WorldWideScience

Sample records for ten million years

  1. Dinosaurs in decline tens of millions of years before their final extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Benton, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    Whether dinosaurs were in a long-term decline or whether they were reigning strong right up to their final disappearance at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event 66 Mya has been debated for decades with no clear resolution. The dispute has continued unresolved because of a lack of statistical rigor and appropriate evolutionary framework. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we apply a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to model the evolutionary dynamics of speciation and extinction through time in Mesozoic dinosaurs, properly taking account of previously ignored statistical violations. We find overwhelming support for a long-term decline across all dinosaurs and within all three dinosaurian subclades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda), where speciation rate slowed down through time and was ultimately exceeded by extinction rate tens of millions of years before the K-Pg boundary. The only exceptions to this general pattern are the morphologically specialized herbivores, the Hadrosauriformes and Ceratopsidae, which show rapid species proliferations throughout the Late Cretaceous instead. Our results highlight that, despite some heterogeneity in speciation dynamics, dinosaurs showed a marked reduction in their ability to replace extinct species with new ones, making them vulnerable to extinction and unable to respond quickly to and recover from the final catastrophic event.

  2. Remarkable morphological stasis in an extant vertebrate despite tens of millions of years of divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Arnegard, Matthew E.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Mamonekene, Victor; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between genotypic and phenotypic divergence over evolutionary time varies widely, and cases of rapid phenotypic differentiation despite genetic similarity have attracted much attention. Here, we report an extreme case of the reverse pattern—morphological stasis in a tropical fish despite massive genetic divergence. We studied the enigmatic African freshwater butterfly fish (Pantodon buchholzi), whose distinctive morphology earns it recognition as a monotypic family. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of Pantodon from the Congo basin and nine other osteoglossomorph taxa for comparison with previous mitogenomic profiles of Pantodon from the Niger basin and other related taxa. Pantodon populations form a monophyletic group, yet their mitochondrial coding sequences differ by 15.2 per cent between the Niger and Congo basins. The mitogenomic divergence time between these populations is estimated to be greater than 50 Myr, and deep genetic divergence was confirmed by nuclear sequence data. Among six sister-group comparisons of osteoglossomorphs, Pantodon exhibits the slowest rate of morphological divergence despite a level of genetic differentiation comparable to both species-rich (e.g. Mormyridae) and species-poor (e.g. Osteoglossidae) families. Morphological stasis in these two allopatric lineages of Pantodon offers a living vertebrate model for investigating phenotypic stability over millions of generations in the face of profound fluctuations in environmental conditions. PMID:20880884

  3. The ancient Britons: groundwater fauna survived extreme climate change over tens of millions of years across NW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Caitríona E; Maurice, Louise; Robertson, Anne L; Knight, Lee R F D; Arnscheidt, Jörg; Venditti, Chris; Dooley, James S G; Mathers, Thomas; Matthijs, Severine; Eriksson, Karin; Proudlove, Graham S; Hänfling, Bernd

    2014-03-01

    Global climate changes during the Cenozoic (65.5-0 Ma) caused major biological range shifts and extinctions. In northern Europe, for example, a pattern of few endemics and the dominance of wide-ranging species is thought to have been determined by the Pleistocene (2.59-0.01 Ma) glaciations. This study, in contrast, reveals an ancient subsurface fauna endemic to Britain and Ireland. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach, we found that two species of stygobitic invertebrates (genus Niphargus) have not only survived the entire Pleistocene in refugia but have persisted for at least 19.5 million years. Other Niphargus species form distinct cryptic taxa that diverged from their nearest continental relative between 5.6 and 1.0 Ma. The study also reveals an unusual biogeographical pattern in the Niphargus genus. It originated in north-west Europe approximately 87 Ma and underwent a gradual range expansion. Phylogenetic diversity and species age are highest in north-west Europe, suggesting resilience to extreme climate change and strongly contrasting the patterns seen in surface fauna. However, species diversity is highest in south-east Europe, indicating that once the genus spread to these areas (approximately 25 Ma), geomorphological and climatic conditions enabled much higher diversification. Our study highlights that groundwater ecosystems provide an important contribution to biodiversity and offers insight into the interactions between biological and climatic processes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Epidemiological Study of RRT-Treated ESRD in Nanjing - A Ten-Year Experience in Nearly Three Million Insurance Covered Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Han

    Full Text Available The growing burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD has been a great challenge to the health care system of China. However, the exact epidemiological data for ESRD in China remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of ESRD treated by renal replacement therapy (RRT in Nanjing based on analysing ten-year data of Nanjing three million insurance covered population.Using the electronic registry system of Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI, we included all subjects insured by UEBMI in Nanjing from 2005 to 2014 and identified subjects who developed ESRD and started RRT in this cohort.The UEBMI population in Nanjing increased from 1,301,882 in 2005 to 2,921,065 in 2014, among which a total of 5,840 subjects developed ESRD and received RRT. Over the 10-year period, the adjusted incidence rates of RRT in the UEBMI cohort gradually decreased from 289.3pmp in 2005 to 218.8pmp in 2014. However, the adjusted prevalence rate increased steadily from 891.7pmp in 2005 to 1,228.6pmp in 2014. The adjusted annual mortality rate decreased from 138.4 per 1000 patient-years in 2005 to 97.8 per 1000 patient-years in 2014. The long-term survival rate fluctuated over the past decade, with the 1-year survival rate ranging from 85.1% to 91.7%, the 3-year survival rate from 69.9% to 78.3% and the 5-year survival rate from 58% to 65.4%.Nanjing is facing an increasing burden of ESRD with its improvement of medical reform. The ten-year complete registry data on RRT in urban employees in Nanjing provided a unique opportunity to understand the real threat of ESRD confronting China during its process of health care transition.

  5. Epidemiological Study of RRT-Treated ESRD in Nanjing - A Ten-Year Experience in Nearly Three Million Insurance Covered Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-Chen; Huang, Han-Ming; Sun, Ling; Tan, Chao-Ming; Gao, Min; Liu, Hong; Tang, Ri-Ning; Wang, Yan-Li; Wang, Bei; Ma, Kun-Ling; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The growing burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been a great challenge to the health care system of China. However, the exact epidemiological data for ESRD in China remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of ESRD treated by renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Nanjing based on analysing ten-year data of Nanjing three million insurance covered population. Using the electronic registry system of Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), we included all subjects insured by UEBMI in Nanjing from 2005 to 2014 and identified subjects who developed ESRD and started RRT in this cohort. The UEBMI population in Nanjing increased from 1,301,882 in 2005 to 2,921,065 in 2014, among which a total of 5,840 subjects developed ESRD and received RRT. Over the 10-year period, the adjusted incidence rates of RRT in the UEBMI cohort gradually decreased from 289.3pmp in 2005 to 218.8pmp in 2014. However, the adjusted prevalence rate increased steadily from 891.7pmp in 2005 to 1,228.6pmp in 2014. The adjusted annual mortality rate decreased from 138.4 per 1000 patient-years in 2005 to 97.8 per 1000 patient-years in 2014. The long-term survival rate fluctuated over the past decade, with the 1-year survival rate ranging from 85.1% to 91.7%, the 3-year survival rate from 69.9% to 78.3% and the 5-year survival rate from 58% to 65.4%. Nanjing is facing an increasing burden of ESRD with its improvement of medical reform. The ten-year complete registry data on RRT in urban employees in Nanjing provided a unique opportunity to understand the real threat of ESRD confronting China during its process of health care transition.

  6. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  7. Ten Years of Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

  8. A Ten-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  9. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Tulelake, California: The last 3 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D.P.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Rieck, H.J.; Bradbury, J.P.; Dean, W.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Tulelake basin, formed by east-west extension and faulting during the past several million years, contains at least 550 m of lacustrine sediment. Interdisciplinary studies of a 334 m-long cored section from the town of Tulelake, California, near the center of the basin, document a 3-m.y. record of environmental changes. The core consists of a thick sequence of diatomaceous clayey, silty, and marly lacustrine sediments interbedded with numerous tephra layers. Paleomagnetic study puts the base of the core at about 3.0 Ma. Twelve widespread silicic tephra units provide correlations with other areas and complement age control provided by magnetostratigraphy; mafic and silicic tephra units erupted from local sources are also common in the core. Widespread tephra units include the Llao Rock pumice (=Tsoyawata, 7 ka), the Trego Hot Springs Bed (23 ka), and the Rockland (0.40 Ma), Lava Creek (0.62 Ma), and Rio Dell (1.5 Ma) ash beds, as well as several ash beds also found at Summer Lake, Oregon, and an ash bed originally recognized in DSDP hole 173 in the northeastern Pacific. Several tephra layers found in the core also occur in lacustrine beds exposed around the margins of the basin and elsewhere in the ancestral lacustrine system. Diatoms are present throughout the section. Pollen is present in most of the section, but some barren zones are found in the interval between 50 and 140 m; the greatest change in behavior of the pollen record takes place just above the top of the Olduvai Normal-Polarity Subchronozone. Ostracodes are present only in high-carbonate (>10% CaCO3) intervals. Evolutionary changes are found in the diatom and ostracode records. Bulk geochemical analyses show significant changes in elemental composition of the sediment through time. ?? 1989.

  11. Ten-year urban forestry action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    The Ten-year Urban Forestry Action Plan: 2016-2026 was published in September, 2015 (see http://www.urbanforestry.subr.edu/FinalActionPlan_Complete_11_17_15.pdf). This 260 page heavily illustrated document was prepared by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (NUCFAC) under leadership and funding from the USDA Forest Service. The Plan's...

  12. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  13. The 13 million year Cenozoic pulse of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiasheng; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Liu, Xiuming

    2015-12-01

    The geomagnetic polarity reversal rate changes radically from very low to extremely high. Such process indicates fundamental changes in the Earth's core reorganization and core-mantle boundary heat flow fluctuations. However, we still do not know how critical such changes are to surface geology and climate processes. Our analysis of the geomagnetic reversal frequency, oxygen isotope record, and tectonic plate subduction rate, which are indicators of the changes in the heat flux at the core mantle boundary, climate and plate tectonic activity, shows that all these changes indicate similar rhythms on million years' timescale in the Cenozoic Era occurring with the common fundamental periodicity of ∼13 Myr during most of the time. The periodicity is disrupted only during the last 20 Myr. Such periodic behavior suggests that large scale climate and tectonic changes at the Earth's surface are closely connected with the million year timescale cyclical reorganization of the Earth's interior.

  14. Relative size predicts competitive outcome through 2 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Di Martino, Emanuela; Krzeminska, Malgorzata; Ramsfjell, Mali; Rust, Seabourne; Taylor, Paul D; Voje, Kjetil L

    2017-08-01

    Competition is an important biotic interaction that influences survival and reproduction. While competition on ecological timescales has received great attention, little is known about competition on evolutionary timescales. Do competitive abilities change over hundreds of thousands to millions of years? Can we predict competitive outcomes using phenotypic traits? How much do traits that confer competitive advantage and competitive outcomes change? Here we show, using communities of encrusting marine bryozoans spanning more than 2 million years, that size is a significant determinant of overgrowth outcomes: colonies with larger zooids tend to overgrow colonies with smaller zooids. We also detected temporally coordinated changes in average zooid sizes, suggesting that different species responded to a common external driver. Although species-specific average zooid sizes change over evolutionary timescales, species-specific competitive abilities seem relatively stable, suggesting that traits other than zooid size also control overgrowth outcomes and/or that evolutionary constraints are involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Partitioned Waveform Inversion, From Tens to Millions of Seismograms: A Journey of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    In a landmark paper a quarter of a century ago, Nolet (1990) applied his newly developed method, Partitioned Waveform Inversion (PWI), to data from a new broadband array in Europe, the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS). The deployment of NARS was followed by deployments of numerous other arrays, resulting in an explosive growth in the amount of broadband data worldwide. The PWI method, in turn, has proven to be extremely effective in utilizing the growing data volumes. Over the last 20+ years, it has yielded a steady stream of discoveries on the Earth's structure and dynamics. PWI extracts information on Earth structure from both surface and body waves within full seismic waveforms, putting this information in the form of linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties. Early on, PWI has been applied successfully at the continental scale for upper-mantle tomography, at the regional scale for Moho-depth mapping, and even at the local scale for imaging shallow marine sediments. Automated multimode inversion developed on the basis of PWI has taken the method to global applications, and today it has been applied to millions of seismograms (all broadband data available from international data centers). Waveform tomography stemming from the work of Nolet (1990) now reveals the global structure and anisotropy of the upper mantle in great detail. It provides regional resolution (at the scale of tectonic units) in many regions that are well-sampled by the data. Beneath Tibet, for example, complex subduction of the cold, high-velocity Indian lithosphere is imaged in detail in the upper mantle, while azimuthal anisotropy resolved within the crust shows the flow that accommodates the India-Asia lithospheric convergence. At greater depths, in the mantle transition zone, a belt of high-velocity anomalies reveals subducted lithospheric fragments along the entire Tethys convergence zone. Globally, waveform tomography enables us to examine the heterogeneity of

  16. 15 million preterm births annually: what has changed this year?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinney Mary V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Each year, more than 1 in 10 of the world’s babies are born preterm, resulting in 15 million babies born too soon. World Prematurity Day, November 17, is a global effort to raise awareness about prematurity. This past year, there has been increased awareness of the problem, through new data and evidence, global partnership and country champions. Actions to improve care would save hundreds of thousands of babies born too soon from death and disability. Accelerated prevention requires urgent research breakthroughs.

  17. Osteopathology in Rhinocerotidae from 50 Million Years to the Present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey T Stilson

    Full Text Available Individual elements of many extinct and extant North American rhinocerotids display osteopathologies, particularly exostoses, abnormal textures, and joint margin porosity, that are commonly associated with localized bone trauma. When we evaluated six extinct rhinocerotid species spanning 50 million years (Ma, we found the incidence of osteopathology increases from 28% of all elements of Eocene Hyrachyus eximius to 65-80% of all elements in more derived species. The only extant species in this study, Diceros bicornis, displayed less osteopathologies (50% than the more derived extinct taxa. To get a finer-grained picture, we scored each fossil for seven pathological indicators on a scale of 1-4. We estimated the average mass of each taxon using M1-3 length and compared mass to average pathological score for each category. We found that with increasing mass, osteopathology also significantly increases. We then ran a phylogenetically-controlled regression analysis using a time-calibrated phylogeny of our study taxa. Mass estimates were found to significantly covary with abnormal foramen shape and abnormal bone textures. This pattern in osteopathological expression may reflect a part of the complex system of adaptations in the Rhinocerotidae over millions of years, where increased mass, cursoriality, and/or increased life span are selected for, to the detriment of long-term bone health. This work has important implications for the future health of hoofed animals and humans alike.

  18. Beijing--ten years after Mao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    10 years after Mao's death, Beijing is a different place; the average resident has more money to spend in a considerably freer marketplace, but still not a lot by Western standards. Clearly the biggest advertisers in China over the longest period, the Japanese sell more consumer products in China than any other country. The 1982 Chinese census placed the population of the municipality of Beijing at 9,230,687 people. Due mainly to the extensive development of heavy industry in Beijing and the creation of over 1 million jobs in this sector between 1949 and 1979, Beijing's population jumped to 8.7 million by 1979. Beijing's population will continue to grow despite its 1 child policy and drastically reduced fertility rates. A 1981 survey polling 8000 Beijing women found that the average age of 1st marriage and 1st childbirth is gradually rising while the interval between marriage and 1st childbirth is gradually rising while the interval between marriage and 1st birth is shortening. China's 1982 census indicates that 26% of city dwellers are under age 15, 21.6% between the ages of 15 and 24, 47.7% are between the ages of 25 and 64, and 4.7% 65 or over. As the burden shifts from supporting the dependent old, China will need to revamp its policies to alleviate the stress placed on Chinese families and to increase financial aid the elderly. In 1982, Beijing households averaged 3.9 persons per household, slightly lower than the 4.1. persons per urban household 1982 national figure. Demographic sources for China are listed and critiqued.

  19. A thirty million year-old inherited heteroplasmy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Doublet

    Full Text Available Due to essentially maternal inheritance and a bottleneck effect during early oogenesis, newly arising mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations segregate rapidly in metazoan female germlines. Consequently, heteroplasmy (i.e. the mixture of mtDNA genotypes within an organism is generally resolved to homoplasmy within a few generations. Here, we report an exceptional transpecific heteroplasmy (predicting an alanine/valine alloacceptor tRNA change that has been stably inherited in oniscid crustaceans for at least thirty million years. Our results suggest that this heteroplasmy is stably transmitted across generations because it occurs within mitochondria and therefore escapes the mtDNA bottleneck that usually erases heteroplasmy. Consistently, at least two oniscid species possess an atypical trimeric mitochondrial genome, which provides an adequate substrate for the emergence of a constitutive intra-mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Persistence of a mitochondrial polymorphism on such a deep evolutionary timescale suggests that balancing selection may be shaping mitochondrial sequence evolution in oniscid crustaceans.

  20. Choledochal cysts: our ten year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cianci, F

    2012-04-01

    We present our experience in the management of choledochal cysts from 1999 to 2009. A retrospective review of all charts with a diagnosis of choledochal cysts in our institution in this ten-year period. Data was collated using Excel. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cyst: 9 females and 8 males. The average age at diagnosis was 28 months (range from 0 to 9 years). The most common presenting symptoms were obstructive jaundice 6 (35%) and abdominal pain and vomiting 4 (23%). Ultrasound (US) was the initial diagnostic test in all cases with 4 patients requiring further investigations. All patients underwent Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy. The average length of stay was 11 days. Patients were followed up with Liver Function Tests (LFTS) and US 4-6 weeks post-operatively. Three patients developed complications including post-op collection, high drain output requiring blood transfusion and adhesive bowel obstruction. Our overall experience with choledochal cyst patients has been a positive one with effective management and low complication rates.

  1. Romania: Ten Years of EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By joining the European Union as of 1st of January 2007, Romania made use of a window of opportunity which may not have been open later. In the ten years that followed, advantages and challenges of the membership have in part been overshadowed by the impact of the global financial crisis. The country went through a boom-bust-boom economic cycle. The swing from overheating to depression and back again to overheating has been amplified by pro-cyclical economic policy. Romania has been a selective policy taker in the EU often delaying fiscal and legal actions resulting in lost benefits. By reviewing the current political uncertainties in Europe, the conclusion emerges that more effective governance and more active foreign policy is necessary under the current Europe-wide orientation loss. The country may need to develop a mobilising strategy and policy beyond the direct benefits provided by the EU, one that also contributes to the success of the European integration.

  2. The first ten years of Swift supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter A.

    2015-09-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has proven to be an incredible platform for studying the multiwavelength properties of supernova explosions. In its first ten years, Swift has observed over three hundred supernovae. The ultraviolet observations reveal a complex diversity of behavior across supernova types and classes. Even amongst the standard candle type Ia supernovae, ultraviolet observations reveal distinct groups. When the UVOT data is combined with higher redshift optical data, the relative populations of these groups appear to change with redshift. Among core-collapse supernovae, Swift discovered the shock breakout of two supernovae and the Swift data show a diversity in the cooling phase of the shock breakout of supernovae discovered from the ground and promptly followed up with Swift. Swift observations have resulted in an incredible dataset of UV and X-ray data for comparison with high-redshift supernova observations and theoretical models. Swift's supernova program has the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of stellar life and death as well as the history of our universe.

  3. Ten years for the public Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago, CERN issued a statement declaring that a little known piece of software called the World Wide Web was in the public domain. Nowadays, the Web is an indispensable part of modern communications. The idea for the Web goes back to March 1989 when CERN Computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal for a 'Distributed Information Management System' for the high-energy physics community. The Web was originaly conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between scientists working all over the world. There were many obstacles in the 1980s to the effective exchange of information. There was, for example a great variety of computer and network systems, with hardly any common features. The main purpose of the web was to allow scientists to access information from any source in a consistent and simple way. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee's idea had become the World Wide Web, with its first server and browser running at CERN. Through 1991, the Web spread to other particle physics ...

  4. Anthropogenic carbon release rate unprecedented during past 66 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon release rates from anthropogenic sources have reached a record high of about 10 Pg C/y in 2013. However, due to uncertainties in the strength of climate system feedbacks, the full impact of the rapid carbon release on the Earth system is difficult to predict with confidence. Geologic analogues from past transient climate changes could provide invaluable constraints but only if the associated carbon release rates can be reliably reconstructed. We present a new technique - based on combined data-model analysis - to extract rates of change from the geological record, without the need for a stratigraphic age model. Given currently available records, we then show that the present anthropogenic carbon release rate is unprecedented during the Cenozoic (past 66 million years) by at least an order of magnitude. Our results have important implications for our ability to use past analogues to predict future changes, including constraints on climate sensitivity, ocean acidification, and impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, the fact that we have effectively entered an era of 'no analogue' state presents fundamental challenges to constraining forward modeling. Furthermore, future ecosystem disruptions will likely exceed the relatively limited extinctions observed during climate aberrations throughout the Cenozoic.

  5. Generic Eye Drops for Seniors Could Save Millions of Dollars a Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Drops for Seniors Could Save Millions of Dollars a Year Medicare is billed more than $1 ... save the U.S. government hundreds of millions of dollars a year, a new study suggests. Conditions like ...

  6. The future of the Dutch public library: ten years on

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Carlien Hillebrink

    2008-01-01

    The public library is the biggest cultural institution in the Netherlands, with around 4 million members and 130 million items lent each year. Inspite of this, the library is under pressure: membership numbers and borrowings have been declining steadily for several years. In the last six

  7. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  8. TEN YEARS OF "CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS"

    OpenAIRE

    Editors

    2003-01-01

    This year the journal "Condensed Matter Physics" celebrates its tenth anniversary. It was founded in 1993 by the Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for the purpose of publishing the regular and review papers in the field of statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory.

  9. Ten years of SLR production in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A.; Podestá, R.; Yin, Z.; Liu, W.; Actis, E.; Adarvez, S.; Quinteros, J.; Podestá, F.

    2017-07-01

    SLR technique is a proved astro-geodetic art with a significant power to contribute to Earth and Space Sciences. Therefore, scientific applications of SLR System are able to perform multiple tasks in the fields of Astrometry, Geodesy and Geophysics. The results we show here were obtained from satellite observations made at SLR 7406 Station of Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina. The telescope was installed early on 2006, in concordance with an International Cooperation Agreement between Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina and Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this abstract we show the current research being done with ILRS 7406 station: Length of day (LOD) and Angular velocity of Earth Rotation, calculated weekly; Pole Motion. ILRS7406 is daily surveying Pole coordinates x and y; Tracking SLR to GNSS constellations. SLR System contributes to the adjustment and validation of satellite GALILEO, GPS, GLONASS, and BEIDOU orbits. Our station is nowadays member of the new ITRF 2014 frame, and these past years has been one of the 3 highest producing SLR Stations on the ILRS net, composed of about 40 stations distributed all around the world. The obtained results during this first 10 years of experience are useful to enhance the traditional collaboration between OAFA and international services such as ILRS, IERS and NASA.

  10. Ovarian Kaleidoscope database: ten years and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Aaron J; Rauch, Rami

    2012-06-01

    Ovarian Kaleidoscope database (OKdb) is an online, searchable, public database containing text-based and DNA microarray data to facilitate research by ovarian researchers. Using key words and predetermined categories, users can search ovarian gene information based on gene function, cell type of expression, cellular localization, hormonal regulation, mutant phenotypes, chromosomal location, ligand-receptor relationship, and other criteria, either alone or in combination. For individual genes, users can access more than 10 extensive DNA microarray datasets to interrogate gene expression patterns in a development-specific and cell type-specific manner. All ligand and receptor genes expressed in the ovary are matched to facilitate investigation of paracrine/autocrine signaling. More than 3500 ovarian genes in the database are matched to 185 gene pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes to allow for elucidation of gene interactions and relationships. In addition to >400 genes with infertility or subfertility phenotypes when mutated in mice or humans, the OKdb also lists ~50 and ~40 genes associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency, respectively. The expanding OKdb is updated weekly and allows submission of new genes by ovarian researchers to allow instant access to DNA microarray datasets for newly submitted genes. The present database is a virtual community for ovarian researchers and allows users to instantaneously provide their comments for individual gene pages based on an automated Web-discussion system. In the coming years, we will continue to add new features to serve the ovarian research community.

  11. Virgin galactic the first ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago when Sir Richard Branson called up Boeing and asked if they had a spare 747, few would have predicted the brash entrepreneur would so radically transform the placid business of air travel. But today, Branson flies airlines on six continents, employs hundreds of jets and, in 2014, was predicting that his spaceship company – Virgin Galactic – would soon open the space frontier to commercial astronauts, payload specialists, scientists and space tourists. With more than 600 seats sold at $250,000 each, what started off as a dream to send people just for the excitement to look back and marvel at Earth, was on the cusp of finally being turned into a business. Then, on October 21, 2014, tragedy struck. SpaceShipTwo was on its most ambitious test flight to date. Seconds after firing its engine, Virgin Galactic’s spaceship was breaking through the sound barrier. In just the three seconds that it took for the vehicle to climb from Mach 0.94 to Mach 1.02, co-pilot Mike Alsbury made what many close...

  12. Ten years of CR physics with PAMELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A.; Spillantini, P.

    2017-09-01

    The satellite borne Pamela instrument is dedicated to the precise and high statistics study of CR fluxes on a four decades energy range. Pamela experiment is the last step of the "Russian-Italian Mission" (RIM) program established in 1992 between several Italian and Russian institutes and with the participation of Sweden and Germany. Designed as a cosmic ray observatory at 1 AU, it extensive program is made possible thanks to the outstanding performance of the instrument, the low energy threshold, the quasi-polar orbit and the 10 years duration of the observation. The physics program pays particular attention to the study of particles and antiparticles fluxes and includes search for dark matter, primordial antimatter, new matter in the Universe, study of cosmic-ray propagation, solar physics and solar modulation, and terrestrial magnetosphere. Very important is the discovery of the anomalous increase of the positron flux at energies higher that 50 GeV (the so called "Pamela anomaly"), and the abrupt spectral hardening of H and He, challenging the current paradigm of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy.

  13. VOICE PROSTHESES – TEN YEARS AFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Fajdiga

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of tracheoesophageal puncture method by Bloom and Singer in 1980, the success of restoring vocal communication in laryngectomees has improved significantly. At the University Department of Otorhinolaringology and Cervicofacial Surgery in Ljubljana, the method has been used since 1993. We have performed 76 secondary tracheoesophageal punctures in patients with no objective contraindications and with an interest for this method. The success rate was 92%. With regard to our 10-years experience, we wanted to (re define present and future role of tracheoesophageal voice/speech in the alaryngeal voice rehabilitation. To compare both alaryngeal speech modes, 32 patients using tracheoesophageal speech and 35 patients using esophageal speech were included into the study. In both groups the patients were established speakers. The complications that occurred in the patients with voice prostheses are presented. Most of them required only replacement of prostheses for their solution.The tracheoesophageal puncture and voice prosthesis insertion is a reliable and fast way of restoring good voice and speech after laryngectomy. In spite of some objective disadvantage in comparison to esophageal speech – like the use of hand, need for regular maintenance, and relying to medical service, its good characteristics should rank it immediately after a good esophageal speech. This means that tracheoesophageal voice prostheses should be offered to all patients, which are not able to learn a good esophageal voice in short time, to avoid a frustrating time with no vocal communication. After tracheoesophageal puncture and voice prosthesis insertion, the patient should still get a possibility to learn esophageal speech if he wants to avoid the drawbacks of the tracheoesophageal speech.

  14. Epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis in Ethiopia: A ten-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A time-series study design was applied to analyze the ten-year trends of Tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Data on ten-key indicators for the period of 2000-2009 was obtained from the Ministry of Health public documents. Five stratifying variables were used to analyze the trends in the key TB indicators. The data on the indicators ...

  15. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1961-01-01

    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  16. Closer to zero: Reflections on ten years of ART rollout

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To reflect upon ten years of antiretroviral therapy. (ART) rollout, one really should set the clock back a little further to see the massive impact of ART on our lives – for clinicians and patients alike. My own journey with HIV began in 1999 when, as a young doctor, I decided to venture into private practice with a local general ...

  17. A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-31

    Jul 31, 2010 ... Original Research: A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy in India. 267. Vol 53 No 3. S Afr Fam Pract 2011. Introduction. The body contains approximately 600 lymph nodes, but only those in the submandibular, axillary and inguinal regions may be palpable in healthy people.

  18. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day...

  19. Ten years into the marshes – Hapalemur alaotrensis conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the approach that Madagascar Wildlife Conservation has been implementing during the past ten years at Lake Alaotra, discussing the plan of action and challenges for environmental education, ecotourism and alternative livelihoods. Les problèmes de gestion des ressources naturelles impliquent ...

  20. Changes in users' Web search performance after ten years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in users' Web search performance using search engines over ten years was investigated in this study. Matched data obtained from samples in 2000 and 2010 were used for the comparative analysis. The patterns of Web search engine use suggested a dominance in using a particular search engine. Statistical ...

  1. Ten Years after Columbine: The Tragedy of Youth Deepens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    For young people it just gets worse. Ten years after the Columbine tragedy, the debate over school safety has clearly shown that educators, parents, politicians, and the mainstream media have created the conditions in which young people have increasingly become the victims of adult mistreatment, indifference, neglect, even violence. The tragic…

  2. The African Association for Lexicography: After Ten Years

    OpenAIRE

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This year it has been ten years since the establishment of AFRILEX. After an expla-nation of what led to its forming, this article gives a short overview of its composition and activi-ties.


    Keywords: AFRICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LEXICOGRAPHY (AFRILEX), AFRICAN LAN-GUAGES ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AFRICA (ALASA), BUREAU OF THE WOORDEBOEK VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE TAAL (WAT), DICTIONARY OF SOUTH AFRICAN ENGLISH (DSAE), LINGUISTIC ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (L...

  3. Four-million-year-old hominids from East Lake Turkana, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffing, K; Feibel, C; Leakey, M; Walker, A

    1994-01-01

    A piece of mandible and several isolated teeth are reported from fluviatile sediments older than 4 million years at East Lake Turkana. They most closely resemble hominids from Laetoli, Tanzania and Hadar, Ethiopia which have been assigned to Australopithecus afarensis.

  4. Formation of the Grand Canyon 5 to 6 million years ago through integration of older palaeocanyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Lee, John P.; Kelley, Shari A.; Crow, Ryan S.; Crossey, Laura J.; Young, Richard A.; Lazear, Greg; Beard, L. Sue; Ricketts, Jason W.; Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2014-03-01

    The timing of formation of the Grand Canyon, USA, is vigorously debated. In one view, most of the canyon was carved by the Colorado River relatively recently, in the past 5-6 million years. Alternatively, the Grand Canyon could have been cut by precursor rivers in the same location and to within about 200 m of its modern depth as early as 70-55 million years ago. Here we investigate the time of formation of four out of five segments of the Grand Canyon, using apatite fission-track dating, track-length measurements and apatite helium dating: if any segment is young, the old canyon hypothesis is falsified. We reconstruct the thermal histories of samples taken from the modern canyon base and the adjacent canyon rim 1,500 m above, to constrain when the rocks cooled as a result of canyon incision. We find that two of the three middle segments, the Hurricane segment and the Eastern Grand Canyon, formed between 70 and 50 million years ago and between 25 and 15 million years ago, respectively. However, the two end segments, the Marble Canyon and the Westernmost Grand Canyon, are both young and were carved in the past 5-6 million years. Thus, although parts of the canyon are old, we conclude that the integration of the Colorado River through older palaeocanyons carved the Grand Canyon, beginning 5-6 million years ago.

  5. Life habits, hox genes, and affinities of a 311 million-year-old holometabolan larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Joachim T; Labandeira, Conrad C; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Haug, Carolin; Brown, Susan

    2015-09-29

    Holometabolous insects are the most diverse, speciose and ubiquitous group of multicellular organisms in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The enormous evolutionary and ecological success of Holometabola has been attributed to their unique postembryonic life phases in which nonreproductive and wingless larvae differ significantly in morphology and life habits from their reproductive and mostly winged adults, separated by a resting stage, the pupa. Little is known of the evolutionary developmental mechanisms that produced the holometabolous larval condition and their Paleozoic origin based on fossils and phylogeny. We provide a detailed anatomic description of a 311 million-year-old specimen, the oldest known holometabolous larva, from the Mazon Creek deposits of Illinois, U.S.A. The head is ovoidal, downwardly oriented, broadly attached to the anterior thorax, and bears possible simple eyes and antennae with insertions encircled by molting sutures; other sutures are present but often indistinct. Mouthparts are generalized, consisting of five recognizable segments: a clypeo-labral complex, mandibles, possible hypopharynx, a maxilla bearing indistinct palp-like appendages, and labium. Distinctive mandibles are robust, triangular, and dicondylic. The thorax is delineated into three, nonoverlapping regions of distinctive surface texture, each with legs of seven elements, the terminal-most bearing paired claws. The abdomen has ten segments deployed in register with overlapping tergites; the penultimate segment bears a paired, cercus-like structure. The anterior eight segments bear clawless leglets more diminutive than the thoracic legs in length and cross-sectional diameter, and inserted more ventrolaterally than ventrally on the abdominal sidewall. Srokalarva berthei occurred in an evolutionary developmental context likely responsible for the early macroevolutionary success of holometabolous insects. Srokalarva berthei bore head and prothoracic structures, leglet

  6. The origin of the future ten questions for the next ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2006-01-01

    How did the universe begin? Where do galaxies come from? How do stars and planets form? Where do the material particles we are made of come from? How did life begin? Today we have only provisional answers to such questions. But scientific progress will improve these answers dramatically over the next ten years, predicts John Gribbin in this riveting book. He focuses on what we know—or think we know—about ten controversial, unanswered issues in the physical sciences and explains how current cutting-edge research may yield solutions in the very near future. With his trademark facility for engaging readers with or without a scientific background, the author explores ideas concerning the creation of the universe, the possibility of other forms of life, and the fate of the expanding cosmos. He examines “theories of everything,” including grand unified theories and string theory, and he discusses the Big Bang theory, the origin of structure and patterns of matter in the galaxies, and dark mass and dark ene...

  7. World ethylene capacity jumped 5 million mt/y or 6.5% in past year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1997-05-19

    Global ethylene capacity has increased more than 5 million metric tons/year (mt/y) to about 85 million mt/y since the Journal`s last survey. This increase amounts to a 6.5% boost in only 1 year`s time. Responsible for this increase was: construction of several new plants in China, and expansions of existing ones; major expansions at a number of US plants; and capacity additions in Saudi Arabia, the U.K. and India. The paper describes the survey, then discusses the global ethylene outlook, the situation in Asia/Pacific, North America, Western Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa, and feedstocks.

  8. A progressively wetter climate in southern East Africa over the past 1.3 million years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, T.C.; Werne, J.P.; Brown, E.T.; Abbott, A.; Berke, M.; Steinman, B.E.; Halbur, J.; Contreras, S.; Grosshuesch, S.; Deino, A.; Lyons, R.P.; Scholz, C.A.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    African climate is generally considered to have evolved towardsprogressively drier conditions over the past few million years,with increased variability as glacial–interglacial change intensifiedworldwide1–3. Palaeoclimate records derived mainly from northernAfrica exhibit a 100,000-year

  9. A progressively wetter climate in Southern East Africa over the past 1.3 million years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, T.C.; Werne, J.P.; Brown, E.T.; Abbott, A; Berke, M.; Steinman, B.A.; Halbur, J.; Contreras, S.; Grosshuesch, S.; Deino, C.A.; Scholz, C.A.; Lyons, R.P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    African climate is generally considered to have evolved towards progressively drier conditions over the past few million years, with increased variability as glacial–interglacial change intensified worldwide1, 2, 3. Palaeoclimate records derived mainly from northern Africa exhibit a 100,000-year

  10. A dynamic marine calcium cycle during the past 28 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E.M.; Paytan, A.; Caldeira, K.; Bullen, T.D.; Thomas, E.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence have shown that the isotopic composition and concentration of calcium in seawater have changed over the past 28 million years. A high-resolution, continuous seawater calcium isotope ratio curve from marine (pelagic) barite reveals distinct features in the evolution of the seawater calcium isotopic ratio suggesting changes in seawater calcium concentrations. The most pronounced increase in the ??44/40Ca value of seawater (of 0.3 per mil) occurred over roughly 4 million years following a period of low values around 13 million years ago. The major change in marine calcium corresponds to a climatic transition and global change in the carbon cycle and suggests a reorganization of the global biogeochemical system.

  11. [The future population of Mexico. 123 million by the year 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal Hinojosa, R

    1988-01-01

    Recent data on fertility in Mexico have allowed identification of the most likely of 2 alternative population projections through the year 2010. The projection assumes an increase in life expectancy for men and women respectively from 64.08 and 70.47 in 1980-85 and 77.00 in 2005-10. The migration assumption is that there will be a net loss of 529,274 Mexicans every 5 years. The total fertility rate is expected to decline from to 2.7. The total population was projected at 82.8 million in 1988, 104.0 million at the end of the century, and 123.2 million in 2010. The 0-14 age group will decline from 44.23% of the population in 1980 and 40.33% in 1985 to 31.41% in 2000 and 29.50% in 2010. The proportion aged 15-64 will increase from 52.45% in 1980 and 56.22% in 1985 to 63.96% in 2000 and 64 75% in 2010. The proportion of the population in localities with under 2500 inhabitants is expected to remain stable at about 24.3 million persons. Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Puebla will have a combined population of 35 million by the year 2000. In 2010, the Federal District and the State of Mexico which includes Mexico City are expected to contain 29.3% of the total population. The projected population increase over the next 22 years is 40.4 million, 16% greater than the national population in 1960. The implications for providing food and consumer goods, and especially for improving the quality of life are serious. The relative demand for primary and secondary education and for maternal-child health care will decline, but the demand for jobs and for family planning services will increase as the proportion of the population in the economically active age groups increases.

  12. The next ten years in neonatology: new directions in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a prelude to proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology to be held in Cagliari, Italy from October 21st to 25th, 2014. These proceedings will be a significant milestone, highlighting the new frontiers of perinatal and neonatal research. Over the five days of this meeting, we aim to (1 examine the roots of the new directions in perinatal and neonatal research; (2 predict the trajectories of advancement in medical technologies, research, clinical care and teaching that will be the future of perinatology and neonatology. The discussion will be in four sections:back to the future: the placenta and perinatal programming;paradigm shift: the revolution of metabolomics in perinatalogy and neonatology;brave new world: the microbiome and microbiomics from perinatal to adult life;new inhabitants on the planet earth: adults who were born with extremely low birth weight. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  13. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian

    2016-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600-1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium i...

  14. Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Gibbard, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    The table provides a correlation of chronostratigraphical subdivisions of late Cenozoic geological time, spanning the last 2.7 million years. The formal division of the Quaternary is the responsibility of the IUGS International Commission on Stratigraphy’s (ICS) Subcommission on Quaternary

  15. Ten Years of Support for Basic Scientific Research by CONACYT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humberto Fabila Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of ten years of support for basic scientific research by the CONACYT. The paper identifies the strongest areas of knowledge in basic science in Mexico and concludes that the institutions where basic science is done are mainly public higher education institutions, followed by also public research centers, while private institutions of higher education and companies carry out almost no research in basic science. Findings show that research on basic science in state universities has grown impressively in recent years, reaching the level of the institutions of higher education of the Federal District. Finally, the implications of these findings as well as the public policies through which support has been granted are discussed.

  16. Eight to ten years follow-up after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen Rathenborg, Lisbet; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    Follow-up information was obtained on 185 patients who consecutively underwent carotid endarterectomy eight to ten years previously. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed in 59 patients who were still alive and living within 100 miles of the hospital. Using lifetable analysis, the annual...... of restenosis and the development of symptoms, perhaps with the exception of internal carotid artery occlusion, which is not an accepted indication for carotid endarterectomy. Together with recent data from the literature, these observations challenge the indication for reoperative carotid surgery....... rate of focal strokes was estimated to be 2% and 1.5% on the operated and the contralateral, non-operated carotid artery, respectively. Doppler examination revealed 48% re-stenoses, including 14% occlusion and 15% greater than 50% stenosis. However, there was no association between the occurrence...

  17. luxS in bacteria isolated from 25 to 40 million year-old amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Patrício, Ana R.; Rivera, Jessica I.; Coradin, Mariel; Gonzalez, Alfredo; Tirado, Gabriela; Cano, Raúl J.; Toranzos, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecies bacterial communication is mediated by autoinducer-2, whose synthesis depends on luxS. Due to the apparent universality of luxS (present in over 40 bacterial species), it may have an ancient origin; however, no direct evidence is currently available. We amplified luxS in bacteria isolated from 25 to 40 million year-old amber. Phylogenies and Principal Component Analyses (PCA) of luxS and the 16S rRNA gene from ancient and extant bacteria were constructed. Amber isolates exhibited unique 16S rRNA gene phylogenies, while the luxS phylogeny was very similar to that of extant Bacillus spp. This suggests that luxS may have been acquired by horizontal transfer millions of years ago. Molecular clocks of luxS suggest slow evolutionary rates, similar to those of the 16S rRNA gene and consistent with a conserved gene. PMID:24102660

  18. Extreme ecosystem instability suppressed tropical dinosaur dominance for 30 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Jessica H; Lindström, Sofie; Irmis, Randall B; Glasspool, Ian J; Schaller, Morgan F; Dunlavey, Maria; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Smith, Nathan D; Turner, Alan H

    2015-06-30

    A major unresolved aspect of the rise of dinosaurs is why early dinosaurs and their relatives were rare and species-poor at low paleolatitudes throughout the Late Triassic Period, a pattern persisting 30 million years after their origin and 10-15 million years after they became abundant and speciose at higher latitudes. New palynological, wildfire, organic carbon isotope, and atmospheric pCO2 data from early dinosaur-bearing strata of low paleolatitudes in western North America show that large, high-frequency, tightly correlated variations in δ(13)Corg and palynomorph ecotypes occurred within a context of elevated and increasing pCO2 and pervasive wildfires. Whereas pseudosuchian archosaur-dominated communities were able to persist in these same regions under rapidly fluctuating extreme climatic conditions until the end-Triassic, large-bodied, fast-growing tachymetabolic dinosaurian herbivores requiring greater resources were unable to adapt to unstable high CO2 environmental conditions of the Late Triassic.

  19. Quesnoin, a novel pentacyclic ent-diterpene from 55 million years Old Oise Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossang, Jean; Bel-Kassaoui, Hakima; Jossang, Akino; Seuleiman, Mannan; Nel, André

    2008-01-18

    Amber, fossilized tree resin, found at the Oise River area of the Paris basin (France) was dated as being 55 million years old. Quesnoin, a novel unique pure organic compound, was isolated from Oise amber. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis indicated an unknown diterpene skeleton, quesnane. The absolute configurations of the eight chiral centers of quesnoin were determined to be 4S, 5S, 8R, 9S, 10S, 13S, 14R, and 16S by chiral auxiliary (R)- and (S)-phenylglycine methyl ester derivatization. Quesnoin allowed us to disclose the tree producer, corresponding to modern Hymenaea oblongifolia, Fabaceae, a subfamily of Caesalpiniaceae, one of the oldest angiosperm. The presence of the Amazon rainforest tree, H. oblongifolia, indicated that the climate of the Paris basin might have been tropical in the early Eocene period, 55 million years ago.

  20. Genome size in conodonts (chordata): inferred variations during 270 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S C; Harper, E

    1988-09-02

    DNA is too unstable to be preserved during fossilization, but it still seems possible to infer the genome content of fossils because in every group of organisms investigated cell size is proportional to quantity of DNA. Accordingly, information on macroevolutionary trends in genome size through millions of years is potentially available. This survey of inferred variation in genome content in fossils is based on measurements of epithelial cells in extinct conodonts over a period of 270 million years. Why genome size varies so widely amongst living organisms is a subject of continuing debate. Paleontology offers a distinct temporal perspective, but lack of data on conodont paleoecology make the proposed adaptive explanations for genome variation difficult to test.

  1. A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Postman, Marc; Zitrin, Adi; Moustakas, John; Shu, Xinwen; Jouvel, Stephanie; Høst, Ole; Molino, Alberto; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Carrasco, Mauricio; Ford, Holland; Benítez, Narciso; Lauer, Tod R; Seitz, Stella; Bouwens, Rychard; Koekemoer, Anton; Medezinski, Elinor; Bartelmann, Matthias; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Grillo, Claudio; Infante, Leopoldo; Jha, Saurabh W; Kelson, Daniel D; Lahav, Ofer; Lemze, Doron; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Merten, Julian; Nonino, Mario; Ogaz, Sara; Rosati, Piero; Umetsu, Keiichi; van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-09-20

    Re-ionization of the intergalactic medium occurred in the early Universe at redshift z ≈ 6-11, following the formation of the first generation of stars. Those young galaxies (where the bulk of stars formed) at a cosmic age of less than about 500 million years (z ≲ 10) remain largely unexplored because they are at or beyond the sensitivity limits of existing large telescopes. Understanding the properties of these galaxies is critical to identifying the source of the radiation that re-ionized the intergalactic medium. Gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters allows the detection of high-redshift galaxies fainter than what otherwise could be found in the deepest images of the sky. Here we report multiband observations of the cluster MACS J1149+2223 that have revealed (with high probability) a gravitationally magnified galaxy from the early Universe, at a redshift of z = 9.6 ± 0.2 (that is, a cosmic age of 490 ± 15 million years, or 3.6 per cent of the age of the Universe). We estimate that it formed less than 200 million years after the Big Bang (at the 95 per cent confidence level), implying a formation redshift of ≲14. Given the small sky area that our observations cover, faint galaxies seem to be abundant at such a young cosmic age, suggesting that they may be the dominant source for the early re-ionization of the intergalactic medium.

  2. Foothills Model Forest: a ten-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.

    2002-04-01

    The first ten years of the Foothills Model Forest, established in 1992, is reviewed. The model forest has been established to develop sustainable forest management within the broader concept of sustainable development and integrated resource management. The project focuses on issues such as wildlife habits and habitats; biodiversity monitoring; natural disturbance trends and patterns; and socio-economic studies. In Phase One of the Canadian Model Forest Network the Foothills Model Forest focused primarily on conducting world class research to advance the concept of sustainable forest management. Phase Two was devoted to communicating the results of that research, with a strong emphasis on generating baseline awareness of the concept of sustainable forest management and creating public awareness of the project's mandate in Alberta. Work during the next five years is expected to focus on demonstration and implementation of research results to forest managers and practitioners and others with a stake in the continued sustainability of Alberta's forests. The Sustainable Forest Management project shares a common objective with the Alberta Chamber of Resources' Integrated Landscape Management project; both projects recognise that reducing the industrial footprint is key to sustainable development. The emphasis on demonstration and implementation in the third phase of the Foothills Model Forest is expected to ensure continued sustainability of forests, ecosystems, communities and resources, with full recognition of the fact that the goal of sustainable development can be achieved only by full cooperation and integrated action of all stakeholders.

  3. A progressively wetter climate in southern East Africa over the past 1.3 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Brown, E. T.; Abbott, A.; Berke, M.; Steinman, B. A.; Halbur, J.; Contreras, S.; Grosshuesch, S.; Deino, A.; Scholz, C. A.; Lyons, R. P.; Schouten, S.; Damsté, J. S. Sinninghe

    2016-09-01

    African climate is generally considered to have evolved towards progressively drier conditions over the past few million years, with increased variability as glacial-interglacial change intensified worldwide. Palaeoclimate records derived mainly from northern Africa exhibit a 100,000-year (eccentricity) cycle overprinted on a pronounced 20,000-year (precession) beat, driven by orbital forcing of summer insolation, global ice volume and long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we present a 1.3-million-year-long climate history from the Lake Malawi basin (10°-14° S in eastern Africa), which displays strong 100,000-year (eccentricity) cycles of temperature and rainfall following the Mid-Pleistocene Transition around 900,000 years ago. Interglacial periods were relatively warm and moist, while ice ages were cool and dry. The Malawi record shows limited evidence for precessional variability, which we attribute to the opposing effects of austral summer insolation and the temporal/spatial pattern of sea surface temperature in the Indian Ocean. The temperature history of the Malawi basin, at least for the past 500,000 years, strongly resembles past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrigenous dust flux in the tropical Pacific Ocean, but not in global ice volume. Climate in this sector of eastern Africa (unlike northern Africa) evolved from a predominantly arid environment with high-frequency variability to generally wetter conditions with more prolonged wet and dry intervals.

  4. Ten years of integrated care for the older in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Somme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper analyzes progress made toward the integration of the French health care system for the older and chronically ill population.Policies: Over the last ten years, the French health care system has been principally influenced by two competing linkage models that failed to integrate social and health care services: local information and coordination centers, governed by the social field, and the gerontological health networks governed by the health field. In response to this fragmentation, Homes for the Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients (MAIAs is currently being implemented at experimental sites in the French national Alzheimer plan, using an evidence-based model of integrated care. In addition, the state's reforms recently created regional health agencies (ARSs by merging seven strategic institutions to manage the overall delivery of care.Conclusion: The French health care system is moving from a linkage-based model to a more integrated care system. We draw some early lessons from these changes, including the importance of national leadership and governance and a change management strategy that uses both top-down and bottom-up approaches to implement these reforms.

  5. Ten years of integrated care for the older in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Somme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper analyzes progress made toward the integration of the French health care system for the older and chronically ill population. Policies: Over the last ten years, the French health care system has been principally influenced by two competing linkage models that failed to integrate social and health care services: local information and coordination centers, governed by the social field, and the gerontological health networks governed by the health field. In response to this fragmentation, Homes for the Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients (MAIAs is currently being implemented at experimental sites in the French national Alzheimer plan, using an evidence-based model of integrated care. In addition, the state's reforms recently created regional health agencies (ARSs by merging seven strategic institutions to manage the overall delivery of care. Conclusion: The French health care system is moving from a linkage-based model to a more integrated care system. We draw some early lessons from these changes, including the importance of national leadership and governance and a change management strategy that uses both top-down and bottom-up approaches to implement these reforms.

  6. [TEN YEARS OF OPIOID CONSUMPTION BY CHILDREN (2001-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Tamar; Sherf, Michael; Battat, Erez; Vardy, Daniel; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2015-09-01

    Opioids are considered a cornerstone in the treatment of pain. They are rarely used in almost half of the countries of the world, especially in children. The aim of this study was to assess opioid use over a ten-year study period from 2001-2010, among children 0-18 years old who are members of Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest HMO in Israel Data on the purchase of opioids, authorized for use in Israel, was obtained from the computerized databases of CHS. In addition, the patient's demographic details and cancer morbidity were also extracted. The data was analyzed after all the doses of all opioids consumed (fentanyl patch, oxycodone, methadone, hydromorphone, oral transmucosal fentanyl) were converted into oral morphine equivalents (OME). In all, 1,098 children purchased at least one opioid prescription during the study period. Of them, 27.3% had a diagnosis of cancer and 55.5% were female. A 42% decrease in total annual OME (mg) purchased, from 209,443 mg to 122,048 mg, was observed from 2001 to 2010. There was no specific pattern or trend in the annual number of pediatric and adolescent patients who purchased at least one opioid drug during the study period. In 86.5% of the cases, children with a non-cancer cause of pain purchased opioids for only one month. There is a low and inconsistent rate of opioid consumption among pediatric and adolescent members of the CHS. Further study is needed to explore the reasons for this low opioid consumption rate in this population group.

  7. Onset of Antarctic Circumpolar Current 30 million years ago as Tasmanian Gateway aligned with westerlies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Howie D; Whittaker, Joanne M; Williams, Simon E; Latimer, Jennifer C; Kordesch, Wendy E C; Delaney, Margaret L

    2015-07-30

    Earth's mightiest ocean current, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), regulates the exchange of heat and carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere, and influences vertical ocean structure, deep-water production and the global distribution of nutrients and chemical tracers. The eastward-flowing ACC occupies a unique circumglobal pathway in the Southern Ocean that was enabled by the tectonic opening of key oceanic gateways during the break-up of Gondwana (for example, by the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway, which connects the Indian and Pacific oceans). Although the ACC is a key component of Earth's present and past climate system, the timing of the appearance of diagnostic features of the ACC (for example, low zonal gradients in water-mass tracer fields) is poorly known and represents a fundamental gap in our understanding of Earth history. Here we show, using geophysically determined positions of continent-ocean boundaries, that the deep Tasmanian Gateway opened 33.5 ± 1.5 million years ago (the errors indicate uncertainty in the boundary positions). Following this opening, sediments from Indian and Pacific cores recorded Pacific-type neodymium isotope ratios, revealing deep westward flow equivalent to the present-day Antarctic Slope Current. We observe onset of the ACC at around 30 million years ago, when Southern Ocean neodymium isotopes record a permanent shift to modern Indian-Atlantic ratios. Our reconstructions of ocean circulation show that massive reorganization and homogenization of Southern Ocean water masses coincided with migration of the northern margin of the Tasmanian Gateway into the mid-latitude westerly wind band, which we reconstruct at 64° S, near to the northern margin. Onset of the ACC about 30 million years ago coincided with major changes in global ocean circulation and probably contributed to the lower atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that appear after this time.

  8. Onset of Antarctic Circumpolar Current 30 million years ago as Tasmanian Gateway aligned with westerlies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Howie D.; Whittaker, Joanne M.; Williams, Simon E.; Latimer, Jennifer C.; Kordesch, Wendy E. C.; Delaney, Margaret L.

    2015-07-01

    Earth's mightiest ocean current, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), regulates the exchange of heat and carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere, and influences vertical ocean structure, deep-water production and the global distribution of nutrients and chemical tracers. The eastward-flowing ACC occupies a unique circumglobal pathway in the Southern Ocean that was enabled by the tectonic opening of key oceanic gateways during the break-up of Gondwana (for example, by the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway, which connects the Indian and Pacific oceans). Although the ACC is a key component of Earth's present and past climate system, the timing of the appearance of diagnostic features of the ACC (for example, low zonal gradients in water-mass tracer fields) is poorly known and represents a fundamental gap in our understanding of Earth history. Here we show, using geophysically determined positions of continent-ocean boundaries, that the deep Tasmanian Gateway opened 33.5 +/- 1.5 million years ago (the errors indicate uncertainty in the boundary positions). Following this opening, sediments from Indian and Pacific cores recorded Pacific-type neodymium isotope ratios, revealing deep westward flow equivalent to the present-day Antarctic Slope Current. We observe onset of the ACC at around 30 million years ago, when Southern Ocean neodymium isotopes record a permanent shift to modern Indian-Atlantic ratios. Our reconstructions of ocean circulation show that massive reorganization and homogenization of Southern Ocean water masses coincided with migration of the northern margin of the Tasmanian Gateway into the mid-latitude westerly wind band, which we reconstruct at 64° S, near to the northern margin. Onset of the ACC about 30 million years ago coincided with major changes in global ocean circulation and probably contributed to the lower atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that appear after this time.

  9. Ten years of extensive green roof experience in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau, U.; Siemsen, M. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Agrarian and Urban Ecological Projects; Gomez, G.N. [Chapingo Autonomous Univ., Chapingo (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described the installation of an extensive green roof in Mexico City as part of a collaboration between a German and a Mexican university. While the plants used in the project were indigenous to Mexico, most of the materials and green roof technologies came from Germany. The aim of the project was to create an extensive green roof system on a low maintenance basis without additional irrigation, and to determine the limits of growth and development of the vegetation. The project was conducted on 4 identical adjacent flat roofs. After a layer of filter cloth was installed to avoid damage to the waterproof membrane, a drainage layer of expanded clay was installed with different thicknesses on each of the 4 roofs. The growing medium was composed of Mexican volcanic material, a mineral material from Germany, and organic material consisting of coco fibers and sugarcane residues. Eight different substrate mixtures were tested. After several years it became clear that it was possible to implement an extensive green roof under extreme climatic conditions. However, it was observed that some plant specimens only survived in certain areas of the roof. The roofs underwent a complete renovation, and surviving specimens were salvaged. Vulnerable areas where leakage occurred were detected near air conditioning units and perimeter areas. Overheating of the areas led to distortion and contraction of the membrane, which led to its failure. All perimeter areas were covered by a zinc sheet to avoid direct solar radiation on the unprotected membrane. The selected plant material required supplemental irrigation during the first 2 months. No further additional watering was given. Ten months later, the vegetation was well established and had covered the surface density. One of the roofs was instrumented to measure a series of factors such as precipitation, stormwater runoff, temperature underneath a roof membrane. It was concluded that some plant species are capable of surviving

  10. One million years of glaciation and denudation history in west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2017-01-01

    The influence of major Quaternary climatic changes on growth and decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and associated erosional impact on the landscapes, is virtually unknown beyond the last deglaciation. Here we quantify exposure and denudation histories in west Greenland by applying a novel Markov...... different glacial landforms caused by variations in ice thickness across the landscape. We furthermore show that the present day ice-free areas only were ice covered ca. 45% of the past 1 million years, and even less at high-elevation sites, implying that the Greenland Ice Sheet for much of the time...

  11. A new ascarid species in cynodont coprolite dated of 240 million years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILLA A. DA SILVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cynodonts represent the transition from reptiles to mammals. They are classified as synapsids, or tetrapod animals with mammalian characteristics. We present here the finding of helminth eggs in a coprolite identified as of cynodont origin dated of nearly 240 million years. Microscopy revealed the presence of very well preserved intestinal parasite eggs. Up to now we identified an ascarid egg by morphological characteristics. Based on a previous description of the new genus Ascarites Poinar Jr and Boucot 2006 in coprolites of iguanodons from Belgium, we propose a new species, Ascarites rufferi n.sp. in cynodonts, a host that inhabited the Southern Region of Brazil in the Triassic period.

  12. Revival and Identification of Bacterial Spores in 25- to 40-Million-Year-Old Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Raul J.; Borucki, Monica K.

    1995-05-01

    A bacterial spore was revived, cultured, and identified from the abdominal contents of extinct bees preserved for 25 to 40 million years in buried Dominican amber. Rigorous surface decontamination of the amber and aseptic procedures were used during the recovery of the bacterium. Several lines of evidence indicated that the isolated bacterium was of ancient origin and not an extant contaminant. The characteristic enzymatic, biochemical, and 16S ribosomal DNA profiles indicated that the ancient bacterium is most closely related to extant Bacillus sphaericus.

  13. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years

    OpenAIRE

    Trilling, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data). The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is...

  14. Future climate forcing potentially without precedent in the last 420 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gavin L.; Royer, Dana L.; Lunt, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of Earth's climate on geological timescales is largely driven by variations in the magnitude of total solar irradiance (TSI) and changes in the greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere. Here we show that the slow ~50 Wm-2 increase in TSI over the last ~420 million years (an increase of ~9 Wm-2 of radiative forcing) was almost completely negated by a long-term decline in atmospheric CO2. This was likely due to the silicate weathering-negative feedback and the expansion of land plants that together ensured Earth's long-term habitability. Humanity's fossil-fuel use, if unabated, risks taking us, by the middle of the twenty-first century, to values of CO2 not seen since the early Eocene (50 million years ago). If CO2 continues to rise further into the twenty-third century, then the associated large increase in radiative forcing, and how the Earth system would respond, would likely be without geological precedent in the last half a billion years.

  15. Kwashiorkor: A Prospective Ten-Year Follow-up Study*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recent estimate that 60% of the total pre-school popula- tion of the world (i.e. 300 million children) suffer from ... may reach near normal growth in spite of prolonged periods of undernutrition"" and, in Rhesus monkeys ..... the lowest weights recorded immediately after loss of .oedema were used in all the calculations instead ...

  16. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A.; Eronen, Jussi T.; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M.; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H.

