WorldWideScience

Sample records for ten critical reasons

  1. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (advantage of lung ultrasound is that the patient is not exposed to radiation, and so the LUCI-FLR project (LUCI favouring limitation of radiation) can be unfolded in trauma patients. Although it has been practiced for 25 years, critical care ultrasound is a relatively young but expanding discipline and can be seen as the stethoscope of the modern intensivist. In this review, the usefulness and advantages of ultrasound in the critical care setting are discussed in ten points. The emphasis is on a holistic approach, with a central role for lung ultrasound.

  2. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…

  3. Historicizing "Reason": Critical Theory, Practice, and Postmodernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Della; Cox, J. Robert

    1991-01-01

    Argues that contemporary critical theory must be understood as an attempt to articulate and respond to the problem of postmodernism, to establish a place for contemporary critical practice. Asserts that critical theory enables local praxis, and compels contest, debate, and dialogue in contemporary rhetoric. (RDS)

  4. Elective Self-Care Course Emphasizing Critical Reasoning Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbald, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To create, implement, and assess a self-directed online course based on 3 critical reasoning principles to develop pharmacy students’ skills in literature appraisal, content, metacognition, and assessment.

  5. Fostering Critical Thinking, Reasoning, and Argumentation Skills through Bioethics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N.; Collins, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development an...

  6. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harst, Eugenie van der, E-mail: eugenie.vanderharst@wur.nl [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Potting, José, E-mail: jose.potting@wur.nl [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Environmental Strategies Research (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-110 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have only one impact category in common, namely climate change with global warming potential (GWP) as its category indicator. Quantitative GWP results of the studies were closer examined. GWPs within and across each study show none of the cup materials to be consistently better than the others. Comparison of the absolute GWPs (after correction for the cup volume) also shows no consistent better or worse cup material. An evaluation of the methodological choices and the data sets used in the studies revealed their influence on the GWP. The differences in GWP can be attributed to a multitude of factors, i.e., cup material and weight, production processes, waste processes, allocation options, and data used. These factors basically represent different types of uncertainty. Sensitivity and scenario analyses provided only the influence of one factor at once. A systematic and simultaneous use of sensitivity and scenario analyses could, in a next research, result in more robust outcomes. -- Highlights: • Conflicting results from life cycle assessment (LCA) on disposable cups • GWP results of LCAs did not point to a best or worst cup material. • Differences in GWP results are due to methodological choices and data sets used. • Standardized LCA: transparency of LCA studies, but still different in approaches.

  7. Top Ten Reasons a Graduate Student Should Apply to Be an ECT Foundation Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cindy S.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author encourages graduate students to apply for the ECT Foundation Internship. She presents a list of the top ten benefits the internship offers a graduate student's career: (1) It could change your life. It changed mine; (2) Networking; (3) Mentoring; (4) Leadership opportunities; (5) Behind the scenes pass; (6) Shadowing;…

  8. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ting Chowning

    Full Text Available Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001 between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001 in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student

  9. Fostering Critical Thinking, Reasoning, and Argumentation Skills through Bioethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N.; Collins, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001) between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and

  10. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N; Collins, Laura J

    2012-01-01

    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (pethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and engagement with science content, while promoting reasoning and justification skills that help prepare an informed citizenry.

  11. Reasons for not using intraosseous access in critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2012-01-01

    To identify reasons for not using intraosseous access (IO) when intravenous access is difficult during resuscitation.......To identify reasons for not using intraosseous access (IO) when intravenous access is difficult during resuscitation....

  12. Improving critical thinking : Effects of dispositions and instructions oneconomics students' reasoning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This experiment investigated the impact of critical thinking dispositions and instructions on economics students' performance on reasoning skills. Participants (. N=. 183) were exposed to one of four conditions: critical thinking instruction, critical thinking instruction with self-explanation

  13. Reasons for not using intraosseous access in critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Aim To identify reasons for not using intraosseous access (IO) when intravenous access is difficult during resuscitation. Methods Questionnaire made available to members of selected Scandinavian medical societies. Results Of 759 responders to the questionnaire, 23.5% (n=178) had experienced one...... or more situations where there was a need for IO but none was placed. The most common stated reasons for not performing IO were a lack of equipment (48.3%), a lack of knowledge about the procedure (32.6%), and intravenous access preferred over IO (23.0%). Conclusions The main reasons for not using IO were...

  14. Practical theology: A critically engaged practical reason approach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browning's influential use of practical reason for his fundamental practical theology is analysed. His correlation of theory and practice in his three stages of theory, practice and theory is also critiqued because his approach reduces practical theology almost to professionalism and principles for ministry. His approach could ...

