animal phototransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Oakley, Todd H; Pisani, Davide

    2014-07-24

    Opsins mediate light detection in most animals, and understanding their evolution is key to clarify the origin of vision. Despite the public availability of a substantial collection of well-characterized opsins, early opsin evolution has yet to be fully understood, in large part because of the high level of divergence observed among opsins belonging to different subfamilies. As a result, different studies have investigated deep opsin evolution using alternative data sets and reached contradictory results. Here, we integrated the data and methods of three, key, recent studies to further clarify opsin evolution. We show that the opsin relationships are sensitive to outgroup choice; we generate new support for the existence of Rhabdomeric opsins in Cnidaria (e.g., corals and jellyfishes) and show that all comb jelly opsins belong to well-recognized opsin groups (the Go-coupled opsins or the Ciliary opsins), which are also known in Bilateria (e.g., humans, fruit flies, snails, and their allies) and Cnidaria. Our results are most parsimoniously interpreted assuming a traditional animal phylogeny where Ctenophora are not the sister group of all the other animals. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Effects of light environment during growth on the expression of cone opsin genes and behavioral spectral sensitivities in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Ohtsuki, Hajime; Kasagi, Satoshi; Kawamura, Shoji; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-05-18

    The visual system is important for animals for mate choice, food acquisition, and predator avoidance. Animals possessing a visual system can sense particular wavelengths of light emanating from objects and their surroundings and perceive their environments by processing information contained in these visual perceptions of light. Visual perception in individuals varies with the absorption spectra of visual pigments and the expression levels of opsin genes, which may be altered according to the light environments. However, which light environments and the mechanism by which they change opsin expression profiles and whether these changes in opsin gene expression can affect light sensitivities are largely unknown. This study determined whether the light environment during growth induced plastic changes in opsin gene expression and behavioral sensitivity to particular wavelengths of light in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Individuals grown under orange light exhibited a higher expression of long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes and a higher sensitivity to 600-nm light than those grown under green light. In addition, we confirmed that variations in the expression levels of LWS opsin genes were related to the behavioral sensitivities to long wavelengths of light. The light environment during the growth stage alters the expression levels of LWS opsin genes and behavioral sensitivities to long wavelengths of light in guppies. The plastically enhanced sensitivity to background light due to changes in opsin gene expression can enhance the detection and visibility of predators and foods, thereby affecting survival. Moreover, changes in sensitivities to orange light may lead to changes in the discrimination of orange/red colors of male guppies and might alter female preferences for male color patterns.

  13. Gene loss, adaptive evolution and the co-evolution of plumage coloration genes with opsins in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rui; Khan, Imran; Johnson, Warren E; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-10-06

    The wide range of complex photic systems observed in birds exemplifies one of their key evolutionary adaptions, a well-developed visual system. However, genomic approaches have yet to be used to disentangle the evolutionary mechanisms that govern evolution of avian visual systems. We performed comparative genomic analyses across 48 avian genomes that span extant bird phylogenetic diversity to assess evolutionary changes in the 17 representatives of the opsin gene family and five plumage coloration genes. Our analyses suggest modern birds have maintained a repertoire of up to 15 opsins. Synteny analyses indicate that PARA and PARIE pineal opsins were lost, probably in conjunction with the degeneration of the parietal organ. Eleven of the 15 avian opsins evolved in a non-neutral pattern, confirming the adaptive importance of vision in birds. Visual conopsins sw1, sw2 and lw evolved under negative selection, while the dim-light RH1 photopigment diversified. The evolutionary patterns of sw1 and of violet/ultraviolet sensitivity in birds suggest that avian ancestors had violet-sensitive vision. Additionally, we demonstrate an adaptive association between the RH2 opsin and the MC1R plumage color gene, suggesting that plumage coloration has been photic mediated. At the intra-avian level we observed some unique adaptive patterns. For example, barn owl showed early signs of pseudogenization in RH2, perhaps in response to nocturnal behavior, and penguins had amino acid deletions in RH2 sites responsible for the red shift and retinal binding. These patterns in the barn owl and penguins were convergent with adaptive strategies in nocturnal and aquatic mammals, respectively. We conclude that birds have evolved diverse opsin adaptations through gene loss, adaptive selection and coevolution with plumage coloration, and that differentiated selective patterns at the species level suggest novel photic pressures to influence evolutionary patterns of more-recent lineages.

  14. Analysis of the opsin repertoire in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini provides insights into the evolution of opsin genes in Panarthropoda

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Screening of a deeply sequenced transcriptome using Illumina sequencing as well as the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed a set of five opsin genes. To clarify the phylogenetic position of these genes and to elucidate the evolutionary history of opsins in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we reconstructed the phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected s...

  15. Ten Step Guide for Comprehensive Educational Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Anthony P., Ed.; Gleason, Deborah J., Ed.

    The goal of this guide is to provide Massachusetts teachers of visually impaired students with an opportunity to increase the quality of evaluation procedures through a more consistent approach to assessment and to provide a means of recording the outcomes of such assessment procedures in more meaningful ways. The guide covers basic elements…

  16. Biochemical Measurements of Free Opsin in Macular Degeneration Eyes: Examining the 11-CISRetinal Deficiency Hypothesis of Delayed Dark Adaptation (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneken, Anne; Neikirk, Thomas; Johnson, Jennifer; Kono, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that delayed dark adaptation in patients with macular degeneration is due to an excess of free unliganded opsin (apo-opsin) and a deficiency of the visual chromophore, 11 -cis retinal, in rod outer segments. A total of 50 human autopsy eyes were harvested from donors with and without macular degeneration within 2-24 hrs. postmortem. Protocols were developed which permitted dark adaptation of normal human eyes after death and enucleation. Biochemical methods of purifying rod outer segments were optimized and the concentration of rhodopsin and apo-opsin was measured with UV-visible scanning spectroscopy. The presence of apo-opsin was calculated by measuring the difference in the rhodopsin absorption spectra before and after the addition of 11 -cis retinal. A total of 20 normal eyes and 16 eyes from donors with early, intermediate and advanced stages of macular degeneration were included in the final analysis. Dark adaptation was achieved by harvesting whole globes in low light, transferring into dark (light-proof) canisters and dissecting the globes using infrared light and image converters for visualization. Apo-opsin was readily detected in positive controls after the addition of 11 -cis retinal. Normal autopsy eyes showed no evidence of apo-opsin. Eyes with macular degeneration also showed no evidence of apo-opsin, regardless of the severity of disease. Methods have been developed to study dark adaptation in human autopsy eyes. Eyes with age-related macular degeneration do not show a deficiency of 11 -cis retinal or an excess of apo-opsin within rod outer segments.

  17. A single enhancer regulating the differential expression of duplicated red-sensitive opsin genes in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Tsujimura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental step in the evolution of the visual system is the gene duplication of visual opsins and differentiation between the duplicates in absorption spectra and expression pattern in the retina. However, our understanding of the mechanism of expression differentiation is far behind that of spectral tuning of opsins. Zebrafish (Danio rerio have two red-sensitive cone opsin genes, LWS-1 and LWS-2. These genes are arrayed in a tail-to-head manner, in this order, and are both expressed in the long member of double cones (LDCs in the retina. Expression of the longer-wave sensitive LWS-1 occurs later in development and is thus confined to the peripheral, especially ventral-nasal region of the adult retina, whereas expression of LWS-2 occurs earlier and is confined to the central region of the adult retina, shifted slightly to the dorsal-temporal region. In this study, we employed a transgenic reporter assay using fluorescent proteins and P1-artificial chromosome (PAC clones encompassing the two genes and identified a 0.6-kb "LWS-activating region" (LAR upstream of LWS-1, which regulates expression of both genes. Under the 2.6-kb flanking upstream region containing the LAR, the expression pattern of LWS-1 was recapitulated by the fluorescent reporter. On the other hand, when LAR was directly conjugated to the LWS-2 upstream region, the reporter was expressed in the LDCs but also across the entire outer nuclear layer. Deletion of LAR from the PAC clones drastically lowered the reporter expression of the two genes. These results suggest that LAR regulates both LWS-1 and LWS-2 by enhancing their expression and that interaction of LAR with the promoters is competitive between the two genes in a developmentally restricted manner. Sharing a regulatory region between duplicated genes could be a general way to facilitate the expression differentiation in duplicated visual opsins.

  18. Ancestral duplications and highly dynamic opsin gene evolution in percomorph fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Fabio; Musilová, Zuzana; Stieb, Sara M.; Hart, Nathan S.; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Malmstrøm, Martin; Tørresen, Ole K.; Jentoft, Sissel; Cheney, Karen L.; Marshall, N. Justin; Carleton, Karen L.; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Single-gene and whole-genome duplications are important evolutionary mechanisms that contribute to biological diversification by launching new genetic raw material. For example, the evolution of animal vision is tightly linked to the expansion of the opsin gene family encoding light-absorbing visual pigments. In teleost fishes, the most species-rich vertebrate group, opsins are particularly diverse and key to the successful colonization of habitats ranging from the bioluminescence-biased but basically dark deep sea to clear mountain streams. In this study, we report a previously unnoticed duplication of the violet-blue short wavelength-sensitive 2 (SWS2) opsin, which coincides with the radiation of highly diverse percomorph fishes, permitting us to reinterpret the evolution of this gene family. The inspection of close to 100 fish genomes revealed that, triggered by frequent gene conversion between duplicates, the evolutionary history of SWS2 is rather complex and difficult to predict. Coincidentally, we also report potential cases of gene resurrection in vertebrate opsins, whereby pseudogenized genes were found to convert with their functional paralogs. We then identify multiple novel amino acid substitutions that are likely to have contributed to the adaptive differentiation between SWS2 copies. Finally, using the dusky dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, we show that the newly discovered SWS2A duplicates can contribute to visual adaptation in two ways: by gaining sensitivities to different wavelengths of light and by being differentially expressed between ontogenetic stages. Thus, our study highlights the importance of comparative approaches in gaining a comprehensive view of the dynamics underlying gene family evolution and ultimately, animal diversification. PMID:25548152

  19. Ancestral duplications and highly dynamic opsin gene evolution in percomorph fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Fabio; Musilová, Zuzana; Stieb, Sara M; Hart, Nathan S; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Malmstrøm, Martin; Tørresen, Ole K; Jentoft, Sissel; Cheney, Karen L; Marshall, N Justin; Carleton, Karen L; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-02-03

    Single-gene and whole-genome duplications are important evolutionary mechanisms that contribute to biological diversification by launching new genetic raw material. For example, the evolution of animal vision is tightly linked to the expansion of the opsin gene family encoding light-absorbing visual pigments. In teleost fishes, the most species-rich vertebrate group, opsins are particularly diverse and key to the successful colonization of habitats ranging from the bioluminescence-biased but basically dark deep sea to clear mountain streams. In this study, we report a previously unnoticed duplication of the violet-blue short wavelength-sensitive 2 (SWS2) opsin, which coincides with the radiation of highly diverse percomorph fishes, permitting us to reinterpret the evolution of this gene family. The inspection of close to 100 fish genomes revealed that, triggered by frequent gene conversion between duplicates, the evolutionary history of SWS2 is rather complex and difficult to predict. Coincidentally, we also report potential cases of gene resurrection in vertebrate opsins, whereby pseudogenized genes were found to convert with their functional paralogs. We then identify multiple novel amino acid substitutions that are likely to have contributed to the adaptive differentiation between SWS2 copies. Finally, using the dusky dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, we show that the newly discovered SWS2A duplicates can contribute to visual adaptation in two ways: by gaining sensitivities to different wavelengths of light and by being differentially expressed between ontogenetic stages. Thus, our study highlights the importance of comparative approaches in gaining a comprehensive view of the dynamics underlying gene family evolution and ultimately, animal diversification.

  20. The expression of three opsin genes from the compound eye of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is regulated by a circadian clock, light conditions and nutritional status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yan

    Full Text Available Visual genes may become inactive in species that inhabit poor light environments, and the function and regulation of opsin components in nocturnal moths are interesting topics. In this study, we cloned the ultraviolet (UV, blue (BL and long-wavelength-sensitive (LW opsin genes from the compound eye of the cotton bollworm and then measured their mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels fluctuated over a daily cycle, which might be an adaptation of a nocturnal lifestyle, and were dependent on a circadian clock. Cycling of opsin mRNA levels was disturbed by constant light or constant darkness, and the UV opsin gene was up-regulated after light exposure. Furthermore, the opsin genes tended to be down-regulated upon starvation. Thus, this study illustrates that opsin gene expression is determined by multiple endogenous and exogenous factors and is adapted to the need for nocturnal vision, suggesting that color vision may play an important role in the sensory ecology of nocturnal moths.

  1. Jellyfish vision starts with cAMP signaling mediated by opsin-G(s) cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Takano, Kosuke; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Ohtsu, Kohzoh; Tokunaga, Fumio; Terakita, Akihisa

    2008-10-07

    Light sensing starts with phototransduction in photoreceptor cells. The phototransduction cascade has diverged in different species, such as those mediated by transducin in vertebrate rods and cones, by G(q)-type G protein in insect and molluscan rhabdomeric-type visual cells and vertebrate photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and by G(o)-type G protein in scallop ciliary-type visual cells. Here, we investigated the phototransduction cascade of a prebilaterian box jellyfish, the most basal animal having eyes containing lens and ciliary-type visual cells similar to vertebrate eyes, to examine the similarity at the molecular level and to obtain an implication of the origin of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. We showed that the opsin-based pigment functions as a green-sensitive visual pigment and triggers the G(s)-type G protein-mediated phototransduction cascade in the ciliary-type visual cells of the box jellyfish lens eyes. We also demonstrated the light-dependent cAMP increase in the jellyfish visual cells and HEK293S cells expressing the jellyfish opsin. The first identified prebilaterian cascade was distinct from known phototransduction cascades but exhibited significant partial similarity with those in vertebrate and molluscan ciliary-type visual cells, because all involved cyclic nucleotide signaling. These similarities imply a monophyletic origin of ciliary phototransduction cascades distributed from prebilaterian to vertebrate.

  2. Comparative visual ecology of cephalopods from different habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Wen-Sung; Marshall, N.Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations of vision and visual pigment evolution in aquatic predators have focused on fish and crustaceans, generally ignoring the cephalopods. Since the first cephalopod opsin was sequenced in late 1980s, we now have data on over 50 cephalopod opsins, prompting this functional and phylogenetic examination. Much of this data does not specifically examine the visual pigment spectral absorbance position (? max) relative to environment or lifestyle, and cephalopod opsin functional ...

  3. De Novo Adult Transcriptomes of Two European Brittle Stars: Spotlight on Opsin-Based Photoreception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Delroisse

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technology allows to obtain a deeper and more complete view of transcriptomes. For non-model or emerging model marine organisms, NGS technologies offer a great opportunity for rapid access to genetic information. In this study, paired-end Illumina HiSeqTM technology has been employed to analyse transcriptomes from the arm tissues of two European brittle star species, Amphiura filiformis and Ophiopsila aranea. About 48 million Illumina reads were generated and 136,387 total unigenes were predicted from A. filiformis arm tissues. For O. aranea arm tissues, about 47 million reads were generated and 123,324 total unigenes were obtained. Twenty-four percent of the total unigenes from A. filiformis show significant matches with sequences present in reference online databases, whereas, for O. aranea, this percentage amounts to 23%. In both species, around 50% of the predicted annotated unigenes were significantly similar to transcripts from the purple sea urchin, the closest species to date that has undergone complete genome sequencing and annotation. GO, COG and KEGG analyses were performed on predicted brittle star unigenes. We focused our analyses on the phototransduction actors involved in light perception. Firstly, two new echinoderm opsins were identified in O. aranea: one rhabdomeric opsin (homologous to vertebrate melanopsin and one RGR opsin. The RGR-opsin is supposed to be involved in retinal regeneration while the r-opsin is suspected to play a role in visual-like behaviour. Secondly, potential phototransduction actors were identified in both transcriptomes using the fly (rhabdomeric and mammal (ciliary classical phototransduction pathways as references. Finally, the sensitivity of O.aranea to monochromatic light was investigated to complement data available for A. filiformis. The presence of microlens-like structures at the surface of dorsal arm plate of O. aranea could potentially explain phototactic

  4. Using electroretinograms and multi-model inference to identify spectral classes of photoreceptors and relative opsin expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how individual photoreceptor cells factor in the spectral sensitivity of a visual system is essential to explain how they contribute to the visual ecology of the animal in question. Existing methods that model the absorption of visual pigments use templates which correspond closely to data from thin cross-sections of photoreceptor cells. However, few modeling approaches use a single framework to incorporate physical parameters of real photoreceptors, which can be fused, and can form vertical tiers. Akaike's information criterion (AICc) was used here to select absorptance models of multiple classes of photoreceptor cells that maximize information, given visual system spectral sensitivity data obtained using extracellular electroretinograms and structural parameters obtained by histological methods. This framework was first used to select among alternative hypotheses of photoreceptor number. It identified spectral classes from a range of dark-adapted visual systems which have between one and four spectral photoreceptor classes. These were the velvet worm, Principapillatus hitoyensis, the branchiopod water flea, Daphnia magna, normal humans, and humans with enhanced S-cone syndrome, a condition in which S-cone frequency is increased due to mutations in a transcription factor that controls photoreceptor expression. Data from the Asian swallowtail, Papilio xuthus, which has at least five main spectral photoreceptor classes in its compound eyes, were included to illustrate potential effects of model over-simplification on multi-model inference. The multi-model framework was then used with parameters of spectral photoreceptor classes and the structural photoreceptor array kept constant. The goal was to map relative opsin expression to visual pigment concentration. It identified relative opsin expression differences for two populations of the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei. The modeling approach presented here will be useful in selecting the most likely

  5. Misfolded opsin mutants display elevated β-sheet structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M; Gragg, Megan; Kim, Tae Gyun; Park, Paul S-H

    2015-10-07

    Mutations in rhodopsin can cause misfolding and aggregation of the receptor, which leads to retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive retinal degenerative disease. The structure adopted by misfolded opsin mutants and the associated cell toxicity is poorly understood. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy were utilized to probe within cells the structures formed by G188R and P23H opsins, which are misfolding mutants that cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Both mutants formed aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum and exhibited altered secondary structure with elevated β-sheet and reduced α-helical content. The newly formed β-sheet structure may facilitate the aggregation of misfolded opsin mutants. The effects observed for the mutants were unrelated to retention of opsin molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum itself. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  6. The biological mechanisms and behavioral functions of opsin-based light detection by the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kelley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Light detection not only forms the basis of vision (via visual retinal photoreceptors, but can also occur in other parts of the body, including many non-rod/non-cone ocular cells, the pineal complex, the deep brain, and the skin. Indeed, many of the photopigments (an opsin linked to a light-sensitive 11-cis retinal chromophore that mediate color vision in the eyes of vertebrates are also present in the skin of animals such as reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans and fishes (with related photoreceptive molecules present in cephalopods, providing a localized mechanism for light detection across the surface of the body. This form of non-visual photosensitivity may be particularly important for animals that can change their coloration by altering the dispersion of pigments within the chromatophores (pigment containing cells of the skin. Thus, skin coloration may be directly color matched or tuned to both the luminance and spectral properties of the local background environment, thereby facilitating behavioral functions such as camouflage, thermoregulation, and social signaling. This review examines the diversity and sensitivity of opsin-based photopigments present in the skin and considers their putative functional roles in mediating animal behavior. Furthermore, it discusses the potential underlying biochemical and molecular pathways that link shifts in environmental light to both photopigment expression and chromatophore photoresponses. Although photoreception that occurs independently of image formation remains poorly understood, this review highlights the important role of non-visual light detection in facilitating the multiple functions of animal coloration.

  7. Coherent control of an opsin in living brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kush; Sengupta, Parijat; Ark, Eugene D.; Tu, Haohua; Zhao, Youbo; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2017-11-01

    Retinal-based opsins are light-sensitive proteins. The photoisomerization reaction of these proteins has been studied outside cellular environments using ultrashort tailored light pulses. However, how living cell functions can be modulated via opsins by modifying fundamental nonlinear optical properties of light interacting with the retinal chromophore has remained largely unexplored. We report the use of chirped ultrashort near-infrared pulses to modulate light-evoked ionic current from Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in brain tissue, and consequently the firing pattern of neurons, by manipulating the phase of the spectral components of the light. These results confirm that quantum coherence of the retinal-based protein system, even in a living neuron, can influence its current output, and open up the possibilities of using designer-tailored pulses for controlling molecular dynamics of opsins in living tissue to selectively enhance or suppress neuronal function for adaptive feedback-loop applications in the future.

  8. Model systems for understanding absorption tuning by opsin proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review reports on model systems that have been synthesised and investigated for elucidating how opsin proteins tune the absorption of the protonated retinal Schiff base chromophore. In particular, the importance of the counteranion is highlighted. In addition, the review advocates...... for redefining the opsin shift, using the intrinsic absorption maximum (610 nm) of the protonated retinal Schiff base as a reference value, obtained by gas phase investigations, rather than the corresponding solvent value (441 nm). Hereby the necessity of correcting for solvent and counteranion effects...

  9. Opsin stability and folding: modulation by phospholipid bicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Craig; Farmer, Nicola A; Jeans, Chris; Reeves, Philip J; Khorana, H Gobind; Wallace, B A; Edwards, Patricia C; Villa, Claudio; Booth, Paula J

    2007-12-14

    Integral membrane proteins do not fare well when extracted from biological membranes and are unstable or lose activity in detergents commonly used for structure and function investigations. We show that phospholipid bicelles provide a valuable means of preserving alpha-helical membrane proteins in vitro by supplying a soluble lipid bilayer fragment. Both 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (Chaps) and DMPC/l-alpha-1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) bicelles dramatically increase the stability of the mammalian vision receptor rhodopsin as well as its apoprotein, opsin. Opsin is particularly unstable in detergent solution but can be directly purified into DMPC/Chaps. We show that opsin can also be directly purified in DMPC/DHPC bicelles to give correctly folded functional opsin, as shown by the ability to regenerate rhodopsin to approximately 70% yield. These well-characterised DMPC/DHPC bicelles enable us to probe the influence of bicelle properties on opsin stability. These bicelles are thought to provide DMPC bilayer fragments with most DHPC capping the bilayer edge, giving a soluble bilayer disc. Opsin stability is shown to be modulated by the q value, the ratio of DMPC to DHPC, which reflects changes in the bicelle size and, thus, proportion of DMPC bilayer present. The observed changes in stability also correlate with loss of opsin secondary structure as determined by synchrotron far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy; the most stable bicelle results in the least helix loss. The inclusion of Chaps rather than DHPC in the DMPC/Chaps bicelles, however, imparts the greatest stability. This suggests that it is not just the DMPC bilayer fragment in the bicelles that stabilises the protein, but that Chaps provides additional stability either through direct interaction with the protein or by altering the DMPC/Chaps bilayer properties within the bicelle. The significant stability

  10. Rod monochromacy and the coevolution of cetacean retinal opsins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Meredith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans have a long history of commitment to a fully aquatic lifestyle that extends back to the Eocene. Extant species have evolved a spectacular array of adaptations in conjunction with their deployment into a diverse array of aquatic habitats. Sensory systems are among those that have experienced radical transformations in the evolutionary history of this clade. In the case of vision, previous studies have demonstrated important changes in the genes encoding rod opsin (RH1, short-wavelength sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1, and long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS in selected cetaceans, but have not examined the full complement of opsin genes across the complete range of cetacean families. Here, we report protein-coding sequences for RH1 and both color opsin genes (SWS1, LWS from representatives of all extant cetacean families. We examine competing hypotheses pertaining to the timing of blue shifts in RH1 relative to SWS1 inactivation in the early history of Cetacea, and we test the hypothesis that some cetaceans are rod monochomats. Molecular evolutionary analyses contradict the "coastal" hypothesis, wherein SWS1 was pseudogenized in the common ancestor of Cetacea, and instead suggest that RH1 was blue-shifted in the common ancestor of Cetacea before SWS1 was independently knocked out in baleen whales (Mysticeti and in toothed whales (Odontoceti. Further, molecular evidence implies that LWS was inactivated convergently on at least five occasions in Cetacea: (1 Balaenidae (bowhead and right whales, (2 Balaenopteroidea (rorquals plus gray whale, (3 Mesoplodon bidens (Sowerby's beaked whale, (4 Physeter macrocephalus (giant sperm whale, and (5 Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale. All of these cetaceans are known to dive to depths of at least 100 m where the underwater light field is dim and dominated by blue light. The knockout of both SWS1 and LWS in multiple cetacean lineages renders these taxa rod monochromats, a condition previously unknown among

  11. Myopia and Late-Onset Progressive Cone Dystrophy Associate to LVAVA/MVAVA Exon 3 Interchange Haplotypes of Opsin Genes on Chromosome X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Orsolya; Rajta, István; Vajas, Attila; Takács, Lili; Csutak, Adrienne; Fodor, Mariann; Kolozsvári, Bence; Resch, Miklós; Sényi, Katalin; Lesch, Balázs; Szabó, Viktória; Berta, András; Balogh, István; Losonczy, Gergely

    2017-03-01

    Rare interchange haplotypes in exon 3 of the OPN1LW and OPN1MW opsin genes cause X-linked myopia, color vision defect, and cone dysfunction. The severity of the disease varies on a broad scale from nonsyndromic high myopia to blue cone monochromatism. Here, we describe a new genotype-phenotype correlation attributed to rare exon 3 interchange haplotypes simultaneously present in the long- and middle-wavelength sensitive opsin genes (L- and M-opsin genes). A multigenerational family with X-linked high myopia and cone dystrophy was investigated. Affected male patients had infantile onset myopia with normal visual acuity and color vision until their forties. Visual acuity decreased thereafter, along with the development of severe protan and deutan color vision defects. A mild decrease in electroretinography response of cone photoreceptors was detected in childhood, which further deteriorated in middle-aged patients. Rods were also affected, however, to a lesser extent than cones. Clinical exome sequencing identified the LVAVA and MVAVA toxic haplotypes in the OPN1LW and OPN1MW opsin genes, respectively. Here, we show that LVAVA haplotype of the OPN1LW gene and MVAVA haplotype of the OPN1MW gene cause apparently nonsyndromic high myopia in young patients but lead to progressive cone-rod dystrophy with deuteranopia and protanopia in middle-aged patients corresponding to a previously unknown disease course. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the joint effect of these toxic haplotypes in the two opsin genes on chromosome X.

  12. Probing mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in a new mouse model of the common form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa due to P23H opsin mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakami, Sanae; Maeda, Tadao; Bereta, Grzegorz; Okano, Kiichiro; Golczak, Marcin; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J; Cideciyan, Artur V; Jacobson, Samuel G; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-03-25

    Rhodopsin, the visual pigment mediating vision under dim light, is composed of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore ligand 11-cis-retinal. A P23H mutation in the opsin gene is one of the most prevalent causes of the human blinding disease, autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Although P23H cultured cell and transgenic animal models have been developed, there remains controversy over whether they fully mimic the human phenotype; and the exact mechanism by which this mutation leads to photoreceptor cell degeneration remains unknown. By generating P23H opsin knock-in mice, we found that the P23H protein was inadequately glycosylated with levels 1-10% that of wild type opsin. Moreover, the P23H protein failed to accumulate in rod photoreceptor cell endoplasmic reticulum but instead disrupted rod photoreceptor disks. Genetically engineered P23H mice lacking the chromophore showed accelerated photoreceptor cell degeneration. These results indicate that most synthesized P23H protein is degraded, and its retinal cytotoxicity is enhanced by lack of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore during rod outer segment development.

  13. Probing Mechanisms of Photoreceptor Degeneration in a New Mouse Model of the Common Form of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa due to P23H Opsin Mutations*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakami, Sanae; Maeda, Tadao; Bereta, Grzegorz; Okano, Kiichiro; Golczak, Marcin; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Rhodopsin, the visual pigment mediating vision under dim light, is composed of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore ligand 11-cis-retinal. A P23H mutation in the opsin gene is one of the most prevalent causes of the human blinding disease, autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Although P23H cultured cell and transgenic animal models have been developed, there remains controversy over whether they fully mimic the human phenotype; and the exact mechanism by which this mutation leads to photoreceptor cell degeneration remains unknown. By generating P23H opsin knock-in mice, we found that the P23H protein was inadequately glycosylated with levels 1–10% that of wild type opsin. Moreover, the P23H protein failed to accumulate in rod photoreceptor cell endoplasmic reticulum but instead disrupted rod photoreceptor disks. Genetically engineered P23H mice lacking the chromophore showed accelerated photoreceptor cell degeneration. These results indicate that most synthesized P23H protein is degraded, and its retinal cytotoxicity is enhanced by lack of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore during rod outer segment development. PMID:21224384

  14. Opsins have evolved under the permanent heterozygote model: insights from phylotranscriptomics of Odonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Anton; Jensen, Nicholas O; Sharkey, Camilla R; Fujimoto, M Stanley; Bodily, Paul; Wightman, Haley M Cahill; Ogden, T Heath; Clement, Mark J; Bybee, Seth M

    2017-03-01

    Gene duplication plays a central role in adaptation to novel environments by providing new genetic material for functional divergence and evolution of biological complexity. Several evolutionary models have been proposed for gene duplication to explain how new gene copies are preserved by natural selection, but these models have rarely been tested using empirical data. Opsin proteins, when combined with a chromophore, form a photopigment that is responsible for the absorption of light, the first step in the phototransduction cascade. Adaptive gene duplications have occurred many times within the animal opsins' gene family, leading to novel wavelength sensitivities. Consequently, opsins are an attractive choice for the study of gene duplication evolutionary models. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) have the largest opsin repertoire of any insect currently known. Additionally, there is tremendous variation in opsin copy number between species, particularly in the long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) class. Using comprehensive phylotranscriptomic and statistical approaches, we tested various evolutionary models of gene duplication. Our results suggest that both the blue-sensitive (BS) and LWS opsin classes were subjected to strong positive selection that greatly weakens after multiple duplication events, a pattern that is consistent with the permanent heterozygote model. Due to the immense interspecific variation and duplicability potential of opsin genes among odonates, they represent a unique model system to test hypotheses regarding opsin gene duplication and diversification at the molecular level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Environmental, population and life-stage plasticity in the visual system of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, Ragnhild; Karlsen, Rita; Helvik, Jon Vidar

    2018-01-11

    The visual system is for many fishes essential in guiding behaviors, such as foraging, predator avoidance and mate choice. The marine environment is characterized by large spatio-temporal fluctuations in light intensity and spectral composition. However, visual capabilities are restricted by both space limitations set by eye size and by the genomic content of light-absorbing opsin genes. The rich array of visual opsins in teleosts may be used differentially to tune vision towards specific needs during ontogeny and to changing light. Yet, to what extent visual plasticity is a pre-programmed developmental event, or is triggered by photic environment, is unclear. Our previous studies on Atlantic cod revealed an evolutionary genomic loss of UV-sensitive sws1 and red-sensitive lws opsin families, while blue-sensitive sws2 and green-sensitive rh2 opsins had duplicated. The current study has taken an opsin expression approach to characterize visual plasticity in cod towards different spectral light during the larval stage, to maturation and extreme seasonal changes in the Barents Sea. Our data suggest that opsin plasticity in cod larvae is controlled by developmental programme rather than immediate light environment. The lack of expressional changes during maturation suggests a less important role for visual modulation related to mate choice. Although no seasonal effects on visual opsins were detected in migratory Northeast Arctic cod, the expressed opsin subset differed from the more stationary Norwegian coastal cod described in previous studies. Interestingly, these data provide the first indications of a population difference in actively used visual opsins associated with cod ecotypes. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. A ligand channel through the G protein coupled receptor opsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Hildebrand

    Full Text Available The G protein coupled receptor rhodopsin contains a pocket within its seven-transmembrane helix (TM structure, which bears the inactivating 11-cis-retinal bound by a protonated Schiff-base to Lys296 in TM7. Light-induced 11-cis-/all-trans-isomerization leads to the Schiff-base deprotonated active Meta II intermediate. With Meta II decay, the Schiff-base bond is hydrolyzed, all-trans-retinal is released from the pocket, and the apoprotein opsin reloaded with new 11-cis-retinal. The crystal structure of opsin in its active Ops* conformation provides the basis for computational modeling of retinal release and uptake. The ligand-free 7TM bundle of opsin opens into the hydrophobic membrane layer through openings A (between TM1 and 7, and B (between TM5 and 6, respectively. Using skeleton search and molecular docking, we find a continuous channel through the protein that connects these two openings and comprises in its central part the retinal binding pocket. The channel traverses the receptor over a distance of ca. 70 A and is between 11.6 and 3.2 A wide. Both openings are lined with aromatic residues, while the central part is highly polar. Four constrictions within the channel are so narrow that they must stretch to allow passage of the retinal beta-ionone-ring. Constrictions are at openings A and B, respectively, and at Trp265 and Lys296 within the retinal pocket. The lysine enforces a 90 degrees elbow-like kink in the channel which limits retinal passage. With a favorable Lys side chain conformation, 11-cis-retinal can take the turn, whereas passage of the all-trans isomer would require more global conformational changes. We discuss possible scenarios for the uptake of 11-cis- and release of all-trans-retinal. If the uptake gate of 11-cis-retinal is assigned to opening B, all-trans is likely to leave through the same gate. The unidirectional passage proposed previously requires uptake of 11-cis-retinal through A and release of photolyzed all

  17. Cnidocyte discharge is regulated by light and opsin-mediated phototransduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plachetzki, David C; Fong, Caitlin R; Oakley, Todd H

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we report that light also regulates cnidocyte function. We show that non-cnidocyte neurons located in battery complexes of the freshwater polyp Hydra magnipapillata specifically express opsin, cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG...

  18. Ten Utah Painters

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Andrew

    1984-01-01

    Today the art world is rich and diverse with regional as well as national art centers. As in the past, art is alive and well in Utah. The show Ten Utah Painters invites us to see and experiece what some of Utah's best contemporary artists are doing. Their paintings invite us to look and to enjoy but also to learn and open up our visual senses to a broader vista.

  19. Expression of novel opsins and intrinsic light responses in the mammalian retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. Presence of OPN5 in the rat retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Nieto

    Full Text Available The vertebrate retina is known to contain three classes of photoreceptor cells: cones and rods responsible for vision, and intrinsically photoresponsive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs involved in diverse non-visual functions such as photic entrainment of daily rhythms and pupillary light responses. In this paper we investigated the potential intrinsic photoresponsiveness of the rat RGC line, RGC-5, by testing for the presence of visual and non-visual opsins and assessing expression of the immediate-early gene protein c-Fos and changes in intracellular Ca(2+ mobilization in response to brief light pulses. Cultured RGC-5 cells express a number of photopigment mRNAs such as retinal G protein coupled receptor (RGR, encephalopsin/panopsin (Opn3, neuropsin (Opn5 and cone opsin (Opn1mw but not melanopsin (Opn4 or rhodopsin. Opn5 immunoreactivity was observed in RGC-5 cells and in the inner retina of rat, mainly localized in the ganglion cell layer (GCL. Furthermore, white light pulses of different intensities and durations elicited changes both in intracellular Ca(2+ levels and in the induction of c-Fos protein in RGC-5 cell cultures. The results demonstrate that RGC-5 cells expressing diverse putative functional photopigments display intrinsic photosensitivity which accounts for the photic induction of c-Fos protein and changes in intracellular Ca(2+ mobilization. The presence of Opn5 in the GCL of the rat retina suggests the existence of a novel type of photoreceptor cell.

  20. Transcriptome profiling of NIH3T3 cell lines expressing opsin and the P23H opsin mutant identifies candidate drugs for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Brooks, Matthew J; Gieser, Linn; Swaroop, Anand; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cells are commonly employed in screening assays to identify active compounds that could potentially affect the progression of different human diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a class of inherited diseases causing retinal degeneration with compromised vision. Using transcriptome analysis, we compared NIH3T3 cells expressing wildtype (WT) rod opsin with a retinal disease-causing single P23H mutation. Surprisingly, heterologous expression of WT opsin in NIH3T3 cells caused more than a 2-fold change in 783 out of 16,888 protein coding transcripts. The perturbed genes encoded extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, cytoskeleton proteins, glycoproteins and metalloproteases involved in cell adhesion, morphology and migration. A different set of 347 transcripts was either up- or down-regulated when the P23H mutant opsin was expressed suggesting an altered molecular perturbation compared to WT opsin. Transcriptome perturbations elicited by drug candidates aimed at mitigating the effects of the mutant protein revealed that different drugs targeted distinct molecular pathways that resulted in a similar phenotype selected by a cell-based high-throughput screen. Thus, transcriptome profiling can provide essential information about the therapeutic potential of a candidate drug to restore normal gene expression in pathological conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The microbial opsin homologue sop1 is involved in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum development and environmental stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang eLyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial opsins play a crucial role in responses to various environmental signals. Here, we report that the microbial opsin gene sop1 in the necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was dramatically up-regulated during infection and sclerotial development compared with the vegetative growth stage. Further study showed sop1 was essential for growth, sclerotial development and full virulence of S. sclerotiorum. Sop1-silenced transformants were more sensitive to high salt stress, fungicides and high osmotic stress. However, they were more tolerant to oxidative stress compared with the wild-type strain, suggesting that sop1 is involved in different stress responses and fungicide resistance, which plays a role in the environmental adaptability of S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, a Delta blast search showed that microbial opsins are not present in animals and almost all higher plants, indicating that as a predicted transmembrane protein, sop1 is a potential drug target for disease control of S. sclerotiorum.

  2. The eyes have it: regulatory and structural changes both underlie cichlid visual pigment diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Hofmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of evolutionary biology is to unravel the molecular genetic mechanisms that underlie functional diversification and adaptation. We investigated how changes in gene regulation and coding sequence contribute to sensory diversification in two replicate radiations of cichlid fishes. In the clear waters of Lake Malawi, differential opsin expression generates diverse visual systems, with sensitivities extending from the ultraviolet to the red regions of the spectrum. These sensitivities fall into three distinct clusters and are correlated with foraging habits. In the turbid waters of Lake Victoria, visual sensitivity is constrained to longer wavelengths, and opsin expression is correlated with ambient light. In addition to regulatory changes, we found that the opsins coding for the shortest- and longest-wavelength visual pigments have elevated numbers of potentially functional substitutions. Thus, we present a model of sensory evolution in which both molecular genetic mechanisms work in concert. Changes in gene expression generate large shifts in visual pigment sensitivity across the collective opsin spectral range, but changes in coding sequence appear to fine-tune visual pigment sensitivity at the short- and long-wavelength ends of this range, where differential opsin expression can no longer extend visual pigment sensitivity.