    2016-01-01

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity–productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity–productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23–1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity–productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction. PMID:27621451

  17. Herbivores increase the global availability of nutrients over millions of years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E

    2017-12-01

    Can the presence of herbivores increase global nutrient availability? Animals disperse vital nutrients through ecosystems, increasing the spatial availability of these nutrients. Large herbivores are especially important for the dispersal of vital nutrients due to their long food passage times and day ranges, and large herbivores from past periods (the Pleistocene) may have increased nutrient concentrations on the continental scale. However, such results have been demonstrated theoretically but not yet empirically. Models suggest that the Pennsylvanian subperiod (323-299 million years ago), with no tetrapod terrestrial herbivores, would have had fewer, less-well-distributed nutrients than the Cretaceous period (145-66 million years ago), with the largest terrestrial herbivores ever-the sauropods. Here, I show that these models are supported empirically by remnant plant material (coal deposits) from the Cretaceous (N = 680), which had significantly (P < 0.00001) increased concentrations (136%) and decreased spatial heterogeneity (22%) of plant-important rock-derived nutrients compared with the Pennsylvanian subperiod (N = 4,996). Non-biotic physical processes, such as weathering rates, cannot account for such differences, because aluminium-a nutrient not important for plants and animals, but weathered in a similar manner to the above elements-showed no significant difference between the two periods, suggesting that these large changes were driven by plant-herbivore interactions. Populations of large wild herbivores are currently at historical lows; therefore, we are potentially losing a key ecosystem service.

  18. luxS in bacteria isolated from 25- to 40-million-year-old amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Patrício, Ana R; Rivera, Jessica I; Coradin, Mariel; Gonzalez, Alfredo; Tirado, Gabriela; Cano, Raúl J; Toranzos, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    Interspecies bacterial communication is mediated by autoinducer-2, whose synthesis depends on luxS. Due to the apparent universality of luxS (present in more than 40 bacterial species), it may have an ancient origin; however, no direct evidence is currently available. We amplified luxS in bacteria isolated from 25- to 40-million-year-old amber. The phylogenies and molecular clocks of luxS and the 16S rRNA gene from ancient and extant bacteria were determined as well. Luminescence assays using Vibrio harveyi BB170 aimed to determine the activity of luxS. While the phylogeny of luxS was very similar to that of extant Bacillus spp., amber isolates exhibited unique 16S rRNA gene phylogenies. This suggests that luxS may have been acquired by horizontal transfer millions of years ago. Molecular clocks of luxS suggest slow evolutionary rates, similar to those of the 16S rRNA gene and consistent with a conserved gene. Dendograms of the 16S rRNA gene and luxS show two separate clusters for the extant and ancient bacteria, confirming the uniqueness of the latter group. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A.; Eronen, Jussi T.; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M.; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H.

    2016-09-01

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23-1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity-productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction.

  20. Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Russell H.; Rosenzweig, William D.; Powers, Dennis W.

    2000-10-01

    Bacteria have been found associated with a variety of ancient samples, however few studies are generally accepted due to questions about sample quality and contamination. When Cano and Borucki isolated a strain of Bacillus sphaericus from an extinct bee trapped in 25-30 million-year-old amber, careful sample selection and stringent sterilization techniques were the keys to acceptance. Here we report the isolation and growth of a previously unrecognized spore-forming bacterium (Bacillus species, designated 2-9-3) from a brine inclusion within a 250million-year-old salt crystal from the Permian Salado Formation. Complete gene sequences of the 16S ribosomal DNA show that the organism is part of the lineage of Bacillus marismortui and Virgibacillus pantothenticus. Delicate crystal structures and sedimentary features indicate the salt has not recrystallized since formation. Samples were rejected if brine inclusions showed physical signs of possible contamination. Surfaces of salt crystal samples were sterilized with strong alkali and acid before extracting brines from inclusions. Sterilization procedures reduce the probability of contamination to less than 1 in 10 9.

  1. The first fossil leaf insect: 47 million years of specialized cryptic morphology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedmann, Sonja; Bradler, Sven; Rust, Jes

    2007-01-09

    Stick and leaf insects (insect order Phasmatodea) are represented primarily by twig-imitating slender forms. Only a small percentage ( approximately 1%) of extant phasmids belong to the leaf insects (Phylliinae), which exhibit an extreme form of morphological and behavioral leaf mimicry. Fossils of phasmid insects are extremely rare worldwide. Here we report the first fossil leaf insect, Eophyllium messelensis gen. et sp. nov., from 47-million-year-old deposits at Messel in Germany. The new specimen, a male, is exquisitely preserved and displays the same foliaceous appearance as extant male leaf insects. Clearly, an advanced form of extant angiosperm leaf mimicry had already evolved early in the Eocene. We infer that this trait was combined with a special behavior, catalepsy or "adaptive stillness," enabling Eophyllium to deceive visually oriented predators. Potential predators reported from the Eocene are birds, early primates, and bats. The combination of primitive and derived characters revealed by Eophyllium allows the determination of its exact phylogenetic position and illuminates the evolution of leaf mimicry for this insect group. It provides direct evidence that Phylliinae originated at least 47 Mya. Eophyllium enlarges the known geographical range of Phylliinae, currently restricted to southeast Asia, which is apparently a relict distribution. This fossil leaf insect bears considerable resemblance to extant individuals in size and cryptic morphology, indicating minimal change in 47 million years. This absence of evolutionary change is an outstanding example of morphological and, probably, behavioral stasis.

  2. 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, Sonia; Lewis, Jason E; Feibel, Craig S; Lepre, Christopher J; Prat, Sandrine; Lenoble, Arnaud; Boës, Xavier; Quinn, Rhonda L; Brenet, Michel; Arroyo, Adrian; Taylor, Nicholas; Clément, Sophie; Daver, Guillaume; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Leakey, Louise; Mortlock, Richard A; Wright, James D; Lokorodi, Sammy; Kirwa, Christopher; Kent, Dennis V; Roche, Hélène

    2015-05-21

    Human evolutionary scholars have long supposed that the earliest stone tools were made by the genus Homo and that this technological development was directly linked to climate change and the spread of savannah grasslands. New fieldwork in West Turkana, Kenya, has identified evidence of much earlier hominin technological behaviour. We report the discovery of Lomekwi 3, a 3.3-million-year-old archaeological site where in situ stone artefacts occur in spatiotemporal association with Pliocene hominin fossils in a wooded palaeoenvironment. The Lomekwi 3 knappers, with a developing understanding of stone's fracture properties, combined core reduction with battering activities. Given the implications of the Lomekwi 3 assemblage for models aiming to converge environmental change, hominin evolution and technological origins, we propose for it the name 'Lomekwian', which predates the Oldowan by 700,000 years and marks a new beginning to the known archaeological record.

  3. First solar system solids to proto-planets: A Rapid growth in a few million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Jitendranath

    2016-07-01

    First solar system solids to proto-planets: A Rapid growth in a few million years J. N. Goswami Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad-380009, India Collapse of a dense molecular cloud led to the formation of the proto-Sun surrounded by a high temperature gaseous nebula. The nebula settled down to the mid-plane and formation of the first solar system solids, refractory oxides and silicates, such as Corundum, Perovskite, Melilite took place, that was followed by formation of more common silicate minerals. Laboratory studies of primitive meteorites support this scenario and also provide evidence for correlated presence of several now-extinct short-lived nuclides (e.g. 41Ca, 26Al, 60Fe) at the time of formation of the first solar system solids. Presence of 60Fe in early solar system solids suggests injection of freshly synthesized nuclides from a stellar source (a supernova) into the proto-solar cloud that also triggered its collapse and led to formation of our solar system. Presence of 41Ca (half-life: 0.1Ma) in early solar system solids suggest a time scale of less than a million years for the collapse of the proto-solar cloud and formation of proto-Sun and the first solar system solids. The gradual evolution of larger solar system objects, up to planetesimals (represented by the asteroids), took place at a rapid pace within a time scale of a few million years. Some of the asteroids retain their pristine nature (e.g. parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrite), while others, underwent melting and differentiation due to internal heating. Harold Urey proposed radioactive 26Al as a possible heat source that was confirmed by experiment only in 1999. Irons and stony iron meteorites are fragments from core regions of differentiated asteroids. Extensive computer simulation studies suggest that an explosive stellar event (e.g. supernova) can indeed trigger the collapse of the proto-solar cloud and also inject freshly synthesized short-lived nuclides into it within a relatively

  4. It is worth 10 million working hours a year to have your toilet paper folded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Rickard; Ljung, Hedvig; Ljung, Harald

    2016-01-01

    From our experience the toilet paper is folded in the bathrooms in rooms in branded hotels. We aimed to study the total time yearly spent in the world on folding hotel toilet paper. Three investigators clocked 60 folding toilet paper events and calculated the mean time. The mean folding time was 5.73 s (interquartile range 4.50-6.56). Using the calculated extra time it takes to fold the toilet paper and the number of hotel nights spent we estimated the total time spent in the world each year to fold the toilet paper. For sensitivity analyses we used different assumptions on number of hotel beds, occupancy rate and folding time. Assuming an extra 10 s spent on folding toilet paper, approximately 10 million hours are globally spent on folding toilet paper every year. This corresponds to more than 5000 man-years of work. In a hotel with yearly full coverage of 200 beds skipping folding the toilet paper corresponds to around 200 h of time that could be spent elsewhere. To take away unnecessary duties from hotel room cleaners would increase their health and well-being and save time that could be better spent. Is it really defendable and appropriate that someone else has spent time on folding the toilet paper you are just about to use?

  5. Pierre Bourdieu, dez anos depois Pierre Bourdieu, ten years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Carta Cardoso de Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto procura discutir o legado deixado pelo sociólogo francês Pierre Bourdieu. Dez anos após sua morte, tem-se discutido, em nível internacional, a relevância deste autor, um dos mais influentes e citados teóricos do mundo. Para a identificação desta influência no Brasil, mais especificamente no campo educacional brasileiro, pesquisou-se nas teses e dissertações encontradas no banco de dados da CAPES, que referenciavam Bourdieu, de que forma estaria se dando a apropriação de seu quadro teórico de análise para construção de conhecimento no referido campo. Concluiu-se que o número de produções defendidas nos Programas de Pós-Graduação em Educação no Brasil, de 1965 a 2010, cresce de forma exponencial, demonstrando o quão profícua a utilização da teoria sociológica de Bourdieu tem se mostrado para explicar a realidade da Educação no Brasil na contemporaneidade. Encerra-se o artigo com uma reflexão sobre a consideração do status de Bourdieu como um clássico da Sociologia que, paradoxalmente, se mostra mais atual e vivo do que qualquer outro autor quando se trata de aplicar seu princípio maior, a saber, analisar o mundo social e suas lógicas, desvelando as formas de dominação e as misérias sociais.This paper's intent is to discuss the legacy left by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. Ten years after his death, it has been discussed at an international level the relevance of this author, one of the most cited and influential theorists in the world. To identify such influence in Brazil, more specifically in the Brazilian educational field, we investigated theses and dissertations found in CAPES database, which referenced Bourdieu, to identify how those works use his theoretical framework of analysis for construction of knowledge in that field. It was concluded that the number of productions held in post-graduate programs in education in Brazil, from 1965 to 2010, grows exponentially

  6. Stature, body mass, and brain size: a two-million-year odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Physical size has been critical in the evolutionary success of the genus Homo over the past 2.4 million-years. An acceleration in the expansion of savannah grasslands in Africa from 1.6Ma to 1.2Ma witnessed concomitant increases in physical stature (150-170cm), weight (50-70kg), and brain size (750-900cm(3)). With the onset of 100,000year Middle Pleistocene glacial cycles ("ice ages") some 780,000years ago, large-bodied Homo groups had reached modern size and had successfully dispersed from equatorial Africa, Central, and Southeast Asia to high-latitude localities in Atlantic Europe and North East Asia. While there is support for incursions of multiple Homo lineages to West Asia and Continental Europe at this time, data does not favour a persistence of Homo erectus beyond ∼400,000years ago in Africa, west and Central Asia, and Europe. Novel Middle Pleistocene Homo forms (780,000-400,000years) may not have been substantially taller (150-170cm) than earlier Homo (1.6Ma-800,000years), yet brain size exceeded 1000cm(3) and body mass approached 80kg in some males. Later Pleistocene Homo (400,000-138,000years) were 'massive' in their height (160-190cm) and mass (70-90kg) and consistently exceed recent humans. Relative brain size exceeds earlier Homo, yet is substantially lower than in final glacial H. sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. A final leap in absolute and relative brain size in Homo (300,000-138,000years) occurred independent of any observed increase in body mass and implies a different selective mediator to that operating on brain size increases observed in earlier Homo. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Paleopathology in Australopithecus africanus: a suggested case of a 3-million-year-old prepubertal periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, U

    1988-06-01

    The fossil remains of a juvenile Australopithecus africanus specimen from Sterkfontein Member 4 temporally confined on faunal grounds to 2.5-3.0 million years before the present (Myr B.P.) show pathological alterations of the periodontal alveolar process consistent with a case of prepubertal periodontitis. This diagnosis is based on macroscopic features of alveolar bone loss distribution, pattern of periodontal bone destruction, migration of the affected deciduous molars, and on stereomicroscopic and scanning electron microscopic evidence of alveolar bone destruction. Differential diagnoses and pathological exclusions are discussed in terms of localized patterns of periodontal bone destruction and presumptive survival rate. The reported case appears to be the first detailed description of a recognized disease in early hominid evolution.

  8. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Trilling

    Full Text Available Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data. The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto's physical properties.

  9. Natural hybridization between genera that diverged from each other approximately 60 million years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfels, Carl J; Johnson, Anne K; Hovenkamp, Peter H; Swofford, David L; Roskam, Harry C; Fraser-Jenkins, Christopher R; Windham, Michael D; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2015-03-01

    A fern from the French Pyrenees-×Cystocarpium roskamianum-is a recently formed intergeneric hybrid between parental lineages that diverged from each other approximately 60 million years ago (mya; 95% highest posterior density: 40.2-76.2 mya). This is an extraordinarily deep hybridization event, roughly akin to an elephant hybridizing with a manatee or a human with a lemur. In the context of other reported deep hybrids, this finding suggests that populations of ferns, and other plants with abiotically mediated fertilization, may evolve reproductive incompatibilities more slowly, perhaps because they lack many of the premating isolation mechanisms that characterize most other groups of organisms. This conclusion implies that major features of Earth's biodiversity-such as the relatively small number of species of ferns compared to those of angiosperms-may be, in part, an indirect by-product of this slower "speciation clock" rather than a direct consequence of adaptive innovations by the more diverse lineages.

  10. Continuously Growing Rodent Molars Result from a Predictable Quantitative Evolutionary Change over 50 Million Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagan Tapaltsyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fossil record is widely informative about evolution, but fossils are not systematically used to study the evolution of stem-cell-driven renewal. Here, we examined evolution of the continuous growth (hypselodonty of rodent molar teeth, which is fuelled by the presence of dental stem cells. We studied occurrences of 3,500 North American rodent fossils, ranging from 50 million years ago (mya to 2 mya. We examined changes in molar height to determine whether evolution of hypselodonty shows distinct patterns in the fossil record, and we found that hypselodont taxa emerged through intermediate forms of increasing crown height. Next, we designed a Markov simulation model, which replicated molar height increases throughout the Cenozoic and, moreover, evolution of hypselodonty. Thus, by extension, the retention of the adult stem cell niche appears to be a predictable quantitative rather than a stochastic qualitative process. Our analyses predict that hypselodonty will eventually become the dominant phenotype.

  11. Ten years of multidisciplinary mental health guidelines in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, Gerdien; Niesink, Peter; Swinkels, Jan; Burgers, Jako; Wensing, Michel; Grol, Richard

    2011-08-01

    From 1999 until 2009 the National Steering Group for Multidisciplinary Guideline Development in Mental Health led a national guideline programme in the Netherlands. Ten service user and carer groups and 30 professional organizations were involved. Within the programme 13 practice guidelines and a range of other deliverables, such as patient versions, checklists and implementation materials, were produced. Lessons learned included the methodology of developing guidelines, service user and carer involvement, and the dissemination and implementation of the guidelines. There are important future challenges such as following a strict and transparent methodology, adhering to process management, improving integration of the service user and professional perspectives, and bridging the gap between guideline and practice.

  12. The Last Ten Years in the Bristish Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Rico, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Después de la Segunda Guerra mundial, Gran Bretaña se encontró con una escasez de trabajadores cualificados sin precedente. El problema más importante era como animar a la población más joven a continuar su educación ya que cada uno de ellos era una pieza imprescindible en la reconstrucción nacional y en la imagen internacional del país. La discriminación racial y la filosofía de Charles Darwin ayudó a elaborar la idea que el británico blanco tenía la superioridad económica , moral e inte...

  13. The Relationship between Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Global Temperature for the Last 425 Million Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jackson Davis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing human impacts on climate and biodiversity requires an understanding of the relationship between the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere and global temperature (T. Here I explore this relationship empirically using comprehensive, recently-compiled databases of stable-isotope proxies from the Phanerozoic Eon (~540 to 0 years before the present and through complementary modeling using the atmospheric absorption/transmittance code MODTRAN. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is correlated weakly but negatively with linearly-detrended T proxies over the last 425 million years. Of 68 correlation coefficients (half non-parametric between CO2 and T proxies encompassing all known major Phanerozoic climate transitions, 77.9% are non-discernible (p > 0.05 and 60.0% of discernible correlations are negative. Marginal radiative forcing (ΔRFCO2, the change in forcing at the top of the troposphere associated with a unit increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, was computed using MODTRAN. The correlation between ΔRFCO2 and linearly-detrended T across the Phanerozoic Eon is positive and discernible, but only 2.6% of variance in T is attributable to variance in ΔRFCO2. Of 68 correlation coefficients (half non-parametric between ΔRFCO2 and T proxies encompassing all known major Phanerozoic climate transitions, 75.0% are non-discernible and 41.2% of discernible correlations are negative. Spectral analysis, auto- and cross-correlation show that proxies for T, atmospheric CO2 concentration and ΔRFCO2 oscillate across the Phanerozoic, and cycles of CO2 and ΔRFCO2 are antiphasic. A prominent 15 million-year CO2 cycle coincides closely with identified mass extinctions of the past, suggesting a pressing need for research on the relationship between CO2, biodiversity extinction, and related carbon policies. This study demonstrates that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration did not cause temperature change in the ancient climate.

  14. Is there 1.5-million-year-old ice near Dome C, Antarctica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrenin, Frédéric; Cavitte, Marie G. P.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Fischer, Hubertus; Gagliardini, Olivier; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Passalacqua, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Roberts, Jason; Siegert, Martin J.; Young, Duncan A.

    2017-11-01

    Ice sheets provide exceptional archives of past changes in polar climate, regional environment and global atmospheric composition. The oldest dated deep ice core drilled in Antarctica has been retrieved at EPICA Dome C (EDC), reaching ˜ 800 000 years. Obtaining an older paleoclimatic record from Antarctica is one of the greatest challenges of the ice core community. Here, we use internal isochrones, identified from airborne radar coupled to ice-flow modelling to estimate the age of basal ice along transects in the Dome C area. Three glaciological properties are inferred from isochrones: surface accumulation rate, geothermal flux and the exponent of the Lliboutry velocity profile. We find that old ice (> 1.5 Myr, 1.5 million years) likely exists in two regions: one ˜ 40 km south-west of Dome C along the ice divide to Vostok, close to a secondary dome that we name Little Dome C (LDC), and a second region named North Patch (NP) located 10-30 km north-east of Dome C, in a region where the geothermal flux is apparently relatively low. Our work demonstrates the value of combining radar observations with ice flow modelling to accurately represent the true nature of ice flow, and understand the formation of ice-sheet architecture, in the centre of large ice sheets.

  15. Is there 1.5-million-year-old ice near Dome C, Antarctica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parrenin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice sheets provide exceptional archives of past changes in polar climate, regional environment and global atmospheric composition. The oldest dated deep ice core drilled in Antarctica has been retrieved at EPICA Dome C (EDC, reaching ∼ 800 000 years. Obtaining an older paleoclimatic record from Antarctica is one of the greatest challenges of the ice core community. Here, we use internal isochrones, identified from airborne radar coupled to ice-flow modelling to estimate the age of basal ice along transects in the Dome C area. Three glaciological properties are inferred from isochrones: surface accumulation rate, geothermal flux and the exponent of the Lliboutry velocity profile. We find that old ice (> 1.5 Myr, 1.5 million years likely exists in two regions: one ∼ 40 km south-west of Dome C along the ice divide to Vostok, close to a secondary dome that we name Little Dome C (LDC, and a second region named North Patch (NP located 10–30 km north-east of Dome C, in a region where the geothermal flux is apparently relatively low. Our work demonstrates the value of combining radar observations with ice flow modelling to accurately represent the true nature of ice flow, and understand the formation of ice-sheet architecture, in the centre of large ice sheets.

  16. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast cancer , taking adjuvant ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” ...

  17. TESTICULAR TUMORS IN PORT HARCOURT (A ten-year review)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    testicular tumors.12 '. RESULTS. A'total of twelve testicular tumours were reviewed. The yOungest patient was 3 years old while the oldest was. 48 years old. I. Table 1 ... 66.7% preschool age group and drivers had 16.7% each. Table I : Age distribution of; patients with testicular tumours. Age group Number Percent in years.

  18. [Ten years of human papilloma virus vaccination. From dermatology to oncology via the infectious diseases department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando A

    2018-02-07

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) was first identified in dermatology, and it was subsequently demonstrated that is was required for the development of uterine cervical cancer and other tumours, after a persistent infection by any of its oncogenic genotypes. Ten years ago, the most common infections and cancers associated with HPV could be prevented by immunisation with 2vaccines, one bivalent, and another tetravalent, and having just marketed a nonavalent one. During the period 2007-2008, the HPV vaccine was included in the Autonomous Communities vaccination calendar, and it is the second vaccine, after that of Hepatitis B, that prevents cancer. In these 10 years that these vaccines have been available the knowledge has progressed and there have been significant advances in vaccination strategies, as well as in the indications and recommendations. These include, lowering the age in the vaccination schedule, prescribing of 2doses at 9 years and at 13-14 years, systematic vaccination of the male in some countries, immunisation of the woman after adolescence, implementation of vaccination programmes in developed countries, prevention of other cancers, recommendations for vaccinations for populations at high risk of HPV infection, scientific evidence on the impact and effectiveness of vaccination, and confirmation of the safety of these vaccines, with more than 270 million doses administered, as has already been observed in clinical trials. The role of health professionals is essential to achieve and maintain high vaccine coverage. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Ten-year retrospective: OPEC and the world oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gately, D.

    1984-09-01

    This paper reviews the main events in the world oil market since 1973 and some major explanations as to what happened and why (Section I). Then there is a discussion of some projections for the next two decades and of some implications of various theories about OPEC's decisionmaking process (Section II). Section III summarizes what we have learned about modeling OPEC and the world oil market. This includes: the dominant theoretical approach based on the wealth-maximization model of Harold Hotelling (1931); the simulation approach most common in the applied literature, which envisages target-capacity-utilization pricing by OPEC; and the difficult problem of modeling price behavior during disruptions. Finally, Section IV discusses some important unresolved issues, both theoretical and empirical. A variety of contributions to the literature are considered, but the discussion pays special attention to two important recent works. One is the book OPEC Behavior and World Oil Prices (1982) (EAPA 9:3899) edited by James Griffin and David Teece, an important collection of papers on OPEC and world oil, prepared for a 1981 conference at the University of Houston. The other is the 1980 to 1981 world oil study by the Energy Modeling Forum of Stanford Univesity, which involved ten prominent models of the world oil market. 31 references.

  20. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Ng

    Full Text Available Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA, a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1 appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2 referred to an old person, and (3 had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  1. Burrowing hard corals occurring on the sea floor since 80 million years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentoku, Asuka; Tokuda, Yuki; Ezaki, Yoichi

    2016-04-14

    We describe a previously unknown niche for hard corals in the small, bowl-shaped, solitary scleractinian, Deltocyathoides orientalis (Family Turbinoliidae), on soft-bottom substrates. Observational experiments were used to clarify how the sea floor niche is exploited by turbinoliids. Deltocyathoides orientalis is adapted to an infaunal mode of life and exhibits behaviours associated with automobility that include burrowing into sediments, vertical movement through sediments to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system. Histological analysis showed that these muscle arrangements were associated with deeply incised inter-costal spaces characteristic of turbinoliid corals. The oldest known turbinoliid, Bothrophoria ornata, which occurred in the Cretaceous (Campanian), also possessed a small, conical skeleton with highly developed costae. An infaunal mode of life became available to turbinoliids due to the acquisition of automobility through the muscle-membrane system at least 80 million years ago. The newly discovered active burrowing strategies described herein provide new insights into the use of an unattached mode of life by corals inhabiting soft-bottom substrates throughout the Phanerozoic.

  2. Oceanic crustal carbon cycle drives 26-million-year atmospheric carbon dioxide periodicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R Dietmar; Dutkiewicz, Adriana

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) data for the last 420 million years (My) show long-term fluctuations related to supercontinent cycles as well as shorter cycles at 26 to 32 My whose origin is unknown. Periodicities of 26 to 30 My occur in diverse geological phenomena including mass extinctions, flood basalt volcanism, ocean anoxic events, deposition of massive evaporites, sequence boundaries, and orogenic events and have previously been linked to an extraterrestrial mechanism. The vast oceanic crustal carbon reservoir is an alternative potential driving force of climate fluctuations at these time scales, with hydrothermal crustal carbon uptake occurring mostly in young crust with a strong dependence on ocean bottom water temperature. We combine a global plate model and oceanic paleo-age grids with estimates of paleo-ocean bottom water temperatures to track the evolution of the oceanic crustal carbon reservoir over the past 230 My. We show that seafloor spreading rates as well as the storage, subduction, and emission of oceanic crustal and mantle CO 2 fluctuate with a period of 26 My. A connection with seafloor spreading rates and equivalent cycles in subduction zone rollback suggests that these periodicities are driven by the dynamics of subduction zone migration. The oceanic crust-mantle carbon cycle is thus a previously overlooked mechanism that connects plate tectonic pulsing with fluctuations in atmospheric carbon and surface environments.

  3. Continuously growing rodent molars result from a predictable quantitative evolutionary change over 50 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapaltsyan, Vagan; Eronen, Jussi T; Lawing, A Michelle; Sharir, Amnon; Janis, Christine; Jernvall, Jukka; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-05-05

    The fossil record is widely informative about evolution, but fossils are not systematically used to study the evolution of stem-cell-driven renewal. Here, we examined evolution of the continuous growth (hypselodonty) of rodent molar teeth, which is fuelled by the presence of dental stem cells. We studied occurrences of 3,500 North American rodent fossils, ranging from 50 million years ago (mya) to 2 mya. We examined changes in molar height to determine whether evolution of hypselodonty shows distinct patterns in the fossil record, and we found that hypselodont taxa emerged through intermediate forms of increasing crown height. Next, we designed a Markov simulation model, which replicated molar height increases throughout the Cenozoic and, moreover, evolution of hypselodonty. Thus, by extension, the retention of the adult stem cell niche appears to be a predictable quantitative rather than a stochastic qualitative process. Our analyses predict that hypselodonty will eventually become the dominant phenotype. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Terrestrial climate evolution in the Southwest Pacific over the past 30 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, Joseph G.; Reichgelt, Tammo; Mildenhall, Dallas C.; Greenwood, David R.; Raine, J. Ian; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Seebeck, Hannu C.

    2017-02-01

    A reconstruction of terrestrial temperature and precipitation for the New Zealand landmass over the past ∼30 million years is produced using pollen data from >2000 samples lodged in the New Zealand Fossil Record Electronic Database and modern climate data of nearest living relatives. The reconstruction reveals a warming trend through the late Oligocene to early Miocene, peak warmth in the middle Miocene, and stepwise cooling through the late Neogene. Whereas the regional signal in our reconstruction includes a ∼5-10° northward tectonic drift, as well as an increase in high altitude biomes due to late Neogene and Pliocene uplift of the Southern Alps, the pattern mimics inferred changes in global ice extent, which suggests that global drivers played a major role in shaping local vegetation. Importantly, seasonal temperature estimates indicate low seasonality during the middle Miocene, and that subsequent Neogene cooling was largely due to cooler winters. We suggest that this may reflect increased Subantarctic influence on New Zealand vegetation as the climate cooled.

  5. Iterative evolution of sympatric seacow (Dugongidae, Sirenia assemblages during the past ~26 million years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Velez-Juarbe

    Full Text Available Extant sirenians show allopatric distributions throughout most of their range. However, their fossil record shows evidence of multispecies communities throughout most of the past ∼26 million years, in different oceanic basins. Morphological differences among co-occurring sirenian taxa suggest that resource partitioning played a role in structuring these communities. We examined body size and ecomorphological differences (e.g., rostral deflection and tusk morphology among sirenian assemblages from the late Oligocene of Florida, early Miocene of India and early Pliocene of Mexico; each with three species of the family Dugongidae. Although overlapping in several ecomorphological traits, each assemblage showed at least one dominant trait in which coexisting species differed. Fossil sirenian occurrences occasionally are monotypic, but the assemblages analyzed herein show iterative evolution of multispecies communities, a phenomenon unparalleled in extant sirenian ecology. As primary consumers of seagrasses, these communities likely had a strong impact on past seagrass ecology and diversity, although the sparse fossil record of seagrasses limits direct comparisons. Nonetheless, our results provide robust support for previous suggestions that some sirenians in these extinct assemblages served as keystone species, controlling the dominance of climax seagrass species, permitting more taxonomically diverse seagrass beds (and sirenian communities than many of those observed today.

  6. Cross-amplification and validation of SNPs conserved over 44 million years between seals and dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph I Hoffman

    Full Text Available High-density SNP arrays developed for humans and their companion species provide a rapid and convenient tool for generating SNP data in closely-related non-model organisms, but have not yet been widely applied to phylogenetically divergent taxa. Consequently, we used the CanineHD BeadChip to genotype 24 Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella individuals. Despite seals and dogs having diverged around 44 million years ago, 33,324 out of 173,662 loci (19.2% could be genotyped, of which 173 were polymorphic and clearly interpretable. Two SNPs were validated using KASP genotyping assays, with the resulting genotypes being 100% concordant with those obtained from the high-density array. Two loci were also confirmed through in silico visualisation after mapping them to the fur seal transcriptome. Polymorphic SNPs were distributed broadly throughout the dog genome and did not differ significantly in proximity to genes from either monomorphic SNPs or those that failed to cross-amplify in seals. However, the nearest genes to polymorphic SNPs were significantly enriched for functional annotations relating to energy metabolism, suggesting a possible bias towards conserved regions of the genome.

  7. A new glimpse on Mesozoic zooplankton-150 million-year-old lobster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    Larvae of malacostracan crustaceans represent a large fraction of modern day zooplankton. Plankton is not only a major part of the modern marine ecosystem, but must have played an important role in the ecosystems of the past as well. Unfortunately, our knowledge about plankton composition of the past is still quite limited. As an important part of today's zooplankton, malacostracan larvae are still a rarity in the fossil record; many types of malacostracan larvae dominating the modern plankton have so far not been found as fossils. Here we report a new type of fossil malacostracan larva, found in the 150 million years old lithographic limestones of southern Germany (Solnhofen Lithographic Limestones). The three rather incomplete specimens mainly preserve the telson. A pronounced middle spine on the posterior edge of these specimens indicates that they are either larval forms of a clawed lobster or of an axiidean lobster, or of a closer relative to one of the two groups. The tergo-pleura are drawn out into distinct spines in one specimen, further supporting the interpretation as a larva of a clawed lobster or an early relative. The telson morphology also shows adaptations to a prolonged planktic life style, the latero-posterior edges are drawn out into distinct spines. Similar adaptations are known in larvae of the modern homarid lobster Nephrops norvegicus, not necessarily indicating a closer relationship, but convergent life styles. The new finds provide an important new insight into the composition of Mesozoic zooplankton and demonstrate the preservation potential of lithographic limestones.

  8. A seven-million-year hornblende mineral record from the central Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tong; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Yang; Sheng, Xuefen; Ji, Junfeng

    2017-05-24

    Previous studies of the late Cenozoic erosion rate have yielded different views-long-term stable rates or a significant increase at climate transitions-leading to uncertainty concerning the hypothesized global erosion rate controlled by either tectonic uplift or climatic changes. Here, we present a seven-million-year hornblende mineral record along the Lingtai section of the Chinese Loess Plateau. By examining the spatial distribution of hornblende minerals in seven desert basins, which are potential loess source areas, we constructed a ratio of hornblende versus total heavy minerals to reflect past changes in physical/chemical weathering strength. Our results demonstrate that the ratio has generally increased since 7 Ma, with three significant shifts recorded at 2.6 Ma, 1.4 Ma and 0.5 Ma linked to the onset, continuation and expansion of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation, respectively. Given that chemical weathering during the diagenetic history produces a trend of smoothly increasing hornblende migrating upwards, the three shifts at these boundaries can be interpreted as changes in the bedrock erosion rate on the northern Tibetan Plateau, which may be related to tectonic uplift events and incision of the Yellow River. Evidence presented here supports the idea of coupling between climate change, tectonic uplift and regional erosion.

  9. Evolution of morphogenesis in 360-million-year-old conodont chordates calibrated in days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Highly rhythmic increments of crown tissue are identifiable in conodont oral apparatus elements from the Late Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland; individual laminae being of thickness comparable with daily increments of vertebrate tooth enamel and fish otoliths. Abundant occurrence of such specimens enables bed-by-bed (stratophenetic) studies of the process of evolution at the population level and quantitative presentation of the evolution of ontogeny in the sampled geological section covering several million years. The morphologic transformation is expressed as expansion of a juvenile asymmetry to later stages of the ontogeny and in decrease of the mature element width, which was due to a change of the mineral tissue secretion rate. It was not just a simple extension of a juvenile character into the later stage of the ontogeny (heterochrony) but rather a true developmental novelty. The evolution was gradual and very slow. The proposed quantitative approach to growth increments in the mineral skeleton of ancient chordates introduces real-time units to evolutionary developmental studies connected with direct paleontological evidence on the course of evolution.

  10. Earliest hominin cancer: 1.7-million-year-old osteosarcoma from Swartkrans Cave, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Odes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reported incidence of neoplasia in the extinct human lineage is rare, with only a few confirmed cases of Middle or Later Pleistocene dates reported. It has generally been assumed that pre-modern incidence of neoplastic disease of any kind is rare and limited to benign conditions, but new fossil evidence suggests otherwise. We here present the earliest identifiable case of malignant neoplastic disease from an early human ancestor dated to 1.8-1.6 million years old. The diagnosis has been made possible only by advances in 3D imaging methods as diagnostic aids. We present a case report based on re-analysis of a hominin metatarsal specimen (SK 7923 from the cave site of Swartkrans in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa. The expression of malignant osteosarcoma in the Swartkrans specimen indicates that whilst the upsurge in malignancy incidence is correlated with modern lifestyles, there is no reason to suspect that primary bone tumours would have been any less frequent in ancient specimens. Such tumours are not related to lifestyle and often occur in younger individuals. As such, malignancy has a considerable antiquity in the fossil record, as evidenced by this specimen.

  11. Ten-year growth of planted slash pine after thinnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans G. Enghardt; W.F. Mann

    1972-01-01

    volume growth of slash pine between ages 17 and 27 years was directly related to residual basal area per acre after thinning. Diameter growth was inversely related to stand density, and very heavy cutting was required to attain a rate of 3 inches in 10 years.

  12. Diversity as Opportunity: Insights from 600 Million Years of AHR Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Mark E; Karchner, Sibel I; Merson, Rebeka R

    2017-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was for many years of interest only to pharmacologists and toxicologists. However, this protein has fundamental roles in biology that are being revealed through studies in diverse animal species. The AHR is an ancient protein. AHR homologs exist in most major groups of modern bilaterian animals, including deuterostomes (chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms) and the two major clades of protostome invertebrates [ecdysozoans (e.g. arthropods and nematodes) and lophotrochozoans (e.g. molluscs and annelids)]. AHR homologs also have been identified in cnidarians such as the sea anemone Nematostella and in the genome of Trichoplax, a placozoan. Bilaterians, cnidarians, and placozoans form the clade Eumetazoa, whose last common ancestor lived approximately 600 million years ago (MYA). The presence of AHR homologs in modern representatives of all these groups indicates that the original eumetazoan animal possessed an AHR homolog. Studies in invertebrates and vertebrates reveal parallel functions of AHR in the development and function of sensory neural systems, suggesting that these may be ancestral roles. Vertebrate animals are characterized by the expansion and diversification of AHRs, via gene and genome duplications, from the ancestral protoAHR into at least five classes of AHR-like proteins: AHR, AHR1, AHR2, AHR3, and AHRR. The evolution of multiple AHRs in vertebrates coincided with the acquisition of high-affinity binding of halogenated and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and the emergence of adaptive functions involving regulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and roles in adaptive immunity. The existence of multiple AHRs may have facilitated subfunction partitioning and specialization of specific AHR types in some taxa. Additional research in diverse model and non-model species will continue to enrich our understanding of AHR and its pleiotropic roles in biology and toxicology.

  13. Odontogenic Mixoma in a Ten-Year-Old Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Ennya Lieseth Leonel; Melo-Uribe, Mario; Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are benign, rarely seen intraosseous tumors arising from the embryonic connective tissue associated to tooth formation. The authors present the case of a 10-year-old patient affected by this entity.

  14. Ten-year survival of patients with oesophageal squamous cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oesophageal junction ... after treatment of cancer. Reports of actual 10-year survivors of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are rare, and demographic .... nodes, number of resected lymph nodes, adjuvant treatment and length of survival.

  15. Prevalence of loneliness over ten years among the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Fredrica; Cattan, Mima; Conradsson, Mia; Näsman, Marina; Gustafsson, Yngve

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of loneliness among the oldest old within a 10-year period and studied the influence of various sociodemographic, social and health characteristics on loneliness. The study used population-based data from the Umeå85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase-study (GERDA) for the years 2000-2002, 2005-2007 and 2010-2012 including 85-year-old, 90-year-old and ⩾95-year-old participants. A final sample of 304 participants in 2000-2002, 329 participants in 2005-2007 and 401 participants in 2010-2012 was included in the analyses. Although the level of loneliness was already high in 2000-2002 (49.3% reported frequent loneliness), the results showed limited changes in loneliness during the 10-year study period. Loneliness was closely related to living alone, depressive symptoms and living in institutional settings. Although societal changes such as solitary living and growing urbanization suggest a changing trend in loneliness, we found that the prevalence of loneliness was relatively stable in this study. Nevertheless, loneliness is common among the oldest old and a focus on social issues related to living arrangements and on depressive symptoms is important in understanding loneliness.

  16. Big History or the 13800 million years from the Big Bang to the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2017-04-01

    Big History is the integrated history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity. It is an attempt to understand our existence as a continuous unfolding of processes leading to ever more complex structures. Three major steps in the development of the Universe can be distinguished, the first being the creation of matter/energy and forces in the context of an expanding universe, while the second and third steps were reached when completely new qualities of matter came into existence. 1. Matter comes out of nothing Quantum fluctuations and the inflation event are thought to be responsible for the creation of stable matter particles in what is called the Big Bang. Along with simple particles the universe is formed. Later larger particles like atoms and the most simple chemical elements hydrogen and helium evolved. Gravitational contraction of hydrogen and helium formed the first stars und later on the first galaxies. Massive stars ended their lives in violent explosions releasing heavier elements like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and iron into the universe. Subsequent star formation led to star systems with bodies containing these heavier elements. 2. Matter starts to live About 9200 million years after the Big Bang a rather inconspicous star of middle size formed in one of a billion galaxies. The leftovers of the star formation clumped into bodies rotating around the central star. In some of them elements like silicon, oxygen, iron and many other became the dominant matter. On the third of these bodies from the central star much of the surface was covered with an already very common chemical compound in the universe, water. Fluid water and plenty of various elements, especially carbon, were the ingredients of very complex chemical compounds that made up even more complex structures. These were able to replicate themselves. Life had appeared, the only occasion that we human beings know of. Life evolved subsequently leading eventually to the formation of multicellular

  17. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year[F-(4,F- (38)) = 5.8, p = 0.001, eta(2) = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early......Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year...... longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 +/- 9...

  18. Beijing--ten years after Mao: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusoff, D

    1987-03-01

    An examination of demographic trends in Beijing--China's capital and the center of its political and cultural life--can yield important information on future consumer trends for the country as a whole. Age and income are the most influential demographic characteristics in determining what people will buy. As a result of economic reforms under Deng Xiaoping, per capita income available for living expenses in urban China almost doubled between 1978 and 1984, from 316 to 608 yuan. By the year 2000, the purchase of commodities in urban staff and worker households is projected to account for 88% of total expenditures, with noncommodity expenditures accounting for the remaining 12%. The average age of 1st marriage and 1st childbirth is gradually rising, while the interval between marriage and 1st birth is decreasing. The fertility rate in Beijing was 1.6 births/woman in 1981 and 91% of all births in 1983 were 1st births. Despite its one-child policy and drastically reduced fertility rates, Beijing's population will continue to grow until the large numbers of young people born during the high fertility period of the 1950s and 1960s pass out of their childbearing years. Given a life expectancy of 78 years for men and 80 years for women and an average of 1.5 births/woman, the proportion of those over age 65 years in China is projected to stand at 29% by 2040. This trend toward demographic aging suggests a need to revamp social policies to alleviate the stress placed on Chinese families and increase financial aid to the elderly. There have been proposals to adopt a norm that would allow couples 2 children spaced 8-10 years apart. The average household size in Beijing in 1982 was 3.9 persons, with 2.3 jobholders/household. Between 1981 and 1984, the percentage of urban households having annual per capita incomes above 600 yuan rose from 18% to 49%.

  19. Chandra: Ten Years of Amazing Science with a Great Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We review briefly review the history of the development of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, highlighting certain details that many attendees of this Conference might not be aware of. We then present a selection of scientific highlights of the first 10 years of this remarkable and unique mission.

  20. Reconstructing the tectonic history of Fennoscandia from its margins: The past 100 million years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir Wood, R. [EQE International Ltd (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    In the absence of onland late Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological formations the tectonic history of the Baltic Shield over the past 100 million years can be reconstructed from the thick sedimentary basins that surround Fennoscandia on three sides. Tectonic activity around Fennoscandia through this period has been diverse but can be divided into four main periods: a. pre North Atlantic spreading ridge (100-60 Ma) when transpressional deformation on the southern margins of Fennoscandia and transtensional activity to the west was associated with a NNE-SSW maximum compressive stress direction; b. the creation of the spreading ridge (60-45 Ma) when there was rifting along the western margin; c. the re-arrangement of spreading axes (45-25 Ma) when there was a radial compression around Fennoscandia, and d. the re-emergence of the Iceland hot-spot (25-0 Ma) when the stress-field has come to accord with ridge or plume `push`. Since 60 Ma the Alpine plate boundary has had little influence on Fennoscandia. The highest levels of deformation on the margins of Fennoscandia were achieved around 85 Ma, 60-55 Ma, with strain-rates around 10{sup -9}/year. Within the Baltic Shield long term strain rates have been around 10{sup -1}1/year, with little evidence for significant deformations passing into the shield from the margins. Fennoscandian Border Zone activity, which was prominent from 90-60 Ma, was largely abandoned following the creation of the Norwegian Sea spreading ridge, and with the exception of the Lofoten margin, there is subsequently little evidence for deformation passing into Fennoscandia. Renewal of modest compressional deformation in the Voering Basin suggest that the `Current Tectonic Regime` is of Quaternary age although the orientation of the major stress axis has remained consistent since around 10 Ma. The past pattern of changes suggest that in the geological near-future variations are to be anticipated in the magnitude rather than the orientation of stresses.

  1. Baseline intrinsic flammability of Earth's ecosystems estimated from paleoatmospheric oxygen over the past 350 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire M; Yearsley, Jonathan M; Hadden, Rory M; McElwain, Jennifer C; Rein, Guillermo

    2010-12-28

    Atmospheric oxygen (O(2)) is estimated to have varied greatly throughout Earth's history and has been capable of influencing wildfire activity wherever fuel and ignition sources were present. Fires consume huge quantities of biomass in all ecosystems and play an important role in biogeochemical cycles. This means that understanding the influence of O(2) on past fire activity has far-reaching consequences for the evolution of life and Earth's biodiversity over geological timescales. We have used a strong electrical ignition source to ignite smoldering fires, and we measured their self-sustaining propagation in atmospheres of different oxygen concentrations. These data have been used to build a model that we use to estimate the baseline intrinsic flammability of Earth's ecosystems according to variations in O(2) over the past 350 million years (Ma). Our aim is to highlight times in Earth's history when fire has been capable of influencing the Earth system. We reveal that fire activity would be greatly suppressed below 18.5% O(2), entirely switched off below 16% O(2), and rapidly enhanced between 19-22% O(2). We show that fire activity and, therefore, its influence on the Earth system would have been high during the Carboniferous (350-300 Ma) and Cretaceous (145-65 Ma) periods; intermediate in the Permian (299-251 Ma), Late Triassic (285-201 Ma), and Jurassic (201-145 Ma) periods; and surprisingly low to lacking in the Early-Middle Triassic period between 250-240 Ma. These baseline variations in Earth's flammability must be factored into our understanding of past vegetation, biodiversity, evolution, and biogeochemical cycles.

  2. Conserved form and function of the germinal epithelium through 500 million years of vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Harry J; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Mims, Steven D; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-08-01

    The germinal epithelium, i.e., the site of germ cell production in males and females, has maintained a constant form and function throughout 500 million years of vertebrate evolution. The distinguishing characteristic of germinal epithelia among all vertebrates, males, and females, is the presence of germ cells among somatic epithelial cells. The somatic epithelial cells, Sertoli cells in males or follicle (granulosa) cells in females, encompass and isolate germ cells. Morphology of all vertebrate germinal epithelia conforms to the standard definition of an epithelium: epithelial cells are interconnected, border a body surface or lumen, are avascular and are supported by a basement membrane. Variation in morphology of gonads, which develop from the germinal epithelium, is correlated with the evolution of reproductive modes. In hagfishes, lampreys, and elasmobranchs, the germinal epithelia of males produce spermatocysts. A major rearrangement of testis morphology diagnoses osteichthyans: the spermatocysts are arranged in tubules or lobules. In protogynous (female to male) sex reversal in teleost fishes, female germinal epithelial cells (prefollicle cells) and oogonia transform into the first male somatic cells (Sertoli cells) and spermatogonia in the developing testis lobules. This common origin of cell types from the germinal epithelium in fishes with protogynous sex reversal supports the homology of Sertoli cells and follicle cells. Spermatogenesis in amphibians develops within spermatocysts in testis lobules. In amniotes vertebrates, the testis is composed of seminiferous tubules wherein spermatogenesis occurs radially. Emerging research indicates that some mammals do not have lifetime determinate fecundity. The fact emerged that germinal epithelia occur in the gonads of all vertebrates examined herein of both sexes and has the same form and function across all vertebrate taxa. Continued study of the form and function of the germinal epithelium in vertebrates

  3. A hot Jupiter orbiting a 2-million-year-old solar-mass T Tauri star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, J F; Moutou, C; Malo, L; Baruteau, C; Yu, L; Hébrard, E; Hussain, G; Alencar, S; Ménard, F; Bouvier, J; Petit, P; Takami, M; Doyon, R; Collier Cameron, A

    2016-06-30

    Hot Jupiters are giant Jupiter-like exoplanets that orbit their host stars 100 times more closely than Jupiter orbits the Sun. These planets presumably form in the outer part of the primordial disk from which both the central star and surrounding planets are born, then migrate inwards and yet avoid falling into their host star. It is, however, unclear whether this occurs early in the lives of hot Jupiters, when they are still embedded within protoplanetary disks, or later, once multiple planets are formed and interact. Although numerous hot Jupiters have been detected around mature Sun-like stars, their existence has not yet been firmly demonstrated for young stars, whose magnetic activity is so intense that it overshadows the radial velocity signal that close-in giant planets can induce. Here we report that the radial velocities of the young star V830 Tau exhibit a sine wave of period 4.93 days and semi-amplitude 75 metres per second, detected with a false-alarm probability of less than 0.03 per cent, after filtering out the magnetic activity plaguing the spectra. We find that this signal is unrelated to the 2.741-day rotation period of V830 Tau and we attribute it to the presence of a planet of mass 0.77 times that of Jupiter, orbiting at a distance of 0.057 astronomical units from the host star. Our result demonstrates that hot Jupiters can migrate inwards in less than two million years, probably as a result of planet–disk interactions.

  4. Reconstruction of a continuous high-resolution CO2 record over the past 20 million years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The gradual cooling of the climate during the Cenozoic has generally been attributed to a decrease in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. The lack of transient climate models and, in particular, the lack of high-resolution proxy records of CO2, beyond the ice-core record prohibit, however, a full understanding of, for example, the inception of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation and mid-Pleistocene transition. Here we elaborate on an inverse modelling technique to reconstruct a continuous CO2 series over the past 20 million year (Myr, by decomposing the global deep-sea benthic δ18O record into a mutually consistent temperature and sea level record, using a set of 1-D models of the major Northern and Southern Hemisphere ice sheets. We subsequently compared the modelled temperature record with ice core and proxy-derived CO2 data to create a continuous CO2 reconstruction over the past 20 Myr. Results show a gradual decline from 450 ppmv around 15 Myr ago to 225 ppmv for mean conditions of the glacial-interglacial cycles of the last 1 Myr, coinciding with a gradual cooling of the global surface temperature of 10 K. Between 13 to 3 Myr ago there is no long-term sea level variation caused by ice-volume changes. We find no evidence of change in the long-term relation between temperature change and CO2, other than the effect following the saturation of the absorption bands for CO2. The reconstructed CO2 record shows that the Northern Hemisphere glaciation starts once the long-term average CO2 concentration drops below 265 ppmv after a period of strong decrease in CO2. Finally, only a small long-term decline of 23 ppmv is found during the mid-Pleistocene transition, constraining theories on this major transition in the climate system. The approach is not accurate enough to revise current ideas about climate sensitivity.

  5. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd E Feinberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group’s origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body’s interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium, midbrain and hindbrain. This brain must also have 1 hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and 2 a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1, followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2. We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are

  6. NHS litigation in bariatric surgery over a ten year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingham, Kumaran; Knight, James; Liu, Mamie; Karatsai, Eleni; Humadi, Samer; Irukulla, Shashi

    2017-04-01

    Negligence claims in the UK NHS has increased over the last 30 years. The aim of this present study was determine the number of claims and the cost of litigation in Bariatric Surgery and compare it to similar other specialties. Data was received from NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) in response to Freedom of Information data request. There was a total of 7 claims, of which 4 were successful. The total pay out sum was £210,000 in 10 years. This is a very low amount compared to other surgical specialties. This low level of litigation probably indicates that the current bariatric surgical services in the NHS are delivering safe care with good patient satisfaction. This needs to be carefully considered prior to changing the payment tariffs for bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 1959 - 1969 Ten years in the life of a machine

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Operation and development of the PS have brought a dramatic improvement in its capabilities. This article describes the years of getting to know the machine and of developing its potential, picking out some major landmarks on the way. The article was put together with the help of P.H. Standley (PS Division Head), C.S. Taylor (Linac), G. Plass, W. Richter (Mam Ring), M. Georgijevic (Power Supply), J.H.B. Madsen (Operation), and G.L. Munday (Experimental Areas).

  8. Inflammatory dentigerous cyst in a ten-year-old child

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Rajeev K.; Pandey, Ramesh K.; Mohammad, Shadab; Ram, Hari

    2012-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst may be developmental or inflammatory in origin. The latter is found only in mixed dentition with a low frequency. Treatment of inflammatory type of dentigerous cyst in children should be done with the aim of saving developing permanent teeth which should not be sacrificed as far as possible. This is a case report of a large inflammatory dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old female patient treated conservatively by marsupialization method saving all teeth (mandibular permanent lef...

  9. The Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases: A Ten Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Mohammadjafari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD defines a heterogenenous group ofinterrelated lesions that arise from the trophoblastic epithelium of the placenta. There are severalhistologically distinct types of GTD: hydatiform mole (complete or partial, persistant/invasivegestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN, choriocarcinoma and placenta site trophoblastictumors. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and risk factors of GTD amongwomen admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Imam KhomeiniHospital in Ahvaz, Iran. All hospital records related to GTD (132 from 1996 until 2006 werereviewed. Demographic and histo-pathologic characteristics were extracted. Chi-square andFisher-exact tests were used to analyze all variables. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statisticallysignificant. SPSS, version 11 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean age of patients was 27.6 years. Most patients who presented with GTDwere of ages 18-35 years (71.3%. There was no relationship between age and hydatiformmole during the reproductive years. There were 28 (18.9% patients over the age 40, of which18 (15.90% of these had a complete hydatiform mole. Within this group, 9 (6.8% changedto a persistent mole. There was a significant relationship between age over 40 and completemole (p<0.02. The percentage of patients with blood groups A and O was the same (37.9%.There was a significant relationship between blood groups (O+ and A+ and complete mole(p<0.05.Conclusion: The most common age range for hydatiform mole was 18-35 years. Women overthe age of 40 had a more complete hydatiform mole, which is similar to the other countries.Age and blood group are two risk factors for hydatiform mole.

  10. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the ne...

  11. Ten-year survival rate for cantilevered fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James D

    2005-01-01

    PubMed (1966-April 2004) provided the primary data source along with the bibliographies from identified articles and reviews. A manual search of two relevant journals (Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry published; published 2001-2003) provided a further source of data. Because there were no randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared fixed partial dentures (FPD) with and without cantilever extensions, other studies were selected if they met the following criteria: were published in the English language; were prospective and retrospective cohort studies; had a mean follow-up of >5 years; included patients who were clinically examined at follow-up; and reported details on suprastructures and described at least one-third of reconstructions as FPD. Two independent reviewers screened articles for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by discussion and agreement determined by kappa. Two reviewers extracted data on the survival and success of the reconstructions and on biological and technical complications. Failure and complication rates were calculated by dividing the number of events by the total exposure time. Three prospective and 10 retrospective cohort studies incorporating 700 patients and 816 FPD were included. The mean number of cantilever extensions ranged from 1.1 to 6.0. Meta-analyses gave an estimated survival, after 10 years, of 81.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 78.2-84.9] and a proportion success of 63% (95% CI, 54.7-70.2). Considering biological complications using Poisson model analyses, the estimated rate of FPD lost because of caries after 10 years was 3.1% (95%CI, 1.0-8.8) and that for loss of vitality was 32.6% (95% CI, 13.9-64.9). The rate

  12. Inflammatory dentigerous cyst in a ten-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Rajeev K; Pandey, Ramesh K; Mohammad, Shadab; Ram, Hari

    2012-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst may be developmental or inflammatory in origin. The latter is found only in mixed dentition with a low frequency. Treatment of inflammatory type of dentigerous cyst in children should be done with the aim of saving developing permanent teeth which should not be sacrificed as far as possible. This is a case report of a large inflammatory dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old female patient treated conservatively by marsupialization method saving all teeth (mandibular permanent left canine, first and second premolars) in relation to the cyst.

  13. Methadone-related deaths. A ten year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Groppi, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 10 years we have registered in our district (about 500,000 inhabitants) 36 cases of fatal methadone poisoning, involving both patients on treatment and naive subjects: this is a significant increase of deaths due to methadone use, misuse or abuse compared with previous years. Twenty-four patients (66.7%) were on methadone maintenance programs for heroin detoxification, while 12 (33.3%) were taking the drug without a medical prescription. The average blood concentration of methadone in patients undergoing a maintenance program was 1.06 mg/L (0.21-3.37 mg/L), against 0.79 mg/L (0.2-3.15 mg/L) in those taking the non-prescribed drug. Since 111 heroin-related deaths were recorded in our district in the same period, the fact that there appear to be many methadone deaths (about a third of heroin-related deaths) cannot be overlooked. The aim of this work is to understand the possible reasons for such a large number of methadone-related deaths. On this subject, we have noticed that risks associated with methadone intake are often underestimated by clinicians prescribing the drug: sometimes methadone is prescribed without taking into account patient's tolerance to opiates, and a large number of subjects enrolled in methadone maintenance programs in Italy, have also been given take-home doses, thus increasing the risk of abuse and diversion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Otological Findings Ten Years after Myringotomy with Tympanostomy Tube Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goljanian Tabrizi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the long-term complications of tympanostomy tube insertion in young children 10 years after surgery.   Materials and Methods: In September 2011, the medical records of all patients who had undergone myringotomy with tympanostomy tube insertion between February 2000 and March 2001 at the two general hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Of the 98 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 82 patients agreed to participate and were enrolled in the study. The complications of the operation were evaluated in these patients.   Results: Of the 164 ears that were operated on, myringosclerosis was found in 17.1%, atrophy of the tympanic membrane in 1.2%, permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane in 0.6% and tympanic membrane atelectasis in 0.6%. None of the patients developed cholesteatoma as a complication of tympanostomy tube insertion.   Conclusion:  Considering the low risk of serious complications after 10 years, tympanostomy tube insertion is a safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of otitis media with effusion.

  15. Ten-year publication trends in dermatology in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Mauro, Jacqueline A; Mauro, Theodora M; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    China has been experiencing huge changes in all aspects, including dermatologic research, since its reform in 1978. However, it is not known how the economic and intellectual development has influenced the publication trends in the field of dermatology, which could mirror the scientific development in other medical disciplines. In the present study, we analyzed publication trends from dermatology departments in mainland China from 2002 to 2011. All publication data were obtained from www.pubmed.com. Only papers published from dermatology departments in mainland China were used for analysis. The number of publications increased 10-fold over this 10-year period. A total of 1231 articles were published in English in 251 journals between 2002 and 2011. A total of 129 journals published only one paper from dermatology departments in mainland China. Over 60% of articles were original research, and 21.7% were case reports. Among these 251 journals, foremost was the Journal of Clinical Experimental Dermatology, which published 5.9% of all papers from mainland China; 2.7% of papers were published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. The number of publications positively correlated with the changes in gross domestic product per capita during the study period. These results suggest that the number of publications in the dermatology field has increased markedly in mainland China over the last 10 years. This dramatic increase in publications could be attributed, at least partially, to the significant improvement in economic conditions in mainland China. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Ten-Year Course of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, John G.; Stout, Robert L.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Shea, M. Tracie; Morey, Leslie C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Markowitz, John C.; Sanislow, Charles; Ansell, Emily; Pinto, Anthony; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Context Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is traditionally considered chronic and intractable. Objective To compare the course of BPD’s psychopathology and social function with that of other personality disorders and with major depressive disorder (MDD) over 10 years. Design A collaborative study of treatment-seeking, 18-to 45-year-old patients followed up with standardized, reliable, and repeated measures of diagnostic remission and relapse and of both global social functioning and subtypes of social functioning. Setting Nineteen clinical settings (hospital and outpatient) in 4 northeastern US cities. Participants Three study groups, including 175 patients with BPD, 312 with cluster C personality disorders, and 95 with MDD but no personality disorder. Main Outcome Measures The Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and its follow-along version (the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders–Follow-Along Version) were used to diagnose personality disorders and assess changes in them. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation were used to diagnose MDD and assess changes in MDD and in social function. Results Eighty-five percent of patients with BPD remitted. Remission of BPD was slower than for MDD (Ppersonality disorders (Ppersonality disorders (P=.008). All BPD criteria declined at similar rates. Social function scores showed severe impairment with only modest albeit statistically significant improvement; patients with BPD remained persistently more dysfunctional than the other 2 groups (Pdisorder. PMID:21464343

  17. Ten Years Back, Five Years Forward: The Data Seal of Approval

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Dillo; Lisa de Leeuw

    2015-01-01

    If we want to share data, the long-term storage of those data in a trustworthy digital archive is an essential condition. Trust is the basis of storing and sharing data. That trust must be present in the various stakeholders involved. Certification of digital archives can make an important contribution to the confidence of these stakeholders in the digital archives.Ten years ago DANS was assigned the task of developing a Seal of Approval for digital data to ensure that archived data can still...

  18. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the new politics opened up new opportunities for businesses and citizens. The aim of the article is to analyze the balance of the Polish membership in the European Union in the economic, financial, political and social dimensions.