  15. Bayesian Reasoning in Data Analysis A Critical Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, Giulio

    2003-01-01

    This book provides a multi-level introduction to Bayesian reasoning (as opposed to "conventional statistics") and its applications to data analysis. The basic ideas of this "new" approach to the quantification of uncertainty are presented using examples from research and everyday life. Applications covered include: parametric inference; combination of results; treatment of uncertainty due to systematic errors and background; comparison of hypotheses; unfolding of experimental distributions; upper/lower bounds in frontier-type measurements. Approximate methods for routine use are derived and ar

  16. Operation ARA: A Computerized Learning Game that Teaches Critical Thinking and Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.; Butler, Heather; Forsyth, Carol; Cai, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Operation ARA (Acquiring Research Acumen) is a computerized learning game that teaches critical thinking and scientific reasoning. It is a valuable learning tool that utilizes principles from the science of learning and serious computer games. Students learn the skills of scientific reasoning by engaging in interactive dialogs with avatars. They…

  17. Understanding the Complex Relationship between Critical Thinking and Science Reasoning among Undergraduate Thesis Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Jason E; Thompson, Robert J; Schiff, Leslie A; Reynolds, Julie A

    2018-01-01

    Developing critical-thinking and scientific reasoning skills are core learning objectives of science education, but little empirical evidence exists regarding the interrelationships between these constructs. Writing effectively fosters students' development of these constructs, and it offers a unique window into studying how they relate. In this study of undergraduate thesis writing in biology at two universities, we examine how scientific reasoning exhibited in writing (assessed using the Biology Thesis Assessment Protocol) relates to general and specific critical-thinking skills (assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test), and we consider implications for instruction. We find that scientific reasoning in writing is strongly related to inference , while other aspects of science reasoning that emerge in writing (epistemological considerations, writing conventions, etc.) are not significantly related to critical-thinking skills. Science reasoning in writing is not merely a proxy for critical thinking. In linking features of students' writing to their critical-thinking skills, this study 1) provides a bridge to prior work suggesting that engagement in science writing enhances critical thinking and 2) serves as a foundational step for subsequently determining whether instruction focused explicitly on developing critical-thinking skills (particularly inference ) can actually improve students' scientific reasoning in their writing. © 2018 J. E. Dowd et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. NURSE’S STRATEGIES OF CLINICAL REASONING IN CRITICAL CARE: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mendonça

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical reasoning strategies nursing that emerged from the study were: as the development of effective relationship with the patient and family involvement, application of negotiation and compromise skills, use of critical-reflective skills for selection of nursing interventions, intuition, recognition of similar situations and hypothesis testing. And as clinical reasoning criteria the nurse assesses the risk-benefit for patients, organizational needs and sources of information (11. This study helped identify some strategies and clinical reasoning criteria nurse who cares for patients in critical condition. However, more studies are needed to deepen knowledge about the clinical reasoning process by promo- ting best results from the autonomous intervention and nursing decision making.

  19. Wiki Activities in Blended Learning for Health Professional Students: Enhancing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…

  20. Critical Thinking: Intellectual Standards Essential to Reasoning Well within Every Domain of Human Thought, Part Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In our last critical thinking column we introduced the idea of intellectual standards and pointed out that all natural languages are repositories for such standards, which, when appropriately applied, serve as guides for assessing human reasoning. We argued that intellectual standards are necessary for cultivating the intellect and living a…

  1. Does the Community College Experience Affect Critical Thinking and Moral Reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykiel, Joan Devlin

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the net effects of community college attendance on moral reasoning and critical thinking skills, examining the conditional effects of age and off-campus employment on the two dependent measures. Finds that sophomores scored significantly higher than freshmen on both measures, and that students with longer work schedule hours had…

  2. Critical Thinking and Moral Reasoning: Can You Have One without the Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.

    Much research has been done on critical thinking and on moral reasoning, but little has been conducted or reported on the relationship between the two. Since these two abilities are of current concern at all levels of education and since students are supposed to develop the ability to think analytically and behave ethically, it seems that some…

  3. "What Happened Needs to Be Told": Fostering Critical Historical Reasoning in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars often define historical reasoning as constructing defensible interpretations of past events. Drawing on critical theory, this article suggests that it also entails consciously framing one's topic of inquiry. The article examines an instructional unit that aimed to foster this expanded view of historiography. Forty students, ages 14-15,…

  4. Scaffolding Critical Reasoning about History and Social Issues in Multimedia-Supported Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saye, John W.; Brush, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Advances a line of research that investigates the potential of hypermedia resources and scaffolding for supporting problem-based social studies and developing critical reasoning. The line of inquiry consists of a series of generative design experiments that informs problem-based curriculum development. The experiments examined 11th grade U.S.…

  5. Developing Students' Critical Reasoning About Online Health Information: A Capabilities Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiblom, Jonna; Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Andrée, Maria