  3. Opsin transcripts of predatory diving beetles: a comparison of surface and subterranean photic niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Simon M.; Cooper, Steven J. B.; Saint, Kathleen M.; Bertozzi, Terry; Hyde, Josephine; Humphreys, William F.; Austin, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The regressive evolution of eyes has long intrigued biologists yet the genetic underpinnings remain opaque. A system of discrete aquifers in arid Australia provides a powerful comparative means to explore trait regression at the genomic level. Multiple surface ancestors from two tribes of diving beetles (Dytiscidae) repeatedly invaded these calcrete aquifers and convergently evolved eye-less phenotypes. We use this system to assess transcription of opsin photoreceptor genes among the transcriptomes of two surface and three subterranean dytiscid species and test whether these genes have evolved under neutral predictions. Transcripts for UV, long-wavelength and ciliary-type opsins were identified from the surface beetle transcriptomes. Two subterranean beetles showed parallel loss of all opsin transcription, as expected under ‘neutral’ regressive evolution. The third species Limbodessus palmulaoides retained transcription of a long-wavelength opsin (lwop) orthologue, albeit in an aphotic environment. Tests of selection on lwop indicated no significant differences between transcripts derived from surface and subterranean habitats, with strong evidence for purifying selection acting on L. palmulaoides lwop. Retention of sequence integrity and the lack of evidence for neutral evolution raise the question of whether we have identified a novel pleiotropic role for lwop, or an incipient phase of pseudogene development. PMID:26064586

  4. Opsins in Limulus eyes: characterization of three visible light-sensitive opsins unique to and co-expressed in median eye photoreceptors and a peropsin/RGR that is expressed in all eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Kempler, Karen E.; Saraf, Spencer R.; Marten, Catherine E.; Dugger, Donald R.; Speiser, Daniel I.; Oakley, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    The eyes of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus have long been used for studies of basic mechanisms of vision, and the structure and physiology of Limulus photoreceptors have been examined in detail. Less is known about the opsins Limulus photoreceptors express. We previously characterized a UV opsin (LpUVOps1) that is expressed in all three types of Limulus eyes (lateral compound eyes, median ocelli and larval eyes) and three visible light-sensitive rhabdomeric opsins (LpOps1, -2 and -5) t...

  5. Genomic and gene regulatory signatures of cryptozoic adaptation: Loss of blue sensitive photoreceptors through expansion of long wavelength-opsin expression in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Tiffany A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genome sequence analysis in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum indicated that this highly crepuscular animal encodes only two single opsin paralogs: a UV-opsin and a long wavelength (LW-opsin; however, these animals do not encode a blue (B-opsin as most other insects. Here, we studied the spatial regulation of the Tribolium single LW- and UV-opsin gene paralogs in comparison to that of the five opsin paralogs in the retina of Drosophila melanogaster. Results In situ hybridization analysis reveals that the Tribolium retina, in contrast with other insect retinas, constitutes a homogenous field of ommatidia that have seven LW-opsin expressing photoreceptors and one UV-/LW-opsin co-expressing photoreceptor per eye unit. This pattern is consistent with the loss of photoreceptors sensitive to blue wavelengths. It also identifies Tribolium as the first example of a species in insects that co-expresses two different opsins across the entire retina in violation of the widely observed "one receptor rule" of sensory cells. Conclusion Broader studies of opsin evolution in darkling beetles and other coleopteran groups have the potential to pinpoint the permissive and adaptive forces that played a role in the evolution of vision in Tribolium castaneum.

  6. Comparative visual ecology of cephalopods from different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Sung; Marshall, N Justin

    2016-09-14

    Previous investigations of vision and visual pigment evolution in aquatic predators have focused on fish and crustaceans, generally ignoring the cephalopods. Since the first cephalopod opsin was sequenced in late 1980s, we now have data on over 50 cephalopod opsins, prompting this functional and phylogenetic examination. Much of this data does not specifically examine the visual pigment spectral absorbance position (λmax) relative to environment or lifestyle, and cephalopod opsin functional adaptation and visual ecology remain largely unknown. Here we introduce a new protocol for photoreceptor microspectrophotometry (MSP) that overcomes the difficulty of bleaching the bistable visual pigment and that reveals eight coastal coleoid cephalopods to be monochromatic with λmax varying from 484 to 505 nm. A combination of current MSP results, the λmax values previously characterized using cephalopod retinal extracts (467-500 nm) and the corresponding opsin phylogenetic tree were used for systematic comparisons with an end goal of examining the adaptations of coleoid visual pigments to different light environments. Spectral tuning shifts are described in response to different modes of life and light conditions. A new spectral tuning model suggests that nine amino acid substitution sites may determine the direction and the magnitude of spectral shifts. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Cone visual pigments of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lucy A; Robinson, Phyllis R

    2005-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that the visual systems of animals are evolutionarily adapted to their visual environment. The entrance many millions of years ago of mammals into the sea gave these new aquatic mammals completely novel visual surroundings with respect to light availability and predominant wavelengths. This study examines the cone opsins of marine mammals, hypothesizing, based on previous studies [Fasick et al. (1998) and Levenson & Dizon (2003)], that the deep-dwelling marine mammals would not have color vision because the pressure to maintain color vision in the dark monochromatic ocean environment has been relaxed. Short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cone opsin genes from two orders (Cetacea and Sirenia) and an additional suborder (Pinnipedia) of aquatic mammals were amplified from genomic DNA (for SWS) and cDNA (for LWS) by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. All animals studied from the order Cetacea have SWS pseudogenes, whereas a representative from the order Sirenia has an intact SWS gene, for which the corresponding mRNA was found in the retina. One of the pinnipeds studied (harp seal) has an SWS pseudogene, while another species (harbor seal) appeared to have an intact SWS gene. However, no SWS cone opsin mRNA was found in the harbor seal retina, suggesting a promoter or splice site mutation preventing transcription of the gene. The LWS opsins from the different species were expressed in mammalian cells and reconstituted with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in order to determine maximal absorption wavelengths (lambda(max)) for each. The deeper dwelling Cetacean species had blue shifted lambda(max) values compared to shallower-dwelling aquatic species. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that in the monochromatic oceanic habitat, the pressure to maintain color vision has been relaxed and mutations are retained in the SWS genes, resulting in pseudogenes. Additionally, LWS opsins are retained in the

  8. Exploring the binding properties and structural stability of an opsin in the chytrid Spizellomyces punctatus using comparative and molecular modeling

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    Steven R. Ahrendt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Opsin proteins are seven transmembrane receptor proteins which detect light. Opsins can be classified into two types and share little sequence identity: type 1, typically found in bacteria, and type 2, primarily characterized in metazoa. The type 2 opsins (Rhodopsins are a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, a large and diverse class of seven transmembrane proteins and are generally restricted to metazoan lineages. Fungi use light receptors including opsins to sense the environment and transduce signals for developmental or metabolic changes. Opsins characterized in the Dikarya (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes are of the type 1 bacteriorhodopsin family but the early diverging fungal lineages have not been as well surveyed. We identified by sequence similarity a rhodopsin-like GPCR in genomes of early diverging chytrids and examined the structural characteristics of this protein to assess its likelihood to be homologous to animal rhodopsins and bind similar chromophores. Methods We used template-based structure modeling, automated ligand docking, and molecular modeling to assess the structural and binding properties of an identified opsin-like protein found in Spizellomyces punctatus, a unicellular, flagellated species belonging to Chytridiomycota, one of the earliest diverging fungal lineages. We tested if the sequence and inferred structure were consistent with a solved crystal structure of a type 2 rhodopsin from the squid Todarodes pacificus. Results Our results indicate that the Spizellomyces opsin has structural characteristics consistent with functional animal type 2 rhodopsins and is capable of maintaining a stable structure when associated with the retinaldehyde chromophore, specifically the 9-cis-retinal isomer. Together, these results support further the homology of Spizellomyces opsins to animal type 2 rhodopsins. Discussion This represents the first test of structure/function relationship of a type 2 rhodopsin

  9. Visual system evolution and the nature of the ancestral snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, B F; Sampaio, F L; Jared, C; Antoniazzi, M M; Loew, E R; Bowmaker, J K; Rodriguez, A; Hart, N S; Hunt, D M; Partridge, J C; Gower, D J

    2015-07-01

    The dominant hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of snakes from 'lizards' (non-snake squamates) is that stem snakes acquired many snake features while passing through a profound burrowing (fossorial) phase. To investigate this, we examined the visual pigments and their encoding opsin genes in a range of squamate reptiles, focusing on fossorial lizards and snakes. We sequenced opsin transcripts isolated from retinal cDNA and used microspectrophotometry to measure directly the spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor visual pigments in a subset of samples. In snakes, but not lizards, dedicated fossoriality (as in Scolecophidia and the alethinophidian Anilius scytale) corresponds with loss of all visual opsins other than RH1 (λmax 490-497 nm); all other snakes (including less dedicated burrowers) also have functional sws1 and lws opsin genes. In contrast, the retinas of all lizards sampled, even highly fossorial amphisbaenians with reduced eyes, express functional lws, sws1, sws2 and rh1 genes, and most also express rh2 (i.e. they express all five of the visual opsin genes present in the ancestral vertebrate). Our evidence of visual pigment complements suggests that the visual system of stem snakes was partly reduced, with two (RH2 and SWS2) of the ancestral vertebrate visual pigments being eliminated, but that this did not extend to the extreme additional loss of SWS1 and LWS that subsequently occurred (probably independently) in highly fossorial extant scolecophidians and A. scytale. We therefore consider it unlikely that the ancestral snake was as fossorial as extant scolecophidians, whether or not the latter are para- or monophyletic. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. The involvement of ATF4 and S-opsin in retinal photoreceptor cell damage induced by blue LED light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Emi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kuse, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Saori; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Blue light is a high-energy emitting light with a short wavelength in the visible light spectrum. Blue light induces photoreceptor apoptosis and causes age-related macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. In the present study, we investigated the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by blue light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure in murine photoreceptor cells. The murine photoreceptor cell line was incubated and exposed to blue LED light (464 nm blue LED light, 450 lx, 3 to 24 h). The expression of the factors involved in the unfolded protein response pathway was examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunoblot analysis. The aggregation of short-wavelength opsin (S-opsin) in the murine photoreceptor cells was observed with immunostaining. The effect of S-opsin knockdown on ATF4 expression in the murine photoreceptor cell line was also investigated. Exposure to blue LED light increased the bip, atf4, and grp94 mRNA levels, induced the expression of ATF4 protein, and increased the levels of ubiquitinated proteins. Exposure to blue LED light in combination with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and dithiothreitol) induced the aggregation of S-opsin. S-opsin mRNA knockdown prevented the induction of ATF4 expression in response to exposure to blue LED light. These findings indicate that the aggregation of S-opsin induced by exposure to blue LED light causes ER stress, and ATF4 activation in particular.

  11. Light-controlled inhibition of malignant glioma by opsin gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Tu, J; Pan, J-Q; Luo, H-L; Liu, Y-H; Wan, J; Zhang, J; Wei, P-F; Jiang, T; Chen, Y-H; Wang, L-P

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas are aggressive cancers with low survival rates and poor prognosis because of their highly proliferative and invasive capacity. In the current study, we describe a new optogenetic strategy that selectively inhibits glioma cells through light-controlled membrane depolarization and cell death. Transfer of the engineered opsin ChETA (engineered Channelrhodopsin-2 variant) gene into primary human glioma cells or cell lines, but not normal astrocytes, unexpectedly decreased cell proliferation and increased mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, upon light stimulation. These optogenetic effects were mediated by membrane depolarization-induced reductions in cyclin expression and mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Importantly, the ChETA gene transfer and light illumination in mice significantly inhibited subcutaneous and intracranial glioma growth and increased the survival of the animals bearing the glioma. These results uncover an unexpected effect of opsin ion channels on glioma cells and offer the opportunity for the first time to treat glioma using a light-controllable optogenetic approach. PMID:24176851

  12. The opsin repertoire of the European lancelet: a window into light detection in a basal chordate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantzartzi, Chrysoula; Pergner, Jiří; Kozmiková, Iryna; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 10-12 (2017), s. 763-772 ISSN 0214-6282 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-15374S; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Branchiostoma * amphioxus * opsin * expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2016

  13. Amphioxus photoreceptors insights into the evolution of vertebrate opsins, vision and circadian rhythmicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pergner, Jiří; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 10-12 (2017), s. 665-681 ISSN 0214-6282 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-15374S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : chordate * opsin evolution * photoreceptor * eye evolution * phototransduction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2016

  14. Enhancer/promoter activities of the long/middle wavelength-sensitive opsins of vertebrates mediated by thyroid hormone receptor β2 and COUP-TFII.

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    Toshiro Iwagawa

    Full Text Available Cone photopigments (opsins are crucial elements of, and the first detection module in, color vision. Individual opsins have different wavelength sensitivity patterns, and the temporal and spatial expression patterns of opsins are unique and stringently regulated. Long and middle wavelength-sensitive (L/M opsins are of the same phylogenetic type. Although the roles of thyroid hormone/TRß2 and COUP-TFs in the transcriptional regulation of L/M opsins have been explored, the detailed mechanisms, including the target sequence in the enhancer of L/M opsins, have not been revealed. We aimed to reveal molecular mechanisms of L/M opsins in vertebrates. Using several human red opsin enhancer/promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, we found that TRß2 increased luciferase activities through the 5'-UTR and intron 3-4 region, whereas the presence of T3 affected only the intron 3-4 region-dependent luciferase activity. Furthermore, COUP-TFII suppressed intron 3-4 region-dependent luciferase activities. However, luciferase expression driven by the mouse M opsin intron 3-4 region was only slightly increased by TRß2, and rather enhanced by COUP-TFII. To determine whether these differential responses reflect differences between primates and rodents, we examined the enhancer/promoter region of the red opsin of the common marmoset. Interestingly, while TRß2 increased 5'-UTR- or intron 3-4 region-driven luciferase expression, as observed for the human red opsin, expression of the latter luciferase was not suppressed by COUP-TFII. In fact, immunostaining of common marmoset retinal sections revealed expression of COUP-TFII and red opsin in the cone cells.

  15. Atomistic design of microbial opsin-based blue-shifted optogenetics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideaki E; Kamiya, Motoshi; Sugo, Seiya; Ito, Jumpei; Taniguchi, Reiya; Orito, Ayaka; Hirata, Kunio; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Maturana, Andrés D; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Sudo, Yuki; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-05-15

    Microbial opsins with a bound chromophore function as photosensitive ion transporters and have been employed in optogenetics for the optical control of neuronal activity. Molecular engineering has been utilized to create colour variants for the functional augmentation of optogenetics tools, but was limited by the complexity of the protein-chromophore interactions. Here we report the development of blue-shifted colour variants by rational design at atomic resolution, achieved through accurate hybrid molecular simulations, electrophysiology and X-ray crystallography. The molecular simulation models and the crystal structure reveal the precisely designed conformational changes of the chromophore induced by combinatory mutations that shrink its π-conjugated system which, together with electrostatic tuning, produce large blue shifts of the absorption spectra by maximally 100 nm, while maintaining photosensitive ion transport activities. The design principle we elaborate is applicable to other microbial opsins, and clarifies the underlying molecular mechanism of the blue-shifted action spectra of microbial opsins recently isolated from natural sources.

  16. Cardiac optogenetic pacing in drosophila melanogaster using red-shifted opsins (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Electrical pacing is the current gold standard for investigation of mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, this method requires an invasive surgical procedure to implant the pacing electrodes. Recently, optogenetic pacing has been developed as an alternative, non-invasive method for heartbeat pacing in animals. It induces heartbeats by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins which in turn activate light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we expressed recently engineered red-shifted opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in the heart of a well-developed animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, for the first time. Optogenetic pacing was successfully conducted in both ReaChR and CsChrimson flies at their larval, pupal, and adult stages using 617 nm excitation light pulse, enabling a much deeper tissue penetration compared to blue stimulation light. A customized high speed and ultrahigh resolution OCM system was used to non-invasively monitor the heartbeat pacing in Drosophila. Compared to previous studies on optogenetic pacing of Drosophila, higher penetration depth of optogenetic excitation light was achieved in opaque late pupal flies. Lower stimulating power density is needed for excitation at each developmental stage of both groups, which improves the safety of this technique for heart rhythm studies.

  17. Evolution and the origin of the visual retinoid cycle in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kusakabe, Takehiro G.; Takimoto, Noriko; Jin, Minghao; Tsuda, Motoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Absorption of a photon by visual pigments induces isomerization of 11-cis-retinaldehyde (RAL) chromophore to all-trans-RAL. Since the opsins lacking 11-cis-RAL lose light sensitivity, sustained vision requires continuous regeneration of 11-cis-RAL via the process called ‘visual cycle’. Protostomes and vertebrates use essentially different machinery of visual pigment regeneration, and the origin and early evolution of the vertebrate visual cycle is an unsolved mystery. Here we compare visual r...

  18. Human neural progenitor cells decrease photoreceptor degeneration, normalize opsin distribution and support synapse structure in cultured porcine retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollick, Tanzina; Mohlin, Camilla; Johansson, Kjell

    2016-09-01

    Retinal neurodegenerative disorders like retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment decrease retinal functionality leading to visual impairment. The pathological events are characterized by photoreceptor degeneration, synaptic disassembly, remodeling of postsynaptic neurons and activation of glial cells. Despite intense research, no effective treatment has been found for these disorders. The current study explores the potential of human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) derived factors to slow the degenerative processes in adult porcine retinal explants. Retinas were cultured for 3 days with or without hNPCs as a feeder layer and investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), immunohistochemical, western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques. TUNEL showed that hNPCs had the capacity to limit photoreceptor cell death. Among cone photoreceptors, hNPC coculture resulted in better maintenance of cone outer segments and reduced opsin mislocalization. Additionally, maintained synaptic structural integrity and preservation of second order calbindin positive horizontal cells was also observed. However, Müller cell gliosis only seemed to be alleviated in terms of reduced Müller cell density. Our observations indicate that at 3 days of coculture, hNPC derived factors had the capacity to protect photoreceptors, maintain synaptic integrity and support horizontal cell survival. Human neural progenitor cell applied treatment modalities may be an effective strategy to help maintain retinal functionality in neurodegenerative pathologies. Whether hNPCs can independently hinder Müller cell gliosis by utilizing higher concentrations or by combination with other pharmacological agents still needs to be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Co-expression of VAL- and TMT-opsins uncovers ancient photosensory interneurons and motorneurons in the vertebrate brain.

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    Ruth M Fischer

    Full Text Available The functional principle of the vertebrate brain is often paralleled to a computer: information collected by dedicated devices is processed and integrated by interneuron circuits and leads to output. However, inter- and motorneurons present in today's vertebrate brains are thought to derive from neurons that combined sensory, integration, and motor function. Consistently, sensory inter-motorneurons have been found in the simple nerve nets of cnidarians, animals at the base of the evolutionary lineage. We show that light-sensory motorneurons and light-sensory interneurons are also present in the brains of vertebrates, challenging the paradigm that information processing and output circuitry in the central brain is shielded from direct environmental influences. We investigated two groups of nonvisual photopigments, VAL- and TMT-Opsins, in zebrafish and medaka fish; two teleost species from distinct habitats separated by over 300 million years of evolution. TMT-Opsin subclasses are specifically expressed not only in hypothalamic and thalamic deep brain photoreceptors, but also in interneurons and motorneurons with no known photoreceptive function, such as the typeXIV interneurons of the fish optic tectum. We further show that TMT-Opsins and Encephalopsin render neuronal cells light-sensitive. TMT-Opsins preferentially respond to blue light relative to rhodopsin, with subclass-specific response kinetics. We discovered that tmt-opsins co-express with val-opsins, known green light receptors, in distinct inter- and motorneurons. Finally, we show by electrophysiological recordings on isolated adult tectal slices that interneurons in the position of typeXIV neurons respond to light. Our work supports "sensory-inter-motorneurons" as ancient units for brain evolution. It also reveals that vertebrate inter- and motorneurons are endowed with an evolutionarily ancient, complex light-sensory ability that could be used to detect changes in ambient light spectra

  20. Convergent evolution of SWS2 opsin facilitates adaptive radiation of threespine stickleback into different light environments.

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    David A Marques

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated adaptation to a new environment often leads to convergent phenotypic changes whose underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we study adaptation of color vision in threespine stickleback during the repeated postglacial colonization of clearwater and blackwater lakes in the Haida Gwaii archipelago. We use whole genomes from 16 clearwater and 12 blackwater populations, and a selection experiment, in which stickleback were transplanted from a blackwater lake into an uninhabited clearwater pond and resampled after 19 y to test for selection on cone opsin genes. Patterns of haplotype homozygosity, genetic diversity, site frequency spectra, and allele-frequency change support a selective sweep centered on the adjacent blue- and red-light sensitive opsins SWS2 and LWS. The haplotype under selection carries seven amino acid changes in SWS2, including two changes known to cause a red-shift in light absorption, and is favored in blackwater lakes but disfavored in the clearwater habitat of the transplant population. Remarkably, the same red-shifting amino acid changes occurred after the duplication of SWS2 198 million years ago, in the ancestor of most spiny-rayed fish. Two distantly related fish species, bluefin killifish and black bream, express these old paralogs divergently in black- and clearwater habitats, while sticklebacks lost one paralog. Our study thus shows that convergent adaptation to the same environment can involve the same genetic changes on very different evolutionary time scales by reevolving lost mutations and reusing them repeatedly from standing genetic variation.

  1. Convergent evolution of SWS2 opsin facilitates adaptive radiation of threespine stickleback into different light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, David A; Taylor, John S; Jones, Felicity C; Di Palma, Federica; Kingsley, David M; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2017-04-01

    Repeated adaptation to a new environment often leads to convergent phenotypic changes whose underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we study adaptation of color vision in threespine stickleback during the repeated postglacial colonization of clearwater and blackwater lakes in the Haida Gwaii archipelago. We use whole genomes from 16 clearwater and 12 blackwater populations, and a selection experiment, in which stickleback were transplanted from a blackwater lake into an uninhabited clearwater pond and resampled after 19 y to test for selection on cone opsin genes. Patterns of haplotype homozygosity, genetic diversity, site frequency spectra, and allele-frequency change support a selective sweep centered on the adjacent blue- and red-light sensitive opsins SWS2 and LWS. The haplotype under selection carries seven amino acid changes in SWS2, including two changes known to cause a red-shift in light absorption, and is favored in blackwater lakes but disfavored in the clearwater habitat of the transplant population. Remarkably, the same red-shifting amino acid changes occurred after the duplication of SWS2 198 million years ago, in the ancestor of most spiny-rayed fish. Two distantly related fish species, bluefin killifish and black bream, express these old paralogs divergently in black- and clearwater habitats, while sticklebacks lost one paralog. Our study thus shows that convergent adaptation to the same environment can involve the same genetic changes on very different evolutionary time scales by reevolving lost mutations and reusing them repeatedly from standing genetic variation.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of long-wavelength-sensitive cone opsin in the brain of a tropical damselfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuki; Bapary, Mohammad Abu Jafor; Igarashi, Syugo; Imamura, Satoshi; Sawada, Yuji; Matsumoto, Mio; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takemura, Akihiro

    2011-12-01

    Ovarian development of the sapphire devil, Chrysiptera cyanea, exhibits photoperiodism and is stimulated under long-day conditions. Previous studies suggest that red light is more effective than green and blue lights for inducing ovarian development. In addition, the extra-retinal photoreception involved in the ovarian development is suggested in this species. The present study aimed to clone the red-light-sensitive cone opsin (sdLWS) of this species, to demonstrate its expression in the brain, and to confirm the effectiveness of red light on the initiation of ovarian development. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that sdLWS belongs to the long-wavelength-sensitive opsin (LWS opsin) group, showing high identity (77-92%) with the LWS opsin of other fishes. RT-PCR showed that sdLWS is expressed in the eye, brain, and ovary. In situ hybridization indicated that sdLWS is expressed in the third ventricle periventricular area in the anterior hypothalamus. Exposing fish to long-day conditions of red light resulted in the appearance of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and an increase in the gonadosomatic index within 2weeks, suggesting that fish immediately undergo oocyte development under red light conditions. These results indicate that sdLWS is a possible candidate of deep brain photoreceptor molecule involved in photoperiodic ovarian development in the sapphire devil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reproducible and sustained regulation of Gαs signalling using a metazoan opsin as an optogenetic tool.

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    Helena J Bailes

    Full Text Available Originally developed to regulate neuronal excitability, optogenetics is increasingly also used to control other cellular processes with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. Optogenetic modulation of all major G-protein signalling pathways (Gq, Gi and Gs has been achieved using variants of mammalian rod opsin. We show here that the light response driven by such rod opsin-based tools dissipates under repeated exposure, consistent with the known bleaching characteristics of this photopigment. We continue to show that replacing rod opsin with a bleach resistant opsin from Carybdea rastonii, the box jellyfish, (JellyOp overcomes this limitation. Visible light induced high amplitude, reversible, and reproducible increases in cAMP in mammalian cells expressing JellyOp. While single flashes produced a brief cAMP spike, repeated stimulation could sustain elevated levels for 10s of minutes. JellyOp was more photosensitive than currently available optogenetic tools, responding to white light at irradiances ≥1 µW/cm(2. We conclude that JellyOp is a promising new tool for mimicking the activity of Gs-coupled G protein coupled receptors with fine spatiotemporal resolution.

  4. Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new view of ctenophore photocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Christine E; Pang, Kevin; Powers, Meghan L; Reitzel, Adam M; Ryan, Joseph F; Simmons, David; Tada, Takashi; Park, Morgan; Gupta, Jyoti; Brooks, Shelise Y; Blakesley, Robert W; Yokoyama, Shozo; Haddock, Steven Hd; Martindale, Mark Q; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2012-12-21

    Calcium-activated photoproteins are luciferase variants found in photocyte cells of bioluminescent jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria) and comb jellies (Phylum Ctenophora). The complete genomic sequence from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, a representative of the earliest branch of animals that emit light, provided an opportunity to examine the genome of an organism that uses this class of luciferase for bioluminescence and to look for genes involved in light reception. To determine when photoprotein genes first arose, we examined the genomic sequence from other early-branching taxa. We combined our genomic survey with gene trees, developmental expression patterns, and functional protein assays of photoproteins and opsins to provide a comprehensive view of light production and light reception in Mnemiopsis. The Mnemiopsis genome has 10 full-length photoprotein genes situated within two genomic clusters with high sequence conservation that are maintained due to strong purifying selection and concerted evolution. Photoprotein-like genes were also identified in the genomes of the non-luminescent sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the non-luminescent cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, and phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that photoprotein genes arose at the base of all animals. Photoprotein gene expression in Mnemiopsis embryos begins during gastrulation in migrating precursors to photocytes and persists throughout development in the canals where photocytes reside. We identified three putative opsin genes in the Mnemiopsis genome and show that they do not group with well-known bilaterian opsin subfamilies. Interestingly, photoprotein transcripts are co-expressed with two of the putative opsins in developing photocytes. Opsin expression is also seen in the apical sensory organ. We present evidence that one opsin functions as a photopigment in vitro, absorbing light at wavelengths that overlap with peak photoprotein light emission, raising the hypothesis that light

  5. Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new view of ctenophore photocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnitzler Christine E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium-activated photoproteins are luciferase variants found in photocyte cells of bioluminescent jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria and comb jellies (Phylum Ctenophora. The complete genomic sequence from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, a representative of the earliest branch of animals that emit light, provided an opportunity to examine the genome of an organism that uses this class of luciferase for bioluminescence and to look for genes involved in light reception. To determine when photoprotein genes first arose, we examined the genomic sequence from other early-branching taxa. We combined our genomic survey with gene trees, developmental expression patterns, and functional protein assays of photoproteins and opsins to provide a comprehensive view of light production and light reception in Mnemiopsis. Results The Mnemiopsis genome has 10 full-length photoprotein genes situated within two genomic clusters with high sequence conservation that are maintained due to strong purifying selection and concerted evolution. Photoprotein-like genes were also identified in the genomes of the non-luminescent sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the non-luminescent cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, and phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that photoprotein genes arose at the base of all animals. Photoprotein gene expression in Mnemiopsis embryos begins during gastrulation in migrating precursors to photocytes and persists throughout development in the canals where photocytes reside. We identified three putative opsin genes in the Mnemiopsis genome and show that they do not group with well-known bilaterian opsin subfamilies. Interestingly, photoprotein transcripts are co-expressed with two of the putative opsins in developing photocytes. Opsin expression is also seen in the apical sensory organ. We present evidence that one opsin functions as a photopigment in vitro, absorbing light at wavelengths that overlap with peak photoprotein light

  6. Spatial distribution of opsin-encoding mRNAs in the tiered larval retinas of the sunburst diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic, Srdjan; Cook, Tiffany A; Buschbeck, Elke K

    2009-12-01

    Larvae of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus, have a cluster of six stemmata (E1-6) and one eye patch on each side of the head. Each eye has two retinas: a distal retina that is closer to the lens, and a proximal retina that lies directly underneath. The distal retinas of E1 and E2 are made of a dorsal and a ventral stack of at least twelve photoreceptor layers. Could this arrangement be used to compensate for lens chromatic aberration, with shorter wavelengths detected by the distal layers and longer wavelengths by the proximal layers? To answer this question we molecularly identified opsins and their expression patterns in these eyes. We found three opsin-encoding genes. The distal retinas of all six eyes express long-wavelength opsin (TmLW) mRNA, whereas the proximal retinas express ultraviolet opsin (TmUV I) mRNA. In the proximal retinas of E1 and E2, the TmUV I mRNA is expressed only in the dorsal stack. A second ultraviolet opsin mRNA (TmUV II), is expressed in the proximal retinas of E1 and E2 (both stacks). The finding that longer-wavelength opsins are expressed distally to shorter-wavelength opsins makes it unlikely that this retinal arrangement is used to compensate for lens chromatic aberration. In addition, we also described opsin expression patterns in the medial retina of E1 and in the non-tiered retina of the lensless eye patch. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of multiple UV opsins being expressed in the same stemma.

  7. Parallel reduction in expression, but no loss of functional constraint, in two opsin paralogs within cave populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is a premier candidate for studying the evolution of troglomorphic traits such as pigmentation loss, elongated appendages, and reduced eyes. In G. minus, multiple pairs of genetically related, physically proximate cave and surface populations exist which exhibit a high degree of intraspecific morphological divergence. The morphology, ecology, and genetic structure of these sister populations are well characterized, yet the genetic basis of their morphological divergence remains unknown. Results We used degenerate PCR primers designed to amplify opsin genes within the subphylum Crustacea and discovered two distinct opsin paralogs (average inter-paralog protein divergence ≈ 20%) in the genome of three independently derived pairs of G. minus cave and surface populations. Both opsin paralogs were found to be related to other crustacean middle wavelength sensitive opsins. Low levels of nucleotide sequence variation (< 1% within populations) were detected in both opsin genes, regardless of habitat, and dN/dS ratios did not indicate a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave populations with reduced or absent eyes. Maximum likelihood analyses using codon-based models also did not detect a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave lineages. We quantified expression level of both opsin genes and found that the expression of both paralogs was significantly reduced in all three cave populations relative to their sister surface populations. Conclusions The concordantly lowered expression level of both opsin genes in cave populations of G. minus compared to sister surface populations, combined with evidence for persistent purifying selection in the cave populations, is consistent with an unspecified pleiotropic function of opsin proteins. Our results indicate that phototransduction proteins such as opsins may have retained their function in cave

  8. A unique visual pigment expressed in green, red and deep-red receptors in the eye of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakakuwa, M; Stavenga, DG; Kurasawa, M; Arikawa, K

    The full primary structure of a long-wavelength absorbing visual pigment of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, was determined by molecular cloning. In situ hybridization of the opsin mRNA of the novel visual pigment (PrL) demonstrated that it is expressed in the two distal

  9. Extraordinarily low evolutionary rates of short wavelength-sensitive opsin pseudogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Starmer, William T; Liu, Yang; Tada, Takashi; Britt, Lyle

    2014-01-15

    Aquatic organisms such as cichlids, coelacanths, seals, and cetaceans are active in UV-blue color environments, but many of them mysteriously lost their abilities to detect these colors. The loss of these functions is a consequence of the pseudogenization of their short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) opsin genes without gene duplication. We show that the SWS1 gene (BdenS1ψ) of the deep-sea fish, pearleye (Benthalbella dentata), became a pseudogene in a similar fashion about 130 million years ago (Mya) yet it is still transcribed. The rates of nucleotide substitution (~1.4 × 10(-9)/site/year) of the pseudogenes of these aquatic species as well as some prosimian and bat species are much smaller than the previous estimates for the globin and immunoglobulin pseudogenes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Phe‐rich region in short‐wavelength sensitive opsins is responsible for their aggregation in the absence of 11‐cis‐retinal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Tao; Fu, Yingbin

    2013-01-01

    Human blue and mouse S‐opsin are prone to aggregation in the absence of 11‐cis‐retinal, which underlie the rapid cone degeneration in human patients and animal models of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA...

  11. Genomic organization of duplicated short wave-sensitive and long wave-sensitive opsin genes in the green swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson William S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long wave-sensitive (LWS opsin genes have undergone multiple lineage-specific duplication events throughout the evolution of teleost fishes. LWS repertoire expansions in live-bearing fishes (family Poeciliidae have equipped multiple species in this family with up to four LWS genes. Given that color vision, especially attraction to orange male coloration, is important to mate choice within poeciliids, LWS opsins have been proposed as candidate genes driving sexual selection in this family. To date the genomic organization of these genes has not been described in the family Poeciliidae, and little is known about the mechanisms regulating the expression of LWS opsins in any teleost. Results Two BAC clones containing the complete genomic repertoire of LWS opsin genes in the green swordtail fish, Xiphophorus helleri, were identified and sequenced. Three of the four LWS loci identified here were linked in a tandem array downstream of two tightly linked short wave-sensitive 2 (SWS2 opsin genes. The fourth LWS opsin gene, containing only a single intron, was not linked to the other three and is the product of a retrotransposition event. Genomic and phylogenetic results demonstrate that the LWS genes described here share a common evolutionary origin with those previously characterized in other poeciliids. Using qualitative RT-PCR and MSP we showed that each of the LWS and SWS2 opsins, as well as three other cone opsin genes and a single rod opsin gene, were expressed in the eyes of adult female and male X. helleri, contributing to six separate classes of adult retinal cone and rod cells with average λmax values of 365 nm, 405 nm, 459 nm, 499 nm, 534 nm and 568 nm. Comparative genomic analysis identified two candidate teleost opsin regulatory regions containing putative CRX binding sites and hormone response elements in upstream sequences of LWS gene regions of seven teleost species, including X. helleri. Conclusions We report the

  12. Ten Top Tech Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  13. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  14. Tens bij bevallingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin-Nuis, F.D.F.

    2000-01-01

    TENS (Transcutane Electrische Neuro Stimulatie) is een pijnverlichtingsmethode die berust op de Gate Control Theory van Melzack en Wall. Door middel van electrische pulsen via de huid zou de geleiding van nociceptieve signalen (pijnprikkels) worden beïnvloed en zou het lichaam endorfinen aanmaken:

  15. Powers of ten

    CERN Multimedia

    Pyramid FILMS

    1977-01-01

    Powers of Ten is a 1977 short documentary film written and directed by Charles Eames and his wife, Ray. The film depicts the relative scale of the Universe in factors of ten (see also logarithmic scale and order of magnitude). The film begins with an aerial image of a man reclining on a blanket; the view is that of one meter across. The viewpoint, accompanied by expository voiceover, then slowly zooms out to a view ten meters across ( or 101 m in standard form), revealing that the man is picnicking in a park with a female companion. The zoom-out continues, to a view of 100 meters (102 m), then 1 kilometer (103 m), and so on, increasing the perspective—the picnic is revealed to be taking place near Soldier Field on Chicago's waterfront—and continuing to zoom out to a field of view of 1024 meters, or the size of the observable universe. The camera then zooms back in to the picnic, and then to views of negative powers of ten—10-1 m (10 centimeters), and so forth, until we are viewing a carbon nucl...

  16. Sea urchin tube feet are photosensory organs that express a rhabdomeric-like opsin and PAX6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Michael P; Carleton, Karen L; Böttger, Stefanie A; Barry, Thomas M; Walker, Charles W

    2011-11-22

    All echinoderms have unique hydraulic structures called tube feet, known for their roles in light sensitivity, respiration, chemoreception and locomotion. In the green sea urchin, the most distal portion of these tube feet contain five ossicles arranged as a light collector with its concave surface facing towards the ambient light. These ossicles are perforated and lined with pigment cells that express a PAX6 protein that is universally involved in the development of eyes and sensory organs in other bilaterians. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing and real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) also demonstrate the presence and differential expression of a rhabdomeric-like opsin within these tube feet. Morphologically, nerves that could serve to transmit information to the test innervate the tube feet, and the differential expression of opsin transcripts in the tube feet is inversely, and significantly, related to the amount of light that tube feet are exposed to depending on their location on the test. The expression of these genes, the differential expression of opsin based on light exposure and the unique morphological features at the distal portion of the tube foot strongly support the hypothesis that in addition to previously identified functional roles of tube feet they are also photosensory organs that detect and respond to changes in the underwater light field.