  19. Minimal intervention dentistry procedures: a ten year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mfl; Santos, Jm; Fuks, A; Bezerra, Acb; Azevedo, Tdpl

    2014-01-01

    Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) is an effective treatment approach with increasing acceptance among dental professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the MID impact on Dentistry by analyzing procedures performed on patients treated at a Pediatric Dentistry Graduate Program clinic which implemented MID. The number of procedures including sealants, modified atraumatic restorative treatment (mART), resin crowns, direct pulp capping, pulpotomy, pulpectomy, and deciduous/ permanent extractions from 333 pediatric patients treated between the years 2001 to 2003 and 2008 to 2010 in Distrito Federal, Brazil were analyzed. Statistical analysis involved chi-square and G Williams tests. 783 procedures were analyzed and demonstrated that there was a significant reduction of sealant placement in the last triennium when compared to the first one (ppulpectomy (p=0.0002). Based on the results, MID represented a positive impact on the intervention on caries lesions in patients, mainly reflected by the significant reduction in the number of direct pulp capping, pulpotomy and pulpectomy.

  20. Purpose in life predicts allostatic load ten years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Ong, Anthony D; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2015-11-01

    Living a purposeful life is associated with better mental and physical health, including longevity. Accumulating evidence shows that these associations might be explained by the association between life purpose and regulation of physiological systems involved in the stress response. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospective associations between life purpose and allostatic load over a 10-year period. Analyses were conducted using data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Assessment of life purpose, psychological covariates and demographics were obtained at baseline, while biomarkers of allostatic load were assessed at the 10-year follow-up. We found that greater life purpose predicted lower levels of allostatic load at follow-up, even when controlling for other aspects of psychological well-being potentially associated with allostatic load. Further, life purpose was also a strong predictor of individual differences in self-health locus of control-i.e., beliefs about how much influence individuals can exert on their own health-which, in turn, partially mediated the association between purpose and allostatic load. Although life purpose was also negatively linked to other-health locus of control-i.e., the extent to which individuals believe their health is controlled by others/chance-this association did not mediate the impact of life purpose on allostatic load. The current study provides the first empirical evidence for the long-term physiological correlates of life purpose and supports the hypothesis that self-health locus of control acts as one proximal psychological mechanism through which life purpose may be linked to positive biological outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The Catholic School under Scrutiny: Ten Years of Research in Italy (1998-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Guglielmo; Cicatelli, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book delineates the evolution of the Study Centre for Catholic Schools (CSSC) in its first ten years of existence since its foundation in 1998 by the Italian Bishops' Conference. The volume is divided into three main sections. The first outlines the context and the activity of the CSSC during ten years: the role, the functions, the tasks and…

  2. [After ten years of AIDS, a vision emanating from feminism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A L

    1991-01-01

    AIDS and the economic crisis in Mexico are threatening the epidemiologic transition in which infectious diseases ceased to be the only major cause of death and chronic degenerative diseases began to account for a growing proportion of deaths. Many factors combined to produce the sexual, gay, and women's liberation movements beginning in the 1970s. At the beginning of the feminist movement, women proposed different kinds of interpersonal relations both between women and with men. Women together realized their rights to control their own bodies, to sexual enjoyment, to abortion, and to free themselves of feelings of shame and guilt. The weight of moral pressures was lessened and the personal desires of the woman assumed a greater role in selection of sexual partners. Conservative forces grew stronger in the 1980s, and the proliferation of sexually transmitted diseases began to imperil the sexual revolution. But these setbacks were minor compared to AIDS. Now, 10 years after its appearance, it is clear that AIDS is not limited to homosexual men. The number of cases in Mexico increased from none 10 years ago to some 10,000 estimated cases reported and unreported today. 1/6 of the cases are in women. Many women and heterosexuals felt immune from AIDS in the beginning, and some still do, but many more have become aware of the danger. Women now fear contracting AIDS, but they also fear confronting their partners to suggest that they use condoms. Denial may play a role, but deeply rooted cultural factors that women may recognize but fee powerless to change may also be at play. Many women over 30 have difficulty taking the initiative in sexual matters. They are embarrassed to buy condoms and even more embarrassed to propose their use. They imagine that men will consider them "loose" if they carry condoms. Mexican women are poorly prepared to tell their men explicitly what they want sexually, and Mexican men are also poorly equipped to ask what women want, accustomed as they

  3. US-Hungarian Relations Ten Years After 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Glant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 1966, the tenth anniversary of the 1956 Revolution, was a key year in US–Hungarian relations. Diplomatic relations were raised from the lowest to the highest level, but suspicion and tension remained. Neither side knew what to expect from the other on account of the anniversary, the Vietnam War, economic and cultural negotiations, and the fate of Cardinal Mindszenty. A traditional diplomatic historical approach is supplemented here with cultural materials to present the full scale of contacts ranging from high political issues to the visit of Hollywood movie star Kirk Douglas in Budapest. First Secretary of the Legation for Press and Cultural Affairs Edward Alexander receives special attention, because he played a crucial role in the events of 1966. As press secretary, he helped calm Hungarian fears over what American journalists might report about the anniversary, while as cultural affairs officer he worked on documenting and expanding American cultural presence in Hungary. In the latter capacity, he opened the USIA Library at the Legation, fraternized with blacklisted painters of the Zuglói Kör [‘Zugló Circle’], monitored the Hungarian stage production of My Fair Lady, and reported on the publication of American literature in Hungarian.

  4. Ten years of integrated care for the older in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somme, Dominique; de Stampa, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes progress made toward the integration of the French health care system for the older and chronically ill population. Over the last 10 years, the French health care system has been principally influenced by two competing linkage models that failed to integrate social and health care services: local information and coordination centers, governed by the social field, and the gerontological health networks governed by the health field. In response to this fragmentation, Homes for the Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients (MAIAs) is currently being implemented at experimental sites in the French national Alzheimer plan, using an evidence-based model of integrated care. In addition, the state's reforms recently created regional health agencies (ARSs) by merging seven strategic institutions to manage the overall delivery of care. The French health care system is moving from a linkage-based model to a more integrated care system. We draw some early lessons from these changes, including the importance of national leadership and governance and a change management strategy that uses both top-down and bottom-up approaches to implement these reforms.

  5. [Acute pyelonephritis treated under "home hospitalization." Ten years' experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, José; Mendoza, Humberto; Aizpuru, Felipe; Altuna, Elena; Gómez, Montserrat; Cía, Juan M

    2006-12-01

    We present the experience of the Vitoria-Gasteiz Hospital at Home Unit in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis, including an analysis of potential predictors of failure. A total of 369 episodes of acute pyelonephritis without septic shock or renoureteral obstruction are described. After initiating intravenous antibiotic therapy in the hospital emergency department, all patients were referred to the HH. We analyzed the characteristics of the cases and the relationship between several clinical factors and failure of HH care, defined as the need to readmit the patient to conventional hospitalization. During the study period, 280 women and 89 men (age 16-88 years) met the inclusion criteria. Mean length of HH stay was 5 days and duration of intravenous therapy was 3 days. Sixteen of the 369 cases (4%) had to be readmitted to the hospital because of hypotension, vomiting, pain, fever, or signs of obstruction on ultrasound or because they requested it (four patients). Patients who were readmitted had a higher maximum temperature (mean 39.4 vs. 38.7 degrees C; p = 0.006) than those who remained at the HH. There were no differences between the groups with respect to the other clinical variables studied. The evolution of all 16 hospitalized patients was favorable; only one required a urological intervention. Hospital at home care was an effective alternative for managing acute pyelonephritis without shock in 96% of cases referred by the emergency department, and obviated conventional hospital admission, which is usually indicated for this disease.

  6. Stakeholder perceptions of a school food policy ten years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Talati, Zenobia; Sauzier, Megan; Ferguson, Amanda

    2018-01-24

    To assess (i) the extent to which stakeholders have accepted and implemented a Healthy Food and Drink Policy for schools a decade after its introduction and (ii) any resulting implications for canteen profitability. Online survey distributed via electronic newsletter to school principals. Western Australian public schools. Principals, teachers, canteen managers, and parents and citizens committee presidents (n 307). Large majorities of respondents reported that the policy has made the foods and drinks provided in schools healthier (85 %) and that the policy constitutes a good opportunity to teach children about healthy eating (90 %). Only small proportions of respondents felt it had been difficult to implement the policy in their schools (13 %) or that the policy fails to accommodate parents' rights to choose the foods consumed by their children (16 %). Most of the policy outcomes assessed in both the initial post-implementation evaluation (2008) and the 10-year follow-up evaluation (2016) demonstrated significant improvement over time. The study results indicate that comprehensive school food policies can favourably influence the foods and drinks provided on school premises and can be highly acceptable to key stakeholders, without adversely affecting profitability. The results are encouraging for policy makers in other jurisdictions considering the implementation of similar policies.

  7. Stevens Johnson syndrome in Pakistan: a ten-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y I; Azeem, S; Khan, O; Majid, T H; Ahmed, D; Amin, A; Mahmood, A; Hameed, K

    2004-06-01

    A pre-tested questionnaire-based, retrospective study to highlight the causative factors, mode of presentation, complications and outcome of patients with Stevens Johnson syndrome. Aga Khan University Hospital over a 10 year period. All case records with a diagnosis of Steven Johnson Syndrome in the period 1990 to 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. Data was retrieved on a comprehensive questionnaire. The demographic variatbles and drugs taken within the previous 21 days were noted. Date analysis was done by Epi-Info Version 6.0. Of the 101 studied patient files, the most common offender was found to be the Penicillins as a group and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar) when considering all drugs individually. Most common complications included electrolyte disturbances (13.9%) and congestive heart failure (6.9%). Mortality rate was high at 10.1%. SJS was found to be a rare condition but having a mortality rate of 10.1%. As it can be induced by a large number of drugs, caution should be practiced while prescribing.

  8. Permitting of Landfill Bioreactor Operations: Ten Years after ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to promulgation of the Rule, there were approximately 20 full-scale bioreactor projects in North America, including one in Canada. Of these, six were permitted by EPA (four Project XL sites and two projects listed separately under a cooperative research agreement at the Outer Loop Landfill in Kentucky). In March 2014, there were about 40 bioreactor projects reported, including 30 active RD&D projects in 11 approved states and one project on tribal lands. Wisconsin features the largest number of projects at 13, due primarily to the fact that landfill owners in the state must either eliminate landfill disposal of biodegradable materials or to achieve the complete stabilization of deposited organic waste at MSW landfills within 40 years after closure. Most landfill operators have selected a bioreactor approach to attempt to achieve the latter goal. In summary, only 16 of 50 (32%) states have currently adopted the Rule, meaning that development of RD&D permitting procedures that are consistent with EPA’s requirements has generally not occurred. The predominant single reason cited for not adopting the Rule was lack of interest amongst landfill facilities in the state. Subtitle D and its state derivatives already allow leachate recirculation over prescriptive (i.e., minimum technology) liner systems, which is often the primary goal of site operators seeking to control leachate treatment costs. Other reasons related to concerns over increased time, cost

  9. Ten-year experience of insulin treatment in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, C; Wibell, L; Lindmark, G

    1985-01-01

    Between 1975-1984, 119 women with gestational diabetes (GDM) were treated with insulin in Uppsala, representing a mean yearly incidence of 4.5/1,000 pregnancies. Women with GDM were older and more obese than the general pregnant population. Insulin treatment was instituted during a 5-7 day stay in hospital. The mean total daily dose of insulin prepartum, when fasting blood glucose had been normalized, was 53 (SD +/- 25) units (34 +/- 15 units of rapid-acting and 20 +/- 11 units of medium-acting insulin), divided into two doses daily. Mean duration of treatment was 6.4 weeks. The perinatal mortality was 0.8%, compared with 7.4% in previous pregnancies in the same women. The perinatal morbidity was generally mild and included hypoglycaemia (10.9%), hyperbilirubinaemia requiring treatment (2.5%), shoulder dystocia (2.5%) and one case of mild respiratory distress syndrome. The rate of macrosomia was reduced in the present pregnancies compared with previous ones in the women with GDM, but not abolished completely, probably because of too short a duration of improved metabolic control. Spontaneous delivery was favoured and the rate of Caesarean section was 13.5%. Thus, treatment with high doses of insulin in an unselected group of women with GDM is feasible. Normal perinatal mortality, reduced macrosomia, and no gross perinatal morbidity was found in the infants. Though the extent to which insulin treatment per se contributed to the favourable outcome is difficult to assess, it is suggested that the case for a high level of ambition for metabolic normalization in GDM should be a subject of further study.

  10. Radiosurgery as treatment for acoustic neuroma. Ten years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llópez Carratalá, Ignacio; Escorihuela García, Vicente; Orts Alborch, Miguel; de Paula Vernetta, Carlos; Marco Algarra, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic neuroma is a benign tumour that usually affects the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve. It represents 8% of all intracranial tumours and 80% of those arising at the cerebellopontine angle. There are 3 treatment options: microsurgery (the technique of choice), radiosurgery and observation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the results and side effects obtained using radiosurgery as treatment for acoustic neuroma. We performed a review of all patients treated with radiosurgery (Gamma Knife and linear accelerator) at doses of 1200-1300 cGy for unilateral acoustic neuroma in our hospital from January 1999 until January 2010. In all patients we evaluated the overall state, tumour growth control rate (tumour smaller or remaining the same size), the involvement of v and vii cranial nerves and central nervous system disorders. We also assessed follow-up time and changes in hearing thresholds after radiosurgery. From a total of 35 patients studied, with a mean age of 58.29 years and lacking statistically significant differences in gender, the tumour growth control rate was over 90%. The main reason for visit (65.71%) was unilateral and progressive hearing loss. After treatment, 34.28% of patients had hearing loss. The involvement of the cranial nerves (v-vii) was transitory in 100% of cases. Gamma Knife radiosurgery was administered in 82.85% of patients. Although microsurgery is the treatment of choice for acoustic neuroma, we consider radiosurgery as a valid alternative in selected patients (elderly, comorbidity, small tumour size and sensorineural hearing loss, among others). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  11. Ten years at war: comprehensive analysis of amputation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Chad A; Wenke, Joseph C; Ficke, James R

    2012-12-01

    While multiple studies have examined amputations that have occurred during the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, none of these studies have provided an overarching characterization of all of these injuries. A retrospective study of all major extremity amputations sustained by US Service Members from January 2001 through July 30, 2011, was performed. Data obtained from these amputees included amputation level(s), mechanism of injury, time to amputation, Injury Severity Score (ISS), age, rank, number of trauma admissions, and number of troops deployed. There were 1,221 amputees who met inclusion criteria. These amputees sustained a total of 1,631 amputations. The number of amputations performed each year has increased dramatically in 2010 (196) and the first half of 2011 (160) from 2008 (105) and 2009 (94). The number of amputations performed per every 100 traumatic admissions (3.5-14) and the number of amputations per 100,000 deployed troops (2-14) has also increased in 2010 and the first half of 2011. Most amputations occurred at the transtibial (683, 41.8%) and transfemoral (564, 34.5%) levels. Thirty percent of the amputees (366) sustained multiple amputations, and 14% of all amputations (228) performed involved the upper extremity. There were 127 amputees (10%) who underwent their amputation more than 90 days after the date of injury. The number of amputations occurring during the current Iraqi and Afghanistan conflicts has increased in 2010 and the first half of 2011. Most amputations involve the lower extremities, and there is a much higher percentage of amputees who have sustained multiple amputations during current operations than previous conflicts. Epidemiologic study, level IV.

  12. Monitoring Million Trees LA: Tree performance during the early years and future benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory. McPherson

    2014-01-01

    Million Trees LA (MTLA) is one of several large-scale mayoral tree planting initiatives striving to create more livable cities through urban forestry. This study combined field sampling of tree survival and growth with numerical modeling of future benefits to assess performance of MTLA plantings. From 2006 to 2010 MTLA planted a diverse mix of 91,786 trees....

  13. 25+ Years of the Hubble Space Telescope and a Simple Error That Cost Millions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2016-01-01

    A simple mistake in properly setting up a measuring device caused millions of dollars to be spent in correcting the initial optical failure of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This short article is intended as a lesson for a physics laboratory and discussion of errors in measurement.

  14. Exploiting ten years of MERIS data over Land Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobron, Nadine

    2012-07-01

    that contains a detailed enough description of the terrestrial biosphere, it has been exploited for exploratory and diagnostic assessments of the biosphere through machine learning technique (Jung et al, 2010) and data assimilation technique (Kaminski at al, 2011). In this latter, the simultaneous assimilation of FAPAR and Carbon fluxes provides parameter estimates and uncertainty ranges that are consistent with the observational information. This works quantifies for the first time how MERIS products improve the accuracy of the current and future (net and gross) carbon flux estimates (within and beyond the assimilation period). Finally, the exploitation of MERIS data over land surfaces since 10 years has creating new area of research for the use of earth observation and is going towards new challenges for assessing the state of the global climate system.

  15. On the state dependency of the equilibrium climate sensitivity during the last 5 million years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is still an open question how equilibrium warming in response to increasing radiative forcing – the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity S – depends on background climate. We here present palaeodata-based evidence on the state dependency of S, by using CO2 proxy data together with a 3-D ice-sheet-model-based reconstruction of land ice albedo over the last 5 million years (Myr. We find that the land ice albedo forcing depends non-linearly on the background climate, while any non-linearity of CO2 radiative forcing depends on the CO2 data set used. This non-linearity has not, so far, been accounted for in similar approaches due to previously more simplistic approximations, in which land ice albedo radiative forcing was a linear function of sea level change. The latitudinal dependency of ice-sheet area changes is important for the non-linearity between land ice albedo and sea level. In our set-up, in which the radiative forcing of CO2 and of the land ice albedo (LI is combined, we find a state dependence in the calculated specific equilibrium climate sensitivity, S[CO2,LI], for most of the Pleistocene (last 2.1 Myr. During Pleistocene intermediate glaciated climates and interglacial periods, S[CO2,LI] is on average ~ 45 % larger than during Pleistocene full glacial conditions. In the Pliocene part of our analysis (2.6–5 Myr BP the CO2 data uncertainties prevent a well-supported calculation for S[CO2,LI], but our analysis suggests that during times without a large land ice area in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g. before 2.82 Myr BP, the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity, S[CO2,LI], was smaller than during interglacials of the Pleistocene. We thus find support for a previously proposed state change in the climate system with the widespread appearance of northern hemispheric ice sheets. This study points for the first time to a so far overlooked non-linearity in the land ice albedo radiative forcing, which is important for similar

  16. On the state dependency of the equilibrium climate sensitivity during the last 5 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.; de Boer, B.; von der Heydt, A. S.; Stap, L. B.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

    2015-12-01

    It is still an open question how equilibrium warming in response to increasing radiative forcing - the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity S - depends on background climate. We here present palaeodata-based evidence on the state dependency of S, by using CO2 proxy data together with a 3-D ice-sheet-model-based reconstruction of land ice albedo over the last 5 million years (Myr). We find that the land ice albedo forcing depends non-linearly on the background climate, while any non-linearity of CO2 radiative forcing depends on the CO2 data set used. This non-linearity has not, so far, been accounted for in similar approaches due to previously more simplistic approximations, in which land ice albedo radiative forcing was a linear function of sea level change. The latitudinal dependency of ice-sheet area changes is important for the non-linearity between land ice albedo and sea level. In our set-up, in which the radiative forcing of CO2 and of the land ice albedo (LI) is combined, we find a state dependence in the calculated specific equilibrium climate sensitivity, S[CO2,LI], for most of the Pleistocene (last 2.1 Myr). During Pleistocene intermediate glaciated climates and interglacial periods, S[CO2,LI] is on average ~ 45 % larger than during Pleistocene full glacial conditions. In the Pliocene part of our analysis (2.6-5 Myr BP) the CO2 data uncertainties prevent a well-supported calculation for S[CO2,LI], but our analysis suggests that during times without a large land ice area in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g. before 2.82 Myr BP), the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity, S[CO2,LI], was smaller than during interglacials of the Pleistocene. We thus find support for a previously proposed state change in the climate system with the widespread appearance of northern hemispheric ice sheets. This study points for the first time to a so far overlooked non-linearity in the land ice albedo radiative forcing, which is important for similar palaeodata

  17. Safety of gadopentetate dimeglumine after 120 million administrations over 25 years of clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Toru; Hayakawa, Masakane; Shimada, Fumiki; Yabuki, Masahisa; Dohanish, Susan; Palkowitsch, Petra; Yoshikawa, Kohki

    2013-12-25

    We evaluated the safety of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), the first contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging, using pharmacovigilance data for spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs) after 120 million cumulative administrations worldwide. We analyzed spontaneously reported AEs for Gd-DTPA for pre-specified time periods between 1988 and 2011. Since the market introduction of Gd-DTPA in 1988, its global utilization reached 120 million cumulative administrations in 2011, more than 80% of which was by the USA, countries in the European Union (EU), and Japan. The global AE reporting rate was 21.2 in 100,000 administrations in 1988 and 14.4 in 100,000 administrations by 2011. Regional differences included higher reporting rates in the USA and Japan, and reporting rates lower than global rates in the EU. The reported rate of global serious AEs changed from 1.4 in 100,000 administrations in 1988 to 4.0 in 100,000 administrations in 2011. The highest number of reports of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was received from 2006 to 2008. Since 2009, no report of a current onset of NSF has been received. The reduced report rate of NSF may be due to increased awareness about the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). After more than 120 million cumulative administrations, Gd-DTPA is a widely used GBCA that shows a consistently low and stable incidence of AEs.

  18. Ten-year follow-up of an anatomical hydroxyapatite-coated total hip prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Cortés, V.; Panisello Sebastiá, J. J.; Herrera Rodríguez, A.; Peguero Bona, A.; Martínez Martín, A.; Herrero Barcos, L.; García-Dihinx, L.

    2006-01-01

    We report our results after ten year follow-up of 107 consecutive ABG-I hip prostheses implanted between June 1990 and December 1992: Only 84 prostheses were still in the study after ten years, but only six patients had undergone surgical revision. We can consider our clinical outcomes as excellent, with a whole-implant survival rate greater than 96%, a mean Merle D’Aubigne and Postel score increasing from 7.97 before operation to 16.17 at ten year follow-up, and a personal subjective assessm...

  19. 85 million years of pelagic ecosystem evolution: Pacific Ocean deep-sea ichthyolith records reveal fish community dynamics and a long-term decline in sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.; Cuevas, J. M.; Graves, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and productivity of open ocean consumers has undergone major changes over the past 85 million years. Here, we present the first long-term detailed records of pelagic fish and sharks utilizing the record of ichthyoliths (teeth and dermal scales) from the deep Pacific Ocean. While the North and South Pacific Oceans show similar patterns throughout the 85 million year history, the North Pacific ichthyolith accumulation is significantly higher than the South Pacific, suggesting that the basin has been a more productive region for tens of millions of years. Fish and sharks were not abundant in the Pacific gyres until ~75 million years ago (Ma) suggesting that neither group was quantitatively important in oligotrophic pelagic food webs prior to the latest Cretaceous. Relative to ray-finned fish, sharks were common in the ancient ocean. Most ichthyolith assemblages have >50% shark dermal scales (denticles), but denticle abundance has been declining in both absolute and relative abundance since the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) mass extinction. The accumulation rate of ichthyoliths of both sharks and ray-finned fish was highest in the Early Eocene, during the peak of the Cenozoic 'greenhouse' climate where production of shark dermal denticles and fish teeth increased almost five times over Paleocene production rates. Ichthyolith fluxes fell with cooler climates in the later Eocene and Oligocene, but fish production is almost always higher than in the Cretaceous and Paleocene reflecting the expanded ecological roles and importance of pelagic fish in marine ecosystems. Shark denticle production fell to less than half that of the Cretaceous by 20 Ma when it dropped abruptly to near-zero levels. Currently denticles make up sharks appear to be falling as major pelagic consumers over the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, and particularly over the past 20 Ma, perhaps reflecting demographic changes in shark and fish communities, or the rise of resource competition from

  20. Ten Years Back, Five Years Forward: The Data Seal of Approval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Dillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available If we want to share data, the long-term storage of those data in a trustworthy digital archive is an essential condition. Trust is the basis of storing and sharing data. That trust must be present in the various stakeholders involved. Certification of digital archives can make an important contribution to the confidence of these stakeholders in the digital archives.Ten years ago DANS was assigned the task of developing a Seal of Approval for digital data to ensure that archived data can still be found, understood and used in the future. In 2009 this Data Seal of Approval (DSA was transferred to an international body, the DSA Board, which has managed and further developed the guidelines and the peer review process ever since.The objectives of the DSA are to safeguard data, ensure high quality and guide reliable management of data for the future without requiring implementation of new standards, regulations or heavy investments. The DSA contains 16 guidelines for applying and verifying quality aspects concerning the creation, storage, use and reuse of digital data.Based on feedback from data archives that applied for a DSA and different case studies we have gained some insight into the benefits of DSA. Still, the impact of having the Seal is not easy to measure. Seal holders usually refer to qualitative benefits in the form of increased awareness of the value of their repositories to their communities, funders and publishers.Ten years down the line we can safely state that the Data Seal of Approval has proven its added value. If we try to look five years into the future, what can we expect? There are different developments: a growing interest in DSA among European research infrastructures, the collaboration between DSA and the ISCU World Data System under the umbrella of the RDA (Research Data Alliance and the European Commission is showing a growing interest in certification services.The success of DSA also provides the challenge to further

  1. Preliminary ten year results from a randomised single centre mass screening trial for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Juul, Svend; Fasting, Helge

    2006-01-01

    analysis of the ten-year mortality from AAA, based upon population-based data until 2002 (7 years) and incomplete hospital-based information on deaths until 2005 (10 years). METHODS AND MATERIAL: In 1994 we started a randomised screening trial of 12,639 64-73 year-old males; 6,306 were controls, and 6...

  2. Earth-like aqueous debris-flow activity on Mars at high orbital obliquity in the last million years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, T.; Hauber, E.; Conway, S.J.; Van Steijn, H.; Johnsson, A.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid water is currently extremely rare on Mars, but was more abundant during periods of high obliquity in the last few millions of years. This is testified by the widespread occurrence of mid-latitude gullies: small catchment-fan systems. However, there are no direct estimates of the amount and

  3. Early Predictors of Ten-Year Course in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Svein; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying patients at risk of poor outcome at an early stage of illness can aid in treatment planning. This study sought to create a best-fit statistical model of known baseline and early-course risk factors to predict time in psychosis during a ten-year follow-up period after a first...... psychotic episode. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2000, 301 patients with DSM-IV nonorganic, nonaffective first-episode psychosis were recruited consecutively from catchment area-based sectors in Norway and Denmark. Specialized mental health personnel evaluated patients at baseline, three months, and one, two......, five, and ten years (N=186 at ten years). Time in psychosis was defined as time with scores ≥4 on any of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items P1, P3, P5, P6, and G9. Evaluations were retrospective, based on clinical interviews and all available clinical information. During the first two years...

  4. Using 20-million-year-old amber to test the super-Arrhenius behaviour of glass-forming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Simon, Sindee L; McKenna, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Fossil amber offers the opportunity to investigate the dynamics of glass-forming materials far below the nominal glass transition temperature. This is important in the context of classical theory, as well as some new theories that challenge the idea of an 'ideal' glass transition. Here we report results from calorimetric and stress relaxation experiments using a 20-million-year-old Dominican amber. By performing the stress relaxation experiments in a step-wise fashion, we measured the relaxation time at each temperature and, above the fictive temperature of this 20-million-year-old glass, this is an upper bound to the equilibrium relaxation time. The results deviate dramatically from the expectation of classical theory and are consistent with some modern ideas, in which the diverging timescale signature of complex fluids disappears below the glass transition temperature.

  5. Earth-like aqueous debris-flow activity on Mars at high orbital obliquity in the last million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, T; Hauber, E; Conway, S J; van Steijn, H; Johnsson, A; Kleinhans, M G

    2015-06-23

    Liquid water is currently extremely rare on Mars, but was more abundant during periods of high obliquity in the last few millions of years. This is testified by the widespread occurrence of mid-latitude gullies: small catchment-fan systems. However, there are no direct estimates of the amount and frequency of liquid water generation during these periods. Here we determine debris-flow size, frequency and associated water volumes in Istok crater, and show that debris flows occurred at Earth-like frequencies during high-obliquity periods in the last million years on Mars. Results further imply that local accumulations of snow/ice within gullies were much more voluminous than currently predicted; melting must have yielded centimetres of liquid water in catchments; and recent aqueous activity in some mid-latitude craters was much more frequent than previously anticipated.

  6. The Insect Chemoreceptor Superfamily in Drosophila pseudoobscura: Molecular Evolution of Ecologically-Relevant Genes Over 25 Million Years

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Hugh M.

    2009-01-01

    The insect chemoreceptor superfamily, consisting of the odorant receptor (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) families, exhibits patterns of evolution ranging from highly conserved proteins to lineage-specific gene subfamily expansions when compared across insect suborders and orders. Here their evolution across the timespan of 25 million years is examined which yield orthologous divergences ranging from 5–50%. They also reveal the beginnings of lineage-specific gene subfamilies as multiple dupli...

  7. Randomized Trial of Treatment for Children with Sexual Behavior Problems: Ten-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Melissa Y.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This study prospectively follows 135 children 5-12 years of age with sexual behavior problems from a randomized trial comparing a 12-session group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with group play therapy and follows 156 general clinic children with nonsexual behavior problems. Ten-year follow-up data on future juvenile and adult arrests and…

  8. Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    "Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education" in the United States is the tenth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. The survey is designed, administered and analyzed by the Babson Survey Research Group. Data collection is conducted in partnership with the College Board. This year's study, like those…

  9. Galaxies 800 million years after the Big Bang seen with the Atacama Large Millimetre Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Renske

    2018-01-01

    The identification of galaxies in the first billion years after the Big Bang presents a challenge for even the largest optical telescopes. When the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) started science operations in 2011 it presented a tantalising opportunity to identify and characterise these first sources of light in a new window of the electromagnetic spectrum. I will present new sources successfully identified at z=6.8 using ALMA; the first spectroscopic confirmations of typical star-forming galaxies during the Epoch or Reionization using a sub-millimetre telescope. Moreover, these observations reveal the gas kinematics of such distant sources for the first time. The velocity gradient in these galaxies indicate that these galaxies likely have similar dynamical properties as the turbulent, yet rotation-dominated disks that have been observed for Hα emitting galaxies 2 billion years later at cosmic noon. This novel approach for confirming galaxies during Reionization paves the way for larger studies of distant galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. Particularly important, this opens up opportunities for the measurement of high angular-resolution dynamics in galaxies less than one billion years after the Big Bang.

  10. The genomic impact of 100 million years of social evolution in seven ant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadau, Jürgen; Helmkampf, Martin; Nygaard, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) represent one of the most successful eusocial taxa in terms of both their geographic distribution and species number. The publication of seven ant genomes within the past year was a quantum leap for socio- and ant genomics. The diversity of social organization in ants...... makes them excellent model organisms to study the evolution of social systems. Comparing the ant genomes with those of the honeybee, a lineage that evolved eusociality independently from ants, and solitary insects suggests that there are significant differences in key aspects of genome organization...... between social and solitary insects, as well as among ant species. Altogether, these seven ant genomes open exciting new research avenues and opportunities for understanding the genetic basis and regulation of social species, and adaptive complex systems in general....

  11. DITTY - a computer program for calculating population dose integrated over ten thousand years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.

    1986-03-01

    The computer program DITTY (Dose Integrated Over Ten Thousand Years) was developed to determine the collective dose from long term nuclear waste disposal sites resulting from the ground-water pathways. DITTY estimates the time integral of collective dose over a ten-thousand-year period for time-variant radionuclide releases to surface waters, wells, or the atmosphere. This document includes the following information on DITTY: a description of the mathematical models, program designs, data file requirements, input preparation, output interpretations, sample problems, and program-generated diagnostic messages.

  12. The role of terrestrial plants in limiting atmospheric CO(2) decline over the past 24 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Mark; Caldeira, Ken; Berner, Robert; Beerling, David J

    2009-07-02

    Environmental conditions during the past 24 million years are thought to have been favourable for enhanced rates of atmospheric carbon dioxide drawdown by silicate chemical weathering. Proxy records indicate, however, that the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations did not fall below about 200-250 parts per million during this period. The stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations near this minimum value suggests that strong negative feedback mechanisms inhibited further drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide by high rates of global silicate rock weathering. Here we investigate one possible negative feedback mechanism, occurring under relatively low carbon dioxide concentrations and in warm climates, that is related to terrestrial plant productivity and its role in the decomposition of silicate minerals. We use simulations of terrestrial and geochemical carbon cycles and available experimental evidence to show that vegetation activity in upland regions of active orogens was severely limited by near-starvation of carbon dioxide in combination with global warmth over this period. These conditions diminished biotic-driven silicate rock weathering and thereby attenuated an important long-term carbon dioxide sink. Although our modelling results are semi-quantitative and do not capture the full range of biogeochemical feedbacks that could influence the climate, our analysis indicates that the dynamic equilibrium between plants, climate and the geosphere probably buffered the minimum atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 24 million years.

  13. Oregon’s forest resources, 2001–2010: ten-year Forest Inventory and Analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Leslie Brodie; Sharon Stanton; Karen Waddell; Marin Palmer; Glenn Christensen; Olaf Kuegler; John Chase; Joel Thompson; Sarah Jovan; Andrew Gray; Morgan Todd

    2017-01-01

    This report highlights key findings from a comprehensive vegetation survey of all forested land across the state of Oregon. A total of 5,180 forested field plots in Oregon were visited by Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) crews over a 10-year period from 2001 to 2010. Oregon has 30 million acres of forest, covering nearly half the state. The structure and composition...

  14. The Aethereal Network on Chip after Ten Years: Goals, Evolution, Lessons, and Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Kees; Hansson, A.

    2010-01-01

    The goals for the Æthereal network on silicon, as it was then called, were set in 2000 and its concepts were defined early 2001. Ten years on, what has been achieved? Did we meet the goals, and what is left of the concepts? In this paper we answer those questions, and evaluate different

  15. Theory-Based Evaluation: Reflections Ten Years On. Theory-Based Evaluation: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Patricia J.; Weiss, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter begins with a brief introduction by Rogers, in which she highlights the continued salience of Carol Weiss's decade-old questions about theory-based evaluation. Theory-based evaluation has developed significantly since Carol Weiss's chapter was first published ten years ago. In 1997 Weiss pointed to theory-based evaluation being mostly…

  16. Quality of Life in South Africa--The First Ten Years of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    South Africa celebrated ten years of democracy in 2004. This special issue of "Social Indicators Research" ("SIR") reviews developments that have impacted on the quality of life of ordinary South Africans during the transition period. The issue updates an earlier volume of "SIR" (Volume 41) published in 1997 and as a…

  17. Educational Virtual Environments: A Ten-Year Review of Empirical Research (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Natsis, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    This study is a ten-year critical review of empirical research on the educational applications of Virtual Reality (VR). Results show that although the majority of the 53 reviewed articles refer to science and mathematics, researchers from social sciences also seem to appreciate the educational value of VR and incorporate their learning goals in…

  18. Acute lower abdominal pain caused by adnexal torsion in a ten-year-old girl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Hansen, Lars Folmer; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    A ten-year-old girl presented with four days of lower abdominal pain. A diagnostic laparoscopy on the suspicion of acute appendicitis revealed left-sided adnexal torsion. The cyanotic ovary was detorsed and recovered. At three-month follow-up there were no clinical or ultrasonic signs of pathology...

  19. Ten years after the Jali Commission Assessing the state of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years have lapsed since the Jali Commission's final report became publicly available, and it is therefore an opportune time to assess the state of South Africa's prison system. The Jali Commission was appointed when it became clear that the state had lost control of the Department of Correctional Services (DCS).

  20. Ten-year mortality review in a pioneer psychiatric hospital in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the mortality among admitted patients in the study centre, a pioneer psychiatric facility in the West African sub-region. Design: A detailed retrospective study of the records of all deaths among the inpatients during the ten-year period of January, 1991 to December, 2000. Setting: Psychiatric Hospital ...

  1. Survival and vigour of ultra-dry seeds after ten years of hermetic storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.D.; Ellis, R.H.; Astley, D.; Pinnegar, A.E.; Groot, S.P.C.; Kraak, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of carrot, groundnut, lettuce, oilseed rape and onion were stored hermetically in laminated aluminium foil packets in four environments (dry or ultra-dry moisture contents combined factorially with temperatures of 20 degrees C or -20 degrees C), replicated at several sites. After ten years'

  2. Ten Years of bored tunnels in the Netherlands : Part I: Geotechnical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; Bezuijen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years have passed since in 1997 for the first time construction of bored tunnels in the Netherlands soft soil was undertaken. Before that date essentially only immersed tunnels and cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed in the Netherlands. The first two bored tunnels were Pilot Projects, the 2nd

  3. Mechanical birth injuries in the Niger Delta: a ten-year review (1989 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanical birth injuries in the Niger Delta: a ten-year review (1989-1998). Cosmos E Enyindah, Alice R Nte. Abstract. Context: Birth traumas associated with poor obstetric services contribute significantly not only to the high perinatal morbidity and mortality, but also to long-term sequelae in the survivors in many developing ...

  4. Transverse patella fracture in a ten year old boy: case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patella fractures are rare in children. Transverse fractures in particular are an uncommon pattern. We report a case of a transverse patella fracture in a ten year old boy. He presented with inability to actively extend his left knee, two months after a fall. On evaluation he was found to have a transverse fracture of his left patella.

  5. Careers as Viewed by Five and Ten Year Graduates of Home Economics and Journalism Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, Wilma; Sailor, Patricia

    This study examined the reactions of women who chose a traditional career (home economics) and women who chose a nontraditional career (journalism) five and ten years after graduation. The study included 171 home economics graduates and 75 journalism graduates. Of these, 36 were males and 210 females. Sixty-eight graduated in 1965 and 178 in 1969.…

  6. Mathematical Skills in Undergraduate Students. A Ten-Year Survey of a Plant Physiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, A.; Vila, F.; Sanz, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the health and life sciences and many other scientific disciplines, problem solving depends on mathematical skills. However, significant deficiencies are commonly found in this regard in undergraduate students. In an attempt to understand the underlying causes, and to improve students' performances, this article describes a ten-year survey…

  7. Historical Evolution of Instructional Technology in Teacher Education Programs: A Ten-Year Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrus, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The content and emphasis of the introductory technology courses for undergraduate preservice teachers has historically been examined, with the earliest study conducted by Stracke in 1932. In an attempt to identify trends in the course DeKieffer conducted a series of studies over ten year intervals, in 1947, 1957, 1967, and 1977. In 2000 the first…

  8. The AES total ankle arthroplasty analysis of failures and survivorship at ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Alexandre; Viste, Anthony; Fessy, Michel Henry; Besse, Jean Luc

    2017-09-04

    AES mobile-bearing total ankle replacement was developed from the Buechel Pappas model. It was withdrawn in 2009, after identification of a higher than expected complication rate. The purpose of the current study was to analyse clinical outcomes, failures and survival of the initial series of 50 AES published in 2009. In this single-centre continuous prospective study (2003-2006), 50 AES prostheses were included. Pre-operative osteoarthritis was mainly post-traumatic (50%) and secondary to instability (36%). All patients were assessed with clinical and radiographic follow-up at six months, one year, two years and every two to three years thereafter. A CT-scan was systematically performed before procedure, and at two years, five years and ten years. At last follow-up, all patients with TAR had a functional (SF 36, AOFAS) and clinical assessment. All complications or surgical events were analysed. The mean follow-up was ten ± two years (range, 9-13). The mean AOFAS score was 75 points (range, 26-100). The mean SF 36 score was 69 points (range, 35-97). There was a significant deterioration in AOFAS score at five years and at last follow-up (p < 0.05). Fifteen TARs underwent reoperation for cyst curettage-graft because of development of periprosthetic lesions. Six of them ended up with prosthesis removal-arthrodesis. At the last follow-up, 14 TARs were removed for arthrodesis. Of the 30 prostheses seen at last follow-up, four are awaiting prosthesis removal-arthrodesis and one for cyst curettage-graft. The ten year survivorships free of any prosthesis removal or arthrodesis and free of any reoperation were 68% (95% CI, 55-85) and 57% (95% CI, 44-74), respectively. Our data suggested a high rate of reoperation. Overall ten year survival was lower than with other designs, particularly due to cyst lesions. Level IV, prospective case series.

  9. LSST survey: millions and millions of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezić, Željko

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), the next-generation optical imaging survey sited at Cerro Pachon in Chile, will provide hundreds of detections for a sample of more than ten million quasars with redshifts up to about seven. The LSST design, with an 8.4m (6.7m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 sq. deg. field of view, and a 3.2 Gigapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 sq. deg. of sky to be covered twice per night, every three to four nights on average, with typical 5-sigma depth for point sources of r=24.5 (AB). With about 1000 observations in ugrizy bands over a 10-year period, these data will enable a deep stack reaching r=27.5 (about 5 magnitudes deeper than SDSS) and faint time-domain astronomy. The measured properties of newly discovered and known astrometric and photometric transients will be publicly reported within 60 sec after closing the shutter. In addition to a brief introduction to LSST, I review optical quasar selection techniques, with emphasis on methods based on colors, variability properties, and astrometric behavior.

  10. A new chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.

    2016-01-01

    The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide...... interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based...

  11. Do Estrogens improve bone mass in osteoporotic women over ten years of menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Szejnfeld

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of 24 patients with established osteoporosis and with ten or more years of menopause treated with conjugated estrogen, progesterone and calcium followed for one year has been performed. Treated women received 0.625 mg/day of conjugated estrogen from day 1 to 25, 5 mg/day of medroxiprogesterone from day 13 to 25, of each cycle, plus calcium (500 - 1000 mg/day, during one year (12 cycles. As control group was used 18 age-matched that received only calcium (500 a 1000 mg/day. All patients had at least two dual-photon spine and proximal femur (neck, Ward's triangle and trocanter densities measurements performed 12 months apart. Estrogen treatment was associated with increased bone mineral density at spine and trocanter. Control group did not present any statistically change after one year in any site studied. We concluded that women with ten or more years of menopause and established osteoporosis treated with replacement hormonal therapy and calcium results in improvement of bone mineral density. These data support that women with ten or more years of menopause respond to estrogen replacement therapy with absolute increments in bone density similar to those seen in younger women, in the early menopause.

  12. A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5–10-million-year-old star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor J; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Petigura, Erik A; Carpenter, John M; Crossfield, Ian J M; Hinkley, Sasha; Ciardi, David R; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Cody, Ann Marie; Schlieder, Joshua E; Beichman, Charles A; Barenfeld, Scott A

    2016-06-30

    Theories of the formation and early evolution of planetary systems postulate that planets are born in circumstellar disks, and undergo radial migration during and after dissipation of the dust and gas disk from which they formed. The precise ages of meteorites indicate that planetesimals—the building blocks of planets—are produced within the first million years of a star’s life. Fully formed planets are frequently detected on short orbital periods around mature stars. Some theories suggest that the in situ formation of planets close to their host stars is unlikely and that the existence of such planets is therefore evidence of large-scale migration. Other theories posit that planet assembly at small orbital separations may be common. Here we report a newly born, transiting planet orbiting its star with a period of 5.4 days. The planet is 50 per cent larger than Neptune, and its mass is less than 3.6 times that of Jupiter (at 99.7 per cent confidence), with a true mass likely to be similar to that of Neptune. The star is 5–10 million years old and has a tenuous dust disk extending outward from about twice the Earth–Sun separation, in addition to the fully formed planet located at less than one-twentieth of the Earth–Sun separation.

  13. [Competent and diverse. Portrayal of older adults in Dutch television commercials ten years later].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Selm, M; Westerhof, G J; de Vos, B

    2007-05-01

    The present study replicates our study of older adults' portrayal in Dutch television commercials conducted in 1993. The central question is whether older adults are being portrayed more visibly in Dutch television commercials and whether this portrayal has become more diverse compared to ten years ago. Based on a list of descriptions of all commercials broadcasted by public television channels in 2003 (N= 4767) 117 commercials featuring older adults were selected. By means of a quantitative content analysis it was examined whether and how older men and women are portrayed. It was concluded that although older adults are not more prevalent compared to ten years ago, their portrayal is more diverse with respect to their roles and the advertised products. Older adults were portrayed as more competent and less age-stereotypical in television commercials.

  14. First identification of natural products from the African medicinal plant Zamioculcas zamiifolia - A drought resistant survivor through millions of years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moullec, Angharad; Juvik, Ole Johan; Fossen, Torgils

    2015-10-01

    Zamioculcas zamiifolia, an unusually drought resistant medicinal plant native to tropical east Africa and subtropical southeast Africa, including the countries Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South-Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, is described as a living fossil which may have evolved as early as 42 million years ago. It belongs to the notoriously toxic family Araceae giving it, through association, a reputation for being toxic; despite little or no systematic evidence exists to support this claim. As an ancient plant it has sustained substantial climate changes and attacks from millions of generations of pathogenic microorganisms, which encouraged search for novel natural products from this source. Seven natural products have been characterized from leaves and petioles of Z. zamiifolia, including the novel main compound of the leaves, apigenin 6-C-(6″-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaroyl)-ß-glucopyranoside). The structure determinations were based on extensive use of 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Initial toxicological experiment on extracts from Z. zamiifolia using brine shrimp lethality assay did not indicate lethality to the shrimps providing disproving evidence for the assumption of Z. zamiifolia's toxic character. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A prospective ten-year follow-up of patients with chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, P C L; Menezes, M C S; Forte, W C N

    2016-01-01

    Chronic urticaria can be the initial clinical presentation of a number of different diseases. The objective of the present study was to report the associated diseases during a ten-year clinical-laboratory follow-up in patients with an initial diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) of unknown cause. A prospective, longitudinal cohort study with a ten-year clinical-laboratory follow-up was conducted. Patients with a history of urticarial plaques of over six weeks presenting as the only clinical symptom were selected. Individuals with other clinical conditions, urticaria of known causes or chronic physical urticaria were excluded. The following tests were initially performed: haemogram, urine type I, stool parasite exam and sedimentation rate. The following exams were ordered during follow-up: PPD; urine culture; serology tests; antithyroid and antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, lupus anticoagulant; thyroid hormones; serum immunoglobulin; paranasal sinus and thorax radiographs; testing for BK and Helicobacter pylori; and prick tests. Infections were diagnosed in 29% of patients (syphilis, parasitosis, H. pylori, urinary infection, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C); autoimmune diseases in 21% (thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome); primary immunodeficiencies in 4% (IgA and IgG2 deficiencies); and chronic myeloid leukaemia in 1%. At ten-years of follow-up, the urticaria diagnosis was CSU of unknown cause in 45% of the cases. This ten-year clinical-laboratory follow-up of 100 individuals with chronic urticaria as the initial diagnosis revealed the presence of associated diseases in over half of the cases. The most prevalent diseases were infections and autoimmune diseases besides primary immunodeficiencies and blood diseases. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton Liu Liu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C. 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short- time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum with a ...

  17. Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short-time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum ...

  18. Climate Evolution in Central Asia during the Past Few Million Years: A Case Study from Issyk Kul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Oberhänsli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The lake Issyk Kul occupies a deep basin within the Earth’s most active intracontinental mountain belt, the Tien Shan, far from any oceanic influence. It offers a record of continental climate spanning millions of years that is likely unmatched by any other source.A three-day workshop, with the same title as this report and sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Project and German Science Foundation, was held on 12–17 June 2011 on the shore of Issyk Kul to discuss the scientific justification for and the logistical aspects of scientific drilling of the lake. A two-day geological field trip followed the workshop. Forty-five scientists from twelve countries discussed three obvious targets for paleoclimatic study, a related study of erosion, and a study of how microbial life has evolved within the basin. The conclusion was that these research topics justify further consideration of deep continental drilling at Issyk Kul.

  19. Kujigamberol, a new dinorlabdane diterpenoid isolated from 85million years old Kuji amber using a biotechnological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ken-ichi; Minamikawa, Yuki; Ogasawara, Yukiko; Yoshida, Jun; Saitoh, Kei-ichi; Shinden, Hisao; Ye, Yue Qi; Takahashi, Shunya; Miyakawa, Tokichi; Koshino, Hiroyuki

    2012-07-01

    A new compound, 15,20-dinor-5,7,9-labdatriene-18-ol (1), named kujigamberol, was isolated from amber, fossilized tree resin from the Kuji area in Japan, has been dated as being 85 million years old (late Cretaceous). Kujigamberol was identified using the hypersensitive mutant yeast (zds1∆ erg3∆ pdr1∆ pdr3∆) with respect to Ca(2+)-signal transduction. The structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including 1D NMR, 2D NMR and HR-EI-MS. It was different from known diterpenoids with a similar activity isolated from Baltic amber (agathic acid 15-monomethyl ester (2), dehydroabietic acid (3) and pimaric acid (4)). Kujigamberol showed glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibition activity involving the growth restored activity against the mutant yeast and was cytotoxic to HL60 cells (IC(50)=19.6 μM). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. LARGE CHANGES IN LOESS GEOCHEMISTRY AND HIGH LATITUDE WIND REGIMES DURING THE LAST TWO MILLION YEARS, CENTRAL ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, M. J.; Beget, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Ice wedge casts and thermokarst deposits near the base of 80-m-high loess cliffs at Gold Hill record a cycle of transient climate cooling and permafrost formation followed by an interval of climate warming and permafrost degradation about two million years ago (Beget et al., 2008). Ice wedge casts and thermokarst features occur below the PA tephra (ca. 2.02 myr) but formed after the Reunion paleomagnetic excursion (ca. 2.14 myr), suggesting the Alaskan cold interval was correlative with marine isotope stage 77, a time of significant global glaciation and cooling. The subsequent period of ice wedge thawing records warmer conditions, probably during marine isotope stage 76. Magnetic susceptibility profiling of the 2 MA Alaskan loess reveals glacial-interglacial cycles similar to those seen in late Pleistocene loess. However, new geochemical data from the 2 MA loess shows that it was significantly more calcareous then late Pleistocene loess and contains numerous calcareous concretions, some weighing as much as several kg. For most of the past two million years the loess geochemistry indicates winds came dominantly from the south and southwest carrying non-calcarous silts derived from glaciation of the Alaska Range, with only a minor eolian contribution from the calcareous-rich silts of the Yukon River. The calcareous loess deposits that formed 2.1 MA record eolian silt transport from the Yukon River and the calcareous Brooks Range to the north. The loess record shows that an interval characterized by a major shift in the atmospheric circulation regime from one dominated by southerly winds from the northern Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Alaska to one dominated by northerly winds from the Chuckchi Sea and western Arctic Ocean areas occurred ca. 2.1 MA. At least one additional interval of calcareous loess deposition also occurs in mid-Pleistocene time, and records another large but transient change in high latitude atmospheric circulation at ca. 0.4-0.5 MA.

  1. Ten year experience with antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia: Trends in patient characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phirum Lay

    Full Text Available Although HIV disease stage at ART initiation critically determines ART outcomes, few reports have longitudinally monitored this within Asia. Using prospectively collected data from a large ART program at Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope in Cambodia, we report on the change in patient characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period.We conducted a retrospective analysis including all adults (≥ 18 years old starting ART from March 2003-March 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The cumulative incidence of death, lost to follow-up (LTFU, attrition (death or LTFU and first line treatment failure were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Independent risk factors for these outcomes were determined using Cox regression modeling.Over the ten-year period, 3581 patients initiated ART with a median follow-up time of 4.8 years (IQR 2.8-7.2. The median age was 35 years (IQR 30-41, 54% were female. The median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 22 cells/μL (IQR 4-129 in 2003 to 218 (IQR 57-302 in 2013. Over the 10 year period, a total of 282 (7.9% individuals died and 433 (12.1% were defined LTFU. Program attrition (died or LTFU was 11.1% (95% CI: 10.1%- 12.4% at one year, 16.3% (95% CI: 15.1%-17.6% at three years, 19.8% (95% CI: 18.5%-21.2% at five years and 23.3% (95% CI: 21.6-25.1 at ten years. Male sex and low baseline body mass index (BMI were associated with increased attrition. Factors independently associated with mortality included a low baseline CD4 count, older age, male sex, low baseline BMI and hepatitis B co-infection. Individuals aged above 40 years old had an increased risk of mortality but were less likely to LTFU. There were a total of 137 individuals with first line ART failure starting second line treatment. The probability of first line failure was estimated at 2.8% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.4% at 3 years, 4.6% (95% CI: 3.9%-5.5% at 5 years and 7.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.5% at ten years of ART. The probability was

  2. Ten year experience with antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia: Trends in patient characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Phirum; An, Sokkab; Soeung, Sunpiseth; Srey, Pich Sovannary; Thai, Sopheak; Lynen, Lutgarde; Griensven, Johan van

    2017-01-01

    Although HIV disease stage at ART initiation critically determines ART outcomes, few reports have longitudinally monitored this within Asia. Using prospectively collected data from a large ART program at Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope in Cambodia, we report on the change in patient characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period. We conducted a retrospective analysis including all adults (≥ 18 years old) starting ART from March 2003-March 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The cumulative incidence of death, lost to follow-up (LTFU), attrition (death or LTFU) and first line treatment failure were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Independent risk factors for these outcomes were determined using Cox regression modeling. Over the ten-year period, 3581 patients initiated ART with a median follow-up time of 4.8 years (IQR 2.8-7.2). The median age was 35 years (IQR 30-41), 54% were female. The median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 22 cells/μL (IQR 4-129) in 2003 to 218 (IQR 57-302) in 2013. Over the 10 year period, a total of 282 (7.9%) individuals died and 433 (12.1%) were defined LTFU. Program attrition (died or LTFU) was 11.1% (95% CI: 10.1%- 12.4%) at one year, 16.3% (95% CI: 15.1%-17.6%) at three years, 19.8% (95% CI: 18.5%-21.2%) at five years and 23.3% (95% CI: 21.6-25.1) at ten years. Male sex and low baseline body mass index (BMI) were associated with increased attrition. Factors independently associated with mortality included a low baseline CD4 count, older age, male sex, low baseline BMI and hepatitis B co-infection. Individuals aged above 40 years old had an increased risk of mortality but were less likely to LTFU. There were a total of 137 individuals with first line ART failure starting second line treatment. The probability of first line failure was estimated at 2.8% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.4%) at 3 years, 4.6% (95% CI: 3.9%-5.5%) at 5 years and 7.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.5%) at ten years of ART. The probability was

  3. Compromises in orchestra pit design: A ten-year trench war in The Royal Theatre, Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Mortensen, Bo

    1998-01-01

    years this new flexibility caused a formal battle between the orchestra, the singers, and management, because each group had different interests as to how the pit should be configured for each new production. In the 1990s, increased concern about the musicians' hearing and the increase in the popularity...... of opera finally opened the way for a new renovation of the pit, which solved most of the problems. The paper describes the many lessons learned during the ten-year period in which the authors were involved with the case as acoustic consultants. Questions of how pit configuration influences mutual hearing...

  4. Moving Upstream and Going Local: The Responsibility to Protect Ten Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Moix

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago the international community pledged to protect civilians from genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by endorsing the responsibility to protect (R2P doctrine. Yet today, horrific violence against civilians continues in places like Syria, Iraq, and South Sudan. This article examines some of the progress and gaps in the international community’s efforts to better protect civilians against mass violence over the past decade. It proposes two emerging directions for advancing the R2P agenda in the coming years: 1 greater focus on upstream prevention, and 2 increased support for locally-led peacebuilding and prevention actors and capacities.

  5. Idaho National Laboratory 2013-2022 Ten-Year Site Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin Ozaki; Sheryl L. Morton; Elizabeth A. Connell; William T. Buyers; Craig L. Jacobson; Charles T. Mullen; Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Robert D. Logan

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Ten-Year Site Plan (TYSP) describes the strategy for accomplishing the long-term objective of transforming the laboratory to meet Department of Energy (DOE) national nuclear research and development (R&D) goals, as outlined in DOE strategic plans. The plan links R&D mission goals and INL core capabilities with infrastructure requirements (single- and multi-program), establishs the 10-year end-state vision for INL complexes, and identifies and prioritizes infrastructure needs and capability gaps. The TYSP serves as the basis for documenting and justifying infrastructure investments proposed as part of the FY 2013 budget formulation process.

  6. Ten years of democracy: attitudes and identity among some South African school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlyn Dyers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten years into South Africa’s democracy, how do school children feel about themselves as part of specific groups, and what is the role of language in their socio-cultural identities? This paper looks at the ways in which two groups of fourteen-year-old Xhosa-speaking and mixed-race ‘Coloured’ South African secondary school learners in a new housing area near Cape Town negotiate their identities through language in a context of rapid social change. It analyses their beliefs and attitudes about the languages and speech communities to which they are exposed.

  7. Hot Stuff for One Year (HSOY). A 583 million star proper motion catalogue derived from Gaia DR1 and PPMXL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, M.; Roeser, S.; Demleitner, M.; Bastian, U.; Schilbach, E.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Recently, the first installment of data from the ESA Gaia astrometric satellite mission (Gaia DR1) was released, containing positions of more than 1 billion stars with unprecedented precision. This release contains the proper motions and parallaxes, however, for only a subset of 2 million objects. The second release will include those quantities for most objects. Aims: In order to provide a dataset that bridges the time gap between the Gaia DR1 and Gaia DR2 releases and partly remedies the lack of proper motions in the former, Hot Stuff for One Year (HSOY) was created as a hybrid catalogue between Gaia and ground-based astrometry. This catalogue features proper motions (but no parallaxes) for a large percentage of the DR1 objects. While not attempting to compete with future Gaia releases in terms of data quality or number of objects, the aim of HSOY is to provide improved proper motions partly based on Gaia data and to allow studies to be carried out now or as pilot studies for later projects requiring higher precision data. Methods: The HSOY catalogue was compiled using the positions taken from Gaia DR1 combined with the input data from the PPMXL catalogue, employing the same weighted least-squares technique that was used to assemble the PPMXL catalogue itself. Results: This effort resulted in a four-parameter astrometric catalogue containing 583 million stars with Gaia DR1 quality positions and proper motions with precisions from far less than 1 mas/yr to 5 mas/yr, depending on object brightness and location on the sky. The HSOY catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?I/339

  8. Implementing the US air quality standard for PM2.5 worldwide can prevent millions of premature deaths per year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannadaki, Despina; Lelieveld, Jos; Pozzer, Andrea

    2016-08-23

    Air pollution by fine aerosol particles is among the leading causes of poor health and premature mortality worldwide. The growing awareness of this issue has led several countries to implement air pollution legislation. However, populations in large parts of the world are still exposed to high levels of ambient particulate pollution. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential impact of implementing current air quality standards for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the European Union (EU), United States (US) and other countries where PM2.5 levels are high. We use a high-resolution global atmospheric chemistry model combined with epidemiological concentration response functions to investigate premature mortality attributable to PM2.5 in adults ≥30 years and children air quality standards of the EU and US and other national standards would be implemented worldwide. We estimate the global premature mortality by PM2.5 at 3.15 million/year in 2010. China is the leading country with about 1.33 million, followed by India with 575 thousand and Pakistan with 105 thousand per year. For the 28 EU member states we estimate 173 thousand and for the United States 52 thousand premature deaths in 2010. Based on sensitivity analysis, applying worldwide the EU annual mean standard of 25 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 could reduce global premature mortality due to PM2.5 exposure by 17 %; while within the EU the effect is negligible. With the 2012 revised US standard of 12 μg/m(3) premature mortality by PM2.5 could drop by 46 % worldwide; 4 % in the US and 20 % in the EU, 69 % in China, 49 % in India and 36 % in Pakistan. These estimates take into consideration that about 22 % of the global PM2.5 related mortality cannot be avoided due to the contribution of natural PM2.5 sources, mainly airborne desert dust and PM2.5 from wild fires. Our results reflect the need to adopt stricter limits for annual mean PM2.5 levels globally, like the US standard of 12 μg/m(3) or an

  9. A ten year audit of maternal mortality: Millennium development still a distant goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuja Singla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess various causes of maternal mortality over a ten year period Design: Retrospective audit of hospital case records Setting: Tertiary care hospital Population: Pregnant women who expired in the premises of GTB Hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective audit of case records of maternal deaths was conducted for a ten year period (January 2005 to December 2014. Results: There were a total of 647 maternal deaths out of 1,16,641 live births. Sixty-eight percent (n = 445 of women were aged 21-30 years, while 10.5% (n = 68 were <20 years of age. The most common direct causes of maternal mortality were preeclampsia/eclampsia in 24.4% (n = 158, obstetric hemorrhage in 19.1% (n = 124 and puerperal sepsis in 14.5% (n = 94. With regards to indirect causes, anemia accounted for 15.3% (n = 99 mortality. There was only 1 (0.1% mortality because of HIV/AIDS. Other notable causes of maternal mortality were infective hepatitis in 7.1% (n = 46. Tuberculosis, that is a disease of tropical countries, accounted for 3.0% (n = 20 of the total deaths. Conclusion: High maternal mortality in GTB hospital can be due to it being a tertiary hospital with referrals from all neighbouring states. Accessible antenatal care can help prevent these maternal deaths. Female education can be of immense help in dealing with the problem and improving the utilization of public health facilities.