    2017-11-01

    The internet has become a main source for health-related information retrieval. In addition to information published by medical experts, individuals share their personal experiences and narratives on blogs and social media platforms. Our increasing need to confront and make meaning of various sources and conflicting health information has challenged the way critical reasoning has become relevant in science education. This study addresses how the opportunities for students to develop and practice their capabilities to critically approach online health information can be created in science education. Together with two upper secondary biology teachers, we carried out a design-based study. The participating students were given an online retrieval task that included a search and evaluation of health-related online sources. After a few lessons, the students were introduced to an evaluation tool designed to support critical evaluation of health information online. Using qualitative content analysis, four themes could be discerned in the audio and video recordings of student interactions when engaging with the task. Each theme illustrates the different ways in which critical reasoning became practiced in the student groups. Without using the evaluation tool, the students struggled to overview the vast amount of information and negotiate trustworthiness. Guided by the evaluation tool, critical reasoning was practiced to handle source subjectivity and to sift out scientific information only. Rather than a generic skill and transferable across contexts, students' critical reasoning became conditioned by the multi-dimensional nature of health issues, the blend of various contexts and the shift of purpose constituted by the students.

  6. Critical Care Nurses' Reasons for Poor Attendance at a Continuous Professional Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Myra; Coetzee, Isabel; Heyns, Tanya

    2016-12-01

    Society demands competent and safe health care, which obligates professionals to deliver quality patient care using current knowledge and skills. Participation in continuous professional development programs is a way to ensure quality nursing care. Despite the importance of continuous professional development, however, critical care nurse practitioners' attendance rates at these programs is low. To explore critical care nurses' reasons for their unsatisfactory attendance at a continuous professional development program. A nominal group technique was used as a consensus method to involve the critical care nurses and provide them the opportunity to reflect on their experiences and challenges related to the current continuous professional development program for the critical care units. Participants were 14 critical care nurses from 3 critical care units in 1 private hospital. The consensus was that the central theme relating to the unsatisfactory attendance at the continuous professional development program was attitude. In order of importance, the 4 contributing priorities influencing attitude were communication, continuous professional development, time constraints, and financial implications. Attitude relating to attending a continuous professional development program can be changed if critical care nurses are aware of the program's importance and are involved in the planning and implementation of a program that focuses on the nurses' individual learning needs. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. Practical theology: A critically engaged practical reason approach of practice, theory, practice and theory

    OpenAIRE

    John S. Klaasen

    2014-01-01

    Browning’s influential use of practical reason for his fundamental practical theology is analysed. His correlation of theory and practice in his three stages of theory, practice and theory is also critiqued because his approach reduces practical theology almost to professionalism and principles for ministry. His approach could also result in an antagonistic relationship between practice and theory as practice is reduced to theory or academics. This article seeks to present a critically engage...

  8. Communication of bed allocation decisions in a critical care unit and accountability for reasonableness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swota Alissa H

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication may affect perceptions of fair process for intensive care unit bed allocation decisions through its impact on the publicity condition of accountability for reasonableness. Methods We performed a qualitative case study to describe participant perceptions of the communication of bed allocation decisions in an 18-bed university affiliated, medical-surgical critical care unit at Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre. Interviewed participants were 3 critical care physicians, 4 clinical fellows in critical care, 4 resource nurses, 4 "end-users" (physicians who commonly referred patients to the unit, and 3 members of the administrative staff. Median bed occupancy during the study period (Jan-April 2003 was 18/18; daily admissions and discharges (median were 3. We evaluated our description using the ethical framework "accountability for reasonableness" (A4R to identify opportunities for improvement. Results The critical care physician, resource nurse, critical care fellow and end-users (trauma team leader, surgeons, neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists functioned independently in unofficial "parallel tracks" of bed allocation decision-making; this conflicted with the official designation of the critical care physician as the sole authority. Communication between key decision-makers was indirect and could exclude those affected by the decisions; notably, family members. Participants perceived a lack of publicity for bed allocation rationales. Conclusion The publicity condition should be improved for critical care bed allocation decisions. Decision-making in the "parallel tracks" we describe might be unavoidable within usual constraints of time, urgency and demand. Formal guidelines for direct communication between key participants in such circumstances would help to improve the fairness of these decisions.