  17. Characterization of Opsin Gene Alleles Affecting Color Vision in a Wild Population of Titi Monkeys (Callicebus brunneus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John A.; Isbell, Lynne A.; Neitz, Maureen; Bonci, Daniela; Surridge, Alison K.; Jacobs, Gerald H.; Smith, David Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The color vision of most platyrrhine primates is determined by alleles at the polymorphic X-linked locus coding for the opsin responsible for the middle- to long-wavelength (M/L) cone photopigment. Females who are heterozygous at the locus have trichromatic vision while homozygous females and all males are dichromatic. This study characterized the opsin alleles in a wild population of the socially monogamous platyrrhine monkey Callicebus brunneus (the brown titi monkey), a primate that an earlier study suggests may possess an unusual number of alleles at this locus and thus may be a subject of special interest in the study of primate color vision. Direct sequencing of regions of the M/L opsin gene using feces-, blood-, and saliva-derived DNA obtained from 14 individuals yielded evidence for the presence of three functionally distinct alleles, corresponding to the most common M/L photopigment variants inferred from a physiological study of cone spectral sensitivity in captive Callicebus. PMID:20938927

  18. Sea urchin tube feet are photosensory organs that express a rhabdomeric-like opsin and PAX6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Michael P.; Carleton, Karen L.; Böttger, Stefanie A.; Barry, Thomas M.; Walker, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    All echinoderms have unique hydraulic structures called tube feet, known for their roles in light sensitivity, respiration, chemoreception and locomotion. In the green sea urchin, the most distal portion of these tube feet contain five ossicles arranged as a light collector with its concave surface facing towards the ambient light. These ossicles are perforated and lined with pigment cells that express a PAX6 protein that is universally involved in the development of eyes and sensory organs in other bilaterians. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing and real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) also demonstrate the presence and differential expression of a rhabdomeric-like opsin within these tube feet. Morphologically, nerves that could serve to transmit information to the test innervate the tube feet, and the differential expression of opsin transcripts in the tube feet is inversely, and significantly, related to the amount of light that tube feet are exposed to depending on their location on the test. The expression of these genes, the differential expression of opsin based on light exposure and the unique morphological features at the distal portion of the tube foot strongly support the hypothesis that in addition to previously identified functional roles of tube feet they are also photosensory organs that detect and respond to changes in the underwater light field. PMID:21450733

  19. Ectopic expression of ultraviolet-rhodopsins in the blue photoreceptor cells of Drosophila: visual physiology and photochemistry of transgenic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiler, R; Bjornson, R; Kirschfeld, K; Mismer, D; Rubin, G M; Smith, D P; Socolich, M; Zuker, C S

    1992-10-01

    We have generated transgenic flies expressing R7 cell-specific opsins in the major class of photoreceptor cells of the Drosophila retina and characterized their spectral properties using high-resolution microspectrophotometry and sensitivity recordings. We show that the Rh3 and Rh4 opsin genes encode UV-sensitive opsins with similar spectral properties (lambda max = 345 nm and 375 nm), and that Rh3 corresponds to the R7p and R7marg class of visual pigments. We have also generated Rh3 and Rh4 isoform-specific antibodies and present an R7 cell map of the Drosophila retina. In a related set of experiments, we show that it is possible to coexpress two different visual pigments functionally in the same cell and produce photoreceptors that display the summed spectral response of the individual pigments. These findings open up the possibility of tuning an animal's visual behavior by targeted expression of combinations of opsin genes to selective types of photoreceptors.

  20. Mechanisms of Lipid Scrambling by the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Opsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Giulia; Razavi, Asghar M; Pandey, Kalpana; Weinstein, Harel; Menon, Anant K; Khelashvili, George

    2017-12-18

    Several class-A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins act as constitutive phospholipid scramblases catalyzing the transbilayer translocation of >10,000 phospholipids per second when reconstituted into synthetic vesicles. To address the molecular mechanism by which these proteins facilitate rapid lipid scrambling, we carried out large-scale ensemble atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the opsin GPCR. We report that, in the process of scrambling, lipid head groups traverse a dynamically revealed hydrophilic pathway in the region between transmembrane helices 6 and 7 of the protein while their hydrophobic tails remain in the bilayer environment. We present quantitative kinetic models of the translocation process based on Markov State Model analysis. As key residues on the lipid translocation pathway are conserved within the class-A GPCR family, our results illuminate unique aspects of GPCR structure and dynamics while providing a rigorous basis for the design of variants of these proteins with defined scramblase activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Informational lesions: optical perturbation of spike timing and neural synchrony via microbial opsin gene fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous neural activity occurs throughout the brain in association with normal and pathological brain functions. Despite theoretical work exploring how such neural coordination might facilitate neural computation and be corrupted in disease states, it has proven difficult to test experimentally the causal role of synchrony in such phenomena. Attempts to manipulate neural synchrony often alter other features of neural activity such as firing rate. Here we evaluate a single gene which encodes for the blue-light gated cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 and the yellow-light driven chloride pump halorhodopsin from N. pharaonis, linked by a ‘self-cleaving’ 2A peptide. This fusion enables proportional expression of both opsins, sensitizing neurons to being bi-directionally controlled with blue and yellow light, facilitating proportional optical spike insertion and deletion upon delivery of trains of precisely-timed blue and yellow light pulses. Such approaches may enable more detailed explorations of the causal role of specific features of the neural code.

  2. Mechanism of cell death and disease resistance induction by transgenic expression of bacterio-opsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Dominique; Mittler, Ron; Lam, Eric

    2002-06-01

    One of the earliest signal transduction events that trigger the hypersensitive response (HR) of plants against pathogen attack is thought to be an alteration of proton flux across the plasma membrane (PM). However, no direct genetic evidence for the involvement of PM-localised proton channels or pumps in the induction of this response has been reported. We previously showed that expression of the bacterial proton pump bacterio-opsin (bO) in transgenic plants resulted in the spontaneous activation of the HR. Here we show that the bO protein is likely localised to the PM in transgenic tobacco plants. Furthermore, mutational analysis shows that induction of the HR by bO expression is dependent upon the capability of bO to translocate protons. Although bO functions as a light-driven proton pump in Halobacteria when assembled with retinal, we also show by mutational analysis that this chromophore binding is unnecessary for its in planta activity. Taken together, our results suggest that expression of bO in plants leads to the insertion of a passive proton channel into the PM. The activity of this channel in the PM results in spontaneous activation of cell death and HR-associated phenotypes including enhanced resistance to a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Our work provides direct molecular evidence to support a working model in which alterations in ionic homeostasis at the level of the PM may work as one of the critical steps in the signalling pathway for the activation of the HR.

  3. Lentiviral expression of GAD67 and CCK promoter-driven opsins to target interneurons in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoan Ritter, Laura; Macdonald, Douglas C; Ritter, Georg; Escors, David; Chiara, Francesca; Cariboni, Anna; Schorge, Stephanie; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Collins, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the activity of interneurons with optogenetic tools offers the possibility of interfering with diseases caused by altered neuronal inhibition and synchrony, including epilepsy and schizophrenia. To develop vectors for therapeutic approaches, targeting optogenetic constructs to interneurons is therefore a key requirement. We investigated whether the interneuron-specific promoters glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)67 and cholecystokinin (CCK) allowed targeted lentiviral delivery of opsins to interneurons as a whole, or specifically CCK+ interneurons. We generated lentiviral (LV) plasmids encoding channelrhodopsin (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR) tagged with fluorophores and driven by GAD67 or CCK promoters. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) and LV vectors carrying opsins driven by pyramidal cell promoters were used as controls. We transduced neuronal cultures and rodent brain in vivo, immunostained specimens 6-8 weeks after in vivo injection and 7-14 days after in vitro transduction, and evaluated volume and specificity of expression by confocal microscopy. In vitro, 90% (19/21) of LV-CCK-NpHR2.0-EYFP expressing neurons were CCK+. In vivo, LV-GAD67-ChR2-mCherry was expressed in 2.6% (5/193), LV-GAD67-NpHR2.0-EYFP in approximately 15% (43/279) and LV-CCK-NpHR2.0-EYFP in 47% (9/19) of hippocampal GABA+ interneurons. GAD67 vectors expressed in larger volumes than CCK-driven constructs. AAV vector controls achieved the largest expression volumes. LV-CCK-NpHR2.0-EYFP may be useful for targeting CCK+ interneurons in culture. GAD67/CCK-driven lentiviral constructs are expressed in vivo, although expression is not specific for interneurons. Overall, expression levels are low compared to opsins driven by pyramidal cell promoters. A better understanding of GAD67 and CCK promoter structure or alternative techniques is required to reliably target opsins to interneurons using viral vectors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Ten Helpful Ideas for Teaching English to Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joan Kang

    2006-01-01

    This article offers ten suggestions for teaching young learners between the age of 7 and 12 based on language-teaching principles. They include supplementing activities with visuals, realia and movement; involving students in making visuals and realia; moving from activity to activity; teaching in themes; using stories and contexts familiar to…

  5. The ten thousand Kims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-07-01

    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  6. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: four long wave-sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Matthew N; Churcher, Allison M; Dick, Kevin J; Laver, Chris R J; Owens, Greg L; Polack, Megan D; Ward, Pam R; Breden, Felix; Taylor, John S

    2008-07-18

    Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  7. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Pam R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  8. The evolution of opsins and color vision: connecting genotype to a complex phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha I Bloch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dissecting the genetic basis of adaptive traits is key to our understanding of evolutionary processes. A major and essential step in the study of evolutionary genetics is drawing link between genotype and phenotype, which depends on the difficult process of defining the phenotype at different levels, from functional to organismal. Visual pigments are a key component of the visual system and their evolution could also provide important clues on the evolution of visual sensory system in response to sexual and natural selection. As a system in which genotype can be linked to phenotype, I will use visual pigments and color vision, particularly in birds, as a case of a complex phenotype. I aim to emphasize the difficulties in drawing the genotype-phenotype relationship for complex phenotypes and to highlight the challenges of doing so for color vision. The use of vision-based receiver models to quantify animal colors and patterns is increasingly important in many fields of evolutionary research, spanning studies of mate choice, predation, camouflage and sensory ecology. Given these models impact on evolution and ecology, it is important to provide other researchers with the opportunity to better understand animal vision and the corresponding advantages and limitations of these models.

  9. The role of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein on the translocation of visual retinoids and function of cone photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minghao; Li, Songhua; Nusinowitz, Steven; Lloyd, Marcia; Hu, Jane; Radu, Roxana A; Bok, Dean; Travis, Gabriel H

    2009-02-04

    The first event in light perception is absorption of a photon by the retinaldehyde chromophore of an opsin pigment in a rod or cone photoreceptor cell. This induces isomerization of the chromophore, rendering the bleached pigment insensitive to light. Restoration of light sensitivity requires chemical reisomerization of retinaldehyde via a multistep enzyme pathway, called the visual cycle, in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is present in the extracellular space between photoreceptors and the RPE. IRBP is known to bind visual retinoids. Previous studies on irbp(-/-) mice suggested that IRBP plays an insignificant role in opsin-pigment regeneration. However, the mice in these studies were uncontrolled for a severe mutation in the rpe65 gene. Rpe65 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the visual cycle. Here, we examined the phenotype in irbp(-/-) mice homozygous for the wild-type (Leu450) rpe65 gene. We show that lack of IRBP causes delayed transfer of newly synthesized chromophore from RPE to photoreceptors. Removal of bleached chromophore from photoreceptors is also delayed in irbp(-/-) retinas after light exposure. It was previously shown that rods degenerate in irbp(-/-) mice. Here, we show that cones and rods degenerate at similar rates. However, cones are more affected functionally and show greater reductions in outer segment length than rods in irbp(-/-) mice. The disproportionate reductions in cone function and outer-segment length appear to result from mistrafficking of cone opsins due to impaired delivery of retinaldehyde chromophore, which functions as a chaperone for cone opsins but not rhodopsin.

  10. Ten-dimensional Supergravity Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Roo, Mees de; Kerstan, Sven; Riccioni, Fabio; Diaz Alonso, J.; Mornas, L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that the exisiting supergravity theories in ten dimensions can be extended with extra gauge fields whose rank is equal to the spacetime dimension. These gauge fields have vanishing field strength but nevertheless play an important role in the coupling of supergravity to spacetime filling

  11. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric

    2004-09-30

    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  12. Understanding Scale: Powers of Ten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy; Minogue, James; Broadwell, Bethany; Wiebe, Eric; Carter, Glenda

    2007-01-01

    The classic film "Powers of Ten" is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students' concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and…

  13. A Ten-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  14. Ten Rules of Academic Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Creative writers are well served with 'how to' guides, but just how much do they help? And how might they be relevant to academic authors? A recent survey of writing tips by twenty-eight creative authors has been condensed to the ten most relevant to the academic, supported by some comments on

  15. Ten "Discoveries" About Basic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Raymond

    1977-01-01

    Ten conclusions about childrens' learning are presented from 15 years of research by the Educational Research Council of America. These include effectiveness of short textbooks, interest in learning technical words, need for social science curriculum to challenge, and detrimental effect of ingrained teacher attitudes to teach social studies by…

  16. Ten past and ten future GAS/MAUS-payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniek, S.; Otto, G.; Doepkess, J.

    1988-01-01

    MAUS (materials science autonomous experiments) is one out of a series of flight opportunities which the Space Program of West Germany offers to scientists from the disciplines of materials research and processing for performing materials science investigations under microgravity conditions. Up to now, ten MAUS experiments were flown which were dealing with the following scientific topics: decomposition of binary alloys with miscibility gap in the liquid state, interaction of a solidification front with dispersed particles, critical Marangoni number, investigation of the magnetic compound MnBi, shrinkage of gas bubbles in glass melts and slip casting. The ten future experiments are partly reflights with modification of the scientific objectives as well as new experiments in the fields of chemical reactions, heat transfer, glass technology and Ostwald ripening. Looking to ten flown payloads, the peculiarities of instrument technology in GAS-cans and its evolution is discussed with emphasis on structure, electronics and thermal design. A typical modern payload using 100 percent of the resource is presented.

  17. Estimating neural background input with controlled and fast perturbations: A bandwidth comparison between inhibitory opsins and neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eriksson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To test the importance of a certain cell type or brain area it is common to make a lack of function experiment in which the neuronal population of interest is inhibited. Here we review physiological and methodological constraints for making controlled perturbations using the corticothalamic circuit as an example. The brain with its many types of cells and rich interconnectivity offers many paths through which a perturbation can spread within a short time. To understand the side effects of the perturbation one should record from those paths. We find that ephaptic effects, gap-junctions, and fast chemical synapses are so fast that they can react to the perturbation during the few milliseconds it takes for an opsin to change the membrane potential. The slow chemical synapses, astrocytes, extracellular ions and vascular signals, will continue to give their physiological input for around 20 milliseconds before they also react to the perturbation. Although we show that some pathways can react within milliseconds the strength/speed reported in this review should be seen as an upper bound since we have omitted how polysynaptic signals are attenuated. Thus the number of additional recordings that has to be made to control for the perturbation side effects is expected to be fewer than proposed here. To summarize, the reviewed literature not only suggests that it is possible to make controlled lack of function experiments, but, it also suggests that such a lack of function experiment can be used to measure the context of local neural computations.

  18. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2017-09-14

    range of treatment protocols in terms of duration of care, TENS application times and intensity of application. Briefly, duration of care ranged from four days through to three months. Similarly, we found variation of TENS application times; from 15 minutes up to hourly sessions applied four times daily. We typically found intensity of TENS set to comfortable perceptible tingling with very few studies titrating the dose to maintain this perception. Of the comparisons, we had planned to explore, we were only able to undertake a quantitative synthesis for TENS versus sham TENS. Insufficient data and large diversity in the control conditions prevented us from undertaking a quantitative synthesis for the remaining comparisons.For TENS compared to sham TENS, five studies were suitable for pooled analysis. We described the remainder of the studies in narrative form. Overall, we judged 11 studies at high risk of bias, and four at unclear risk. Due to the small number of eligible studies, the high levels of risk of bias across the studies and small sample sizes, we rated the quality of the evidence as very low for the pooled analysis and very low individual GRADE rating of outcomes from single studies. For the individual studies discussed in narrative form, the methodological limitations, quality of reporting and heterogeneous nature of interventions compared did not allow for reliable overall estimates of the effect of TENS.Five studies (across various neuropathic conditions) were suitable for pooled analysis of TENS versus sham TENS investigating change in pain intensity using a visual analogue scale. We found a mean postintervention difference in effect size favouring TENS of -1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.08 to -1.09, P meaning we have very little confidence in this effect estimate and the true effect is likely to be substantially different from that reported in this review. Only one study of these five investigated health related quality of life as an outcome

  19. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  20. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  1. Ten Blue Links on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Charles L. A.; Cormack, Gordon V.; Lin, Jimmy; Roegiest, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores a simple question: How would we provide a high-quality search experience on Mars, where the fundamental physical limit is speed-of-light propagation delays on the order of tens of minutes? On Earth, users are accustomed to nearly instantaneous response times from search engines. Is it possible to overcome orders-of-magnitude longer latency to provide a tolerable user experience on Mars? In this paper, we formulate the searching from Mars problem as a tradeoff between "effo...

  2. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Claydon, Leica S; Herbison, G Peter; Jones, Gareth; Paley, Carole A

    2017-10-09

    homogeneous.There were no data for the primary outcomes participant-reported pain relief from baseline of 50% or greater and PGIC.There was a paucity of data for secondary outcomes. One pilot cross-over study of 43 participants found that the mean (95% confidence intervals (CI)) decrease in pain intensity on movement (100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS)) during one 30-minute treatment was 11.1 mm (95% CI 5.9 to 16.3) for TENS and 2.3 mm (95% CI 2.4 to 7.7) for placebo TENS. There were no significant differences between TENS and placebo for pain at rest. One parallel group study of 39 participants found that mean ± standard deviation (SD) pain intensity (100-mm VAS) decreased from 85 ± 20 mm at baseline to 43 ± 20 mm after one week of dual-site TENS; decreased from 85 ± 10 mm at baseline to 60 ± 10 mm after single-site TENS; and decreased from 82 ± 20 mm at baseline to 80 ± 20 mm after one week of placebo TENS. The authors of seven studies concluded that TENS relieved pain but the findings of single small studies are unlikely to be correct.One study found clinically important improvements in Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) subscales for work performance, fatigue, stiffness, anxiety, and depression for TENS with exercise compared with exercise alone. One study found no additional improvements in FIQ scores when TENS was added to the first three weeks of a 12-week supervised exercise programme.No serious adverse events were reported in any of the studies although there were reports of TENS causing minor discomfort in a total of 3 participants.The quality of evidence was very low. We downgraded the GRADE rating mostly due to a lack of data; therefore, we have little confidence in the effect estimates where available. There was insufficient high-quality evidence to support or refute the use of TENS for fibromyalgia. We found a small number of inadequately powered studies with incomplete reporting of methodologies and treatment interventions.

  4. Ultraviolet visual sensitivity in three avian lineages: paleognaths, parrots, and passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Huynen, Leon; Brennan, Patricia L R; Musser, Jacob; Fidler, Andrew; Chong, Nicola; Machovsky Capuska, Gabriel E; Anderson, Michael G; Talaba, Amanda; Lambert, David; Hauber, Mark E

    2012-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light-transmitted signals play a major role in avian foraging and communication, subserving functional roles in feeding, mate choice, egg recognition, and nestling discrimination. Sequencing functionally relevant regions of the short wavelength sensitive type 1 (SWS1) opsin gene that is responsible for modulating the extent of SWS1 UV sensitivity in birds allows predictions to be made about the visual system's UV sensitivity in species where direct physiological or behavioral measures would be impractical or unethical. Here, we present SWS1 segment sequence data from representative species of three avian lineages for which visually based cues for foraging and communication have been investigated to varying extents. We also present a preliminary phylogenetic analysis and ancestral character state reconstructions of key spectral tuning sites along the SWS1 opsin based on our sequence data. The results suggest ubiquitous ultraviolet SWS1 sensitivity (UVS) in both paleognaths, including extinct moa (Emeidae), and parrots, including the nocturnal and flightless kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), and in most, but not all, songbird (oscine) lineages, and confirmed violet sensitivity (VS) in two suboscine families. Passerine hosts of avian brood parasites were included both UVS and VS taxa, but sensitivity did not co-vary with egg rejection behaviors. The results should stimulate future research into the functional parallels between the roles of visual signals and the genetic basis of visual sensitivity in birds and other taxa.

  5. Optogenetics in Mice Performing a Visual Discrimination Task: Measurement and Suppression of Retinal Activation and the Resulting Behavioral Artifact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethanny Danskin

    Full Text Available Optogenetic techniques are used widely to perturb and interrogate neural circuits in behaving animals, but illumination can have additional effects, such as the activation of endogenous opsins in the retina. We found that illumination, delivered deep into the brain via an optical fiber, evoked a behavioral artifact in mice performing a visually guided discrimination task. Compared with blue (473 nm and yellow (589 nm illumination, red (640 nm illumination evoked a greater behavioral artifact and more activity in the retina, the latter measured with electrical recordings. In the mouse, the sensitivity of retinal opsins declines steeply with wavelength across the visible spectrum, but propagation of light through brain tissue increases with wavelength. Our results suggest that poor retinal sensitivity to red light was overcome by relatively robust propagation of red light through brain tissue and stronger illumination of the retina by red than by blue or yellow light. Light adaptation of the retina, via an external source of illumination, suppressed retinal activation and the behavioral artifact without otherwise impacting behavioral performance. In summary, long wavelength optogenetic stimuli are particularly prone to evoke behavioral artifacts via activation of retinal opsins in the mouse, but light adaptation of the retina can provide a simple and effective mitigation of the artifact.

  6. Ontogenetic development of S-antigen- and rod-opsin immunoreactions in retinal and pineal photoreceptors of Xenopus laevis in relation to the onset of melatonin-dependent color-change mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, B; Rollag, M D; Korf, H W

    1989-11-01

    In Xenopus laevis Daud., the ontogenetic occurrence of two photoreceptor-specific proteins, S-antigen and rod-opsin, was investigated and correlated to the maturation of the neurohormonal effector system involved in melatonin-dependent color-change mechanisms. Tadpoles ranging from stage 12 to 57 (Nieuwkoop and Faber 1956) were fixed in Zamboni's or Bouin's solution. Frozen or paraffin sections of either total heads or dissected brains and eyes were prepared and treated with highly specific antisera against S-antigen and rod-opsin. In the retina, immunoreactive S-antigen and rod-opsin were first demonstrated in a few centrally located photoreceptors at stage 37/38. Photoreceptors of the peripheral (iridical) portions of the retina gradually became immunoreactive during further development. As in the retina, the first S-antigen-immunoreactive photoreceptors in the pineal complex appeared at stage 37/38. At this and all later stages investigated rod-opsin immunoreactivity was restricted to a few dot-like structures resembling developing pineal outer and inner segments. In most animals rod-opsin immunoreactivity was completely absent from the pineal complex. The analysis of retinal proteins with the immunoblotting technique (Western blot) revealed that the S-antigen antibody bound to a 48-kDa protein and the rod-opsin antibody to a 38-kDa protein. The body lightening reaction was determined with the aid of the melanophore index in larvae fixed in light or darkness, respectively. Aggregation of melanophore melanosomes in darkness (the melatonin-dependent primary chromatic response) first occurred at stage 37/38 when melanophores started to differentiate and became pigmented. These results indicate that in Xenopus laevis (i) the molecular mechanisms of photoreception develop simultaneously in retina and pineal complex; (ii) most pineal photoreceptors differ from retinal rods in that they contain immunoreactive S-antigen but essentially no immunoreactive rod-opsin; and

  7. Dephosphorylation during bleach and regeneration of visual pigment in carp rod and cone membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Hiromi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru

    2015-10-02

    On absorption of light by vertebrate visual pigment, the chromophore, 11-cis retinal, is isomerized to all-trans retinal to activate the phototransduction cascade, which leads to a hyperpolarizing light response. Activated pigment is inactivated by phosphorylation on the protein moiety, opsin. Isomerized all-trans retinal is ultimately released from opsin, and the pigment is regenerated by binding to 11-cis retinal. In this pigment regeneration cycle, the phosphates incorporated should be removed in order that the pigment regains the capability of activating the phototransduction cascade. However, it is not clear yet how pigment dephosphorylation takes place in the regeneration cycle. First in this study, we tried to estimate the dephosphorylation activity in living carp rods and cones and found that the activity, which is present mainly in the cytoplasm in both rods and cones, is three times higher in cones than in rods. Second, we examined at which stage the dephosphorylation takes place; before or after the release of all-trans retinal, during pigment regeneration, or after pigment regeneration. For this purpose we prepared three types of phosphorylated substrates in purified carp rod and cone membranes: phosphorylated bleaching intermediate, phosphorylated opsin, and phosphorylated and regenerated pigment. We also examined the effect of pigment regeneration on the dephosphorylation. The results showed that the dephosphorylation does not show substrate preference in the regeneration cycle and suggested that the dephosphorylation takes place constantly. The results also suggest that, under bright light, some of the regenerated visual pigment remains phosphorylated to reduce the light sensitivity in cones. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  9. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  10. Assessing the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in post-thoracotomy analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabiana Cristina; Issy, Adriana Machado; Sakata, Rioko Kimiko

    2011-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used to treat musculoskeletal pain, but it may also be indicated for postoperative analgesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of TENS on post-thoracotomy. Thirty patients between 18 and 60 years of age undergoing thoracotomy for lung cancer resection on the second postoperative day were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups (G1 and G2). G1 patients were treated with TENS; and in G2 (without TENS) electrodes were placed but the equipment was not turned on. TENS was maintained for one hour. The visual analogue scale was used to evaluate the analgesic effects on three moments: before TENS (M0), immediately after TENS (M1), and one hour later (M2), with the patient at rest, elevation of the upper limbs, change in decubitus, and coughing. The intensity of pain at rest was higher in G2 immediately after TENS, but not one hour after the procedure. There was no difference between both groups with elevation of the upper limbs, decubitus change, and coughing. With the use of TENS for one hour on the second post-thoracotomy day in patients who received fentanyl (50 μg) associated with bupivacaine (5 mL), a reduction in pain intensity was observed at rest immediately after TENS; with elevation of the upper limbs, change in decubitus, and coughing, a reduction in pain severity was not observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. [Contact dermatitis from polyacrylate in TENS electrode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Muller, F; Reichert-Penetrat, S; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2004-05-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is useful for many chronic pains. It induces few serious side effects, but skin reactions are not rare. We report on two cases of contact dermatitis due to TENS electrodes by sensitization to the acrylate in TENS conductive gel. A 50 year-old man suffered from post-traumatic lumbar pair. He developed eczematous lesions on the sites where the TENS electrodes were applied. Patch tests were positive with the TENS gel, with ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) and ethyl-acrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) on day 2 and 4 readings. A 54 Year-old man had a paralysis of the foot elevator following rupture of an aneurysm. After 2 months, he had an eczema on the sites where the TENS electrodes were applied. Patch tests were negative with the TENS electrodes but positive with 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (0.1 p. 100 petrolatum), triethyleneglycol diacrylate (0.1 p. 100 petrolatum), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) on day 2 and 4 readings. TENS transmits small electrical currents through the skin that induce the depolarization of the affected sensory nerve endings. They have few serious side effects but skin reactions such as irritation, burns or allergy to propylene glycol in the electrode gel, to the rubber of the electrodes (mercaptobenzothiazole) or to the metallic part of the electrodes, i.e. nickel, are not uncommon. To our knowledge, only one case of an allergy to the polyacrylates of TENS electrode gel has been previously reported in the literature. We emphasize that acrylate could be the main sensitizer in the more recently commercialized TENS electrodes and will propose alternative ways of treating patients sensitized to acrylate and who require treatment with TENS.

  12. Clinical experience with TENS and TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen. Report of 371 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Quarnstrom, F. C.; Milgrom, P.

    1989-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alone or TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2O) was administered for restorative dentistry without local anesthesia to 371 adult patients. A total of 55% of TENS alone and 84% of TENS/N2O visits were rated successful. A total of 53% of TENS alone and 82% of TENS/N2O patients reported slight or no pain. In multivariable analyses, pain reports were related to the anesthesia technique and patient fear and unrelated to sex, race, age, toot...

  13. Mathematics and Liberature: Fajfer’s Ten Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszyk Łukasz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses liberature in the context of its mathematical qualities. In this trend which inextricably connects the textual and physical layer of the work, each element in the book is expected to be created according to a certain formula which should bring a holistic piece of literature. After 1999, a great number of mathematically-oriented works have appeared which are strictly liberary. In the presentation, I base on the theoretical idea behind liberature when discussing Zenon Fajfer’s liberary work Ten Letters (Pol. Dwadzieścia jeden liter. This innovative piece is analysed mainly from the point of view of geometry and play with numbers, which is visible already in the title: the ten-letter phrase “ten letters.” Mathematical qualities are indicated on various layers of the piece: the physical, the textual, and the visual, but especially in its form. The game of numbers is found not only where it is obviously visible and essential to understand the message, but also in places which might not have been intended. Liberature is analysed as literature but at the same time, it is shown not to be literature, and in this respect, to be mathematical at the core.

  14. Six to Ten Digits Multiplication Fun Learning Using Puppet Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamiah Rosli, D.'oria; Ali, Azita; Peng, Lim Soo; Sujardi, Imam; Usodo, Budi; Adie Perdana, Fengky

    2017-01-01

    Logic and technical subjects require students to understand basic knowledge in mathematic. For instance, addition, minus, division and multiplication operations need to be mastered by students due to mathematic complexity as the learning mathematic grows higher. Weak foundation in mathematic also contribute to high failure rate in mathematic subjects in schools. In fact, students in primary schools are struggling to learn mathematic because they need to memorize formulas, multiplication or division operations. To date, this study will develop a puppet prototyping for learning mathematic for six to ten digits multiplication. Ten participants involved in the process of developing the prototype in this study. Students involved in the study were those from the intermediate class students whilst teachers were selected based on their vast knowledge and experiences and have more than five years of experience in teaching mathematic. Close participatory analysis will be used in the prototyping process as to fulfil the requirements of the students and teachers whom will use the puppet in learning six to ten digit multiplication in mathematic. Findings showed that, the students had a great time and fun learning experience in learning multiplication and they able to understand the concept of multiplication using puppet. Colour and materials of the puppet also help to attract student attention during learning. Additionally, students able to visualized and able to calculate accurate multiplication value and the puppet help them to recall in multiplying and adding the digits accordingly.

  15. Ten new species of Afrotropical Pterophoridae (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Ten new Afrotropical species of Pterophoridae are described: Agdistis linnaei spec. nov., Agdistis bouyeri spec. nov., Ochyrotica bjoernstadti spec. nov., Platyptilia aarviki spec. nov., Stenoptilia kiitulo spec. nov., Exelastis caroli spec. nov., Eucapperia continentalis spec. nov., Buckleria

  16. Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the Subterranean Blind Mole Rat, Spalax Ehrenbergi: Immunohistochemical Characterization, Distribution, and Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esquiva, Gema; Avivi, Aaron; Hannibal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    in the GCL with projections forming two dendritic plexuses located in the inner part of the IPL and in the OPL. Few melanopsin dendrites were also found in the ONL. The Spalax retina is rich in rhodopsin and long/middle wave (L/M) cone opsin bearing photoreceptor cells. By using Ctbp2 as a marker for ribbon......, and provides evidence for both melanopsin and non-melanopsin projecting pathways to the brain....

  17. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  18. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  19. Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quililongo C. J., Ríos-Ramírez M. A., Velásquez-Cumplido L., Morales-Muñoz B. and Escobar-Fica J. A. 2012 Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites isolated from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus. J. Genet.

  20. Ten-year urban forestry action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    The Ten-year Urban Forestry Action Plan: 2016-2026 was published in September, 2015 (see http://www.urbanforestry.subr.edu/FinalActionPlan_Complete_11_17_15.pdf). This 260 page heavily illustrated document was prepared by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (NUCFAC) under leadership and funding from the USDA Forest Service. The Plan's...

  1. UTILITY OF THE TEN PER CENT RULE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-11-01

    Nov 1, 2001 ... Objective: To measure asymmetry in grip strength between hands in left, right and mixed handers and to test utility of the ten per cent rule. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. Subjects: One hundred and seventy six healthy volunteers (102 males and ...

  2. Strahlungsfelder und Strahlungsqualitäten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Hanno

    Das Kapitel beginnt mit einer Darstellung der wichtigsten Größen zur Beschreibung von Strahlungsfeldern. Diese Größen können sowohl auf die Teilchenzahl als auch auf die Teilchenenergie bezogen sein. Im zweiten Teil werden ausführlich die Verfahren zur Charakterisierung der Strahlungsqualitäten der verschiedenen in der Radiologie verwendeten Strahlungsarten dargestellt.

  3. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software.

  4. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Debra H.; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    EDUCAUSE presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the higher education institution, as revealed by the ninth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. This year, "Security" moves back to the top of the list. (Contains 20 notes.)

  5. CRUDE PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS OF SEEDS OF TEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A A Essiett

    Seeds of mature fruits of ten species of Solanum were collected from the gardens near the screen house, Botany. Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Crude seed proteins were extracted from them and characterised using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inter and intra specific ...

  6. (CdnTen) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    solar cells, integrated optics and electro-optics devices. Hence, there are different experimental and theoretical studies on this group using various techniques or methods. A number of theoretical and experimental attempts (Jianguang, 2009) have been made to determine the structure and properties of small CdnTen and ...

  7. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  8. Cartographic visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraak, M.J.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The cartographic visualization process, based on the statement “How do I say what to whom, and is it effective?” is explained for both presenting and exploring spatiotemporal data. The visualization environment and required functionality are described

  9. Visual Scripting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, John

    Visual scripting is the coordination of words with pictures in sequence. This book presents the methods and viewpoints on visual scripting of fourteen film makers, from nine countries, who are involved in animated cinema; it contains concise examples of how a storybook and preproduction script can be prepared in visual terms; and it includes a…

  10. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  11. Visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, R; Masjuan, J

    2016-03-01

    Visual agnosia is defined as an impairment of object recognition, in the absence of visual acuity or cognitive dysfunction that would explain this impairment. This condition is caused by lesions in the visual association cortex, sparing primary visual cortex. There are 2 main pathways that process visual information: the ventral stream, tasked with object recognition, and the dorsal stream, in charge of locating objects in space. Visual agnosia can therefore be divided into 2 major groups depending on which of the two streams is damaged. The aim of this article is to conduct a narrative review of the various visual agnosia syndromes, including recent developments in a number of these syndromes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. Synchronous ten trigger finger: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trigger finger is a disorder that presents with a blocking feeling and pain during finger movements. This condition more commonly occurs in the 2nd finger with involvement of multiple digits being extremely rare. There are very few known cases in which trigger finger was developed in all ten fingers. Here, an unusual case of ten-digit finger trigger is presented. A 44-year-old female housewife visited our clinic with painful blocking feeling in her hand. Her examination was compatible with trigger finger. Her hands were operated on in different sessions and A1 pulleys of all fingers were released. After the operations, blocking feeling and pain during flexion disappeared and normal range of motion was obtained. On the occasion of this very rare case, the etiology and approach for multiple trigger fingers is discussed. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 84-87

  13. Compartmentalized expression of zebrafish ten-m3 and ten-m4, homologues of the Drosophila ten(m)/odd Oz gene, in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieda, M; Kikuchi, Y; Hirate, Y; Aoki, M; Okamoto, H

    1999-09-01

    Zebrafish ten-m3 and ten-m4 encode proteins highly similar to the product of Drosophila pair-rule gene ten(m)/odd Oz (odz). Their products contain eight epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats that resemble mostly those of the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin. During segmentation period, ten-m3 is expressed in the somites, notochord, pharyngeal arches, and the brain, while expression of ten-m4 is mainly restricted to the brain. In the developing brain, ten-m3 and ten-m4 expression delineates several compartments. Interestingly, ten-m3 and ten-m4 show expression patterns complementary to each other in the developing forebrain and midbrain along both rostrocaudal and dorsoventral axes, depending on developmental stages and locations.

  14. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for th...

  15. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants' ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as 'encouragement' for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, 'playfulness' for amusement, joy, interest, and 'harmony' for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions.

  16. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants’ ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as ‘encouragement’ for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, ‘playfulness’ for amusement, joy, interest, and ‘harmony’ for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions. PMID:28184194

  17. Treatment of Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS:A Preliminary Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unilateral or bilateral testicular pain lasting more than 3 months is called as chronic orchialgia. Aproximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopatic origin. This study aimed the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS therapy due to Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia (ICO. Methods: Five patients were included into this study with ICO that diagnosed with physical examination, urine analyses, urinary system x-ray film, and scrotal doppler ultrasound. Medical history revealed that multiple conservative therapy attempts failed to alleviate the pain. Two of the patients had right sided ICO. Traditional TENS device is placed to the most painful points. TENS applied 3 times in a week with duration 30 minutes for 4 weeks. Before and after TENS application, patients were evaluated by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS at first and third months. Results: Median age of patients was 26.20±2.38 (22-30. Mean VAS value was 6.52 ± 0.89 before the procedure. After 1 month VAS value was 3.82 ± 0.83 (p0.05. None of the patients needed any analgesics after during the one month. No complications, hyperemia or hypoesthesia of the scrotal or penile skin, occurred after the procedure. Conclusion: TENS reduces pain by increasing endorphin release in the spinal cord dorsal horn. TENS is very effective method for first 1 month in patients with ICO but its effect reduces by the time. There is no standard therapeutic protocol for idiopathic chronic orchialgia. Therefore TENS may be an alternative for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy and do not want invasive procedures. Short-term use of TENS and low number of the patients are the limitations of this study. Randomized, placebo-controlled, and longer follow-up period studies are needed to better assess the efficacy of TENS for ICO.

  18. Visual Sedimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We introduce Visual Sedimentation, a novel design metaphor for visualizing data streams directly inspired by the physical process of sedimentation. Visualizing data streams (e. g., Tweets, RSS, Emails) is challenging as incoming data arrive at unpredictable rates and have to remain readable. For data streams, clearly expressing chronological order while avoiding clutter, and keeping aging data visible, are important. The metaphor is drawn from the real-world sedimentat...

  19. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  20. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain control after vaginal delivery and cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayman-Kose, Seda; Arioz, Dagistan Tolga; Toktas, Hasan; Koken, Gulengul; Kanat-Pektas, Mine; Kose, Mesut; Yilmazer, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to determine the efficiency and reliability of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the management of pain related with uterine contractions after vaginal delivery and the pain related with both abdominal incision uterine contractions after cesarean section. A hundred healthy women who underwent cesarean section under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to the placebo group (Group 1) or the TENS group (Group 2), while 100 women who delivered by vaginal route without episiotomy were randomized into the placebo group (Group 3) or the TENS group (Group 4). The patients in Group 2 had statistically lower visual analog scale (VAS) and verbal numerical scale (VNS) scores than the patients in Group 1 (p TENS (p = 0.006). The need for analgesics at the eighth hour of vaginal delivery was statistically similar in the patients who were treated with TENS and the patients who received placebo (p = 0.830). TENS is an effective, reliable, practical and easily available modality of treatment for postpartum pain.

  1. Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    simplifies the theory by allowing for an ultra-local Hamiltonian (free energy), but also explains the observed general independence of chemistry. Whereas there are no long-ranged static (i.e., equal-time) correlations in the model, there are important long-ranged dynamic correlations on the alpha timescale.......Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields...