  10. COPD and its association with smoking in the Mainland China: a cross-sectional analysis of 0.5 million men and women from ten diverse areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmi OP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Om P Kurmi,1 Liming Li,2,3 Jenny Wang,1 Iona Y Millwood,1 Junshi Chen,4 Rory Collins,1 Yu Guo,2 Zheng Bian,2 Jiangtao Li,5 Biyun Chen,6 Kaixu Xie,7 Weifan Jia,8 Yali Gao,9 Richard Peto,1 Zhengming Chen1 On behalf of the China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group 1Nuffield Department of Population Health, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, 3Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Dong Cheng District, 4China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, 5NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Huixian CDC, Huixian, Henan, 6NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Hunan CDC, Changsha, 7NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Tongxiang CDC, Zhejiang, 8NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Liuyang CDC, Baiyikengdao, Liuyang, Changsha, Hunan, 9NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Sichuan CDC, Sichuan, Mainland China Purpose: In adult Chinese men, smoking prevalence is high, but little is known about its association with chronic respiratory disease, which is still poorly diagnosed and managed. Methods: A nationwide study recruited 0.5 million men and women aged 30–79 years during 2004–2008 from ten geographically diverse areas across the Mainland China. Information was collected from each participant regarding smoking and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis/emphysema (CB/E, along with measurement of lung function indices. Logistic regression was used to yield sex-specific odds ratios (ORs relating smoking to airflow obstruction (AFO, defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC <0.7 and CB/E, adjusting for age, areas, education, and income. Results: Overall 74% of men were ever regular smokers; among them, 7.2% had AFO compared with 5.4% in never-smokers, yielding an OR of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34–1

  11. Reduced-complexity multi-site rainfall generation: one million years over night using the model TripleM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinl, Korbinian; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Girons Lopez, Marc

    2017-04-01

    We assess uncertainties of multi-site rainfall generation across spatial scales and different climatic conditions. Many research subjects in earth sciences such as floods, droughts or water balance simulations require the generation of long rainfall time series. In large study areas the simulation at multiple sites becomes indispensable to account for the spatial rainfall variability, but becomes more complex compared to a single site due to the intermittent nature of rainfall. Weather generators can be used for extrapolating rainfall time series, and various models have been presented in the literature. Even though the large majority of multi-site rainfall generators is based on similar methods, such as resampling techniques or Markovian processes, they often become too complex. We think that this complexity has been a limit for the application of such tools. Furthermore, the majority of multi-site rainfall generators found in the literature are either not publicly available or intended for being applied at small geographical scales, often only in temperate climates. Here we present a revised, and now publicly available, version of a multi-site rainfall generation code first applied in 2014 in Austria and France, which we call TripleM (Multisite Markov Model). We test this fast and robust code with daily rainfall observations from the United States, in a subtropical, tropical and temperate climate, using rain gauge networks with a maximum site distance above 1,000km, thereby generating one million years of synthetic time series. The modelling of these one million years takes one night on a recent desktop computer. In this research, we first start the simulations with a small station network of three sites and progressively increase the number of sites and the spatial extent, and analyze the changing uncertainties for multiple statistical metrics such as dry and wet spells, rainfall autocorrelation, lagged cross correlations and the inter-annual rainfall

  12. A Globally Self-Consistent Model of Plate Motions Relative to the Hotspots for the Past 48 Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, E.; Gordon, R. G.

    2012-04-01

    of plate motions relative to the hotspots for the past 48 million years. To obtain the model, we use the tracks of the Hawaiian, Louisville, Tristan da Cunha, Réunion and Iceland hotspots. All the hotspot tracks used in this analysis are among the most widely accepted candidates for a deep mantle origin. The poles of rotation are estimated for ages corresponding to some key magnetic anomalies used in plate reconstructions. The new set of plate reconstructions presented here provide a firm basis for estimating absolute plate motions for the past 48 million years and, in particular, can be used to separate paleomagnetically determined apparent polar wander into the part due to plate motion and the part due to true polar wander.

  13. Million year cycles in the Fe, Mg and Ni records of a ferromanganese crust from the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, R.; Gupta, S. M.; Miura, H.

    2008-12-01

    In search of long term productivity signals, a high resolution geochemical study was undertaken by using the life sustaining iron and magnesium contents in a slowly accreting 26 mm thick hydrogenous Fe-Mn crust representing around 12 Million years (Ma) record from the equatorial Indian Ocean. We analyzed Fe, Mg, Ni, Co, and other trace metals by using electron probe micro-analyzer at 100 micron interval. The geochemical data was averaged at every 1 mm interval and subjected to statistical analyses. The crust was dated using standard cobalt-chronometry (Manheim and Lane-Bostwick, 1998). Mixed age-depth model (Heegaard et al., 2005) was applied to ascertain the error limits in the computed ages for each millimeter of the crust. Thereafter, the Red-fit (Schulz and Mudelsee, 2002) and multi-taper (Thompson, 1990) spectral analyses of Fe, Mg and Ni revealed the existence of the significant (>90%) cycles at around 3, 1.5, and 1.2 Ma. We surmise that Fe and Mg cycles represented the changes in oceanic productivity as these metals are essentially used in sustaining the oceanic phyto- and zoo-plankton productivity in the surface water. The Fe/Ni ratio, which is attributed to meteoritic dust influx (Johnson, 2001), also revealed the similar cycles suggesting a possibility of Ni input from the meteoritic dust in the past. We compared the geochemical time- series data with the Earth's orbital eccentricity and summer solar insolation (Berger, 1979) at the equator for the last 10 million years. The Redfit and multi-taper analyses of the eccentricity and the insolation also resulted similar cycles at around 1.5 and 1.2 Ma. Therefore, we surmise that the Fe, Mg, and Ni cycles at 1.5, and 1.2 Ma could be result of the geochemical response to the Earth's eccentricity related solar insolation changes. Earlier studies reported cycles due to eccentricity (0.4, 0.126, 0.95 Ma), tilt (0.041 Ma) and precession (0.023 Ma) in Indian Ocean, whereas we report here 3, 1.5 and 1.2 Ma supra

  14. Comparison of the refractive error changes among young children in ten years interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the optometric examination results of myopic young children between those diagnosed in the period from 1998 to 2000 and those diagnosed in the period from 2008 to 2010; and to find out the causes of myopia and factors that worsen the condition, and suggest methods of its prevention and treatment.METHODS: This study was a retrospective case study. We randomly selected sample from out-patient department register of cases and divided them into two main groups, ‘ten year before group'(TYBG(1998/2000 year casesand ‘ten years later group'(2008/2010 year cases(TYLG. Each group was further subdivided into three sub-groups by age: under-six years old children group(CG, seven-twelve years old primary-school group(PSGand thirteen-eighteen years old middle-school group(MSG. The optometric examination results were statistically analyzed.RESULTS: The difference of the mean dioptre between the TYBG and TYLG was strongly statistically significant, also forward-lead trend of age when children suffered from myopia was found(P0.01. There was a significant increase of dioptre among PSG and MSG in TYLG compared to TYBG(PCONCLUSION: Our study shows that the age of getting myopia was forward lead, the dioptre increases by 1.00 degree and the prevalence of myopia is increasing gradually. This situation may due to the modern life style and changes of living standard of the population. Therefore, prevention of myopia should concentrate more on younger children at kindergarten and primary school stage students.

  15. Spontaneous Mediastinitis in a Ten-year-old Girl: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kyung Eun; Kim, Ji Hong; Yoon, Choon Sik [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Acute suppurative mediastinitis is an uncommon, life threatening condition with a mortality rate of up to 40%. It is mainly caused by esophageal perforation or post-operative complications, and acute mediastinitis not caused by trauma or surgery is rare. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of spontaneous mediastinal abscess in children have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a case of an acute mediastinal abscess in a ten-year-old girl and there was no demonstrable clinical or radiologic etiology for infection

  16. Plant and equipment division laboratory services series: a ten-year building-maintenance cost history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keesee, H.F.

    1976-09-01

    Maintaining a multifacility national laboratory in a safe, reliable condition is a complex management responsibility in terms of budgets, costs, and proper utilization of personnel and material resources. Increasing wage rates and material costs, combined with decreased budgets and aging facilities, create unusual challenges to maintenance managers. A ten-year history of building-maintenance costs, a brief description of the maintenance program, analyses of personnel requirements, cost increase indexes, unit costs, cost controls, procedures, and a brief discussion of alterations and improvements are presented.

  17. Colorectal carcinoma in a ten-year-old girl: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbani Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is very rare in childhood. In this case report, we depict a ten-year-old girl who presented with features of intestinal obstruction which turned out to be due to poorly differentiated mucin secreting adenocarcinoma of descending colon. Only increased awareness of this malignancy in this age-group and a high index of suspicion can help when a child complains of persistent pain of abdomen, altered bowel habits or rectal bleeding, and may provide diagnosis at an earlier stage, thereby improving the prognosis.

  18. Ten years of forensic odontology: a report from the Department of Forensic Odontology, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teivens, A; Mornstad, H

    1992-12-01

    The practical activities of the Department of Forensic Odontology at the National Board for Forensic Medicine in Stockholm, Sweden, have been reviewed over a ten year period (1980-1989). The number of cases has increased from 72 in 1980 to 278 in 1989, and a total of 1402 tasks have been carried out. Seventy-five per cent of the cases have concerned identification of single individuals, 14% have involved the National Register of Missing Persons with the remaining cases being age determination (34), bite marks (27), oral examination after criminal assault (69), examination of skeletal remains, dentures, restorative materials (33) and written reports to be presented at court (159).

  19. Ten Years of GWOT, the Failure of Democratization, and the Fallacy of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oakley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available October 7, 2011, marked a decade since the United States invaded Afghanistan and initiated the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT. While most ten-year anniversary gifts involve aluminum, tin, or diamonds, the greatest gift U.S. policymakers can present American citizens is a reconsideration of the logic that guides America's counterterrorism strategy. Although the United States has successfully averted large-scale domestic terrorist attacks, its inability to grasp the nature of the enemy has cost it dearly in wasted resources and, more importantly, lost lives. Two of the most consistent and glaring policy flaws revolve around the concepts of filling "ungoverned spaces" and installing democracy by force.

  20. Early detection, early symptom progression and symptomatic remission after ten years in a first episode of psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Haahr, Ulrik; Larsen, Tor K

    2013-01-01

    Poor symptom outcome remains a challenge in psychosis: At least 50% of first-episode patients continue to have positive and/or negative symptoms after ten years.......Poor symptom outcome remains a challenge in psychosis: At least 50% of first-episode patients continue to have positive and/or negative symptoms after ten years....

  1. Oral mucosal lesions in children from 0 to 12 years old: ten years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorana, Alessandra; Bardellini, Elena; Flocchini, Pierangela; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Campus, Guglielmo

    2010-07-01

    The exact prevalence of oral lesions in childhood is not well known. We sought to define the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a large group of children. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using clinical charts from January 1997 to December 2007. Data collected included age, gender, and pathologic diagnosis. In total, 10,128 children (0-12 years old) were enrolled. Clinical diagnostic criteria proposed by the World Health Organization were followed. The frequency of children presenting oral mucosal lesions was 28.9%, and no differences related to gender were observed. The most frequent lesions recorded were oral candidiasis (28.4%), geographic tongue and other tongue lesions (18.5%), traumatic lesions (17.8%), recurrent aphthous ulcerations (14.8%), herpes simplex virus type 1 infections (9.3%), and erythema multiforme (0.9%). Children suffering from chronic diseases had a higher frequency of oral lesions compared with healthy children (chi-square: P oral disorders are associated with underlying medical conditions. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Seventy-five-million-year-old tropical tetra-like fish from Canada tracks Cretaceous global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbrey, M G; Murray, A M; Wilson, M V H; Brinkman, D B; Neuman, A G

    2009-11-07

    Newly discovered fossil fish material from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada, documents the presence of a tropical fish in this northern area about 75 million years ago (Ma). The living relatives of this fossil fish, members of the Characiformes including the piranha and neon tetras, are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, being limited in their distribution by colder temperatures. Although characiform fossils are known from Cretaceous through to Cenozoic deposits, none has been reported previously from North America. The modern distribution of characiforms in Mexico and southern Texas in the southernmost United States is believed to have been the result of a relatively recent colonization less than 12 Ma. The new Canadian fossils document the presence of these fish in North America in the Late Cretaceous, a time of significantly warmer global temperatures than now. Global cooling after this time apparently extirpated them from the northern areas and these fishes only survived in more southern climes. The lack of early Cenozoic characiform fossils in North America suggests that marine barriers prevented recolonization during warmer times, unlike in Europe where Eocene characiform fossils occur during times of global warmth.

  3. Sea-level and deep-sea-temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, E J; Foster, G L; Grant, K M; Marino, G; Roberts, A P; Tamisiea, M E; Williams, F

    2014-04-24

    Ice volume (and hence sea level) and deep-sea temperature are key measures of global climate change. Sea level has been documented using several independent methods over the past 0.5 million years (Myr). Older periods, however, lack such independent validation; all existing records are related to deep-sea oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) data that are influenced by processes unrelated to sea level. For deep-sea temperature, only one continuous high-resolution (Mg/Ca-based) record exists, with related sea-level estimates, spanning the past 1.5 Myr. Here we present a novel sea-level reconstruction, with associated estimates of deep-sea temperature, which independently validates the previous 0-1.5 Myr reconstruction and extends it back to 5.3 Myr ago. We find that deep-sea temperature and sea level generally decreased through time, but distinctly out of synchrony, which is remarkable given the importance of ice-albedo feedbacks on the radiative forcing of climate. In particular, we observe a large temporal offset during the onset of Plio-Pleistocene ice ages, between a marked cooling step at 2.73 Myr ago and the first major glaciation at 2.15 Myr ago. Last, we tentatively infer that ice sheets may have grown largest during glacials with more modest reductions in deep-sea temperature.

  4. Steady incision of Grand Canyon at the million year timeframe: A case for mantle-driven differential uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan; Karlstrom, Karl; Darling, Andrew; Crossey, Laura; Polyak, Victor; Granger, Darryl; Asmerom, Yemane; Schmandt, Brandon

    2014-07-01

    The Grand Canyon region provides an excellent laboratory to examine the interplay between river incision, magmatism, and the geomorphic and tectonic processes that shape landscapes. Here we apply U-series, Ar-Ar, and cosmogenic burial dating of river terraces to examine spatial variations in incision rates along the 445 km length of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon. We also analyze strath terrace sequences that extend to heights of several hundred meters above the river, and integrate these with speleothem constrained maximum incision rates in several reaches to examine any temporal incision variations at the million-year time frame. This new high-resolution geochronology shows temporally steady long-term incision in any given reach of Grand Canyon but significant variations along its length from 160 m/Ma in the east to 101 m/Ma in the west. Spatial and temporal patterns of incision, and the long timescale of steady incision rule out models where geomorphic controls such as climate oscillations, bedrock strength, sediment load effects, or isostatic response to differential denudation are the first order drivers of canyon incision. The incision pattern is best explained by a model of Neogene and ongoing epeirogenic uplift due to an eastward propagating zone of increased upper mantle buoyancy that we infer from propagation of Neogene basaltic volcanism and a strong lateral gradient in modern upper mantle seismic structure.

  5. Out of the dark: 350 million years of conservatism and evolution in diel activity patterns in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samantha R; Wiens, John J

    2017-08-01

    Many animals are active only during a particular time (e.g., day vs. night), a partitioning that may have important consequences for species coexistence. An open question is the extent to which this diel activity niche is evolutionarily conserved or labile. Here, we analyze diel activity data across a phylogeny of 1914 tetrapod species. We find strong phylogenetic signal, showing that closely related species tend to share similar activity patterns. Ancestral reconstructions show that nocturnality was the most likely ancestral diel activity pattern for tetrapods and many major clades within it (e.g., amphibians, mammals). Remarkably, nocturnal activity appears to have been maintained continuously in some lineages for ∼350 million years. Thus, we show that traits involved in local-scale resource partitioning can be conserved over strikingly deep evolutionary time scales. We also demonstrate a potentially important (but often overlooked) metric of niche conservatism. Finally, we show that diurnal lineages appear to have faster speciation and diversification rates than nocturnal lineages, which may explain why there are presently more diurnal tetrapod species even though diurnality appears to have evolved more recently. Overall, our results may have implications for studies of community ecology, species richness, and the evolution of diet and communication systems. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. The wasp larva's last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lohrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalosomatidae are an unusual family of wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata comprising less than 100 species found in the tropics and subtropics of all continents except Europe and Antarctica. Whereas some species resemble nocturnal Ichneumonidae, others might be mistaken for spider wasps or different groups of brachypterous Hymenoptera. Despite their varied morphology, all members of the family supposedly develop as larval ectoparasitoids of crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea. Here, we report on the first record of a fossil rhopalosomatid larva which was discovered in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Burma. The larva is attached to the lateral side of a cricket between the metafemur and the abdomen, impacting the natural position of the hind leg, exactly as documented for modern species. Additionally, the larval gestalt is strikingly similar to those of extant forms. These observations imply that this behavioral specialization, e.g., host association and positioning on host, likely evolved in the stem of the family at least 100 million years ago.

  7. A New Chytridiomycete Fungus Intermixed with Crustacean Resting Eggs in a 407-Million-Year-Old Continental Freshwater Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Strullu-Derrien

    Full Text Available The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov is attributed to Chytridiomycota based on its size, consistent formation of papillae, and the presence of an internal rhizoidal system. It is the most pristine fossil Chytridiomycota known, especially in terms of rhizoidal development and closely resembles living species in the Rhizophydiales. The spiny resting eggs are attributed to the crustacean Lepidocaris rhyniensis, dating branchiopod adaptation to life in ephemeral pools to the Early Devonian. The new fungal interaction suggests that, as in modern freshwater environments, chytrids were important to the mobilisation of nutrients in early aquatic foodwebs.

  8. The Insect Chemoreceptor Superfamily in Drosophila pseudoobscura: Molecular Evolution of Ecologically-Relevant Genes Over 25 Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Hugh M.

    2009-01-01

    The insect chemoreceptor superfamily, consisting of the odorant receptor (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) families, exhibits patterns of evolution ranging from highly conserved proteins to lineage-specific gene subfamily expansions when compared across insect suborders and orders. Here their evolution across the timespan of 25 million years is examined which yield orthologous divergences ranging from 5–50%. They also reveal the beginnings of lineage-specific gene subfamilies as multiple duplications of particular gene lineages in either or both Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura (Frolova and Astaurov) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Gene losses and pseudogenes are similarly evident in both lineages, and even in closer comparisons of D. melanogaster with D. yakuba, leaving these species with roughly similar numbers of chemoreceptors despite considerable gene turnover. The large range of divergences and gene duplications provide abundant raw material for studies of structure and function in this novel superfamily, which contains proteins that evolved to bind specific ligands that mediate much of the ecology and mating behavior of insects. PMID:19613461

  9. Idaho National Laboratory 2015-2023 Ten-Year Site Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheryl Morton; Elizabeth Connell; Bill Buyers; John Reisenauer; Rob Logan; Chris Ischay; Ernest Fossum; Paul Contreras; Joel Zarret; Steve Hill; Jon Tillo

    2013-09-01

    This Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Ten-Year Site Plan (TYSP) describes the strategy for accomplishing the long-term objective of sustaining the INL infrastructure to meet the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) mission: to promote nuclear power as a resource capable of making major contributions in meeting the nation’s energy supply, environmental and energy security needs. This TYSP provides the strategy for INL to accomplish its mission by: (1) linking R&D mission goals to core capabilities and infrastructure requirements; (2) establishing a ten-year end-state vision for INL facility complexes; (3) identifying and prioritizing infrastructure needs and capability gaps; (4) establishing maintenance and repair strategies that allow for sustainment of mission-critical (MC) facilities; and (5) applying sustainability principles to each decision and action. The TYSP serves as the infrastructure-planning baseline for INL; and, though budget formulation documents are informed by the TYSP, it is not itself a budget document.

  10. Floridi’s “Open Problems in Philosophy of Information”, Ten Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dodig Crnkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In his article Open Problems in the Philosophy of Information [1] Luciano Floridi presented a Philosophy of Information research program in the form of eighteen open problems, covering the following fundamental areas: Information definition, information semantics, intelligence/cognition, informational universe/nature and values/ethics. We revisit Floridi’s program, highlighting some of the major advances, commenting on unsolved problems and rendering the new landscape of the Philosophy of Information (PI emerging at present. As we analyze the progress of PI we try to situate Floridi’s program in the context of scientific and technological development that have been made last ten years. We emphasize that Philosophy of Information is a huge and vibrant research field, with its origins dating before Open Problems, and its domains extending even outside their scope. In this paper, we have been able only to sketch some of the developments during the past ten years. Our hope is that, even if fragmentary, this review may serve as a contribution to the effort of understanding the present state of the art and the paths of development of Philosophy of Information as seen through the lens of Open Problems.

  11. Ten years of telerehabilitation: A literature overview of technologies and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogante, Marco; Grigioni, Mauro; Cordella, Daniele; Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at delivering a structured overview of telerehabilitation literature by analysing the entire set of articles under the search terms "telerehabilitation" or "tele-rehabilitation" to portray "state of the art" ten years after the publication of the first scientific article on the topic. A structured study has been conducted by considering all those articles containing the word "telerehabilitation" or "tele-rehabilitation". Medline, Embase, Cochrane, UK Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health databases have been interrogated for articles between 1998 and 2008. 146 scientific articles were found. 56 articles focus on patient treatment, 23 are reviews, 3 are to be considered as both patient treatment papers and reviews, 53 are either technical reports, system descriptions or analyses of new approaches; 8 are general discussion on telerehabilitation. The present paper draw the scenario of the first ten years of telerehabilitation, focussing on clinical applications and technologies. Basically, it confirms the lack of comprehensive studies providing evidence for supporting decision and policy-makers in adopting telerehabilitation technologies in the clinical practice. An overall lack of standardisation in the used terminology also results from the analysis of keywords, which is typical of quite recent fields of application.

  12. A galaxy rapidly forming stars 700 million years after the Big Bang at redshift 7.51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, S L; Papovich, C; Dickinson, M; Song, M; Tilvi, V; Koekemoer, A M; Finkelstein, K D; Mobasher, B; Ferguson, H C; Giavalisco, M; Reddy, N; Ashby, M L N; Dekel, A; Fazio, G G; Fontana, A; Grogin, N A; Huang, J-S; Kocevski, D; Rafelski, M; Weiner, B J; Willner, S P

    2013-10-24

    Of several dozen galaxies observed spectroscopically that are candidates for having a redshift (z) in excess of seven, only five have had their redshifts confirmed via Lyman α emission, at z = 7.008, 7.045, 7.109, 7.213 and 7.215 (refs 1-4). The small fraction of confirmed galaxies may indicate that the neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium rises quickly at z > 6.5, given that Lyman α is resonantly scattered by neutral gas. The small samples and limited depth of previous observations, however, makes these conclusions tentative. Here we report a deep near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 43 photometrically-selected galaxies with z > 6.5. We detect a near-infrared emission line from only a single galaxy, confirming that some process is making Lyman α difficult to detect. The detected emission line at a wavelength of 1.0343 micrometres is likely to be Lyman α emission, placing this galaxy at a redshift z = 7.51, an epoch 700 million years after the Big Bang. This galaxy's colours are consistent with significant metal content, implying that galaxies become enriched rapidly. We calculate a surprisingly high star-formation rate of about 330 solar masses per year, which is more than a factor of 100 greater than that seen in the Milky Way. Such a galaxy is unexpected in a survey of our size, suggesting that the early Universe may harbour a larger number of intense sites of star formation than expected.

  13. Ten-year results of phototherapeutic keratectomy on recurrent corneal erosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belquiz Rodrigues do Amaral Nassaralla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the ten-year visual results and outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK for recurrent corneal erosions. METHODS: Twenty-six eyes of 23 patients with recurrent corneal erosions were treated by PTK from 1996 to 2000 at the Goiania Eye Institute, Brazil. All eyes had failed to respond to conventional therapy. Data regarding preoperative and postoperative best-spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, spherical equivalent (SE, symptomatic relief, incidence of recurrence, and complications arising from the laser treatment were analyzed. The mean duration of symptoms prior to PTK was 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months. The corneal epithelium was debrided, and laser ablation was performed to a depth of 5 micron with an ablation zone of 7 to 9 mm, using the Technolas 217C Plano Scan excimer laser. Mean postoperative follow-up was 12 years (range, 10 to 14 years. RESULTS: At the last follow-up visit, 15 eyes (57.69% were symptomsfree. Five eyes (19.2% had occasional mild symptoms of irritation and photophobia upon awakening. Recurrence of painful corneal erosions occurred in six eyes (23.07%, which required a PTK retreatment. Twenty-four eyes had a preserved or improved BCVA, while 2 eyes showed deterioration of 1 line on Snellen test. Eleven eyes (42.3% had no change in SE, and the others (57.69% had a change of less than +/-0.75 diopters (D. There were no major complications during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Ten-year data show that PTK is a safe, fast, effective and minimal invasive choice of treatment for recurrent corneal erosions in patients who do not respond to conventional treatments.

  14. Ten Years, Twenty Issues, and Two Hundred Papers of Numeracy: Toward International Reach and Transdisciplinary Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue completes the first ten years of Numeracy. The purpose of this introductory editorial is to review what has happened to the journal in those ten years. In the twenty issues, Numeracy’s output has been 201 papers counting the one or two editorials per issue. More than 50% of the papers are full, peer-reviewed articles, including 13 papers in two theme collections. The others are peer-reviewed notes and perspectives, editor-reviewed book reviews (15% of the total, and a column by contributing co-editor, Dorothy Wallace. The current issue marks an upswing in the number of notes, and our first discussion/reply. The number of papers per year has been increasing (e.g., 66% more in the last three years than in the first three years. The download rate has increased from about 5,000 in the first two years to 5,000 in about 40 days now. The editorial goes on to document two main outcomes. First, the journal is gaining an international reach: more than half the downloads occur outside the United States now, and the number of contributions from outside the United States has increased from 4 in the first five years to 15 in the second five years. Second, the across-the-curriculum nature of quantitative literacy is coming to the fore. The transdisciplinarity of QL is strikingly evident in this issue, which is discussed in some detail, especially how it conforms to the mission of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. The editorial ends with some results from a small ad hoc study of Google Scholar Citation Profiles. The question was, of the profiles that used “numeracy” or “quantitative literacy” as keywords, what other keywords did those profiles use, and what were the source countries? The results show that (1 QL is very much an American term, (2 there is, metaphorically, a vast and interesting numeracy ecosystem out there for Numeracy to engage and serve, and (3 as we become more global, the transdisciplinary relevance

  15. Baseline intrinsic flammability of Earth’s ecosystems estimated from paleoatmospheric oxygen over the past 350 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire M.; Yearsley, Jonathan M.; Hadden, Rory M.; McElwain, Jennifer C.; Rein, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric oxygen (O2) is estimated to have varied greatly throughout Earth’s history and has been capable of influencing wildfire activity wherever fuel and ignition sources were present. Fires consume huge quantities of biomass in all ecosystems and play an important role in biogeochemical cycles. This means that understanding the influence of O2 on past fire activity has far-reaching consequences for the evolution of life and Earth’s biodiversity over geological timescales. We have used a strong electrical ignition source to ignite smoldering fires, and we measured their self-sustaining propagation in atmospheres of different oxygen concentrations. These data have been used to build a model that we use to estimate the baseline intrinsic flammability of Earth’s ecosystems according to variations in O2 over the past 350 million years (Ma). Our aim is to highlight times in Earth’s history when fire has been capable of influencing the Earth system. We reveal that fire activity would be greatly suppressed below 18.5% O2, entirely switched off below 16% O2, and rapidly enhanced between 19–22% O2. We show that fire activity and, therefore, its influence on the Earth system would have been high during the Carboniferous (350–300 Ma) and Cretaceous (145–65 Ma) periods; intermediate in the Permian (299–251 Ma), Late Triassic (285–201 Ma), and Jurassic (201–145 Ma) periods; and surprisingly low to lacking in the Early–Middle Triassic period between 250–240 Ma. These baseline variations in Earth’s flammability must be factored into our understanding of past vegetation, biodiversity, evolution, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:21149686

  16. Eighty-five million years of Pacific Ocean gyre ecosystem structure: long-term stability marked by punctuated change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, Elizabeth; Norris, Richard; Cuevas, Jose; Graves, Lana

    2016-05-25

    While the history of taxonomic diversification in open ocean lineages of ray-finned fish and elasmobranchs is increasingly known, the evolution of their roles within the open ocean ecosystem remains poorly understood. To assess the relative importance of these groups through time, we measured the accumulation rate of microfossil fish teeth and elasmobranch dermal denticles (ichthyoliths) in deep-sea sediment cores from the North and South Pacific gyres over the past 85 million years (Myr). We find three distinct and stable open ocean ecosystem structures, each defined by the relative and absolute abundance of elasmobranch and ray-finned fish remains. The Cretaceous Ocean (pre-66 Ma) was characterized by abundant elasmobranch denticles, but low abundances of fish teeth. The Palaeogene Ocean (66-20 Ma), initiated by the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction, had nearly four times the abundance of fish teeth compared with elasmobranch denticles. This Palaeogene Ocean structure remained stable during the Eocene greenhouse (50 Ma) and the Eocene-Oligocene glaciation (34 Ma), despite large changes in the overall accumulation of both groups during those intervals, suggesting that climate change is not a primary driver of ecosystem structure. Dermal denticles virtually disappeared from open ocean ichthyolith assemblages approximately 20 Ma, while fish tooth accumulation increased dramatically in variability, marking the beginning of the Modern Ocean. Together, these results suggest that open ocean fish community structure is stable on long timescales, independent of total production and climate change. The timing of the abrupt transitions between these states suggests that the transitions may be due to interactions with other, non-preserved pelagic consumer groups. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Spintharus flavidus in the Caribbean—a 30 million year biogeographical history and radiation of a ‘widespread species’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Dziki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean island biota is characterized by high levels of endemism, the result of an interplay between colonization opportunities on islands and effective oceanic barriers among them. A relatively small percentage of the biota is represented by ‘widespread species,’ presumably taxa for which oceanic barriers are ineffective. Few studies have explored in detail the genetic structure of widespread Caribbean taxa. The cobweb spider Spintharus flavidus Hentz, 1850 (Theridiidae is one of two described Spintharus species and is unique in being widely distributed from northern N. America to Brazil and throughout the Caribbean. As a taxonomic hypothesis, Spintharus “flavidus” predicts maintenance of gene flow among Caribbean islands, a prediction that seems contradicted by known S. flavidus biology, which suggests limited dispersal ability. As part of an extensive survey of Caribbean arachnids (project CarBio, we conducted the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of S. flavidus with the primary goal of testing the ‘widespread species’ hypothesis. Our results, while limited to three molecular loci, reject the hypothesis of a single widespread species. Instead this lineage seems to represent a radiation with at least 16 species in the Caribbean region. Nearly all are short range endemics with several distinct mainland groups and others are single island endemics. While limited taxon sampling, with a single specimen from S. America, constrains what we can infer about the biogeographical history of the lineage, clear patterns still emerge. Consistent with limited overwater dispersal, we find evidence for a single colonization of the Caribbean about 30 million years ago, coinciding with the timing of the GAARLandia landbridge hypothesis. In sum, S. “flavidus” is not a single species capable of frequent overwater dispersal, but rather a 30 my old radiation of single island endemics that provides preliminary support for a complex and

  18. Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Campione, Nicolás E; Carrano, Matthew T; Mannion, Philip D; Sullivan, Corwin; Upchurch, Paul; Evans, David C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds) are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614-622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic) dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds) sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large-scale extrapolation of

  19. The endocast of the one-million-year-old human cranium from Buia (UA 31), Danakil Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Bondioli, Luca; Coppa, Alfredo; Frayer, David W; Holloway, Ralph L; Libsekal, Yosief; Medin, Tsegai; Rook, Lorenzo; Macchiarelli, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The Homo erectus-like cranium from Buia (UA 31) was found in the Eritrean Danakil depression and dated to 1 million years. Its outer morphology displays archaic traits, as well as distinctive and derived characters. The present study provides the description and metric comparison of its endocranial anatomy. UA 31 was originally filled by a diffuse concretion. Following its removal and cleaning, the endocast (995 cc) was reconstructed after physical molding and digital scan. Its morphology is here compared with specimens belonging to different human taxa, taking into account endocranial metrics, cortical traits, and craniovascular features. The endocast is long and narrow when compared to the H. erectus/ergaster hypodigm, although its proportions are compatible with the morphology displayed by all archaic and medium-brained human species. The occipital areas display a pronounced bulging, the cerebellum is located in a posterior position, and the middle meningeal vessels are more developed in the posterior regions. These features are common among specimens attributed to H. erectus s.l., particularly the Middle Pleistocene endocasts from Zhoukoudian. The parietal lobes are markedly bossed. This lateral bulging is associated with the lower parietal circumvolutions, as in other archaic specimens. This pronounced parietal curvature is apparently due to a narrow cranial base, more than to wider parietal areas. The endocast of UA 31 shows a general plesiomorphic phenotype, with some individual features (e.g., dolichocephaly and rounded lower parietal areas) which confirm a remarkable degree of morphological variability within the H. erectus/ergaster hypodigm. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:458-468, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Retention of functional genes for S19 ribosomal protein in both the mitochondrion and nucleus for over 60 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, Sruthi; Rampersad, Sarah N; Bonen, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Ribosomal protein genes occasionally undergo successful migration from the mitochondrion to the nucleus in flowering plants and we previously presented evidence that the S19 ribosomal protein gene (rps19) had been transferred to the nucleus in the common ancestor of Poaceae grasses. In many lineages, the mitochondrial copy was subsequently lost or pseudogenized, although in rice it was retained and the nuclear copy lost. We have now determined that functional rps19 genes are present in both the mitochondrion and nucleus in brome grass (Bromus inermis). The mitochondrion-located rps19 gene, which is immediately downstream of an rpl2 pseudogene, is transcribed and edited. The nuclear-located rps19 gene is also actively expressed and it possesses the same intron-containing hsp70-type presequence as its counterparts in other grasses, as well as shared derived amino acids within the S19 core. We conclude that this brome rps19 gene is derived from the same transfer event that occurred in the common ancestor of grasses at least 60 million years ago. In the oat lineage, a subsequent exon shuffling-type event has resulted in novel amino-terminal sequences replacing part of the hsp70 presequence, and in the barley lineage, there has been an additional DNA-mediated transfer of the mitochondrial rps19 gene and its flanking sequences, followed by relatively recent loss of the mitochondrion-located copy. The prolonged persistence of functional copies in both compartments, as evidenced by present-day brome, raises interesting questions about their respective roles.

  1. Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B J Benson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614-622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large

  2. Rates of Dinosaur Body Mass Evolution Indicate 170 Million Years of Sustained Ecological Innovation on the Avian Stem Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B. J.; Campione, Nicolás E.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Sullivan, Corwin; Upchurch, Paul; Evans, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds) are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614–622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic) dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds) sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large-scale extrapolation

  3. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume I"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami." Eight papers examine various aspects of past events with an emphasis on case and regional studies. Five papers are on tsunami warning and forecast, including the improvement of existing tsunami warning systems and the development of new warning systems in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean region. Three more papers present the results of analytical studies and discuss benchmark problems. Four papers report the impacts of tsunamis, including the detailed calculation of inundation onshore and into rivers and probabilistic analysis for engineering purposes. The final two papers relate to important investigations of the source and tsunami generation. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean (Sumatra) and 2011 Japan (Tohoku) tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  4. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume II."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty papers on the study of tsunamis and respective tsunamigenic earthquakes are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami". The papers presented in this second of two special volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time, including five papers devoted to new findings specifically in the Indian Ocean. Two papers compile results from global observations and eight papers cover Pacific Ocean studies, focusing mainly on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Remaining papers in this volume describe studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and tsunami source studies. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  5. A ten-year search for synchronous cells: obstacles, solutions and practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edward Helmstetter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My effort to use synchronously dividing cultures to examine the Escherichia coli cell cycle involved a ten-year struggle with failure after failure punctuated by a few gratifying successes, especially at the end. In this essay, I recount my personal journey in this obsessive experimental pursuit. That narrative is followed by a description of a simplified version of the baby machine, a technique that was developed to obtain minimally disturbed, synchronously growing E. coli cells. Subsequent studies with this methodology led to an understanding of the basic properties of the relationship between chromosome replication and cell division. Accordingly, I end this reminiscence with a simple, fool-proof graphical strategy for deducing the pattern of chromosome replication during the division cycle of cells growing at any rate.

  6. The State of the Art Ten Years After a State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2014-01-01

    A decade has passed since the first review of research on a ``flagship application" of music information retrieval (MIR): the problem of music genre recognition (MGR). During this time, about 500 works addressing MGR have been published, and at least 10 campaigns have been run to evaluate MGR sys......, the problems of validity in evaluation also affect research in music emotion recognition and autotagging. We conclude by discussing the implications of our work for MGR and MIR in the next ten years.......A decade has passed since the first review of research on a ``flagship application" of music information retrieval (MIR): the problem of music genre recognition (MGR). During this time, about 500 works addressing MGR have been published, and at least 10 campaigns have been run to evaluate MGR...

  7. The church and society in South Africa celebrating first ten years of democracy (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T H Dolamo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, colonialism, slavery, racism and apartheid are singled out as scourges that have afflicted South Africans for over three-and-half centuries in respect of the first four scourge, and for four-and-half decades in respect of apartheid.� Against this backdrop, the struggles of the people of South Africa against these scourges are portrayed and analysed.� With the attainment of freedom and democracy in 1994, the� ANC led government enacted pieces of legislation whose aim was to deepen and broaden democracy, thereby transforming the society beyond recognition of how it was before 1994. Celebrating the first ten years of freedom and democracy, the people of South Africa are taking stock of what has been achieved and not achieved and bracing themselves for the challenges that are facing them into the second decade.

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Ten-Year Site Plan Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-03-01

    This document describes the currently active and proposed infrastructure projects listed in Appendix B of the Idaho National Laboratory 2013-2022 Ten Year Site Plan (DOE/ID-11449). It was produced in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List I.06. The projects delineated in this document support infrastructure needs at INL's Research and Education Campus, Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the greater site-wide area. The projects provide critical infrastructure needed to meet current and future INL opereational and research needs. Execution of these projects will restore, rebuild, and revitalize INL's physical infrastructure; enhance program execution, and make a significant contribution toward reducing complex-wide deferred maintenance.

  9. A Ten Year Analysis of Fatal Peripheral Vascular Injuries Autopsy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Tuncer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Peripheral vascular injuries are usually associated with fatal injuries. Early diagnosis and intervention are so vital for improving a favorable outcome for traumatic vascular injuries. As a preventable cause of death, we aimed to evaluate peripheral vascular injuries in overall deaths in ten year period, 2003-2012. Material and Method: A retrospective evaluation was made of 2845 death cases which had post-mortem examination and autopsy from the 10-year period of 2003-2012 in Eskisehir, Turkey. The mean age of the cases included in the study was 32.5±7.9 years with the highest rate of cases occurring in the 30-39 years age group. Males constituted 89.2% of the victims. The most frequent manner of death was homicide 83.8%.The femoral artery was the most commonly injured vessel 29 cases (78.4%. In this study it was identified that, 33 patients (89.3% died before any medical intervention could be performed. Discussion: Our study shows that, peripheral vascular injuries most commonly caused by sharp objects. The injuries have a low mortality rate when early intervention is made. Autopsies are conducted is very important to explain not only the cause of death but also the treatment process, which would clear the cases of any potential malpractice or negligence claims.

  10. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Yin Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many of these diseases. Although health related research on green tea and its predominant phenol (catechins has been on-going for decades, major advances have occurred in the last 5–10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on seminal studies reported primarily within the last five years but not extending past ten years on the link between health and green tea with an emphasis on the catechins.

  11. Medical School Attrition-Beyond the Statistics A Ten Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Bridget M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical school attrition is important - securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001–2011 and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. Methods The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Results Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779 in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR = 5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p  Absenteeism was documented in 30% of students, academic difficulty in 55.7%, social isolation in 20%, and psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies. Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. Conclusions While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red flag signals may alert us to risk of dropout including non-EU origin, academic struggling, absenteeism, social isolation, depression and leave of absence. Psychological morbidity amongst dropout students is high and Student Welfare services should be actively promoted. Absenteeism should prompt early intervention. Behind every dropout statistic lies a personal story. All

  12. Prognostic factors in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a ten year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oloomi yazdi Z.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common cancer in the pediatric population. With modern treatments, the chance of the complete recovery is nearly 100%. The most important prognostic factors are appropriate treatment protocol and determination of patient risk factors based on clinical, morphological, immunological and cytological characteristics. In this study we reviewed frequency of these factors, like as age, gender, the primary white blood cell number, sub- group on the base of FAB classification, immunophenotype and the clinical progress. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed 877 pediatric patients with the diagnosis of ALL between the years of 1994 and 2004. In these patients the age, gender, primary WBC count, sub-group based on the FAB classification, immunophenotype and the clinical progress in 177 patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at Imam Khomeini Hospital between the years of 1994 to 2004 were determined. Results: Of these patients, 1.6% was younger than one year, 24.8% more than ten years old and 73.6% were between the ages of one and ten years; 63.8% were male. WBC counts were above 50,000/ul in 28.8% of the patients. FAB classifications included L1 in 80.2%, L2 in 17.5% and L3 in 2.3% of the patients. Immunophenotypes included pre-B cell in 63.8%, early pre-B cell in 23.1%, T cell in 12.3% and mature B cell in 0.8% of the patients. Marker CD10+ was detected in 88.1% of the B cell cases. In this study group, 74% of the patients recovered, 16.3% died and 16.5% relapsed.Conclusions: The prevalence of FAB-L1 and pre-B cell cases in this study is greater than a previous study, while the prevalence of FAB-L2 and early pre-B cell cases is less than that of the previous study.

  13. The SCOPSCO Deep Drilling Project: a 1.3 million-year palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lake Ohrid using stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Jack; Leng, Melanie; Francke, Alexander; Vogel, Hendrik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Wagner, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Lake Ohrid is a large, ancient lake situated on the Balkan Peninsula in the central northern Mediterranean region. The lake hosts a world-class degree of endemic biodiversity and an extensive sedimentary archive. In 2013, an extremely successful International Continental scientific Drilling Program deep drilling campaign was conducted as part of the transdisciplinary Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project and recovered over 2100 m of sediment from the lake. The main target site in the central basin provided a 584-m composite record covering at least 1.3 million years. Here, we present new oxygen and carbon isotope data (δ18O and δ13C) from carbonate for the entire lacustrine sequence (upper 430 m) of the SCOPSCO cores spanning Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 41-1, based on chronological information derived from tephrostratigraphy, palaeomagnetic analyses, and orbital tuning of biogeochemical proxies. Contemporary monitoring data suggest variations in δ18O are primarily a function of changes in regional water balance. This is confirmed through the Holocene where the isotope dataset shows a stable transition from wetter conditions in the Early Holocene to a drier climate in the Late Holocene, which is consistent with a regional pattern of aridification. At the onset of deep-water lacustrine conditions around 1.3 Ma, very low δ18O are comparable to measured values for surface inflow today and infer that Lake Ohrid had a greatly reduced residence time and volume. Multiple rapid shifts to higher values in long-term average δ18O are observed in the early lake history, most likely associated with lake ontogeny and the progressive deepening of Lake Ohrid. After MIS 10, the observed variability between glacial and interglacial δ18O increases dramatically concomitant with a lower reconstructed lake level, suggesting a more pronounced sensitivity to hydroclimate change. A trend to higher interglacial δ18O through this time

  14. A ten-year study of depressive symptoms in Serbian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Ignjatović, Dragana; Hinić, Darko; Jakovljević, Mihajlo; Fountoulakis, Kostas; Siepera, Marianna; Rancić, Nemanja

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the rate of three dimensions of depressive symptoms in medical student population in Serbia, and to find out whether this rate had changed over the period often years. This cross-sectional study included 615 medical students (F = 61% and M = 39%), mean age = 23.60 (SD = 1.541), who were tested in five non-consecutive surveys between 2002 and 2012. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean BDI score for the entire sample was 6.26 +/- 6.175. There was no significant difference in total BDI score among the values obtained during the ten years of testing. The greatest portion of the examined sample (77.24%) had no signs of depressive symptoms, and there was no difference in symptom intensity between medical students and other educational profiles. Similar to previous results, females had higher scores on all depressive dimensions except for one tested year, whereas a weak correlation was found between BDI scores and student age (r = 0.104; p = 0.010). Since there are still discrepancies among studies that do (not) report that medical students have typical depressive symptoms, potential explanations for the mentioned discrepancies may be found in individual characteristics of the members of the student population. Our suggestions for future studies are that they should include the stress factor, stress coping strategies, estimated life satisfaction, and the impact of these factors on the potential mental disorders.

  15. Management of orbital cellulitis and subperiosteal orbital abscess in pediatric patients: A ten-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, Vittorio; Demattè, Marco; Farneti, Paolo; Fornaciari, Martina; Corsini, Ilaria; Piccin, Ottavio; Saggese, Domenico; Fernandez, Ignacio Javier

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric periorbital cellulitis represents a common disease complicating a nasal infection. A ten-year retrospective review of fifty-seven children admitted to our institution with the diagnosis of periorbital cellulitis as a complication of sinus infections was carried out. The age varied from one month to eleven years (mean 3.9 years). Thirty-five were males (62%), while twenty-two were females (38%). Nine out of fifty-seven (15.8%) presented exophthalmos associated with eyelid erythema and edema, while the rest suffered mainly from eyelid erythema and edema. Twenty-two patients complaining of exophthalmos or not responding to medical therapy within 48 h were assessed with a computed tomography scan (38.6%). A subperiosteal orbital abscess was detected in nine cases and these patients underwent surgical drainage (15,8%). Recurrence of orbital infection occurred in three cases (5.3%). Medical management is the main treatment for both preseptal and postseptal orbital cellulitis. Nevertheless, there is no universally accepted guideline for the treatment of subperiosteal abscesses and each case should be treated accordingly. Urgent surgical drainage should be considered in cases not responding to adequate medical management, or those cases presenting visual deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ten Years On, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme and Zimbabwe's Marange and "Conflict Diamonds": Lessons to be learnt

    OpenAIRE

    Nazreen Shaik-Peremanov

    2014-01-01

    TEN YEARS ON, THE KIMBERLEY PROCESS CERTIFICATION SCHEME AND ZIMBABWE’S MARANGE AND "CONFLICT DIAMONDS": LESSONS TO BE LEARNT N Shaik-Peremanov* SUMMARY Remove by editor - Prof Christa Rautenbach email:

  17. More than skin deep. Ten year follow-up of delayed cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudins, Linda Velta; Ly, Jenny; Trubiano, Jason; Aung, Ar Kar

    2016-10-01

    To determine the gaps in practice regarding appropriate ADR documentation and risk communication for patients diagnosed with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR). This was a retrospective observational cohort study conducted using hospital coding and databases to identify inpatients diagnosed with CADR from January 2004 to August 2014. Hospital discharge summaries, ADR reports and pharmacy dispensing records were reviewed for ADR documentation. Patients still living in Australia and who did not opt out of being contacted were invited to be surveyed by telephone to determine their understanding of recommendations, re-exposure rates and long-term effects. Of 85 patients identified, median age was 59 (IQR 44-72) years and 47.1% were male. The most common diagnosis was TENS (49.4%). Ten patients (11.8%) died as inpatients. Of the 81 patients with a drug-related causality, 47 (58%) had appropriate documentation in all three required medical record platforms. Of the 56 eligible patients, 38 (67.9%) were surveyed; 13% had no information provided upon discharge and 26.3% patients had a mismatch in knowledge of implicated medications. No surveyed patient had a relapse of CADR, but 23.7% had a subsequent unrelated allergic reaction. Thirteen patients (34.2%) reported long-term effects. We found gaps in the accuracy of ADR documentation and communication of risk at discharge, which indicated risks to patient safety. Electronic systems are being developed to improve documentation. Written information about CADR is being provided at discharge to improve patient understanding and knowledge. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. The Last Ten Years of Advancements in Plant-Derived Recombinant Vaccines against Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Joung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Disease prevention through vaccination is considered to be the greatest contribution to public health over the past century. Every year more than 100 million children are vaccinated with the standard World Health Organization (WHO-recommended vaccines including hepatitis B (HepB. HepB is the most serious type of liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV, however, it can be prevented by currently available recombinant vaccine, which has an excellent record of safety and effectiveness. To date, recombinant vaccines are produced in many systems of bacteria, yeast, insect, and mammalian and plant cells. Among these platforms, the use of plant cells has received considerable attention in terms of intrinsic safety, scalability, and appropriate modification of target proteins. Research groups worldwide have attempted to develop more efficacious plant-derived vaccines for over 30 diseases, most frequently HepB and influenza. More inspiring, approximately 12 plant-made antigens have already been tested in clinical trials, with successful outcomes. In this study, the latest information from the last 10 years on plant-derived antigens, especially hepatitis B surface antigen, approaches are reviewed and breakthroughs regarding the weak points are also discussed.

  19. A Vision for the Next Ten Years for Integrated Ocean Observing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Z. S.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean observing has come a long way since the Ocean Sciences Decadal Committee met over a decade ago. Since then, our use of the ocean and coast and their vast resources has increased substantially - with increased shipping, fishing, offshore energy development and recreational boating. That increased use has also spearheaded advances in observing systems. Cutting-edge autonomous and remotely operated vehicles scour the surface and travel to depths collecting essential biogeochemical data for better managing our marine resources. Satellites enable the global mapping of practically every physical ocean variable imaginable. A nationally-integrated coastal network of high-frequency radars lines the borders of the U.S. feeding critical navigation, response, and environmental information continuously. Federal, academic, and industry communities have joined in unique partnerships at regional, national, and global levels to address common challenges to monitoring our ocean. The 2002 Workshop, Building Consensus: Toward an Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observing System laid the framework for the current United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS). Ten years later, U.S. IOOS has moved from concept to reality, though much work remains to meet the nation's ocean observing needs. Today, new research and technologies, evolving users and user requirements, economic and funding challenges, and diverse institutional mandates all influence the future growth and implementation of U.S. IOOS. In light of this new environment, the Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) will host the 2012 Integrated Ocean Observing System Summit in November 2012, providing a forum to develop a comprehensive ocean observing vision for the next decade, utilizing the knowledge and expertise gained by the IOOS-wide community over the past ten years. This effort to bring together ocean observing stakeholders at the regional, national, and global levels to address these challenges

  20. Highlighting ten years of physics education research in the upper division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Bradley

    2015-04-01

    The field of Physics Education Research (PER) has for over thirty years provided insights into student thinking and guided the development and assessment of reformed teaching strategies and practices in introductory physics courses. In the last decade or so, researchers have expanded the domain of such investigations to upper-division courses where undergraduate majors study more advanced content and begin to see themselves as future physicists. The upcoming Focused Collection on Upper Division PER brings together work from researchers active in these new frontiers of PER. In this presentation we provide an overview of the studies in this collection, which offer to the PER and greater physics education communities: new insights about the thinking, behavior, and beliefs of students in the upper division; new tools to innovate instruction, assess student learning, and evaluate teaching effectiveness; and groundbreaking studies of identity development and ``thinking like a physicist'' among physics majors. In this session we also recognize the ten-year anniversary of Physical Review Special Topics: Physics Education Research, an occasion that we will celebrate with an informal reception immediately following the conclusion of this invited session.

  1. Scientometric analysis of published papers in global ophthalmology in the past ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng-Lu; Hu, Xin-Yue; Wang, Ying-Na; Ma, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the published papers of ophthalmology in past ten years and explore the development of ophthalmology. The data of this study retrieved from Science Citation Index Expanded and downloaded online in November 2017, including all the papers with publication year from 2007-2016 were analyzed. The papers were based on the Web of Science category and the journals were based on the Journal Citation Report category. The number of ophthalmology papers increased from 7450 to 9089 during 2007 to 2017. The average rate increased 2.2% annually. USA accounts for one thirds of the total and two thirds of the highly cited papers. In Asia, China, Japan and South Korea were in Top 10 by the number of ophthalmology papers. UK, Germany, Japan and Australia also had great impact in global ophthalmology. The hot spots included endothelial growth factor, optical coherence tomography and open-angle glaucoma. USA is in the leading position in global ophthalmology. Part of Asian countries play an important role in the development of ophthalmology, but the impact needs to be improved.

  2. Ten-year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Morey, Leslie C; Donnellan, M Brent; Samuel, Douglas B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-06-01

    This study compares the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Ten-year rank-order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (N = 266). Dependability-corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of.60-.90 for traits and.25-.65 for personality disorders. The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The five-factor theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Naive (commonsense) geography and geobrowser usability after ten years of Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlinck, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    In 1995, the concept of ‘naive geography’ was formally introduced as an area of cognitive geographic information science representing ‘the body of knowledge that people have about the surrounding geographic world’ and reflecting ‘the way people think and reason about geographic space and time, both consciously and subconsciously’. The need to incorporate such commonsense knowledge and reasoning into design of geospatial technologies was identified but faced challenges in formalizing these relationships and processes in software implementation. Ten years later, the Google Earth geobrowser was released, marking the beginning of a new era of open access to, and application of, geographic data and information in society. Fast-forward to today, and the opportunity presents itself to take stock of twenty years of naive geography and a decade of the ubiquitous virtual globe. This paper introduces an ongoing research effort to explore the integration of naive (or commonsense) geography concepts in the Google Earth geobrowser virtual globe and their possible impact on Google Earth's usability, utility, and usefulness. A multi-phase methodology is described, combining usability reviews and usability testing with use-case scenarios involving the U.S.-Canadian Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative. Initial progress on a usability review combining cognitive walkthroughs and heuristics evaluation is presented.

  4. Global public-private health partnerships: lessons learned from ten years of experience and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Kent; Tanaka, Sonja

    2011-08-01

    Global Health Partnerships (GHPs) have contributed significantly to improved global health outcomes as well as the manner in which global health is governed. Yet in a context of an increasingly complex global health landscape, resource scarcity and a shift from disease-specific to systems strengthening approaches, it is important to continually enhance and apply our understanding of how to improve GHP performance. The authors reviewed and synthesised findings from eight independent evaluations of GHPs as well as research projects conducted by the authors over the past several years, the most recent of which involved semi-structured discussions with 20 'partnership pioneers'. This paper presents the major drivers of the GHP trend, briefly reviews the significant contributions of GHPs to global health and sets out common findings from evaluations of these global health governance instruments. The paper answers the question of how to improve GHP performance with reference to a series of lessons emerging from the past ten years of experience. These lessons cover the following areas: • Value-added and niche orientation • Adequate resourcing of secretariats • Management practices • Governance practices • Ensuring divergent interests are met • Systems strengthening • Continuous self-improvement. These and other critical reflections inform the 'what's next' agenda for GHP development. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma cases for ten years in Qazvin province (2003-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keshani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human cancers comprise a large group of diseases that despite modern methods of diagnosis and advanced treatment techniques its mortality rate is high. Considering the role of environmental and cultural factors in the prevalence of oral cancer, epidemiological studies have a great importance. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in the province of Qazvin in a period of ten years. Methods: In this descriptive - analytical study, the documents of 88 patients with OSCC that were recorded by the Qazvin Cancer Registry Center during 2003-13, were used. Demographic data including age, sex and location of lesions were extracted from patient records. Data analysis were performed using chi-square, t-test and fisher exact test. Findings: Among the 88 patients, the average age was 64.3±17.7. The male to female ratio was 1 to 1.37 and the most involved area was tongue with 39 cases (63.9%, and the lowest was upper lip with 1 case (1.6%. The most of the patients were in the age between 70-80 years old. Conclusions: Pattern of OSCC in this study was similar to the other studies but the number of females and the mean age of patient had increased. Also, the mean age of patients was increased in eight decades and the most involved area tongue was reported.

  6. Epidemiology, management and survival outcomes of primary cutaneous melanoma: a ten-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, M M F; Bolt, L J J; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G; Verleisdonk-Bolhaar, S T H P; van Marion, A; van Berlo, C L H

    2017-02-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, accounting for 90% of all the skin cancer mortality. The objective of this study was providing an overview of current patient- and tumour characteristics, treatment strategies, complications and survival in patients with MM over the past ten years. Hereby, an up-to-date view of every day clinical practice is obtained. Files of patients treated for primary cutaneous melanoma (n = 686) in the VieCuri Medical Centre in the Netherlands between January 2002 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant patient features, tumour characteristics, and (surgical) outcomes were evaluated. The majority of all the patients presented thin tumours (59.1% stage 1A/in situ melanoma). Men showed more ulceration (17.7% vs. 8.4%, p < .01) and a significantly higher Breslow thickness than women (1.2 mm vs. 0.9 mm, p < .01). 14.6% (40/273) underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB); 10/40 (25%) showed nodal metastasis, 50 patients (7.3%) developed distant metastases (M: 10.6%, F: 5%, p < .01). One-, 5- and 10- year disease specific survival rates were 96%, 86% and 84%, respectively. Median survival for stage 4 MM was 3 months. Extensive surgery was uncommon (n = 3). Patients generally presented with thin melanomas. Lymph node disease and distant metastases remained infrequently observed during following years, and general 1- and 5-year overall disease-specific survival rates exceeded 85%. Small numbers of rescue surgery and palliative medical treatment warrant further centralisation and investigation.

  7. Ten years of RELEA: achievements and challenges for astronomy education development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Jafelice, Luiz Carlos; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    When an area of education, and more particularly the research within this area, is aimed to development, a basic requirement is the existence of a regular publication that accounts for the scientific production in that area. This study aims to analyze 10 years of Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA). Publishing policies of the RELEA and their context are discussed in relation to submission, refereeing and publication. The 75 articles published in 18 editions are analyzed and classified by: year of publication, edition, the authors' institutions, school level, study focus and content. The results present trends and shortcomings of the production. A comparison with the number of articles published in other Brazilian journals of education and an analysis of the international scene in relation to other type publications along these ten years is made. Given that this journal is now consolidated, its future prospects in the international landscape are further considered. The challenges related to article submission are discussed: how to increase their number, the submission of Latin American countries, and how to bring in the issues and subjects not addressed until now. It is also considered the possibility of encouraging graduate studies, new lines of research in astronomy education, and dissemination of material in schools and universities for teachers and students. Finally, future possibilities are discussed given the IAU development programs. For example, more article submission from Portuguese-speaking countries with the support of Regional Nodes and Language Expertise Centers, and opportunities for volunteer IAU members and global projects for the development of astronomy education.