  9. CONSORT item reporting quality in the top ten ranked journals of critical care medicine in 2011: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Ana; Schmitz, Sabine; Rossaint, Rolf; Schürholz, Tobias; Coburn, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Reporting randomised controlled trials is a key element in order to disseminate research findings. The CONSORT statement was introduced to improve the reporting quality. We assessed the adherence to the CONSORT statement of randomised controlled trials published 2011 in the top ten ranked journals of critical care medicine (ISI Web of Knowledge 2011, Thomson Reuters, London UK). Design. We performed a retrospective cross sectional data analysis. Setting. This study was executed at the University Hospital of RWTH, Aachen. Participants. We selected the following top ten listed journals according to ISI Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters, London, UK) critical care medicine ranking in the year 2011: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Critical Care Medicine, Intensive Care Medicine, CHEST, Critical Care, Journal of Neurotrauma, Resuscitation, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Shock and Minerva Anestesiologica. Main outcome measures. We screened the online table of contents of each included journal, to identify the randomised controlled trials. The adherence to the items of the CONSORT Checklist in each trial was evaluated. Additionally we correlated the citation frequency of the articles and the impact factor of the respective journal with the amount of reported items per trial. We analysed 119 randomised controlled trials and found, 15 years after the implementation of the CONSORT statement, that a median of 61,1% of the checklist-items were reported. Only 55.5% of the articles were identified as randomised trials in their titles. The citation frequency of the trials correlated significantly (rs = 0,433; p<0,001 and r = 0,331; p<0,001) to the CONSORT statement adherence. The impact factor showed also a significant correlation to the CONSORT adherence (r = 0,386; p<0,001). The reporting quality of randomised controlled trials in the field of critical care medicine remains poor and needs considerable improvement.

  10. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill obstetric patients: a ten-year review

    OpenAIRE

    Aldawood, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy and delivery can involve complications that necessitate admission to critical care facilities. The objective of our study was to assess the incidence, indications, and outcomes of obstetric patients requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary care hospital, in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of consecutive obstetric admissions to the ICU at the King Abdulaziz Medical City over a 10-year period. PATIENTS AN...

  11. The Reasons Requirement in International Investment Arbitration: Critical Case Studies (book review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2008-01-01

    3. In the article, the Researcher reviews the work of Professors Guillermo A. Alvarez and W. Michael Reisman from Yale Law School, regarding the mechanisms of international investment arbitration and their importance for developing countries. The article provides a critical perspective on the aut......3. In the article, the Researcher reviews the work of Professors Guillermo A. Alvarez and W. Michael Reisman from Yale Law School, regarding the mechanisms of international investment arbitration and their importance for developing countries. The article provides a critical perspective...... on the authors’ argument that arbitrators in investment disputes do not follow any standards of reasoning in their decisions. It particularly points out how the authors seem to overlook the inherently sui generis nature of investment arbitration mechanisms, given that private investors and sovereign states...... are never deemed as equal parties in either legal form or substance, which significantly hampers attempts to impose rigorous adversarial principles in these procedures....

  12. Ten years after the FDA black box warning for antidepressant drugs: a critical narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martínez-Aguayo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA has warned about the increased suicidality risk associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI and venlafaxine in children and adolescents. Objectives To critically appraise the available evidence supporting the FDA Black box warning concerning to the use of antidepressants in child and adolescents. Methods A critical review of articles in Medline/PubMed and SciELO databases regarding the FDA Black box warning for antidepressants, and the impact of FDA warnings on antidepressant prescriptions and suicide rates. Results The warning was based on surveys that did not report either cases of suicide nor a significant difference supporting an increased suicidality rate. The concept was defined in an ambiguous way and there is currently more available evidence to support such definition. The use of SSRI and venlafaxine has been associated to lower suicidality rates, but the prescription fall due to the warning increased suicide rates. Discussion Suicidality is an inherent feature of depressive disorders so it would be desirable to consider how much of the phenomenon may be attributed to antidepressants per se. It would be appropriate to consider that suicide rates might increase also as a consequence of the warning.

  13. Practical theology: A critically engaged practical reason approach of practice, theory, practice and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Klaasen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Browning’s influential use of practical reason for his fundamental practical theology is analysed. His correlation of theory and practice in his three stages of theory, practice and theory is also critiqued because his approach reduces practical theology almost to professionalism and principles for ministry. His approach could also result in an antagonistic relationship between practice and theory as practice is reduced to theory or academics. This article seeks to present a critically engaged practical reasoning approach in which theory and practice have an in-ter-dependent relationship. Practical reason is an activity in which engagement happens at every stage. For this to happen, theory and practice interact as equal variables that have a bearing on each other not to reduce the one to the other, but to complement each other in a lateral hermeneutical process. This process has four stages, unlike Browning’s three-stage correlation. The stages are schematically presented as practice, theory, practice and theory.

  14. Real-time threat assessment for critical infrastructure protection: data incest and conflict in evidential reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, R.; Page, S.; Varndell, J.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a novel application of Evidential Reasoning to Threat Assessment for critical infrastructure protection. A fusion algorithm based on the PCR5 Dezert-Smarandache fusion rule is proposed which fuses alerts generated by a vision-based behaviour analysis algorithm and a-priori watch-list intelligence data. The fusion algorithm produces a prioritised event list according to a user-defined set of event-type severity or priority weightings. Results generated from application of the algorithm to real data and Behaviour Analysis alerts captured at London's Heathrow Airport under the EU FP7 SAMURAI programme are presented. A web-based demonstrator system is also described which implements the fusion process in real-time. It is shown that this system significantly reduces the data deluge problem, and directs the user's attention to the most pertinent alerts, enhancing their Situational Awareness (SA). The end-user is also able to alter the perceived importance of different event types in real-time, allowing the system to adapt rapidly to changes in priorities as the situation evolves. One of the key challenges associated with fusing information deriving from intelligence data is the issue of Data Incest. Techniques for handling Data Incest within Evidential Reasoning frameworks are proposed, and comparisons are drawn with respect to Data Incest management techniques that are commonly employed within Bayesian fusion frameworks (e.g. Covariance Intersection). The challenges associated with simultaneously dealing with conflicting information and Data Incest in Evidential Reasoning frameworks are also discussed.