  2. Water Sustainability Assessment for Ten Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-26

    the severity of this scarcity varies by scenario. It seems that natural condi- tions play a bigger part in water availability for the region than does...question lies with: (1) a picture of how short-term water scarcity might play out across the region, which is outside of the scope of this study, and...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 11 -5 Water Sustainability Assessment for Ten Army Installations Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es

  3. Ten Guidelines for Translating Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.

  4. Supersymmetric R4-actions in ten dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    de Roo, M.; Suelmann, H.; Wiedemann, A.

    1992-01-01

    We construct supersymmetric R+R4-actions in ten dimensions. Two invariants, of which the bosonic parts are known from string amplitude and sigma model calculations, are obtained. One of these invariants can be generalized to an R+F2+F4-invariant for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity. Supersymmetry requires the presence of B ^ R ^ R ^ R ^ R-terms, (B ^ F ^ F ^ F ^ F for Yang-Mills) which correspond to counterterms in the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation.

  5. Ten essential skills for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Dorr, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Engineers know that, as in any other discipline, getting a good job requires practical, up-to-date skills. An engineering degree provides a broad set of fundamentals. Ten Essential Skills applies those fundamentals to practical tasks required by employers. Written in a user-friendly, no-nonsense format, the book reviews practical skills using the latest tools and techniques, and features a companion website with interview practice problems and advanced material for readers wishing to pursue additional skills. With this book, aspiring and current engineers may approach job interviews confident

  6. The Top Ten Algorithms in Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong

    2009-01-01

    From classification and clustering to statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, this book covers the most important topics in data mining research. It presents the ten most influential algorithms used in the data mining community today. Each chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithm, a discussion of available software implementation, advanced topics, and exercises. With a simple data set, examples illustrate how each algorithm works and highlight the overall performance of each algorithm in a real-world application. Featuring contributions from leading researc

  7. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) for labour pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.

  8. Applications of visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Bruce C; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Batey, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Working Group F “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) was formed over 30 years ago within the International Soil & Tillage Research Organisation (ISTRO) on the initiative of Tom Batey. The objectives of the Working Group are to stimulate interest in field methods of visual-tactile soil......., 2006). Ten visual and tactile methods were used to assess soil structure on the same soil. This stimulated significant ongoing cooperation between participants and several authors have since modified and developed their procedures (Mueller et al., 2009 and Shepherd, 2009). Cooperation also led...... to the re-development of the Peerlkamp numeric method of assessment of soil structure into the Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) spade test (Ball et al., 2007 and Guimarães et al., 2011). The meeting also recommended further cooperation between members of the Working Group. The evaluation...

  9. Growth and Landscape Performance of Ten Herbaceous Species in Response to Saline Water Irrigation1

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S.; Aguiniga, Lizzie

    2007-01-01

    Ten herbaceous perennials and groundcovers were grown in raised beds from June to September in a dry, hot desert environment and micro-spray drip irrigated with synthesized saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 0.8 (tap water), 3.2, or 5.4 dS/m. Plant height and two perpendicular widths were recorded monthly to calculate the growth index. Landscape performance was assessed monthly by visual scores. Salinity did not affect the visual scores in Achillea millefolium L., Gaillardia arist...

  10. Visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Bijl, P.

    2003-01-01

    Visual search, with or without the aid of optical or electro-optical instruments, plays a significant role in various types of military and civilian operations (e.g., reconnaissance, surveillance, and search and rescue). Advance knowledge of human visual search and target acquisition performance is

  11. Assessment of hypoallergenicity of ten skincare products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Staci; Lio, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a common skin complaint frequently associated with skin diseases or adverse reactions to cosmetic products. Manufacturers have produced numerous products targeted for patients with sensitive skin and frequently label these products as being hypoallergenic. This term implies that the product may be less likely to cause an allergic reaction and be better suited for those with sensitive skin. However, there is no federal regulatory definition of this term and products may not have clinical support of their claim. Patch testing ingredients is frequently done to identify potential irritants; however, patch-testing product formulations may provide more realistic expectations about potential skin sensitivity and help support claims of hypoallergenicity. Ten skincare products were assessed for their sensitizing potential and hypoallergenicity in 14 repeat insult patch test clinical studies, involving over 2,000 subjects. In these studies, the products were deemed to be hypoallergenic if there was no evidence of sensitization or allergic reactions. The results from these trials demonstrated that all ten products were well tolerated, showed no sensitization or allergic reactions, and support claims of hypoallergenicity.

  12. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Booth, Andrew; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Tony; Enderby, Pam; Roots, Alison

    2013-05-10

    Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate.

  13. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  14. Long-term exposure to bisphenol S damages the visual system and reduces the tracking capability of male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenmin; Zhang, Xiaona; Wei, Penghao; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2018-02-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is widely detected in aquatic environments and in human bodies. BPS has reproductive and thyroid disrupting effects, but its effect on the visual system remains unknown. In the present study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to BPS at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg l-1 until 120 days post-fertilization in a semistatic system, and the effect of BPS on the visual behavior was examined using the optokinetic response and the optomotor response tests in male zebrafish. The retinal histology, mRNA expression of photoreceptor opsin genes (zfrho, zfblue, zfgr1, zfred and zfuv) and apoptosis-related genes (bax and bcl-2) were also assessed. Long-term BPS exposure decreased the tracking capability of male zebrafish, consistent with structural damage to the retina. BPS induced different amounts of vacuoles in the retinal pigment epithelium, and 1000 μg l-1 BPS exposure decreased the length of the inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer and retina, and induced an irregular arrangement of photoreceptor cells. The expression levels of the opsin genes (zfred, zfgr1 and zfrho) were significantly elevated, indicating an enhanced spectral sensitivity to red, green and dim light to compensate for the reduction of the optomotor response. Together, the results showed for the first time that long-term exposure to BPS damaged the structure of male zebrafish retina and reduced their tracking capability. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ten-a affects the fusion of central complex primordia in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebo Cheng

    Full Text Available The central complex of Drosophila melanogaster plays important functions in various behaviors, such as visual and olfactory memory, visual orientation, sleep, and movement control. However little is known about the genes regulating the development of the central complex. Here we report that a mutant gene affecting central complex morphology, cbd (central brain defect, was mapped to ten-a, a type II trans-membrane protein coding gene. Down-regulation of ten-a in pan-neural cells contributed to abnormal morphology of central complex. Over-expression of ten-a by C767-Gal4 was able to partially restore the abnormal central complex morphology in the cbd mutant. Tracking the development of FB primordia revealed that C767-Gal4 labeled interhemispheric junction that separated fan-shaped body precursors at larval stage withdrew to allow the fusion of the precursors. While the C767-Gal4 labeled structure did not withdraw properly and detached from FB primordia, the two fan-shaped body precursors failed to fuse in the cbd mutant. We propose that the withdrawal of C767-Gal4 labeled structure is related to the formation of the fan-shaped body. Our result revealed the function of ten-a in central brain development, and possible cellular mechanism underlying Drosophila fan-shaped body formation.

  16. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diæten - et andet perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Frank Juul

    2014-01-01

    Temaet for den seneste udgave af vores studenterblad ”Næringsstoffet” er ”Et andet perspektiv”. Ifølge redaktionens oplæg kunne det eksempelvis dreje sig om »artikler om nye kropsidealer, at sundhed ikke kun handler om, hvad man propper i munden, forskellige perspektiver på de nye kostråd, altern......, alternative kostformer (5:2 kuren) osv.«. Det gav mig anledning til et indlæg, hvor jeg har forsøgt at strejfe flere punkter fra listen med et andet perspektiv på diæten. I bloggen gengives det indlæg i en lettere tilrettet version....

  18. Electroanaesthesia--from torpedo fish to TENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J; Dingley, J

    2015-01-01

    In 153 AD, the Roman physician Scribonius Largus identified that electric current had analgesic properties, instructing patients to stand on an electric ray for the treatment of gout. In 2014, transcranial magnetic stimulation was approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for the treatment of migraine. Although separated by nearly two millennia, these milestones represent the evolution of the utilisation of electric current in medical and anaesthetic practice. Significant advances have been made over the last century in particular, and during the 1960s and 1970s, tens of thousands of patients were reportedly anaesthetised for surgical interventions using electric current as the anaesthetic agent. Many medical interventions, including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation, have evolved in the aftermath of investigations into electroanaesthesia; the potential for electric current to be an anaesthetic agent of the future still exists. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Visual cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving...

  20. How parrots see their colours: novelty in the visual pigments of Platycercus elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Ben; Davies, Wayne I L; Carvalho, Livia S; Berg, Mathew L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Bowmaker, James K; Bennett, Andrew T D; Hunt, David M

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific differences in retinal physiology have been demonstrated in several vertebrate taxa and are often subject to adaptive evolution. Nonetheless, such differences are currently unknown in birds, despite variations in habitat, behaviour and visual stimuli that might influence spectral sensitivity. The parrot Platycercus elegans is a species complex with extreme plumage colour differences between (and sometimes within) subspecies, making it an ideal candidate for intraspecific differences in spectral sensitivity. Here, the visual pigments of P. elegans were fully characterised through molecular sequencing of five visual opsin genes and measurement of their absorbance spectra using microspectrophotometry. Three of the genes, LWS, SW1 and SWS2, encode for proteins similar to those found in other birds; however, both the RH1 and RH2 pigments had polypeptides with carboxyl termini of different lengths and unusual properties that are unknown previously for any vertebrate visual pigment. Specifically, multiple RH2 transcripts and protein variants (short, medium and long) were identified for the first time that are generated by alternative splicing of downstream coding and non-coding exons. Our work provides the first complete characterisation of the visual pigments of a parrot, perhaps the most colourful order of birds, and moreover suggests more variability in avian eyes than hitherto considered.

  1. Visual Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamassian, Pascal

    2016-10-14

    Visual confidence refers to an observer's ability to judge the accuracy of her perceptual decisions. Even though confidence judgments have been recorded since the early days of psychophysics, only recently have they been recognized as essential for a deeper understanding of visual perception. The reluctance to study visual confidence may have come in part from obtaining convincing experimental evidence in favor of metacognitive abilities rather than just perceptual sensitivity. Some effort has thus been dedicated to offer different experimental paradigms to study visual confidence in humans and nonhuman animals. To understand the origins of confidence judgments, investigators have developed two competing frameworks. The approach based on signal decision theory is popular but fails to account for response times. In contrast, the approach based on accumulation of evidence models naturally includes the dynamics of perceptual decisions. These models can explain a range of results, including the apparently paradoxical dissociation between performance and confidence that is sometimes observed.

  2. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Successful dexamethasone pulse therapy in a toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) patient featuring recurrent TEN to oxazepam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J B; Schuttelaar, M L; Toth, G G; Kardaun, S H; Beerthuizen, G; de Jong, M C; Jonkman, M F; Nieuwenhuis, P

    2001-01-01

    A 62-year-old female patient is described who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) after medication with phenytoin and oxazepam. Initially phenytoin was discontinued and dexamethasone pulse therapy (1.5 mg/kg on 3 consecutive days) was initiated on the tenth day of skin disease. This resulted

  4. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  5. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  6. Romania: Ten Years of EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By joining the European Union as of 1st of January 2007, Romania made use of a window of opportunity which may not have been open later. In the ten years that followed, advantages and challenges of the membership have in part been overshadowed by the impact of the global financial crisis. The country went through a boom-bust-boom economic cycle. The swing from overheating to depression and back again to overheating has been amplified by pro-cyclical economic policy. Romania has been a selective policy taker in the EU often delaying fiscal and legal actions resulting in lost benefits. By reviewing the current political uncertainties in Europe, the conclusion emerges that more effective governance and more active foreign policy is necessary under the current Europe-wide orientation loss. The country may need to develop a mobilising strategy and policy beyond the direct benefits provided by the EU, one that also contributes to the success of the European integration.

  7. Questioning ten common assumptions about peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    University of Leeds Peat Club:

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands have been widely studied in terms of their ecohydrology, carbon dynamics, ecosystem services and palaeoenvironmental archives. However, several assumptions are frequently made about peatlands in the academic literature, practitioner reports and the popular media which are either ambiguous or in some cases incorrect. Here we discuss the following ten common assumptions about peatlands: 1. the northern peatland carbon store will shrink under a warming climate; 2. peatlands are fragile ecosystems; 3. wet peatlands have greater rates of net carbon accumulation; 4. different rules apply to tropical peatlands; 5. peat is a single soil type; 6. peatlands behave like sponges; 7. Sphagnum is the main ‘ecosystem engineer’ in peatlands; 8. a single core provides a representative palaeo-archive from a peatland; 9. water-table reconstructions from peatlands provide direct records of past climate change; and 10. restoration of peatlands results in the re-establishment of their carbon sink function. In each case we consider the evidence supporting the assumption and, where appropriate, identify its shortcomings or ways in which it may be misleading.

  8. Ten tips for authors of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-08-01

    Writing a good quality scientific article takes experience and skill. I propose 'Ten Tips' that may help to improve the quality of manuscripts for scholarly journals. It is advisable to draft first version of manuscript and revise it repeatedly for consistency and accuracy of the writing. During the drafting and revising the following tips can be considered: 1) focus on design to have proper content, conclusion, points compliant with scope of the target journal, appropriate authors and contributors list, and relevant references from widely visible sources; 2) format the manuscript in accordance with instructions to authors of the target journal; 3) ensure consistency and logical flow of ideas and scientific facts; 4) provide scientific confidence; 5) make your story interesting for your readers; 6) write up short, simple and attractive sentences; 7) bear in mind that properly composed and reflective titles increase chances of attracting more readers; 8) do not forget that well-structured and readable abstracts improve citability of your publications; 9) when revising adhere to the rule of 'First and Last' - open your text with topic paragraph and close it with resolution paragraph; 10) use connecting words linking sentences within a paragraph by repeating relevant keywords.

  9. Choledochal cysts: our ten year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cianci, F

    2012-04-01

    We present our experience in the management of choledochal cysts from 1999 to 2009. A retrospective review of all charts with a diagnosis of choledochal cysts in our institution in this ten-year period. Data was collated using Excel. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cyst: 9 females and 8 males. The average age at diagnosis was 28 months (range from 0 to 9 years). The most common presenting symptoms were obstructive jaundice 6 (35%) and abdominal pain and vomiting 4 (23%). Ultrasound (US) was the initial diagnostic test in all cases with 4 patients requiring further investigations. All patients underwent Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy. The average length of stay was 11 days. Patients were followed up with Liver Function Tests (LFTS) and US 4-6 weeks post-operatively. Three patients developed complications including post-op collection, high drain output requiring blood transfusion and adhesive bowel obstruction. Our overall experience with choledochal cyst patients has been a positive one with effective management and low complication rates.

  10. The first ten years of Swift supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter A.

    2015-09-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has proven to be an incredible platform for studying the multiwavelength properties of supernova explosions. In its first ten years, Swift has observed over three hundred supernovae. The ultraviolet observations reveal a complex diversity of behavior across supernova types and classes. Even amongst the standard candle type Ia supernovae, ultraviolet observations reveal distinct groups. When the UVOT data is combined with higher redshift optical data, the relative populations of these groups appear to change with redshift. Among core-collapse supernovae, Swift discovered the shock breakout of two supernovae and the Swift data show a diversity in the cooling phase of the shock breakout of supernovae discovered from the ground and promptly followed up with Swift. Swift observations have resulted in an incredible dataset of UV and X-ray data for comparison with high-redshift supernova observations and theoretical models. Swift's supernova program has the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of stellar life and death as well as the history of our universe.

  11. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.

  12. Ten years for the public Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago, CERN issued a statement declaring that a little known piece of software called the World Wide Web was in the public domain. Nowadays, the Web is an indispensable part of modern communications. The idea for the Web goes back to March 1989 when CERN Computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal for a 'Distributed Information Management System' for the high-energy physics community. The Web was originaly conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between scientists working all over the world. There were many obstacles in the 1980s to the effective exchange of information. There was, for example a great variety of computer and network systems, with hardly any common features. The main purpose of the web was to allow scientists to access information from any source in a consistent and simple way. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee's idea had become the World Wide Web, with its first server and browser running at CERN. Through 1991, the Web spread to other particle physics ...

  13. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  14. Visual stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, David

    2011-02-27

    Our vision remains stable even though the movements of our eyes, head and bodies create a motion pattern on the retina. One of the most important, yet basic, feats of the visual system is to correctly determine whether this retinal motion is owing to real movement in the world or rather our own self-movement. This problem has occupied many great thinkers, such as Descartes and Helmholtz, at least since the time of Alhazen. This theme issue brings together leading researchers from animal neurophysiology, clinical neurology, psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience to summarize the state of the art in the study of visual stability. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the limits of visual stability in humans and in identifying many of the brain circuits involved in maintaining a stable percept of the world. Clinical studies and new experimental methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, now make it possible to test the causal role of different brain regions in creating visual stability and also allow us to measure the consequences when the mechanisms of visual stability break down.

  15. Role of nanocrystalline silver dressings in the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and TEN/Stevens-Johnson syndrome overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Saxon D; Dodds, Annabel; Dixit, Shreya; Cooper, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are severe mucocutaneous eruptions. There is currently no defined optimal approach to wound care. The objective of this study was to evaluate silver dressings in the wound-care management of TEN and SJS/TEN syndrome overlap with a retrospective case review of nine patients with TEN and SJS/TEN overlap presenting to our institution. Nanocrystalline silver dressings appear to be useful in the rapid commencement of healing in these patients. TEN and SJS/TEN overlap are rare conditions. This contributed to a relatively small number of cases included in the study. The ease of application, antimicrobial properties and low frequency of change make nanocrystalline silver dressings ideal in TEN/SJS. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  16. Visual Analytics for MOOC Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huamin; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs), tens of millions of learners can now enroll in more than 1,000 courses via MOOC platforms such as Coursera and edX. As a result, a huge amount of data has been collected. Compared with traditional education records, the data from MOOCs has much finer granularity and also contains new pieces of information. It is the first time in history that such comprehensive data related to learning behavior has become available for analysis. What roles can visual analytics play in this MOOC movement? The authors survey the current practice and argue that MOOCs provide an opportunity for visualization researchers and that visual analytics systems for MOOCs can benefit a range of end users such as course instructors, education researchers, students, university administrators, and MOOC providers.

  17. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2010-09-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  18. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2012-02-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  19. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  20. The TEN-T core network and the Fehmarnbelt region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    This note is a snapshot picture, taken in early 2014, that places the Green STRING corridor project within the context of the TEN-T strategy and gives a summarized overview on the impact of this strategy in the region. Chapter 1 contains a summary of the TEN-T strategy today, chapter 2 presents...... the sources used for this note, chapter 3 presents all the relevant EU regulations with direct impact on the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 4 gives practical examples of the challenges for the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 5 pre-sents the national initiatives related to the TEN-T corridor...

  1. The effect of phosphorylation on arrestin-rhodopsin interaction in the squid visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly A; Ou, Wei-Lin; Guan, Xinyu; Sugamori, Kim S; Bandyopadhyay, Abhishek; Ernst, Oliver P; Mitchell, Jane

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate visual opsins are G protein-coupled receptors coupled to retinoid chromophores that isomerize reversibly between inactive rhodopsin and active metarhodopsin upon absorption of photons of light. The squid visual system has an arrestin protein that binds to metarhodopsin to block signaling to Gq and activation of phospholipase C. Squid rhodopsin kinase (SQRK) can phosphorylate both metarhodopsin and arrestin, a dual role that is unique among the G protein-coupled receptor kinases. The sites and role of arrestin phosphorylation by SQRK were investigated here using recombinant proteins. Arrestin was phosphorylated on serine 392 and serine 397 in the C-terminus. Unphosphorylated arrestin bound to metarhodopsin and phosphorylated metarhodopsin with similar high affinities (Kd 33 and 21 nM respectively), while phosphorylation of arrestin reduced the affinity 3- to 5-fold (Kd 104 nM). Phosphorylation of metarhodopsin slightly increased the dissociation of arrestin observed during a 1 hour incubation. Together these studies suggest a unique role for SQRK in phosphorylating both receptor and arrestin and inhibiting the binding of these two proteins in the squid visual system. Invertebrate visual systems are inactivated by arrestin binding to metarhodopsin that does not require receptor phosphorylation. Here we show that squid rhodopsin kinase phosphorylates arrestin on two serines (S392,S397) in the C-terminus and phosphorylation decreases the affinity of arrestin for squid metarhodopsin. Metarhodopsin phosphorylation has very little effect on arrestin binding but does increase arrestin dissociation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Ten Simple Rules for Drawing Scientific Comics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Jason E.; Partridge, Matthew; Bromberg, Yana

    2018-01-04

    Institutions around the world are fighting to improve science communication all the time. From calls for journal papers to be simplified to encouraging scientists to take more of an active role through community engagement, there is an impetus to demystify and improve public understanding and engagement with science [1-3]. Technology has greatly helped expand the range of learning styles that a lecturer can call on to reach people in new ways. Social media outlets like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Tumblr have expanded the reach of science communication within and across scientific disciplines and to the lay public [1, 3]. With all the videos, interactive quizzes, and instant feedback it can be easy to overlook one of the simplest methods for communicating complex ideas: comics. There are few scientists that haven’t heard of Randall Munroe, the artist behind the web comic xkcd (https://xkcd.com), which features amazing graphic explanations on everything from climate change (https://xkcd.com/1732/) to data storage (https://xkcd.com/1360/). These comics are so effective that they are posted on walls in laboratories and pubs alike. The ideas that they explain are complicated big ideas but by simplifying them down to the core messages and by providing simple visual analogies the comics educate people that other media can not always reach.

  3. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti

    2013-01-01

    techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  4. Visualizing inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-07-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.

  5. Tenåringsdrikking i utviklingspsykologisk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Pape

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGHvorfor er alkohol så populært blant unge mennesker? Dette viktige spørsmålet har vært gjenstand for fåempiriske studier. Forskningsbasert kunnskap om alkoholens positive sider og forsterkende egenskaper erderfor av begrenset omfang. Derimot har tallrike undersøkelser fokusert på ulike skadevirkninger som følgeav tenåringsdrikking. Resultatene av denne forskningen har bidratt til å understreke behovet for en aktivrusforebyggende innsats. Innsikt i alkoholens opplevde goder er imidlertid nødvendig for å kunne utvikleeffektive forebyggingsstrategier. På denne bakgrunn er søkelyset i artikkelen rettet mot psykososiale funksjonerved unge menneskers drikkevaner. Spørsmål knyttet til gruppepress og modell-læring vil også bli berørt.Hensikten er å formidle sentrale funn fra nyere forskning på feltet. Oppsummeringsvis tyder resultatene på atalkohol har en særlig appell til ungdom som er veltilpassede og sosialt anlagte. Samtidig ser det ut til atdrikking kan bidra til å fremme utviklingsprosessen i ungdomstida, men at det primært handler om indirekteeffekter. Hvilke implikasjoner de ulike funnene har mht. forebygging, er skissert i avslutningsdelen.Pape H. Teenage alcohol use from the perspective of psychological development.Nor J EpidemiolEWhy is alcohol so popular among young people? So far, few studies have addressed this important question.The body of scientific research on the positive and reinforcing aspects of drinking is accordingly of limitedextent. Numerous studies have focused on the harmful effects of teenage alcohol use and the findings clearlyunderscore the importance of primary prevention. Knowledge about the perceived advantages of alcohol useis needed to develop effective preventive programs, however. On this background, the article focuses onpsychosocial functions of youthful drinking. Findings from recent research regarding the link between alcoholuse and various indicators of adolescent

  6. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  7. The Forgotten Tribe in ODL Systems: Challenges Faced by Visually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to evaluate the challenges faced by visually impaired students in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Institutions of Higher Learning. This was a case study of the Zimbabwe Open University. Twenty purposefully selected lecturers in the Faculty of Applied Social Sciences and ten blind and visually impaired ...

  8. Ten- and Twelve-Month-Olds' Visual Anticipation of Orientation and Size during Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schum, Nina; Jovanovic, Bianca; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The anticipation of two object dimensions during grasping was investigated in 10- and 12-month-olds. We presented objects varying in both orientation and size and analyzed infants' anticipatory hand configurations. We found in Experiment 1 that nearly all of the 12-month-olds (94%), but less than half of the 10-month-olds (40%), anticipated both…

  9. Remaining visual field and preserved subjective visual functioning prevent mental distress in patients with visual field defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin eGall

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with visual field defects after visual pathway lesion may experience reduced vision-related quality of life (vrQoL. It has not been clarified how vrQoL impairments contribute to vision-related mental distress.Methods: 108 subjects with visual field defects caused by optic neuropathies (age M=57.6; SD=13.7 years answered the National Eye Institute Visual-Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ for vrQoL and the SF-12 Short Form Health Survey for health-related quality of life (hrQoL. A ten item composite of NEI-VFQ visual functioning and five items of mental health symptoms due to vision problems were subjected to Rasch analysis. The test battery comprised static and High Resolution Perimetry (HRP. Regression and path analysis were used to investigate associations between QoL, mental distress and perimetry results.Results: A higher level of visual functioning was associated with monocular impairment and a larger remaining visual field compared to binocular impairment. Subjective visual functioning but not visual field parameters predicted mental health symptoms due to vision problems which was the only variable associated with the SF-12 mental component score. The SF-12 physical component score was less strongly associated with mental health symptoms due to vision problems. Here, reaction time in HRP and mean threshold in perimetry were additional significant variables. Path analysis revealed a significant path of remaining visual field via visual functioning on mental health. Conclusions: Subjective consequences of visual impairments in everyday life impact mental health rather than objective visual function loss as measured by perimetry. Since a higher extent of vrQoL was related to lower levels of mental distress, the maintenance of vrQoL could reduce and prevent mental distress due to vision problems. Patients with persisting visual field defects may benefit from neuropsychological rehabilitation and supportive therapies.

  10. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-12-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.

  11. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore, this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart...... is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms, but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...

  12. Visualizing Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Reality Capture Technologies, Inc. is a spinoff company from Ames Research Center. Offering e-business solutions for optimizing management, design and production processes, RCT uses visual collaboration environments (VCEs) such as those used to prepare the Mars Pathfinder mission.The product, 4-D Reality Framework, allows multiple users from different locations to manage and share data. The insurance industry is one targeted commercial application for this technology.

  13. The origin of the future ten questions for the next ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2006-01-01

    How did the universe begin? Where do galaxies come from? How do stars and planets form? Where do the material particles we are made of come from? How did life begin? Today we have only provisional answers to such questions. But scientific progress will improve these answers dramatically over the next ten years, predicts John Gribbin in this riveting book. He focuses on what we know—or think we know—about ten controversial, unanswered issues in the physical sciences and explains how current cutting-edge research may yield solutions in the very near future. With his trademark facility for engaging readers with or without a scientific background, the author explores ideas concerning the creation of the universe, the possibility of other forms of life, and the fate of the expanding cosmos. He examines “theories of everything,” including grand unified theories and string theory, and he discusses the Big Bang theory, the origin of structure and patterns of matter in the galaxies, and dark mass and dark ene...

  14. Visualizing thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Depictive expressions of thought predate written language by thousands of years. They have evolved in communities through a kind of informal user testing that has refined them. Analyzing common visual communications reveals consistencies that illuminate how people think as well as guide design; the process can be brought into the laboratory and accelerated. Like language, visual communications abstract and schematize; unlike language, they use properties of the page (e.g., proximity and place: center, horizontal/up-down, vertical/left-right) and the marks on it (e.g., dots, lines, arrows, boxes, blobs, likenesses, symbols) to convey meanings. The visual expressions of these meanings (e.g., individual, category, order, relation, correspondence, continuum, hierarchy) have analogs in language, gesture, and especially in the patterns that are created when people design the world around them, arranging things into piles and rows and hierarchies and arrays, spatial-abstraction-action interconnections termed spractions. The designed world is a diagram. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Evolution and Mechanism of Spectral Tuning of Blue-Absorbing Visual Pigments in Butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Terakita, Akihisa; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Shichida, Yoshinori; Arikawa, Kentaro; Warrant, Eric James

    2010-01-01

    The eyes of flower-visiting butterflies are often spectrally highly complex with multiple opsin genes generated by gene duplication, providing an interesting system for a comparative study of color vision. The Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae, has duplicated blue opsins, PrB and PrV, which are

  16. Increasing intensity of TENS prevents analgesic tolerance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Karina L.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Rakel, Barbara A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces hyperalgesia and pain. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) TENS, delivered at the same intensity (90% motor threshold (MT)) daily, result in analgesic tolerance with repeated use by the 5th day of treatment. Thecurrentstudytestedif 1) increasingintensityby 10% per daypreventsthedevelopmentoftolerance to repeated TENS, and 2) iflowerintensity TENS (50 % MT) produces an equivalentreduction in hyperalgesia when compared to 90% MT TENS. Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral knee joint inflammation (3% carrageenan) were separated according to the intensity of TENS used: Sham, 50% LF, 50% HF, 90% LF, 90% HF, and increased intensity by 10% per day (LF and HF). The reduced mechanical withdrawal threshold following the induction of inflammation was reversed by application of TENS applied at 90% MT and increasing intensity for the first 4 days. On the 5th day, the groups that received 90% MT intensity showed tolerance. Nevertheless, the group that received an increased intensity on each day still showed a reversal of the mechanical withdrawal threshold with TENS. These results show that the development of tolerance can be delayed by increasing intensity of TENS. PMID:22858165

  17. The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in a major cancer center for the treatment of severe cancer-related pain and associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jeffrey; Gulati, Amitabh

    2015-06-01

    Cancer pain is difficult to treat, often requiring a multimodal approach. While medication management remains the mainstay for the treatment of cancer pain, medications are often associated with undesired side effects. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) provides a potential adjunctive method for treating cancer pain with minimal side effects. Few studies have been performed evaluating the efficacy of TENS on cancer pain. We sought to examine the usefulness of TENS on all cancer patients and to specifically look at the use of TENS as a goal-directed therapy to improve functionality. Retrospective cohort study. Since 2008, patients with chronic cancer pain and on multimodal pain regimens were trialed with TENS. Those patients who showed an improvement in pain symptoms or severity were educated about and provided with a TENS unit for use at home. Pain symptoms and scores were monitored with the visual analog scale (VAS), the numerical rating pain (NRP) scale, and Short-Form McGill Questionnaire at the start of TENS treatment and at 2 months follow-up. TENS proved beneficial in 69.7% of patients over the course of 2 months. In TENS responsive patients, VAS scores decreased by 9.8 on a 0-100 mm scale (P TENS provides a beneficial adjunct for the treatment of cancer pain, especially when utilized as a goal-directed therapy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evolution under pressure and the adaptation of visual pigment compressibility in deep-sea environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Megan L; Roberts, Nicholas W; Partridge, Julian C

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the link between how proteins function in animals that live in extreme environments and selection on specific properties of amino acids has proved extremely challenging. Here we present the discovery of how the compressibility of opsin proteins in two evolutionarily distinct animal groups, teleosts and cephalopods, appears to be adapted to the high-pressure environment of the deep-sea. We report how in both groups, opsins in deeper living species are calculated to be less compressible. This is largely due to a common set of amino acid sites (bovRH# 159, 196, 213, 275) undergoing positive destabilizing selection in six of the twelve amino acid physiochemical properties that determine protein compressibility. This suggests a common evolutionary mechanism to reduce the adiabatic compressibility of opsin proteins. Intriguingly, the sites under selection are on the proteins' outer faces at locations known to be involved in opsin-opsin dimer interactions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Visual cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    ... is unified in our mind even if not in the image. The construction of these entities is the task of visual cognition and, in almost all cases, each construct is a choice among an infinity of possibilities, chosen based on likelihood, bias, or a whim, but chosen by rejecting other valid competitors. The entities are not limited to static surfaces or structures but also include dynamic structures that only emerge over time – from dots that appear to be walking like a human or a moon orbiting a planet, to the...

  20. Screening Of Ten Indian Medicinal Plants For Their Antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening Of Ten Indian Medicinal Plants For Their Antibacterial Activity Against Shigella sSpecies And Escherichia coli. J Thomas, B Veda. Abstract. Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of ten Indian medicinal plants were tested for their antibacterial properties against Shigella sonei, S. boydi, S. flexeneri, S. dysenteriae and ...

  1. Travels in Tartary : Decoding Ten Export Winter Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese export paintings collection of the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden includes ten winter views in Tartary painted on canvas. That these ten paintings have never before been studied as a group has inspired the present author to conduct research into their origins, the findings of

  2. Benchmark Dose Software Development and Maintenance Ten Berge Cxt Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is intended to provide an overview of beta version 1.0 of the implementation of a concentration-time (CxT) model originally programmed and provided by Wil ten Berge (referred to hereafter as the ten Berge model). The recoding and development described here represent ...

  3. Ten Things Every Professor Should Know about Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kenneth; Dunlap, Joanna; Stevens, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes ten key assessment practices for advancing student learning that all professors should be familiar with and strategically incorporate in their classrooms and programs. Each practice or concept is explained with examples and guidance for putting it into practice. The ten are: learning outcomes, performance assessments,…

  4. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE-STIMULATION (TENS) IN RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, P; DOMPELING, EC; VANSLOCHTERENVANDERBOOR, JC; KUIPERS, WD; SMIT, AJ

    Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been described as resulting in vasodilatation. The effect of 2 Hz TENS of the right hand during forty-five minutes on skin temperature and plethysmography of the third digit of both hands and feet and on transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcpO2) of the right

  5. Epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis in Ethiopia: A ten-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A time-series study design was applied to analyze the ten-year trends of Tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Data on ten-key indicators for the period of 2000-2009 was obtained from the Ministry of Health public documents. Five stratifying variables were used to analyze the trends in the key TB indicators. The data on the indicators ...

  6. Using TENS for pain control: the state of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Carol GT; Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention that activates a complex neuronal network to reduce pain by activating descending inhibitory systems in the central nervous system to reduce hyperalgesia. The evidence for TENS efficacy is conflicting and requires not only description but also critique. Population-specific systemic reviews and meta-analyses are emerging, indicating both HF and LF TENS being shown to provide analgesia, specifically when applied at a strong, nonpainful intensity. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the latest basic science and clinical evidence for TENS. Additional research is necessary to determine if TENS has effects specific to mechanical stimuli and/or beyond reduction of pain and will improve activity levels, function and quality of life. PMID:24953072

  7. Effect of burst TENS and conventional TENS combined with cryotherapy on pressure pain threshold: randomised, controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, L B; Josué, A M; Maia, P H B; Câmara, A E; Brasileiro, J S

    2015-06-01

    To assess the immediate effect of conventional and burst transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in combination with cryotherapy on pain threshold and tolerance in healthy individuals. Randomised, controlled trial. University laboratory. One hundred and twelve healthy women. Volunteers were allocated at random to seven groups (n=16): (1) control, (2) placebo TENS, (3) conventional TENS, (4) burst TENS, (5) cryotherapy, (6) cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS, and (7) cryotherapy in combination with conventional TENS. Pain threshold and tolerance were measured by applying a pressure algometer at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, before and after each intervention. The primary outcome measure was pressure pain threshold. A significant increase in pain threshold and tolerance at the 5% level of significance was recorded as follows: burst TENS {pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 1.2]; pain tolerance: mean difference 3.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 3.7)}, cryotherapy [pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.2); pain tolerance: mean difference 1.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.0)] and cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS [pain threshold: mean difference 2.6 (95% CI 2.4 to 2.8); pain tolerance: mean difference 4.9 (95% CI 5.0 to 4.8)]. Cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS provided greater analgesia compared with the other groups (Pcryotherapy in combination with burst TENS to reduce induced pain, and suggest a potentiating effect when these techniques are combined. No such association was found between cryotherapy and conventional TENS. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How information visualization novices construct visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Lars; Tory, Melanie; Storey, Margaret-Anne

    2010-01-01

    It remains challenging for information visualization novices to rapidly construct visualizations during exploratory data analysis. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which information visualization novices explored fictitious sales data by communicating visualization specifications to a human mediator, who rapidly constructed the visualizations using commercial visualization software. We found that three activities were central to the iterative visualization construction process: data attribute selection, visual template selection, and visual mapping specification. The major barriers faced by the participants were translating questions into data attributes, designing visual mappings, and interpreting the visualizations. Partial specification was common, and the participants used simple heuristics and preferred visualizations they were already familiar with, such as bar, line and pie charts. We derived abstract models from our observations that describe barriers in the data exploration process and uncovered how information visualization novices think about visualization specifications. Our findings support the need for tools that suggest potential visualizations and support iterative refinement, that provide explanations and help with learning, and that are tightly integrated into tool support for the overall visual analytics process.

  9. From crypsis to mimicry: changes in colour and the configuration of the visual system during ontogenetic habitat transitions in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Fabio; Musilová, Zuzana; Stieb, Sara M; Hart, Nathan S; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Cheney, Karen L; Salzburger, Walter; Marshall, N Justin

    2016-08-15

    Animals often change their habitat throughout ontogeny; yet, the triggers for habitat transitions and how these correlate with developmental changes - e.g. physiological, morphological and behavioural - remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated how ontogenetic changes in body coloration and of the visual system relate to habitat transitions in a coral reef fish. Adult dusky dottybacks, Pseudochromis fuscus, are aggressive mimics that change colour to imitate various fishes in their surroundings; however, little is known about the early life stages of this fish. Using a developmental time series in combination with the examination of wild-caught specimens, we revealed that dottybacks change colour twice during development: (i) nearly translucent cryptic pelagic larvae change to a grey camouflage coloration when settling on coral reefs; and (ii) juveniles change to mimic yellow- or brown-coloured fishes when reaching a size capable of consuming juvenile fish prey. Moreover, microspectrophotometric (MSP) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments show developmental changes of the dottyback visual system, including the use of a novel adult-specific visual gene (RH2 opsin). This gene is likely to be co-expressed with other visual pigments to form broad spectral sensitivities that cover the medium-wavelength part of the visible spectrum. Surprisingly, the visual modifications precede changes in habitat and colour, possibly because dottybacks need to first acquire the appropriate visual performance before transitioning into novel life stages. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Effectiveness of complementary pain treatment for women with deep endometriosis through Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Ticiana A A; Giraldo, Paulo C; Yela, Daniela A; Benetti-Pinto, Cristina L

    2015-11-01

    Evaluate TENS effectiveness as a complementary treatment of chronic pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia in women with deep endometriosis. This randomized controlled trial was performed in a tertiary health care center, including twenty-two women with deep endometriosis undergoing hormone therapy with persistent pelvic pain and/or deep dyspareunia. This study was registered in the Brazilian Record of Clinical Trials (ReBEC), under n RBR-3rndh6. TENS application for 8 weeks followed a randomized allocation into two groups: Group 1 - acupuncture-like TENS (Frequency: 8Hz, pulse duration: 250μs) - VIF (n=11) and Group 2 - self-applied TENS (Frequency: 85Hz, pulse duration: 75μs) (n=11). The intensity applied was "strong, but comfortable". We evaluated patients before and after treatment by the use of the Visual Analogue Scale, Deep Dyspareunia Scale and Endometriosis Quality of Life Questionnaire. We used the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests to compare before and after treatment conditions. Despite the use of hormone therapy for 1.65±2.08 years, the 22 women with deep endometriosis sustained pelvic pain complaints (VAS=5.95±2.13 and 2.45±2.42, pTENS. Both application types of TENS were effective for improving the evaluated types of pain. Both resources (acupuncture-like TENS and self-applied TENS) demonstrated effectiveness as a complementary treatment of pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia, improving quality of life in women with deep endometriosis regardless of the device used for treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual analytics in scalable visualization environments

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, So

    2011-01-01

    Visual analytics is an interdisciplinary field that facilitates the analysis of the large volume of data through interactive visual interface. This dissertation focuses on the development of visual analytics techniques in scalable visualization environments. These scalable visualization environments offer a high-resolution, integrated virtual space, as well as a wide-open physical space that affords collaborative user interaction. At the same time, the sheer scale of these environments poses ...