  8. Pre-natal diagnosis of thalassaemia in Sri Lanka: A ten year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Kalinga Khemal; Rodrigo, Undugodage Ganganath; Perera, Kuda Liyanage Nandika; Nanayakkara, Chinthani Deepthi

    2017-10-01

    Thalassaemia is the commonest monogenic disease in Sri Lanka, affecting over 3500 children and half-a-million thalassaemia carriers. This is a review of 82 amniocenteses performed from 2006 to 2016, in the largest prenatal diagnoses study for thalassaemia carried out in Sri Lanka. Amniocenteses were performed between 11 and 12 weeks of ultrasonically confirmed gestation, on mothers with previous thalassaemia major children pregnant for the second time and nulliparous thalassaemia trait women married to trait partners. The Consultant Radiologist, using local analgesia, under ultrasound cover, performed these as an outpatient procedure, at the Teaching Hospital Kandy & Suwasevana Hospital Kandy. The amniotic fluid was analysed by the team of Senior Geneticists, at the Genetech Molecular Diagnostics and School of Gene Technology, Colombo, via the polymerase-chain-reaction based ARMS (Amplification Refractory Mutation Systems) assay. The genetic results indicated the presence of 21% thalassaemia major foetuses, 53% thalassaemia traits and 26% foetuses without thalassaemia mutations. The predominance of the IVS1-5(G-C) mutation in the Sri Lankan population is exemplified, with a low prevalence of HbE thalassaemia. Impact statement Thalassaemia is the commonest monogenic disease in Sri Lanka affecting over 3500 children and half-a-million thalassaemia carriers. Although pre-natal diagnosis by amniocentesis was practised universally for many years, this could not be performed in Sri Lanka as genetic diagnostic facilities were not available until 2005. Therefore, parents with a thalassaemia major child limited their families to one child, by choice or by termination. The results of this study point to a 21% probability of thalassaemia major in the next child, giving the parents a guarded optimism to conceive another child without thalassaemia disease. With siblings being the highest HLA compatibility for Bone Marrow Transplant, that is now being established in Sri Lanka

  9. Early detection, early symptom progression and symptomatic remission after ten years in a first episode of psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Haahr, Ulrik Helt

    2013-01-01

    years, 50% of patients were in symptomatic remission. Non-remission was predicted by positive symptoms at inclusion and during the first year of treatment. Of individual symptoms only hallucinations were significantly predictive of ten-year non-remission. Early symptom differences were not reflected...

  10. Organisation and Management of a Complete Bachelor Degree Offered Online at the University of Milan for Ten Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Manuela; Papini, Sabrina; Scaccia, Daniela; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting some reflections on organisation and management of SSRI online: an e-learning initiative started at the University of Milan (Italy) in the academic year 2004/05 and offered to students over the last ten years. The initiative consisted in implementing the online version of an already existing three-year bachelor…

  11. Ten years of iPSC: clinical potential and advances in vitro hematopoietic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Bárbara Cristina Martins Fernandes; Moço, Pablo Diego; Pereira, Cristiano Gonçalves; Porto, Geciane Silveira; de Sousa Russo, Elisa Maria; Reis, Luiza Cunha Junqueira; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Picanço-Castro, Virginia

    2017-06-01

    Ten years have passed since the first publication announcing the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Issues related to ethics, immune rejection, and cell availability seemed to be solved following this breakthrough. The development of iPSC technology allows advances in in vitro cell differentiation for cell therapy purpose and other clinical applications. This review provides a perspective on the iPSC potential for cell therapies, particularly for hematological applications. We discuss the advances in in vitro hematopoietic differentiation, the possibilities to employ iPSC in hematology studies, and their potential clinical application in hematologic diseases. The generation of red blood cells and functional T cells and the genome editing technology applied to mutation correction are also covered. We highlight some of the requirements and obstacles to be overcome before translating these cells from research to the clinic, for instance, iPSC variability, genotoxicity, the differentiation process, and engraftment. Also, we evaluate the patent landscape and compile the clinical trials in the field of pluripotent stem cells. Currently, we know much more about iPSC than in 2006, but there are still challenges that must be solved. A greater understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of hematopoietic stem cells is necessary to produce suitable and transplantable hematopoietic stem progenitor cells from iPSC.

  12. Ten years of ozone research at DLR; Ergebnisse aus zehn Jahren Ozonforschung im DLR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dameris, M.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    2000-02-01

    After ten years of ozone research, depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic regions and also over Europe is still not fully understood although its progress can be predicted by models. The state of the art was presented in the report 'Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998' of the World Meteorological Organisation. There is also a national documentation '10 Jahre Deutsche Ozonforschung 1989 bis 1999', to which DLR scientists made significant contributions. Some of their projects and findings are presented here. Research will be stimulated by the 2001 start of the ENVISAT satellite of the ESA. [German] Nach zehn Jahren Ozonforschung ist die Abnahme der Ozonschicht in der Stratosphaere nicht nur ueber der Antarktis (Ozonloch), sondern auch ueber der Arktis und Europa ein Faktum, das man heute weitgehend, wenn auch immer noch nicht vollstaendig versteht und dessen weitere Entwicklung man mit Modellen berechnen kann. Der Stand des Wissens wurde in einem umfassenden Bericht 'Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998' unter Federfuehrung der World Meteorological Organisation zusammengestellt. National gibt es eine Dokumentation '10 Jahre Deutsche Ozonforschung 1989 bis 1999'. Wissenschaftler des DLR haben zu den Erkenntnissen mit zahlreichen Publikationen wesentlich beigetragen. Einige der Projekte und Ergebnisse werden hier vorgestellt. Mit dem fuer 2001 geplanten Start des Umweltsatelliten ENVISAT der ESA erhaelt das Thema neue Aktualitaet. (orig.)

  13. Ten Years of Observatory Science from Saanich Inlet on the VENUS Cabled Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Macoun, P.; Round, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Saanich Inlet array of the VENUS cabled ocean observatory, maintained and operated by Ocean Networks Canada, was installed in February 2006, and in 2016 will have supported ten years of comprehensive interactive science. Representing the first in the present generation of cabled observing technologies, this coastal array has provided continuous high power and broadband communications to a variety of instrument platforms, hundreds of sensors, and enabled dozens of short, medium, and long-term studies. Saanich Inlet is a protected fjord with limited tidal action, resulting in an extremely productive environment, with strong seasonal chemical variations driven by episodic deep water renewal events and oxygen reduction processes. The breadth of the research has included microbial and benthic community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, forensics, quantifying inter-annual variations, benthic-pelagic coupling, sensor testing, plankton dynamics, and bio-turbulence. Observatory measurements include core water properties (CTD & O2) and water-column echo-sounder records, as well as experiment-oriented deployments utilizing cameras, Gliders, Dopplers, hydrophones, and a variety of biogeochemical sensors. With a recently installed Buoy Profiler System for monitoring the entire water column, community plans continue with a dedicated Redox experiment through the 2016-17 seasons. Highlights from the dozens of research papers and theses will be presented to demonstrate the achievements enabled by a comprehensive coastal cabled observing system.

  14. Modeling the Office of Science Ten Year Facilities Plan: The PERI Architecture Tiger Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Supinski, Bronis R.; Alam, Sadaf; Bailey, David H.; Carrington, Laura; Daley, Chris; Dubey, Anshu; Gamblin, Todd; Gunter, Dan; Hovland, Paul D.; Jagode, Heike; Karavanic, Karen; Marin, Gabriel; Mellor-Crummey, John; Moore, Shirley; Norris, Boyana; Oliker, Leonid; Olschanowsky, Catherine; Roth, Philip C.; Schulz, Martin; Shende, Sameer; Snavely, Allan; Spear, Wyatt; Tikir, Mustafa; Vetter, Jeff; Worley, Pat; Wright, Nicholas

    2009-06-26

    The Performance Engineering Institute (PERI) originally proposed a tiger team activity as a mechanism to target significant effort optimizing key Office of Science applications, a model that was successfully realized with the assistance of two JOULE metric teams. However, the Office of Science requested a new focus beginning in 2008: assistance in forming its ten year facilities plan. To meet this request, PERI formed the Architecture Tiger Team, which is modeling the performance of key science applications on future architectures, with S3D, FLASH and GTC chosen as the first application targets. In this activity, we have measured the performance of these applications on current systems in order to understand their baseline performance and to ensure that our modeling activity focuses on the right versions and inputs of the applications. We have applied a variety of modeling techniques to anticipate the performance of these applications on a range of anticipated systems. While our initial findings predict that Office of Science applications will continue to perform well on future machines from major hardware vendors, we have also encountered several areas in which we must extend our modeling techniques in order to fulfill our mission accurately and completely. In addition, we anticipate that models of a wider range of applications will reveal critical differences between expected future systems, thus providing guidance for future Office of Science procurement decisions, and will enable DOE applications to exploit machines in future facilities fully.

  15. [The ten-year retrospect of nutrition and health status of pregnant women in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C X; Yin, S A

    2018-01-06

    Improvement of the nutrition and health status of pregnant women should be one of the top priority strategies of improving the physical fitness of next generation and reserve of talented person for national sustainable development. This paper reviews the nutrition and health status of pregnant women in China over the recent ten years and discusses the underlying factors and changing trends. The most popular nutrition-related problem is dietary imbalance, and many micronutrient intakes are lower than the recommended dietary intakes or adequate intakes, and some of nutrient intakes are still at a very low level for a long time such as vitamin D and calcium. The nutrition-related health problems are mainly anemia, vitamin D and vitamin A deficiencies; iodine intake is not in optimal state with a large proportion of inadequate and individual cases facing excessive intake risk. Overweight and obesity, pregnancy complications such as gastrocnemius muscle spasms, pregnancy hypertensive disorders and gestational diabetes were prevalent among pregnant women. We should address both malnutrition and nutrition imbalance in the same time in order to improve the nutrition and health status of pregnant women, by developing and implementing relevant laws and regulations, giving higher attention to pregnant women with advanced age, which in turns prevent a variety of micronutrient deficiencies, reduce adverse pregnant outcomes, and improve nutrition and health status of maternal and child.

  16. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: ten years experience in a medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-En; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Shang-Hung; Yeh, San-Jou; Wu, Delon

    2008-01-01

    An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the therapy of choice for survivors of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias or sudden cardiac death. To date there is little data concerning the clinical features and outcome of ICD therapy among Taiwanese. This study identifies factors related to the outcome of ICD therapy over a ten-year period at this institution. Forty-nine ICDs were implanted in 46 patients between August 1996 and January 2006. The mean follow-up duration was 32 +/- 21 months. Patient data, primary cardiac diagnosis, presenting cardiac arrhythmia, echocardiographic parameters, hemodynamic indexes, electrophysiologic findings, and follow-up observations were analyzed. The findings were compared to those of the Taiwan ICD Multicenter Registry (TIMR) Study and major secondary prevention ICD trials in the literature. The patients in this study were comparable to those of TIMR but were younger and had better left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) than those in Western countries. Furthermore, higher mortality on follow-up was observed in patients with any of the following: LVEF or = 55 mm, a left ventricular end diastolic dimension > or = 75 mm, an end systolic dimension > or = 60 mm, triple vessel disease, a prior anterior myocardial infarction, and amiodarone or diuretic therapy. Patients with structural heart disease other than ischemic heart disease or dilated cardiomyopathy had higher event recurrence rates. Left ventricular function is a major determinant affecting the outcome in ICD recipients. Aggressive treatment for heart failure is warranted in these patients.

  17. Ten years after "Worrying trends in econophysics": developments and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Econophysics has made a number of important additions to scientific knowledge. Yet it continues to lack influence with both economists and policy makers. Ten years ago, I and three other economists sympathetic to econophysics wrote a paper on worrying trends within the discipline. For example, its lack of awareness of the economics literature, and shortfalls in the use of statistical analysis. These continue to be obstacles to wider acceptance by economists. Like all agents, policy makers respond to incentives, and economists understand this very well. Much of the econophysics community appears to think that simply doing good science is sufficient to have the work recognised, rather than relating to the motivations and incentives of policy makers. Nevertheless, econophysics now has three major opportunities to advance knowledge in areas where policy makers perceive weaknesses in what they are presented with by economists. All can benefit from the analysis of Big Data. The first is a core model of agent behaviour which is more relevant to cyber society than the rational agent model of economics. Second, extending our understanding of the business cycle, primarily by incorporating the importance of networks into models. Third, devising proper measures of output in cyber society.

  18. [Thinking about academic development of acupuncture and moxibustion in recent ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bi-ling; Jia, Chun-sheng; Liu, Wei-hong; Yang, Yong-qing; Wang, Ling-ling; Yang, Hua-yuan; Wu, Xiao-dong; Shen, Xue-yong; Xu, Ping; Zhao, Jing-shen; Liu, Jun-ling; Cheng, Kai; Zhu, Wen-zeng

    2009-12-01

    Through combing the academic development of acupuncture in recent ten years, objectively reflects the real development status of acupuncture subject on these aspects sucl as basis, clinic, equipment, teaching and standardization, etc., shows the scientific and technological achievements and the highlights of the acupuncture academic development, analyzes the bottleneck and dilemma of the acupuncture academic development. It is indicated that there are several problems existed in acupuncture researche at present, such as the scale and the input of the acupuncture theory research are not enough, the basic research and clinical application is disjointed, the correlation between the acupoints and viscera need more systematic and further researches, the design level of clinical research on acupoints' main indications should be improved. From now on we should follow the inherent rule of the traditional theory of Chinese medicine and the way of integrated thinking, explore the new rule of acupuncture academic development, in order to fit the new historical period, and comprehensively promote the sustainable and coordinated development of acupuncture science.

  19. Ten-year operational dust forecasting - Recent model development and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallos, G; Spyrou, C; Astitha, M; Mitsakou, C; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Pytharoulis, I; Katsafados, P; Mavromatidis, E; Papantoniou, N; Vlastou, G [University of Athens, School of Physics, Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group - UOA/AM and WFG, University Campus, Bldg. PHYS-V, Athens 15784 (Greece)], E-mail: kallos@mg.uoa.gr

    2009-03-01

    The Sahara desert is one of the major sources of mineral dust on Earth, producing up to 2x10{sup 8} t yr-{sup 1}. A combined effort has been devoted during the last ten years at the University of Athens (UOA) from the Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group (AM and WFG) to the development of an analysis and forecasting tool that will provide early warning of Saharan dust outbreaks. The developed tool is the SKIRON limited-area forecasting system, based on the Eta limited area modeling system with embedded algorithms describing the dust cycle. A new version of the model is currently available, with extra features like eight-size particle bins, radiative transfer corrections, new dust source identification and utilization of rocky soil characterization and incorporation of more accurate deposition schemes. The new version of SKIRON modeling system is coupled with the photochemical model CAMx in order to study processes like the shading effect of dust particles on photochemical processes and the production of second and third generation of aerosols. Moreover, another new development in the AM and WFG is based on the RAMS model, with the incorporation of processes like dust and sea-salt production, gas and aqueous phase chemistry and particle formation. In this study, the major characteristics of the developed (and under development) modeling systems are presented, as well as the spatiotemporal distribution of the transported dust amounts, the interaction with anthropogenically-produced particles and the potential implications on radiative transfer.

  20. Review suggests high survival rates for veneers at five and ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Eileen; Conway, David I

    2013-03-01

    The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched and the Evidence-Based Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, and Journal of Oral Rehabilitation were hand searched. Clinical trials registers, conference proceedings and academic colleagues were contacted to identify unpublished data, abstracts and other gray literature. There were no language limits. Article identification, screening, and eligibility and inclusion assessments were completed independently by two reviewers. Prospective and retrospective cohort and controlled trials assessing the outcome of feldspathic porcelain veneers in more than 15 patients were included. Some veneers in each study had to be in situ for five years. Veneers placed using unusual techniques, such as with no enamel preparation or excessive incisal edge lengthening, were excluded. Estimated cumulative survival and standard error for each study were assessed and used for meta-, sensitivity and post hoc analyses. The I(2) statistic and the Cochran Q test and its associated P value were used to evaluate statistical heterogeneity, with a random-effects meta-analysis used when the P value for heterogeneity was less than 0.1. Heterogeneity, publication patterns and small study biases were explored. Eleven studies were included with six (four prospective and two retrospective cohorts) contributing to the meta-analysis. The estimated cumulative survival for feldspathic porcelain veneers was 95.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 92.9% to 98.4%) at five years and ranged from 64% to 95% at ten years across three studies. A post hoc meta-analysis indicated that the 10-year best estimate may approach 95.6% (95% CI: 93.8% to 97.5%). High levels of statistical heterogeneity were found. When bonded to enamel substrate, feldspathic porcelain veneers have a very high 10-year survival rate that may

  1. Food items in the food intake of children aged seven to ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnig, Patrícia de Fragas; Hinnigi, Patrícia de Fragas; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimental

    2012-06-01

    To describe the most representative food items regarding the total intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in children with ages between 7 and 10 years. A list was prepared with all food intake and quantities, and the diet composition in relation to energy and macronutrients was calculated. The list was based on information provided by a 3-day-Food Diary completed by 85 schoolchildren ranging from seven to ten years old and enrolled in a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. After dividing the food into 129 items, we calculated the percentage in which each item contributed to diet nutrient intake and identified those which contributed to up to 95% of the total intake of calories and selected nutrients. The items "White rice, Greek rice, rice with vegetables" and "Brown, black and white beans, lentils" contributed significantly to the total intake of energy and carbohydrates. The item "Whole milk, powdered milk" had a significant participation in the total intake of lipids, protein and energy. We emphasize the importance of carbohydrates and energy intake from sugar-sweetened beverages (sodas and processed juices) in the total diet intake of the children. the contribution of rice in the total food intake of energy and carbohydrates; of beans in energy, carbohydrates and proteins; of milk and meat in energy, protein and lipids; and bread in energy and carbohydrates is noticeable. The participation of sugar-sweetened beverage in the total intake in energy and carbohydrates and of candies in the total intake of lipids is also evident.

  2. Analysis of ten year return period floods in west african rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nka Nnomo, Bernadette; Oudin, Ludovic; Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Karambiri, Harouna; Ribstein, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    In West Africa, flood and flow are usually determined by using methods advocated by the FAO (1996) and developed by ORSTOM and CIEH researchers in the 1960s. However, the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s decades were characterized by very low precipitation amounts, leading to low stream flows in river basins, except in the Sahelian region where the impact of human activities led to a substantial increase of floods in some catchments. More recently, studies pointed out an increase in the frequency of intense rainfall events and an increase of flood events. Consequently, the reliability of conventional methods for flood estimation is questionable. In this work, we analyzed the trends of the ten-year return period rainfall and stream flow events for several catchments in the Sahelian and Sudanian regions. We used eleven tributaries of large river basins (Niger, Nakambe, Senegal, Gambia) for which daily rainfall and flow data were collected from national hydrological services of four countries over West Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Senegal). The conjoint use of rainfall and flow data allowed us to analyze the possible causality link between the two variables. Mann-Kendall, Pettitt and Hubert tests were used to detect trends and abrupt change points in the annual maximum time series.The quantification of change was assessed by computing 10-year return period rain and flow values on sliding sub periods in the long-term maxima time series with the GEV distribution. Trend tests on annual maximum flows time series showed mixed results depending on the location of the catchments: generally speaking, a decrease is observed for Sudanian catchments and an increase is observed for Sahelian catchments. On a period of 50 years (1950 - 2010) we pointed out an increase of 72% of the mean value of flood 10-year return period for a station like Kakassi in the sahelian region, with respect to the period before the detected disruption; while for a soudanian catchment like Fadougou, the average

  3. [Bilateral Congenital Multiple Pigmented Vitreous Cysts in a Three-year-old Girl: Ten Years Follow up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štěpánková, J; Hósová, M; Dotřelová, D

    2017-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a three-year-old female patient with bilateral multiple anterior vitreous cysts. During examination for intermittent esotropia of the right eye was diagnosed not only hypermetropia, astigmatism and anisometropia, but also pigmented changes in peripheral retrolental space of both eyes. Clinical examination under general anaesthesia revealed bilateral multiple pigmented immobile vitreous cysts. There were five almost spherical, translucent, but slightly pigmented cysts on its cover on the right eye and four similar on the left, but visible only with dilated pupils. A dilating of pupils was slow and required more mydriatics than in similar aged children. Follow up period is ten years now. Occlusion therapy of amblyopia was performed to nine years of age. Treatment of refractive error and esotropia with correction for hypermetropia, astigmatism and anisometropia continues. Best corrected visual acuity in thirteen-year-old girl is 1,0 in both eyes without any visual disturbances described by patient. Corrected visual acuity in each eye is 1,0, right eye with +3,5 D sph., -3,5D cyl., axis 175°, left eye with +7,5 D sph., -3,0 D cyl., axis 35°. Patient is otherwise healthy and without any mental deficit. Position of all cysts remains unchanged and stabile during the follow up period (with recommendation to avoid hits to the head for all time, mainly in sports). Formation and slow progression of partial cortical cataract in the area of contact of the lens and one cyst in inferonasal quadrant of the lens on the right eye is monitored. A lamellar retinal extrafoveal defect of posterior pole of the right eye was found by OCT imaging.Key words: vitreous cyst, idiopathic, congenital, bilateral, multiple, pigmented, immobile, hypermetropia, astigmatism, anisometropia, esotropia, cortical cataract, retinal lamellar extrafoveal defect, OCT.

  4. Urine Iodine Status of 8-10-Year Old School Children in Yazd Province during Ten Years (2007-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousof Naghiaee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine is an essential element for growth and development and its inadequate intake leads to insufficient production of thyroid hormone. In developed countries iodine deficiency (ID is one of the reformable factors. So, this study determined urinary iodine (UI status of 8-10-year old school children in Yazd province during 2007 to 2016. Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted on 2236 students who were randomly selected from urban and rural regions with equal proportion of gender. Questionnaires were administered to gather the required descriptive data and then morning samples of urine were collected. Iodine concentration was determined with titration and acidic digestion. Data were analyzed through SPSS software. Results: During the study period, the percentage of students with UI of lower than 2 µg/dL, was zero and only 2.37 % of them had a UI level in the range of 2-4.90 µg/dL. Median of UI was 18.40 ± 7.70 µg/dL level of UI in normal range showed noticeable increase from 2013 to 2016. Level of normal UI in ten years was 79.02%. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, Yazd province was considered "IDD free" similar to some other provinces. Also, level of UI more than 30 µg/dL was decreased. It is clear that this approaches need continuous evaluation such as annual evaluation of UI in 8-10 years old students at province level and every five years evaluation at national level.

  5. Epidemiology of Cervical Spine Injuries in High School Athletes Over a Ten-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, Adele; McMullen, Christopher; Laker, Scott R; Currie, Dustin; Comstock, R Dawn

    2017-09-12

    More than 7 million athletes participate in high school (HS) sports annually, with both the benefits of physical activity and risks of injury. Although catastrophic cervical spine injuries have been studied, limited data are available that characterize less-severe cervical spine injuries in HS athletes. To describe and compare cervical spine injury rates and patterns among U.S. HS athletes across 24 sports over a 10-year period. Descriptive epidemiology study. National sample of high schools participating in the High School Reporting Information Online injury surveillance system. Athletes from participating schools injured in a school sanctioned practice, competition, or performance during the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 academic years. Cervical spine injury data captured by the High School Reporting Information Online system during the 10-year study period were examined. Cervical spine injury was defined as any injury to the cervical spinal cord, bones, nerves, or supporting structures of the cervical spine including muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Cervical spine injury rates, diagnoses, mechanisms, and severities. During the study period, 1080 cervical spine injuries were reported during 35,581,036 athlete exposures for an injury rate of 3.04 per 100,000 athlete exposures. Injury rates were highest in football (10.10), wrestling (7.42), and girls' gymnastics (4.95). Muscle injuries were most common (63.1%), followed by nerve injuries (20.5%). A larger proportion of football injuries were nerve injuries compared with all other sports (injury proportion ratio 3.31; confidence interval 2.33-4.72), whereas in boys' ice hockey fractures represented a greater proportion of injuries compared with all other sports (injury proportion ratio 7.64; confidence interval 2.10-27.83). Overall, the most common mechanisms of injury were contact with another player (70.7%) and contact with playing surface (16.1%). Cervical spine injury rates and patterns vary by sport and gender

  6. Acute health problems in African refugees: ten years' experience in a Swiss emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Graf, Fabienne; Tabbara, Malek; Tabarra, Malek; Lindner, Gregor; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2012-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the total number of applications from Africans for asylum in the countries of the European Union has increased from 578,000 to more than 2.9 million. About 20 % (7,196/36,100) of the asylum seekers in Switzerland originate from Africa. The disease profile of African asylum seekers is remarkably different from that of the native population in the country of application. We have therefore conducted an analysis of African asylum seekers presenting themselves to our emergency department. In a retrospective analysis, the central patient registry database was searched for patients originating from Africa admitted from 1 January 2000 to 30 November 2011 and labelled as "Asylbewerber" (asylum seeker) or "Flüchtling" (refugee). Three thousand six hundred and seventy-five African asylum seekers were admitted to our emergency department between 2000 and 2010. Thirty-four percent (n = 1,247) were female and 66 % (n = 2,426) male. Eighty percent (n = 1,940) of the men and 70 % (n = 823) of the women were younger than 40 years. Most of our patients originated from Algeria (n = 612). Forty-five percent (n = 1,628) of all patients presented with internal medical problems, 40 % (n = 1,487) with injuries. 3.5 % (n = 130) of all patients presented with psychiatric problems. Admission for psychiatric problems increased steadily from 2 % (n = 4) in 2001 to 10 % (n = 35) in 2011. The causes of presentation are manifold, including internal medical problems and injuries. Admissions for psychiatric problems are increasing. Establishing simple screening scores for somatization should be a key priority in providing more focused treatment in emergency departments.

  7. Keeping Up with the Reality Show: A Ten-Years-Later Review of Surviving Teaching on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Louise Ripley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A dozen years ago, I set out to teach my first Internet course at York University, a large urban Canadian university with 55,000+ students who are mainly commuters. Two years later I wrote an article titled, "Survivor!: When the Next Reality Show is You Teaching Your First Internet Course", in which I argued that there are ten major things you should not do when teaching on the Internet. Now ten years later, in this paper I revisit those recommendations to see if they still hold true, and to see if we need to add any new ones.

  8. [Home parenteral nutrition in patients with advanced cancer: experience of a single centre over ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Villares, J M; Gomis Muñoz, P; Valero Zanuy, Ma A; León Sanz, M

    2004-01-01

    The use of Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN) in patients with advanced cancer without the possibility of curative treatment continues to be a controversial subject entailing a considerable emotional burden. Nonetheless, this group of patients constitutes the main indication for HPN in many programmes. To present the characteristics of a series of patients included on an HPN programme over the last ten years. Retrospective study of the case histories of the 11 patients who received HPN over this period. The demographic and clinical details were noted along with their complications and evolution for comparison with those of a control group of patients with benign disease receiving HPN over the same period. For the comparisons, Student's t test and the chi-squared test were used as and when indicated. Results were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. Eleven patients received HPN, nine of them because of an irresoluble intestinal obstruction and two because of a high flow fistula. The mean age at the start of HPN was 50.8 +/- 12.7 years versus 37.3 +/- 17.2 years for the group with benign disease (p < 0.05). The mean duration of HPN was 71.05 +/- 217 days in the first group, notably less than the second (387.15 +/- 995.85; p < 0.05), with a range between 5 and 760 days. The patients received the infusion through a previously implanted subcutaneous reservoir (n = 9) and on two occasions, electively, through a tunnelled catheter. The infection rate was higher in the group with cancer (0.34 episodes per patient and 1,000 days on HPN) than in the group with benign disease (0.08 episodes; p < 0.05). HPN was suspended in only one of the patients more than 5 days prior to death due to clinical deterioration. Two patients required admission due to a complication associated with the technique. In both cases, a fungal infection of the blood made it necessary to withdraw the catheter. The quality of life, measured by means of an activity scale, was similar at the start

  9. Family religion and psychopathology in children of depressed mothers: ten-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Martha; Miller, Lisa; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gameroff, Marc; Weissman, Myrna M

    2012-02-01

    Previously we found that transmission of religion from mother to adult offspring as measured by correlations on ratings of personal importance of religion and frequency of attendance at religious services was hindered by maternal depression. Concordance of denomination, a measure indicating successful transmission of denomination within a mother and offspring pair, was associated with a 71% decreased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in offspring. This study attempts to replicate the findings in a younger generation of mothers who were the original offspring or spouse of the original offspring in the previous study, and their offspring. Mothers (N=45) and offspring (N=78) were assessed for MDD and anxiety using semi-structured clinical interviews (The Diagnostic Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Modified for the Anxiety Disorders) at two points across a ten-year interval. Religiosity was assessed by report of personal spirituality, frequency of attendance at religious services, and religious denomination Results partially replicate previous findings that maternal depression hinders the transmission of importance but not attendance or denomination to offspring. Concordance of denomination is protective, decreasing by 91% the likelihood of childhood anxiety or depression, independent of maternal depression. Limitations include small sample size that represents few denominations, limited assessments of religiosity, and inability to control for the possible confound of a close relationship between mother and offspring in our analyses. Family agreement and practice of religious denomination may be a robust protective source from MDD or anxiety for youth, independent of the effects of maternal depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changing ethnic inequalities in mortality in New Zealand over 30 years: linked cohort studies with 68.9 million person-years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, George; Teng, Andrea; Atkinson, June; Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony

    2017-04-26

    Internationally, ethnic inequalities in mortality within countries are increasingly recognized as a public health concern. But few countries have data to monitor such inequalities. We aimed to provide a detailed description of ethnic inequalities (Māori [indigenous], Pacific, and European/Other) in mortality for a country with high quality ethnicity data, using both standard and novel visualization methods. Cohort studies of the entire New Zealand population were conducted, using probabilistically-linked Census and mortality data from 1981 to 2011 (68.9 million person years). Absolute (standardized rate difference) and relative (standardized rate ratio) inequalities were calculated, in 1-74-year-olds, for Māori and Pacific peoples in comparison to European/Other. All-cause mortality rates were highest for Māori, followed by Pacific peoples then European/Other, and declined in all three ethnic groups over time. Pacific peoples experienced the slowest annual percentage fall in mortality rates, then Māori, with European/Other having the highest percentage falls - resulting in widening relative inequalities. Absolute inequalities, however, for both Māori and Pacific males compared to European/Other have been falling since 1996. But for females, only Māori absolute inequalities (compared with European/Other) have been falling. Regarding cause of death, cancer is becoming a more important contributor than cardiovascular disease (CVD) to absolute inequalities, especially for Māori females. We found declines in all-cause mortality rates, over time, for each ethnic group of interest. Ethnic mortality inequalities are generally stable or even falling in absolute terms, but have increased on a relative scale. The drivers of these inequalities in mortality are transitioning over time, away from CVD to cancer and diabetes; such transitions are likely in other countries, and warrant further research. To address these inequalities, policymakers need to enhance prevention

  11. Survival of the Scandinavian total ankle replacement (STAR): results of ten to nineteen years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigg, Arno; Germann, Ursula; Huber, Martin; Horisberger, Monika

    2017-07-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival and clinical outcome of the Scandinavian total ankle replacement (STAR) prosthesis after a minimum of ten years up to a maximum of 19 years. Fifty STAR prostheses in 46 patients with end stage ankle osteoarthritis operated between 1996 and 2006 by the same surgeon (MH) were included. Minimal follow-up was ten years (median 14.6 years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9-16.4). Clinical (Kofoed score) and radiological assessments were taken before the operation and at one, ten (+2), and 16 (±3) years after implantation. The primary endpoint was defined as exchange of the whole prosthesis or conversion to arthrodesis (def. 1), exchange of at least one metallic component (def. 2), or exchange of any component including the inlay (due to breakage or wear) (def. 3). Survival was estimated according to Kaplan-Meier. Further reoperations related to STAR were also recorded. The ten year survival rate was (def. 1) 94% (CI 82-98%), (def. 2) 90% (CI, 77-96%), and (def. 3) 78% (CI 64-87%). The 19-year survival rate was (def. 1) 91% (CI 78-97%), (def. 2) 75% (CI 53-88%), and (def. 3) 55% (CI 34-71%). Considering any re-operations related to STAR, 52% (26/50) of prostheses were affected by re-operations. Mean pre-operative Kofoed score was 49, which improved to 84 after one year (n = 50), to 90 after ten years (n = 46), and to 89 after 16 years (n = 28). The survival rate for def. 1 and 2 was high. However, re-operations occurred in 52% of all STAR prosthesis. Retrospective cohort study, evidence Level 4.

  12. Ten-year variability in fluxes, meteorology, and environmental conditions at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. P.; Turnipseed, A.; Bowling, D. R.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    Changing meteorological and environmental conditions affect fluxes; model analysis has shown that environmental variability directly accounts for about half the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 whereas the other 50% is due to biotic responses to these changing variables (Richardson et al. 2007). In our study, ten years (1998-2008) of turbulent flux measurements of heat, water vapor, and CO2 at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site (Monson et al. 2002) are examined with respect to meteorological conditions (atmospheric temperature, stability, precipitation, and cloudiness) as well as changes in environmental conditions, such as snow depth and soil moisture. The typical yearly cycle and an estimate of the magnitude of year-to-year variability in the diurnal fluxes and other variables for a high-elevation subalpine forest ecosystem are presented. Wintertime ecosystem respiration has an average 30-min NEE of 0.62 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between 0.5-1 μmol m-2 s-1. Uptake of CO2 in late summer has an average NEE of -0.71 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between -0.1 to -1.5 μmol m-2 s-1. Previous studies at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site have described the importance of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) (Monson et al. 2002) and also growing season length (Hu et al. 2009) on NEE. Water isotope ratios analyzed by Hu et al. (2009) have shown that trees at the site primarily rely on water from snowmelt to sustain them throughout the summer; combining this result with the SIPNET model, Hu et al. conclude that there is a limited connection between summer precipitation and the cumulative annual gross primary production (GPP). We have tested this conclusion more explicitly by examining the response of NEE to specific precipitation events and the effect of extended dry periods on the diel cycle of the fluxes, CO2 mole fraction, sap flow, and other meteorological and soil variables. Additionally, we examine the connection

  13. The Ten Most Important Reading Research Studies Published during the Last 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gordon

    The ten reading research studies published since 1955 and deemed by the author "most important" in terms of quality, originality, and applicability to elementary reading instruction are described in this report. Discussed are studies on reading approaches by Russell Stauffer and by Neville Bennett; a study on reading readiness by Audrey…

  14. Creative Climate: A global ten-year communications, research and learning project about environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, M. A.; Smith, J.

    2010-12-01

    The next ten years have been described by influential science and policy figures as ‘the most important in human history’. Many believe that the actions taken will decide whether we catastrophically change the atmosphere and eradicate our fellow species or find an alternative, less-damaging development path. But communications and public engagement initiatives have tended to focus on near term impacts or debates - whether they emphasise hazards, or trumpet ‘solutions’. There are signs of diminishing returns on communications and public engagement efforts, and serious obstacles to engaging around 40% of publics in e.g. the US and the UK. The Creative Climate web project takes a new approach, inviting people to see humanity’s intellectual and practical journey with these issues as an inspiring, dynamic and unfolding story. We are inviting people to join us in building a huge living archive of experiences and ideas that respond to these issues. The website will collect thoughts and stories from doorstep to workplace, from lab to garden; from international conference to community meeting - from all over the world. The body of diaries lie at the core of the project, but these are supplemented by the offer of free online learning resources and broadcast-quality audio and video materials. The project is experimental in terms of its scope, its approach to environmental communications and debate and in its use of media. It works with formal partners, including the BBC, yet also makes the most of the opportunities for user generated content to create a rich multimedia resource that can support research, learning and engagement. The design of the project is informed by environmental social science and communications research, and by an awareness of the unfolding potential of Internet based communications to support social change. It is also intended that the Creative Climate platform will develop so as to serve researchers by offering an open resource of qualitative

  15. Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance in Peru: a ten-year observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollett Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are food-borne pathogens of great importance and feature prominently in the etiology of developing world enteritis and travellers’ diarrhoea. Increasing antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter prevalence has been described globally, yet data from Peru is limited. Our objective was to describe the prevalence trends of fluoroquinolone and macrolide-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli stool isolates from three regions in Peru over a ten-year period. Methods Surveillance for enteric pathogens was conducted in Lima, Iquitos and Cusco between 2001 and 2010. Campylobacter stool isolates were tested for susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin. Susceptibilities were reviewed for 4652 isolates from Lima ( n = 3419, Iquitos ( n = 625 and Cusco ( n = 608. Results Comparing the study periods of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni isolates rose in the study areas of Lima (73.1% to 89.8%, p p C. coli rates also increased in Lima (48.1% to 87.4%, p p = 0.005. Small but significant increases in azithromycin-resistant and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni prevalence were noted in Iquitos (2.2% to 14.9%, p p = 0.002, and erythromycin-resistant C. coli rates increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.038. The prevalence of C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and azithromycin increased in Iquitos (0.3% to 14.9%, p C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and erythromycin rose in Iquitos (0.0% to 14.9%, p C. coli prevalence increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.034. Conclusions These results have implications for the empirical management of enterocolitis in Peru. Ongoing surveillance is essential to guide appropriate antimicrobial use in this setting. Local epidemiological studies to explore the relationship between increasing antimicrobial resistance and agricultural or human antibiotic

  16. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  17. Cause-Specific Mortality in HIV-Positive Patients Who Survived Ten Years after Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Margaret T.; Vehreschild, Janne; Obel, Niels; Gill, Michael John; Crane, Heidi; Boesecke, Christoph; Samji, Hasina; Grabar, Sophie; Cazanave, Charles; Cavassini, Matthias; Shepherd, Leah; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smit, Colette; Saag, Michael; Lampe, Fiona; Hernando, Vicky; Montero, Marta; Zangerle, Robert; Justice, Amy C.; Sterling, Timothy; Miro, Jose; Ingle, Suzanne; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate mortality rates and prognostic factors in HIV-positive patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy between 1996–1999 and survived for more than ten years. Methods We used data from 18 European and North American HIV cohort studies contributing to the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. We followed up patients from ten years after start of combination antiretroviral therapy. We estimated overall and cause-specific mortality rate ratios for age, sex, transmission through injection drug use, AIDS, CD4 count and HIV-1 RNA. Results During 50,593 person years 656/13,011 (5%) patients died. Older age, male sex, injecting drug use transmission, AIDS, and low CD4 count and detectable viral replication ten years after starting combination antiretroviral therapy were associated with higher subsequent mortality. CD4 count at ART start did not predict mortality in models adjusted for patient characteristics ten years after start of antiretroviral therapy. The most frequent causes of death (among 340 classified) were non-AIDS cancer, AIDS, cardiovascular, and liver-related disease. Older age was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality, injecting drug use transmission with non-AIDS infection and liver-related mortality, and low CD4 and detectable viral replication ten years after starting antiretroviral therapy with AIDS mortality. Five-year mortality risk was <5% in 60% of all patients, and in 30% of those aged over 60 years. Conclusions Viral replication, lower CD4 count, prior AIDS, and transmission via injecting drug use continue to predict higher all-cause and AIDS-related mortality in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for over a decade. Deaths from AIDS and non-AIDS infection are less frequent than deaths from other non-AIDS causes. PMID:27525413

  18. Cause-Specific Mortality in HIV-Positive Patients Who Survived Ten Years after Starting Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Trickey

    Full Text Available To estimate mortality rates and prognostic factors in HIV-positive patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy between 1996-1999 and survived for more than ten years.We used data from 18 European and North American HIV cohort studies contributing to the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. We followed up patients from ten years after start of combination antiretroviral therapy. We estimated overall and cause-specific mortality rate ratios for age, sex, transmission through injection drug use, AIDS, CD4 count and HIV-1 RNA.During 50,593 person years 656/13,011 (5% patients died. Older age, male sex, injecting drug use transmission, AIDS, and low CD4 count and detectable viral replication ten years after starting combination antiretroviral therapy were associated with higher subsequent mortality. CD4 count at ART start did not predict mortality in models adjusted for patient characteristics ten years after start of antiretroviral therapy. The most frequent causes of death (among 340 classified were non-AIDS cancer, AIDS, cardiovascular, and liver-related disease. Older age was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality, injecting drug use transmission with non-AIDS infection and liver-related mortality, and low CD4 and detectable viral replication ten years after starting antiretroviral therapy with AIDS mortality. Five-year mortality risk was <5% in 60% of all patients, and in 30% of those aged over 60 years.Viral replication, lower CD4 count, prior AIDS, and transmission via injecting drug use continue to predict higher all-cause and AIDS-related mortality in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for over a decade. Deaths from AIDS and non-AIDS infection are less frequent than deaths from other non-AIDS causes.

  19. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  20. Cause-Specific Mortality in HIV-Positive Patients Who Survived Ten Years after Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trickey, Adam; May, Margaret T; Vehreschild, Jorg-Janne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate mortality rates and prognostic factors in HIV-positive patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy between 1996-1999 and survived for more than ten years. METHODS: We used data from 18 European and North American HIV cohort studies contributing to the Antiretro...

  1. Dying from cancer or other chronic diseases in the Netherlands: ten-year trends derived from death certificate data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, L.F.J. van der; Francke, A.L.; Hingstman, L.; Willems, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the further development of palliative care, it is relevant to gain insight into trends in non-acute mortality. The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to provide insight into ten-year trends in the characteristics of patients who died from cancer or other chronic diseases in the

  2. Dying from cancer or other chronic diseases in the Netherlands: ten-year trends derived from death certificate data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Lud Fj; Francke, Anneke L.; Hingstman, Lammert; Willems, Dick L.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For the further development of palliative care, it is relevant to gain insight into trends in non-acute mortality. The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to provide insight into ten-year trends in the characteristics of patients who died from cancer or other chronic diseases

  3. 78 FR 57573 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Aspen AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  4. 78 FR 56185 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Fort Collins AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  5. 78 FR 46861 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Greeley AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  6. 78 FR 41342 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Ca on City AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  7. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  8. Ten years of sustainability evaluation using the MESMIS framework: Lessons learned from its application in 28 Latin American case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.; López Ridaura, S.; Aliana-Colomer, N.; Astier, M.; Masera, O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on sustainability evaluation and, more specifically, it describes and analyses the Indicator-based Framework for Evaluation of Natural Resource Management Systems (MESMIS, its Spanish acronym), ten years after its development. This framework fulfilled a pioneering role by

  9. Lessons from the Institute for New Heads (INH) Class of 2006: Ten Headships--134 Years of Hard-Earned Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphel, Annette; Huber, John; Chandler, Carolyn; Vorenberg, Amy; Jones-Wilkins, Andy; Devey, Mark A.; Holford, Josie; Craig, Ian; Elam, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Ten years ago in July 2006, 64 mostly starry-eyed men and women attended the NAIS Institute for New Heads (INH) in order to learn the ropes of headship. These newly minted heads were filled with enthusiasm, commitment, and passion, along with humility and a bit of healthy trepidation. One core group connected under the careful guidance of…

  10. Minimum ten-year follow-up of acetabular fracture fixation from the Irish tertiary referral centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Magill, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Successful outcome from acetabular fracture fixation is multi-factorial. Long-term results are not frequently reported. Pooling such data from high output centres will help progress acetabular fixation. This paper presents the first ten-year data from the Irish tertiary referral centre.

  11. Ten Years On, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme and Zimbabwe's Marange and "Conflict Diamonds": Lessons to be learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazreen Shaik-Peremanov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available TEN YEARS ON, THE KIMBERLEY PROCESS CERTIFICATION SCHEME AND ZIMBABWE’S MARANGE AND "CONFLICT DIAMONDS": LESSONS TO BE LEARNT N Shaik-Peremanov* SUMMARY Remove by editor - Prof Christa Rautenbach email: Christa.Rautenbach@nwu.ac.za

  12. Where Should Search Traces of Life, Which Could Appear on Mars in the First 300 Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    In its early years, Mars was like the ancient Earth. If life on Mars today there is, then, certainly, it is microbial. The proof of the presence of liquid water on Mars does not mean that there is life on Mars. But this gives some hope.

  13. The major-ion composition of Cenozoic seawater: the past 36 million years from fluid inclusions in marine halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sean T.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Cendon, Dioni I.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusions from ten Cenozoic (Eocene-Miocene) marine halites are used to quantify the major-ion composition (Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, Na+, SO42−, and Cl−) of seawater over the past 36 My. Criteria used to determine a seawater origin of the halites include: (1) stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and paleontologic observations; (2) Br− in halite; (3) δ34S of sulfate minerals; (4) 87Sr/86Sr of carbonates and sulfates; and (5) fluid inclusion brine compositions and evaporation paths, which must overlap from geographically separated basins of the same age to confirm a “global” seawater chemical signal. Changes in the major-ion chemistry of Cenozoic seawater record the end of a systematic, long term (>150 My) shift from the Ca2+-rich, Mg2+- and SO42−-poor seawater of the Mesozoic (“CaCl2 seas”) to the “MgSO4 seas” (with higher Mg2+ and SO42−>Ca2+) of the Cenozoic. The major ion composition of Cenozoic seawater is calculated for the Eocene-Oligocene (36-34 Ma), Serravallian-Tortonian (13.5-11.8 Ma) and the Messinian (6-5 Ma), assuming chlorinity (565 mmolal), salinity, and the K+ concentration (11 mmolal) are constant and the same as in modern seawater. Fluid inclusions from Cenozoic marine halites show that the concentrations of Mg2+and SO42− have increased in seawater over the past 36 My and the concentration of Ca2+ has decreased. Mg2+ concentrations increased from 36 mmolal in Eocene-Oligocene seawater (36-34 Ma) to 55 mmolal in modern seawater. The Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of seawater has risen from ∼2.3 at the end of the Eocene, to 3.4 and 4.0, respectively, at 13.5 to 11.8 Ma and 6 to 5 Ma, and to 5 in modern seawater. Eocene-Oligocene seawater (36-34 Ma) has estimated ranges of SO42− = 14–23 mmolal and Ca2+ = 11–20 mmolal. If the (Ca2+)(SO42−) product is assumed to be the same as in modern seawater (∼300 mmolal2), Eocene-Oligocene seawater had Ca2+ ∼16 mmolal and SO42− ∼19 mmolal. The same estimates of Ca2+ and SO42− for Serravallian

  14. An optimized scheme of lettered marine isotope substages for the last 1.0 million years, and the climatostratigraphic nature of isotope stages and substages

    OpenAIRE

    Railsback, L. Bruce; Gibbard, Philip L.; Head, Martin J.; Voarintsoa, Ny Riavo G.; Toucanne, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    A complete and optimized scheme of lettered marine isotope substages spanning the last 1.0 million years is proposed. Lettered substages for Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 were explicitly defined by Shackleton (1969), but analogous substages before or after MIS 5 have not been coherently defined. Short-term discrete events in the isotopic record were defined in the 1980s and given decimal-style numbers, rather than letters, but unlike substages they were neither intended nor suited to identify ...

  15. Boom time for scientists: with tens of millions of dollars coming in every year, science researchers across Ottawa are enjoying a new sense of optimism

    CERN Multimedia

    Spears, T

    2002-01-01

    A combination of fresh government and industry money and a sense of optimism have stimulated hiring, new construction and an aura of aggressive expansion in Ottowa's science research facilities (1 page).

  16. E Pluribus Unum: 50 Years of Research, Millions of Viruses, and One Goal—Tailored Acceleration of AAV Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Dirk; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a Science paper by Atchison et al. reported a newly discovered virus that would soon become known as adeno-associated virus (AAV) and that would subsequently emerge as one of the most versatile and most auspicious vectors for human gene therapy. A large part of its attraction stems from the ease with which the viral capsid can be engineered for particle retargeting to cell types of choice, evasion from neutralizing antibodies or other desirable properties. Particularly powerful and in the focus of the current review are high-throughput methods aimed at expanding the repertoire of AAV vectors by means of directed molecular evolution, such as random mutagenesis, DNA family shuffling, in silico reconstruction of ancestral capsids, or peptide display. Here, unlike the wealth of prior reviews on this topic, we especially emphasize and critically discuss the practical aspects of the different procedures that affect the ultimate outcome, including diversification protocols, combinatorial library complexity, and selection strategies. Our overall aim is to provide general guidance that should help users at any level, from novice to expert, to safely navigate through the rugged space of directed AAV evolution while avoiding the pitfalls that are associated with these challenging but promising technologies. PMID:26388463

  17. Ninety million years of orogenesis, 250 million years of quiescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gone long and complex histories (e.g., Ham and. Bell 2004). Different relics of this history can be left in strain shadows or portions where later deformation partitioning was less pervasive and if not decoded carefully will lead to erroneous or ambiguous results (e.g., Spiess and Bell 1996). Each new deformation tends to ...

  18. The Unknown Oldowan: ~1.7-Million-Year-Old Standardized Obsidian Small Tools from Garba IV, Melka Kunture, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotti, Rosalia; Mussi, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    The Oldowan Industrial Complex has long been thought to have been static, with limited internal variability, embracing techno-complexes essentially focused on small-to-medium flake production. The flakes were rarely modified by retouch to produce small tools, which do not show any standardized pattern. Usually, the manufacture of small standardized tools has been interpreted as a more complex behavior emerging with the Acheulean technology. Here we report on the ~1.7 Ma Oldowan assemblages from Garba IVE-F at Melka Kunture in the Ethiopian highland. This industry is structured by technical criteria shared by the other East African Oldowan assemblages. However, there is also evidence of a specific technical process never recorded before, i.e. the systematic production of standardized small pointed tools strictly linked to the obsidian exploitation. Standardization and raw material selection in the manufacture of small tools disappear at Melka Kunture during the Lower Pleistocene Acheulean. This proves that 1) the emergence of a certain degree of standardization in tool-kits does not reflect in itself a major step in cultural evolution; and that 2) the Oldowan knappers, when driven by functional needs and supported by a highly suitable raw material, were occasionally able to develop specific technical solutions. The small tool production at ~1.7 Ma, at a time when the Acheulean was already emerging elsewhere in East Africa, adds to the growing amount of evidence of Oldowan techno-economic variability and flexibility, further challenging the view that early stone knapping was static over hundreds of thousands of years.

  19. A Ten Year Study of Salary Differential by Sex through a Regression Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John Delane; And Others

    A 10-year study of salary differential by sex was undertaken at the University of North Dakota using a multiple regression methodology, with rank, discipline, degree, years in department, years in current rank, and sex as predictors. The sex variable evidenced lower salaries for women when controlling for the other variables throughout the study…

  20. Ten-Year Follow-Up of Desarthrodesis of the Knee Joint 41 Years after Original Arthrodesis for a Bone Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Hamed Kassem Abdelaal; Norio Yamamoto; Katsuhiro Hayashi; Akihiko Takeuchi; Shinji Miwa; Hiroyuki Inatani; Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The main indication for knee arthrodesis in tumor surgery is a tumor that requires an extensive resection in which the joint surface cannot be preserved. We report a patient that had knee desarthrodesis 41 years after giant cell tumor resection followed by a knee arthrodesis. This is the longest reported follow-up after desarthrodesis and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA), almost ten years. Case Report. A 71-year-old man with a distal femoral giant cell tumor had under...

  1. Investigation of sea level around the island of Gavdos from ten years of TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimetry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. BANKS

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project ‘GAVDOS’ (MERTIKAS & PAVLIS, 1999 has been designed to lead to the establishment of a calibration and sea level monitoring site for the JASON-1 and ENVISAT satellites as well as the GLObal Sea level monitoring System (GLOSS. Within the context of this project, nearly ten years of TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimetry data (cycle 1 to 364 from the vicinity of the Gavdos Island (Crete, Greece have been processed and analysed. The results presented here are from the application of a method that incorporates the calculation of a corrected sea surface height from the altimetry data, along-track and cross-track data interpolation because of orbital drift, near coastal error filtering, and the use of a new geoid for the area. This method was applied in order to create ten year time series of sea level and associated parameters for the area around Gavdos island. The results reveal the pattern of sea level and local seasonal cycle around Gavdos over the last ten years.

  2. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J

    2015-01-01

    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions. PMID:26435571

  3. Ten years of orangutan-related wildlife crime investigation in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Cathryn; Rahman, Edi; Knott, Cheryl

    2016-12-13

    Poaching for the pet trade is considered one of the main threats to orangutan survival, especially to the Bornean species (Pongo pygmaeus). However, there have been few attempts to quantify the number of individuals taken from the wild or to evaluate the drivers of the trade. Most orangutan poaching is thought to be opportunistic in nature, occurring in conjunction with deforestation for large-scale agriculture. Using data from our long-term wildlife crime field investigation program collected from 2004 to 2014, we evaluated the prevalence of orangutan poaching and its spatial distribution in and around Gunung Palung National Park, in the regencies (districts) of Ketapang and Kayong Utara, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over the project period, investigators uncovered 145 cases of orangutans being illegally held captive for the pet trade. There was a significant correlation between the extent of oil palm and the number of cases reported from each sub-district in the landscape, supporting the widely held hypothesis that orangutan poaching is opportunistic, and we found no evidence of orangutan trading rings (i.e., international traders) targeting Gunung Palung National Park. Over the past decade, there only has been one prosecution of orangutan trading in West Kalimantan, and weak law enforcement by Indonesian authorities remains the most significant challenge in addressing wildlife trade. We offer four recommendations to address this, including that Indonesia dedicate at least $3 million more to addressing orangutan poaching and trade in Kalimantan and that the country's wildlife protection laws be revised and strengthened, with the new laws socialized to a wide audience, including government officials and all aspects of civil society. As oil palm begins to expand into Africa, this study also may help predict how this will affect gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, encouraging proactive conservation action. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Building Lasting Impact: Ten Years of the Earth to Sky Interagency Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A.; Lacome, B.; Merrick, B.; Morris, J.; Paglierani, R.; Spakoff, S.

    2014-12-01

    Beginning in Fall of 2004, NASA and the National Park Service (NPS) embarked on collaborative work aimed at bringing the wonders of NASA science and education content into the hands of outstanding and highly regarded science "communicators" - interpreters in NPS. What began as a showcase of NASA content delivered in an interpretive workshop has evolved and matured into a long-standing, and growing partnership focused on climate change communication. The partnership has been fruitful and successful, producing a variety of professional development events that have resulted in participants reaching millions of Park and Refuge visitors and thousands of interpreters and educators, with content derived from our courses. Earth to Sky (ETS) now includes the US Fish and Wildlife Service and NOAA, and is working towards establishment of a network of regional networks made up of alumni and their communities. The key to our success has been the careful building and nurturing of the partnership, and its resulting community of practice, beginning with excellent facilitated meetings of the parties involved, and continuing through implementation of best practices in partnership and collaborative work. Project design, development, and execution were accomplished in true partnership with leaders from our intended audience, NPS interpreters, and later USFWS environmental educators. Our partners were fully involved, from the inception of the first workshop design, through its implementation and assessment, to strategic planning for sustainability and all subsequent efforts. ETS can serve as a model of an effective partnership in climate communication efforts, drawing upon the strengths of partners with widely different areas of expertise to produce cohesive work with high impact. We will share the ETS model of partnership, and discuss how this model might be useful as the climate communication community moves towards a more coherent approach to improve climate literacy.

  5. U.S. Dental School Applicants and Enrollees: A Ten Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Richard G.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from the annual American Dental Education Association survey of applicants and enrollees to assess trends over the past 10 years, including the decline in applications beginning in 1998 after several years of increases. Also provides information on quality of applicants, gender, and race/ethnicity. Discusses reasons for the application…

  6. Ten years of Nature Reviews Neuroscience: insights from the highly cited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, L.; Rodriguez, E.; Jerbi, K.; Lachaux, J.P.; Martinerie, J.; Corbetta, M.; Shulman, G.L.; Piomelli, D.; Turrigiano, G.G.; Nelson, S.B.; Joëls, M.; de Kloet, E.R.; Holsboer, F.; Amodio, D.M.; Frith, C.D.; Block, M.L.; Zecca, L.; Hong, J.S.; Dantzer, R.; Kelley, K.W.; Craig, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    To celebrate the first 10 years of Nature Reviews Neuroscience, we invited the authors of the most cited article of each year to look back on the state of their field of research at the time of publication and the impact their article has had, and to discuss the questions that might be answered in

  7. Giant vesical calculus in a ten year-old boy - a case report | Saleh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of longstanding urinary tract symptoms in a 10 year old boy in which multi-modality imaging revealed multiple radio-opaque calculi including a giant vesical calculus. He had surgical removal of the stone with no post-op complications. Keywords: Giant, Vesical Calculus, 10 years old ...

  8. Ten-year literature review of global endometrial ablation with the NovaSure® device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimpelson RJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Richard J Gimpelson Mercy Clinic, Minimally Invasive Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mercy Hospital St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: This review examines the peer-reviewed literature describing prospective studies that report amenorrhea rates, patient satisfaction, and surgical reintervention rates following the NovaSure® endometrial ablation procedure. A search of the English-language literature published from 2000 to 2011 was conducted using PubMed. Ten prospective studies, six single-arm NovaSure trials, and four randomized controlled trials comparing the NovaSure procedure with other global endometrial ablation modalities met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 60 months. Amenorrhea rates for the NovaSure procedure ranged from 30.0% to 75.0%. Patients who reported being satisfied with the NovaSure procedure ranged from 85.0% to 94.0%. In randomized controlled trials with other global endometrial ablation modalities, amenorrhea rates at 12 months with the NovaSure procedure ranged from 43.0% to 56.0%, while other modalities ranged from 8% to 24%. In addition, this manuscript reviews the following: the NovaSure technology; use of the NovaSure procedure in the office setting; intraoperative and postoperative pain; effects on premenstrual syndrome (PMS; dysmenorrhea; special circumstances, including presence of uterine disease, history of cesarean delivery, coagulopathy, or use of anticoagulant medication; post-procedure uterine cavity assessment and cancer risk; contraception and pregnancy; and safety. Keywords: abnormal uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, endometrial ablation, NovaSure®

  9. Review of ten-years presence of Aedes albopictus in Spain 2004-2014: known distribution and public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes, Francisco; Delacour, Sarah; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Torrell-Sorio, Antonio; Bengoa, Mikel; Eritja, Roger; Miranda, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Ricardo; Lucientes, Javier

    2015-12-23

    Ten years have gone by since the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus was recorded for the first time in Spain. In this paper, all relevant published information about this vector in Spain for the period 2004-2014 is reviewed. The known distribution for 2014 is provided, including all historical records (published and unpublished data) and the results from samplings of the last year. The consequences on public health about the presence of the Asian tiger mosquito in Spain are also highlighted. Further, legal aspects and control plans related to the management and diseases transmitted by this invasive vector species are also discussed.

  10. A ten year Bluebird Trail study at Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides results from a bluebird and tree swallow monitoring study conducted at Necedah National Wildlife Refuge. For the years 1985-1994, nest boxes...

  11. Ten-year climatology of potassium number density at 54° N, 12° E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, J.; Höffner, J.; Lübken, F.-J.; Kopp, M.; Gerding, M.

    2017-09-01

    In the years from 2002 to 2012 potassium densities observations were performed in the mesopause region at Kühlungsborn using a potassium Doppler lidar. The 10-year diurnal data set comprises 5090 h of potassium number densities at 741 days with 25.2% under full daylight conditions. Potassium number densities show a clear semi-annual variation with two broad maxima reoccurring every year. The first maximum occurs in summer and lasts for about 4 months (May-August) with number densities up to 60 atoms/cc. The second maximum is observed from early December to late February with densities up to 30 atoms/cc. Both the peak density and the column density are higher at solstices than at equinoxes. The large data set shows little variation of the mean layer over the 10 years.

  12. A Ten-Year Review of Ovarian Cancer in Enugu, South East Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-01-01

    year period at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: A retrospective review of cases of histologically diagnosed primary ovarian cancers from January 1, 2000 to. December 31, 2009. Results: Out of 20,227 gynaecological ...

  13. Ten years of democracy: Translating policy into practice in mathematics and science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgabo Masehela

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a 10-year (1994 – 2004 review of the state of mathematics and physical science education (SME in South Africa with respect to participation and performance, and its relationship with policy implementation.