  15. Knowledge and critical thinking skills increase clinical reasoning ability in urogenital disorders: a Universitas Sriwijaya Medical Faculty experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfannuddin Irfannuddin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Clinical reasoning is one of the essential competencies for medical practitioners, so that it must be exercised by medical students. Studies on quantitative evidence of factors influencing clinical reasoning abilicy of students are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of knowledge and other factors on the clinical reasoning abiliry ofthe students, which can serve as reference to establish methods for learning ctinical reasoning.Methods This is a cross-sectional study on fourth semester students enrolled in the Competency-based Curriculum of the Medical Faculty, University of Sriwijaya. Data on clinical reasoning abilily and risk factors during urogenital blockwere collected inApril 2008, when the students have just completed the btock. Clinical reasoning abiliry was tested using the Script Concordance test and the risk factors were evaluated based on formative tests, block summative assessments, and student characteristics. Data were analyzed by Cox regression.Results The prevalence of low clinical reasoning ability of the 132 students was 38.6%. The group with low basic knowledge was found to have 63% risk ol low clinical reasoning abiliry when compared to those with high basic knowledge (adjusted RR = 1.63; 95% conidence intewal (Ct: 1.10 -2.42. When compared to students with high critical thinking skitls, those with lory critical thinking skills had 2.3 time to be low clinical reasoning abitity (adjusted RR : 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55 - 3.41.Conclusion Students with low critical thinking skills or with inadequate knowledge had a higher risk of low clinical reasoning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 53-9Keywords: clinical reasoning, basic knowledge, critical thinking, competency-based curriculum

  16. Determinants of the accuracy of nursing diagnoses: influence of ready knowledge, knowledge sources, disposition toward critical thinking, and reasoning skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used the following questionnaires: (a) knowledge inventory, (b) California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (c) Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT). The use of knowledge sources had very little influence on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Accuracy was significantly related to the analysis domain of the HSRT. Students were unable to operationalize knowledge sources to derive accurate diagnoses and did not effectively use reasoning skills. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DETERMINANTS OF THE ACCURACY OF NURSING DIAGNOSES : INFLUENCE OF READY KNOWLEDGE, KNOWLEDGE SOURCES, DISPOSITION TOWARD CRITICAL THINKING, AND REASONING SKILLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; Van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used

  18. The Impact of Humanities-Based Teaching and Learning Strategies on Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Development among BSN Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhead, Josette

    2016-01-01

    The ability to function effectively in a dynamic, culturally diverse healthcare environment requires both critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN, 2008) recognizes the importance of humanities in the baccalaureate nursing curriculum. This quasi-experimental, nonrandomized…

  19. Unraveling the effects of critical thinking instructions, practice, and self-explanation on students’ reasoning performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of critical thinking skills is considered an important goal in higher education, but it is still unclear which specific instructional techniques are effective for fostering it. The main aim of this study was to unravel the impact of critical thinking instructions, practice, and

  20. ["Out of interest in reasonable conditions... " Relevance and constitutive elements of a critical theory in nursing science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesacher, Heiner

    2011-12-01

    Nursing practice needs a theoretical foundation. As in any other discipline, theories form the core of nursing science. They contribute to the definition of nursing and to the evolution of professional domains. Depending on their level of abstraction and their range ("grand theories") they can guide actions, have an orientating, but also a critical function. Furthermore, theories serve to legitimate and justify nursing in the public. This is especially important, if politics and society have high expectations in the nursing profession. The current concept of a critical theory of nursing science has a critical focus on repressions and deficits in nursing practice, but also is aimed at achieving reasonable nursing practice. This theory is emancipatorical and normative as well. It is following Foucault's analysis of power and explicating the "Frankfurt School of Critical Theory" as a critique of the conditions of working, understanding, recognising, self, time and nature.