  12. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  13. The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to aid perceptual embodiment of prosthetic limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, M R; Fawkner, H J; Radford, H; Johnson, M I

    2009-02-01

    Integration of prosthetic limb awareness into body schema is likely to aid manual control of the prosthesis. Physiotherapists and prosthetists use techniques to generate mechanical, visual and/or auditory feedback related to stimulation of the stump and proximal residual limb to improve prosthetic limb awareness. Electrical stimulation of afferent nerves using implanted electrodes can generate sensations of touch, joint movement, and position, in the missing, phantom limbs of amputees. We report here a novel hypothesis that non-invasive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) could be used to facilitate the process of perceptual embodiment of a prosthesis into the body schema of amputees. Using a modified version of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), we have found that TENS paraesthesiae can be made to feel like it is emanating from a prosthetic hand in healthy participants with intact limbs. In addition, participants reported perceptual embodiment of the prosthetic hand into their body schema, i.e. it felt as if it is part of their body. We predict that projecting TENS paraesthesiae into the prosthetic limb(s) of amputees will provide sufficient sensory input to facilitate perceptual embodiment. This could prove to be a simple and inexpensive training aid to improve ambulation and prosthesis success.

  14. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...... reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles...... of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...

  15. Litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics of ten selected tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Litter decomposition processes in tropical rainforests are still poorly understood. Leaf litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics of ten contrasting tree species, Entandraphragma utile, Guibourtia tessmannii, Klainedoxa gabonensis, Musanga cecropioides, Panda oleosa, Plagiostyles africana, Pterocarpus soyauxii, ...

  16. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  17. Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Ten Thousand Islands NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Ten Thousand Islands NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory...

  19. Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Specht, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Koper, R., & Specht, M. (2008). Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning. In M-A. Cicilia (Ed.), Competencies in Organizational e-learning: concepts and tools (pp. 234-252). Hershey: IGI-Global.

  20. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1961-01-01

    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  1. Webometric Analysis of Top Ten Asian and Indian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal, Samir Kumar; Sutradhar, B; Mukhopadhyay, Parthasarathi

    2016-01-01

    The paper tries to assess all the existing ranking systems which are used to rank higher educational institutions. The aim of the paper is to provide sufficient background to design and develop a new ranking system for a country. An attempt has been taken to find out the reasons of low ranking of Indian universities with respect to the world university ranking through webometric analysis of top ten Indian and Asian universities. A comparative study of top Ten Indian Universities and Asian uni...

  2. How repeatable are the physiological effects of TENS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Alvarez-Sauco, Maria; Koch, Giacomo; Franca, Michele; Marquez, Gonzalo; Sanchez, Jose A; Acero, Rafael M; Rothwell, John C

    2008-08-01

    Several studies suggest that transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) can have a variety of effects on the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we tried to replicate the physiological effects of TENS and to explore its effects on intracortical circuits. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and spinal reflex testing to examine excitability of intracortical and spinal cord circuits before and after a 30-min period of TENS over the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle. We measured the amplitude of TMS-evoked muscle responses (MEP), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical antagonist inhibition (CAI) in flexor and extensor carpial radialis (FCR, ECR) muscles as well as spinal reciprocal inhibition (RI) and presynaptic inhibition (PI) from ECR to FCR. TENS had no significant effect on any of these measures apart from a reduction in median nerve induced facilitation of FCR when testing CAI. When compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the effects of TENS are highly variable and unreliable, likely by the difficulty in defining precise parameters of stimulation in individual subjects. Care should be taken in assuming that effects after TENS observed in small populations of subjects will apply equally to a wider population.

  3. Visualizing Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes two classroom activities that help students visualize the abstract concept of entropy and apply the second law of thermodynamics to real situations. (i) A sealed "rainbow tube" contains six smaller vessels, each filled with a different brightly colored solution (low entropy). When the tube is inverted, the solutions mix together and react to form an amorphous precipitate (high entropy). The change from low entropy to high entropy is irreversible as long as the tube remains sealed. (ii) When U.S. currency is withdrawn from circulation, intact bills (low entropy) are shredded into small fragments (high entropy). Shredding is quick and easy; the reverse process is clearly nonspontaneous. It is theoretically possible, but it is time-consuming and energy-intensive, to reassemble one bill from a pile that contains fragments of hundreds of bills. We calculate the probability P of drawing pieces of only one specific bill from a mixture containing one pound of bills, each shredded into n fragments. This result can be related to Boltzmann's entropy formula S?=klnW.

  4. Introduction to the special issue on visual aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual aesthetics encompasses the studies of the relationship between vision and various aesthetic phenomena - from the beauty ratings of simple visual patterns to the appreciation of visual art, from the preference for natural objects and scenes to the preference for products of human creativity, from the aesthetic effects of culture to the aesthetic effects of biology, from the universal aesthetic sensitivity to the individual differences in taste, and so on. In this special issue ten papers reported the most recent studies on very different subjects related to visual aesthetics.

  5. Lake and sea populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida with different visual-pigment absorbance spectra use the same A1 chromophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Belikov

    Full Text Available Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (λmax recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 20-30 nm red-shifted in "lake" compared with "sea" populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal → 3,4-didehydroretinal is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in λmax (554 nm vs. 529 nm. Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2 in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1 and goldfish (A2 retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species.

  6. Lake and Sea Populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida) with Different Visual-Pigment Absorbance Spectra Use the Same A1 Chromophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Nikolai; Yakovleva, Marina; Feldman, Tatiana; Demina, Olga; Khodonov, Andrei; Lindström, Magnus; Donner, Kristian; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps) inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (λmax) recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 20–30 nm red-shifted in “lake” compared with “sea” populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal → 3,4-didehydroretinal) is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in λmax (554 nm vs. 529 nm). Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2) in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1) and goldfish (A2) retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species. PMID:24516590

  7. Visual Survey of Apache Aviators (VISAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    injury/disease and visual disorders. Ten pilots report- ed treatment for eye disease or eye injury, but only one (with toxoplasmosis ) within the past 6...optical society of America, 41:94-97. Coren S., and Kaplan C. P. 1973. Patterns of ocular dominance. American iournal of optometry and archives of the...Instrument myopia. Journal of the optical society of America, 65:1114-1120. Kim, H. 1982. Personal communication. Morgan, M. W. 1944a. The clinical

  8. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  9. The visual divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Alfons

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is a playground for visualization. Yet research and technological innovations in visual communication and data visualization do not account for a substantial part of the world's population: vulnerable audiences with low levels of literacy.

  10. Growth and Landscape Performance of Ten Herbaceous Species in Response to Saline Water Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S; Aguiniga, Lizzie

    2007-01-01

    Ten herbaceous perennials and groundcovers were grown in raised beds from June to September in a dry, hot desert environment and micro-spray drip irrigated with synthesized saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 0.8 (tap water), 3.2, or 5.4 dS/m. Plant height and two perpendicular widths were recorded monthly to calculate the growth index. Landscape performance was assessed monthly by visual scores. Salinity did not affect the visual scores in Achillea millefolium L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Lantana x hybrida 'New Gold', Lonicera japonica Thunb. 'Halliana', and Rosmarinus officinalis L. 'Huntington Carpet' throughout the experiment. Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 'Homestead Purple' performed better than Glandularia x hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) G. L. Nesom & Pruski. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Brig. had lower visual scores at 5.4 dS/m compared to the control and 3.2 dS/m. Most plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. did not survive when irrigated at 3.2 dS/m or 5.4 dS/m. Shoot biomass of A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, R. officinalis, and V. macdougalii was not influenced by the salinity of irrigation water. Therefore, A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, and R. officinalis can be irrigated with non-potable water at salinity up to 5.4 dS/m with little reduction in growth and aesthetic appearance.

  11. Positively charged retinoids are potent and selective inhibitors of the trans-cis isomerization in the retinoid (visual) cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczak, Marcin; Kuksa, Vladimir; Maeda, Tadao; Moise, Alexander R; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2005-06-07

    In vertebrate retinal photoreceptors, photoisomerization of opsin-bound visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal triggers phototransduction events. Regeneration of the chromophore is a critical step in restoring photoreceptors to their dark-adapted state. This regeneration process, called the retinoid cycle, takes place in the photoreceptor outer segments and in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). We have suggested that the regeneration of the chromophore might occur through a retinyl carbocation intermediate. Here, we provide evidence that isomerization is inhibited by positively charged retinoids, which could act as transition state analogs of the isomerization process. We demonstrate that retinylamine (Ret-NH2) potently and selectively inhibits the isomerization step of the retinoid cycle in vitro and in vivo. Ret-NH2 binds a protein(s) in the RPE microsomes, but it does not bind RPE65, a protein implicated in the isomerization reaction. Although Ret-NH2 inhibits the regeneration of visual chromophore in rods and, in turn, severely attenuates rod responses, it has a much smaller effect on cone function in mice. Ret-NH2 interacts only at micromolar concentrations with retinoic acid receptor, does not activate retinoid-X receptor, and is not a substrate for CYP26s, the retinoic acid-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes. Ret-NH2 can be a significant investigational tool to study the mechanism of regeneration of visual chromophore.

  12. Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Daly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.

  13. Delaktighet i avstämningsmöten

    OpenAIRE

    Pia H. Bülow; Wilinska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Den här rapporten handlar om de lagstadgade möten som kallas avstämningsmöten. Det är Försäkringskassan som kallar olika aktörer till dessa flerpartssamtal, för att utreda arbetsförmågan hos en sjukskriven person (här: försäkrad), och eventuella behov av rehabilitering för att denne ska kunna återgå till arbete. Syftet med det här redovisade forskningsprojektet var att studera den kommunikativa processen i sådana möten avseende främst de försäkrades delaktighet och upplevelse av mötet. Studie...

  14. Time in powers of ten natural phenomena and their timescales

    CERN Document Server

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    In this richly illustrated book, Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft and Theoretical Physicist Stefan Vandoren describe the enormous diversity of natural phenomena that take place at different time scales. In the tradition of the bestseller Powers of Ten , the authors zoom in and out in time, each step with a factor of ten. Starting from one second, time scales are enlarged until processes are reached that take much longer than the age of the universe. After the largest possible eternities, the reader is treated to the shortest and fastest phenomena known. Then the authors increase with powers of t

  15. Visual field constriction caused by colored contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insler, M S; Hendricks, C; George, D M

    1988-12-01

    Goldmann visual field testing was performed on ten patients while they were wearing the recently released DuraSoft 3 colored soft contact lenses. All patients but one had visual field constriction ranging from 5 degrees to 20 degrees. When the areas inside the three tested isopters were averaged, the amount of field loss ranged from 21% to 47%. Contact lens fitters as well as wearers should be warned of this potential complication.

  16. Closer to zero: Reflections on ten years of ART rollout

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To reflect upon ten years of antiretroviral therapy. (ART) rollout, one really should set the clock back a little further to see the massive impact of ART on our lives – for clinicians and patients alike. My own journey with HIV began in 1999 when, as a young doctor, I decided to venture into private practice with a local general ...

  17. WISE Albedos for Tens of Thousands of Main Belt Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; Delbo, M.; Grav, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Mueller, M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; WISE Science Team, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    Using thermal IR data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission we have calculated diameters for tens of thousands of previously known Main Belt asteroids. Using archival optical observations we have also determined albedos for each object. We present our results from this

  18. Ten Indicators of Vitality in Smaller Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a means of quickly ascertaining the relative health of smaller academic libraries by presenting a top ten list of vitality indicators. The list is based on an observational convenience sampling of thirty smaller academic libraries across the United States. The indicators making the list were those which appeared most often in…

  19. A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-31

    Jul 31, 2010 ... Original Research: A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy in India. 267. Vol 53 No 3. S Afr Fam Pract 2011. Introduction. The body contains approximately 600 lymph nodes, but only those in the submandibular, axillary and inguinal regions may be palpable in healthy people.

  20. DIE APOSTOLAAT VAN DIE KERK IN HIERDIE TYD TEN OPSIGTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Hierdie verkondiging het net een doel en net een inhoud. Die doel ... is die vlees- geworde Woord, Christus. Die apostalaat is nie een funksie van die kerk tussen ander nie. Die kerk is apostel in alles wat hy is en doen. Die doel van die. 239 ... skawing, nie vir uitbreiding van politieke magssfere nie, ens. Selfs ten koste van ...

  1. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day...

  2. A Design Taxonomy Utilizing Ten Major Evaluation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Barry

    This paper discusses ten evaluation strategies selected on the basis of their general acceptance and their relatively unique approach to the field: (1) State, "Countenance of Evaluation"; (2) Stufflebeam, "Decision Centered Evaluation (CIPP)"; (3) Provus, "Discrepancy Evaluation"; (4) Scriven, "Goal Free Evaluation"; (5) Scriven, "Formative and…

  3. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  4. Effects of TENS and methylphenidate in tuberculous meningo-encephalistis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Deursen, S.; Manen, S.R.; Ferenschild, K.C.M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Primary objective: Beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition and behaviour were observed in a child with probable Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Based on these positive findings, it was examined in the present case study whether a child who had been

  5. Ten Strengths of How Teachers Do Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaocbs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning involves students in working together with peers to learn, to develop learning skills and to enjoy the learning process. This paper examines ten areas in which the author believes he and other teachers do cooperative learning well. These areas are: (1) keeping group size small, usually four or fewer; (2) encouraging students…

  6. Ten statistics commandments that almost never should be broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Thomas R; Brown, Jean K

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative researchers must choose among a variety of statistical methods when analyzing their data. In this article, the authors identify ten common errors in how statistical techniques are used and reported in clinical research and recommend stronger alternatives. Useful references to the methodological research literature in which such matters are discussed are provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mid-term evaluation of ten National Research schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Göran; Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Gustafsson, Christina

    grant applications, monitoring the progress of the FORSKERSKOLER scheme and serving as the evaluation panel for the mid-term evaluation in 2013 and in 2016/2017. The task of the evaluation panel has been to: 1) evaluate the quality of and progress achieved by the ten research schools which were awarded...

  8. Ten years into the marshes – Hapalemur alaotrensis conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the approach that Madagascar Wildlife Conservation has been implementing during the past ten years at Lake Alaotra, discussing the plan of action and challenges for environmental education, ecotourism and alternative livelihoods. Les problèmes de gestion des ressources naturelles impliquent ...

  9. Changes in users' Web search performance after ten years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in users' Web search performance using search engines over ten years was investigated in this study. Matched data obtained from samples in 2000 and 2010 were used for the comparative analysis. The patterns of Web search engine use suggested a dominance in using a particular search engine. Statistical ...

  10. A Survey of Ten Money and Banking Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Christine E.

    1985-01-01

    Ten college-level money and banking textbooks were arrayed along six continua representing professors' major preferences when choosing a text. The continua topics are theoretical approach, complexity of presentation, theory/institution mix, nuts and bolts explanations, organizational approach, and writing style. (RM)

  11. Phytochemical and Anticancer Studies on Ten Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten medicinal plants used in Nigerian ethno medicine were subjected to phytochemical and anticancer studies using established standard procedures. The result of the study revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Anona muricata, Andrographis paniculata ...

  12. Does the Russian Economy Need Human Capital? Ten Doubts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpelson, V. E.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human capital is an important factor in economic growth, but its impact on growth depends on the demand for education and skills on the labor market. Demand for human capital is largely determined by the institutional environment that governs the basic conditions for economic activity. The author expresses ten doubts…

  13. Ten Challenges of the Amyloid Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    The inability to effectively halt or cure Alzheimer's disease (AD), exacerbated by the recent failures of high-profile clinical trials, emphasizes the urgent need to understand the complex biochemistry of this major neurodegenerative disease. In this paper, ten central, current challenges...

  14. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    to extend the applicability of the RHC system are providing the continuous impetus for research on RHC systems. This paper summarizes the important issues involved in the research on RHC system, whereby ten questions and answers concerning the RHC system are discussed, which will help researchers to conduct...

  15. Molecular characterization of ten mango cultivars using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEAN

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... Molecular characterization of ten mango cultivars using simple sequences repeat (SSR) markers. M. Kumar1*, V. Ponnuswami1, P. Nagarajan2, P. Jeyakumar3 and N. Senthil2. 1Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam, Tamil Nadu, 625604, India. 2Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, ...

  16. Ten Years after Columbine: The Tragedy of Youth Deepens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    For young people it just gets worse. Ten years after the Columbine tragedy, the debate over school safety has clearly shown that educators, parents, politicians, and the mainstream media have created the conditions in which young people have increasingly become the victims of adult mistreatment, indifference, neglect, even violence. The tragic…

  17. Pain relief by applying transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) during unsedated colonoscopy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer-Cuenca, J J; Goicoechea, C; Girona-López, A; Andreu-Plaza, J L; Palao-Román, R; Martínez-Santa, G; Lisón, J F

    2011-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive alternative to traditional pain treatments. TENS has been studied in the past as a pain reduction modality in colonoscopy with limited success. Reviews and meta-analysis have shown that the inconclusive results of TENS may be due to the lack of randomized controlled trials and the difficulty in defining precise output parameters. The objective of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the pain-relieving effect of a new application of TENS in unsedated screening colonoscopy. Ninety patients undergoing unsedated screening colonoscopy were randomly allocated to one of three groups: a control group (n=30), a group to receive active TENS (n=30), or a group to receive placebo TENS (n=30). A visual analogue scale (VAS) and a five-point Likert scale were used to assess pain 5 min into the procedure and at the end of the procedure. The patient's bloating sensation during colonoscopy and the effect on the duration of the procedure were also evaluated. Throughout the procedure, the active TENS group experienced a VAS pain score reduction ≥50% compared to the placebo TENS group (PTENS group compared to the placebo TENS and control groups (P=0.009). No significant differences were found between the study groups as to the bloating sensation and the duration of the procedure. We conclude that TENS can be used as a pain relief therapy in unsedated screening colonoscopy. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Research, records and responsibility ten years of PARADISEC

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research, records and responsibility' explores developments in collaborative archiving practice between archives and the communities they serve and represent, incorporating case studies of historical recordings, visual data and material culture.

  19. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces pain and postpones the need for pharmacological analgesia during labour: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Licia Santos; Gallo, Rubneide Barreto Silva; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge; Duarte, Geraldo; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In the active phase of the first stage of labour, does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) relieve pain or change its location? Does TENS delay the request for neuraxial analgesia during labour? Does TENS produce any harmful effects in the mother or the foetus? Are women in labour satisfied with the care provided? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding for some outcomes, and intention-to-treat analysis. Forty-six low-risk, primigravida parturients with a gestational age > 37 weeks, cervical dilation of 4cm, and without the use of any medications from hospital admission until randomisation. The principal investigator applied TENS to the experimental group for 30minutes starting at the beginning of the active phase of labour. A second investigator assessed the outcomes in both the control and experimental groups. Both groups received routine perinatal care. The primary outcome was pain severity after the intervention period, which was assessed using the 100-mm visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes included: pain location, duration of the active phase of labour, time to pharmacological labour analgesia, mode of birth, neonatal outcomes, and the participant's satisfaction with the care provided. After the intervention, a significant mean difference in change in pain of 15mm was observed favouring the experimental group (95% CI 2 to 27). The application of TENS did not alter the location or distribution of the pain. The mean time to pharmacological analgesia after the intervention was 5.0hours (95% CI 4.1 to 5.9) longer in the experimental group. The intervention did not significantly impact the other maternal and neonatal outcomes. Participants in both groups were satisfied with the care provided during labour. TENS produces a significant decrease in pain during labour and postpones the need for pharmacological analgesia for pain relief. NCT01600495. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Ten-year results of phototherapeutic keratectomy on recurrent corneal erosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belquiz Rodrigues do Amaral Nassaralla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the ten-year visual results and outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK for recurrent corneal erosions. METHODS: Twenty-six eyes of 23 patients with recurrent corneal erosions were treated by PTK from 1996 to 2000 at the Goiania Eye Institute, Brazil. All eyes had failed to respond to conventional therapy. Data regarding preoperative and postoperative best-spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, spherical equivalent (SE, symptomatic relief, incidence of recurrence, and complications arising from the laser treatment were analyzed. The mean duration of symptoms prior to PTK was 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months. The corneal epithelium was debrided, and laser ablation was performed to a depth of 5 micron with an ablation zone of 7 to 9 mm, using the Technolas 217C Plano Scan excimer laser. Mean postoperative follow-up was 12 years (range, 10 to 14 years. RESULTS: At the last follow-up visit, 15 eyes (57.69% were symptomsfree. Five eyes (19.2% had occasional mild symptoms of irritation and photophobia upon awakening. Recurrence of painful corneal erosions occurred in six eyes (23.07%, which required a PTK retreatment. Twenty-four eyes had a preserved or improved BCVA, while 2 eyes showed deterioration of 1 line on Snellen test. Eleven eyes (42.3% had no change in SE, and the others (57.69% had a change of less than +/-0.75 diopters (D. There were no major complications during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Ten-year data show that PTK is a safe, fast, effective and minimal invasive choice of treatment for recurrent corneal erosions in patients who do not respond to conventional treatments.

  1. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  2. Custom Visualization without Real Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas

    Information Visualization tools have simplified visualization development. Some tools help simple users construct standard visualizations; others help programmers develop custom visualizations. This thesis contributes to the field of Information Visualization and End-User Development. The first c...

  3. Zastosowanie elektroterapii TENS w łagodzeniu bólu porodowego / Application of TENS electrotherapy in alleviating labour pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowa Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Easing labour pain is an extremely important issue in obstetric practice. Various physiotherapy methods are increasingly often applied in obstetric practice. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS aiming at central and peripheral modulation of pain sensation is one of them.

  4. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlow, Adam; Bennett, Michael I; Robb, Karen A; Johnson, Mark I; Simpson, Karen H; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2012-03-14

    Cancer-related pain is complex and multi-dimensional but the mainstay of cancer pain management has predominantly used a biomedical approach. There is a need for non-pharmacological and innovative approaches. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) may have a role in pain management but the effectiveness of TENS is currently unknown. This is an update of the original review published in Issue 3, 2008. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of TENS for cancer-related pain in adults. The initial review searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED and PEDRO databases in April 2008. We performed an updated search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDRO databases in November 2011. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTS) investigating the use of TENS for the management of cancer-related pain in adults. The search strategy identified a further two studies for possible inclusion. One of the review authors screened each abstract using a study eligibility tool. Where eligibility could not be determined, a second author assessed the full paper. One author used a standardised data extraction sheet to collect information on the studies and independently assess the quality of the studies using the validated five-point Oxford Quality Scale. The small sample sizes and differences in patient study populations of the three included studies (two from the original review and a third included in this update) prevented meta-analysis. For the original review the search strategy identified 37 possible published studies; we divided these between two pairs of review authors who decided on study selection; all four review authors discussed and agreed final scores. Only one additional RCT met the eligibility criteria (24 participants) for this updated review. Although this was a feasibility study, not designed to investigate intervention effect, it suggested that TENS may improve bone pain on movement in a

  5. THE RELATION BETWEEN VISUAL ACUITY AND ILLUMINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, S

    1928-01-20

    1. Visual acuity varies in a definite manner with the illumination. At low intensities visual acuity increases slowly in proportion to log I; at higher intensities it increases nearly ten times more rapidly in relation to log I; at the highest illuminations it remains constant regardless of the changes in log I. 2. These variations in visual acuity measure the variations in the resolving power of the retina. The retina is a surface composed of discrete rods and cones. Therefore its resolving power depends on the number of elements present in a unit area. The changes in visual acuity then presuppose that the number of elements in the retina is variable. This cannot be true anatomically; therefore it must be assumed functionally. 3. To explain on such a basis the variations of visual acuity, it is postulated that the thresholds of the cones and of the rods are distributed in relation to the illumination in a statistical manner similar to that of other populations. In addition the rods as a whole have thresholds lower than the cones. Then at low intensities the increase in visual acuity depends on the augmentation of the functional rod population which accompanies intensity increase; and at higher intensities the increase in visual acuity depends on the augmentation of the functional cone population. The number of cones per unit foveal area is much greater than the number of rods per unit peripheral area, which accounts for the relative rates of increase of rod and cone visual acuity with intensity. At the highest illuminations all the cones are functional and no increase in visual acuity is possible. 4. If this division into rod visual acuity and cone visual acuity is correct, a completely color-blind person should have only rod visual acuity. It is shown by a study of the data of two such individuals that this is true. 5. The rod and cone threshold distribution has been presented as a purely statistical assumption. It can be shown, however, that it is really a

  6. Phantom eye syndrome: types of visual hallucinations and related phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed Rasmussen, Marie Louise; Prause, Jan U; Johnson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    most often white or colored light, as a continuous sharp light or as moving dots. The most frequent triggers were darkness, closing of the eyes, fatigue, and psychological stress; 54% of patients had the experience more than once a week. Ten patients were so visually disturbed that it interfered...

  7. Visualizing the Solute Vaporization Interference in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Christopher R.; Blew, Michael J.; Goode, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, tens of thousands of chemists use analytical atomic spectroscopy in their work, often without knowledge of possible interferences. We present a unique approach to study these interferences by using modern response surface methods to visualize an interference in which aluminum depresses the calcium atomic absorption signal. Calcium…

  8. Declarative Visualization Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not

  9. Visualization analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Munzner, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...

  10. The Visual Analysis of Visual Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Dennis M.; Roberts, Brian

    This paper presents an approach to understanding visual metaphor which uses metaphoric analysis and comprehension by graphic and pictorial means. The perceptible qualities of shape, line, form, color, and texture, that make up the visual structure characteristic of any particular shape, configuration, or scene, are called physiognomic properties;…

  11. [THE TEN MOST CITED ARTICLES OF THE JOURNAL "NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-12-01

    After 36 years of continued publication of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, a list with the ten most cited articles published in it is elaborated. The top ten most cited articles in the world literature and stratification according to language, English or Spanish, subject, or period of time published are also analyzed. Nutr Hosp is the most important Ibero latin American nutrition journal. Nutr Hosp published 369 items in 2014 gaining the fourth position among all the world's journals devoted to nutrition. Article publication in English, or simultaneously in Spanish and English and Open Access policy probably benefit the number of citations. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood herpes zoster: A clustering of ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Smitha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster occurs due to reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus and is usually a disease of the elderly. Childhood herpes zoster is believed to be rare, though recent studies suggest increasing incidence in children. Here we report ten cases of childhood herpes zoster, seven of which occurred within a short span of six months, at a tertiary care level hospital in Pokhara, Nepal. Only three of the ten children reported previous history of varicella infection and none was immunized against varicella. Though childhood herpes zoster accounted for less than 1% of the total zoster cases in the past, recent reports show an increase in the number of cases in apparently healthy children. So far, no studies have been done linking childhood herpes zoster with HIV, though there are many studies linking it with other immunocompromised conditions.

  13. Clinical alarm hazards: a "top ten" health technology safety concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, James P

    2012-01-01

    For the past several years ECRI Institute has published a list of Top Ten Health Technology Hazards. This list is based on ECRI's extensive research in health technology safety and on data provided to its problemreporting systems. For every year that the Top Ten list has been published, Alarm Hazards have been at or near the top of the list. Improving alarm safety requires a systematic review of a hospital's alarm-based technologies and analysis of alarm management policies like alarm escalation strategies and staffing patterns. It also requires careful selection of alarm setting criteria for each clinical care area. This article will overview the clinical alarm problems that have been identified through ECRI Institute's research and analysis of various problem reporting databases, including those operated by ECRI Institute. It will also highlight suggestions for improvement, particularly from a technology design and technology management perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  15. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...... networks that include several regions outside the visual system. The two visual capacity parameters are functionally separable, but seem to rely on largely overlapping brain areas....

  16. Effects of the office environment on health and productivity 1: Auditory and visual distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, E. de; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Vink, P.

    2007-01-01

    A pilot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of visual or auditory distraction in an office environment on productivity, concentration and emotion. Ten subjects performed a simple, standardized computer task in five conditions (undisturbed, 3 variations of auditory distraction and visual

  17. A Formative Evaluation of an Instructional Program Designed to Teach Visually Impaired Students to Use Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, LaRhea

    1984-01-01

    Ten visually impaired students (12-18 years old) were instructed via a two-module instructional kit to use microcomputers and to learn the programing language, BASIC. Results indicated that the visually impaired students learned the major components of the microcomputer and were able to use the cassette braille access device. (CL)

  18. Exploring the Disjunctures between Theory and Practice in Community College Visual Arts Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of ten community college visual arts faculty in five different community college settings with regard to the theory and practice disjunctures they were experiencing in their roles as instructors teaching foundational level courses within visual arts programs. The study illuminated the responses of community…

  19. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Berti Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  20. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento

    OpenAIRE

    De Berti Raffaele; Tomaso Subini

    2011-01-01

    Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  1. TEN KEY CONCEPTS AND THE SUCCESS OF ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Mirela TOMESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on ten key concepts which influence the success of theorganizations at the beginning of XXI century. The great changes generatedby globalization determine firms to be more competitive. This means that wehave to focus on: mission, leadership, emotional intelligence, innovation,organizational culture, human resources, total quality management, ethics,conflict management, brand, and the value offered to the clients.

  2. Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings

    OpenAIRE

    Oberbauer, A. M.; Belanger, J. M.; Bellumori, T.; BANNASCH, D. L.; Famula, T R

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic po...

  3. Fundamental Field Theory in Ten Dimensions and The Early Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Ajay

    2006-01-01

    A unified field theory in ten dimensions, of all interactions, can describe high energy processes occuring in the early universe. In such a theory transitions that give properties of the universe can occur due to the presence of algebraic and geometric structures. A correspondence between theory and observations of the universe is made, to obtain a new interpretation and properties. This paper consists of a field theory and cosmological model of dark and normal energy and matter, cosmological...

  4. The African Association for Lexicography: After Ten Years

    OpenAIRE

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This year it has been ten years since the establishment of AFRILEX. After an expla-nation of what led to its forming, this article gives a short overview of its composition and activi-ties.


    Keywords: AFRICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LEXICOGRAPHY (AFRILEX), AFRICAN LAN-GUAGES ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AFRICA (ALASA), BUREAU OF THE WOORDEBOEK VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE TAAL (WAT), DICTIONARY OF SOUTH AFRICAN ENGLISH (DSAE), LINGUISTIC ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (L...

  5. Quantitation of Ten Flavor Compounds in Unburned Tobacco Products†

    OpenAIRE

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2014-01-01

    Most research on unburned tobacco has focused on the harmful chemicals associated with the tobacco itself. However, certain flavor additives in tobacco products can pose additional health risks. Flavors like camphor, coumarin, pulegone, eugenol, methyl salicylate, menthol and diphenyl ether have exhibited biological activity and/or toxicity in both lab animals and humans. This publication presents a new GC/MS method for the quantitation of ten flavor compounds (eucalyptol, camphor, menthol, p...

  6. AHP 28: Review: Scripture of the Ten Kings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Nietupski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This book is a study of the various influences on the complex Tibetan visions of the afterlife. It is based on new text-critical research and includes an introduction and translation of a rare Tibetan manuscript entitled Scripture on the Ten Kings, housed in the National Gallery, Prague. The book includes extensive references to secondary scholarship, as well as collaborative work by competent scholars and an appended study of the text illustrations by Luboš Bělka.

  7. Modification of the 'ten-day rule'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempfner, G.

    1985-02-01

    In a 1964 decision the National Health and Medical Research Council recommended that radiological examinations of the lower abdomen and pelvis of women of childbearing age should be confined to the 10-day interval following the onset of menstruation. Recent evidence suggests that the first four weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period is not a critically radiosensitive period and consequently strict adherence to the ten-day rule is no longer indicated.

  8. Frictional amyloidosis in Oman - A study of ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular amyloidosis is an important cause for cutaneous pigmentation, the aetiology of which is poorly understood. Friction has recently been implicated the causation of early lesions, referred to as frictional amyloidosis. Confirmation of diagnosis by the detect on of amyloid using histochemical stains is inconsistent. Ten patients with pigmentation suggestive of macular amyloidosis were studied with detailed history, clinical examination, biopsy for histochemistry and electron microscopy. Nine out of ten patients had a history of prolonged friction with various objects such as bath sponges, brushes, towels, plant sticks and leaves. Amyloid was demonstrated by histochemical staining in only six out of ten cases. In the remaining four cases, amyloid was detected by electron microscopy. These consisted of aggregates of non-branching, extracellular, intertwining fibres measuring between 200-500 nm in length and between 20-25 nm in diameter. The study confirms the role of friction in the causation of this condition. Histochemical stains are not always successful in the detection of amyloid and electron microscopy is helpful for confirming its presence. The term frictional amyloidosis aptly describes the condition.

  9. Perseptuele verskille tussen bestuurders en ondergeskiktes ten opsigte van prestasiebeoordeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. le Roux

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual differences between managers and subordinates regarding performance appraisal. In order to determine the degree of similarity or disparity in perceptions of subordinates and managers regarding the administrative and developmental dimensions of performance appraisal a subsection (Satisfaction with the Performance and Developmental Appraisal of the Leadership Analysis Questionnaire (LAQ(Mount, 1983 was administered to 92 managers, 142 successful subordinates and 67 unsuccessful subordinates. The research reveals that no significant differences exist between the perceptions of successful and unsuccessful subordinates, and between subordinates and managers regarding the administrative and developmental dimensions of performance appraisal. Opsomming Ten einde die mate van ooreenstemming of die verskil in persepsies van ondergeskiktes en toesighouers ten opsigte van die administratiewe- en ontwikkelingsdimensies van prestasiebeoordeling te ondersoek is 'n onderafdeling ("Satisfaction with the Performance and Developmental Appraisal" van die "Leadership Analysis Questionnaire" (LAQ (Mount, 1983 aan 92 bestuurders, 142 suksesvolle ondergeskiktes en 67 onsuksesvolle ondergeskiktes geadministreer. Dit blyk uit die ondersoek dat daar geen beduidende verskille tussen die persepsies van suksesvole en onsuksesvolle ondergeskiktes, en tussen ondergeskiktes en bestuurders ten opsigte van die administratiewe- en ontwikkelingsdimensies van prestasiebeoordeling bestaan nie.

  10. Exploring visual plasticity: dietary carotenoids can change color vision in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin A; Deere-Machemer, Kerry A; Johnson, Ashley M; Grether, Gregory F; Helen Rodd, F; Fuller, Rebecca C

    2016-07-01

    Differences in color vision can play a key role in an organism's ability to perceive and interact with the environment across a broad range of taxa. Recently, species have been shown to vary in color vision across populations as a result of differences in regulatory sequence and/or plasticity of opsin gene expression. For decades, biologists have been intrigued by among-population variation in color-based mate preferences of female Trinidadian guppies. We proposed that some of this variation results from variation in color vision caused by plasticity in opsin expression. Specifically, we asked about the role of dietary carotenoid availability, because carotenoids (1) are the precursors for vitamin A, which is essential for the creation of photopigments and (2) have been linked to variation in female mate choice. We raised guppies on different carotenoid-level diets and measured opsin expression. Guppies raised on high-carotenoid diets expressed higher levels of long wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS) opsins than those raised on lower levels of carotenoids. These results suggest that dietary effects on opsin expression represent a previously unaccounted for mechanism by which ecological differences across populations could lead to mate choice differences.

  11. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Natasha I.; Morrow, James M.; Chang, Belinda S.W.; Price, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors – historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20Ma. During this process the SWS2 gene accumulated 6 substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. PMID:25496318

  12. Visual fields in a chloroquine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Domene MC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available María del Carmen García-Domene,1,2 María Amparo Díez-Ajenjo,1,3 María Dolores de Fez,4 María José Luque2 1Fisabio Oftalmología Médica, València, 2Departament d'Òptica, Facultat de Física, Universitat de València, Burjassot, 3Clínica Optométrica Fundación Lluís Alcanyís, Valencia, 4Departamento de Óptica, Farmacología y Anatomía, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, SpainPurpose: In this study, we describe contrast sensitivity losses in the visual field of a patient affected by chloroquine toxicity, measured with stimuli favoring different visual mechanisms. We have compared these results with those of other, usual clinical tests.Methods: The vision of a patient who underwent ten years of chloroquine treatment was analyzed by a battery of clinical tests: visual acuity (VA, Amsler's grid, Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, multifocal electroretinogram (ERG, white-on-white and red-on-white Humphrey perimetries, chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity perimetry tests, and fluorescein angiography. Measurements were taken just before the cessation of the treatment, and 6 months later.Results: The subjective visual perception of the patient was worse (in comparison with the rest of the visual field at the time of the first visit in the center of the visual field, and was impaired on the second visit. Although standard automated perimetry (SAP was practically normal and ERG results did not worsen with time, VA, Amsler's grid, and visual fields with stimuli favoring the magnocellular and chromatic pathways signalled progressive loss of visual function.Conclusions: Standard tests such as SAP or ERG may not detect visual field losses or progression of existing visual losses in a case of chloroquine toxicity, whereas tests evaluating contrast sensitivity with stimuli favoring different visual mechanisms may be more sensitive.Keywords: visual field, chloroquine, retinal toxicity, retinal

  13. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential currents (IFC) in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facci, Ligia Maria; Nowotny, Jean Paulus; Tormem, Fabio; Trevisani, Virgínia Fernandes Moça

    2011-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential current are the most used electrotherapy methods, although there is little scientific evidence to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of TENS and interferential current among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Single-blind randomized controlled trial in the Department of Physiotherapy, Centro Universitário de Maringá. One hundred and fifty patients were randomly divided into three groups: TENS (group 1), interferential current (group 2) and controls (group 3). The patients designated for electrotherapy received ten 30-minute sessions, while the control group remained untreated. All patients and controls were evaluated before and after treatment using a visual analog scale and the McGill Pain and Roland Morris questionnaires, and regarding their use of additional medications. There was a mean reduction on the visual analog scale of 39.18 mm with TENS, 44.86 mm with interferential current and 8.53 mm among the controls. In the Roland Morris questionnaire, group 1 had a mean reduction of 6.59; group 2, 7.20; and group 3, 0.70 points. In group 1, 84% of the patients stopped using medications after the treatment; in group 2, 75%; and in group 3, 34%. There was no statistically significant difference between the TENS and interferential current groups (P > 0.05); a difference was only found between these groups and the controls (P TENS and interferential current for chronic low back pain treatment. NCT01017913.