  14. The ten-thousand year fever: rethinking human and wild primate malarias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cormier, Loretta A

    2011-01-01

    "Malaria is one of the oldest recorded diseases in human history, and its 10,000-year relationship to primates can teach us why it will be one of the most serious threats to humanity in the 21st century...

  15. Ten Years of Forest Cover Change in the Sierra Nevada Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed geographic record of recent vegetation regrowth and disturbance patterns in forests of the Sierra Nevada remains a gap that can be filled with remote sensing data. Landsat (TM) imagery was analyzed to detect 10 years of recent changes (between 2000 and 2009) in forest vegetation cover for areas burned by wildfires between years of 1995 to 1999 in the region. Results confirmed the prevalence of regrowing forest vegetation during the period 2000 and 2009 over 17% of the combined burned areas.

  16. Tetanus in a Rural Setting of South-Western Nigeria: a Ten-Year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We review the records of 79 tetanus patients in two hospitals (one tertiary and one secondary level) in Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria from 1997 to 2006. The male: female ratio was 3:1. Ages were 14-70 years (mean 33.25 years, SD ±16.76). The overall case fatality rate (CFR), 32.91%, did was not significantly different in the two ...

  17. Selection and mortality: a ten-year follow-up of income decile mortality in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofoss, Dag; Dahl, Espen; Elstad, Jon Ivar; Cvancarova, Milada

    2013-08-01

    There is universal agreement that higher mortality goes with lower income. Opinions differ on causality: the association may reflect the damaging effect of poverty on health and survival chances. Conversely, it may reflect selection/reverse causation: low income indicates health problems, and from health problems follow a higher risk of dying. We studied all deaths in Norway (111,504) during the 10-year period 1994-2003 among persons aged 25-66 years in 1993 (2,261,076). For each year, age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for each 1993 income decile for men and women separately. Income was calculated as family size-adjusted income after taxes but including cash welfare transfers. If the selection theory was correct, one would expect to see the excess mortality in the lower income fractiles decline as the bad risks, over-represented among the poorer, died away. Large income decile variations in mortality remained at the end of the 10-year period: after 10 years, the age-standardized mortality rate for men and women was still much higher in the lower income deciles. As the excess mortality in the poorer income deciles was not much reduced during the 10-year period, excess mortality among persons in bad health in the lower income deciles does not explain the income inequality in mortality in our data set.

  18. Ten years research activities in Earth observation at the Cyprus University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Nisantzi, Argyro; Papoutsa, Christiana; Tzouvaras, Marios; Neoclous, Kyriacos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Michaelides, Silas

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the achievements for the last 10 years of the Remote Sensing and Geo-Environment Laboratory of the Cyprus University of Technology in the Earth observation through the ERATOSTHENES Research Centre. Over the past 10 years, the Centre has secured competitive research funding from various sources, such as the European Commission, the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, as well as industrial partners, having participated either as a coordinator or as a partner in more than 60 research projects. The research activities of the Centre encompass remote sensing and GIS applications in the fields of Cultural Heritage, Agriculture, Water Resource Management, Environment, Infrastructure, Marine Spatial Planning, Atmospheric, Air Pollution and Coastal Applications, Natural Resource Management and Hazard Assessment. The aim of this paper is to map the existing activities and identify the future trends and goals of the Eratosthenes Research Centre for the next 15 years.

  19. Ten years of tuberculosis intervention in Greenland – has it prevented cases of childhood tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Birch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB disease in Greenland doubled in the 1990s. To combat the increase, national TB interventions were initiated in 2000 and strengthened in 2007. Objective: To determine whether the effect of interventions could be detected, we estimated the TB disease risk among children≤15 years before and after interventions were implemented. Design: For a study cohort, we recruited all children ≤15 years of age included in the Greenlandic Civil Registration System (CRS from 1990 to 2010. The CRS identifier was used to link cohort participants with TB cases identified based on the Greenlandic National TB registry. Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccination status was identified through year of birth, as BCG was offered to newborns born either before 1991 or after 1996. Years with interventions were defined as 2000–2006 (primary interventions and 2007–2010 (intensified interventions. Risk of TB was estimated using Poisson regression. Results: The study included 35,858 children, of whom 209 had TB disease. The TB disease incidence decreased after interventions were implemented (2007–2010: IRR [incidence rate ratios] 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39–0.95, p=0.03, compared with the 1995–1999 period. The TB disease risk was inversely associated with BCG vaccination (IRR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41–0.72, p<0.001. Conclusions: Years with national TB interventions in Greenland, including neonate BCG vaccination, are associated with a lower TB disease incidence among children ≤15 years of age.

  20. A ten-year study of measles admissions in a Nigerian Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The last report on measles from our center was about 15 years ago. A review of the current status is necessary in order to strengthen interventional strategies. Objectives: To ...

  1. Achieving Collective Impact: Reflections on Ten Years of the University of Georgia Archway Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Mel; Adams, Katherine R.

    2017-01-01

    Collective impact is a model for achieving tangible change and improvement in communities through a series of well-defined parameters of collaboration. This article provides a 10-year reflection on the University of Georgia Archway Partnership, a university-community collaboration, in the context of the parameters of collective impact. Emphasis is…

  2. A ten-year study of prostate cancer specimens at Ahmadu Bello ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To analyze the pattern of distribution of prostate cancer among men in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Patients and methods: This is a 10-year retrospective histopathological analysis of all prostate cancer cases diagnosed between January 1991 and December 2000 in the Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello ...

  3. Moving forward: a review of North-West University's first ten years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vught, Franciscus A.; Cloete, Nico; Meek, Lynn; Pityana, Barney; Rasmussen, Torben Kornbech; Singh, Mala; Bunting, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This independent report commissioned by North West University (NWU) contradicts the university's recently published claim that it has bridged its racial divisions and addressed historical inequalities. According to the 10-year review, “Present management structures and practices are not fully

  4. What have we learned from ten years of trajectory research in low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Kent, Peter; Axén, Iben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-specific low back pain (LBP) is often categorised as acute, subacute or chronic by focusing on the duration of the current episode. However, more than twenty years ago this concept was challenged by a recognition that LBP is often an episodic condition. This episodic nature also m...

  5. Alternatives to Custody: A Ten-Year Review of a Community-Based Program in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Barbara Christine

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of a community forensic psychology service during its first 10 years of service. Service emphasizes cooperation among psychologists, probation officers, and others in establishing alternatives to custody for sex offenders, shoplifters, drug and alcohol abusers, and young criminals. Discusses theoretical orientation of the…

  6. Progression of eye lesions in leprosy: ten-year follow-up study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, M.; Faber, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    Forty-eight leprosy patients in The Netherlands were re-examined 10 years after initial examination. Forty-six of these patients had received a course of multidrug therapy (MDT), according to the World Health Organization recommendation, at the time of their initial examination. Two patients had

  7. The Fundacion Universidad Empresa of Madrid, Ten Years of Experience in University-Industry Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz de Miera, Antonio

    1983-01-01

    The first 10 years of Spain's leading organization designed to promote the establishment of relationships between universities and industry are discussed. Its activities in scientific and technical research projects and funding, continuing education programs, and coordination of employment opportunities are outlined. (MSE)

  8. A Ten-Year Follow-Up Study of Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, W. Scott; Donlon, Edward T.

    1984-01-01

    A 10-year followup of 49 deaf-blind children provided indirect comparisons of classifications of mental retardation, hearing loss, visual loss, and major communication mode. Results suggested problems with the methodology and indicated the need for new instruments to analyze current functioning as it relates to past evaluation data. (CL)

  9. Ten Years of Using Presentations at a Student Conference as a Final Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The final assessment for all psychology courses in the department of interdisciplinary studies, MMU Cheshire programmes, in the past 10 years has been a presentation of project work at an undergraduate conference. It is argued that this acts as an "authentic" assessment method which helps prepare students for future experiences. Alumni…

  10. Ten years of RELEA: Achievements and challenges for astronomy education development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    When an area of education, and more particularly the research within this area, is aimed to development, one of the basic requirements is the existence of a regular publication that accounts for the scientific production in that area. This study aims to analyze 10 years of Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA) [http://www.relea.ufscar.br/].

  11. Ten-Year Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization?among?US?Adolescent?Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Donna E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Wang, Min Q.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study provides 10-year trend data on the psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence (PDV) victimization among females who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of US high school students between 1999 and 2009. Methods: The dependent variable was PDV. Independent variables included 4 dimensions: violence,…

  12. Colorectal cancer in Mauritius: facts and figures -‐ A ten year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the various types of cancers in Mauritius, colorectal cancer has evolved as 1st in male and 3rd in female in 2008 (National Cancer Action Plan 2010 MOH & QL, Mauritius). Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A retrospective study of 10 years (2001-‐2010) has been carried out using ...

  13. Functional and Anatomic Consequences of Diabetic Pregnancy on Memory in Ten-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabès, Adeline; Thomas, Kathleen M; Langworthy, Sara; Georgieff, Michael K; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus impair offspring memory functions during infancy and early childhood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term consequences of such pregnancies on memory and memory-related brain regions in 10-year-old children. Nineteen children of diabetic mothers (CDMs) and 35 children of nondiabetic mothers participated in this 10-year follow-up study. Memory performance was assessed using a continuous recognition memory task during which children made old/new judgments in response to pictures of concrete and abstract objects presented after different lags or delays. In addition, the volume of the hippocampal formation (HF) was measured using high-resolution structural images. At 10 years of age, recognition memory performance of CDMs did not differ from children of nondiabetic mothers. Similarly, the volume of the HF did not differ between groups. However, the size of the HF in CDMs predicted the time those children needed to provide accurate responses in the continuous recognition memory task. CDMs do not show memory impairments by 10 years of age, despite evidence for such impairments early in life. However, subtle differences in underlying neural processes may still be present. These results have important implications for long-term cognitive development of CDMs.

  14. [A ten-year clinical study of cracked teeth restored with glass ceramic crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X P; Yuan, Y; Shi, Y J; Qian, D D

    2016-10-09

    Objective: To evaluate the clinic performance of high strength glass ceramic crowns for the painful cracked teeth during a 10-year observation period. Methods: Forty-two posterior teeth from 36 patients were diagnosed as having a crack, biting painful and sensitivity to cold were selected in the Department of Prosthodontic, Institute and Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing University Medical School. The lost-wax hot pressed glass ceramic crowns were bonded on the minimally invasive prepared teeth by modern adhesive technology. Patients were interviewed and went through clinic examination after one week, one month, and every six months. Results: The effectiveness of 42 glass ceramic crowns for cracked teeth was evaluated for a mean observation time over 10-year. At the first week, 29(81%) patients were free of pain, three still had sensitivity to cold and chewing pain, three still had sensitivity to cold, one had painful to cold and hot. After one month, two patients still had chewing pain, and one tooth needed endodontic treatment after six months. In 10 years, 2(5%) all ceramic crowns were broken, the other 40 restorations kept good clinical performances with a 10-year survival rate of 95%. Conclusions: The high strength glass ceramic crowns are very effective and successful in treating the cracked teeth and then keep the good mastication function and appearance.

  15. Ten-year prevalence of mental disorders in patients presenting with chronic pain in secondary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, S; Vaegter, H B; Erlangsen, A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of mental disorders in patients with chronic pain vary and may be overestimated when assessed by screening instruments only. Objectives were to estimate the 10-year prevalence of different mental disorders diagnosed by psychiatrists in patients with chronic pain compa...

  16. Self-Report Stability of Adolescent Cigarette Use across Ten Years of Panel Study Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Reed, Mark B.; Clapp, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first to examine adolescent cigarette report stability over 10 years. Six waves of data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study examined internal/logical consistency and external consistency. Report stability was higher for lifetime use reports than the age of onset reports. Wave-by-wave…

  17. Ten Years after the Spellings Commission: From Accountability to Internal Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Student learning outcomes assessment has been increasingly used in U.S. higher education institutions over the last 10 years, partly fueled by the recommendation from the Spellings Commission that institutions need to demonstrate more direct evidence of student learning. To respond to the Commission's call, various accountability initiatives have…

  18. The Gifted Disadvantaged. A Ten Year Longitudinal Study of Compensatory Education in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilansky, Moshe; Nevo, David

    This book reports on compensatory education in Israel and presents results of a 10-year evaluation of the Boarding School Fostering Program, a secondary school project in the education of culturally disadvantaged gifted students. The book is divided into two parts. Part One, "General Orientation to Compensatory Education in Israel," is…

  19. The Development of Writing Habitus: A Ten-Year Case Study of a Young Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Peter, an African American writer from a low-income community, is followed across a 10-year period as he progresses from first grade through high school. Drawing on writing samples and interviews, the author identifies a set of interrelated dispositions that contribute to his development of "habitus" as a writer. This article considers…

  20. Emotional states in self and others as motives for helping in ten-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerum Terwogt, M.

    2002-01-01

    The participants were 140 children aged 10 years who were asked to imagine themselves as the protagonist in a helping scenario. The first part of the scenario describes an event which is designed to create a happy, angry or emotionally neutral mood state in the protagonist. In the second part the

  1. Ten Years of Change in Sierran Stringer Meadows: An Evaluation of Range Condition Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara H. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Grazed Sierra Nevada stringer meadow systems were sampled on Blodgett Forest Research Station in northern California between 1977 and 1987 to determine cattle use, and to examine changes in production and species composition over time. Utilization of meadow species averaged 61 percent over the 10 years, but use increased to more than 80 percent utilization after 1985....

  2. Ten Years after the Danish Muhammad Cartoon News Stories: Terror and Radicalization as Predictable Media Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In the tenth year after Danish daily Jyllands-Posten published twelve cartoons, the Muhammad Cartoons, this media event—and the hegemonic understanding behind it—continues to be a discursive reference point for new controversies around national borders and racial boundaries. Then, since late 2010...

  3. Developing Leadership in a Multitype Library Consortium: Ten Years of SEFLIN Sun Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Elizabeth A.; Smithee, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Southeast Florida Library and Information Network (SEFLIN) has presented the Sun Seeker Leadership Institute biennially since 1997. SEFLIN, a multitype library consortium headquartered in Boca Raton, Florida, was one of the first groups to sponsor a library leadership institute held as a monthly series of events over the period of a year. One…

  4. What have we learnt from the last ten years of ART?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The state programme giving free antiretrovirals. (ARVs) started on 1 April 2004 in several large centres across South Africa. For many of us, it seemed unimaginable, after years of running. HIV battles with President Thabo Mbeki and his odious Minister of Health, 'Manto' Tshabalala-Msimang, on everything from the cause of ...

  5. Geophagia In A Ten-Year-Old African Female With HIV Infection And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A very unusual case of geophagia in a 10 year old female patient, with a history of HIV and tuberculosis is reported. While the real prevalence and the pathogenesis of pica are unknown, the associated factors described in this case presentation are multiple. Association between geophagia and HIV or tuberculosis has not ...

  6. Corneal Graft Rejection Ten Years after Penetrating Keratoplasty in the Cornea Donor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven P.; Gal, Robin L.; Kollman, Craig; Raghinaru, Dan; Dontchev, Mariya; Blanton, Christopher L.; Holland, Edward J; Lass, Jonathan H.; Kenyon, Kenneth R.; Mannis, Mark J; Mian, Shahzad I.; Rapuano, Christopher J.; Stark, Walter J.; Beck, Roy W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of donor and recipient factors on corneal allograft rejection and evaluate whether a rejection event was associated with graft failure. Methods 1,090 subjects undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema) were followed for up to 12 years. Associations of baseline recipient and donor factors with the occurrence of a rejection event were assessed in univariate and multivariate proportional hazards models. Results Among 651 eyes with a surviving graft at 5 years, the 10-year graft failure (± 99% CI) rates were 12% ± 4% among eyes with no rejection events in the first 5 years, 17% ± 12% in eyes with at least one probable, but no definite rejection event, and 22% ± 20% in eyes with at least one definite rejection event. The only baseline factor significantly associated with a higher risk of definite graft rejection was a preoperative history of glaucoma, particularly when prior glaucoma surgery had been performed and glaucoma medications were being used at time of transplant (10-year incidence 35% ± 23% compared with 14% ± 4% in eyes with no history of glaucoma/intraocular pressure treatment, p=0.008). Conclusion Those patients who experienced a definite rejection event frequently went on to graft failure raising important questions as to how we might change acute and long-term corneal graft management. Multivariate analysis indicated that the prior use of glaucoma medications and glaucoma filtering surgery was a significant risk factor related to a definite rejection event. PMID:25119961

  7. Ten-year transient luminous events and Earth observations of FORMOSAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Rock Jeng-Shing; Lin, Shin-Fa; Wu, An-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the enormous contributions of FS2 (FORMOSAT-2 or Formosa satellite #2) in both Earth and transient luminous events (TLEs) observations in 10 years. As a small satellite operated for 10 years (20 May 2004 to 20 May 2014) in orbit, FS2 keeps its two unique characteristics: (1) to orbit 14 revolutions around the Earth per day with daily revisit capability, and (2) to provide the capabilities of Earth observation in sunlight time and TLEs observation in eclipsed time every day. It carries two payloads: the remote sensing instrument (RSI) for Earth imaging in satellite's day time and the imager of sprites and upper atmospheric lightning instrument (ISUAL) for scientific observations in satellite's night time, respectively. Daily revisit capability provides changes of events on Earth in either short time (several days) or long term (several years). Examples include: Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (December 2004), disintegration of Wilkins Ice Shelf in Antarctica region (2006-2014, long term), Sichuan earthquake (May 2008), Tohoku earthquake and tsunami (March 2011), polar regions (2006-2014, long term), etc. In the TLEs observation, ISUAL had recorded more than 35,000 events in 10 years with 73.93% elves, 6.54% red sprites, 5.81% halos, 13.42% blue jets and 0.30% gigantic jets. Major contributions of FS2 in this specific scientific area are presented. In particular, current and future research topics on TLEs are discussed. Also, major contributions of FS2's RSI to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) and Group of Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) are summarized. This paper also addresses briefly the health status of FS2 after working 10 years in orbit.

  8. Ten-Year Changes in Healthy Eating Attitudes in the SUN Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Lucia; Zazpe, Itziar; Santiago, Susana; Carlos, Silvia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the within-subject longitudinal changes in self-perceived healthy eating attitudes after 10 years of follow-up and to identify predictors of long-term changes in a middle-aged adult cohort. Four thousand five hundred seventy-two participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. The FFQ was expanded with a brief 10-item questionnaire about eating attitudes with 2 possible answers: yes or no. A baseline score and a 10-year score were calculated with these 10 items (range from 0 to 10). Participants were categorized into 3 groups according to this score. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine changes at follow-up and associations between baseline characteristics and improvement in the score. After 10 years of follow-up, a statistically significant favorable change (p < 0.001) was achieved in all questions about eating attitudes, particularly in these items: "Do you try to eat less sweets and pastries?" (12%), "Do you try to eat less meat?" (11.1%), and "Do you try to reduce your fat intake?" (10%). Being female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.39), being 35-50 or ≥ 50 years old (OR = 1.24, 95% CI, 1.07-1.44 and OR = 1.74, 95% CI, 1.38-2.18, respectively), a high level of physical activity (OR for third vs first tertile = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.02-1.41), and a higher Mediterranean diet score (OR for second and third tertiles = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.01-1.37 and OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.04-1.52, respectively) were associated with a higher probability of improving the eating attitudes score, while a low body mass index (BMI; OR = 0.71, 95% CI, 0.51-1.00) and snacking between meals (OR = 0.84, 95% CI, 0.73-0.97) were associated with a lower probability of improving their score. The eating attitudes of the participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort became more favorable after 10 years of follow-up. Certain

  9. Ten-year outcomes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia catheter ablation in repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredo, Mikaël; Frank, Robert; Waintraub, Xavier; Gandjbakhch, Estelle; Iserin, Laurence; Hascoët, Sebastien; Himbert, Caroline; Gallais, Yves; Hidden-Lucet, Françoise; Duthoit, Guillaume

    2017-05-01

    Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MVT) is common in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), and is associated with sudden cardiac death. Management of MVT is not defined, and results of catheter ablation (CA) are limited. To evaluate long-term outcomes of MVT CA in repaired TOF. Thirty-four patients (mean age 32±10.3 years; 59% male) with repaired TOF underwent CA for symptomatic MVT between 1990 and 2012 in our centre; direct-current ablation (DCA) was used in 6%, radiofrequency followed by DCA in 29% and radiofrequency alone in 65%. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction was present in 35% and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in 21%. Mean numbers of clinical and induced MVTs were 1 and 2, respectively. Mean VT rate was 225±95bpm. Ablation targeted a single site (range 1-2), which was RV outflow tract in 85%. Primary success, defined as ventricular tachycardia (VT) termination during CA and final non-inducibility, was obtained in 82%. Seven patients (21%) required redo ablation in the first 3 months (before 2004; DCA). No death related to CA occurred. Mean follow-up time was 9.5±5.2 years. Antiarrhythmic therapy was discontinued in 71%. There were two cases of sudden cardiac death and four VT recurrences. Freedom from death and arrhythmia recurrence was 94% at 5 years, 81% at 10 years and 70% at 20 years. Global survival was 91% at 20 years. Baseline LV ejection fraction<60% was significantly associated with ventricular arrhythmia recurrence (hazard ratio 16.4, 95% confidence interval 1.8-147; P=0.01). CA can safely address macroreentrant MVT in repaired TOF patients with an acceptable long-term rate of recurrence in this high-risk population. Anatomical classification of isthmuses with electroanatomical mapping provides reproducible endpoints for CA. Attention should be given to LV systolic function in risk assessment and selection of candidates for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Tetanus in a Rural Setting of South-Western Nigeria: A Ten-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Adekanle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the records of 79 tetanus patients in two hospitals (one tertiary and one secondary level inOwo, Ondo state, Nigeria from 1997 to 2006. The male: female ratio was 3:1. Ages were 14-70 years(mean 33.25 years, SD ±16.76. The overall case fatality rate (CFR, 32.91%, did was not significantlydifferent in the two hospitals. CFR for men was 32.10% and for women 35.29%. The main factorindicative of bad prognosis was a short hospitalization period. It was observed that 30.38% of ourpatients were discharged against medical advice (DAMA, that financial constraint was the underlyingproblem in 50% of cases, and that the trend of DAMA occurred at the two study sites. This DAMAphenomenon could pose a great danger to the eradication of this vaccine preventable disease in ruralareas.

  11. Rapidly growing cystic vestibular schwannoma with sudden onset facial palsy, ten years after subtotal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandinarasaiah, Manjunath; Grinblat, Golda; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Taibah, Abdelkader; Sanna, Mario

    2017-07-19

    An elderly male patient diagnosed with a right-sided cystic vestibular schwannoma (CVS) at our center underwent a translabyrinthine approach with a subtotal excision to preserve the facial nerve (FN). The tumor grew slowly for the first 9 years but in the subsequent 2 years grew rapidly, with the patient developing a FN paralysis. Using the previous approach, a second surgery was done and the tumor was excised, leaving behind a sheath of tumor on the facial and lower cranial nerves. This case demonstrates that CVSs show unpredictable growth patterns and need to be followed up for a longer period of time. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill obstetric patients: a ten-year review

    OpenAIRE

    Aldawood, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy and delivery can involve complications that necessitate admission to critical care facilities. The objective of our study was to assess the incidence, indications, and outcomes of obstetric patients requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary care hospital, in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of consecutive obstetric admissions to the ICU at the King Abdulaziz Medical City over a 10-year period. PATIENTS AN...

  13. A ten-year experience of physical Intimate partner violence (IPV) in a French forensic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall, Frédéric; Lechevalier, Agathe; Hérin, Fabrice; Vergnault, Marion; Telmon, Norbert; Bartoli, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Forensic units have a central role to play in healthy public policy, by the collection and management of violence. This study aims to describe the characteristics of physical Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against men reported over 10 years in the forensic unit of Toulouse (France) and to compare them with the characteristics of physical IPV against women over the same period. All the medico-legal reports of male victims over 18 years of age between 2005 and 2014 were analyzed. Female victims over 18 years of age in the same period were randomized by year in order to study a similar number of individuals. We analyzed 712 forensic reports of male victims and 865 forensic reports of female victims. Repeated consultation concerned 20.5% of women and 7.5% of men (p IPV against women was more frequent than against men, while physical IPV against men seemed to be more severe than against women. The distribution of alleged manners of attack and injuries were consistent with previous studies. However, the mechanisms of the origin of the process of violence are difficult to apprehend in such a dyadic context. The findings should be interpreted with caution, but they provide original and substantial material, which can be useful in recognizing victims and in developing preventive strategies. With this aim, forensic units have a central role to play in the collection of violence and in individualized management. In France, this subject has not been extensively studied and future research is needed to emphasize the characteristics of IPV in order to better understand the phenomenon and to create and assess public policies in order to prevent it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. 436 Ten Years Follow up of Japanese Survey on Immediate Type Food Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Takanori; Sugizaki, Chizuko; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    Background The food labeling system for food allergens was introduced from April 2002 in Japan. To confirm the effectiveness of the system, we regularly conduct a nationwide food allergy survey every 3 years. Methods The survey was conducted in cooperation with over 1000 volunteer doctors in Japan at 2001+2002, 2005 and 2008. We have sent questionnaires to contributing doctors every 3 months based on the previous survey system, and contributing doctors were asked to report immediate type food...

  15. Ten Years Risk Prediction of a Major Cardiovascular Event in a Rural Block in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logaraj Muthunarayanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India has a high burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. High-risk interventions can be initiated only when individuals at high-risk have been identified. Objectives: The objective was to estimate the prevalence and the sociodemographic pattern of cardiovascular risk factors and to predict the 10 years risk of fatal and nonfatal major cardiovascular events in a rural population in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 30 villages of a rural block in Tamil Nadu from March 2012 to February 2013 in the age group of 40-79 years attending our fixed mobile clinics using structured interview schedule and subsequently, the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH risk charts were used to predict the 10 years absolute risk of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Results: A total of 482 individuals were studied of which 68.3% were women and 31.7% were men. Prevalence of overweight, diabetes, and systolic hypertension was found to be 60%, 22.8%, and 34.6%, respectively. A majority (79.9% of the study population had 10 years cardiovascular risk of <10% while only 2.5% had a risk of more than 40%. As the age advances, the proportion of participants with high-risk also increased and this trend was statistically significant (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Less than 10% of the population had a high-risk of CVD based on WHO/ISH risk score. These charts help identify the high-risk groups in the population in resource-scarce setting and thus an appropriate action can be taken.

  16. Tumors of the liver; a ten year study in Children Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahmand F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to review the frequency, histopathology and outcome in children with tumors of the liver. Methods: Included in this retrospective/descriptive study were 30 children treated for liver tumors from 1375-1384 (ca. 1996-2005, at Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran. We included the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic data of our patients, focusing on the frequency, etiology and outcome. Results: Patient ages ranged from three months to 12 years (median 3.8 years, with 18 males (60% and 12 females (40%. Of these, 17 patients had hepatoblastoma (55.66%, including 13 males and four females, with an age range of six months to five years. Four cases (13.33% had neuroblastoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC was found in three cases (10%, all of whom were carriers of hepatitis B. Two cases (6.66% were diagnosed with mesenchymal hamartoma, two cases (6.66% with hemangioendothelioma and two cases (6.66% with rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma of the biliary tract. Abdominal swelling and hepatomegaly were seen in all of patients. Jaundice was observed in two cases. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels greater than 500 ng/ml were seen in 17 cases (56.66%. All patients were receiving specific treatment. The three-year survival rate was 65% for hepatoblastoma and 2% for HCC Conclusion: With the introduction of specific treatment, the survival rate for children with tumors of the liver has significantly increased. Further improvement can be achieved using diagnostic biopsy for hepatoblastoma, although it may result in complications, and preoperative chemotherapy followed by complete surgical excision (per International Society of Pediatric Oncology guidelines, yielding an outstanding survival rate of 80%.

  17. Ten-year experience with the Swenson procedure in Nigerian children with Hirschsprung′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowande Oludayo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirschsprung′s disease (HD is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in children. Definitive treatments consist of excision of the aganglionic segment and anastomosing the normal colon to the anal remnant. The outcome of this approach in Nigerian children is not known. The aim of this study was to analyze the short to mid-term outcome of children who have undergone the Swenson Procedure (SPT as a treatment of HD over a period of 10 years. Patients and Methods: The clinical data of biopsy-proven cases of HD managed at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between 1998 and 2007 were reviewed. Results: There were 33 children 28 were males and five were females (M 5.6: F = 1. The median age at presentation was eight months (range three days to 11 years. Eighteen (54.5% patients had primary pull-through without colostomy while 15 (45.5% patients had a two-staged operation. The operation was carried out at a median age of 14 months with a range of seven weeks to 11 years, four months. Twenty-one (64% of the patients were older than one year at the time of surgery. The level of aganglionosis was in the recto-sigmoid area in 30 (91% patients. The commonest post-SPT complication was intestinal obstruction from adhesions. Bowel opening varied from once daily to eight times daily, median thrice daily. Conclusion: The Swenson′s Procedure is an effective procedure in the treatment of HD in children in Ile Ife, Nigeria.

  18. Ten-year audit of Lichtenstein hernioplasty under local anaesthesia performed by surgical residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paajanen Hannu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyse in a prospective trial the long-term results of Lichtenstein hernioplasty performed by surgical trainees. Methods Training of tension-free Lichtenstein hernia operation was started in our ambulatory unit as an outpatient procedure under local anaesthesia in 1996. After performing 36 teaching operations together with residents and their supervising specialist, 281 patients were operated during 1996-2000 either by one senior consultant (n = 141 or by 12 surgical trainees (n = 140. After 10 years, 247 (88% patients were available for the long-term assessment. Results After one month postoperatively, the rate of wound infections (consultant 1.1%, residents 0.7% and hematomas (consultant 1.1%, residents 3.0% were low and not related to surgeon's training level (ns. Only 6 (2.1% clinically evident recurrences were found after 10 years: two after specialist repair and four after trainee repair (ns. Although one third of the patients reported some discomfort after 3 and 10 years, 93-95% of the patients were very satisfied with the operation, with no statistical difference between the surgeons. Conclusion Ambulatory open mesh repair under local anaesthesia was a safe operation and the long-term results were acceptable among the patients operated by surgical trainees.

  19. Ten-year audit of Lichtenstein hernioplasty under local anaesthesia performed by surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paajanen, Hannu; Varjo, Riitta

    2010-08-04

    To analyse in a prospective trial the long-term results of Lichtenstein hernioplasty performed by surgical trainees. Training of tension-free Lichtenstein hernia operation was started in our ambulatory unit as an outpatient procedure under local anaesthesia in 1996. After performing 36 teaching operations together with residents and their supervising specialist, 281 patients were operated during 1996-2000 either by one senior consultant (n = 141) or by 12 surgical trainees (n = 140). After 10 years, 247 (88%) patients were available for the long-term assessment. After one month postoperatively, the rate of wound infections (consultant 1.1%, residents 0.7%) and hematomas (consultant 1.1%, residents 3.0%) were low and not related to surgeon's training level (ns). Only 6 (2.1%) clinically evident recurrences were found after 10 years: two after specialist repair and four after trainee repair (ns). Although one third of the patients reported some discomfort after 3 and 10 years, 93-95% of the patients were very satisfied with the operation, with no statistical difference between the surgeons. Ambulatory open mesh repair under local anaesthesia was a safe operation and the long-term results were acceptable among the patients operated by surgical trainees.

  20. Tracheostomy in children: a ten-year experience from a tertiary center in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Cláudia; Manica, Denise; Becker, Carolina Fischer; Abreu, Larissa Santos Perez; Manzini, Michelle; Sekine, Leo; Kuhl, Gabriel

    2016-08-24

    Children may require tracheostomy due to many different health conditions. Over the last 40 years, indications of tracheostomy have endorsed substantial modifications. To evaluate pediatric patients warranted tracheostomy at our Hospital, in regard to their indications, associated comorbidities, complications and decannulation rates. Retrospective study concerning patients under 18 years of age undergoing tracheostomy in a tertiary health care center, from January 2006 to November 2015. One hundred and twenty-three children required a tracheostomy after ENT evaluation during the study period. A proportion of 63% was male, and 56% was under one year of age. Glossoptosis was the most common indication (30%), followed by subglottic stenosis (16%) and pharyngomalacia (11%). The mortality rate was 31%. By the end of this review, 35 children (28.4%) had been decannulated, and the fewer the number of comorbidities, the greater the decannulation rate (0.77±0.84 vs. 1.7±1.00 comorbidities; p<0.001). Tracheostomy in children is a relatively frequent procedure at our hospital. The most common indications are glossoptosis and subglottic stenosis. A high mortality rate was found, potentially substantiated by the high number of critical care patients with chronic neurological conditions in this cohort. Our decannulation rate is slightly below other series, probably because of the greater amount of patients with comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. SPIN-UP Ten Years Later: What's Still Solid and What's New

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    Seven years ago, the SPIN-UP Report produced by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics identified several key characteristics of undergraduate physics programs that were thriving amid a general decline in the numbers of physics majors. Since that time, the number of physics majors graduating has increased each year. Nevertheless, the rate of growth has slowed in the last several years, and many departments are threatened in the current financial crisis because of low undergraduate enrollments. All undergraduate programs face challenges of the growing use of computation in physics, the pressure from administrators and funding agencies to participate in interdisciplinary work, the lack of gender and ethnic diversity in physics, and changes in students' math preparation as well as the standard issues of large service enrollments and scarcity of resources. Therefore, this is an appropriate time to revisit the conclusions of the SPIN-UP report and consider its recommendations and new ideas to continue the growth of robust undergraduate physics programs. )

  2. Childhood diabetes mellitus in sokoto, north-western Nigeria: A ten year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoshalewa Ugege

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is paucity of literature on childhood diabetes mellitus (DM from developing countries, especially North-Western Nigeria. We describe the clinical presentation and outcome of childhood DM as seen in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH Sokoto, Nigeria. Materials and Methods : This was a 10-year retrospective review of case files of children aged 15 years and below with childhood DM seen between September 1 st 2001 and August 31 st 2011. The age, gender, presenting features, complications, laboratory features, and outcome of the patients were extracted and analyzed. Results: Eight out of the 23,931 children admitted during the study period were diagnosed with type 1 (T1 DM, giving a case prevalence rate of 0.33/1000 (3/10 000. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1. The mean age at presentation was 11.8 ± 3.1 years. The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 6 ± 4.9 weeks (range 1.2-12 weeks. The most prevalent symptoms were polyuria and weight loss, 7 (87.5% each, polydipsia, 6 (75%, polyphagia, 5 (62.5%, and weakness, 4 (50%. Five (62.5% patients presented with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA. The mean random blood sugar (RBS was 22.6 ± 12.01 (range 13-49.5 mmol/L. Five (62.5% patients were discharged while three (37.2% left against medical advice. Four (80% of the discharges were lost to follow up. Conclusion: Childhood DM is relatively uncommon in UDUTH, Sokoto. There is a high frequency of DKA, late presentation, and default to follow up. We recommend increased awareness campaigns and health education on childhood DM.

  3. Ten-year incidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy among asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive former blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Ester C; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Salemi, Vera M C; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Antunes, Andre P; Menezes, Marcia M; Ianni, Barbara M; Nastari, Luciano; Fernandes, Fabio; Patavino, Giuseppina M; Sachdev, Vandana; Capuani, Ligia; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Carrick, Danielle M; Wright, David; Kavounis, Katherine; Goncalez, Thelma T; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L

    2013-03-12

    Very few studies have measured disease penetrance and prognostic factors of Chagas cardiomyopathy among asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi-infected persons. We performed a retrospective cohort study among initially healthy blood donors with an index T cruzi-seropositive donation and age-, sex-, and period-matched seronegatives in 1996 to 2002 in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo and Montes Claros. In 2008 to 2010, all subjects underwent medical history, physical examination, ECGs, and echocardiograms. ECG and echocardiogram results were classified by blinded core laboratories, and records with abnormal results were reviewed by a blinded panel of 3 cardiologists who adjudicated the outcome of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Associations with Chagas cardiomyopathy were tested with multivariate logistic regression. Mean follow-up time between index donation and outcome assessment was 10.5 years for the seropositives and 11.1 years for the seronegatives. Among 499 T cruzi seropositives, 120 (24%) had definite Chagas cardiomyopathy, and among 488 T cruzi seronegatives, 24 (5%) had cardiomyopathy, for an incidence difference of 1.85 per 100 person-years attributable to T cruzi infection. Of the 120 seropositives classified as having Chagas cardiomyopathy, only 31 (26%) presented with ejection fraction <50%, and only 11 (9%) were classified as New York Heart Association class II or higher. Chagas cardiomyopathy was associated (P<0.01) with male sex, a history of abnormal ECG, and the presence of an S3 heart sound. There is a substantial annual incidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy among initially asymptomatic T cruzi-seropositive blood donors, although disease was mild at diagnosis.

  4. Ten-Year Incidence of Chagas Cardiomyopathy Among Asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi–Seropositive Former Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Ester C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Salemi, Vera M.C.; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudio; Antunes, Andre P.; Menezes, Marcia M.; Ianni, Barbara M.; Nastari, Luciano; Fernandes, Fabio; Patavino, Giuseppina M.; Sachdev, Vandana; Capuani, Ligia; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, David; Kavounis, Katherine; Goncalez, Thelma T.; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Very few studies have measured disease penetrance and prognostic factors of Chagas cardiomyopathy among asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi–infected persons. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective cohort study among initially healthy blood donors with an index T cruzi–seropositive donation and age-, sex-, and period-matched seronegatives in 1996 to 2002 in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo and Montes Claros. In 2008 to 2010, all subjects underwent medical history, physical examination, ECGs, and echocardiograms. ECG and echocardiogram results were classified by blinded core laboratories, and records with abnormal results were reviewed by a blinded panel of 3 cardiologists who adjudicated the outcome of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Associations with Chagas cardiomyopathy were tested with multivariate logistic regression. Mean follow-up time between index donation and outcome assessment was 10.5 years for the seropositives and 11.1 years for the seronegatives. Among 499 T cruzi seropositives, 120 (24%) had definite Chagas cardiomyopathy, and among 488 T cruzi seronegatives, 24 (5%) had cardiomyopathy, for an incidence difference of 1.85 per 100 person-years attributable to T cruzi infection. Of the 120 seropositives classified as having Chagas cardiomyopathy, only 31 (26%) presented with ejection fraction <50%, and only 11 (9%) were classified as New York Heart Association class II or higher. Chagas cardiomyopathy was associated (P<0.01) with male sex, a history of abnormal ECG, and the presence of an S3 heart sound. Conclusions There is a substantial annual incidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy among initially asymptomatic T cruzi–seropositive blood donors, although disease was mild at diagnosis. PMID:23393012

  5. Ten-year survival and success rate of implant-prosthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ihan Hren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implant-prosthodontic treatment for restoring a single missing tooth, partial edentulism and complete edentulism is a predictive and successful method in terms of both the survival rate of implants and the different parameters which determine the success rate of the treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 10-year survival and success rates of dental implants, analyze the causes of early and late complications, and assess the type and number of prosthodontic complications.Patients and methods: In 51 patients, 113 titanium dental implants were inserted by one surgeon using a two-stage surgical protocol. The prosthodontic treatment included fixed or removable treatment options. Implant survival and success were evaluated 10 years after the completion of prosthodontic treatment. The evaluation comprised history, clinical examination with assessment of success parameters (prosthesis functionality, peri-implant tissue status, and x-ray assessment of bone loss.Results: Two implants were lost before and two 10 years after the prosthodontic treatment. The survival rate of implants was 96.4 % on the average, 100 % in the lower jaw, and 92.5 % in the upper jaw. Peri-implantitis was diagnosed in 4.5 % of all implants. The success rate was thus 95.5 %. Technical complications occurred in 2.8 % of fixed prostheses and 19 % of removable prostheses.Conclusion: The long-term survival and success rates of dental implants are high. Proper implant prosthodontic treatment planning is crucial to achieving high survival and success rates of implant treatment. Bone quality has to be taken into account when implant treatment is performed. Peri-implantitis is rarely observed, and prosthodontic complications are uncommon. On completion of the surgical and prosthetic phases of treatment, patients must be followed at regular intervals to ensure timely management of complications.

  6. Ten year experience of bioabsorbable mesh support in pectus excavatum repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, L; Voltolini, L; Zacharias, J; Campione, A; Ghiribelli, C; Di Bisceglie, M; Gotti, G

    2004-12-01

    We reviewed 10 years experience in the treatment of this deformity using a retro-sternal bioabsorbable mesh in place of a metallic device to lift and stabilise the sternum. Moreover, the mesh supports the thoracic and upper abdominal wall reconstruction. From January 1990 to December 2000, in our Thoracic Surgery Unit, 65 patients with PE were assessed for surgical repair, mean age 16+/- 3.5 years, fronto sagittal thoracic index (FSTI) 0.21, ranging from 0.15-0.33. Twenty-three of them underwent surgical correction after initial assessment, 22 were deferred and sent to physiotherapy. At a subsequent assessment, five of the patients sent to physiotherapy were deemed to require surgery. Of the 28 patients who underwent surgery, 2 (10%) presented a mild recurrence of PE after 1 year (0.300.34), meanwhile all other patients maintained a FSTI>0.34. For all patients the improvement in FSTI was statistically significant, p = 0.001. Patients satisfaction after 24 months was thus shared: excellent 18 patients (65%), good seven patients (25%), fair one patient (3.5%) and poor two patients (7%). No major complications were observed in preoperative period. Patients mobilisation was soon achieved thanks to the postoperative pain control and the absence of retro-sternal metallic support. The introduction of bioabsorbable mesh in the Robicsek technique is a safe procedure related to a high percentage of success. The high tolerance of the material reduces the inflammatory reaction. Moreover, the procedure prevents patients from having complications caused by retro-sternal device dislodgment, avoiding a second intervention for device reposition and reducing the postoperative chest pain achieving an early patient mobilisation. In the end a complete reconstruction of the upper abdomen wall has been produced.

  7. Academic achievement in children ten to 12 years after Haemophilus influenzae meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, H M; Michaels, R H

    1988-03-01

    Academic achievement by 23 children 10 to 12 years after treatment of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis was assessed using individually administered standardized tests, review of school transcripts, and parent and teacher questionnaires. The children's performance was compared with (1) their own performance in a previous study 6 to 8 years after the illness; (2) the performance of 23 similarly aged siblings in the previous study, a comparison which served to age match subjects and sibling controls; and (3) the performance of 11 of those similarly aged siblings retested in the current study. Subjects scored in the average range on all measures. Scores were comparable to results 4 years previous in four of six academic measures, with minor deterioration in reading single words and decoding nonsense words. There were no differences between subjects in the current study and control subjects from the previous study, except in decoding nonsense words, and no differences between subjects and control subjects in the current study, except in paragraph reading accuracy. Scholastic grade point averages and scores on parent and teacher behavior problem-rating scales showed no group differences. Subjects used more school-based remedial services, although the trend did not achieve statistical significance. Parents reported spending more time with subjects than with control subjects helping with homework. These findings suggest that children who have recovered from meningitis due to H influenzae can maintain scores and grades comparable to their siblings as they progress to middle school. Their academic success may involve more school and family support to compensate for the mild differences in intelligence quotient and neuropsychologic testing found in the previous study.

  8. Ten-year epidemiology of chemical burns in western Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chunjiang; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Han, Chunmao

    2016-05-01

    Chemical burns occur frequently in western Zhejiang Province. This study documents the epidemiology of chemical burns in the region using burn data from a local specialized hospital. Results from this analysis will assist in the planning of prevention strategies for high-risk occupations and groups. A 10-year retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients with chemical burns admitted to the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery from January 2004 to December 2013. Information obtained for each patient included demographics (gender, age, occupation and education), location of the burn, cause of the burn, and categories of chemicals. Data regarding the season of admittance, prehospital treatment, wound site/size (area, region, and depth), accompanying injuries, operations, length of hospital stay and mortality were also assessed. A total of 690 patients (619 males, 71 females; average age: 30.6±12.4 years) were admitted to the department for chemical burns. Over the 10-year period, the incidence of chemical burns showed an increasing tendency. Chemical burns occurred most frequently in patients aged 20-59 years (94.79%). Most of the chemical burns were work-related, primarily in private enterprises (47.97%) and state-owned enterprises (24.93%). Operations (68.99%) and machine problems (17.26%) were the main causes of chemical burns in the workplace. With regard to burns caused by chemicals, most were caused by acids (72.01%), with hydrofluoric acid and sulphuric acid causing 51.45%. Most chemical burns occurred in the summer and autumn seasons (61.02%). The burn size was burns covering >40% TBSA. The most common burn sites were the upper extremities (31.57%), lower extremities (19.86%), and head and neck (28.83%). Most patients (581 (84.20%)) received water washing treatment on site immediately after exposure. The most common accompanying injuries included inhalation injury, ocular burns and digestive tract injury. The average hospital stay was 17.0±23

  9. Breeding Bird Community Continues to Colonize Riparian Buffers Ten Years after Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Scott F; Giovanini, Jack; Jones, Jay E; Kroll, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems integrate aquatic and terrestrial communities and often contain unique assemblages of flora and fauna. Retention of forested buffers along riparian habitats is a commonly employed practice to reduce potential negative effects of land use on aquatic systems. However, very few studies have examined long-term population and community responses to buffers, leading to considerable uncertainty about effectiveness of this practice for achieving conservation and management outcomes. We examined short- (1-2 years) and long-term (~10 years) avian community responses (occupancy and abundance) to riparian buffer prescriptions to clearcut logging silvicultural practices in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact experimental approach and temporally replicated point counts analyzed within a Bayesian framework. Our experimental design consisted of forested control sites with no harvest, sites with relatively narrow (~13 m) forested buffers on each side of the stream, and sites with wider (~30 m) and more variable width unharvested buffer. Buffer treatments exhibited a 31-44% increase in mean species richness in the post-harvest years, a pattern most evident 10 years post-harvest. Post-harvest, species turnover was much higher on both treatments (63-74%) relative to the controls (29%). We did not find evidence of local extinction for any species but found strong evidence (no overlap in 95% credible intervals) for an increase in site occupancy on both Narrow (short-term: 7%; long-term 29%) and Wide buffers (short-term: 21%; long-term 93%) relative to controls after harvest. We did not find a treatment effect on total avian abundance. When assessing relationships between buffer width and site level abundance of four riparian specialists, we did not find strong evidence of reduced abundance in Narrow or Wide buffers. Silviculture regulations in this region dictate average buffer widths on small and large permanent streams that range from

  10. Breeding Bird Community Continues to Colonize Riparian Buffers Ten Years after Harvest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Pearson

    Full Text Available Riparian ecosystems integrate aquatic and terrestrial communities and often contain unique assemblages of flora and fauna. Retention of forested buffers along riparian habitats is a commonly employed practice to reduce potential negative effects of land use on aquatic systems. However, very few studies have examined long-term population and community responses to buffers, leading to considerable uncertainty about effectiveness of this practice for achieving conservation and management outcomes. We examined short- (1-2 years and long-term (~10 years avian community responses (occupancy and abundance to riparian buffer prescriptions to clearcut logging silvicultural practices in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact experimental approach and temporally replicated point counts analyzed within a Bayesian framework. Our experimental design consisted of forested control sites with no harvest, sites with relatively narrow (~13 m forested buffers on each side of the stream, and sites with wider (~30 m and more variable width unharvested buffer. Buffer treatments exhibited a 31-44% increase in mean species richness in the post-harvest years, a pattern most evident 10 years post-harvest. Post-harvest, species turnover was much higher on both treatments (63-74% relative to the controls (29%. We did not find evidence of local extinction for any species but found strong evidence (no overlap in 95% credible intervals for an increase in site occupancy on both Narrow (short-term: 7%; long-term 29% and Wide buffers (short-term: 21%; long-term 93% relative to controls after harvest. We did not find a treatment effect on total avian abundance. When assessing relationships between buffer width and site level abundance of four riparian specialists, we did not find strong evidence of reduced abundance in Narrow or Wide buffers. Silviculture regulations in this region dictate average buffer widths on small and large permanent streams that

  11. Ten years of flight service with DC-10 composite rudders - A backward glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Arthur V.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon-epoxy upper aft rudders have been successfully evaluated on the DC-10 during 10 years of airline flight service. They have flown for more than 320,000 flight hours, with 36,000 flight hours flown by a single rudder. The rudder box is of thin-skin buckled construction and is cocured out-of-autoclave as a one-piece assembly. Weight saving can exceed the rudder weight if full advantage is taken of removing balance weight from the forward rudder.

  12. Trends in types of dermatology books available over the last ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2009-06-15

    Shifts in interest toward cosmetic and surgical dermatology and away from medical and academic dermatology have been observed in recent years. We hypothesized that this trend would be evident in the types of books available for purchase from a major medical textbook supplier. Books published from 1998-2008 were categorized by type and statistical testing was performed to determine if this trend has been reflected in books published. The percentage of medical dermatology books decreased over time, whereas the percentage of cosmetic and surgical dermatology books increased over time.

  13. Fear Extinction as a Model for Translational Neuroscience: Ten Years of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milad, Mohammed R.; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychology of extinction has been studied for decades. Approximately 10 years ago, however, there began a concerted effort to understand the neural circuits of extinction of fear conditioning, in both animals and humans. Progress during this period has been facilitated by an unusual degree of coordination between rodent and human researchers examining fear extinction. This successful research program could serve as a model for translational research in other areas of behavioral neuroscience. Here we review the major advances and highlight new approaches to understanding and exploiting fear extinction. PMID:22129456

  14. Ten Years of MISR Observations from Terra: Looking Back, Ahead, and in Between

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, David J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Braverman, Amy J.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Chopping, Mark J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Davies, Roger; Di Girolamo, Larry; Kahn, Ralph A.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global Earth data from NASA's Terra satellite since February 2000. With its nine along-track view angles, four visible/near-infrared spectral bands, intrinsic spatial resolution of 275 m, and stable radiometric and geometric calibration, no instrument that combines MISR's attributes has previously flown in space. The more than 10-year (and counting) MISR data record provides unprecedented opportunities for characterizing long-term trends in aerosol, cloud, and surface properties, and includes 3-D textural information conventionally thought to be accessible only to active sensors.

  15. Overview of ten-year operation of the superconducting linear accelerator at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-H.; Afanador, R.; Barnhart, D. L.; Crofford, M.; Degraff, B. D.; Doleans, M.; Galambos, J.; Gold, S. W.; Howell, M. P.; Mammosser, J.; McMahan, C. J.; Neustadt, T. S.; Peters, C.; Saunders, J. W.; Strong, W. H.; Vandygriff, D. J.; Vandygriff, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has acquired extensive operational experience of a pulsed proton superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) as a user facility. Numerous lessons have been learned in its first 10 years operation to achieve a stable and reliable operation of the SCL. In this paper, an overview of the SNS SCL design, qualification of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and ancillary subsystems, an overview of the SNS cryogenic system, the SCL operation including SCL output energy history and downtime statistics, performance stability of the SRF cavities, efforts for SRF cavity performance recovery and improvement at the SNS, and maintenance activities for cryomodules are introduced.

  16. Ten-year epidemiological study of chemical burns in Jinshan, Shanghai, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gao, Chengjin

    2013-11-01

    The epidemiological pattern of chemical burns varies widely in different areas of the world. To analyse effective preventive approaches, an insight into the pattern of injury is desirable. However, our data are only limited to Shanghai area, China. A 10-year retrospective review includes all patients with chemical burns admitted to the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery from January 2001 to December 2010; those who were admitted to the ophthalmologic department or other departments were excluded. The data collected included age, gender, injury pattern, patient workplaces, aetiological agents, incidence by month and year, burn size, burn depth and site, time for immediate irrigation, length of hospital stay and outcome. A total of 615 patients admitted to our department for in-hospital treatment of chemical burn injury were included in the study. The mean age was 32.1±12.3 years with a range of 2-66 years. A total of 562 cases (91.4%) were male and 53 cases (8.6%) female. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA) was 30.3±24.7% with a mean full-thickness burn area of 17.5±23.8%. Most chemical burns took place in summer and fall. The majority of chemical burns were work related (93.0%); among them accidents that happened in private factories were predominant (70.8%). Although caustic soda was the leading cause of all chemical burns (15.8%), acid burn was the most common (45.2%). The extremities were the most frequent areas of injuries, followed by head and neck. Most cases had none (30.4%) or insufficient (61.1%) immediate irrigation after injury. In all patients, 47 cases had inhalation injuries, 94 cases accompanying ophthalmologic burns, 51 cases accompanying other associated injuries and 67 cases chemical toxicity. A total of 212 cases (34.5%) underwent early total or tangential excision and skin or skin flap grafting in the first week after injury. The mean length of hospital stay was 44.1±24.7 days. Sixteen cases died of respiratory failure, sepsis or

  17. Clinical accuracy ratings of MMPI approaches for adolescents: adding ten years and the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, M D; Tolbert, H; Calestro, K; Toepfer, S

    1996-10-01

    Ehrenworth and Archer (1985) examined the relative merits of adolescent Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles utilizing either adult or adolescent scoring norms (Marks & Briggs, 1972). Eleven years later, the MMPI-A has been introduced into clinical use. It has been suggested that in these early years of the MMPI-A, clinicians plot both MMPI-A norms and Marks and Briggs (1972) norms to derive a clinical interpretation of a given profile, especially when code type interpretation is used (Archer, 1992). This study partially replicates the work of Ehrenworth and Archer (1985) by exploring the relation between code types generated with different norms (MMPI-A [Marks & Briggs, 1972] and adult K-corrected) in a sample of 134 adolescent psychiatric inpatients (77 female, 57 male). Code type narratives were blindly rated by members of the adolescent inpatient treatment staff. Although mean scores for the MMPI-A were significantly lower than those produced by the other two sets of norms, the use of the MMPI-A did not result in a clinical disadvantage. Both sets of adolescent norms (the Marks & Briggs and the MMPI-A) produced higher accuracy ratings than did the use of adult K-corrected norms but did not differ from each other. Gender differences were found on all three sets of norms, with female adolescent psychiatric inpatients scoring higher than male inpatients, particularly on Scales 1, 2, and 3.

  18. High satisfaction rate ten years after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasteson, E; Sandelin, K; Brandberg, Y; Wickman, M; Arver, B

    2011-07-01

    Women from families with an increased risk for breast/ovarian cancer have undergone bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) since the early 1990s at the Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden. Perceptions of BPM as reported by the first women who underwent the procedure have previously been evaluated on a short-term basis (1-3 years). The present study aims to evaluate the long-term (10 years) physical and psychological consequences of BPM in the same cohort of women. Some of the very first women to undergo BPM participated in the present interview study (n= 13). The semi-structured interviews focused on the women's long-term experiences related to BPM and immediate breast reconstruction. Overall, the women were satisfied with their decision to undergo BPM and perceived a negligible remaining risk of getting breast cancer. For most women, the operation had not resulted in changes in family life or lifestyle (n= 8), although some described that the relationship with their spouse was affected (8/13), either in a negative (n= 5) or positive (n= 3) way. The cosmetic results were mainly positive (n= 10). Recurrent counselling and support during the whole process of decision, treatment and follow up is recommended. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancies: ten-year data from a single centre in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, C L; Wan, S A; Cheong, Y K; Ling, G R

    2016-08-13

    We performed a retrospective study of all systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pregnancies during a 10-year period (2006-2015) to describe the clinical features, maternal and foetal outcomes in our centre. There were 115 pregnancies in 86 women with SLE. Our patients had a mean age of 29.1 years (SD 5.80) and a mean disease duration of 44.63 months (SD 41.17). Fifteen patients had antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Our patients had complicated pregnancies: 26.1% had SLE flares, 13.9% had pre-eclampsia and 45.1% needed caesarean sections. There were 23.3% foetal losses and 25% preterm deliveries in our patients. There was a higher rate of unplanned pregnancies and lupus flare among pregnancies with active SLE at conception. Pregnancies in lupus nephritis have higher incidence of lupus flares during pregnancy but similar maternal and foetal outcomes compared to those without nephritis. The prognostic indicators for adverse foetal outcome in our patients were flare of SLE (HR 4.08 [CI 95% 1.65-10.13, p < 0.01]) and APS (HR 3.07 [CI 95% 1.12-8.42, p < 0.05]) and the prognostic indicator for adverse maternal outcome was hypertension (HR 3.58 [CI 95% 1.30-9.90, p < 0.05]). Lupus pregnancies in our centre remained as high-risk pregnancies with significant maternal and foetal complications. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Ego-resiliency development from late adolescence to emerging adulthood: A ten-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Milioni, Michela

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the development of ego-resiliency from late adolescence to emerging adulthood, using a 10-year cohort-sequential design. Participants were 335 Italian adolescents (173 females and 162 males), living, at the time of the study, in Genzano, a small city near to Rome. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that the developmental trajectory of ego-resiliency from 15 to 25 years is adequately described by a piecewise model that included separate growth profiles corresponding to different developmental stages. Essentially, ego-resiliency remained remarkably stable until the end of high school, and then encountered a phase of relative increase. Moreover, the trajectory of ego-resiliency from ages 15 to 19 was predicted by self-efficacy beliefs in managing negative emotions, and the trajectory from age 19 to 25 was predicted by experienced familial support and self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions at age 15. Experienced stressful life events also accounted for individuals' deviation from the typical ego-resiliency trajectory. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How to identify randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE: ten years on*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Julie M.; Lefebvre, Carol; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The researchers sought to assess whether the widely used 1994 Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy (HSSS) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in MEDLINE could be improved in terms of sensitivity, precision, or parsimony. Methods: A gold standard of 1,347 RCT records and a comparison group of 2,400 non-trials were randomly selected from MEDLINE. Terms occurring in at least 1% of RCT records were identified. Fifty percent of the RCT and comparison group records were randomly selected, and the ability of the terms to discriminate RCTs from non-trial records was determined using logistic regression. The best performing combinations of terms were tested on the remaining records and in MEDLINE. Results: The best discriminating term was “Clinical Trial” (Publication Type). In years where the Cochrane assessment of MEDLINE records had taken place, the strategies identified few additional unindexed records of trials. In years where Cochrane assessment has yet to take place, “Randomized Controlled Trial” (Publication Type) proved highly sensitive and precise. Adding six more search terms identified further, unindexed trials at reasonable levels of precision and with sensitivity almost equal to the Cochrane HSSS. Conclusions: Most reports of RCTs in MEDLINE can now be identified easily using “Randomized Controlled Trial” (Publication Type). More sensitive searches can be achieved by a brief strategy, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy (2005 revision). PMID:16636704

  2. [Ten-years records of organic arsenic (diphenylarsinic acid) poisoning: epidemiology, clinical feature, metabolism, and toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishi, Kazuhiro; Tamaoka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We report here the symptoms of diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) poisoning recorded over 10 years since the DPAA contamination of the potable well water was first detected in the Kamisu City, Ibaraki Prefecture, in 2003. The poisoning symptoms associated with the cerebellum and brainstem included nystagmus, tremors, myoclonus, and cerebellar ataxia as well as the symptoms associated with the temporal and occipital lobes such as memory impairment, sleep disorder, and visual disturbance. Some of the affected children exhibited mental retardation. Moreover, reduced blood flow and reduced glucose metabolism in the cerebella, brainstem, and temporal and occipital lobes persisted for several years among the DPAA-exposed persons. Based on the animal studies for DPAA intoxication, the target organs for the DPAA toxicity were determined to be the central nervous system (CNS), liver, and biliary system. In particular, DPAA tends to persist in the brain for a long time, resulting in long-term impacts on the brain. The cerebral blood flow and brain glucose metabolism, which can be measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), respectively, are useful objective clinical markers to determine the effect of DPAA on CNS. We believe that continuous monitoring of the DPAA-exposed people may promote the effect of carcinogen and accelerate brain aging.