  1. "Everything...Affects Everything": Promoting Critical Perspectives toward Bullying with "Thirteen Reasons Why"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, James S.; Trent, Brandie

    2012-01-01

    "Everything...affects everything," from Jay Asher's young adult novel, "Thirteen Reasons Why," captures a central message of this text in which a young woman named Hannah Baker leaves behind a series of tapes addressed to particular individuals who played a part in producing the snowball effect that led to her suicide. "Everything...affects…

  2. Nurses' intention to leave: critically analyse the theory of reasoned action and organizational commitment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2009-01-01

    To systematically analyse the Organizational Commitment model and Theory of Reasoned Action and determine concepts that can better explain nurses' intention to leave their job. The Organizational Commitment model and Theory of Reasoned Action have been proposed and applied to understand intention to leave and turnover behaviour, which are major contributors to nursing shortage. However, the appropriateness of applying these two models in nursing was not analysed. Three main criteria of a useful model were used for the analysis: consistency in the use of concepts, testability and predictability. Both theories use concepts consistently. Concepts in the Theory of Reasoned Action are defined broadly whereas they are operationally defined in the Organizational Commitment model. Predictability of the Theory of Reasoned Action is questionable whereas the Organizational Commitment model can be applied to predict intention to leave. A model was proposed based on this analysis. Organizational commitment, intention to leave, work experiences, job characteristics and personal characteristics can be concepts for predicting nurses' intention to leave. Nursing managers may consider nurses' personal characteristics and experiences to increase their organizational commitment and enhance their intention to stay. Empirical studies are needed to test and cross-validate the re-synthesized model for nurses' intention to leave their job.

  3. Teaching Evolution (And All of Biology) More Effectively: Strategies for Engagement, Critical Reasoning, and Confronting Misconceptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig E. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    .... Three pedagogical strategies that together can make a large difference in students' understanding and acceptance of evolution are extensive use of interactive engagement, a focus on critical thinking in science...

  4. Reasoning about Race and Pedagogy in Two Preservice Science Teachers: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Douglas B.; Maloney, Tanya; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of two preservice science teachers as they progress through their respective teacher education programs and uses critical race theory to examine the manner in which conceptions about race and its pedagogical implications change over time. Using a longitudinal case study method, participants' conceptual…

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AS A STRATEGY TO FOSTER PROBLEM SOLVING AND CRITICAL REASONING SKILLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Munazza; Iqbal, Khadija; Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach that utilizes problems or cases as a context for students to acquire problem solving skills. It promotes communication skills, active learning, and critical thinking skills. It encourages peer teaching and active participation in a group. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Al Nafees Medical College, Isra University, Islamabad, in one month duration. This study was conducted on 193 students of both 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Each PBL consists of three sessions, spaced by 2-3 days. In the first session students were provided a PBL case developed by both basic and clinical science faculty. In Session 2 (group discussion), they share, integrate their knowledge with the group and Wrap up (third session), was concluded at the end. A questionnaire based survey was conducted to find out overall effectiveness of PBL sessions. Teaching through PBLs greatly improved the problem solving and critical reasoning skills with 60% students of first year and 71% of 2nd year agreeing that the acquisition of knowledge and its application in solving multiple choice questions (MCQs) was greatly improved by these sessions. They observed that their self-directed learning, intrinsic motivation and skills to relate basic concepts with clinical reasoning which involves higher order thinking have greatly enhanced. Students found PBLs as an effective strategy to promote teamwork and critical thinking skills. PBL is an effective method to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills among medical students.

  6. What's in a Name? A Critical Review of Definitions of Quantitative Literacy, Numeracy, and Quantitative Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizen Karaali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to bring together various threads in the eclectic literature that make up the scholarship around the theme of Quantitative Literacy. In investigating the meanings of terms like "quantitative literacy," "quantitative reasoning," and "numeracy," we seek common ground, common themes, common goals and aspirations of a community of practitioners. A decade ago, these terms were relatively new in the public sphere; today policy makers and accrediting agencies are routinely inserting them into general education conversations. Having good, representative, and perhaps even compact and easily digestible definitions of these terms might come in handy in public relations contexts as well as in other situations where practitioners need to measure and evaluate their own success or communicate their goals and practice to others. Finding such definitions is, as expected, a difficult task. We offer through our analysis a clarifying framework for practitioners looking to sharpen their definitions and for others who are not keen on finalizing definitions. More specifically, we argue that there is indeed a common thread among all the terms involved, that of a competence in interacting with myriad mathematical and statistical representations of the real world, in the contexts of daily life, work situations, and the civic engagement. Furthermore we propose that the knowledge content captured by the individual terms can be placed on a continuum (statistics-data-arithmetic-mathematics-logic.

  7. Investigating the Correlation Between Pharmacy Student Performance on the Health Science Reasoning Test and a Critical Thinking Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nornoo, Adwoa O; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students' scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking. Methods. The HSRT was administered to first-year pharmacy students during a critical-thinking course in the spring semester. In the same semester, a required package insert assignment was completed in a pharmacokinetics course. To determine whether there was a relationship between HSRT scores and grades on the assignment, a Spearman's rho correlation test was performed. Results. A very weak but significant positive correlation was found between students' grades on the assignment and their overall HSRT score (r=0.19, p thinking skills in pharmacy students.