  14. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and interferential currents (IFC in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain: randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Facci

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and interferential current are the most used electrotherapy methods, although there is little scientific evidence to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of TENS and interferential current among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. DESIGN AND SETTING: Single-blind randomized controlled trial in the Department of Physiotherapy, Centro Universitário de Maringá. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients were randomly divided into three groups: TENS (group 1, interferential current (group 2 and controls (group 3. The patients designated for electrotherapy received ten 30-minute sessions, while the control group remained untreated. All patients and controls were evaluated before and after treatment using a visual analog scale and the McGill Pain and Roland Morris questionnaires, and regarding their use of additional medications. RESULTS: There was a mean reduction on the visual analog scale of 39.18 mm with TENS, 44.86 mm with interferential current and 8.53 mm among the controls. In the Roland Morris questionnaire, group 1 had a mean reduction of 6.59; group 2, 7.20; and group 3, 0.70 points. In group 1, 84% of the patients stopped using medications after the treatment; in group 2, 75%; and in group 3, 34%. There was no statistically significant difference between the TENS and interferential current groups (P > 0.05; a difference was only found between these groups and the controls (P < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: There was no difference between TENS and interferential current for chronic low back pain treatment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01017913.

  15. Topological Methods for Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat

    2016-04-07

    This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.

  16. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  17. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  18. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations ...

  19. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...... tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations...

  20. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations ...

  1. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  2. Visual acuity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  3. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... Health Information Frequently asked questions ...

  4. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > The Visual System All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? ...

  5. Effectively Visualizing Library Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phetteplace, Eric

    2012-01-01

    ....6 The North Carolina State University Libraries have an ambitious data visualization project that aims to visualize the usage of reference services, course tools, computer workstations, and group study rooms...

  6. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  7. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...

  8. The Visual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...

  9. Hypoalgesia in response to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) depends on stimulation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Fidelma; Leonard, Tracey; Hawthorne, Stephanie; Hughes, Ciara M; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Johnson, Mark I; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A; Walsh, Deirdre M

    2011-08-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an electrophysical modality used for pain management. This study investigated the dose response of different TENS intensities on experimentally induced pressure pain. One hundred and thirty TENS naïve healthy individuals (18-64 years old; 65 males, 65 females) were randomly allocated to 5 groups (n = 26 per group): Strong Non Painful TENS; Sensory Threshold TENS; Below Sensory Threshold TENS; No Current Placebo TENS; and Transient Placebo TENS. Active TENS (80 Hz) was applied to the forearm for 30 minutes. Transient Placebo TENS was applied for 42 seconds after which the current amplitude automatically reset to 0 mA. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded from 2 points on the hand and forearm before and after TENS to measure hypoalgesia. There were significant differences between groups at both the hand and forearm (ANOVA; P = .005 and .002). At 30 minutes, there was a significant hypoalgesic effect in the Strong Non Painful TENS group compared to: Below Sensory Threshold TENS, No Current Placebo TENS and Transient Placebo TENS groups (P TENS and No Current Placebo TENS groups at the hand (P = .001). There was no significant difference between Strong Non Painful TENS and Sensory Threshold TENS groups. The area under the curve for the changes in PPT significantly correlated with the current amplitude (r(2) = .33, P = .003). These data therefore show that there is a dose-response effect of TENS with the largest effect occurring with the highest current amplitudes. This study shows a dose response for the intensity of TENS for pain relief with the strongest intensities showing the greatest effect; thus, we suggest that TENS intensity should be titrated to achieve the strongest possible intensity to achieve maximum pain relief. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Visual experience and blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Blindsight is classically defined as residual visual capacity, e.g., to detect and identify visual stimuli, in the total absence of perceptual awareness following lesions to V1. However, whereas most experiments have investigated what blindsight patients can and cannot do, the literature contains...... several, often contradictory, remarks about remaining visual experience. This review examines closer these remarks as well as experiments that directly approach the nature of possibly spared visual experiences in blindsight....

  12. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  13. Massive graph visualization : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, Brian Neil; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2007-10-01

    Graphs are a vital way of organizing data with complex correlations. A good visualization of a graph can fundamentally change human understanding of the data. Consequently, there is a rich body of work on graph visualization. Although there are many techniques that are effective on small to medium sized graphs (tens of thousands of nodes), there is a void in the research for visualizing massive graphs containing millions of nodes. Sandia is one of the few entities in the world that has the means and motivation to handle data on such a massive scale. For example, homeland security generates graphs from prolific media sources such as television, telephone, and the Internet. The purpose of this project is to provide the groundwork for visualizing such massive graphs. The research provides for two major feature gaps: a parallel, interactive visualization framework and scalable algorithms to make the framework usable to a practical application. Both the frameworks and algorithms are designed to run on distributed parallel computers, which are already available at Sandia. Some features are integrated into the ThreatView{trademark} application and future work will integrate further parallel algorithms.

  14. 10 Data Visualization Tips

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    1. 10 Data Visualization Tips. Data visualizations are an effective tool to communicate research. But to realize their potential, designers should follow these tips to help readers decode their visualizations. 1. Keep it simple! This is the golden rule. Always choose the simplest way to convey your information. 2. Have a specific ...

  15. NEON VISUALIZATION ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 1 3. METHODS... INTRODUCTION Neon is a novel departure from conventional information visualization: the goal was not to develop a typical visualization toolkit but instead...development philosophies . We assisted in creating a demo using Neon and VINI STTR tools as a visualization mechanism for MUSE. With Memex, we

  16. The countryside visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Schauman

    1979-01-01

    This paper identifies the types of visual resource changes occurring in rural landscapes. These types include changes due to agricultural technology and land use patterns. The changes are described in relative dimensions of the landscape elements both as patterns and as individual visual elements. This paper relates visual resource changes to various countryside...

  17. Adjunct High Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Stimulation (TENS) for Postoperative Pain Management during Weaning from Epidural Analgesia Following Colon Surgery: Results from a Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerså, Kristofer; Jildenstaal, Pether; Jakobsson, Jan; Egardt, Madelene; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The potential benefit of nonpharmacological adjunctive therapy is not well-studied following major abdominal surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a complementary nonpharmacological analgesia intervention during weaning from epidural analgesia (EDA) after open lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomized to TENS and sham TENS during weaning from EDA. The effects on pain at rest, following short walk, and after deep breath were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) grading. Number of patients assessed was lower than calculated because of change in clinical routine. Pain scores overall were low. A trend of lower pain scores was observed in the active TENS group of patients; a statistical significance between the groups was found for the pain lying prone in bed (p TENS use in postoperative pain management during weaning from EDA after open colon surgery. Further studies are warranted in order to verify the potential beneficial effects from TENS during weaning from EDA after open, lower abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expressions of visual pigments and synaptic proteins in neonatal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... decreased expressions of opsins and synaptic proteins, compared to those seen in 12L:12D and 18L:6D conditions. Also, there were ... used in houses and work places where we are continually http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ..... zation and morphological and functional well-being of cells lying in the INL.

  19. Visual Semiotics & Uncertainty Visualization: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.

  20. Beginning Visual Basic 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Thearon

    2010-01-01

    A focused, step-by-step approach to Visual Basic for new programmers. What better way to get started with Visual Basic than with this essential Wrox beginner's guide? Beginning Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 not only shows you how to write Windows applications, Web applications with ASP.NET, and Windows mobile and embedded CE apps with Visual Basic 2010, but you'll also get a thorough grounding in the basic nuts-and-bolts of writing good code. You'll be exposed to the very latest VB tools and techniques with coverage of both the Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4 releases. Plus, the book walks you ste

  1. Python data visualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Milovanovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style targeted towards an advanced audience. It covers the advanced topics of data visualization in Python.Python Data Visualization Cookbook is for developers that already know about Python programming in general. If you have heard about data visualization but you don't know where to start, then this book will guide you from the start and help you understand data, data formats, data visualization, and how to use Python to visualize data.You will need to know some general programming concepts, and any kind of programming experience will be helpful, but the co

  2. How green are the TEN-T core network corridors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    "Green corridors‟ is a concept introduced by the European Commission to enhance the provision of sustainable freight transport logistics services by concentrating freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. SuperGreen, a Coordination and Support Action aiming at further...... defining this concept, identified the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from an otherwise efficient one. The main thesis of this paper is that the „core network corridors‟ of the new TEN-T guidelines exhibit all these qualities and the vision of a green corridor network in Europe is close...

  3. Ten years of multidisciplinary mental health guidelines in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, Gerdien; Niesink, Peter; Swinkels, Jan; Burgers, Jako; Wensing, Michel; Grol, Richard

    2011-08-01

    From 1999 until 2009 the National Steering Group for Multidisciplinary Guideline Development in Mental Health led a national guideline programme in the Netherlands. Ten service user and carer groups and 30 professional organizations were involved. Within the programme 13 practice guidelines and a range of other deliverables, such as patient versions, checklists and implementation materials, were produced. Lessons learned included the methodology of developing guidelines, service user and carer involvement, and the dissemination and implementation of the guidelines. There are important future challenges such as following a strict and transparent methodology, adhering to process management, improving integration of the service user and professional perspectives, and bridging the gap between guideline and practice.

  4. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  5. Halftone visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Arce, Gonzalo R; Di Crescenzo, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    Visual cryptography encodes a secret binary image (SI) into n shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are xeroxed onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the n shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. Extended visual cryptography [1] was proposed recently to construct meaningful binary images as shares using hypergraph colourings, but the visual quality is poor. In this paper, a novel technique named halftone visual cryptography is proposed to achieve visual cryptography via halftoning. Based on the blue-noise dithering principles, the proposed method utilizes the void and cluster algorithm [2] to encode a secret binary image into n halftone shares (images) carrying significant visual information. The simulation shows that the visual quality of the obtained halftone shares are observably better than that attained by any available visual cryptography method known to date.

  6. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS reduces pain and postpones the need for pharmacological analgesia during labour: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Santos Santana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: In the active phase of the first stage of labour, does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS relieve pain or change its location? Does TENS delay the request for neuraxial analgesia during labour? Does TENS produce any harmful effects in the mother or the foetus? Are women in labour satisfied with the care provided? Design: Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding for some outcomes, and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants: Forty-six low-risk, primigravida parturients with a gestational age > 37 weeks, cervical dilation of 4 cm, and without the use of any medications from hospital admission until randomisation. Intervention: The principal investigator applied TENS to the experimental group for 30 minutes starting at the beginning of the active phase of labour. A second investigator assessed the outcomes in both the control and experimental groups. Both groups received routine perinatal care. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was pain severity after the intervention period, which was assessed using the 100-mm visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes included: pain location, duration of the active phase of labour, time to pharmacological labour analgesia, mode of birth, neonatal outcomes, and the participant's satisfaction with the care provided. Results: After the intervention, a significant mean difference in change in pain of 15 mm was observed favouring the experimental group (95% CI 2 to 27. The application of TENS did not alter the location or distribution of the pain. The mean time to pharmacological analgesia after the intervention was 5.0 hours (95% CI 4.1 to 5.9 longer in the experimental group. The intervention did not significantly impact the other maternal and neonatal outcomes. Participants in both groups were satisfied with the care provided during labour. Conclusion: TENS produces a significant decrease in pain during labour and postpones the need for pharmacological

  7. Visual dependence and BPPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, K; Bronstein, A M; Faldon, M E; Mandalà, M; Murray, K; Silove, Y

    2012-06-01

    The increased visual dependence noted in some vestibular patients may be secondary to their vertigo. We examine whether a single, brief vertigo attack, such as in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), modifies visual dependency. Visual dependency was measured before and after the Hallpike manoeuvre with (a) the Rod and Frame and the Rod and Disc techniques whilst seated and (b) the postural sway induced by visual roll-motion stimulation. Three subject groups were studied: 20 patients with BPPV (history and positive Hallpike manoeuvre; PosH group), 20 control patients (history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre; NegH group) and 20 normal controls. Our findings show that while both patient groups showed enhanced visual dependency, the PosH and the normal control group decreased visual dependency on repetition of the visual tasks after the Hallpike manoeuvre. NegH patients differed from PosH patients in that their high visual dependency did not diminish on repetition of the visual stimuli; they scored higher on the situational characteristic questionnaire ('visual vertigo' symptoms) and showed higher incidence of migraine. We conclude that long term vestibular symptoms increase visual dependence but a single BPPV attack does not increase it further. Repetitive visual motion stimulation induces adaptation in visual dependence in peripheral vestibular disorders such as BPPV. A positional form of vestibular migraine may underlie the symptoms of some patients with a history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre. The finding that they have non adaptable increased visual dependency may explain visuo-vestibular symptoms in this group and, perhaps more widely, in patients with migraine.

  8. Causative drugs and clinical outcome in Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN, and SJS-TEN overlap in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathy Sethuraman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are the most severe adverse drug reactions in children. Objectives : The objective was to study the causative drugs and outcome in children with SJS, SJS-TEN overlap, and TEN. Materials and Methods : Retrospective analysis of all the in-patient records of children below 18 years of age with the diagnosis of SJS, SJS-TEN overlap, and TEN was carried out. Results and Conclusions : Twenty children were identified, eight patients each were diagnosed as SJS and TEN and four as SJS-TEN overlap. Multiple drugs were implicated in 15 cases while single drug was responsible in 5 cases. Antibiotics (40.7% were implicated as the commonest cause followed by NSAIDS (25.9% and anticonvulsants (7.4%. Seventeen patients recovered completely and three patients died.

  9. Online social media analysis and visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Kawash, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume addresses the vast challenges of adapting Online Social Media (OSM) to developing research methods and applications. The topics cover generating realistic social network topologies, awareness of user activities, topic and trend generation, estimation of user attributes from their social content, behavior detection, mining social content for common trends, identifying and ranking social content sources, building friend-comprehension tools, and many others. Each of the ten chapters tackle one or more of these issues by proposing new analysis methods or new visualization techn

  10. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  11. Ten-day observation of live rabies suspected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsumethanon, V; Wilde, H; Sitprija, V

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing a ten-day observation period of rabies suspected dogs and cats according to six criteria. Dogs and cats suspected of being rabid were brought for observation when they had either bitten a person or another animal or when abnormal behaviour or unusual illness was observed. Between 1985 and 2005, retrospective and prospective data from 1,222 dogs and 303 cats was collected during the ten-day observation period. If an animal had died, brain examination using fluorescent antibody testing was routinely performed. If an animal had survived for > or =10 days, it was released to its owner or transferred to the municipal dog shelter. A total of 644 dogs and 58 cats found rabid died within 10 days of observation. In addition, for 208 dogs confirmed rabid with laboratory tests between 1997 and 2005, six criteria were analysed from the day of submission. This experience with the implemented 10-day observation period confirms the WHO recommendation on identifying suspected rabid dogs or cats under veterinary supervision following a human exposure.

  12. The next ten years in neonatology: new directions in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a prelude to proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology to be held in Cagliari, Italy from October 21st to 25th, 2014. These proceedings will be a significant milestone, highlighting the new frontiers of perinatal and neonatal research. Over the five days of this meeting, we aim to (1 examine the roots of the new directions in perinatal and neonatal research; (2 predict the trajectories of advancement in medical technologies, research, clinical care and teaching that will be the future of perinatology and neonatology. The discussion will be in four sections:back to the future: the placenta and perinatal programming;paradigm shift: the revolution of metabolomics in perinatalogy and neonatology;brave new world: the microbiome and microbiomics from perinatal to adult life;new inhabitants on the planet earth: adults who were born with extremely low birth weight. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  13. Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: an imaging review of ten new patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, N.; Joyama, S.; Araki, N. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka (Japan); Ueda, T.; Yoshikawa, H. [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka (Japan); Beppu, Y. [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Tatezaki, S. [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chiba (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, K. [Osaka Seamen' s Insurance Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Tomita, Y. [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Osaka (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare soft-tissue tumor that most arises in young adults. Because of its rarity, few imaging studies have been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the imaging features of this tumor. We conducted a multi-institutional study in cooperation with five referral cancer centers in Japan. Imaging findings of ten new EMC cases, including conventional radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed at each institute, were reviewed along with clinical features. Ten patients with EMC, who had been treated at each hospital from 1990 to 2001, participated in this study. Soft-tissue masses with well-demarcated, dense and granular calcification were most frequently observed on plain radiographs and CT scans. T2-weighted MR images most clearly depicted a two-component structure composed of calcified and uncalcified areas, and enhanced MRI showed inhomogeneous enhancement in both areas. Although the sensitivity and specificity of these findings are unknown, they might be characteristic and have diagnostic value for this rare tumor. (orig.)

  14. Skovflåten spreder Borrelia fra mus til menneske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, Lykke

    2005-01-01

    Mødet med en skovflåt bliver for nogle mennesker en alvorlig sag. Flåten kan nemlig være inficeret med bakterien Borrelia, der kan resultere i sygdommen borreliose. Borrelia-bakterien stammer fra mus, og små flåtlarver får bakterien i sig, når de første gang snupper sig et blodmåltid. Bakterien kan...... overleve i flåten op til et helt år, og kan så videregives til for eksempel fasaner, rådyr, hunde eller mennesker. På KVL – Den Kgl. Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole forsøger en forsker at få et billede af samspillet mellem flåt og Borrelia-bakterie. Hendes jagt har ført hende forbi blodproteiner i slagtekvæg...... der er nogle dyr, der er hovedansvarlige for spredningen af Borrelia-bakterien. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  15. Assessment of clinical residents' needs for ten educational subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Razavi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Fulfilling the learners' "real needs" will improve medical education. There are subjects that are necessary for any clinical residents not considering their field of specialty. Among the subjects ten seems to be the most important: research methodology and data analysis, computer-based programs, medical recording, cardiopulmonary and cerebral resuscitation, clinical teaching programs, communication skills, clinical ethics, laboratory examinations, reporting special diseases and death certification, and prescription. Purpose This cross-sectional study assessed educational needs of clinical residents for ten educational subjects. Methods A questionnaire prepared by board faculty members consisted of 10 close-ended questions, and one open­ ended question was distributed among 1307 residents from 22 clinical disciplines, who registered for preboard or promotion exam in June 2000. Results Among the subjects three were the most needed: computer-based programs 149 (60%, data collecting system 606 (49%, and clinical ethics 643 (46%. The prescription standard was the least required 177(13%. Conclusion Complementary training courses on these subjects can be an answer to the clinical residents needs. Keywords : research methodology, computer in medicine, cpr, clinical teaching methods, communication in medicine, medical ethics, laboratory ordering, disease coding system, death certificate, prescription writing

  16. Metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van wetenskaplike navorsing in gemeentebediening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Breed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel is deel van ’n reeks oor die verrekening van die metateoretiese vertrekpunte in die wetenskap van Praktiese Teologie. Die eerste fase van die reeks bied die teoretiese onderbou vir die werklikheids-, hermeneuties- en wetenskapsteoretiese beskouing van die vak. Die tweede fase fokus op die invloed wat hierdie vertrekpunte op die wetenskaplike navorsing van die verskillende vakgroepe in die Praktiese Teologie het. Hierdie artikel handel oor die wetenskaplike benaderingswyse tot die navorsingsveld van gemeentebediening. In hierdie artikel word die persoonlike metateoretiese perspektief waarmee die vakgebied van gemeentebediening benader word, uitgespel en verantwoord ten opsigte van die volgende: die werklikheidsbeskouing waarmee daar op die navorsingsveld van gemeentebou gefokus word; die onderbou van die hermeneutiese beskouing wat nodig is om tot ’n verstaan te kom en tot ’n verantwoordbare verhouding tussen die elemente wat in die gemeentebouproses ter sprake kom; en ten slotte om die wetenskapsteoretiese benadering waarmee die navorsingsveld van gemeentebou op ’n wetenskaplik-verantwoorde wyse ondersoek kan word, te beskryf.

  17. Standard anatomical and visual space for the mouse retina: computational reconstruction and transformation of flattened retinae with the Retistruct package.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Sterratt

    Full Text Available The concept of topographic mapping is central to the understanding of the visual system at many levels, from the developmental to the computational. It is important to be able to relate different coordinate systems, e.g. maps of the visual field and maps of the retina. Retinal maps are frequently based on flat-mount preparations. These use dissection and relaxing cuts to render the quasi-spherical retina into a 2D preparation. The variable nature of relaxing cuts and associated tears limits quantitative cross-animal comparisons. We present an algorithm, "Retistruct," that reconstructs retinal flat-mounts by mapping them into a standard, spherical retinal space. This is achieved by: stitching the marked-up cuts of the flat-mount outline; dividing the stitched outline into a mesh whose vertices then are mapped onto a curtailed sphere; and finally moving the vertices so as to minimise a physically-inspired deformation energy function. Our validation studies indicate that the algorithm can estimate the position of a point on the intact adult retina to within 8° of arc (3.6% of nasotemporal axis. The coordinates in reconstructed retinae can be transformed to visuotopic coordinates. Retistruct is used to investigate the organisation of the adult mouse visual system. We orient the retina relative to the nictitating membrane and compare this to eye muscle insertions. To align the retinotopic and visuotopic coordinate systems in the mouse, we utilised the geometry of binocular vision. In standard retinal space, the composite decussation line for the uncrossed retinal projection is located 64° away from the retinal pole. Projecting anatomically defined uncrossed retinal projections into visual space gives binocular congruence if the optical axis of the mouse eye is oriented at 64° azimuth and 22° elevation, in concordance with previous results. Moreover, using these coordinates, the dorsoventral boundary for S-opsin expressing cones closely matches

  18. Estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (TENS no pós-operatório de cesariana Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS following cesarean surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Melo de Paula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da aplicação da TENS no quadro álgico de pacientes submetidas à cirurgia de cesariana. MÉTODO: Foi utilizada uma amostragem de 30 mulheres, voluntárias, com faixa etária entre 16 e 35 anos, em período imediato de pós-operatório de cesariana, com a presença de dor abdominal e no baixo ventre, subdivididas em dois grupos A e B, contendo em cada um deles 15 mulheres, submetidas, respectivamente, à eletroestimulação e ao tratamento placebo por eletroestimulação. A rotina hospitalar de administração de fármacos não foi alterada e manteve-se similar em ambos os grupos. A corrente utilizada foi a TENS convencional (F= 100Hz e T= 50mis, com pulso bipolar assimétrico, que foi aplicada através de quatro eletrodos de borracha siliconada e carbonada, gel e fita adesiva para a fixação dos mesmos de forma peri-incisional em técnica bipolar com dois pares de eletrodos cruzados, após cessar o efeito da anestesia, por 50 minutos, com intensidade em um nível sensorial forte. A Escala Visual Analógica (EVA foi utilizada para a quantificação da intensidade da dor antes e após a eletroestimulação. Para a análise dos dados foi aplicado o teste t de Student, para amostras pareadas, com um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foi demonstrada uma diferença estatisticamente significante entre as intensidades da dor, antes e após a aplicação da TENS, apenas nos indivíduos participantes do grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: Levando em consideração as condições experimentais deste estudo, podemos concluir que a aplicação da TENS pode constituir mais um recurso usado em mulheres submetidas à cesariana.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS on pain in patients who underwent cesarean surgery. METHOD: A sample of 30 female volunteers aged between 16 and 35 years old was recruited. All were in the immediate postoperative period following cesarean surgery

  19. Visualizer cognitive style enhances visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-02-26

    In the last two decades, interest towards creativity has increased significantly since it was recognized as a skill and as a cognitive reserve and is now always more frequently used in ageing training. Here, the relationships between visual creativity and Visualization-Verbalization cognitive style were investigated. Fifty college students were administered the Creative Synthesis Task aimed at measuring the ability to construct creative objects and the Visualization-Verbalization Questionnaire (VVQ) aimed at measuring the attitude to preferentially use either imagery or verbal strategy while processing information. Analyses showed that only the originality score of inventions was positively predicted by the VVQ score: higher VVQ score (indicating the preference to use imagery) predicted originality of inventions. These results showed that the visualization strategy is involved especially in the originality dimension of creative objects production. In light of neuroimaging results, the possibility that different strategies, such those that involve motor processes, affect visual creativity is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Katrin; Kasneci, Enkelejda; Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  1. [Migraine with visual aura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidot, S; Biotti, D

    2016-06-01

    Migraine with visual aura is marked by recurrent episodes of transient visual disturbance, often followed by headaches. Its pathophysiology has not been fully understood, but visual auras might be related to a self-propagating wave of cortical depolarization called "cortical spreading depression", triggering a trigemino-vascular "storm" ultimately leading to headaches. The most specific visual symptom is the "fortification spectrum" consisting of glimmering jagged lines spreading from the center to the periphery, and leaving a transient scotoma in its wake. Other visual symptoms are numerous, ranging from elementary positive or negative visual phenomena to complex and elaborate hallucinations. The diagnosis can be made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2013. The main goal of the treatment is to relieve the patient's pain quickly and to decrease the frequency of the episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Attention and visual memory in visualization and computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Christopher G; Enns, James T

    2012-07-01

    A fundamental goal of visualization is to produce images of data that support visual analysis, exploration, and discovery of novel insights. An important consideration during visualization design is the role of human visual perception. How we "see" details in an image can directly impact a viewer's efficiency and effectiveness. This paper surveys research on attention and visual perception, with a specific focus on results that have direct relevance to visualization and visual analytics. We discuss theories of low-level visual perception, then show how these findings form a foundation for more recent work on visual memory and visual attention. We conclude with a brief overview of how knowledge of visual attention and visual memory is being applied in visualization and graphics. We also discuss how challenges in visualization are motivating research in psychophysics.

  3. Progress in Scientific Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N

    2004-11-15

    Visualization of observed data or simulation output is important to science and engineering. I have been particularly interested in visualizing 3-D structures, and report here my personal impressions on progress in the last 20 years in visualizing molecules, scalar fields, and vector fields and their associated flows. I have tried to keep the survey and list of references manageable, so apologize to those authors whose techniques I have not mentioned, or have described without a reference citation.

  4. Helicopter visual aid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisley, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The helicopter visual aid system has been built and flight tested in situations representative of actual flight missions. The mechanisms discussed contributed greatly to the successful performance of the system throughout the 160 hours of flight testing. It has demonstrated that the visual aid concept can provide improved daytime visual capability, greatly improved nighttime capability, surveillance from greater distances and/or altitudes, covert operation at night through the use of the IR searchlight, and a photographic recording at the scene being viewed.

  5. Delayed visual maturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, G F; Hungerford, J.; Jones, R B

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen blind babies who were considered to be showing the characteristics of delayed visual maturation were studied prospectively. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds, and the criteria for this are discussed. All of these infants developed visual responses between 4 and 6 months of age and had normal or near normal visual acuities by 1 year of age. Long term follow up, however, has shown neurological abnormalities in some of these children.

  6. Visual signs and symptoms in patients with the visual variant of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pierre-François; Ghika, Joseph; Borruat, François-Xavier

    2015-06-30

    Prominent visual symptoms can present in the visual variant of Alzheimer's disease (VVAD). Ophthalmologists have a significant role to play in the early diagnosis of VVAD. We retrospectively reviewed the files of ten consecutive patients diagnosed with VVAD. All patients had a full neuro-ophthalmologic examination, a formal neurological and neuro-psychological testing, and cerebral MRI to confirm diagnosis. In addition, functional neuroimaging was obtained in seven patients. The common primary symptom at presentation with all patients was difficulty with near vision (reading difficulty n = 8, "visual blur" in near vision n = 2), and difficulty writing (n = 3). Following assessment, impaired reading and writing skills were evident in 9/10 and 8/10 patients respectively. Median distance visual acuity was 20/25 and at near the median visual acuity was J6. Partial homonymous visual field defect was detected in 80 % (8/10) of the patients. Color vision was impaired in all patients when tested with Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, but simple color naming was normal in 8/9 tested patients. Simultanagnosia was present in 8/10 patients. Vision dysfunction corresponded with cerebral MRI findings where parieto-occipital cortical atrophy was observed in all patients. PET scan (5 patients) or SPECT (2 patients) revealed parieto-occipital dysfunction (hypometabolism or hypoperfusion) in all 7 tested patients Visual difficulties are prominent in VVAD. Dyslexia, incomplete homonymous hemianopia, preserved color identification with abnormal color vision on Ishihara, and simultanagnosia were all symptoms observed frequently in this patient series. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility of neurodegenerative disorders such as VVAD in patients with unexplained visual complaints, in particular reading difficulties.

  7. In vitro fermentation of ten cultivars of barley silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation characteristics of whole-crop barley silages from ten different cultivars were evaluated by the in vitro gas production technique. The organic matter degradability of barley silage (62.9% in average was comparable to those reported in our previous trials for oat (59.7% and sorghum silages (65.5%; while the maximum gas production rate (5.38 ml/h in average was slightly lower respect to oat (6.71 ml/h and sorghum silage (6.74 ml/h. The mean nutritive value (4.00 MJ/kg DM calculated on the basis of both chemical composition and in vitro fermentation data was comparable to that (4.16 MJ/kg DM obtained in our previous research performed on corn silage, from crop sowed in the same area.

  8. Breast Cancer in Transgender Veterans: A Ten-Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, George R

    2015-03-01

    All known cases of breast cancer in patients with a diagnosis consistent with transgender identification were identified in the Veterans Health Administration (1996-2013). Ten cases were confirmed: seven birth sex females and three birth sex males. Of the three birth sex males, two identified as gender dysphoric male-to-female and one identified as transgender with transvestic fetishism. The birth sex males all presented with late-stage disease that proved fatal, whereas most of the birth sex female transgender veterans presented with earlier stage disease that could be treated. These cases support the importance of screening for breast cancer using standard guidelines in birth sex males and females. Family history of breast cancer should be obtained from transgender people as part of routine care. This report expands the known cases of breast cancer in transgender persons from 5 to 12 (female-to-male) and from 10 to 13 (male-to-female).

  9. Instability Rules: The Ten Most Amazing Ideas of Modern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Charles

    2002-03-01

    World-altering discoveries that reveal a universe of uncertainty and constant change Whether probing the farthest reaches of the vast universe or exploring the microscopic world of genetics and the subatomic world of quantum mechanics, Instability Rules is a remarkably informative and engaging look at ten milestone discoveries and their discoverers-a wide range of very human personalities whose insights have dramatically altered our most basic assumptions about human existence during the last century. The stories include Edwin Hubble and the expanding universe, Alfred Wegener and continental drift, Neils Bohr and quantum mechanics, Alan Turing and artificial intelligence, and James Watson and Francis Crick and DNA. Also covering discoveries of the twenty-first century that are already refining these and other ideas, Instability Rules is an exhilarating, sometimes amusing encounter with the defining scientific discoveries of our age.

  10. Eight to ten years follow-up after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen Rathenborg, Lisbet; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    Follow-up information was obtained on 185 patients who consecutively underwent carotid endarterectomy eight to ten years previously. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed in 59 patients who were still alive and living within 100 miles of the hospital. Using lifetable analysis, the annual...... of restenosis and the development of symptoms, perhaps with the exception of internal carotid artery occlusion, which is not an accepted indication for carotid endarterectomy. Together with recent data from the literature, these observations challenge the indication for reoperative carotid surgery....... rate of focal strokes was estimated to be 2% and 1.5% on the operated and the contralateral, non-operated carotid artery, respectively. Doppler examination revealed 48% re-stenoses, including 14% occlusion and 15% greater than 50% stenosis. However, there was no association between the occurrence...

  11. Top ten list of user-hostile interface design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes ten of the most frequent ergonomic problems found in human-computer interfaces (HCIs) associated with complex industrial machines. In contrast with being thought of as ``user friendly,`` many of these machines are seen as exhibiting ``user-hostile`` attributes by the author. The historical lack of consistent application of ergonomic principles in the HCIs has led to a breed of very sophisticated, complex manufacturing equipment that few people can operate without extensive orientation, training, or experience. This design oversight has produced the need for extensive training programs and help documentation, unnecessary machine downtime, and reduced productivity resulting from operator stress and confusion. Ergonomic considerations affect industrial machines in at least three important areas: (1) the physical package including CRT and keyboard, maintenance access areas, and dedicated hardware selection, layout, and labeling; (2) the software by which the user interacts with the computer that controls the equipment; and (3) the supporting documentation.

  12. The Last Ten Years in the Bristish Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Rico, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Después de la Segunda Guerra mundial, Gran Bretaña se encontró con una escasez de trabajadores cualificados sin precedente. El problema más importante era como animar a la población más joven a continuar su educación ya que cada uno de ellos era una pieza imprescindible en la reconstrucción nacional y en la imagen internacional del país. La discriminación racial y la filosofía de Charles Darwin ayudó a elaborar la idea que el británico blanco tenía la superioridad económica , moral e inte...

  13. Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz; Atha, Daniel E; Ma, Jun; Nee, Michael H; Kennelly, Edward J

    2002-02-01

    The EtOAc extract obtained from ten edible North American plants, Acorus calamus, Clintonia borealis, Gaultheria shallon, Juniperus osteosperma, Opuntia polyacantha, Prunus americana, Prunus virginiana, Sambucus cerulea, Sorbus americana and Vaccinium parvifolium, were tested in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. High antioxidant activity was obtained from the extracts of three fruits, Gaultheria shallon, Sambucus cerulea and Prunus americana and one extracted rhizome, Acorus calamus. Catechin and epicatechin, potent polyphenolic antioxidants, were identified in the EtOAc extracts of Gaultheria shallon and Sambucus cerulea by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Managing information resources: a study of ten healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, C J; Hornberger, K D; Shmerling, J E

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the results of information technology management audits conducted by senior executives at ten healthcare organizations. The audits evaluated how well the following seven information technology management responsibilities were carried out: (1) strategic information systems planning; (2) employment of a user focus in system development; (3) recruiting of competent personnel; (4) information systems integration; (5) protection of information security and confidentiality; (6) employment of effective project management in system development; and (7) post-implementation evaluation of information systems. The audit results suggest that most of these responsibilities are being met to a considerable extent by a majority of the organizations studied. However, substantial variation across organizations was noted. Executives participating in the study were able to define areas in which the management of information resources in their organizations was in need of attention. The audit process encourages senior management to provide the leadership required to ensure that information technology is used to maximum advantage.

  15. Mobile and Social: Ten Best Practices for Designing Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu LICA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives ten best practices for designing mobile applications that have social-networking functions. The need for such an approach is given by the rapid growth in impor-tance of both social networks and mobile applications. In order to make it easy to follow where the best practices come from, the paper starts with a look at why social networks are more than just a buzz word and at how the field of mobile applications is evolving. It also shows how and why the two fields go together so well. To further make the point, there is a case study of four interesting mobile applications that are textbooks examples of successful applications. The best practices are based on research done for this article and on the extensive knowledge of the author.

  16. Ten Years of Support for Basic Scientific Research by CONACYT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humberto Fabila Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of ten years of support for basic scientific research by the CONACYT. The paper identifies the strongest areas of knowledge in basic science in Mexico and concludes that the institutions where basic science is done are mainly public higher education institutions, followed by also public research centers, while private institutions of higher education and companies carry out almost no research in basic science. Findings show that research on basic science in state universities has grown impressively in recent years, reaching the level of the institutions of higher education of the Federal District. Finally, the implications of these findings as well as the public policies through which support has been granted are discussed.

  17. Does visual expertise improve visual recognition memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karla K; Cohen, Michael A; Tambouret, Rosemary; Horowitz, Todd; Kreindel, Erica; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-01-01

    In general, humans have impressive recognition memory for previously viewed pictures. Many people spend years becoming experts in highly specialized image sets. For example, cytologists are experts at searching micrographs filled with potentially cancerous cells and radiologists are expert at searching mammograms for indications of cancer. Do these experts develop robust visual long-term memory for their domain of expertise? If so, is this expertise specific to the trained image class, or do such experts possess generally superior visual memory? We tested recognition memory of cytologists, radiologists, and controls with no medical experience for three visual stimulus classes: isolated objects, scenes, and mammograms or micrographs. Experts were better than control observers at recognizing images from their domain, but their memory for those images was not particularly good (D' ~ 1.0) and was much worse than memory for objects or scenes (D' > 2.0). Furthermore, experts were not better at recognizing scenes or isolated objects than control observers.

  18. Visual computing scientific visualization and imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...

  19. Systems Analysis of Ten Supply Chains for Whole Tree Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Belbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole trees from energy thinnings constitute one of many forest fuel sources, yet ten widely applied supply chains could be defined for this feedstock alone. These ten represent only a subset of the real possibilities, as felling method was held constant and only a single market (combustion of whole tree chips was considered. Stages included in-field, roadside landing, terminal, and conversion plant, and biomass states at each of these included loose whole trees, bundled whole trees or chipped material. Assumptions on prices, performances, and conversion rates were based on field trials and published literature in similar boreal forest conditions. The economic outcome was calculated on the basis of production, handling, treatment and storage costs and losses. Outcomes were tested for robustness on a range of object volumes (50–350 m3solid, extraction distances (50–550 m and transport distances (10–70 km using simulation across a set of discrete values. Transport was calculated for both a standard 19.5 m and an extended 24 m timber truck. Results showed that the most expensive chain (roadside bundling, roadside storage, terminal storage and delivery using a 19.5 m timber truck at 158 € td−1 was 23% more costly than the cheapest chain (roadside chipping and direct transport to conversion plant with container truck, at 128 € td−1. Outcomes vary at specific object volumes and transport distances, highlighting the need to verify assumptions, although standard deviations around mean supply costs for each chain were small (6%–9%. Losses at all stages were modelled, with the largest losses (23 € td−1 occurring in the chains including bundles. The study makes all methods and assumptions explicit and can assist the procurement manager in understanding the mechanisms at work.