  3. Ten Year Incidence of High Energy Geriatric Trauma at a Level 1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jason A; Pearson, Jeffrey; Leslie, Michael; Griffin, Russell

    2017-10-14

    To examine the characteristics of high-energy geriatric trauma over time. Retrospective chart review SETTING:: Level 1 trauma Center PATIENTS:: Demographic, injury, and clinical characteristics were compared between 34,017 geriatric and non-geriatric high energy trauma patients from 2005-2014 using t-test, chi-square analysis and negative binomial regression for annual trend in injuries. High-energy geriatric trauma comprised 11.2% of all trauma activations. High-energy geriatric patients nearly doubled from the study period of 2005-2014 to previous 10 years (p=0.0004). Compared to non-geriatric patients, geriatric high-energy traumas were twice as likely to be due to fall from height (pgeriatric patients (OR 4.76, 95% CI 4.00-5.67), and high-energy mechanisms (OR 4.71, 95% CI 3.90-5.68) compared to low-energy mechanisms (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.48-3.62). The number of geriatric high-energy traumas has doubled over 10 years. Geriatric patients are sicker on presentation, based upon ISS score, and high-energy geriatrics have a four-fold increase in mortality. Level III.

  4. [Ten years of emergency attendances for cocaine-users in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, Miguel; Nogué, Santiago; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo

    2014-10-07

    Cocaine is the second most consumed illegal drug in the western world, following cannabis. Since 1998, it is also the drug that more attendances generate in different emergency devices, and it is responsible for more of 60% of the emergencies directly related to drug consumption. This work reviews the main Spanish scientific articles published in the last 10 years, in which different factors related to the use of this drug have been analyzed in relation to the use of emergency by cocaine users. A total of 8,795 patients were included (interval 57-1,755), with an average age of 32.64 years (SD 3.02), and an average percentage of positives to cocaine of 54.78% (SD 47.03); there were 7 works with 100% of subjects being positive to cocaine. Males predominated with an average of 78.69% (SD 12). They presented cardiovascular symptoms in 30% cases (SD 22.7), neurological symptoms in 11.6% cases (SD 4.28) and psychiatric symptoms in 49.32% cases (SD 23.87). There was a multiple consumption in 49.02% of patients (interval 4.3-76.2), fundamentally associated with alcohol (57.78%, SD 6.18) and cannabis (21.56%, SD 10.72). Two hundred and forty-six patients (2.8%) needed admission and 8 died (0.09%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Ten years' experience with an external quality control program for semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidis, Con; Cooper, Trevor G; Hellenkemper, Barbara; Lablans, Martin; Uckert, Frank; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2012-09-01

    To gauge the performance of laboratories and impact of the German semen analysis external quality control program (QuaDeGA) over its first 10 years. Retrospective analysis of QuaDeGA's twice yearly distribution of fixed semen samples and electronic material documenting sperm motility. Ranking of each participant's responses was determined according to their relation to a "target window." Multicenter. PAITENT(S): Healthy donors. None. Laboratory performance, World Health Organization (WHO) adherence. Over 19 runs, there was a steady increase of participants (280 laboratories), the largest group being private urologic practices. Although use of WHO-recommended Neubauer chamber (from 33% to 55%) and diluent (from 11% to 32%) increased, the opposite occurred with morphology staining protocols (from 41% to 19%). Overall, <8% of laboratories truly followed WHO guidelines. Median-based comparisons, replacing reference laboratories, resulted in a merging of performance rankings regardless of the protocols used. Adherence to WHO recommendations is low, with the majority of laboratories using methods expressly opposed by the guidelines. Participation in QuaDeGA was found to improve the performance of the laboratories involved in the program. However, the use of median-based ranking, while decreasing the extent of variance between laboratories, brings into question the significance of the rankings. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Duration of Sexual Harassment and Generalized Harassment in the Workplace Over Ten Years: Effects on Deleterious Drinking Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking. PMID:21745045

  7. Ten-Year Retrospective Longitudinal-Study of Student Perspectives on Value of REU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational

  8. Barrett's esophagus: Ten years of experience at a tertiary care hospital center in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Andraca, F; Bernal-Méndez, A R; Barreto-Zúñiga, R; Briseño-García, D; Martínez-Lozano, J A; Romano-Munive, A F; Elizondo-Rivera, J; Téllez-Ávila, F I

    2017-05-24

    The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus has been calculated at between 1.3 and 1.6%. There is little information with respect to this in Mexico. To determine the frequency and characteristics of Barrett's esophagus in patients that underwent endoscopy at a national referral center, within a 10-year time frame. The databases of the pathology and gastrointestinal endoscopy departments of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" were analyzed, covering the period of January 2002 to December 2012. Patients with a histologic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus were included. The variables of age, sex, the presence of dysplasia/esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus length, and follow-up were analyzed. Of 43,639 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed, 420 revealed Barrett's esophagus, corresponding to a frequency of 9.6 patients for every 1,000 endoscopies. Of those patients, 66.9% (n=281) were men, mean patient age±SD was 57.2±15.3 years, 223 patients (53%) presented with long-segment Barrett's esophagus, and 197 (47%) with short-segment Barrett's esophagus. Dysplasia was not present in 339 patients (80.7%). Eighty-one (19.3%) patients had some grade of dysplasia or cancer: 48/420 (11.42%) presented with low-grade dysplasia, 20/420 (4.76%) with high-grade dysplasia, and 13/420 (3.1%) were diagnosed with esophageal cancer arising from Barrett's esophagus. Mean follow-up time was 5.6 years. The frequency of Barrett's esophagus was 9.6 cases for every 1,000 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed. Dysplasia was not documented in the majority of the patients with Barrett's esophagus and they had no histopathologic changes during follow-up. A total of 19.3% of the patients presented with dysplasia or cancer. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Ten years of the Three Gorges Dam: a call for policy overhaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiankun; Lu, X. X.

    2013-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world’s largest source of ‘clean’ hydroelectric power (Shen and Xie 2004), has entered its tenth year after the first turbine went into operation in June 2003. The dam, with a generating capacity 20 times that of the United States’ Hoover Dam, has been hailed as a crucial part of a solution to China’s energy crisis. Despite great benefits, however, major concerns have been voiced over the disastrous environmental and social consequences of this massive engineering project (Stone 2011). In this paper, we review the benefits and impacts learned from the controversial megadam over the past decade and discuss perspective quests on policy overhaul for future environmental protection.

  10. Ten-year Pollution Characteristics of Particulate-associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianlei; Deng, Changjiang; Biandan, Luobu; Fu, Xianqiang; Mu, Xilong

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well-known air pollutants of health concern. However, they are not listed as routinely measured pollutants in China, in spite of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) being included in the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Thus, very limited continuous measurements are available for PAHs, which would hinder the understanding of long-term pollution characteristics of PAHs in context of rapid development of economy and intensive urbanization in China. To investigate annual variation and its causes of airborne particulate-associated PAHs, a total of 18 PAHs (including 16 USEPA priority species) in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured in Beijing, the capital and one of megacities of China, for a decade (from the year of 2004 to 2013) with meteorological data simultaneously recorded. The long-term measurements of PAHs showed significant annual and seasonal variations for the total concentration of PAHs (ΣPAH18) and individual PAH species. The ΣPAH18 in PM10 was highest in 2010 and lowest in 2006. Likewise, the ΣPAH18 in PM2.5 reached the highest level in 2010 and dropped to the lowest level in 2005. The annual concentration varied insignificantly for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, were relatively high in the year of 2004, 2007 and 2010 for 4-ring PAHs, and increased gradually with year for 5- to 7-ring PAHs, the markers of motor vehicle emission. As for seasonal variation, the concentrations in winter (heating period) was higher than those in summer, while concentrations in spring and autumn ranked in the middle. As for BaP, one of criteria pollutants, its concentration exceeded NAAQS of China in winter. Source apportionment by factor analysis suggested the contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emissions, fugitive dust and straw burning. Especially, the great contributions of coal combustion and vehicle emission were also supported by diagnostic ratios. The backward trajectories showed air mass crossing polluted cities and transporting in low

  11. [Lengthening technique of the ulna in Kienboeck's disease. Results after ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullet, J; Walch, G

    1982-01-01

    The writers had re-examined several patients who had an operation for Kienböck disease before 1970. All had had an elongation of ulna through the same technique and no other operation for pseudarthrosis had been necessary. Eight patients were able to be examined 14.7 years after their operation (on an average). The analytical functional results were evaluated following Michon's criteria. The best results had been obtained as far as pain and strenght of the wrist were concerned, yet those obtained on mobility proved disappointing. X-Rays showed a lunatum keeping its shape 6 times out of 8 and an almost constant development of arthrosis. The use of the technique is questioned in the treatment of Kienböck disease.

  12. Ten years of Integrated Pest Management (IPM at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Wien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien is one of the largest fine arts collections worldwide, comprising the Kunsthistorisches Museum, the Austrian Theater Museum, the Museum of Ethnology, all placed in Vienna, and Schloß Ambras in Tirol. We present results from up to 10 years of insect pest monitoring in different collections and the implementation of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM concept. The Kunsthistorisches Museum was the first museum in Vienna to introduce such a concept. We also present specific insect pest problems such as a biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum infestation of paintings lined with starch paste backings (linings or the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella infestation at the Museum of Carriages, both repeatedly occurring problems in the museum. With the help of the insect pest monitoring programs, these and other problems were found and the infested objects treated, usually with anoxia (nitrogen.

  13. Ten years of infliximab (remicade) in clinical practice: the story from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornillie, Freddy

    2009-11-25

    Infliximab was first introduced in Europe in 1999 for Crohn's disease. During the following decade major progress was made in the understanding of the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases and treatment with infliximab. Today, treatment algorithms with anti-TNF and optimization of anti-TNF use in daily clinical practice are important research topics in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. TNF blockade has also changed the rheumatology practice during the last 10 years. Earlier treatment, combination with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and identification of risk factors of poor prognosis are hot research topics today. The introduction of infliximab (among other biological therapies) has thus changed the way how inflammatory bowel diseases and rheumatoid conditions are treated. More importantly, infliximab has offered significant improvement of the quality of life of many patients. In addition, we currently collect data indicating that infliximab is changing the natural course of these inflammatory diseases.

  14. Ten years of unitization in Brazil; Dez anos de unitizacoes no Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonolo, Daniel Dellamora; Almeida, Mateus Passeri de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The unitization concept, as used by the oil industry, was established in Brazil through Art 27 of the Law 9.478/97, also known as the Petroleum Law, and the first process was initiated in 2002. Within these 10 years, four processes were started and finalized, approved by ANP. These processes were developed in a maturing regulatory environment, which was improved in 2010. This article deals with the peculiarities of these processes, putting in context the regulatory framework and doubts at the time. We also verse about the regulatory scene after 2010, pointing out the main enhancements made. It is concluded that, although essential, an elaborated regulation is not the only important factor for the success of a unitization agreement, but also the agreement between parties, which has been encouraged by ANP.(author)

  15. A quantitative study of TWiki at CERN after ten years of use

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research known as CERN [1], is the home of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [2] where physicists are recreating conditions close to those at the origin of the Universe. Although the LHC is based at CERN over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries and hundreds of universities and laboratories collaborate on this project. TWiki [3] is an online collaboration platform and was introduced at CERN at the request of the LHC experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb have all used TWiki since its introduction. By analyzing the TWiki website statistics from 2006 until April 2016 this paper presents a quantitative study of how TWiki has been put into practice. The results will give a general picture of who is using the system and how this has evolved over the years.

  16. A disturbed child's use of a public event: Cotard's syndrome in a ten-year-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J R; Pfefferbaum, B; Hammond, D; Speed, L

    2000-01-01

    Public events can be incorporated into the mental life and life narratives of children with psychiatric illnesses. A 10-year-old boy who was not in Oklahoma City at the time of the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building and who knew no one directly impacted, claimed that he himself was dead, then that his grandfather, and finally that a peer and the peer's family had been killed in the blast. This is the first known reported case of Cotard's syndrome, the delusion of being dead, in a prepubescent child. The article also explores the relationships between this boy's symptoms, transference phenomena, real life events, themes of loss, abandonment, neglect, and death, and his fabricated stories.

  17. Ten Years of Vegetation Change in Northern California Marshlands Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology was applied to detected changes in perennial vegetation cover at marshland sites in Northern California reported to have undergone restoration between 1999 and 2009. Results showed extensive contiguous areas of restored marshland plant cover at 10 of the 14 sites selected. Gains in either woody shrub cover and/or from recovery of herbaceous cover that remains productive and evergreen on a year-round basis could be mapped out from the image results. However, LEDAPS may not be highly sensitive changes in wetlands that have been restored mainly with seasonal herbaceous cover (e.g., vernal pools), due to the ephemeral nature of the plant greenness signal. Based on this evaluation, the LEDAPS methodology would be capable of fulfilling a pressing need for consistent, continual, low-cost monitoring of changes in marshland ecosystems of the Pacific Flyway.

  18. [A bibliometrics study of literature on medical image processing for the past ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Yanbin; Ouyang, Zhaolian; Guo, Wenjiao; Chi, Hui

    2014-02-01

    We searched and retrieved literature on the topic of medical image processing published on SCI journals in the past 10 years. We then imported the retrieved literature into TDA for data cleanup before data analysis and pro cessing by EXCLE and UCINET to generate tables and figures that could indicate disciplinary correlation and research hotspots from the perspective of bibliometrics. The results indicated that people in Europe and USA were leading researchers on medical image processing with close international cooperation. Many disciplines contributed to the fast development of medical image processing with intense interdisciplinary researches. The papers that we found show recent research hotspots of the algorithm, system, model, image and segmentation in the field of medical image processing. Cluster analysis on key words of high frequency demonstrated complicated clustering relationship.

  19. Ten years of tuberculosis intervention in Greenland - has it prevented cases of childhood tuberculosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Emilie; Andersson, Mikael; Koch, Anders

    2014-01-01

    -2010 (intensified interventions). Risk of TB was estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The study included 35,858 children, of whom 209 had TB disease. The TB disease incidence decreased after interventions were implemented (2007-2010: IRR [incidence rate ratios] 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.95, p=0.03, compared...... with the 1995-1999 period). The TB disease risk was inversely associated with BCG vaccination (IRR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41-0.72, pdisease incidence among children ≤15 years......BACKGROUND: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) disease in Greenland doubled in the 1990s. To combat the increase, national TB interventions were initiated in 2000 and strengthened in 2007. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the effect of interventions could be detected, we estimated the TB disease...

  20. Pediatric oral burns: a ten-year review of patient characteristics, etiologies and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Douglas; Ho, Brian; Sykes, Kevin J; Wei, Julie L

    2013-08-01

    To summarize etiologies and treatments of pediatric oropharyngeal burns. Retrospective summary of 75 patients treated from January 1999 to January 2009. Tertiary Children's Hospital. Data collected included demographics, etiology of burn, site of injury, medical and/or surgical treatments, need for endoscopy, duration of hospitalization, and complications. 75 patients were treated with 50 being males (66%). Mean age was 4.3 years (median 2.7 years). The five most common causes were chemical (34.6%), electrical (12.3%), hot liquids (12.3%), food (12.3%) and battery ingestion (9.9%). Ingestion of hair products made up nearly 1/3 of the chemical causes (9/28) and alone made up 12% of the burns in our study. Main sites of injury included buccal mucosa (77.3%), lips (56%), tongue (48%), and palate (22.7%). One-third of the patients' required PICU/Burn unit admissions, 1/3 were admitted to floor, and 1/3 were discharged home from the ED. Average duration of hospitalization was 5 days. Of those admitted, 30% received antibiotics and only 8% received systemic steroids. Patients were made NPO on the first day of admission in 33.3% of patients and allowed to resume normal diet after surgical consultation. Only 9/75 (12%) patients required intubation. Otolaryngology consultation was obtained in 10.7% of cases. Only 18% of all patients required surgical intervention with debridement being most common (>60%). In this group, 20% received esophagogastroduodenoscopies due to ingestion of alkali substance. Complications occurred in less than 6% of all cases. Ingestion of chemicals, including hair dye/relaxer products, as well as overheated liquids and foods, are leading causes of oropharyngeal burns treated at our Children's Hospital Emergency Department over the past decade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Ross Procedure in Patients among the Pediatric Population, Post Ten Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Ivanov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the results of the surgical treatment in pediatric patients who had undergone the Ross procedure.Material and Methods: The study involved 114 patients between 12 days to 18 years in age. The early and late (up to 5 years results of the treatment were studied. The examination included echocardiography, catheterization of the cardiac chambers and angiocardiography. The case distribution of patients based on diagnosis was as follows: isolated aortic valve stenosis (IAVS in 38 (33.3% patients, aortic valve insufficiency (AVI in 33 (28.9%, and combined heart defects in 56 patients (49.1%.Results: The death rate was 6.14% during the early postoperative period and 1.14% in the late postoperative period; the actuarial survival in the long-term was 98.86%. The complication rate was 51.5%. The most frequent complication was pericarditis (25.6%, whereas cardiac and respiratory failure occurred in 7.6% of the cases and cardiac arrhythmias in 6.1% of the cases. The average time spent in the intensive care unit was 3.48 ± 2.90 days; the hospitalization period on average was 24.70±10.87 days. After surgery, there was a tendency of the echocardiographic parameters to move toward normalization. The frequency of reoperation in the late period was 23.7%, the main reason for which being the conduit dysfunction in the position of the pulmonary artery (PA.Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of the Ross procedure in the treatment of aortic valve malformations in the pediatric group was confirmed. However, in some cases, the need to perform repeated operations due to the increase in the ring size and an increase in the neo-aortic insufficiency during the somatic growth process.

  2. A ten years (2000–2009 surveillance of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Zhejiang Province, there are several highly developed cities near the coast and several relatively under-developed mountain areas. Analysis of the composition of bacteria isolated from patients as well as their antibiotic resistance profile from various areas of this province, and tracing of such data year-by-year, will help to delineate the bacterial resistance profile of these areas and to understand how the stage of socio-economical development impacts on the composition of clinical micro-flora and their resistance profile. Methods: In order to investigate variation in resistance rates and isolation rates of Enterobacteriaceae, from 2000 to 2009 in Zhejiang Province, China, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from 15 hospitals located in different regions of the province were surveyed. Results: The total numbers of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated increased more than 20-fold from 2000 to 2009. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the dominant isolates. The percentage of E. coli and K. pneumoniae that produced detectable extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs increased from 2000 to 2007, and then declined slightly in 2008 and 2009. The percentages of K. pneumoniae and E. coli that were resistant to ceftazidime increased sharply from 2000 to 2009. There were remarkable increases in the carbapenem resistant rates during the decade, but they were much higher for the isolates from the developed cities than from the rural areas. In 2002, carbapenem-resistant E. coli was first found in Hangzhou, one of the highly developed cities in Zhejiang Province. By 2009, carbapenem-resistant bacteria were found for all species of Enterobacteriaceae surveyed in almost all areas of the province, although they were more frequently identified in developed areas than in rural areas. Conclusion: Much restrictive actions have to be taken in terms of rational use of antibiotics and nosocomial control to prevent the further

  3. Ten-year single-centre experience with type II endoleaks: Intervention versus observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ikram-Ul; Kelay, Arun; Davis, Meryl; Brookes, Jocelyn; Mastracci, Tara M; Constantinou, Jason

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to determine the relative merits of intervention or observation of type II endoleaks (T2Ls). A retrospective analysis was performed on 386 infra-renal endovascular aneurysm repair (IR-EVAR) patients from 2006 to 2015. Annual surveillance imaging of patients undergoing EVAR at our centre were analysed, and all endoleaks were subjected to a multidisciplinary team meeting for consideration and treatment. In the 10-year time frame, 386 patients (79.5±8.7 years) underwent an IR-EVAR. Eighty-one patients (21.0%) developed a T2L and intervention was undertaken in 28 (34.6%): 17 (60.7%) were treated via a transarterial approach (TA) and 11 (39.3%) using the translumbar approach (TL). Fifty-three patients (65.4%) with T2Ls were managed conservatively. Patients who received T2L treatment had a greater proportion of recurrent T2Ls than patients who were conservatively managed ( p=0.032). T2Ls associated with aneurysmal growth were more resistant to treatment than those where there was no change or a decrease in aneurysm size during follow-up (0.033). There was no significant difference in the TA and TL approach with respect to endoleak repair success ( p=0.525). Treatment of a T2L did not confer a survival advantage compared to conservative management ( p=0.449) nor did the choice of either the TA or TL approach ( p=0.148). Our study suggests the development of a T2L associated with aneurysm growth may represent an aggressive phenotype that is resistant to treatment. However, this did not lead to an increased risk of mortality over follow-up. Neither a transarterial nor a translumbar approach to treating a T2L conferred superiority.

  4. Ten-year quality control of a semiautomated procedure of cord blood unit volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecchi, Lucilla; Perego, Lucia; Garcea, Filomena; Ratti, Ilaria; Brasca, Manuela; Dotti, Deborah; Cimoni, Silvia; Pezzali, Ilaria; Celeste, Teresa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Butti, Barbara; De Fazio, Nicola; Lopa, Raffaella; Rebulla, Paolo

    2009-03-01

    Volume reduction of cord blood units decreases the cost of cryogenic storage. This study reports the analysis of a 10-year quality control program of a semiautomated cord blood volume reduction procedure. Cord blood was collected in a plastic bag containing 29 mL citrate-phosphate-dextrose, centrifuged at 2124 x g for 12 minutes, and processed with a semiautomated device. The procedure was aimed at removing most red blood cells and plasma and concentrating hematopoietic progenitors in the buffy coat (BC), thus reducing the unit volume and saving cryogenic space. Finally, the BC was cryopreserved with an equal volume of 20 percent dimethyl sulfoxide. Total nucleated cells (TNCs) were counted before and after processing in the 4311 units banked from 1998 through 2007, whereas CD34+ cells and colony-forming units-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) were counted in 420 random units from 2001 through 2007. Mean postvolume reduction annual recoveries of TNCs, CD34+ cells, and CFU-GM ranged from 82.8 +/- 12.3 (standard deviation) to 91.4 +/- 6.4 percent, from 87.8 +/- 14.1 to 95.2 +/- 23.8 percent, and from 101.5 +/- 51.4 to 117.8 +/- 59.5 percent, respectively. Very strong correlations were found (r > 0.87) between postprocessing versus preprocessing TNCs, CD34+ cells, and CFU-GM; a moderate correlation between initial TNC count and unit's volume (r = 0.51); and no correlation between TNC percentage of recovery in the BC and initial unit's volume. The latter data indicate that most TNCs concentrate in the BC. The semiautomated procedure of cord blood unit volume reduction used in this study provides high and stable cellular recoveries during several years of routine cord blood banking.

  5. Ten year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kola Diba, North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemu Abebe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examinations from the Kola Diba Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases reported between 2002–2011 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Additionally, any malaria intervention activities that had been taken to control malaria were collected using a well-prepared checklist from the study area. Results Within the last decade (2002–2011 a total of 59, 208 blood films were requested for malaria diagnosis in Kola Diba health center and 23,473 (39.6% microscopically confirmed malaria cases were reported in the town with a fluctuating trend. Regarding the identified plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75% and 25% of malaria morbidity, respectively. Malaria was reported in all age groups and both sexes, but the 15–44 year age group and males were more affected. Despite the apparent fluctuation of malaria trends in the area, the highest peak of malaria cases was reported during spring seasons. Conclusion Comparatively, after the introduction of the current malaria control strategies, the morbidity and mortality by malaria is decreasing but malaria is still a major health problem and the deadly species P. falciparium is predominant. Therefore, control activities should be continued in a strengthened manner in the study area considering both P. falciparium and P. vivax.

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma with venous neoplastic thrombosis: A ten years review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Maria Pirola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review the 10-year experience of our urological unit in the surgical management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC with neoplastic tumor thrombosis focusing on postoperative survival. Materials and Methods: We underwent a retrospective analysis of the patients treated for this pathology during the last decade 2002-2012, stratifying them by tumor thrombus level and histological subtype. Kaplan-Meyer curves were used to assess survival. Results: Overall, 67 patients underwent surgery for RCC with neoplastic tumoral thrombosis in the period under review. 60 were clear cell RCC, 4 were urothelial papillary tumors of the renal pelvis and 3 were rare histotypes, as a nefroblastoma, a spinocellular tumor of the renal pelvis and an unclassifiable renal carcinoma. Thrombus level was I in 40 cases, II in 17, III in 2 and IV in 8 patients. We report the main postoperative complications and our survival data, with mean follow up of 36 months. Tumor stage is the most important variable in predicting survival. Patients with N0M0 disease had 70% survival at 36 months, instead of 20% for those with primitive metastatic tumor. Conclusion: Our survival results fit with the main reports in literature and our surgical management was completely in keeping with international guidelines. We did not observe relevany post-operative complications, except of hemorrhagic ones that occurred in 6 patients (9% of total and were always successfully managed. Eighteen patients (26.87% of total underwent caval filter positioning, without evidence of complications during its positioning or removal. Life expectancy was particularly low for the cases of RCC without clear cell histotype (7 cases in our series, 10.4% of total that always was less than one year from surgery.

  7. Ten years of clinical experience with biosimilar human growth hormone: a review of safety data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás Pérez, Maria Victoria; Kriström, Berit; Romer, Tomasz; Walczak, Mieczyslaw; Höbel, Nadja; Zabransky, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Safety concerns for recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatments include impact on cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and the formation of antibodies to endogenous/exogenous GH. Omnitrope(®) (biosimilar rhGH) was approved by the European Medicines Agency in 2006, with approval granted on the basis of comparable quality, safety, and efficacy to the reference medicine (Genotropin(®)). Additional concerns that may exist in relation to biosimilar rhGH include safety in indications granted on the basis of extrapolation and the impact of changing to biosimilar rhGH from other rhGH treatments. A substantial data set is available to fully understand the safety profile of biosimilar rhGH, which includes data from its clinical development studies and 10 years of post-approval experience. As of June 2016, 106,941,419 patient days (292,790 patient-years) experience has been gathered for biosimilar rhGH. Based on the available data, there have been no unexpected or unique adverse events related to biosimilar rhGH treatment. There is no increased risk of cancer, adverse glucose homeostasis, or immunogenic response with biosimilar rhGH compared with the reference medicine and other rhGH products. The immunogenicity of biosimilar rhGH is also similar to that of the reference and other rhGH products. Physicians should be reassured that rhGH products have a good safety record when used for approved indications and at recommended doses, and that the safety profile of biosimilar rhGH is in keeping with that of other rhGH products.

  8. Ten Year Follow-Up of Gap Balanced, Rotating Platform Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients Under 60 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H; Barnett, Steven L; Patel, Jay J; Nassif, Nader A; Cummings, Dennis J; Gorab, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    68 patients (91 primary total knee arthroplasties) were evaluated at a mean 10-year, minimum 5 year follow up in patients younger than sixty years of age utilizing the gap balanced, rotating platform design. Follow up assessment included implant survivorship, adverse events, x-rays, Knee Society rating system and clinical evaluation. Three revisions were performed with only one for aseptic loosening at 45 months. Two manipulations were performed in the early postoperative period. Survivorship of the rotating platform, gap balanced knee was 96.7% using surgical revision for any reason and 98.9% using aseptic loosening as endpoints. The rotating platform design using the gap balancing technique in young patients had excellent survivorship at 10-year mean follow up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Frequency of upper extremity nerve entrapment syndromes in surgically operated patients: a ten-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzan M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Nerve entrapment neuropathies are relatively frequent in the upper limb. Significant costs related to resultant disability and treatment, and also simultaneous occurrence of some of these syndromes can result in alteration in the treatment approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these syndromes, the rate of concurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome as the most prevalent syndrome with others, related risk factors, and accordance of clinical and electrophysiological findings."n"nMethods: In a retrospective study, data of the 170 affected patients to these syndromes operated during a period of 10 years in a referral center were searched using recorded documents. Information about patient's gender, age, occupation and associated co-morbidities, clinical and surgical findings and their accordance to the EMG-NCV findings, and also concurrence of these syndromes were assessed."n"nResults: Patients' range of age was 10-91 year (mean: 48.09 year and 74.5% of them were female. In this study carpal tunnel and cubital tunnel syndrome were the most frequent (81.7% and 15.8% respectively. In 23.5% of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, electrophysiological findings were negative but there

  10. Extranodal marginal zone non Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lung: A ten-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT lymphoma is a rare subtype of low grade marginal zone B cell lymphoma representing 10% of all MALT lymphomas. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome of this group of patients comparing prognostic parameters and therapy modalities. Methods. A total of eight patients with BALT lymphoma had diagnosed between January 1998 - April 2008 at the Institute of Hematology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, and they were included in this retrospective analysis. Results. Male/female ratio was 2/6, the median age was 64 years (range 37-67 years. Six patients had nonspecific respiratory symptoms and all of them had B symptoms. The patients were seronegative for HIV, HCV and HBsAg. Three patients had Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis, respectively. Seven patients were diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy and an open lung biopsy was done in one patient. Patohistological findings revealed lymphoma of marginal zone B cell lymphoma: CD20+/CD10-/CD5-/CyclinD1- /CD23-/IgM- with Ki-67+<20% of all cells. According to the Ferraro staging system, five patients had localized disease (CS I-IIE and three had stage IVE; bulky tumor mass had 3 patients. All patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG performance status (PS 0 or 1. Five patients received monochemotherapy with chlorambucil and 3 were treated with CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone. A complete response (CR was achieved in 5 patients and a partial response (PR in 3 of them, treated with chlorambucil monotherapy and CHOP regimen. All patients were alive during a median follow-up period of 49 months (range 6- 110 months. Three patients relapsed after monochemotherapy into the other extranodal localization. They were treated with CHOP regimen and remained in stable PR. Conclusion. BALT lymphoma tends to be localised disease at the time of diagnosis, responds well

  11. Ten-year experiences of the tuberculosis control programme in the southern region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, M A; Datiko, D G; Shargie, E B

    2006-10-01

    The tuberculosis control programme, southern region of Ethiopia. To assess the impact of the expansion of the DOTS strategy on tuberculosis (TB) case finding and treatment outcome. Reports of TB patients treated since the introduction of DOTS in the region were reviewed. Patients were diagnosed and treated according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Case notification and treatment outcome reports were compiled quarterly at district level and submitted to the regional programme. Of 136,572 cases registered between 1995 and 2004, 47% were smear-positive, 25% were smear-negative and 28% had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). In 2004, 94% of the health institutions were covered by DOTS. Between 1995 and 2004, the smear-positive case notification rate increased from 45 to 143 per 100,000 population, the case detection rate from 22% to 45%, and the treatment success rate from 53% to 85%. The default and failure rates decreased from 26% to 6% and from 7% to 1%, respectively. There was a steady increase in the treatment success rate with the decentralisation of DOTS. Although 94% coverage was achieved after 10 years, the stepwise scale-up was important in securing resources and dealing with challenges. The programme achieved 85% treatment success; however, with the current low case detection rate (45%), the 70% WHO target seems unachievable in the absence of alternative case-finding mechanisms.

  12. Unemployment in TB patients - ten-year observation at regional center of pulmonology in Bydgoszcz, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Grzegorz; Dabrowska, Anita; Pilaczyńska-Cemel, Marta; Krawiecka, Dorota

    2014-11-02

    Tuberculosis (TB) affects the poorest of the poor and is an example of a disease that can contribute to the "disease-poverty trap". The variable epidemiological situation is associated with social risk factors, such as unemployment, which may favor the occurrence of this disease. The aim of this study was to analyze unemployment as a factor that can influence the incidence and course of the disease. We analyzed TB patients with confirmed status of employment or unemployment admitted to the Regional Center of Pulmonology in Bydgoszcz in during the years 2001 to 2010. Out of 1130 patients, 604 were unemployed and the other confirmed their employment. The unemployed patients were mostly single men over age 40, with a low level of education, and living in a city. We observed that the proportions of smokers and alcohol abusers were significantly higher among the unemployed patients. The advanced radiological lesions, smear-positive pulmonary TB, and extra-pulmonary sites were diagnosed significantly more often in this group. The rate of death in the course of hospitalization was significantly higher in the group of unemployed patients. Unemployment among TB patients is a serious problem. We found that more advanced radiological lesions were associated with more frequent treatment interruptions and a higher rate of death in the course of hospitalization. Increased efforts are needed to reduce and eliminate the problem of unemployment among patients with TB. This may, indirectly, contribute to a decrease in notifications of TB cases and improve treatment outcomes.

  13. A Ten-Year Molecular Survey on Parvoviruses Infecting Carnivores in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipov, C; Desario, C; Patouchas, O; Eftimov, P; Gruichev, G; Manov, V; Filipov, G; Buonavoglia, C; Decaro, N

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. This study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in Bulgaria (n = 344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a, 79.17%) over CPV-2b (18.52%) and CPV-2c (2.31%). Rottweilers and German shepherds were the most frequent breeds among CPV-positive pedigree dogs (n = 96). Eighteen cats were found to shed parvoviruses in their faeces, with most strains being characterized as FPLV (n = 17), although a single specimen tested positive for CPV-2a. Only two wild carnivores were parvovirus positive, a wolf (Canis lupus) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), both being infected by CPV-2a strains. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Biosolids Effects in Chihuahuan Desert Rangelands: A Ten-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Wester

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arid and semiarid rangelands are suitable for responsible biosolids application. Topical application is critical to avoid soil and vegetation disturbance. Surface-applied biosolids have long-lasting effects in these ecosystems. We conducted a 10-year research program investigating effects of biosolids applied at rates from 0 to 90 dry Mg ha−1 on soil water infiltration; runoff and leachate water quality; soil erosion; forage production and quality; seedling establishment; plant physiological responses; nitrogen dynamics; biosolids decomposition; and grazing animal behavior and management. Biosolids increased soil water infiltration and reduced erosion. Effects on soil water quality were observed only at the highest application rates. Biosolids increased soil nitrate-nitrogen. Biosolids increased forage production and improved forage quality. Biosolids increased leaf area of grasses; photosynthetic rates were not necessarily increased by biosolids. Biosolids effects on plant establishment are expected only under moderately favorable conditions. Over an 82-mo exposure period, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and total and available phosphorus decreased and inorganic matter increased. Grazing animals spent more time grazing, ruminating, and resting in biosolids-treated areas; positive effects on average daily gain were observed during periods of higher rainfall. Our results suggest that annual biosolids application rates of up to 18 Mg ha−1 are appropriate for desert rangelands.

  15. Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation in China: A Ten Years Experience of a Single Public Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinhui; He, Ji; Chen, Shu; Qin, Fei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has successfully used for transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies and genetic diseases. Herein, we describe the experience generated in a single public UCB bank at Zhejiang Province in China. METHODS: Good manufacturing practice and standard operating procedures were used to address donor selection as well as UCB collection, processing, and cryopreservation. Total nucleated cells (TNCs), cellular viability, CD34+ cells, and colony-forming units were determined, and infectious diseases screening test, sterility test, and HLA typing for UCB units were done. RESULTS: Only 18.51% of all collected UCB units met storage criteria, and 7,056 UCB units were cryopreserved in 10 years. The volume of UCB units was 95.0 ± 22.0 ml. The number of TNCs before and after processing was 13.32 ± 3.63 × 10(8) and 10.63 ± 2.80 × 10(8), respectively, and the recovery rate was 80.71 ± 11.26%. 0.4344 ± 0.1874% of the TNCs were CD34+ cells. The CFU-GM was 32.1 ± 28.0 colonies per 1 × 10(5) nucleated cells. Based mainly on HLA and nucleated cell content, 26 UCB units were released for transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: A public UCB bank was successfully established in China; collection and processing of UCB units should be optimized in order to gain maximum volume and cell count.

  16. Precipitation Climatology over Mediterranean Basin from Ten Years of TRMM Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2008-01-01

    Climatological features of mesoscale rain activities over the Mediterranean region between 5 W-40 E and 28 N-48 N are examined using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 and 2A25 rain products. The 3B42 rainrates at 3-hourly, 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg spatial resolution for the last 10 years (January 1998 to July 2007) are used to form and analyze the 5-day mean and monthly mean climatology of rainfall. Results show considerable regional and seasonal differences of rainfall over the Mediterranean Region. The maximum rainfall (3-5 mm/day) occurs over the mountain regions of Europe, while the minimum rainfall is observed over North Africa (approximately 0.5 mm/day). The main rainy season over the Mediterranean Sea extends from October to March, with maximum rainfall occurring during November-December. Over the Mediterranean Sea, an average rainrate of approximately 1-2 mm/day is observed, but during the rainy season there is 20% larger rainfall over the western Mediterranean Sea than that over the eastern Mediterranean Sea. During the rainy season, mesoscale rain systems generally propagate from west to east and from north to south over the Mediterranean region, likely to be associated with Mediterranean cyclonic disturbances resulting from interactions among large-scale circulation, orography, and land-sea temperature contrast.

  17. Ten years of transcriptomics in wild populations: what have we learned about their ecology and evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mariano; Schrey, Aaron W; Richards, Christina L

    2015-02-01

    Molecular ecology has moved beyond the use of a relatively small number of markers, often noncoding, and it is now possible to use whole-genome measures of gene expression with microarrays and RNAseq (i.e. transcriptomics) to capture molecular response to environmental challenges. While transcriptome studies are shedding light on the mechanistic basis of traits as complex as personality or physiological response to catastrophic events, these approaches are still challenging because of the required technical expertise, difficulties with analysis and cost. Still, we found that in the last 10 years, 575 studies used microarrays or RNAseq in ecology. These studies broadly address three questions that reflect the progression of the field: (i) How much variation in gene expression is there and how is it structured? (ii) How do environmental stimuli affect gene expression? (iii) How does gene expression affect phenotype? We discuss technical aspects of RNAseq and microarray technology, and a framework that leverages the advantages of both. Further, we highlight future directions of research, particularly related to moving beyond correlation and the development of additional annotation resources. Measuring gene expression across an array of taxa in ecological settings promises to enrich our understanding of ecology and genome function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Incidence of Symptomatic Congenital Toxoplasmosis During Ten Years in a Brazilian Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Adrianne Rahde; Friedrich, Luciana; Cattan, Jacobo Melamed; Uberti, Flávio Antonio de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Population seroprevalence and rates of mother-to-child transmission are important in determining the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. (CT) Mother-to-child transmission depends on the timing of acute maternal infection and treatment during pregnancy. The incidence of CT varies widely across geographic regions, ranging from 1 to 10 cases per 10,000 live births. The incidence of symptomatic disease varies from 0.15 to 0.34 cases per 10,000. This is a review of patients treated at a pediatric CT clinic at a university hospital in the south of Brazil, from 2004 to 2014. The annual incidence of CT varied from 0 to 14 cases per 10,000 live births, with a mean incidence of 6 cases per 10,000 during the 10 years studied (CI 95%: 3.02-8.91). The incidence of symptomatic CT varied from 0 to 9 cases per 10,000 live births, with a mean incidence of 5 per 10,000 (CI 95%: 2.44-6.94). There were 5 (14.3%) asymptomatic cases. The main findings were retinochoroiditis (54%), intracranial calcifications (37.5%) and altered cerebrospinal fluid (37.5%). The incidence of CT and the rate of symptomatic cases were in accordance with the previous data from other studies in Brazil, being significantly higher than in previous North American and European studies.

  19. Reassessing "Jacob's case": a serial killer re-examined after ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalian, M; Birger, M; Witztum, E

    2004-01-01

    The current study re-examines an exceptional case of a serial killer incarcerated since a decade ago. "Jacob" is the first serial killer apprehended in Israel. His known actions were committed during the eighties of the last century, and continued for eleven years. The victims were elderly individuals, including both his parents. Shortly after incarceration he became overtly schizophrenic and underwent five hospitalisations. The case is re-examined in view of changes, both in the perpetrator's diagnosis and criminal legislation. Was Jacob doomed to become a serial killer, or could his fate be avoided through early professional intervention? Were the killings presenting symptoms of a psychotic or pre-psychotic phase? Should he be eligible for a retrial? What would have been his position with the current law in view of the new 300A(a) clause ("Reduced Punishment") of the Israeli Criminal Code? Could he ever be released back to the community? These are some of the questions to be addressed.

  20. Gender, internet experience, Internet identification, and internet anxiety: a ten-year followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Richard; Gavin, Jeff; Brosnan, Mark; Cromby, John; Gregory, Helen; Guiller, Jane; Maras, Pam; Moon, Amy

    2012-07-01

    In 2002, we found gender differences in the use of the Internet. Since then, however, the Internet has changed considerably. We therefore conducted a follow-up study in 2012. The study involved 501 students (389 females and 100 males, 12 participants unspecified gender) and we measured Internet use, Internet anxiety, and Internet identification. We found that males had a greater breadth of Internet use; they used the Internet more for games and entertainment than females. The differentiation between males and females in terms of Internet use is evident, and in some ways is even more distinct than 10 years ago. In our previous research we had found no gender differences in the use of the Internet for communication, whereas in the current study we have found that females use the Internet for communication than males and were using social network sites more than males. We also found, consistent with our previous study, that Internet identification and Internet anxiety were related to Internet use.

  1. Durability of Pultruded GFRP through Ten-Year Outdoor Exposure Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru Nishizaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pultrusion is an easy molding method of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP to obtain a long composite material with a uniform cross-section at relatively low cost. In some cases, pultruded FRPs are now used in bridges and deck projects. Since the application of pultruded FRP as a structural material is increasing, a study on the durability of pultruded FRP under outdoor conditions is necessary in terms of safety. Some studies have shown that pultruded glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP exhibits a slight reduction in mechanical properties during outdoor exposure. Since pultruded GFRP consists of multi-layers, the change of mechanical properties in each layer is important to understand. In this study, an outdoor exposure test on pultruded GFRP for 10 years was conducted with three types of pultruded GFRP, which have different laminate systems, including surface-coated specimens of each type. Changes of strength and elastic modulus due to outdoor exposure were discussed with a focus on the contribution of each layer based on the rule of mixtures.

  2. Ten years of Italian historiography of psychology: a field in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Glauco; Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2010-08-01

    This article briefly outlines a picture of the activities and research conducted in Italy on the history of psychology during the last 10 years, focusing its attention on institutions, scholars, conferences, archives, journals, and so forth. At the dawn of the 21st century, the tradition of historical-psychological studies that developed in the last quarter of the 20th century has led to a renewed situation in teaching organization and research, with the emergence of several groups, especially at the universities of Rome "Sapienza", Bari, Milan-Bicocca, and Urbino, and of a second generation of young historians increasingly engaged on an international level. After a general survey conducted with historiometric method on the principal areas of research cultivated and on the themes dealt with, we mention a change that has occurred in the historiographical approach, a transition from a historiography addressed prevalently to the "history of ideas" to one that, pursuing the approach of a new and critical "multifactorial" history, proves to be more attentive to the social and institutional history, in correspondence with established international trends.

  3. Ten Years of Land Cover Change on the California Coast Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Landsat satellite imagery was analyzed to generate a detailed record of 10 years of vegetation disturbance and regrowth for Pacific coastal areas of Marin and San Francisco Counties. The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology, a transformation of Tasseled-Cap data space, was applied to detected changes in perennial coastal shrubland, woodland, and forest cover from 1999 to 2009. Results showed several principal points of interest, within which extensive contiguous areas of similar LEDAPS vegetation change (either disturbed or restored) were detected. Regrowth areas were delineated as burned forest areas in the Point Reyes National Seashore (PRNS) from the 1995 Vision Fire. LEDAPS-detected disturbance patterns on Inverness Ridge, PRNS in areas observed with dieback of tanoak and bay laurel trees was consistent with defoliation by sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum). LEDAPS regrowth pixels were detected over much of the predominantly grassland/herbaceous cover of the Olema Valley ranchland near PRNS. Extensive restoration of perennial vegetation cover on Crissy Field, Baker Beach and Lobos Creek dunes in San Francisco was identified. Based on these examples, the LEDAPS methodology will be capable of fulfilling much of the need for continual, low-cost monitoring of emerging changes to coastal ecosystems.

  4. LECA refurbishment project or how to get ready for the next ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, Francois; Bois, Dominique; Blanc, Jean Yves

    2005-01-01

    Around 1995, CEA decided a strategy for its hot laboratories: Closing LAMA - Grenoble and LHA - Saclay, after RM2 - Fontenay-aux-Roses. Refurbishing and gathering irradiated material studies in LECI - Saclay. Refurbishing LECA - Cadarache for irradiated fuel examinations. Reprocessing pilot experiments being located in Atalante - Marcoule. Started up in 1964, LECA has got an exploitation license up to August 2005. In 2001, safety authorities agreed to extend it up to 2015, provided an extensive refurbishment is undertaken which includes civil engineering works to achieve the building earthquake resistance, based on 3D-computations and withstanding maximum historically likely earthquake, improving confinement by decontaminating, adding steel boxes inside cells, changing ventilation system and creating a mobile upper cell on the cell roof, changing power supplies, shielded glasses and most manipulators, improving travelling crane, fire protection, radioactivity monitoring and alarms, installing a new device for characterizing and evacuating wastes, decreasing the fissile mass stored inside the facility (source term). Most of the work should be ended by the end of 2005. Afterwards five cells, which do not withstand earthquake, will be deconstructed within 3 years. By mid 2004, 60 % of tasks are completed and all contracts are awarded. The total final cost is 97 M Euro, 80% of which regarding the only LECA refurbishment. (Author)

  5. External genitalia gunshot wounds: a ten-year experience with fifty-six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, S B; Buckman, R F; Chelsky, M J; Hanno, P M

    1995-08-01

    To determine the appropriate methods for the diagnosis and management of gunshot injuries to the external genitalia. Retrospective analysis. Fifty-six patients with gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the external genitalia were seen over the last 10 years. All patients underwent physical examination, radiographic staging, and surgical exploration, according to protocol. There were 25 testicular, 19 scrotal soft tissue, 14 penile, 4 epididymal, 4 urethral, 4 vasal, and 3 superficial scrotal skin injuries. When possible, all injuries, except for the vasal and 1 urethral injury, were primarily repaired with excellent long-term results. Orchiectomy was required in half of testes struck by gunshots. Associated injuries with single GSWs were mostly to the proximity soft tissue and were amenable to conservative management. Major associated injuries were present in patients with multiple GSWs. In the absence of a suspected major associated injury, genital GSWs required only two diagnostic studies, a retrograde urethrogram for suspected urethral injury and a routine abdominal radiograph. Gunshot injuries to the penis or perineum, blood at the penile meatus, or gross hematuria were highly suggestive of urethral injury. Successful management of genital GSWs is dependent upon prompt surgical exploration, conservative debridement, and primary repair.

  6. Ten years of maintaining and expanding a microbial genome and metagenome analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Victor M; Chen, I-Min A; Chu, Ken; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-11-01

    Launched in March 2005, the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system is a comprehensive data management system that supports multidimensional comparative analysis of genomic data. At the core of the IMG system is a data warehouse that contains genome and metagenome datasets sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute or provided by scientific users, as well as public genome datasets available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information Genbank sequence data archive. Genomes and metagenome datasets are processed using IMG's microbial genome and metagenome sequence data processing pipelines and are integrated into the data warehouse using IMG's data integration toolkits. Microbial genome and metagenome application specific data marts and user interfaces provide access to different subsets of IMG's data and analysis toolkits. This review article revisits IMG's original aims, highlights key milestones reached by the system during the past 10 years, and discusses the main challenges faced by a rapidly expanding system, in particular the complexity of maintaining such a system in an academic setting with limited budgets and computing and data management infrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ten-Year Longitudinal Trajectories of Older Adults’ Basic and Everyday Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Anna; Gross, Alden; Prindle, John; Marsiske, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal trajectories of everyday cognition and longitudinal associations with basic (i.e., laboratory and experimentally measured) cognitive abilities, including verbal memory, inductive reasoning, visual processing speed, and vocabulary. Method Participants were healthy older adults drawn from the no-treatment control group (N = 698) of the ACTIVE randomized trial, and were assessed at baseline and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years later. Analyses were conducted using latent growth models. Results Modeling revealed an overall inverted “U” shape (quadratic) trajectory across cognitive domains. Among basic cognitive predictors, level and slope in reasoning demonstrated the closest association to level and slope of everyday cognition, and accounted for most of the individual differences in linear gain in everyday cognition. Conclusions Everyday cognition is not buffered against decline, and is most closely related to inductive reasoning in healthy older adults. To establish the clinical utility of everyday cognitive measures, future research should examine these associations in samples with more cognitive impairment. PMID:24885451

  8. Ten years of preanalytical monitoring and control: Synthetic Balanced Score Card Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Santo-Quiles, Ana; Gutierrez, Mercedes; Lugo, Javier; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytical control and monitoring continue to be an important issue for clinical laboratory professionals. The aim of the study was to evaluate a monitoring system of preanalytical errors regarding not suitable samples for analysis, based on different indicators; to compare such indicators in different phlebotomy centres; and finally to evaluate a single synthetic preanalytical indicator that may be included in the balanced scorecard management system (BSC). We collected individual and global preanalytical errors in haematology, coagulation, chemistry, and urine samples analysis. We also analyzed a synthetic indicator that represents the sum of all types of preanalytical errors, expressed in a sigma level. We studied the evolution of those indicators over time and compared indicator results by way of the comparison of proportions and Chi-square. There was a decrease in the number of errors along the years (P<0.001). This pattern was confirmed in primary care patients, inpatients and outpatients. In blood samples, fewer errors occurred in outpatients, followed by inpatients. We present a practical and effective methodology to monitor unsuitable sample preanalytical errors. The synthetic indicator results summarize overall preanalytical sample errors, and can be used as part of BSC management system.

  9. A Ten-Year Investigation on Ozone and It Precursors at Kemaman, Terengganu, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzuki Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 10 years of continuous monitoring data (2000-2010 from Air Quality Division, Malaysian Department of Environment are used to investigate the relationships between ambient levels of ozone (O3, nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 as a function of NOx, in Kemaman, Malaysia, wherewith the dominant sources of ozone precursors are industrial activities and road traffic. In addition, variation of oxidant OX (O3 and NO2 concentration with NOx was also examined. The analyses established a weak linear relationship between O3 and NOx, signifying that Kemaman area is not NOx sensitive but possibly VOC-sensitive area. The level of [OX] is influenced byNOx-independent and NOx-dependent contributions. The former is due to regional background O3 concentration while the latter correlates to the local level of primary pollution. The measured concentrations of the pollutants varied as a function of time. The analyses also show that the diurnal cycle of ground level ozone concentration has a mid-day peak while lower concentration occurs at night time.

  10. Ten years of anti-HPV vaccinations: what do we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most important carcinogens in humans. Vaccines against HPV are now considered the first anti-cancer vaccinations. Since 2007, in many developed countries, there have been recommendations present for preventive vaccines against HPV. At present, the degree of implementation of these recommendations depends on a number of country-specific factors such as the health care system organization or the ways of funding. HPV vaccines are primarily to prevent the development of cervical cancer and other genital cancers. Therefore, only their long-term effectiveness can be measured, when a correspondingly large cohort of vaccinated teenagers reaches the age of the greatest incidence of these cancers. However, great care should be taken in assessing the results of vaccinations due to the possibility of misinterpretation and possible erroneous data. Undoubtedly, teenagers are the target population of HPV vaccines. However, vaccinating young sexually active women is also justified from an individual point of view. A 9-valent vaccine has been registered in the USA and in Europe – including Poland – as one of the three preventive vaccines. It is recommended to vaccinate women between 13 and 26 and men between 13 and 21, previously unvaccinated. It is also recommended to vaccinate men aged 26 years or less who have sexual relations with other men and people with reduced immunity, including HIV-positive people who have not been vaccinated previously.

  11. Ten years' clinical experience with biosimilar human growth hormone: a review of efficacy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Siguero, Juan Pedro; Pfäffle, Roland; Chanson, Philippe; Szalecki, Mieczyslaw; Höbel, Nadja; Zabransky, Markus

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved Omnitrope(®) as a biosimilar recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), on the basis of comparable quality, safety, and efficacy to the reference medicine (Genotropin(®), Pfizer). Data continue to be collected on the long-term efficacy of biosimilar rhGH from several on-going postapproval studies. Particular topics of interest include efficacy in indications granted on the basis of extrapolation, and whether efficacy of growth hormone treatment is affected when patients are changed to biosimilar rhGH from other rhGH products. Data from clinical development studies and 10 years of postapproval experience affirm the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of biosimilar rhGH across all approved indications. In addition, the decade of experience with biosimilar rhGH since it was approved in Europe confirms the scientific validity of the biosimilar pathway and the approval process. Concerns about clinical effect in extrapolated indications, and also about the impact of changing from other rhGH preparations, have been alleviated. Biosimilar rhGH is an effective treatment option for children who require therapy with rhGH.

  12. Ten Year Analysis of Tropopause-Overshooting Convection Using GridRad Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, John W.; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Homeyer, Cameron R.; Fenske, Tyler M.

    2018-01-01

    Convection that penetrates the tropopause (overshooting convection) rapidly transports air from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere, potentially mixing air between the two layers. This exchange of air can have a substantial impact on the composition, radiation, and chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). In order to improve our understanding of the role convection plays in the transport of trace gases across the tropopause, this study presents a 10 year analysis of overshooting convection for the eastern two thirds of the contiguous United States for March through August of 2004 to 2013 based on radar observations. Echo top altitudes are estimated at hourly intervals using high-resolution, three-dimensional, gridded, radar reflectivity fields created by merging observations from available radars in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) network. Overshooting convection is identified by comparing echo top altitudes with tropopause altitudes derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. It is found that overshooting convection is most common in the central United States, with a weak secondary maximum along the southeast coast. The maximum number of overshooting events occur consistently between 2200 and 0200 UTC. Most overshooting events occur in May, June, and July when convection is deepest and the tropopause altitude is relatively low. Approximately 45% of the analyzed overshooting events (those with echo tops at least 1 km above the tropopause) have echo tops extending above the 380 K level into the stratospheric overworld.

  13. Visual disability rates in a ten-year cohort of patients with anterior visual pathway meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor-Shavit, Elite; Hammel, Naama; Nahum, Yoav; Rappaport, Zvi Harry; Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas

    2015-01-01

    To examine the visual outcome of anterior visual pathway meningioma (AVPM) patients followed for at least one year. Data were collected on demographics, clinical course and management. Visual disability was classified at the first and last examination as follows: I--no visual disability; II--mild visual defect in one eye; III--mild visual defect in both eyes; IV--loss of driver's license; V--legally blind. Eight-one AVPM patients had their tumor originate in the clinoid process in 23 (28%), sphenoid-wing area in 18 (22%), cavernous sinus in 15 (19%), tuberculum sellae in 8 (10%), and mixed in 17 (21%). On last examination, 46 patients (57%) had good visual acuity in one or both eyes (Class I or II) and 17 (21%) were mildly affected in both eyes. The rate of Class IV disability was 16%, and Class V disability was 6%. Attention needs to be addressed to the considerable proportion of patients with AVPM (22% in this study) who may lose their driver's license or become legally blind. Occupational therapists should play an important role in the multidisciplinary management of those patients to help them adapt to their new physical and social situation. Anterior visual pathway meningiomas (AVPMs) are commonly not life-threatening but they can lead to profound visual disability, especially when the tumor originates in the tuberculum sellae and cavernous sinus. Particular attention should be paid to visual acuity and visual field deficits, as these can profoundly affect the patient's quality of life including ability to drive and activities of daily living. The interdisciplinary management of patients with AVPM should include the neurosurgeon, neuro-ophthalmologist and occupational therapist. Also, early intervention by the occupational therapist can help patients adapt to their current physical and social situation and return to everyday tasks more rapidly.

  14. Ten Years of Equine-related Injuries: Severity and Implications for Emergency Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Scott B; Blostein, Paul A; Schrotenboer, Andrew; Sloffer, Chris A; VandenBerg, Sheri L

    2015-11-01

    The size, speed, and unpredictable nature of horses present a significant risk for injury in all equine-related activities. We sought to examine the mechanism, severity, frequency, body regions affected, surgical requirements, rehabilitation needs, safety equipment utilization, and outcomes of equine-related injured patients. Records of inpatients who sustained an equine-related injury from 2002-2011 with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes E828 and E906 were retrospectively reviewed for pertinent data. Ninety patients, 70% female, age (mean ± SD) 37.3 ± 19.4 years, length of stay 3.7 ± 4.5 days, Injury Severity Score 12.9 ± 8.4. Predominant mechanism of injury was fall from horse (46.7%). The chest (23%) was most frequently injured, followed by brain/head (21.5%). Thirty patients (33%) required 57 surgical procedures. Twenty percent of patients required occupational therapy and 33.3% required physical therapy while hospitalized. Only 3% required rehabilitation, with 90% discharged directly home. Safety equipment was not used in 91.9% of patients. One patient sustained a cord injury. Six patients expired, all from extensive head injuries. The majority of equine-related injuries occur while pursuing recreational activities and are due to falls. Our patients experienced more severe injuries to the trunk and head and required more surgical intervention for pelvic, facial, and brain injuries than previously reported. Failure to use safety equipment contributes to the risk of severe injury. Education and injury prevention is essential. The need for complex surgical intervention by multiple specialties supports transfer to Level I trauma centers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Henoch-Schönlein purpura outcome in children: A ten-year clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Dimitrijeva Brankica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP is the most common vasculitis of childhood. It is characterized by symptoms including nonthrombocytopenic purpura, abdominal pain, haematuria/proteinuria, and arthralgia/arthritis. The pleiomorphism of clinical signs in HSP could be confused with other conditions or other vasculitis forms. Objective. Evaluation of HSP clinical presentation, the onset and severity of renal manifestation in affected children and their outcome. Methods. A retrospective study of 49 patients diagnosed with HSP was conducted from September 1999 to September 2009. Children with severe renal manifestations (nephrotic range proteinuria, with or without nephrotic or nephritic syndrome have undergone kidney biopsy. Results. Twenty-five patients developed renal manifestations after onset of the disease. In our study child’s older age was a risk factor for association with HSP nephritis. Six of the patients required kidney biopsy. They were successfully treated with various immunosuppressive protocols, as well as three of nine patients with nephrotic range proteinuria. Two patients developed most severe form of HSP nephritis, nephrotic-nephritic syndrome with histology grade IIIb/IVb. During the study period (average follow-up 6 years, all patients had a normal global renal function with mild proteinuria in only two cases. The prognosis of renal involvement was better than reports from other patient series. Conclusion. Long-term morbidity of HSP is predominantly attributed to renal involvement. During the study period, no patient had renal insufficiency or end stage renal disease after various combinations of immunosuppressive treatment. It is recommended that patients with HSP nephritis are followed for longer periods of time with a regular measurement of renal function and proteinuria.

  16. Stochastic modelling of basal temperatures in divide regions of the Antarctic ice sheet over the last 1.5 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liefferinge, Brice; Pattyn, Frank; Cavitte, Marie G. P.; Young, Duncan A.; Roberts, Jason L.