  8. The benefits of a critical stance: a reflection on past papers on the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstead, Antony S R

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I reflect on past papers published in the British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) that have played a role in the development of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). I focus on seven papers that fall into five categories: (1) those that critique the TRA/TPB for taking insufficient account of social factors; (2) those that critique the models on the grounds that many social behaviours are 'habitual'; (3) those that critically examine the construct of perceived behavioural control; (4) those that argue for the importance of affective factors, which appear to be overlooked in the TRA/TPB; and (5) those that argue for the importance of studying the role of moderating factors and interaction effects in the TRA/TPB. I conclude that BJSP's traditional focus on criticism and theory development is one that benefits the journal and the field. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Helping Students to Recognize and Evaluate an Assumption in Quantitative Reasoning: A Basic Critical-Thinking Activity with Marbles and Electronic Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Slisko, Josip; Cruz, Adrian Corona

    2013-01-01

    There is a general agreement that critical thinking is an important element of 21st century skills. Although critical thinking is a very complex and controversial conception, many would accept that recognition and evaluation of assumptions is a basic critical-thinking process.  When students use simple mathematical model to reason quantitatively about a situation, they usually do not consider which implicit assumptions they have made and, consequently, they do not evaluate if these assumption...

  10. Ten Reasons to Take Peak Oil Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Brecha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty years ago, the results of modeling, as presented in The Limits to Growth, reinvigorated a discussion about exponentially growing consumption of natural resources, ranging from metals to fossil fuels to atmospheric capacity, and how such consumption could not continue far into the future. Fifteen years earlier, M. King Hubbert had made the projection that petroleum production in the continental United States would likely reach a maximum around 1970, followed by a world production maximum a few decades later. The debate about “peak oil”, as it has come to be called, is accompanied by some of the same vociferous denials, myths and ideological polemicizing that have surrounded later representations of The Limits to Growth. In this review, we present several lines of evidence as to why arguments for a near-term peak in world conventional oil production should be taken seriously—both in the sense that there is strong evidence for peak oil and in the sense that being societally unprepared for declining oil production will have serious consequences.

  11. Ten Reasons Service Science Matters to Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohrer, Jim; Fodell, Dianne; Murphy, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is being reshaped little by little every day. Slowly but surely, from the smallest community colleges to the teaching institutions to the most prestigious research universities, a new set of key performance indicators (KPIs) is transforming what excellence means in higher education. For developed and emerging market nations…

  12. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Reasons Underlying Arab Student-Teachers' Inadequate English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.; Al-Bulushi, Ali Hussain; Al-Zadjali, Rima Mansoor

    2017-01-01

    Despite the emphasis laid on demonstrating English language proficiency by Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (NNESTs), research has shown that for various reasons English language teachers graduating from a state-owned university in an Arab country for the past 25 years or so have been found lacking communication skills due to reasons pertinent…

  13. Formal operational reasoning modes: Predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics for students in grades nine through twelve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Betty L.

    To test the hypothesis that formal operational reasoning modes are predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics, in September 1986 the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) and in December 1986 the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) were administered to 101 rural students in Grades 9 through 12. The grades assigned by teachers were collected in May 1987. Construct and criterion-related validities and internal-consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha method were established on the GALT. On the WGCTA, content and construct validities and internal consistency reliability using the split-half procedure, coefficient of stability, and coefficient of equivalence were established. The five formal operational reasoning modes in the GALT were found to be significant predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics. The variance in the five critical thinking abilities attributable to the five formal operational reasoning modes ranged between 28% and 70%. The five formal operational reasoning modes explained 29% of the variance in mathematics achievement and 62% of the variance in science achievement.

  14. Development of Learning Management Model Based on Constructivist Theory and Reasoning Strategies for Enhancing the Critical Thinking of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaipichit, Dudduan; Jantharajit, Nirat; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study issues around the management of science learning, problems that are encountered, and to develop a learning management model to address those problems. The development of that model and the findings of its study were based on Constructivist Theory and literature on reasoning strategies for enhancing…