  20. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (advantage of lung ultrasound is that the patient is not exposed to radiation, and so the LUCI-FLR project (LUCI favouring limitation of radiation) can be unfolded in trauma patients. Although it has been practiced for 25 years, critical care ultrasound is a relatively young but expanding discipline and can be seen as the stethoscope of the modern intensivist. In this review, the usefulness and advantages of ultrasound in the critical care setting are discussed in ten points. The emphasis is on a holistic approach, with a central role for lung ultrasound.

  1. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Ten Cephalaria Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli Boke Sarikahya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the assessment of fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of ten Cephalaria (C. aytachii, C. taurica, C. tuteliana, C. procera, C. speciosa, C. tchihatchewii, C. hirsuta, C. elazigensis var. elazigensis,C. anatolica and C. aristata species. The principal fatty acids in all species were oleic acid (10.28-31.65%, linoleic acid (17.81–37.67% and palmitic acid (10.54–23.81%. L inolenic acid was also the most abundant fatty acid component in C. tuteliana (24.42% and in C. speciosa (36.65% . Invitro antioxidant capacity of the hexane extracts of ten Cephalaria species was investigated by CUPRAC and DPPH methods. Total phenolic content of hexane extracts was also examined. The results showed that all species of Cephalaria have antioxidant properties with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (1.005 ± 0.13 mmol trolox equivalent per gram extact in C. aristata and the highest radical scavenging activity (IC 50 value 3.768 ± 0.67 mg/mL in C. tchihatchewii . It was found that reducing power of C. aristata and radical scavenging potential of C. tchihatchewii were mainly due to highest phenolic contents of these species (2.907 ± 0.146 and 3.037 ± 0.156 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram extract, respectively. These findings suggest that the Cephalaria species might be used as a potential source of unsaturated fatty acids as well as phenolic constituents possessing antioxidant activity in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries

  2. Ten major trends now emerging in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naisbitt, J.

    1978-01-01

    Using a special analytical procedure for tracking and assessing events reported in the nation's newspapers, the Center for Policy Process has identified ten emerging trends in the United States that are having a major impact on all our lives and on all businesses and industries--and especially on the electric utility industry. Although the trends may move in contradictory directions and have different degrees of significance, all have been carefully monitored for a considerable length of time. All are firmly established--and are not to be viewed as the momentary interests of certain radical elements of the population. The ten trends are: the fast-emerging clash between nuclear fuel and coal as an environmental health issue; displacement of racism and sexism by ''ageism'' as society's most prominent anti-discrimination preoccupation, and the complete elimination soon of mandatory retirement; in government and technology, the phenomenon of ''appropriate scale'' replacing economies of scale, emergence of single-issue political organizations; coming-of-age of the recycling ethic; emergence of ''access to capital'' as the new equity issue--the new rights issue; continuing shift from centralization to decentralization; movement of society in the dual directions of high technology/high touch; business' increasing involvement with the well-established accountability trend; and shift from a representative democracy to a participatory democracy--this profound change in American democracy actually began about a decade or so ago.

  3. Factors Contributing to Long-Term Severe Visual Impairment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkhajornpong, Passara; Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Siriyotha, Sukanya; Kanokrungsee, Silada; Chuckpaiwong, Varintorn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To study the correlation between demographics and clinical variables and long-term severe visual impairment in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods. A retrospective chart review of SJS/TEN patients between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Demographics, causative agents, ocular manifestations, and visual outcomes were collected. The data were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results. Of the 89 patients including SJS (65, 73.03%), TEN (15, 16.85%), and SJS-TEN overlap (9, 10.11%), 55 were female. The mean age was 41.58 ± 19.17 years. The most common identified agents were medications. Among these groups, antibiotics were the most prevalent (47.19%). Three patients (3.7%) had unknown etiology. Antibiotics and nonpharmaceutical triggers were significantly associated with long-term severe visual impairment (odds ratio 4.32; P = 0.015 and 7.20; P = 0.037, resp.). There was a significant negative relationship between HIV infection and long-term severe visual impairment (P = 0.021). Among all chronic ocular complications, only corneal neovascularization significantly correlated with severe visual impairment (P = 0.001). Conclusions. SJS/TEN patients caused by nonpharmaceutical triggers or antibiotics have an increased risk of developing long-term severe visual impairment from corneal neovascularization. HIV infection might be a protective factor against long-term poor visual outcomes.

  4. Factors Contributing to Long-Term Severe Visual Impairment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passara Jongkhajornpong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the correlation between demographics and clinical variables and long-term severe visual impairment in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN. Methods. A retrospective chart review of SJS/TEN patients between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Demographics, causative agents, ocular manifestations, and visual outcomes were collected. The data were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results. Of the 89 patients including SJS (65, 73.03%, TEN (15, 16.85%, and SJS-TEN overlap (9, 10.11%, 55 were female. The mean age was 41.58 ± 19.17 years. The most common identified agents were medications. Among these groups, antibiotics were the most prevalent (47.19%. Three patients (3.7% had unknown etiology. Antibiotics and nonpharmaceutical triggers were significantly associated with long-term severe visual impairment (odds ratio 4.32; P=0.015 and 7.20; P=0.037, resp.. There was a significant negative relationship between HIV infection and long-term severe visual impairment (P=0.021. Among all chronic ocular complications, only corneal neovascularization significantly correlated with severe visual impairment (P=0.001. Conclusions. SJS/TEN patients caused by nonpharmaceutical triggers or antibiotics have an increased risk of developing long-term severe visual impairment from corneal neovascularization. HIV infection might be a protective factor against long-term poor visual outcomes.

  5. Factors Contributing to Long-Term Severe Visual Impairment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriyotha, Sukanya; Kanokrungsee, Silada; Chuckpaiwong, Varintorn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To study the correlation between demographics and clinical variables and long-term severe visual impairment in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods. A retrospective chart review of SJS/TEN patients between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Demographics, causative agents, ocular manifestations, and visual outcomes were collected. The data were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results. Of the 89 patients including SJS (65, 73.03%), TEN (15, 16.85%), and SJS-TEN overlap (9, 10.11%), 55 were female. The mean age was 41.58 ± 19.17 years. The most common identified agents were medications. Among these groups, antibiotics were the most prevalent (47.19%). Three patients (3.7%) had unknown etiology. Antibiotics and nonpharmaceutical triggers were significantly associated with long-term severe visual impairment (odds ratio 4.32; P = 0.015 and 7.20; P = 0.037, resp.). There was a significant negative relationship between HIV infection and long-term severe visual impairment (P = 0.021). Among all chronic ocular complications, only corneal neovascularization significantly correlated with severe visual impairment (P = 0.001). Conclusions. SJS/TEN patients caused by nonpharmaceutical triggers or antibiotics have an increased risk of developing long-term severe visual impairment from corneal neovascularization. HIV infection might be a protective factor against long-term poor visual outcomes. PMID:28458921

  6. Visual languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t

  7. Visualization in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    MacEachren, AM

    1994-01-01

    Visualization in Modern Cartography explores links between the centuries-old discipline of cartography and today's revolutionary developments in scientific visualization. The book has three main goals: (1) to pass on design and symbolization expertise to the scientific visualization community - information that comes from centuries of pre-computer visualization by cartographers, and their more recent experiences with computerizing the discipline; (2) to help cartographers cope with the dramatic shift from print cartography to a dynamic virtual cartography for which their role is changing from

  8. Visual Analytics 101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jean; Burtner, Edwin R.; Cook, Kristin A.

    2016-06-13

    This course will introduce the field of Visual Analytics to HCI researchers and practitioners highlighting the contributions they can make to this field. Topics will include a definition of visual analytics along with examples of current systems, types of tasks and end users, issues in defining user requirements, design of visualizations and interactions, guidelines and heuristics, the current state of user-centered evaluations, and metrics for evaluation. We encourage designers, HCI researchers, and HCI practitioners to attend to learn how their skills can contribute to advancing the state of the art of visual analytics

  9. B-1 AFT Nacelle Flow Visualization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celniker, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A 2-month program was conducted to perform engineering evaluation and design tasks to prepare for visualization and photography of the airflow along the aft portion of the B-1 nacelles and nozzles during flight test. Several methods of visualizing the flow were investigated and compared with respect to cost, impact of the device on the flow patterns, suitability for use in the flight environment, and operability throughout the flight. Data were based on a literature search and discussions with the test personnel. Tufts were selected as the flow visualization device in preference to several other devices studied. A tuft installation pattern has been prepared for the right-hand aft nacelle area of B-1 air vehicle No.2. Flight research programs to develop flow visualization devices other than tufts for use in future testing are recommended. A design study was conducted to select a suitable motion picture camera, to select the camera location, and to prepare engineering drawings sufficient to permit installation of the camera. Ten locations on the air vehicle were evaluated before the selection of the location in the horizontal stabilizer actuator fairing. The considerations included cost, camera angle, available volume, environmental control, flutter impact, and interference with antennas or other instrumentation.

  10. Automated visualization of rule-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Jose-Juan; Faeder, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Frameworks such as BioNetGen, Kappa and Simmune use “reaction rules” to specify biochemical interactions compactly, where each rule specifies a mechanism such as binding or phosphorylation and its structural requirements. Current rule-based models of signaling pathways have tens to hundreds of rules, and these numbers are expected to increase as more molecule types and pathways are added. Visual representations are critical for conveying rule-based models, but current approaches to show rules and interactions between rules scale poorly with model size. Also, inferring design motifs that emerge from biochemical interactions is an open problem, so current approaches to visualize model architecture rely on manual interpretation of the model. Here, we present three new visualization tools that constitute an automated visualization framework for rule-based models: (i) a compact rule visualization that efficiently displays each rule, (ii) the atom-rule graph that conveys regulatory interactions in the model as a bipartite network, and (iii) a tunable compression pipeline that incorporates expert knowledge and produces compact diagrams of model architecture when applied to the atom-rule graph. The compressed graphs convey network motifs and architectural features useful for understanding both small and large rule-based models, as we show by application to specific examples. Our tools also produce more readable diagrams than current approaches, as we show by comparing visualizations of 27 published models using standard graph metrics. We provide an implementation in the open source and freely available BioNetGen framework, but the underlying methods are general and can be applied to rule-based models from the Kappa and Simmune frameworks also. We expect that these tools will promote communication and analysis of rule-based models and their eventual integration into comprehensive whole-cell models. PMID:29131816

  11. Automated visualization of rule-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, John Arul Prakash; Tapia, Jose-Juan; Faeder, James R

    2017-11-01

    Frameworks such as BioNetGen, Kappa and Simmune use "reaction rules" to specify biochemical interactions compactly, where each rule specifies a mechanism such as binding or phosphorylation and its structural requirements. Current rule-based models of signaling pathways have tens to hundreds of rules, and these numbers are expected to increase as more molecule types and pathways are added. Visual representations are critical for conveying rule-based models, but current approaches to show rules and interactions between rules scale poorly with model size. Also, inferring design motifs that emerge from biochemical interactions is an open problem, so current approaches to visualize model architecture rely on manual interpretation of the model. Here, we present three new visualization tools that constitute an automated visualization framework for rule-based models: (i) a compact rule visualization that efficiently displays each rule, (ii) the atom-rule graph that conveys regulatory interactions in the model as a bipartite network, and (iii) a tunable compression pipeline that incorporates expert knowledge and produces compact diagrams of model architecture when applied to the atom-rule graph. The compressed graphs convey network motifs and architectural features useful for understanding both small and large rule-based models, as we show by application to specific examples. Our tools also produce more readable diagrams than current approaches, as we show by comparing visualizations of 27 published models using standard graph metrics. We provide an implementation in the open source and freely available BioNetGen framework, but the underlying methods are general and can be applied to rule-based models from the Kappa and Simmune frameworks also. We expect that these tools will promote communication and analysis of rule-based models and their eventual integration into comprehensive whole-cell models.

  12. Automated visualization of rule-based models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Arul Prakash Sekar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frameworks such as BioNetGen, Kappa and Simmune use "reaction rules" to specify biochemical interactions compactly, where each rule specifies a mechanism such as binding or phosphorylation and its structural requirements. Current rule-based models of signaling pathways have tens to hundreds of rules, and these numbers are expected to increase as more molecule types and pathways are added. Visual representations are critical for conveying rule-based models, but current approaches to show rules and interactions between rules scale poorly with model size. Also, inferring design motifs that emerge from biochemical interactions is an open problem, so current approaches to visualize model architecture rely on manual interpretation of the model. Here, we present three new visualization tools that constitute an automated visualization framework for rule-based models: (i a compact rule visualization that efficiently displays each rule, (ii the atom-rule graph that conveys regulatory interactions in the model as a bipartite network, and (iii a tunable compression pipeline that incorporates expert knowledge and produces compact diagrams of model architecture when applied to the atom-rule graph. The compressed graphs convey network motifs and architectural features useful for understanding both small and large rule-based models, as we show by application to specific examples. Our tools also produce more readable diagrams than current approaches, as we show by comparing visualizations of 27 published models using standard graph metrics. We provide an implementation in the open source and freely available BioNetGen framework, but the underlying methods are general and can be applied to rule-based models from the Kappa and Simmune frameworks also. We expect that these tools will promote communication and analysis of rule-based models and their eventual integration into comprehensive whole-cell models.

  13. Effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS on hormones profile in subjects with primary dysmenorrhoea - a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. A. Akinbo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Primary dysmenorrhoea (PD is definedas the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin which occurs in the absence of any underlying disease. The pathogenesis is unclear, but uterine hyperactivity, elevated prostaglandin and leukotrienes levels, and hormonal level fluctuations have all been implicated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TENS on the hormones cortisol and prolactin in individuals with PD.Methods: Plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin were studied in twenty-one (21 subjects with PD by obtaining blood samples from each subject pre-and post-TENS therapy on the first day of menstruation. The mean age of subjects was 23 (+ 2 years.  The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to assess the pre-and post-treatment pain intensity.  The TENS unit was applied for a duration of 30 minutes.Results: A paired t-test showed that there was an overall reduction in the mean cortisol and prolactin from  pre treatment values of 28.45µg/dl ((5.27 and 56.81ng/ml ((31.86 to post treatment values of 27.33µg/dl ((5.13 and 53.23ng/ml ((37.63 respectively. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05.  Pain intensity was significantly reduced comparing pre and post treatment VAS scores (P = 0.001.Conclusion: The probable mechanism by which TENS effected alterations in cortisol and prolactin levels and pain reduction in subjects with PD might be through the opioid-modulating analgesia system, which releases B-endorphins and other endogenous opiates in response to pain.  This is because there is a close relationship between B-endorphin, cortisol and neurons, which secrete dopamine into the hypothalamic-pituitary-portal system.

  14. Evaluation of accelerated collagen cross-linking for the treatment of melting keratitis in ten cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famose, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Melting keratitis is a serious condition presenting a high risk of permanent blindness and is caused by infectious or noninfectious factors. In humans, the clinical efficacy of collagen cross-linking (CXL) has been described in the treatment of refractory infectious keratitis by arresting keratomalacia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of accelerated CXL for the treatment of melting keratitis in cats. Ten cats were treated for unilateral melting keratitis by accelerated CXL. Corneas were irradiated by UVA (370 nm) at 30 mW/cm² irradiance for 3 min after soaking with 0.1% riboflavin in 20% dextran for 30 min (D1). Follow-up was conducted 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after treatment. Pain improvement was noted for all cases at D4 examination. Epithelial healing was observed at D8 for 9 of 10 cases and at D15 for 1 of 10 cases. Resolution of cellular infiltration was observed for all cases at D8 examination. The corneal vascularization was reduced for 9 of 10 cats by D31. At D31, all cases presented a variable degree of corneal fibrosis, but all eyes had visual function. No recurrent infection was observed. Accelerated CXL appears to be a valuable option for the treatment of melting keratitis in cats. All the cases have reached a satisfactory outcome despite the individual differences in the conditions prior to the CXL treatment and the variable presence of infectious agents. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Management of orbital cellulitis and subperiosteal orbital abscess in pediatric patients: A ten-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, Vittorio; Demattè, Marco; Farneti, Paolo; Fornaciari, Martina; Corsini, Ilaria; Piccin, Ottavio; Saggese, Domenico; Fernandez, Ignacio Javier

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric periorbital cellulitis represents a common disease complicating a nasal infection. A ten-year retrospective review of fifty-seven children admitted to our institution with the diagnosis of periorbital cellulitis as a complication of sinus infections was carried out. The age varied from one month to eleven years (mean 3.9 years). Thirty-five were males (62%), while twenty-two were females (38%). Nine out of fifty-seven (15.8%) presented exophthalmos associated with eyelid erythema and edema, while the rest suffered mainly from eyelid erythema and edema. Twenty-two patients complaining of exophthalmos or not responding to medical therapy within 48 h were assessed with a computed tomography scan (38.6%). A subperiosteal orbital abscess was detected in nine cases and these patients underwent surgical drainage (15,8%). Recurrence of orbital infection occurred in three cases (5.3%). Medical management is the main treatment for both preseptal and postseptal orbital cellulitis. Nevertheless, there is no universally accepted guideline for the treatment of subperiosteal abscesses and each case should be treated accordingly. Urgent surgical drainage should be considered in cases not responding to adequate medical management, or those cases presenting visual deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Personal Visualization and Personal Visual Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dandan; Tory, Melanie; Aseniero, Bon Adriel; Bartram, Lyn; Bateman, Scott; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tang, Anthony; Woodbury, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Data surrounds each and every one of us in our daily lives, ranging from exercise logs, to archives of our interactions with others on social media, to online resources pertaining to our hobbies. There is enormous potential for us to use these data to understand ourselves better and make positive changes in our lives. Visualization (Vis) and visual analytics (VA) offer substantial opportunities to help individuals gain insights about themselves, their communities and their interests; however, designing tools to support data analysis in non-professional life brings a unique set of research and design challenges. We investigate the requirements and research directions required to take full advantage of Vis and VA in a personal context. We develop a taxonomy of design dimensions to provide a coherent vocabulary for discussing personal visualization and personal visual analytics. By identifying and exploring clusters in the design space, we discuss challenges and share perspectives on future research. This work brings together research that was previously scattered across disciplines. Our goal is to call research attention to this space and engage researchers to explore the enabling techniques and technology that will support people to better understand data relevant to their personal lives, interests, and needs.

  17. Visual Checking of Spreadsheets

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Chan, Hock Chuan

    2008-01-01

    The difference between surface and deep structures of a spreadsheet is a major cause of difficulty in checking spreadsheets. After a brief survey of current methods of checking (or debugging) spreadsheets, new visual methods of showing the deep structures are presented. Illustrations are given on how these visual methods can be employed in various interactive local and global debugging strategies.

  18. Integrating Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2006-01-01

    A major influence this generation of high school digital natives has had on the curriculum is their natural focus on visuals to convey information. They are driving the move toward visual information. In this article, one high school expands the learning environment from handhelds to videoconferencing. Sacred Heart has found that mixing the…

  19. Mathematica data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Saquib, Nazmus

    2014-01-01

    If you are planning to create data analysis and visualization tools in the context of science, engineering, economics, or social science, then this book is for you. With this book, you will become a visualization expert, in a short time, using Mathematica.

  20. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ...

  1. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > The Visual System All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ ...

  2. English 3135: Visual Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Oriana

    2013-01-01

    As an advanced rhetoric and composition doctoral student, I taught Engl 3135: Visual Rhetoric, a three-credit upper-level course offered by the Department of English at Georgia State University. Mary E. Hocks originally designed this course in 2000 to, in her words, "introduce visual information design theories and practices for writers [and]…

  3. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  4. The visual information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlyn J. Paulson

    1979-01-01

    This paper outlines a project level process (V.I.S.) which utilizes very accurate and flexible computer algorithms in combination with contemporary site analysis and design techniques for visual evaluation, design and management. The process provides logical direction and connecting bridges through problem identification, information collection and verification, visual...

  5. Normalized medical information visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  6. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ... Lead joe.balintfy@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations afh@nei.nih.gov NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 ... This website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website ...

  7. Disorders of visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ffytche, Dominic H.; Blom, J. D.; Catani, M.

    2010-01-01

    Visual perceptual disorders are often presented as a disparate group of neurological deficits with little consideration given to the wide range of visual symptoms found in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease. Here, the authors attempt a functional anatomical classification of all disorders

  8. Vision and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2008-01-01

    The art of visual communication is not restricted to the fine arts. Scientists also apply art in communicating their ideas graphically. Diagrams of anatomical structures, like the eye and visual pathways, and figures displaying specific visual phenomena have assisted in the communication of visual ideas for centuries. It is often the case that the development of a discipline can be traced through graphical representations and this is explored here in the context of concepts of visual science. As with any science, vision can be subdivided in a variety of ways. The classification adopted is in terms of optics, anatomy, and visual phenomena; each of these can in turn be further subdivided. Optics can be considered in terms of the nature of light and its transmission through the eye. Understanding of the gross anatomy of the eye and visual pathways was initially dependent upon the skills of the anatomist whereas microanatomy relied to a large extent on the instruments that could resolve cellular detail, allied to the observational skills of the microscopist. Visual phenomena could often be displayed on the printed page, although novel instruments expanded the scope of seeing, particularly in the nineteenth century.

  9. Critical Reading: Visual Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dennis M.

    The computer controlled visual media, particularly television, are becoming an increasingly powerful instrument for the manipulation of thought. Powerful visual images increasingly reflect and shape personal and external reality--politics being one such example--and it is crucial that the viewing public understand the nature of these media…

  10. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the

  11. VISUAL DISTRACTION WHILE DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime ITO

    2001-01-01

    The article provides background information and summarizes worldwide trends in research on accident rates, the special characteristics of visual behavior and the effects of visual distraction on drivers and vehicle behavior. It also reports on the state of ISO standardization efforts and related technological trends. Finally, it defines a number of topics for future research in the field of human engineering.

  12. Visual Absorption Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler

    1979-01-01

    Visual absorption capability (VAC) is a tool to assess a landscape's susceptibility to visual change caused by man's activities. This paper explores different descriptive approaches to VAC and addresses in depth the development of the VAC process used on the Klamath National Forest. Four biophysical factors were selected to assess VAC for the lands within the...

  13. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  14. Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator

  15. Network Visualization Project (NVP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    4 This makes for an intuitive and aesthetically pleasing graph drawing that is easy to learn and manipulate . Aside from the visual aspects of the...Fig. 7). From here, there are multiple controls to interact with as well as the visualization itself. The time line can be manipulated freely...

  16. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  17. Exploring the Visual Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Van Lammeren, R.; Van der Hoeven, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the Visual Landscape is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It showcases possible ways of getting a grip on themes like: landscape openness, cluttering of the rural landscape, high-rise buildings in relation to

  18. Delayed visual maturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Harel, S; Holtzman, M; Feinsod, M

    1983-01-01

    Three infants, recognised as blind during the first 4 months of life, were found to be normal on neurological and ophthalmological examinations. Visual electro-diagnostic studies showed normal retinal responses, but delayed conduction velocities and impaired visually-evoked responses over the occipital cortex. After age 6 months, normal vision developed gradually and all abnormalities disappeared.

  19. Delayed visual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, S; Holtzman, M; Feinsod, M

    1983-01-01

    Three infants, recognised as blind during the first 4 months of life, were found to be normal on neurological and ophthalmological examinations. Visual electro-diagnostic studies showed normal retinal responses, but delayed conduction velocities and impaired visually-evoked responses over the occipital cortex. After age 6 months, normal vision developed gradually and all abnormalities disappeared. PMID:6189454

  20. Visualization and mathematics III

    CERN Document Server

    Polthier, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    This research book on Mathematical Visualization contains state of the art presentations on visualization problems in mathematics, on fundamental mathematical research in computer graphics, and on software frameworks for the application of visualization to real-world problems. All contributions were written by leading experts in the field and peer-refereed by an international editorial team. The book grew out of the third international workshop "Visualization and Mathematics", which was held from May 22-25, 2002 in Berlin. The themes of the book cover important recent developments on - Geometry and Combinatorics of Meshes - Discrete Vector Fields and Topology - Geometric Modelling - Image Based Visualization - Software Environments and Applications - Education and Communication The variety of topics makes the book a suitable resource for researchers, lecturers, and practitioners; http://www-sfb288.math.tu-berlin.de/vismath/

  1. Houdini for Astrophysical Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.; Borkiewicz, Kalina; Christensen, A. J.

    2017-05-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large data sets. Here, we discuss some newly developed tools used to import and manipulate astrophysical data into the three-dimensional visual effects software, Houdini. This software is widely used by visual effects artists, but a recently implemented Python API now allows astronomers to more easily use Houdini as a visualization tool. This paper includes a description of features, workflow, and various example visualizations. The project website, www.ytini.com, is aimed at a scientific audience and contains Houdini tutorials and links to the Python script Bitbucket repository to simplify the process of importing and rendering astrophysical data.

  2. Visual Signs of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Rexbye

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.

  3. Visualization of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

    With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

  4. Visualization of JPEG Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Mohamad, Kamaruddin; Deris, Mustafa Mat

    There are a lot of information embedded in JPEG image than just graphics. Visualization of its metadata would benefit digital forensic investigator to view embedded data including corrupted image where no graphics can be displayed in order to assist in evidence collection for cases such as child pornography or steganography. There are already available tools such as metadata readers, editors and extraction tools but mostly focusing on visualizing attribute information of JPEG Exif. However, none have been done to visualize metadata by consolidating markers summary, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in a single program. In this paper, metadata visualization is done by developing a program that able to summarize all existing markers, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in JPEG. The result shows that visualization of metadata helps viewing the hidden information within JPEG more easily.

  5. Interactive Data Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Interactive data visualization leverages human visual perception and cognition to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of data analysis. When combined with automated data analytics, data visualization systems orchestrate the strengths of humans with the computational power of machines to solve problems neither approach can manage in isolation. In the intelligent transportation system domain, such systems are necessary to support decision making in large and complex data streams. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to several key topics related to the design of data visualization systems. In addition to an overview of key techniques and strategies, we will describe practical design principles. The chapter is concluded with a detailed case study involving the design of a multivariate visualization tool.

  6. [Visual and tactile agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P; Rivrain, Y; Eustache, F; Lambert, J; Courtheoux, P

    1984-01-01

    A patient presented with visual and tactile agnosia due to a spontaneous left occipito-temporal hematoma. Major memory and spatial orientation disorders were also noted, but language, gestures, auditory and olfactory perception, and interior visual imagerie were unaffected. A review of the literature since 1970 found 6 cases of an association of this type among 17 patients with visual agnosia. There appears to be no relationship between the presence of tactile agnosia and the global or partial character of the visual agnosia, the severity of memory disturbances, the presence of visuoverbal disconnection or visual imagery disorders. In contrast, these cases differed in that the lesions were more extensive and extended beyond the internal occipital regions: they were widespread in 3 cases and in the left internal occipital and parietal region in 1 case. In the patient reported in this paper there was a wide lesion of the posterior white matter of the left hemisphere.

  7. The influence of transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) on human cerebral blood flow velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Elting, Jan-Willem J.; Fidler, Vaclav; Staal, Michiel J.

    It has been shown that transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) reduces sympathetic tone. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has proven qualities to improve coronary, peripheral, and cerebral blood circulation. Therefore, we postulate that TENS and SCS affect the autonomic nervous system in

  8. Maternal depression and filicide-case study of ten mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Anne; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Vanamo, Tuija; Merikanto, Juhani; Karkola, Kari

    2008-07-01

    This study describes ten cases of filicides committed by mothers who intentionally killed one or more of their children within 12 months after delivery. The data were collected from police and court records, forensic psychiatric records, autopsy reports, and other medical records. The mean age of the mothers was 28.5 years and of the victims 4 months. The symptoms of depression were clear: an irritable, severely depressed mood with crying spells, insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, preoccupation with worries about the baby's well-being and the mother's caring abilities, suicidal ideation, or even psychotic thoughts. Most mothers had had house calls from the public health nurse or psychologist. The mothers' conditions deteriorated rapidly, and the filicide was committed when the mother was left alone with the baby against her will. The babies were well taken care of, not neglected or abused. The majority of the mothers had felt that their own parents, especially their mothers, were very demanding, rejecting, and emotionally unsupportive. All the mothers had also had traumatic experiences in their childhood or in adulthood.

  9. Ten years of integrated care for the older in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Somme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper analyzes progress made toward the integration of the French health care system for the older and chronically ill population.Policies: Over the last ten years, the French health care system has been principally influenced by two competing linkage models that failed to integrate social and health care services: local information and coordination centers, governed by the social field, and the gerontological health networks governed by the health field. In response to this fragmentation, Homes for the Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients (MAIAs is currently being implemented at experimental sites in the French national Alzheimer plan, using an evidence-based model of integrated care. In addition, the state's reforms recently created regional health agencies (ARSs by merging seven strategic institutions to manage the overall delivery of care.Conclusion: The French health care system is moving from a linkage-based model to a more integrated care system. We draw some early lessons from these changes, including the importance of national leadership and governance and a change management strategy that uses both top-down and bottom-up approaches to implement these reforms.

  10. Angioleiomyoma: magnetic resonance imaging features in ten cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupte, Cynthia; Butt, Sajid H.; Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Tirabosco, Roberto [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Histopathology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Angioleiomyoma is a rare, benign smooth muscle tumour arising from the tunica media of small veins and arteries and can occur anywhere in the body. The histological appearances are well documented, but there are relatively few descriptions of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. A retrospective study of the clinical presentation, MRI appearances and histological findings of ten angioleiomyomas presenting as extremity soft tissue masses. MRI typically demonstrated a well-defined, oval mass located superficial to the fascia with the commonest sites being the hand (three cases) and ankle/foot (five cases). The lesion was isointense to muscle on T1-weighted spin echo images with heterogeneous increased internal T2W/short tau inversion recovery (STIR) signal intensity, which commonly appeared as multiple linear or branching areas of hyperintensity. Enhancement after IV gadolinium ranged from diffuse to heterogeneous. In a single case, central fat signal intensity was seen, while a further case showed marked T2W/STIR hypointensity due to diffuse hyalinisation within the lesion. This is the largest reported MRI series of extremity musculoskeletal angioleiomyoma. Angioleiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a superficial mass in the hand or foot, particularly when characteristic linear or branching hyperintensity is seen on T2W or STIR images. (orig.)

  11. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ω-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 series. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  12. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harst, Eugenie van der, E-mail: eugenie.vanderharst@wur.nl [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Potting, José, E-mail: jose.potting@wur.nl [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Environmental Strategies Research (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-110 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have only one impact category in common, namely climate change with global warming potential (GWP) as its category indicator. Quantitative GWP results of the studies were closer examined. GWPs within and across each study show none of the cup materials to be consistently better than the others. Comparison of the absolute GWPs (after correction for the cup volume) also shows no consistent better or worse cup material. An evaluation of the methodological choices and the data sets used in the studies revealed their influence on the GWP. The differences in GWP can be attributed to a multitude of factors, i.e., cup material and weight, production processes, waste processes, allocation options, and data used. These factors basically represent different types of uncertainty. Sensitivity and scenario analyses provided only the influence of one factor at once. A systematic and simultaneous use of sensitivity and scenario analyses could, in a next research, result in more robust outcomes. -- Highlights: • Conflicting results from life cycle assessment (LCA) on disposable cups • GWP results of LCAs did not point to a best or worst cup material. • Differences in GWP results are due to methodological choices and data sets used. • Standardized LCA: transparency of LCA studies, but still different in approaches.

  13. Ten new and emerging trends in residential group living environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Victor; Denton, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Residential styled environments for physically challenged people with neuro disabilities are rapidly replacing the standard institutional skilled nursing home. Ten trends are described that utilize residential design approaches to the physical environment while relying on home-care style methods for service delivery. Combined these two forces create powerful differentiators which make group residential settings more friendly and humane. Northern European, as well as, US best practices and prototypes are described that combine housing with services in a range of contexts. The success of northern Europeans in promulgating models of aging-in-place that keep those at risk more independent in the community or within family settings are remarkable. Topics like the impact of small group living clusters, interior design treatments, access to landscape gardens, life skill management methods, movement systems for circulation and exercise, shared space priorities, unit design trends and innovative care giving techniques are introduced. The focus of the article is on specific practices gleaned from cultures and exemplars that appear to increase autonomy, independence and privacy for those who are threatened because of their disabilities with the loss of these lifestyle attributes. Promising concepts of service organization and community outreach are combined with detailed recommendations that address the need for lift technology and safety features in bathrooms and kitchens.

  14. Ten new species of Telipogon (Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae from southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán de Mera, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten new species of Telipogon, T. antisuyuensis, T. austroperuvianus, T. casadevalliae, T. farfanii, T. javiercastroviejoi, T. kosnipatensis, T. marleneae, T. mesotropicalis, T. santiagocastroviejoi, and T. tupayachii are described and illustrated. These are terrestrial or epiphytes of the montane humid forests from Andean valleys of southern Peru. Diagnostic morphological characters are discussed for each species. A key is provided for the species of the genus found in southern Peru. The number of Telipogon species currently recognized for the Peruvian flora is 46.Se describen e ilustran diez especies nuevas de Telipogon –T. antisuyuensis, T. austroperuvianus, T. casadevalliae, T. farfanii, T. javiercastroviejoi, T. kosnipatensis, T. marleneae, T. mesotropicalis, T. santiagocastroviejoi y T. tupayachii. Éstas son plantas terrestres o epífitas de los bosques húmedos montanos de los valles andinos del sur de Perú. Se discuten sus caracteres morfológicos diagnósticos y se propone una clave dicotómica para diferenciar las especies que crecen en el sur del país. El número de especies de Telipogon actualmente reconocidas para la flora peruana es de 46.

  15. Ten-year retrospective: OPEC and the world oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gately, D.

    1984-09-01

    This paper reviews the main events in the world oil market since 1973 and some major explanations as to what happened and why (Section I). Then there is a discussion of some projections for the next two decades and of some implications of various theories about OPEC's decisionmaking process (Section II). Section III summarizes what we have learned about modeling OPEC and the world oil market. This includes: the dominant theoretical approach based on the wealth-maximization model of Harold Hotelling (1931); the simulation approach most common in the applied literature, which envisages target-capacity-utilization pricing by OPEC; and the difficult problem of modeling price behavior during disruptions. Finally, Section IV discusses some important unresolved issues, both theoretical and empirical. A variety of contributions to the literature are considered, but the discussion pays special attention to two important recent works. One is the book OPEC Behavior and World Oil Prices (1982) (EAPA 9:3899) edited by James Griffin and David Teece, an important collection of papers on OPEC and world oil, prepared for a 1981 conference at the University of Houston. The other is the 1980 to 1981 world oil study by the Energy Modeling Forum of Stanford Univesity, which involved ten prominent models of the world oil market. 31 references.

  16. Foothills Model Forest: a ten-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.

    2002-04-01

    The first ten years of the Foothills Model Forest, established in 1992, is reviewed. The model forest has been established to develop sustainable forest management within the broader concept of sustainable development and integrated resource management. The project focuses on issues such as wildlife habits and habitats; biodiversity monitoring; natural disturbance trends and patterns; and socio-economic studies. In Phase One of the Canadian Model Forest Network the Foothills Model Forest focused primarily on conducting world class research to advance the concept of sustainable forest management. Phase Two was devoted to communicating the results of that research, with a strong emphasis on generating baseline awareness of the concept of sustainable forest management and creating public awareness of the project's mandate in Alberta. Work during the next five years is expected to focus on demonstration and implementation of research results to forest managers and practitioners and others with a stake in the continued sustainability of Alberta's forests. The Sustainable Forest Management project shares a common objective with the Alberta Chamber of Resources' Integrated Landscape Management project; both projects recognise that reducing the industrial footprint is key to sustainable development. The emphasis on demonstration and implementation in the third phase of the Foothills Model Forest is expected to ensure continued sustainability of forests, ecosystems, communities and resources, with full recognition of the fact that the goal of sustainable development can be achieved only by full cooperation and integrated action of all stakeholders.

  17. Ten years of integrated care for the older in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Somme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper analyzes progress made toward the integration of the French health care system for the older and chronically ill population. Policies: Over the last ten years, the French health care system has been principally influenced by two competing linkage models that failed to integrate social and health care services: local information and coordination centers, governed by the social field, and the gerontological health networks governed by the health field. In response to this fragmentation, Homes for the Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients (MAIAs is currently being implemented at experimental sites in the French national Alzheimer plan, using an evidence-based model of integrated care. In addition, the state's reforms recently created regional health agencies (ARSs by merging seven strategic institutions to manage the overall delivery of care. Conclusion: The French health care system is moving from a linkage-based model to a more integrated care system. We draw some early lessons from these changes, including the importance of national leadership and governance and a change management strategy that uses both top-down and bottom-up approaches to implement these reforms.

  18. 42 CFR 414.232 - Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nerve stimulators (TENS). 414.232 Section 414.232 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS). (a) General payment rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payment for TENS is made on a purchase basis with...

  19. Blockade of NMDA receptors prevents analgesic tolerance to repeated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingne, Priyanka M.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated daily application transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) results in tolerance, at spinal opioid receptors, to the anti-hyperalgesia produced by TENS. Since N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists prevent analgesic tolerance to opioid agonists we hypothesized that blockade of NMDA receptors will prevent tolerance to TENS. In rats with knee joint inflammation, TENS was applied for 20 minute daily at high frequency (100 Hz), low frequency (4 Hz), or sham TENS. Rats were treated with the NMDA antagonist MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg-0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle daily before TENS. Paw withdrawal thresholds were tested before and after inflammation, and before and after TENS treatment for 4 days. On day 1 TENS reversed the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold induced by joint inflammation. On day 4 TENS had no effect on the decreased withdrawal threshold in the group treated with vehicle demonstrating development of tolerance. However, in the group treated with 0.1 mg/kg MK-801, TENS significantly reversed the mechanical withdrawal thresholds on day 4 demonstrating that tolerance did not develop. Vehicle treated animals developed cross-tolerance at spinal opioid receptors. Treatment with MK-801 reversed this cross-tolerance at spinal opioid receptors. In summary, blockade of NMDA receptors prevents analgesic tolerance to daily TENS by preventing tolerance at spinal opioid receptors. Perspective Tolerance observed to the clinical treatment of TENS could be prevented by administration of pharmaceutical agents with NMDA receptors activity such as ketamine or dextromethorphan. PMID:18061543

  20. Does visual expertise improve visual recognition memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Karla K.; Cohen, Michael A.; Tambouret, Rosemary; Horowitz, Todd; Kreindel, Erica; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2011-01-01

    In general, humans have impressive recognition memory for previously viewed pictures. Many people spend years becoming experts in highly specialized image sets. For example, cytologists are experts at searching micrographs filled with potentially cancerous cells and radiologists are expert at searching mammograms for indications of cancer. Do these experts develop robust visual long-term memory for their domain of expertise? If so, is this expertise specific to the trained image class, or do ...