    2017-04-01

    The quest for oldest ice in Antarctica has recently been launched through an EU H2020 project (Beyond EPICA - Oldest Ice) and aims at identifying suitable areas for a potential future drilling. Retrieving an ice core of such age is essential to understand the relation between orbital changes and atmospheric composition during the mid-Pliocene transition. However, sites for a potential undisturbed record of 1.5 million-year old ice in Antarctica are difficult to find and require slow-moving ice (preferably an ice divide) and basal conditions that are not disturbed by large topographic variations. Furthermore, ice should be sufficiently thick but cold basal conditions should still prevail, since basal melting would destroy the bottom layers. Therefore, ice-flow conditions and thermodynamic characteristics are crucial for identifying potential locations of undisturbed ice. Van Liefferinge and Pattyn (2013) identified suitable areas based on a pan-Antarctic simplified thermodynamic ice sheet model and demonstrated that uncertainty in geothermal conditions remain a major unknown. In order to refine these estimates, and provide uncertainties, we employ a full thermo-mechanically coupled higher-order ice sheet model (Pattyn, 2003; Pattyn et al., 2004). Initial conditions for the calculations are based on an inversion of basal slipperiness, based on observed surface topography (Pollard and DeConto, 2012; Pattyn, in prep.). Uncertainties in geothermal conditions are introduced using the convolution of two Gaussian probability density functions: (a) the reconstruction of the Antarctic ice sheet geometry and testing ice thickness variability over the last 2 million years (Pollard and DeConto, 2009) and (b) the surface temperature reconstruction over the same period (Snyder et al., 2016). The standard deviation, the skewness and the kurtosis of the whole Antarctic ice sheet are analyzed to observe likely probable melt conditions. Finally, we focus on model results in the

  17. Ten-year trends in overweight and obesity in the adult Portuguese population, 1995 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravasco Paula

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information regarding the trends in body mass index (BMI and obesity in the overall Portuguese population, namely if these trends are similar according to educational level. In this study, we assessed the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population, overall and by educational level. Methods Cross-sectional national health interview surveys conducted in 1995-6 (n = 38,504, 1998-9 (n = 38,688 and 2005-6 (n = 25,348. Data were derived from the population and housing census of 1991 and two geographically-based strata were defined. The sampling unit was the house, and all subjects living in the sampling unit were surveyed. Height and weight were self-reported; the effects of gender, age group and educational level were also assessed by self-reported structured questionnaires. Bivariate comparisons were performed using Chi-square or analysis of variance (ANOVA. Trends in BMI levels were assessed by linear regression analysis, while trends in the prevalence of obesity were assessed by logistic regression. Results Mean (±standard deviation BMI increased from 25.2 ± 4.0 in 1995-6 to 25.7 ± 4.5 kg/m2 in 2005-6. Prevalence of overweight remained stable (36.1% in 1995-6 and 36.4% in 2005 while prevalence of obesity increased (11.5% in 1995-6 and 15.1% in 2005-6. Similar findings were observed according to age group. Mean age-adjusted BMI increase (expressed in kg/m2/year and 95% confidence interval was 0.073 (0.062, 0.084, 0.016 (0.000, 0.031 and 0.073 (0.049, 0.098 in men with primary, secondary and university levels, respectively; the corresponding values in women were 0.085 (0.073, 0.097, 0.052 (0.035, 0.069 and 0.062 (0.038, 0.084. Relative to 1995-6, obesity rates increased by 48%, 41% and 59% in men and by 40%, 75% and 177% in women with primary, secondary and university levels, respectively. The corresponding values for overweight were 6%, 1% and 23% in men and 5%, 7% and 65

  18. Ten years' clinical experience with biosimilar human growth hormone: a review of efficacy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Siguero JP

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Juan Pedro López-Siguero,1 Roland Pfäffle,2 Philippe Chanson,3 Mieczyslaw Szalecki,4,5 Nadja Höbel,6 Markus Zabransky6 1Servicio de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Hospital Materno-Infantil, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Spain; 2University Children’s Hospital Leipzig, Germany; 3Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Diseases, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris and University Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; 4Clinic of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Children’s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland; 5Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences UJK, Kielce, Poland; 6Sandoz Biopharmaceuticals, Hexal AG, Holzkirchen, Germany Abstract: In 2006, the European Medicines Agency (EMA approved Omnitrope® as a biosimilar recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH, on the basis of comparable quality, safety, and efficacy to the reference medicine (Genotropin®, Pfizer. Data continue to be collected on the long-term efficacy of biosimilar rhGH from several on-going postapproval studies. Particular topics of interest include efficacy in indications granted on the basis of extrapolation, and whether efficacy of growth hormone treatment is affected when patients are changed to biosimilar rhGH from other rhGH products. Data from clinical development studies and 10 years of postapproval experience affirm the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of biosimilar rhGH across all approved indications. In addition, the decade of experience with biosimilar rhGH since it was approved in Europe confirms the scientific validity of the biosimilar pathway and the approval process. Concerns about clinical effect in extrapolated indications, and also about the impact of changing from other rhGH preparations, have been alleviated. Biosimilar rhGH is an effective treatment option for children who require therapy with rhGH. Keywords: recombinant human growth hormone, Omnitrope®, biosimilar

  19. Rheumatic symptoms in childhood leukaemia and lymphoma-a ten-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zombori, Luca; Kovacs, Gabor; Csoka, Monika; Derfalvi, Beata

    2013-01-01

    The initial symptoms of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma are often similar to those of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In our study, we analyzed the frequency and characteristics of musculoskeletal complaints as the initial presenting symptoms of newly diagnosed leukaemia and lymphoma patients in the past 10 years in our clinic. Using the Hungarian Tumour Register, we performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 166 new leukaemia and 95 new lymphoma pediatric patients treated from 1999 to 2009 at the 2nd. Dept. of Paediatrics of the Semmelweis University in Budapest. Twenty percent of the leukaemic (33 children) and 2% of the lymphoma patients (2 children) had musculoskeletal symptoms at first presentation. Two-thirds of both groups of patients had other general symptoms like fever and/or fatigue. The hip was the most frequently affected joint (7/33) in the leukaemic patients. Twenty-four percent of all the children had been previously evaluated by an orthopaedist; 12% had visited another rheumatologist prior to diagnosis. Imaging had been done in an unexpectedly low number of patients prior to referral to our unit (radiographs: 16 or 48%, ultrasound: 5 patients or 15%). Radiographs of the affected joints were abnormal in only one case (1/16, 6%). The joint ultrasound was abnormal in only three children of 5 studied (3/5, 60%). Anaemia (26/32, 6%), thrombocytopenia (78%) and LDH elevation (3-4 times the normal count) were frequent in the leukaemic patients. Half of the cases had a normal leukocyte count. The lymphoma group had similar results. Two patients of the leukaemia group received steroid treatment before the final diagnosis. Severe pain out of proportion to physical findings is another clue. Haematologic malignancies must be excluded before initiation of therapy for childhood arthritis among children presenting with musculoskeletal signs and symptoms, particularly in atypical cases. Malignancies are to be suspected when pain is

  20. Ten years of Aeolus II - 3 MW; 10 Jahre Aeolus II - 3 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, H.; Knuenz, D. [Aeolus-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Ottersberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    On 15 October 1992, PreussenElektra commissioned the 3 MW Aeolus II wind power plant in Jade wind park near Wilhelmshaven. The plant was developed and produced in a joined venture of Kvaerner Turbin AG, Sweden, and Messerschmidt Boelkow Blohm, MBB, Germany, and funded by the EC WEGA II programme through the German state of Niedersachsen, The BMFT, and PreussenElektra. Two institutes, FFA Sweden and Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (DEWI) cooperated in the project. After 8 years of operation, the prototype plant was sold by E.ON (formerly PreussenElektra) to Aeolus Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Ottersberg, in May 2000. Measurements were made by DEWI from January 1994 through June 1995, with the following results: The technical availability in the first half of 1995 was 91.8 percent. This is excellent in view of the fact that the plant is a prototype in an unusual size. The power coefficient curve can compete with those of the 500-600 kW category, except for the fact that the system shuts off already at a wind speed of 20 m/s. (orig.) [German] Am 15. Oktober 1992 nahm die PreussenElektra im Jade Windpark bei Wilhelmshaven die 3 MW Windkraftanlage Aeolus II in Betrieb. Eine Kooperation zwischen der Kvaerner Turbin AG aus Schweden und der Messerschmidt Boelkow Blohm, MBB, Deutschland, uebernahm Entwicklung und Produktion der Anlage. Finanziert wurde der Prototyp durch die EG im Rahmen des WEGA II Programms, durch das Land Niedersachsen, das Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, BMFT, und der PreussenElektra. Am Projekt beteiligt waren die Institute FFA Schweden und das Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (DEWI). Nach 8 Betriebsjahren wurde der Prototyp im Mai 2000 von der E.ON (vorm. PreussenElektra) an die Aeolus Betriebsgesellschaft mbH in Ottersberg verkauft. Vom 01.01.1994 bis zum 30.6.1995 wurde die Anlage durch das DEWI vermessen. Das DEWI bewertet die Anlage im August 1995 nach Abschluss der Vermessung wie folgt: Fuer das erste Halbjahr 1995 ergibt sich eine

  1. Peer-review and editorial process of the Ethiopian Medical Journal: ten years assessment of the status of submitted manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquselassie, Fikre

    2013-04-01

    The Ethiopian Medical Journal (EMJ) is a peer-reviewed journal, now 50 years old. Many medical journals, including EMJ, follow a peer review system that has evolved from the 18th century process for reviewing submitted manuscripts. However, not much is known about peer review and editorial processes by many authors who submit manuscripts to the EMJ. To describe procedures related to EMJ peer-review and editorial decision making and asses the status of manuscripts submitted to the journal in the ten year period between 2001 and 2010. All the minutes of the editorial board meetings of the ten years period 2001-2010 and relevant documents were reviewed. The minutes have details including date of submission, dates to and from reviewers, date of decision, number of assigned peer reviewers and comments given by reviewers for each submitted manuscript. The length of time took in the processes and the decision made (accepted or rejected) for each submitted manuscript was calculated from the dates. All submitted manuscripts passed through three stages: internal per-review by an editorial board member, external peer review by selected reviewers and final editing stage by an assigned editorial member. A total of 615 manuscripts were submitted to EMJ in the ten years period 2001-2010. Five hundred and one (82.7%) manuscripts were accepted for publication by peer reviewers, while 74 (12.2%) were rejected and 31 (5.1%) were withdrawn. Acceptance was lowest among original articles (81.3%) followed by teaching or review articles (84.3%) and case reports (89.3%). Thirty-two (8.4%) manuscripts were accepted within 6 months following submission and 50% were accepted within in one year of submission. About 6% of manuscripts were delayed for more than two years with a maximum delay of 43 months. Even though, there is a decline trend on the delay of processing manuscripts, EMJ has long to go in order to improve the quality of the journal and shorten the slow peer review process

  2. The occurrence of osteoarthritis at a minimum of ten years after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patt Thomas W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of radiographic osteoarthritis in the operated knee in comparison with the contralateral knee ten years after a bone-tendon bone patellar autograft ACL-reconstruction and to evaluate to which level patients regain activity ten years after reconstruction. Methods Fifty-three patients with ACL instability were operated arthroscopically using the central third of the patellar tendon as a bone-tendon-bone autograft. At a minimum of 10 year follow up 28/44 patients matched the inclusion criteria and could be reached for follow-up. Evaluation included a patient satisfaction evaluation using a Visual Analog Scale, physical examination (International Knee Documentation Committee score, Tegner score, Lysholm score, KT-1000 stabilometry and a radiological evaluation (Kellgren and Fairbanks classification. Results The patients' satisfaction, at a mean of 10,3 year follow-up, measured with a VAS score (0–10 was high with a mean of 8.5 (range 4 to 10. The KT 1000 arthrometer laxity measurements revealed in 55% of the patients an A rating (1–2 mm, in 29% a B rating (3–5 mm and in 16% a C rating (6–10 mm. According to the Tegner score 54% of the patients were able to perform at the same activity level as pre-operatively. The mean pre-operative Tegner score was 6.8 and the mean post-operative Tegner score was 6.0 at final follow up. The Lysholm score showed satisfactory results with a mean of 91 points (range 56 to 100. According to the Kellgren and Fairbank classifications, there is a significant difference (p Conclusion The patellar BTB ACL reconstruction does not prevent the occurrence of radiological OA after 10 years but does help the patient to regain the pre-operative level of activity.

  3. Ten-year echo/doppler determination of the benefits of aerobic exercise after the age of 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, Alexander J; Kim, Hyunggun; Kane, Bonnie; McPherson, David D

    2010-01-01

    As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (+/-3) and 77 (+/-2) years (mean +/- SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events.

  4. Trace element contamination in the Guadalquivir River Estuary ten years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Victoria; Arias, Alberto M; Blasco, Julián

    2014-09-15

    Sediments, clams Scrobicularia plana and worms Hediste diversicolor from the Guadalquivir estuary were collected ten years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill and analyzed for metals. Significant seasonal and spatial effects were detected for most elements, so data from different sampling periods and locations were treated separately. Overall, the most polluted sites were found upstream, although Zn and Cu tended to accumulate at the estuary mouth. A significant decline of Zn in sediments and clams was observed compared to levels reported following the spill, so the estuarine ecosystem has recovered. However, the concentrations of some elements in S. plana were still higher than those of heavily contaminated regions. In this mollusk, Pb and As levels were higher in 2008 than in previous years, suggesting a new source entering into the estuary. Metals in sediments presented low bioavailability for biota, so other sources must account for the concentrations observed in these species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing mortality from ischaemic heart disease in China from 2004 to 2010: disproportionate rise in rural areas and elderly subjects. 438 million person-years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Khan, Arshad A; Haq, Ehtesham Ul; Rahim, Aadil; Hu, Dayi; Attia, John; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ding, Rongjing; Boyle, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    We sought to ascertain the changes in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) from 2004 to 2010 in China as the sheer size of China's population makes disease patterns relevant globally. Data on IHD mortality were obtained from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention National Disease Surveillance Point System, which includes 161 counties and a population of over 73 million-a representative sample of over 6% of the entire population of China. Both crude and World Health Organization (WHO)-standardized IHD mortality increased, in both men and women and in both urban and rural locations, during the study period, demonstrating the effect of urbanization, economic growth, and epidemiological transition on cardiovascular health. WHO-standardized IHD mortality increased for rural males by 9.2% per year (95% CI: 6.7-11.7%; P < 0.0001), and the trend was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.0001) than in urban males by 6.4% per year (95% CI: 3-10%; P = 0.02). WHO-standardized IHD mortality rate increased for rural females by 7.0% per year (95% CI: 4.6-9.4%; P < 0.0001); this was statistically significantly higher than urban females by 4.3% per year (95% CI: 1-8%; P = 0.02). The age group over 80 years showed the greatest increase in IHD mortality. Mortality from IHD is increasing in China, in contrast to decreasing in other countries. This is largely driven by increasing IHD mortality in rural areas and subjects over 80 years old. This needs urgent attention by public health workers and policymakers.

  6. Characteristics and Risk Factors for Negative Academic Events: A 27-Year Serial Prevalence Study of 9.7 Million Japanese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Chiyoko; Uchida, Mai

    2017-08-10

    To examine the prevalence of and the factors contributing to leaves of absence and school discontinuation in Japanese college students over a 27-year period. Trends in these academic events over time were assessed, and students at elevated risk and psychosocial difficulties in need of supportive intervention were identified. Surveys were collected from the majority of Japanese national universities between 1985 and 2012, yielding data on a total of 9.7 million Japanese university students. Each year, data collected included the number of students enrolled at a university and the number of students who discontinued school and took leaves of absence. The reasons for these academic events were also collected in the surveys. We found that instances of these academic events have become prevalent over the past decades among Japanese university students. The rates of leaves of absence and school discontinuation for men were consistently higher than that for women throughout the study. Negative reasons such as apathetic state were the dominant reason for these academic events. Males, especially in 4-year programs (liberal arts and sciences), were more likely to have negative events due to negative reasons such as apathetic state. These students were not diagnosed psychiatrically. The population of students at elevated risk should receive psychosocial interventions and be provided mental health support.

  7. Socioeconomic position and ten-year survival and virologic outcomes in a Ugandan HIV cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Flynn

    Full Text Available Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years. We documented baseline employment status, regular household income, education level, housing description, physical ability, and CD4 count. Viral load was measured every six months. Proportional hazard regression tested for associations between baseline characteristics and 1 mortality, 2 virologic failure, and 3 mortality or virologic failure as a composite outcome. Over ten years 23% (n = 127 of participants died, 6% (n = 31 were lost-to-follow-up and 23% (107/472 experienced virologic treatment failure. In Kaplan-Meier analysis we observed an association between employment and mortality, with the highest cumulative probability of death occurring in unemployed individuals. In univariate analysis unemployment and disease severity were associated with mortality, but in multivariable analysis the only association with mortality was disease severity. We observed an association between higher household income and an increased incidence of both virologic failure and the combined outcome, and an association between self-employment and lower incidence of virologic failure and the combined outcome when compared to unemployment. Formal education level and housing status were unrelated to outcomes. It is feasible to achieve good ten-year survival, retention-in-care, and viral suppression in a socioeconomically diverse population in a resource-limited setting. Unemployment appears to be related to adverse 10

  8. Multifocal osteonecrosis related to corticosteroid: ten years later, risk of progression and observation of subsequent new osteonecroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Roubineau, François; Heyberger, Clemence; Bouthors, Charlie; Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    No study has reported the risk of other site osteonecroses after the diagnosis of multifocal osteonecrosis related to corticosteroids in patients who continue this corticosteroid treatment. An analysis of the time-course to other sites of osteonecrosis, as well as the effects of underlying corticosteroid risk factor on the evolution of asymptomatic lesions at the time of diagnosis, is presented. Two hundred patients were followed prospectively every year during a minimum ten years with a radiograph if a joint became symptomatic. In absence of evidence of osteonecrosis on radiographs of a symptomatic or non-symptomatic joint (hips, shoulders, knees, ankles), patients had an MRI performed at the most recent follow up. The average duration of follow-up after inclusion of the patient in the study was 15 years (range 10-20). Of the 200 patients followed for an average of 15 years (minimum 10 years, maximum 20 years), 35 patients developed new osteonecrosis lesions during the period of study. Asymptomatic lesions became symptomatic and a high number of collapse was observed resulting in 258 arthroplasties (187 hips, 51 shoulders, 20 knees) at the most recent follow up. The continuation of peak doses (>200 mg) of corticosteroids predicted (p = 0.04) occurrence of new lesions and the continuation of corticosteroids without peak dose was a risk for quicker progression to collapse.

  9. Problem-based learning outcomes: ten years of experience at the University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kimberly; Hosokawa, Michael; Blake, Robert; Headrick, Linda; Johnson, Gina

    2006-07-01

    To add to a previous publication from the University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine (UMCSOM) on students' improvement in United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores after the implementation of a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum by studying the performance of ten PBL class cohorts at the UMCSOM. Characteristics of graduating classes matriculating in both traditional and PBL curricula, 1993-2006, were compared for Medical College Admission Test component scores, undergraduate grade point averages, performance on the USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 exams, faculty contact hours, and residency directors' evaluations of UMCSOM graduates' performance in the first year of residency. Mean scores of six of the ten comparisons for USMLE Step 1 and six of nine comparisons for USMLE Step 2 are significantly higher (p academically advantaged students, increased time on task, or reduced class size. Gains in performance continue into residency, as evidenced by program directors' perceptions of superior performance of UMCSOM PBL graduates. The PBL curricular changes implemented with the graduating class of 1997 resulted in higher performances on USMLEs and improved evaluations from residency program directors. These changes better prepare graduates with knowledge and skills needed to practice within a complex health care system. Outcomes reported here support the investment of financial and human resources in our PBL curriculum.

  10. Ethnic inequalities in cancer incidence and mortality: census-linked cohort studies with 87 million years of person-time follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Andrea M; Atkinson, June; Disney, George; Wilson, Nick; Sarfati, Diana; McLeod, Melissa; Blakely, Tony

    2016-09-26

    Cancer makes up a large and increasing proportion of excess mortality for indigenous, marginalised and socioeconomically deprived populations, and much of this inequality is preventable. This study aimed to determine which cancers give rise to changing ethnic inequalities over time. New Zealand census data from 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006, were all probabilistically linked to three to five subsequent years of mortality (68 million person-years) and cancer registrations (87 million person years) and weighted for linkage bias. Age-standardised rate differences (SRDs) for Māori (indigenous) and Pacific peoples, each compared to European/Other, were decomposed by cancer type. The absolute size and percentage of the cancer contribution to excess mortality increased from 1981-86 to 2006-11 in Māori males (SRD 72.5 to 102.0 per 100,000) and females (SRD 72.2 to 109.4), and Pacific females (SRD -9.8 to 42.2) each compared to European/Other. Specifically, excess mortality (SRDs) increased for breast cancer in Māori females (linear trend p < 0.01) and prostate (p < 0.01) and colorectal cancers (p < 0.01) in Māori males. The incidence gap (SRDs) increased for breast (Māori and Pacific females p < 0.01), endometrial (Pacific females p < 0.01) and liver cancers (Māori males p = 0.04), and for cervical cancer it decreased (Māori females p = 0.03). The colorectal cancer incidence gap which formerly favoured Māori, decreased for Māori males and females (p < 0.01). The greatest contributors to absolute inequalities (SRDs) in mortality in 2006-11 were lung cancer (Māori males 50 %, Māori females 44 %, Pacific males 81 %), breast cancer (Māori females 18 %, Pacific females 23 %) and stomach cancers (Māori males 9 %, Pacific males 16 %, Pacific females 20 %). The top contributors to the ethnic gap in cancer incidence were lung, breast, stomach, endometrial and liver cancer. A transition is occurring in what diseases

  11. Learning from lawsuits: Ten-years of NHS litigation authority claims against 11 surgical specialities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathryn E; Cooper, Lilli R L

    2016-05-06

    Medico-legal claims are a drain on NHS resources and promote defencive practice. The litigious burden of surgery in England has not been previously described. This paper describes trends over ten years of claims made against the NHS across 11 surgical specialities. Data were requested for all claims received by the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) from 2004 to 2014. Surgical specialities included cardiothoracic, general, neurosurgery, obstetric, oral and maxillofacial (OMFS), orthopaedic, otorhinolaryngology, paediatric, plastic, urology and vascular surgery. A literature review of peer-reviewed publications was performed with search terms 'NHSLA' and 'Surgery'. The NHS paid out approximately £1.5 billion across 11 surgical specialities from 2004 to 2014. Orthopaedic, obstetric and general surgery received the largest number of claims per year, and paediatric surgery the least. The mean time from registration of claim with the NHSLA to settlement was 25.5 months (range 17.8 months-35 months). Neurosurgery was responsible for the highest average amount paid per claim, and OMFS the lowest. Failure/delay in treatment and/or diagnosis and failure to warn/adequately consent were the three leading types of claim. 806 never events were successfully claimed for during the ten-year period. Sharing information and good practice should be a priority for surgical professionals. Lessons learnt from medico-legal claims are transferrable in strategic planning. This pan-speciality report has demonstrated considerable burden on the NHS and should promote improvement in practice on an individual level in addition to providing systems based recommendations to NHS and international organisations. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Advanced HIV Disease at Enrolment in HIV Care: Trends and Associated Factors over a Ten Year Period in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaksmey Pe

    Full Text Available Early HIV diagnosis and enrolment in care is needed to achieve early antiretroviral treatment (ART initiation. Studies on HIV disease stage at enrolment in care from Asian countries are limited. We evaluated trends in and factors associated with late HIV disease presentation over a ten-year period in the largest ART center in Cambodia.We conducted a retrospective analysis of program data including all ARV-naïve adults (> 18 years old enrolling into HIV care from March 2003-December 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We calculated the proportion presenting with advanced stage HIV disease (WHO clinical stage IV or CD4 cell count <100 cells/μL and the probability of ART initiation by six months after enrolment. Factors associated with late presentation were determined using multivariate logistic regression.From 2003-2013, a total of 5642 HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV care. The proportion of late presenters decreased from 67% in 2003 to 44% in 2009 and 41% in 2013; a temporary increase to 52% occurred in 2011 coinciding with logistical/budgetary constraints at the national program level. Median CD4 counts increased from 32 cells/μL (IQR 11-127 in 2003 to 239 cells/μL (IQR 63-291 in 2013. Older age and male sex were associated with late presentation across the ten-year period. The probability of ART initiation by six months after enrolment increased from 22.6% in 2003-2006 to 79.9% in 2011-2013.Although a gradual improvement was observed over time, a large proportion of patients still enroll late, particularly older or male patients. Interventions to achieve early HIV testing and efficient linkage to care are warranted.

  13. The statistical analysis of failure of a MEVATRON77 DX67 linear accelerator over a ten year period

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, H; Tahara, S; Uno, H; Kadohisa, S; Azuma, Y; Nakagiri, Y; Hiraki, Y

    2003-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) takes a leading role in radiation therapy. A linac consists of complicated main parts and systems and it is required that highly accurate operational procedures should be maintained. Operational failure occurs for various reasons. In this report, the failure occurrences of one linac over a ten year period were recorded and analyzed. The subject model was a MEVATRON77 DX67 (Siemens, Inc). The failure rate for each system, the form classification of the contents of failure, the operation situation at the time of failure, and the average performance life of the main parts were totaled. Moreover, the relation between the number of therapies that patients received (operating efficiency) and the failure rate within that number and the relation between environment (temperature and humidity) and the failure rate attributed to other systems were analyzed. In this report, irradiation interruption was also included with situations where treatment was unable to begin in total for the number o...

  14. Ten Years Evidence-Based High-Tech Acupuncture—A Short Review of Peripherally Measured Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, the Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine of Graz Medical University has been dealing with the demystification of acupuncture and examining, using non-invasive methods, how different stimulation modalities (manual needle acupuncture, laserneedle acupuncture and electro acupuncture affect peripheral and central functions. Laser is also an important instrument for acupuncture. One only needs to mention the treatment of children or of patients with needle phobia. The laserneedle acupuncture, which was examined scientifically for the first time in Graz, represents a new painless acupuncture method for which up to ten laserneedles are glued to the skin, but not stuck into it. This first part of the short review article summarizes some of the peripherally measured effects of acupuncture obtained at the Medical University of Graz within the last 10 years.

  15. Ten-year follow-up of giant basilar aneurysm treated by sole stenting technique: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, Marco; Gómez, Camilo R; Santos-Franco, Ja; Vinuela, Fernando; Aburto-Murrieta, Y; Lee, Angel

    2010-02-22

    The sole stenting technique has emerged as a new tool for the management of intracranial aneurysms. However, several concerns have emerged about the long-term behavior of intracranial stents, particularly their safety and efficacy. We present the first case of an intracranial aneurysm intentionally treated with the sole stenting technique. After ten years of clinical and imaging follow-up, the lesion has healed and no intrastent stenosis is observed.Several issues concerning this technique are discussed. For instance, the modification of the angle and intra-aneurysmal thrombosis may account as positive effects; negative outcomes include in-stent thrombosis or stenosis. This case report, involving a long clinical and imaging follow-up, provides an example of the effectiveness, safety, durability and simplicity of the sole stenting technique in the management of intracranial aneurysms.

  16. Ten-year follow-up of giant basilar aneurysm treated by sole stenting technique: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Angel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The sole stenting technique has emerged as a new tool for the management of intracranial aneurysms. However, several concerns have emerged about the long-term behavior of intracranial stents, particularly their safety and efficacy. Case presentation We present the first case of an intracranial aneurysm intentionally treated with the sole stenting technique. After ten years of clinical and imaging follow-up, the lesion has healed and no intrastent stenosis is observed. Several issues concerning this technique are discussed. For instance, the modification of the angle and intra-aneurysmal thrombosis may account as positive effects; negative outcomes include in-stent thrombosis or stenosis. Conclusions This case report, involving a long clinical and imaging follow-up, provides an example of the effectiveness, safety, durability and simplicity of the sole stenting technique in the management of intracranial aneurysms.

  17. Rotationplasty type BI versus type BIIIa in children under the age of ten years. Should the knee be preserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardes, J; Gosheger, G; Vachtsevanos, L; Hoffmann, C; Ahrens, H; Winkelmann, W

    2005-03-01

    Type BI rotationplasty is currently indicated for children with tumours of the proximal femur whereas type BIIIa rotationplasty is reserved for those in which the entire femur has to be removed. Our aim was to compare these two types of rotationplasty and determine whether the knee should be preserved in children with tumours of the proximal femur. We compared the post-operative complications, oncological outcome, range of movement, Enneking score and radiographs of six children, who had undergone type BI rotationplasty with those of 12 who had undergone type BIIIa rotationplasty. Patients with type BI rotationplasty had a mean Enneking score of 21.6 compared with 24.4 in those with type BIIIa rotationplasty, and worse mean results in all of the parameters investigated. We conclude that type BI rotationplasty has a worse functional outcome and more complications than type BIIIa rotationplasty in children under the age of ten years.

  18. Vaccine Adverse Events Reported during the First Ten Years (1998–2008 after Introduction in the State of Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica P. L. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite good safety records, vaccines given to young children can cause adverse events. We investigated the reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI of vaccines given to children of less than seven years of age during the first ten years (1998 to 2008 in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. We worked with the events related to BCG (Bacillus Calmett-Guérin, HB (hepatitis B, DTwP/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis+Hemophillus influenza b, DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, MMR (mumps, measles, rubella, and YF (yellow fever vaccines because they were part of the recommended scheme. The number of doses of vaccines given was 3,231,567 with an average of AEFI of 57.2/year during the studied period. DTwP/Hib was responsible for 298 (57.8%, DTP 114 (22.9%, HB 31 (6%, MMR 28 (5.4%, BCG 24 (4.7%, and YF 20 (3.9% of the reported AEFI. The combination of the AEFI for DTwP/Hib vaccines showed the highest number of systemic (61.4% and local events (33.8%. Young children (≤1-year old were more susceptible to AEFI occurring in the 6 hours (54.2% following vaccine uptake. This study suggests significant differences in reactogenicity of vaccines and that despite limitations of the AEFI Brazilian registry system we cannot ignore underreporting and should use the system to expand our understanding of adverse events and effects.

  19. Tiny vampires in ancient seas: evidence for predation via perforation in fossils from the 780-740 million-year-old Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Susannah M

    2016-05-25

    One explanation for the Early Neoproterozoic expansion of eukaryotes is the appearance of eukaryovorous predators-i.e. protists that preyed on other protists. Evidence for eukaryovory at this time, however, is indirect, based on inferences from character state reconstructions and molecular clocks, and on the presence of possible defensive structures in some protistan fossils. Here I describe 0.1-3.4 µm circular holes in seven species of organic-walled microfossils from the 780-740 million-year-old Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, that are similar to those formed today by predatory protists that perforate the walls of their prey to consume the contents inside. Although best known in the vampyrellid amoebae, this 'vampire-like' behaviour is widespread among eukaryotes, making it difficult to infer confidently the identity of the predator. Nonetheless, the identity of the prey is clear: some-and perhaps all-of the fossils are eukaryotes. These holes thus provide the oldest direct evidence for predation on eukaryotes. Larger circular and half-moon-shaped holes in vase-shaped microfossils from the upper part of the unit may also be the work of 'tiny vampires', suggesting a diversity of eukaryovorous predators lived in the ancient Chuar sea. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Lgals6, a 2-million-year-old gene in mice: a case of positive Darwinian selection and presence/absence polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzelstein, Denis; Gonçalves, Isabelle R; Orth, Annie; Bonhomme, François; Netter, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    Duplications of genes are widely considered to be a driving force in the evolutionary process. The fate of such duplicated genes (paralogs) depends mainly on the early stages of their evolution. Therefore, the study of duplications that have already started to diverge is useful to better understand their evolution. We present here the example of a 2-million-year-old segmental duplication at the origin of the Lgals4 and Lgals6 genes in the mouse genome. We analyzed the distribution of these genes in samples from 110 wild individuals and wild-derived inbred strains belonging to eight mouse species from Mus (Coelomys) pahari to M. musculus and 28 laboratory strains. Using a maximum-likelihood method, we show that the sequence of the Lgals6 gene has evolved under the influence of strong positive selection that is likely to result in its neofunctionalization. Surprisingly, despite this selection pressure, the Lgals6 gene is present in some mouse species, but not all. Furthermore, even within the species and populations where it is present, the Lgals6 gene is never fixed. To explain this paradox, we propose different hypotheses such as balanced selection and neutral retention of ancient polymophism and we discuss this unexpected result with regard to known galectin properties and response to infections by pathogens.

  1. 1.2 million years of aeolian activity in northwestern Western Australian recorded in a deep-sea core in the eastern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuut, Jan-Berend; Bassinot, Franck; De Deckker, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    There is no continuous record of aridity from the Australian continent and we are presenting here, for the first time, a record of aeolian activity for northwestern Western Australia. Our data are based on a 32m long deep-sea core taken offshore North West Cape, the northwestern tip of Western Australia. Our data rely on 2 adjacent studies: (a) a complete XRF scan of the core which provide elemental ratios which are translated into an aeolian component as well as a fluvial discharge-to-sea component. The first one relates to periods of aridity inland Australia, whereas the second one is interpreted as river discharge during periods of monsoonal activity; (b) a close examination of samples collected in the source area(s) of sediments that are both blown to the core site as well as washed into the ocean by rivers. The bulk-chemical composition of these sediments are compared to each other and show that there is clear end-member signal in the sediment core that can be related to differing sediment-transport mechanisms: aeolian dust and river mud. Our results clearly show a cyclic record of alternating dry and wet periods spanning the last 1.2 million years. Our findings also indicate that monsoonal activity as well as desertification were already in place in northern Australia so long ago, and this has clear implications for the evolution of the arid zone biota, associated fire activities and geomorphological features in northern Australia.

  2. Tiny vampires in ancient seas: evidence for predation via perforation in fossils from the 780–740 million-year-old Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    One explanation for the Early Neoproterozoic expansion of eukaryotes is the appearance of eukaryovorous predators—i.e. protists that preyed on other protists. Evidence for eukaryovory at this time, however, is indirect, based on inferences from character state reconstructions and molecular clocks, and on the presence of possible defensive structures in some protistan fossils. Here I describe 0.1–3.4 µm circular holes in seven species of organic-walled microfossils from the 780–740 million-year-old Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, that are similar to those formed today by predatory protists that perforate the walls of their prey to consume the contents inside. Although best known in the vampyrellid amoebae, this ‘vampire-like’ behaviour is widespread among eukaryotes, making it difficult to infer confidently the identity of the predator. Nonetheless, the identity of the prey is clear: some—and perhaps all—of the fossils are eukaryotes. These holes thus provide the oldest direct evidence for predation on eukaryotes. Larger circular and half-moon-shaped holes in vase-shaped microfossils from the upper part of the unit may also be the work of ‘tiny vampires’, suggesting a diversity of eukaryovorous predators lived in the ancient Chuar sea. PMID:27194696

  3. [Disturbances of thyroid function in adult population of the city of Cracow followed up for ten years observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Gołkowski, Filip; Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define disturbances of thyroid function in adult population of the city of Cracow followed up for ten years. The analysis included the results obtained from 891 individuals, 571 females and 320 males aged 18-78 years examined prior to and after implementation of the obligatory model of iodine prophylaxis (years 1989-1990 and 1998-1999). After the exclusion of patients diagnosed earlier as having hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, the mean TSH level in the years 1998-1999 was significantly higher as compared to data obtained between 1989 and 1990 (1.44 microj/ml vs. 1.30 microj/ml) in the examined population. Our 10 years observation revealed an insignificant increase in frequency of hyperthyroidism only among females (1.6% vs. 0.9%) which did not indicate a clear, endemic in character increase at the population level. In the present investigations, hypothyroidism was demonstrated to occur more frequently as compared to the 1989-90 study (2.1% vs. 1.4% among females and 0.3% vs. 0% in males). Both differences were not statistically significant. As seen from the present results, over the investigated 10-year period, in the Cracow population, there occurred a clear, statistically significant (p<0.001) increase of the percentage of individuals with an elevated TPO antibody titter (3.8% vs. 11.8%). In our investigation no correlation was observed between anti-TPO antibodies and ioduria levels. The results reveal no statistically significant increase in incidence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after implementation of the obligatory model of iodine prophylaxis. The future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in increase of anti-TPO autoantibodies and verify its possible temporary nature.

  4. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori infection in Greece: the changing prevalence during a ten-year period and its antigenic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsilambros Nicolaos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate changes in H pylori infection prevalence in Greece during a ten-year period, and to examine its antigenic profile. Methods Three groups of patients were studied. Group O-87: Banked serum samples of 200 consecutive adult outpatients, from the Hepato-Gastroenterology clinic of a teaching hospital at Athens, collected in 1987. Group O-97: Serum samples of 201 similarly selected outpatients from the same Unit, collected in 1997. Group BD-97: Serum samples of 120 consecutive blood donors from the same hospital, collected in 1997. H pylori IgG antibody seroprevalence was studied by a quantitative ELISA. Antigenic profile was studied by western-blot IgG assay, in 62 IgG positive patients of O-97 and BD-97. Results were analyzed by conventional statistics and multivariate regression analysis. Results The H pylori seroprevalence increased with age in the three tested groups. In O-97, seroprevalence did not differ from that, in BD-97. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in seropositivity between O-87 and O-97 (59.5% vs 49.2%, p = 0.039. Multiple regression analysis showed that age over 35 years (OR:3.45, 95% CI:1.59–7.49, p = 0.002 and year of patients' selection – that is 1987 or 1997 – (OR:1.73, 95% CI:1.14–2.65 for 1987, p = 0.010, were independent risk factors of H pylori infection. The seroprevalence of CagA+ and VacA+ strains was 77.4% and 58.5%, respectively, and type I(CagA+/VacA+ strains were significantly more common than type II(CagA-/VacA- strains (59.7% vs 22.6%, p Conclusions During a ten-year period, we found a significant decrease of H pylori infection in Greece and our data support the birth cohort phenomenon as an explanation for the age-dependent increase of H pylori infection. The prevalence of CagA and/or VacA positive strains is relatively high, in a country with low incidence of gastric cancer.

  5. Changing socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence and mortality: Cohort study with 54 million person-years follow-up 1981-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Andrea M; Atkinson, June; Disney, George; Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony

    2017-03-15

    Cancer is increasingly responsible for the mortality gap between high and low socioeconomic position groups in high-income countries. This study investigates which cancers are contributing more to socioeconomic gaps in mortality and how this changes over time.New Zealand census data from 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006, were linked to three to five years of subsequent mortality and cancer registrations, resulting in 54 and 42 million years of follow-up cancer incidence and mortality, respectively. Age- and ethnicity-standardised cancer mortality rates and the slope index of inequality (SII) by income were calculated.The contribution of cancer to absolute inequalities (SII) in mortality increased from 16 to 27% for men and from 12 to 31% for women from 1981-84 to 2006-11, peaking in 1991-94 for men and in 1996-99 for women and then levelling off, parallel to peaks in lung cancer inequalities. Lung cancer was the largest driver of cancer inequality trends (49% of the cancer mortality gap in 1981-84 to 33% in 2006-11 for men and 32 to 33% for women) followed by colorectal cancer in men (2 to 11%) and breast cancer in women (declining from 44 to 13%). Women in the lowest income quintile experienced no decline in cancer mortality.The contribution of cancer to income inequalities in all-cause mortality has expanded in this high-income country. Action to address socioeconomic inequalities should prioritise equitable tobacco control, obesity control and improved access to cancer screening, early diagnosis and high quality treatment for those with the lowest incomes. © 2016 UICC.

  6. [Etiological aspects of acute gastroenteritis--a ten-year review (1.01. 2001-31.12.2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Cătălina Mihaela; Nemescu, Roxana; Teodor, Andra; Fântânaru, Rodica; Petrovici, Cristina Mirela; Dorobăţ, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Acute gastroentritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity worldwide. To determine the bacterial pathogens associated with gastroenteritis in patients admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital in the last ten years. A total of 40481 stool samples were examined using conventional methods. Bacteria were found in 7.36% of cases, and parasites in 9.64%; 83% of the cases were viral, micotic, or disbiotic. The bacterial etiology was dominated by Salmonella spp. (58.34%), Shigella spp. (27.08%), Yersinia enterocolitica 03 (8.53%), Campylobacter spp. (1.31%), other bacterial pathogens (EPEC, Aeromonas hydrophilla/caviae/sobria, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, etc) being detected in 3.74% of the cases. Of the Salmonella species, group B (51.99%) followed by group D (45.23%) were most common. Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri were found in almost the same proportion (49.45% and 49.70%, respectively); Shigella boydii was isolated in only 0.85% of cases. The trend of gastroenteritis caused by bacterial pathogens is decreasing: from 355 cases in 2001 to 105 cases in 2010; three peaks have been recorded in 2002, 2005 (when Salmonella typhi was isolated in a patient), and 2008 (469, 409, and 252 cases, respectively). Bacterial gastroenteritis affected both sexes almost equally (122 males and 118 females). The most affected age groups were: 0 - 4 years, 15 - 24 years, 5 - 14 years and 25 - 39 years. Laboratory investigations are essential in determining the etiology of gastroenteritis. Its unpredictable incidence justifies the human and material efforts aimed at controlling the spread of potentially epidemic acute gastroenteritis.

  7. Influence of marital status on testosterone levels-A ten year follow-up of 1113 men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine A; Priskorn, Lærke; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Based on a large population of 1113 men aged 30-60 at baseline (mean: 44.1 years, standard deviation: 10.5), we investigated whether intra-individual changes in testosterone (T) and related reproductive hormones during a ten year period were dependent of marital status at baseline and follow...... in testosterone was observed. However, independent of age and lifestyle, we observed that men who went from unmarried to married (n=81) during the study period experienced an accelerated age-related decline in testosterone (-6.6nmol/L) whereas men who went from married to unmarried (n=67) experienced...... an attenuated age-related decline (-2.3nmol/L). Men who were either married or unmarried at both time points (n=167, n=798, respectively) had a testosterone decline in between (-3.7nmol/L and -4.6nmol/L, respectively). Changes in T/LH ratio did not differ according to marital status indicating that the lowered...

  8. Land evaluation suitability for settlement based on soil permeability, topography and geology ten years after tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rusdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Years after the tragedy of the tsunami in Banda Aceh researchers are still saddled with the problem of water permeability, slope and geology suitability for settlements. Social and ecological vulnerability to disasters and outcomes of Oceanic earthquakes causing tsunamis remain an indelible phobia to potential residents at the western coast of Sumatra upto the northern part of Indonesia. Ten years after the disaster, this study evaluates the topography of the area to determine the level of suitability of the area for human habitat. This article examines the concept of land suitability evaluation and its potential as a tool of determining appropriateness of a settlement. The focus of the study centered on the application of geographic information systems GIS in handling spatial data permeability, slope and geology of the land in accordance with the FAO land suitability standard. To ensure that the application works, it requires geospatial analysis compiled based on the permeability, slope and geology that can be observed and measured for the residential requirements. Results showed that almost all the cities within Banda Aceh are suitable for residency (Ordos.

  9. Ten-Year Monitored Natural Recovery of Lead-Contaminated Mine Tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Otwong, Ashijya; Chantharit, Aphichart; Lowry, Gregory V

    2016-10-01

    Klity Creek has become Thailand's first official remediation ordered by the court in 2013, 15 years after the spill of lead (Pb)-contaminated mine tailing into the creek. The Pollution Control Department (PCD) decided to restore the creek through monitored natural recovery (MNR) since 2006 but has not been successful. Interestingly, the most recent remediation plan in 2015 will still apply MNR to five out of the seven portions of the creek, despite no scientific feasibility evaluation of using MNR to restore the creek. This study qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the feasibility of using MNR to clean up the creek in order to protect the Klity children from excess Pb exposure. We analyzed the physical and chemical transformation of Pb contaminated sediment in the creek and developed a remedial action goal and cleanup level using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK). We empirically determined the natural recovery (NR) potentials and rates using 10 years of data monitoring the water and sediment samples from eight monitoring stations (KC1 to KC8). Klity Creek has NR potential for water except at KC2, which is closest to the spill and the other improperly managed Pb sources. However, the creek has no NR potential for sediment except at the KC8 location (NR rate = 11.1 ± 3.0 × 10-3 month-1) farthest from the spill. The MNR method is not suitable to use as the sole remedial approach for Klity Creek (KC2 to KC7). Although MNR is applicable at KC8, it may require up to 377 ± 76 years to restore the sediment to the background Pb concentration. Phenrat T, Otwong A, Chantharit A, Lowry GV. 2016. Ten-year monitored natural recovery of lead-contaminated mine tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Environ Health Perspect 124:1511-1520; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP215.

  10. Who requests their sperm donor's identity? The first ten years of information releases to adults with open-identity donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheib, Joanna E; Ruby, Alice; Benward, Jean

    2017-02-01

    To report findings from 10 years of requests from adults eligible to obtain their open-identity sperm donor's information. Analysis of archived family and donor data. Semistructured interviews at information releases. Not applicable. A total of 85 DI adults requesting 43 donor identities; program data on 256 DI families. None. We identified [1] demographic predictors of requesting donor identities, [2] information release timing and length, and [3] request motives. Just >35% of eligible DI adults requested their donor's identity. Adults ranged from 18-27 years, requesting at median age 18 years. More women than men requested. Proportionally fewer adults requested when they had heterosexual-couple parents, and proportionally more when they had one rather than two parents. In interviews, the common theme was wanting to know more about the donor, especially about shared characteristics. Most adults planned to contact their donor. More than 94% of adults had donors who were open to contact; adults expressed modest expectations about this contact. In 2001, the first adults became eligible to obtain their open-identity sperm donor's information. Ten years of identity requests at one program indicates that information about one's donor is important to a significant proportion of these DI adults. Most requested their donor's identity soon after becoming eligible, suggesting some urgency to wanting the information. Interview data highlighted the role of donor information in helping adults better understand themselves and their ancestry. Findings hold important implications for practice and policy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pervasive survival of expressed mitochondrial rps14 pseudogenes in grasses and their relatives for 80 million years following three functional transfers to the nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Jeffrey D

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many mitochondrial genes, especially ribosomal protein genes, have been frequently transferred as functional entities to the nucleus during plant evolution, often by an RNA-mediated process. A notable case of transfer involves the rps14 gene of three grasses (rice, maize, and wheat, which has been relocated to the intron of the nuclear sdh2 gene and which is expressed and targeted to the mitochondrion via alternative splicing and usage of the sdh2 targeting peptide. Although this transfer occurred at least 50 million years ago, i.e., in a common ancestor of these three grasses, it is striking that expressed, nearly intact pseudogenes of rps14 are retained in the mitochondrial genomes of both rice and wheat. To determine how ancient this transfer is, the extent to which mitochondrial rps14 has been retained and is expressed in grasses, and whether other transfers of rps14 have occurred in grasses and their relatives, we investigated the structure, expression, and phylogeny of mitochondrial and nuclear rps14 genes from 32 additional genera of grasses and from 9 other members of the Poales. Results Filter hybridization experiments showed that rps14 sequences are present in the mitochondrial genomes of all examined Poales except for members of the grass subfamily Panicoideae (to which maize belongs. However, PCR amplification and sequencing revealed that the mitochondrial rps14 genes of all examined grasses (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Joinvilleaceae are pseudogenes, with all those from the Poaceae sharing two 4-NT frameshift deletions and all those from the Cyperaceae sharing a 5-NT insertion (only one member of the Joinvilleaceae was examined. cDNA analysis showed that all mitochondrial pseudogenes examined (from all three families are transcribed, that most are RNA edited, and that surprisingly many of the edits are reverse (U→C edits. Putatively nuclear copies of rps14 were isolated from one to several members of each of these

  12. Hydrothermal versus active margin sediment supply to the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 23 million years traced by radiogenic Pb isotopes: Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfig, Tobias W.; Hoernle, Kaj; Hauff, Folkmar; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the evolution of the Pb isotopic composition of bulk sediments on the Cocos Plate in sedimentary successions of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 495 and Ocean Drilling Program/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP/IODP) Site 1256 over the past 23 million years of depositional history. Our study addresses the relationship of the sediment Pb isotope record to plate tectonics, weathering inputs, and paleoceanography. It is the first effort to characterize the Pb isotopic evolution of eastern equatorial Pacific sedimentation covering the entire tectonic pathway of the Cocos Plate from its formation at the East Pacific Rise to its arrival at the Central American subduction zone. The Sites 495 and 1256 bulk sediment Pb isotope records are fully consistent over time despite distinct differences between the type of sediment deposited at both locations. A systematic and continuous trend from ∼23 to ∼6-4 Ma toward more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, e.g., 206Pb/204Pb ratios increase from 18.29 to 18.81, reflects a decrease in the contribution of hydrothermal particles from the East Pacific Rise and an increase in the predominantly eolian contribution of mixed weathering products from the continental arcs of the Northern and south Central Andes as well as from southern Mexico. Surprisingly, both the Pb isotopic composition of the detrital fraction and that of past seawater indicate that inputs from nearby Central America and the Galápagos Archipelago did not significantly contribute to the sediments of our core locations but were overwhelmed by other sediment sources. A systematic change to less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios in sediments younger than ∼4-3 Ma, reaching present-day 206Pb/204Pb values near 18.70, reflects a reduction of the continental input from the South Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Arc and increased contributions from southern Mexican igneous complexes. This isotopic trend reversal took place as a consequence of

  13. 100-million-year-old conifer tissues from the mid-Cretaceous amber of Charente (western France) revealed by synchrotron microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Jean-David; Néraudeau, Didier; Perrichot, Vincent; Tafforeau, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial plant remains in fossilized tree resin are relatively common. However, histology and preservation of plants entombed in Cretaceous ambers remain poorly known. We report an exquisitely preserved conifer leafy axis from 100-million-year-old opaque amber of western France that is assignable to Glenrosa carentonensis Moreau, Néraudeau, Tafforeau & Dépré. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the taphonomy and the use of microtomography for studies of palaeobotanical remains in amber. A leafy axis was examined using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography with voxel sizes of 14·9, 1·4, and 0·7 μm. The conifer leafy axis described is preserved in three dimensions. Despite desiccation of the specimen within the surrounding amber, the cuticle, as well as most of inner tissues, is preserved in three dimensions down to the cellular level. Epidermis, palisade parenchyma, spongy parenchyma, transfusion tracheids and vascular bundles are clearly distinguished. Gross morphology and histology of the specimen were revealed using synchrotron microtomography, allowing an unprecedented resolution for the study of soft-bodied plants entombed in amber. The study reveals a peculiar combination of authigenic and duripartic preservation as well as permineralization, and highlights the complexity of taphonomic processes that can occur in amber inclusions. This fossil demonstrates the difficulty of studying amber-preserved plant remains under certain conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. First hominine remains from a ~1.0 million year old bone bed at Cornelia-Uitzoek, Free State Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, James S; Herries, Andy I R; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Gowlett, John A J; Bousman, C Britt; Hancox, John P; Grün, Rainer; Eisenmann, Vera; Adams, Justin W; Rossouw, Lloyd

    2012-09-01

    We report here on evidence of early Homo around 1.0 Ma (millions of years ago) in the central plains of southern Africa. The human material, a first upper molar, was discovered during the systematic excavation of a densely-packed bone bed in the basal part of the sedimentary sequence at the Cornelia-Uitzoek fossil vertebrate locality. We dated this sequence by palaeomagnetism and correlated the bone bed to the Jaramillo subchron, between 1.07 and 0.99 Ma. This makes the specimen the oldest southern African hominine remains outside the dolomitic karst landscapes of northern South Africa. Cornelia-Uitzoek is the type locality of the Cornelian Land Mammal Age. The fauna contains an archaic component, reflecting previous biogeographic links with East Africa, and a derived component, suggesting incipient southern endemism. The bone bed is considered to be the result of the bone collecting behaviour of a large predator, possibly spotted hyaenas. Acheulian artefacts are found in small numbers within the bone bed among the fossil vertebrates, reflecting the penecontemporaneous presence of people in the immediate vicinity of the occurrence. The hominine tooth was recovered from the central, deeper part of the bone bed. In size, it clusters with southern African early Homo and it is also morphologically similar. We propose that the early Homo specimen forms part of an archaic component in the fauna, in parallel with the other archaic faunal elements at Uitzoek. This supports an emergent pattern of archaic survivors in the southern landscape at this time, but also demonstrates the presence of early Homo in the central plains of southern Africa, beyond the dolomitic karst areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decreased Opioid Utilization and Cost at One Year in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Treated with Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivec, Robert; Minshall, Michael E; Mistry, Jaydev B; Chughtai, Morad; Elmallah, Randa K; Mont, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) may be treated without opioids through the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). However, no study has evaluated its clinical effect and economic impact as measured by opioid utilization and costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients who were given TENS for CLBP compared to a matched group without TENS at one-year follow-up, to determine differences between opioid consumption. Opioid utilization and costs in patients who did and did not receive TENS were extracted from a Medicare supplemental administrative claims database. Patients were selected if they had at least two ICD-9-CM coded claims for low back pain in a three-month period and were then propensity score matched at a 1:1 ratio between patients who received TENS and those who did not. There were 22,913 patients in each group who had a minimum follow-up of one year. There were no significant demographic or comorbidity differences with the exception that TENS patients had more episodes of back pain. Significantly fewer patients in the TENS group required opioids at final follow-up (57.7 vs. 60.3%). TENS patients also had significantly fewer annual per-patient opioid costs compared to non-TENS patients ($169 vs. $192). There were significantly lower event rates in TENS patients compared to non-TENS patients when measured by opioid utilization (characterized by frequency of prescription refills) (3.82 vs. 4.08, respectively) or pharmacy utilization (31.67 vs. 32.25). The TENS group also demonstrated a significantly lower cost of these utilization events ($44 vs. $49) and avoided more opioid events (20.4 events fewer per 100 patients annually). Treatment of CLBP with TENS demonstrated significantly fewer patients requiring opioids, fewer events where a patient required an opioid prescription, and lower per-patient costs. Since TENS is both non-invasive and a non-narcotic, it may potentially allow physicians to be more aggressive in treating CLBP

  16. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy: Ten years experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Al-Talib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Reviewed medical records of all molar pregnancy cases among all the deliveries at a tertiary care hospital in Dammam from 2005 to 2014, after approval by institutional ethical review committee. Data abstracted included patient′s age, parity, presenting symptoms, gestational age at diagnosis, uterine size, ultrasonographic findings, BhCG level at the time of diagnosis and at follow-up after evacuation, and blood loss during evacuation. Data was entered and analyzed using Excel; frequency distribution for categorical variables and descriptive statistics for continuous variables were computed. Results: Of a total of 25,000 deliveries in ten years, 22 cases of complete molar pregnancy were encountered: 0.9 cases of molar pregnancy per 1000 pregnancies. Majority of patients (63.7% were older than 35 years, and were nulliparous (45.5%. The commonest symptom was vaginal bleeding (86.4% followed by hyperemesis gravidarum (41.0%; Hyperthyroidism was seen in 1 patient (4.5%. Ovarian enlargement by theca-lutin cyst was seen in 3 patients (13.6%. The majority of patients (63.6% had normal BhCG within 9 weeks (63 days after suction curettage. The majority of the cases followed a benign course. Conclusion: Aged older than 35 years seems a risk factor and vaginal bleeding is the commonest presenting symptom. Early booking of pregnant women to antenatal care clinics and routine first trimester ultrasound made diagnosis easier and earlier before complications appear.

  17. Ten-Year Trends (1999-2010) of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among the Balearic Islands' Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; González, Mónica; Julibert, Alicia; Llompart, Isabel; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2017-07-14

    The aim of this work was to assess ten-year trends (1999-2010) of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (1999-2000, n = 1200 and 2009-2010 n = 1388, including participants aged 16-65 years) were carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Dietary habits were assessed by means of two 24 h diet recalls and a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire that covers 145 food items. Adherence to the MDP was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of nine MDP characteristic components: high monounsaturated fatty acids:saturated fatty acids (MUFA:SFA) ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legumes, cereals and roots, fruits, vegetables, and fish consumption, and low consumption of meat and milk. Socio-economic status, education level, lifestyle factors and health status were also assessed. Adherence to the MDP was 43.1% (SD 5.8) in 1999-2000 and 44.6% (SD 8.3) in 2009-2010. Higher age was directly associated with higher adherence to the MDP, and this association was stronger in males than in females. Young generations and smokers showed the lowest adherence to MDP, whereas people with higher educational and socio-economic level, and who were physically active showed the highest adherence. According to the place of birth, the increase in the percentage of the adherence to the MDP was observed to be smaller among the Balearic Island's natives than among people born abroad. In 2009-2010, individuals in the MDP's fourth quartile were more likely to be older (aged 46-65 years), and were less likely to have a low occupational level, to have a light physical activity level and to be smoker than in 1999-2000. The adherence to the MDP has been stabilized and slightly recovered among the Balearic Islands' adult population in the last decade.

  18. Ten-year blood pressure trajectories, cardiovascular mortality, and life years lost in 2 extinction cohorts: the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study and the Zutphen Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Menotti, Alessandro; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Jacobs, David R; Blackburn, Henry; Kromhout, Daan

    2015-03-09

    Blood pressure (BP) trajectories derived from measurements repeated over years have low measurement error and may improve cardiovascular disease prediction compared to single, average, and usual BP (single BP adjusted for regression dilution). We characterized 10-year BP trajectories and examined their association with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and life years lost. Data from 2 prospective and nearly extinct cohorts of middle-aged men—the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study (n=261) and the Zutphen Study (n=632)—were used. BP was measured annually during 1947-1957 in Minnesota and 1960-1970 in Zutphen. BP trajectories were identified by latent mixture modeling. Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models examined BP trajectories with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and life years lost. Associations were adjusted for age, serum cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. Mean initial age was about 50 years in both cohorts. After 10 years of BP measurements, men were followed until death on average 20 years later. All Minnesota men and 98% of Zutphen men died. Four BP trajectories were identified, in which mean systolic BP increased by 5 to 49 mm Hg in Minnesota and 5 to 20 mm Hg in Zutphen between age 50 and 60. The third systolic BP trajectories were associated with 2 to 4 times higher cardiovascular mortality risk, 2 times higher all-cause mortality risk, and 4 to 8 life years lost, compared to the first trajectory. Ten-year BP trajectories were the strongest predictors, among different BP measures, of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and life years lost in Minnesota. However, average BP was the strongest predictor in Zutphen. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Design, implementation and evaluation of a national campaign to distribute nine million free LLINs to children under five years of age in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengeler Christian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a national voucher scheme in 2004 provided pregnant women and infants with highly subsidized insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, use among children under five years (U5s in mainland Tanzania increased from 16% in 2004 to 26.2% in 2007. In 2008, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare planned a catch-up campaign to rapidly and equitably deliver a free long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN to every child under five years in Tanzania. Methods The ITN Cell, a unit within the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP, coordinated the campaign on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. Government contractors trained and facilitated local government officials to supervise village-level volunteers on a registration of all U5s and the distribution and issuing of LLINs. The registration results formed the basis for the LLIN order and delivery to village level. Caregivers brought their registration coupons to village issuing posts during a three-day period where they received LLINs for their U5s. Household surveys in five districts assessed ITN ownership and use immediately after the campaign. Results Nine donors contributed to the national campaign that purchased and distributed 9.0 million LLINs at an average cost of $7.07 per LLIN, including all campaign-associated activities. The campaign covered all eight zones of mainland Tanzania, the first region being covered separately during an integrated measles immunization/malaria LLIN distribution in August 2008, and was implemented one zone at a time from March 2009 until May 2010. ITN ownership at household level increased from Tanzania's 2008 national average of 45.7% to 63.4%, with significant regional variations. ITN use among U5s increased from 28.8% to 64.1%, a 2.2-fold increase, with increases ranging from 22.1-38.3% percentage points in different regions. Conclusion A national-level LLIN distribution strategy that fully engaged local government authorities helped

  20. The case for Ofsmoke: the potential for price cap regulation of tobacco to raise £500 million per year in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branston, J Robert; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    A system of price-cap regulation has previously been suggested to address the market failure inherent to the tobacco industry. This would benefit public health directly (eg, by making it extremely difficult for the industry to sell cut-price cigarettes, or use price as a marketing strategy) and indirectly (eg, by reducing the available money the industry has for spending on marketing and lobbying). This paper explores the feasibility of applying such a scheme in the UK. The impact of price-capping is modelled using optimistic and conservative scenarios, each with different assumptions, and using 2009 and 2010 profit data for the major companies selling tobacco in the UK. The models are used to calculate by how much would profit be reduced through the imposition of price caps, and thus, how much revenue could be raised in additional taxes, assuming the end price the consumer pays does not change. Tobacco companies enjoy massive profit margins, up to 67%, in the UK. The optimistic scenario suggests a potential increase in UK tobacco tax revenue of £585.7 million in 2010 (£548.4 million in 2009), while the conservative model suggests an increase in revenue of £433.6 million in 2010 (£399.2 million in 2009). This would be approximately enough to fund, twice over, UK-wide antitobacco smuggling measures, and smoking cessation services in England, including the associated pharmacotherapies, to help people stop smoking. Applying a system of price-cap regulation in the UK would raise around £500 million per annum (US$750 million). This is likely to be an underestimate because of cautious assumptions used in the model. These significant financial benefits, in addition to the public health benefits that would be generated, suggest this is a policy that should be given serious consideration.