  1. Master VISUALLY Excel 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The complete visual reference on Excel basics. Aimed at visual learners who are seeking an all-in-one reference that provides in-depth coveage of Excel from a visual viewpoint, this resource delves into all the newest features of Excel 2010. You'll explore Excel with helpful step-by-step instructions that show you, rather than tell you, how to navigate Excel, work with PivotTables and PivotCharts, use macros to streamline work, and collaborate with other users in one document.: This two-color guide features screen shots with specific, numbered instructions so you can learn the actions you need

  2. Marketing engagement through visual content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marius Manic

    2015-01-01

      Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels...

  3. The Turkish Adaptation of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atak, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    Personality is one of the important domains of psychology, and it is an integration of emotional, cognitive, social and physical properties. In this study, we aimed to assess the applicability of the "Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI)" which measures five basic personality traits in Turkish young people. Data from a total of 420 participants - 208 male (49.1%) and 212 female (50.9%) - were employed for the validity and reliability analyses. Of the participants, 230 (54,8%; mean age: 23.2 years; sd=1.6) were university students and the rest were not (n=190; 45.2%; mean age: 23.4 years; df=1.7). The mean age of the participants was 22.1 years (df=1.3), ranging from 18 to 25 years. Language validity (correlations between 0.92 and 0.97), exploratory factor analysis yielded 10 items and five-factor model explaining 65.21% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analyses (χ2/df: 2.20, GFI=0.95, AGFI=0.92, CFI=0.93, NNFI=0.91, RMR=0.04, and RMSEA=0.03), item analysis, and convergent validity results indicated that a five-factor solution with 10 items met the criteria standards for adequacy of fit among Turkish young people. The internal consistency (Openness to Experiences 0.83, Agreeableness 0.81, Emotional Stability 0.83, Conscientiousness 0.84, and Extraversion 0.86) and test-retest stability (=54; Openness to Experiences 0.89, Agreeableness 0.87, Emotional Stability 0.89, Conscientiousness 0.87, and Extraversion 0.88) revealed a moderate to acceptable reliabilities. The results demonstrated that the TIPI could be used in studies that evaluate personality in Turkish young people.

  4. In vitro activity of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei. Methods The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experimentally infected pigs. For contact bioassays, essential oils were diluted with paraffin to get concentrations at 10, 5, and even 1% for the most efficient ones. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after contact. For fumigation bioassay, a filter paper was treated with 100 μL of the pure essential oil. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope for the first 5min, and then every 5min until 1h. Results Using contact bioassays, 1% clove and palmarosa oil killed all the mites within 20 and 50min, respectively. The oils efficacy order was: clove > palmarosa > geranium > tea tree > lavender > manuka > bitter orange > eucalyptus > Japanese cedar. In fumigation bioassays, the efficacy order was: tea tree > clove > eucalyptus > lavender > palmarosa > geranium > Japanese cedar > bitter orange > manuka. In both bioassays, cade oil showed no activity. Conclusion Essential oils, especially tea tree, clove, palmarosa, and eucalyptus oils, are potential complementary or alternative products to treat S. scabiei infections in humans or animals, as well as to control the mites in the environment.

  5. [TEN YEARS OF OPIOID CONSUMPTION BY CHILDREN (2001-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Tamar; Sherf, Michael; Battat, Erez; Vardy, Daniel; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2015-09-01

    Opioids are considered a cornerstone in the treatment of pain. They are rarely used in almost half of the countries of the world, especially in children. The aim of this study was to assess opioid use over a ten-year study period from 2001-2010, among children 0-18 years old who are members of Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest HMO in Israel Data on the purchase of opioids, authorized for use in Israel, was obtained from the computerized databases of CHS. In addition, the patient's demographic details and cancer morbidity were also extracted. The data was analyzed after all the doses of all opioids consumed (fentanyl patch, oxycodone, methadone, hydromorphone, oral transmucosal fentanyl) were converted into oral morphine equivalents (OME). In all, 1,098 children purchased at least one opioid prescription during the study period. Of them, 27.3% had a diagnosis of cancer and 55.5% were female. A 42% decrease in total annual OME (mg) purchased, from 209,443 mg to 122,048 mg, was observed from 2001 to 2010. There was no specific pattern or trend in the annual number of pediatric and adolescent patients who purchased at least one opioid drug during the study period. In 86.5% of the cases, children with a non-cancer cause of pain purchased opioids for only one month. There is a low and inconsistent rate of opioid consumption among pediatric and adolescent members of the CHS. Further study is needed to explore the reasons for this low opioid consumption rate in this population group.

  6. Ten years of extensive green roof experience in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau, U.; Siemsen, M. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Agrarian and Urban Ecological Projects; Gomez, G.N. [Chapingo Autonomous Univ., Chapingo (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described the installation of an extensive green roof in Mexico City as part of a collaboration between a German and a Mexican university. While the plants used in the project were indigenous to Mexico, most of the materials and green roof technologies came from Germany. The aim of the project was to create an extensive green roof system on a low maintenance basis without additional irrigation, and to determine the limits of growth and development of the vegetation. The project was conducted on 4 identical adjacent flat roofs. After a layer of filter cloth was installed to avoid damage to the waterproof membrane, a drainage layer of expanded clay was installed with different thicknesses on each of the 4 roofs. The growing medium was composed of Mexican volcanic material, a mineral material from Germany, and organic material consisting of coco fibers and sugarcane residues. Eight different substrate mixtures were tested. After several years it became clear that it was possible to implement an extensive green roof under extreme climatic conditions. However, it was observed that some plant specimens only survived in certain areas of the roof. The roofs underwent a complete renovation, and surviving specimens were salvaged. Vulnerable areas where leakage occurred were detected near air conditioning units and perimeter areas. Overheating of the areas led to distortion and contraction of the membrane, which led to its failure. All perimeter areas were covered by a zinc sheet to avoid direct solar radiation on the unprotected membrane. The selected plant material required supplemental irrigation during the first 2 months. No further additional watering was given. Ten months later, the vegetation was well established and had covered the surface density. One of the roofs was instrumented to measure a series of factors such as precipitation, stormwater runoff, temperature underneath a roof membrane. It was concluded that some plant species are capable of surviving

  7. Top ten most accessed AMOR articles in 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015/2016, Advances in Modern Oncology Research published a total of 67 articles over eight issues in two separate volumes. These published articles, consisting of editorials, reviews, case reports, and original research, have collectively accumulated 26,320 views as of December 2016. A total of 54 authors and 160 peer-reviewers from across the globe contributed to the journal in its first full year of publication. The journal’s top ten most accessed articles are:1. Indoles as anticancer agents (Vol. 1 Issue 1 2. Pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology of immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab in cancer translational medicine (Vol. 2 Issue 1 3. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; aetiological considerations (Vol. 1 Issue 1 4. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 expression in human breast and prostate cancer cases, and its regulation by sex steroid hormones (Vol. 2 Issue 2 5. Antiproliferative effects of cembranoid derivatives obtained from Red Sea soft coral Sarcophyton glaucum on human colorectal cancer cell lines (Vol. 1 Issue 1 6. Paraneoplastic pemphigus: A trait d’union between dermatology and oncology (Vol. 1 Issue 2 7. Cancer cell metastasis; perspectives from the focal adhesion (Vol. 1 Issue 1 8. Threshold-based parametric analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 Tesla to identify men with prostate cancer (Vol. 1 Issue 2 9. Economic burden of patients with inoperable advanced breast cancer receiving early or late capecitabine or trastuzumab as second-line treatment: A population-based study (Vol. 1 Issue 2 10. Non-coding RNAs: New therapeutic targets and opportunities for hepatocellular carcinoma (Vol. 2 Issue 1

  8. Brauchen die Universitäten noch dezentral strukturierte Bibliothekssysteme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Sühl-Strohmenger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Artikel stellt provokativ die Frage, ob es nicht konsequenter wäre, angesichts des Wandels der Informations- und Wissenschaftsstrukturen in den Hochschulen gänzlich auf dezentrale Bibliotheken in den Fakultäten, Fachbereichen und Instituten zu verzichten – beispielsweise zugunsten von Kommunikations- und Lernräumen. Die Überlegungen konzentrieren sich auf Hochschulbibliothekssysteme in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, beleuchten – auch im Licht der Anforderungen aufgrund überregionaler wissenschafts- bzw. hochschulpolitischer Empfehlungen und Gutachten – das Für und Wider dezentral organisierter Bibliothekssysteme und münden in dem Versuch einer Perspektive zukunftsgerichteter Hochschulbibliothekssysteme. In view of the changes in the information and scientific structures of the universities, this paper raises the provocative question, whether, it wouldn’t be more consistent to dispense entirely with decentralized libraries in the faculties, departments and institutes, and, for example, set up communication and learning spaces instead. The authors discuss pros and cons of decentrally structured library systems (taking also into account science and higher education policy advice and expertise for the requirements of the scientific system and the tertiary education in Germany, leading to an attempt to describe a perspective for forward-looking university library systems. Der Text ist die überarbeitete Fassung des gleichnamigen Vortrags, gehalten auf dem 103. Deutschen Bibliothekartag in Bremen 2014. Nicht wenige Erkenntnisse basieren auf dem von uns herausgegebenen „Handbuch Hochschulbibliothekssysteme. Leistungsfähige Informationsinfrastrukturen für Wissenschaft und Studium“ (Berlin, Boston: de Gruyter Saur, 2014. Wir danken allen Autorinnen und Autoren auch an dieser Stelle noch einmal für ihre hervorragenden Textbeiträge.

  9. The management of radioactive waste. A description of ten countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Andersson, Ann-Catrin [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a description of how the responsible authorities/companies in ten EDRAM countries (International Association for Environmentally Safe Disposal of Radioactive Materials) deal with the management of radioactive waste. The focus is on how the responsible organisation currently handles this issue, including technical, economic and socio-political aspects. The material used was primarily produced by the companies/authorities themselves. The report describes the development and situation in each country up to the end of 2001, or later if noted as such in the country report. The scope of this report does not permit an evaluation of how successful and effective the companies and authorities have been in implementing their plans and ambitions. The report does not include the views of other national stakeholders concerning radwaste management, or their opinions of the way that the authorities/companies handle the issue of radwaste. The description is based on a series of questions that were drawn up and discussed at the initial stage of the EDRAM co-operation. Technological aspects: 1. What technology is used? How is research and development promoted and executed? 2. Where is the waste to be put? What criteria does each country search for? 3. How is security to be maintained? Who can obtain a license for handling nuclear waste? Economic aspects: 1. In what way do the countries in question discuss the time aspects as regards delays and similar? 2. How are the economic and financial aspects of the process dealt with? Where does the money come from? Socio-political aspects: 4. What role do politicians play and to what extent is social acceptance a part of the process? What part does public opinion play? 5. How flexible is the decision-making process and can decisions be revised? 6. Does the public have confidence in the industry and the decision-makers? 7. What kind of institutional problems arise? With regard to public involvement in

  10. Enhanced visual performance in obsessive compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zohreh; Fadardi, Javad Salehi

    2016-12-01

    Visual performance is considered as commanding modality in human perception. We tested whether Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) people do differently in visual performance tasks than people without OCPD. One hundred ten students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and non-student participants were tested by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II), among whom 18 (mean age = 29.55; SD = 5.26; 84% female) met the criteria for OCPD classification; controls were 20 persons (mean age = 27.85; SD = 5.26; female = 84%), who did not met the OCPD criteria. Both groups were tested on a modified Flicker task for two dimensions of visual performance (i.e., visual acuity: detecting the location of change, complexity, and size; and visual contrast sensitivity). The OCPD group had responded more accurately on pairs related to size, complexity, and contrast, but spent more time to detect a change on pairs related to complexity and contrast. The OCPD individuals seem to have more accurate visual performance than non-OCPD controls. The findings support the relationship between personality characteristics and visual performance within the framework of top-down processing model. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. TENS and low-level laser therapy in the management of temporomandibular disorders Aplicação de TENS e laser de baixa freqüência no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thiemi Kato

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain relief and reestablishment of normal jaw function are the main goals of conservative management of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and laser therapy are part of these modalities, although little is known about their real efficacy in controlled studies. This research compared these two treatments in a sample of 18 patients with chronic TMD of muscular origin, divided into two groups (LASER and TENS. Treatment consisted of ten sessions, in a period of 30 days. Active range of motion (AROM, visual analogue scale (VAS of pain and muscle (masseter and anterior temporalis palpation were used for follow-up analysis. Data were analyzed by Friedman test and ANOVA for repeated measurements. Results showed decrease in pain and increase in AROM for both groups (pO tratamento das Disfunções Temporomandibulares (DTM objetiva ser conservador e reversível para alívio da dor e restauração da função normal. Sendo assim, tratamentos como a estimulação neural elétrica transcutânea (TENS e o laser de baixa freqüência têm sido utilizados. Portanto, foi premissa deste trabalho a comparação do TENS com o a terapia com laser de baixa freqüência no tratamento de pacientes com DTM. Foram selecionados dezoito pacientes com sinais e sintomas de DTM crônica de origem muscular. O grupo LASER recebeu aplicação de laser e o grupo TENS, estimulação elétrica, totalizando 10 sessões, três vezes por semana, durante um mês. A avaliação foi feita imediatamente antes e 5 minutos após cada sessão terapêutica, por meio da escala de análise visual (EAV para o registro da sensação de dor mensuração de abertura máxima e palpação muscular ( masseter e temporal anterior. Para análise estatística foram utilizados o teste de Friedman e ANOVA para mensurações repetidas. Os resultados demonstraram decréscimo na EAV e aumento da abertura bucal máxima de ambos os grupos (p<0,05. A palpa

  12. Scientific visualization uncertainty, multifield, biomedical, and scalable visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Min; Johnson, Christopher; Kaufman, Arie; Hagen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Based on the seminar that took place in Dagstuhl, Germany in June 2011, this contributed volume studies the four important topics within the scientific visualization field: uncertainty visualization, multifield visualization, biomedical visualization and scalable visualization. • Uncertainty visualization deals with uncertain data from simulations or sampled data, uncertainty due to the mathematical processes operating on the data, and uncertainty in the visual representation, • Multifield visualization addresses the need to depict multiple data at individual locations and the combination of multiple datasets, • Biomedical is a vast field with select subtopics addressed from scanning methodologies to structural applications to biological applications, • Scalability in scientific visualization is critical as data grows and computational devices range from hand-held mobile devices to exascale computational platforms. Scientific Visualization will be useful to practitioners of scientific visualization, ...

  13. Visual imagery without visual perception: lessons from blind subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bértolo, Helder

    2014-08-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG's spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

  14. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program ... All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural ...

  15. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More ...

  16. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI for Kids > The Visual System All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  17. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, ... and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI Division ...

  18. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... NEI for Kids > The Visual System All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | USA.gov ...

  19. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  20. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye ... is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  1. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > The Visual System All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video ... Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information ...

  2. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? ... able to see the world around you. Did You Know? On average, you blink about 15 to ...

  3. The visually impaired patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenberg, EA

    2008-01-01

    ... and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy...

  4. Visualization in scientific computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...

  5. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National ... All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ ...

  6. Visualizing guided tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads; Hansen, Frank Allan

    This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation...

  7. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  8. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  9. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  10. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  11. Edge Bundling in Information Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong Zhou Panpan Xu Xiaoru Yuan Huamin Qu

    2013-01-01

    The edge, which can encode relational data in graphs and multidimensional data in parallel coordinates plots, is an important visual primitive for encoding data in information visualization research...

  12. Introduction: Visualizing Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitson, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Introduction explores the relationship between visual and literary representations of modern warfare. What impact have paintings, cartoons, films and television had on the reporting of conflicts? How has the visual imagery of military violence – as the most extensive and damaging form of violence – changed? Here, Susan Sontag's 2003 essay Regarding the Pain of Others is used as a starting point for a wider discussion of what it means to portray, and to witness portrayals of, wartime viole...

  13. Towards Visual Sedimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This Poster receive the Best Poster award from the IEEE INFOVIS committee.; International audience; We present Visual Sedimentation, a new design metaphor for visualizing streaming data inspired by the geological process of sedimentation. Our work started by early experiments visualiz- ing political Twitter streams during the French 2012 presidential elections, and social interactions during a TV show. In both cases, the positive feedback we received expressed an unexpectedly high level of en...

  14. Visual Causal Feature Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Chalupka, Krzysztof; Perona, Pietro; Eberhardt, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    We provide a rigorous definition of the visual cause of a behavior that is broadly applicable to the visually driven behavior in humans, animals, neurons, robots and other perceiving systems. Our framework generalizes standard accounts of causal learning to settings in which the causal variables need to be constructed from micro-variables. We prove the Causal Coarsening Theorem, which allows us to gain causal knowledge from observational data with minimal experimental effort. The theorem prov...

  15. Delayed visual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, A R; Russell-Eggitt, I R; Dodd, K L; Mellor, D H

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three infants with delayed visual maturation (DVM) are presented. These have been classified according to their ocular and systemic features into three groups: DVM as an isolated anomaly, in association with mental retardation, and ocular abnormalities accompanied by DVM. The clinical features are discussed, particularly regarding the time and speed of visual improvement in the three groups. Infants with DVM who experienced difficulties in the perinatal period have an increased risk of developing permanent neurological sequelae.

  16. Human TEN1 maintains telomere integrity and functions in genome-wide replication restart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbek, Christopher; Wang, Feng; Price, Carolyn M

    2013-10-18

    TEN1 is a component of the mammalian CTC1-STN1-TEN1 complex. CTC1 and/or STN1 functions in telomere duplex replication, C-strand fill-in, and genome-wide restart of replication following fork stalling. Here we examine the role of human TEN1 and ask whether it also functions as a specialized replication factor. TEN1 depletion causes an increase in multitelomere fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals similar to that observed after CTC1 or STN1 depletion. However, TEN1 depletion also results in increased telomere loss. This loss is not accompanied by increased telomere deprotection, recombination, or T-circle release. Thus, it appears that both the multiple telomere signals and telomere loss stem from problems in telomere duplex replication. TEN1 depletion can also affect telomere length, but whether telomeres lengthen or shorten is cell line-dependent. Like CTC1 and STN1, TEN1 is needed for G-overhang processing. Depletion of TEN1 does not effect overhang elongation in mid-S phase, but it delays overhang shortening in late S/G2. These results indicate a role for TEN1 in C-strand fill-in but do not support a direct role in telomerase regulation. Finally, TEN1 depletion causes a decrease in genome-wide replication restart following fork stalling similar to that observed after STN1 depletion. However, anaphase bridge formation is more severe than with CTC1 or STN1 depletion. Our findings indicate that TEN1 likely functions in conjunction with CTC1 and STN1 at the telomere and elsewhere in the genome. They also raise the possibility that TEN1 has additional roles and indicate that TEN1/CTC1-STN1-TEN1 helps solve a wide range of challenges to the replication machinery.

  17. Visual electrophysiology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Brecelj

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrophysiological assessment of vision in children helps to recognise abnormal development of the visual system when it is still susceptible to medication and eventual correction. Visual electrophysiology provides information about the function of the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, cone and rod receptors, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells, optic nerve, chiasmal and postchiasmal visual pathway, and visual cortex.Methods: Electroretinograms (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEP are recorded non-invasively; in infants are recorded simultaneously ERG with skin electrodes, while in older children separately ERG with HK loop electrode in accordance with ISCEV (International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision recommendations.Results: Clinical and electrophysiological changes in children with nystagmus, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, achromatopsia, congenital stationary night blindness, progressive retinal dystrophies, optic nerve hypoplasia, albinism, achiasmia, optic neuritis and visual pathway tumours are presented.Conclusions: Electrophysiological tests can help to indicate the nature and the location of dysfunction in unclear ophthalmological and/or neurological cases.

  18. Quantized Visual Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alexander Escobar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.

  19. Visualization of multidimensional database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung

    2008-01-01

    The concept of multidimensional databases has been extensively researched and wildly used in actual database application. It plays an important role in contemporary information technology, but due to the complexity of its inner structure, the database design is a complicated process and users are having a hard time fully understanding and using the database. An effective visualization tool for higher dimensional information system helps database designers and users alike. Most visualization techniques focus on displaying dimensional data using spreadsheets and charts. This may be sufficient for the databases having three or fewer dimensions but for higher dimensions, various combinations of projection operations are needed and a full grasp of total database architecture is very difficult. This study reviews existing visualization techniques for multidimensional database and then proposes an alternate approach to visualize a database of any dimension by adopting the tool proposed by Kiviat for software engineering processes. In this diagramming method, each dimension is represented by one branch of concentric spikes. This paper documents a C++ based visualization tool with extensive use of OpenGL graphics library and GUI functions. Detailed examples of actual databases demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness in visualizing multidimensional databases.

  20. METAGRAPH VISUALIZATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kryvenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of visualization techniques for various types of graphs is done. Conclusion about the relevance of method development for metagraph visualizing is made. The paper deals with issues that arise when solving the problem of metagraph visualization, such as: the placement of nodes that belong to metavertices and do not belong to them, figures intersection of metavertices. These problems are exemplified. Criteria are proposed for the final image to be considered coherent, understandable for users and corresponding to a predetermined metagraph. The problem of metagraph visualization is posed. The method based on the principles of force algorithms is proposed for the problem solving. The rules for forces between metagraph nodes are defined in the framework of the method. These forces depend on nodes type between which they are performed and the presence of edges between them. This method does not involve human intervention during the formation of the image, thus saving time at frequent changes that require rebuilding of the image. The resulting image gives the possibility to portray clearly the entities of the subject area and the links between them. Graphical analysis methods can be applied to the image. Areas for the future researches are identified. They are: minimization of the number of edges intersections and the area occupied by the resulting image. Results of the modified visualization method can improve the visual metagraph representation.

  1. Cosmography and Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarède, Daniel; Courtois, Hélène M.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent

    2017-05-01

    Cosmography, the study and making of maps of the universe or cosmos, is a field where visual representation benefits from modern three-dimensional visualization techniques and media. At the extragalactic distance scales, visualization is contributing to our understanding of the complex structure of the local universe in terms of spatial distribution and flows of galaxies and dark matter. In this paper, we report advances in the field of extragalactic cosmography obtained using the SDvision visualization software in the context of the Cosmicflows Project. Here, multiple visualization techniques are applied to a variety of data products: catalogs of galaxy positions and galaxy peculiar velocities, reconstructed velocity field, density field, gravitational potential field, velocity shear tensor viewed in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors, envelope surfaces enclosing basins of attraction. These visualizations, implemented as high-resolution images, videos, and interactive viewers, have contributed to a number of studies: the cosmography of the local part of the universe, the nature of the Great Attractor, the discovery of the boundaries of our home supercluster of galaxies Laniakea, the mapping of the cosmic web, and the study of attractors and repellers.

  2. Incorporating gender perspective in small environmental projects. The experience of El Almanario in ten indigenous communities in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONI ARISTIZÁBAL, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Almanario is a project management methodology created by Small Grants Programme in Guatemalawhich operates following United Nations Global Environment Fund premises. The main goal of ourresearch is to show the results of fourth compulsory gender measures included in the Almanario approachin ten indigenous communities in Western Guatemala. The research reveals women participation has beenincreased and had allowed them to manage project resources. Two measures (the Promotora role and mixedAdvisory Board are preliminary steps to visualize women leadership but more time is needed in orderto consolidate and increase women participation. Nursemaids are perceived by women as a good measureto increase participation and really appropriate in a patriarchal context. Gender and self-esteem trainingshave increased women self-esteem and awareness on women rights.

  3. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) reduces pain, fatigue, and hyperalgesia while restoring central inhibition in primary fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Vance, Carol GT; Liebano, Richard E; Anand, Amrit S; Bush, Heather M; Lee, Kyoung S; Lee, Jennifer E; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Because TENS works by reducing central excitability and activating central inhibition pathways, we tested the hypothesis that TENS would reduce pain and fatigue and improve function and hyperalgesia in people with fibromyalgia who have enhanced central excitability and reduced inhibition. The current study used a double-blinded randomized, placebo controlled cross-over design to test effects of a single treatment of TENS in people with fibromyalgia. Three treatments were assessed in random order: active TENS, placebo TENS, no TENS. The following measures were assessed before and after each TENS treatment: pain and fatigue at rest and movement, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), 6 minute walk test (6MWT), range of motion (ROM), five time sit to stand test (FTSTS), and single leg stance (SLS). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was completed at end of testing. There was a significant decrease in pain and fatigue with movement for active TENS compared to placebo and no TENS. PPTs increased at site of TENS (spine) and outside site of TENS (leg) when compared to placebo TENS or no TENS. During Active TENS CPM was significantly stronger compared to placebo TENS and no TENS. No changes in functional tasks were observed with TENS. Thus, the current study suggests TENS has short-term efficacy in relieving symptoms of fibromyalgia while the stimulator is active. Future clinical trials should examine the effects of repeated daily delivery of TENS, similar to how TENS is used clinically, on pain, fatigue, function and quality of life in individuals with fibromyalgia. PMID:23900134

  4. An assessment of ten ocean reanalyses in the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotila, Petteri

    2017-04-01

    Ocean reanalysis (ORA) combines observations either statistically or with a hydrodynamical model, to reconstruct historical changes in the ocean. Global and regional ORA products are increasingly used in polar research, but their quality remains to be systematically assessed. To address this, the Polar ORA Intercomparison Project (PORA-IP) has been established following on from the ORA-IP project (Balmaseda et al. 2015, with other papers in a special issue of Climate Dynamics). The PORA-IP is constituted under the COST EOS initiative with plans to review reanalyses products in both the Arctic and Antarctic, and is endorsed by YOPP - the Year of Polar Prediction project. Currently, the PORA-IP team consists of 21 researchers from 15 institutes and universities. The ORA-IP products with polar physics, such as sea ice, have been updated where necessary and collected in a public database. In addition to model output, available observational polar climatologies are collected and used in the assessments. Due to the extensive variety of products, this database should become a valuable resource outside the PORA-IP community. For a comprehensive evaluation of the ten ORA products (CGLORSv5, ECDA3.1, GECCO2, Glorys2v4, GloSea5_GO5, MOVEG2i, ORAP5, SODA3.3.1, TOPAZ4 and UR025.4) in the Arctic and Southern Oceans several specific diagnostics are assessed. The PORA-IP diagnostics target the following topics: hydrography; heat, salinity and freshwater content; ocean transports and surface currents; mixed layer depth; sea-ice concentration and thickness; and snow thickness over sea ice. Based on these diagnostics, ORA product biases against observed data and their mutual spread are quantified, and possible reasons for discrepancies discussed. So far, we have identified product outliers and evaluated the multi-model mean. We have identified the importance of the atmospheric forcing, air-ocean coupling protocol and sea-ice data assimilation for the product performance. Moreover, we

  5. Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, A M; Belanger, J M; Bellumori, T; Bannasch, D L; Famula, T R

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic portosystemic shunt. The objective of the present study was to ascertain if disorders with higher prevalence in purebreds were restricted to particular breed group classifications within the purebred population, specifically the American Kennel Club breed grouping or groups with genomic similarities based upon allele sharing. For each disorder, healthy controls seen at the hospital during that same time period were matched for age, weight, and sex to each affected dog to determine risk of disease presentation in the purebred group as compared to that of the mixed-breed population. To enhance reliability of the analyses, sampling of matched healthy to affected dogs was repeated 50 times. For each comparison, the purebred subgroups to mixed-breed odds ratio was determined as was the mean P value used to test this ratio. For aortic stenosis, GDV, early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, and portosystemic shunt, most purebred groups were not statistically distinct from the mixed-breed population with higher prevalence in purebreds restricted to distinct subsets of purebred dogs. The conditions of atopy/allergic dermatitis, hypothyroidism, and IVDD were more pervasive across the purebred population with many groups having higher prevalence than the mixed-breed population. The prevalence of IVDD in purebred terrier groups was statistically lower than that observed for mixed-breed dogs. The results offer an assessment of the distribution of inherited disorders

  6. Avoid costly litigation: ten steps to implementing lawful hiring practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Judith H

    2004-01-01

    employment-related disputes that lead to costly litigation would never have arisen if the employer had implemented more effective employment practices. Hiring mistakes in particular cause many costly legal battles. This article identifies legal issues that precipitate litigation and suggests ten steps physicians can take to implement lawful hiring practices that will reduce the risk of costly employment suits while improving office efficiency, morale, and productivity. NOTE: This article is intended as an overview of lawful hiring strategies, and is not a substitute for legal advice from experienced employment counsel. Applicable laws vary from state to state and appropriate procedures may depend on specific factual situations. This article is not, and should not be construed as, legal advice.

  7. Real-time computer-based visual feedback improves visual acuity in downbeat nystagmus - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Julian; Bardins, S; Spiegel, Rainer; Kremmyda, O; Schneider, E; Strupp, M; Kalla, R

    2016-01-04

    Patients with downbeat nystagmus syndrome suffer from oscillopsia, which leads to an unstable visual perception and therefore impaired visual acuity. The aim of this study was to use real-time computer-based visual feedback to compensate for the destabilizing slow phase eye movements. The patients were sitting in front of a computer screen with the head fixed on a chin rest. The eye movements were recorded by an eye tracking system (EyeSeeCam®). We tested the visual acuity with a fixed Landolt C (static) and during real-time feedback driven condition (dynamic) in gaze straight ahead and (20°) sideward gaze. In the dynamic condition, the Landolt C moved according to the slow phase eye velocity of the downbeat nystagmus. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test for normal distribution and one-way ANOVA for comparison. Ten patients with downbeat nystagmus were included in the study. Median age was 76 years and the median duration of symptoms was 6.3 years (SD +/- 3.1y). The mean slow phase velocity was moderate during gaze straight ahead (1.44°/s, SD +/- 1.18°/s) and increased significantly in sideward gaze (mean left 3.36°/s; right 3.58°/s). In gaze straight ahead, we found no difference between the static and feedback driven condition. In sideward gaze, visual acuity improved in five out of ten subjects during the feedback-driven condition (p = 0.043). This study provides proof of concept that non-invasive real-time computer-based visual feedback compensates for the SPV in DBN. Therefore, real-time visual feedback may be a promising aid for patients suffering from oscillopsia and impaired text reading on screen. Recent technological advances in the area of virtual reality displays might soon render this approach feasible in fully mobile settings.

  8. Differential effect of visual motion adaption upon visual cortical excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, Astrid J.A.; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Ahmad, Hena; Bos, Jelte E.; Wuyts, Floris L.; Bronstein, Adolfo M.; Arshad, Qadeer

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to probe the effects of visual motion adaptation on early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) to investigate whether changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e., an

  9. Differential effect of visual motion adaptation upon visual cortical excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, A.J.A.; Ombergen, A. van; Ahmad, H.; Bos, J.E.; Wuyts, F.L.; Bronstein, A.; Arshad, Q.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to probe the effects of visual motion adaptation on early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) to investigate whether changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e., an

  10. PENERAPAN MODEL BRAND EQUITY TEN PADA UPBJJ-UT BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Surapto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study are to (1 analyze the dimensions of awareness, associations, perceived quality/leadership, loyalty, and market behavior based upon the assessment of Open University students and the public, (2 evaluate the Open University brand equity model based on brand equity ten. The time period of research was during April-July 2012 and the location was in Open University Bogor campus. The population of this study consisted of high school students, employees and students of Open University Bogor, amounting to 693,950 people. Samples of 400 people were obtained. The data is collected using survey method, whereby interviews of the sample group is conducted using a closed form questionnaire based upon the Likert scale method. Based on the results from the analysis of the measures of awareness and brand recall, the Open University got the ranking of 11th and 7th among the other universities from 2% of the respondents respectively. It was ranked 1st on the measure of recognition and unaware by 5.5% of respondents. Based on the results from the analysis of the measure of association using Cochran test, it was found that the attributes of time and cost are associated with the brand of Open University. Results from the analysis of the measure of perceived quality regarding quality of services provided by Open University to its students show that registration services rated good while study material, online tutorials and exams were assessed as fair. Result from the analysis of the price premium loyalty measures indicate that students objected to an increase in tuition over Rp.25.000,-. Satisfaction measure indicates that the level of satisfaction of the Open University students is up to the extent of liking the brand, that is like and enjoy the study at Open University. This is indicated by the highest score received for the level of liking the brand which is 70%. Result from the analysis of the measure market behavior regarding market

  11. Visual intelligence Microsoft tools and techniques for visualizing data

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Mark; Jorgensen, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Go beyond design concepts and learn to build state-of-the-art visualizations The visualization experts at Microsoft's Pragmatic Works have created a full-color, step-by-step guide to building specific types of visualizations. The book thoroughly covers the Microsoft toolset for data analysis and visualization, including Excel, and explores best practices for choosing a data visualization design, selecting tools from the Microsoft stack, and building a dynamic data visualization from start to finish. You'll examine different types of visualizations, their strengths and weaknesses, a

  12. Adjusting pulse amplitude during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application produces greater hypoalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleão, Manuela A; Laurino, Marjorie F; Gallego, Natalie L G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Rakel, Barbara; Vance, Carol; Sluka, Kathleen A; Walsh, Deirdre M; Liebano, Richard E

    2011-05-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive technique used for pain modulation. During application of TENS there is a fading of current sensation. Textbooks of electrophysical agents recommend that pulse amplitude should be constantly adjusted. This seems to be accepted clinically despite the fact that there is no direct experimental evidence. The aim of the current study was to investigate the hypoalgesic effect of adjusting TENS pulse amplitude on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in healthy humans. Fifty-six healthy TENS naïve participants were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (n = 14 per group): control, placebo TENS, fixed pulse amplitude TENS, and adjusted pulse amplitude TENS. Both active and placebo TENS were applied to the dominant forearm. PPTs were recorded from 2 points on the dominant forearm and hand before, during, and after 40 minutes of TENS. TENS increased the PPTs on the forearm (P = .003) and hand (P = .003) in the group that received the adjusted pulse amplitude when compared to all other groups. The mean final pulse amplitude for the adjusted pulse amplitude TENS group was 35.51 mA when compared to the fixed pulse amplitude TENS group, which averaged 31.37 mA (P = .0318). These results suggest that it is important to adjust the pulse amplitude during TENS application to get the maximal analgesic effect. We propose that the fading of current sensation allows the use of higher pulse amplitudes, which would activate a greater number of and deeper tissue afferents to produce greater analgesia. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-02

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management.

  14. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2011-02-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment.

  15. Preemptive Analgesic Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on Postoperative Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidy, Mohammad; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Janzamini, Monir; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Moravveji, Ali Reza

    2016-04-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological analgesic method used to control different types of pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative TENS on post inguinal hernia repair pain. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 66 male patients with unilateral inguinal hernias who were admitted to the Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan, Iran, from April to October 2014. Participants were selected using a convenience sampling method and were assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (n = 33) groups using permuted-block randomization. Patients in the intervention group were treated with TENS 1 hour before surgery, while the placebo was administered to patients in the control group. All of the patients underwent inguinal hernia repair by the Lichtenstein method, and pain intensity was evaluated at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours after surgery using a visual analogue scale. Additionally, the amounts of analgesic administered by pump were calculated and compared between the two groups. The mean estimated postoperative pain intensity was 6.21 ± 1.63 in the intervention group and 5.45 ± 1.82 in the control group (P = 0.08). In the intervention group pain intensity at 2 and 4 hours after surgery were 3.54 ± 1.48 and 5.12 ± 1.41 (P TENS can reduce postoperative pain in the early hours after inguinal hernia repair surgery.

  16. The Elephants of Visual Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Steven D., Ed.; Ball, Richard R., Ed.

    Visual literacy, as used here, refers to the skills which let a person understand and use visuals to communicate his messages and interpret the messages of others. Visual literacy should be important in the curriculum because: 1) children pay more attention to movies and television than they do to teachers; 2) the plethora of visual information…

  17. The Levels of Visual Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  18. Perception and Attention for Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This work examines how a better understanding of visual perception and attention can impact visualization design. In a collection of studies, I explore how different levels of the visual system can measurably affect a variety of visualization metrics. The results show that expert preference, user performance, and even computational performance are…

  19. Learning Science Through Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj

    2005-01-01

    In the context of an introductory physical science course for non-science majors, I have been trying to understand how scientific visualizations of natural phenomena can constructively impact student learning. I have also necessarily been concerned with the instructional and assessment approaches that need to be considered when focusing on learning science through visually rich information sources. The overall project can be broken down into three distinct segments : (i) comparing students' abilities to demonstrate proportional reasoning competency on visual and verbal tasks (ii) decoding and deconstructing visualizations of an object falling under gravity (iii) the role of directed instruction to elicit alternate, valid scientific visualizations of the structure of the solar system. Evidence of student learning was collected in multiple forms for this project - quantitative analysis of student performance on written, graded assessments (tests and quizzes); qualitative analysis of videos of student 'think aloud' sessions. The results indicate that there are significant barriers for non-science majors to succeed in mastering the content of science courses, but with informed approaches to instruction and assessment, these barriers can be overcome.

  20. Chess Evolution Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Li; Wang, Yu-Shuen; Lin, Wen-Chieh

    2014-05-01

    We present a chess visualization to convey the changes in a game over successive generations. It contains a score chart, an evolution graph and a chess board, such that users can understand a game from global to local viewpoints. Unlike current graphical chess tools, which focus only on highlighting pieces that are under attack and require sequential investigation, our visualization shows potential outcomes after a piece is moved and indicates how much tactical advantage the player can have over the opponent. Users can first glance at the score chart to roughly obtain the growth and decline of advantages from both sides, and then examine the position relations and the piece placements, to know how the pieces are controlled and how the strategy works. To achieve this visualization, we compute the decision tree using artificial intelligence to analyze a game, in which each node represents a chess position and each edge connects two positions that are one-move different. We then merge nodes representing the same chess position, and shorten branches where nodes on them contain only two neighbors, in order to achieve readability. During the graph rendering, the nodes containing events such as draws, effective checks and checkmates, are highlighted because they show how a game is ended. As a result, our visualization helps players understand a chess game so that they can efficiently learn strategies and tactics. The presented results, evaluations, and the conducted user studies demonstrate the feasibility of our visualization design.