  15. Erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento em solos de estradas não pavimentadas Erodibility and critical shear stress on unpaved road soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F. de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A falta de um sistema adequado para drenagem de águas pluviais em estradas não pavimentadas é um dos principais fatores que causam a sua degradação e, para que referidos sistemas possam ser adequadamente planejados e dimensionados é necessário o conhecimento de parâmetros de resistência dos solos. Com este trabalho se teve, por objetivo, determinar a erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento para diferentes solos de estradas não pavimentadas. Utilizou-se um simulador de escoamento superficial instalado diretamente nos canais das estradas, sob condição natural e se determinou a perda de solo para diferentes lâminas de escoamento. A erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento foram determinadas por meio do ajuste de curvas relacionando-se a perda de solo em função da tensão cisalhante provocada pelo escoamento. Os resultados alcançados mostraram variações nos valores de erodibilidade e de tensão crítica de cisalhamento das estradas avaliadas. Os valores de erodibilidade encontrados mostraram, quando comparados com valores observados na literatura, elevada suscetibilidade à erosão para as condições de estradas, sendo mais elevados nos solos de textura mais arenosa e siltosa. Os valores de tensão crítica se mostraram bastante próximos aos observados em outros trabalhos.The absence of an adequate drainage system in unpaved roads is one of the main factors for their degradation. For adequate planning knowledge of the resistance parameters of soil is necessary. This study had as its objective the determinatiom of the erodibility and critical shear stress of unpaved road soils. For this work, a runoff simulator was directly installed on road channels, under natural conditions. Different flow depths were applied and the soil loss was measured for each depth. The erodibility and the critical shear stress were determined through adjusted curves relating soil disaggregation and flow shear stress. The results

  16. Equipamento para determinação da erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento do solo em canais de estradas Equipment to determine erodibility and critical shear stress of soil in road channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nori P. Griebeler

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A erosão provocada pela água no leito e nas margens de estradas não-pavimentadas, está intimamente relacionada à má drenagem. Para que o sistema de drenagem seja feito de forma adequada, o conhecimento da erodibilidade e da tensão crítica de cisalhamento do solo é essencial. Neste sentido, desenvolveu-se um equipamento que permite a simulação do escoamento superficial e o acompanhamento das perdas de solo diretamente no leito ou no canal da estrada, possibilitando a determinação da tensão crítica de cisalhamento e da erodibilidade do solo. O equipamento consiste em um conjunto composto por um reservatório de água, uma caixa de nível constante, uma calha para simulação do escoamento superficial e por um sistema de armazenamento da água escoada e filtragem dos sedimentos erodidos. Com base nos resultados obtidos com o uso do equipamento, constatou-se que este se mostrou satisfatório quanto aos aspectos de instalação, simulação de escoamento e quantificação de perdas para diferentes tensões aplicadas, permitindo a determinação da erodibilidade e da tensão crítica de cisalhamento do solo. No que tange à sua praticidade, o equipamento apresentou aspectos inconvenientes, sobretudo no que se refere à necessidade de mão-de-obra e consumo de água.Water erosion on unpaved roads is directly related with poor drainage. The knowledge of the soil erodibility and critical shear stress is essential for correct design of drainage systems. In this paper equipment was developed which allows to simulate the surface runoff in the road channels and to determine, consequently, the soil erodibility and the critical shear stress for the soil. The equipment consists of a water reservoir, a box to control water level, a channel where the surface runoff simulation is made and a system to store the water and the sediments which are detached by surface runoff. The equipment had a good performance to determine the soil erodibility and the

  17. Nonstandard Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, nonstandard reasoning refers to the proliferation of reasoning styles investigated in modern logic beyond its traditional agenda. After a brief statement of standard logical approaches to consequence, we describe motivations for new systems. These include not only inference patterns

  18. Pertinent reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors venture beyond one of the fundamental assumptions in the non-monotonic reasoning community, namely that non-monotonic entailment is supra-classical. They investigate reasoning which uses an infra-classical entailment...

  19. Ten reasons to exclude viruses from the tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación

    2009-04-01

    When viruses were discovered, they were accepted as missing links between the inert world and living organisms. However, this idea was soon abandoned as information about their molecular parasitic nature accumulated. Recently, the notion that viruses are living organisms that have had a role in the evolution of some essential features of cells has experienced a renaissance owing to the discovery of unusually large and complex viruses that possess typical cellular genes. Here, we contend that there is strong evidence against the notion that viruses are alive and represent ancient lineages of the tree of life.

  20. To Reason or Not to Reason: Is Autobiographical Reasoning Always Beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kate C.; Mansfield, Cade D.

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning has been found to be a critical process in identity development; however, the authors suggest that existing research shows that such reasoning may not always be critical to another important outcome: well-being. The authors describe characteristics of people such as personality and age, contexts such as conversations,…

  1. Reasonable Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a sample legal battle that illustrates school officials' "reasonable forecasts" of substantial disruption in the school environment. In 2006, two students from a Texas high school came to school carrying purses decorated with images of the Confederate flag. The school district has a zero-tolerance policy for…

  2. Diagrammatic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    of representational artifacts for purposes of thinking and communicating is discussed in relation to C.S. Peirce’s notion of diagrammatical reasoning. We propose to extend Peirce’s original ideas and sketch a conceptual framework that delineates different kinds of diagram manipulation: Sometimes diagrams...

  3. Verbal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-31

    Psicologia , 4(3), 183-198. 94 Guyote, M.J. and Sternberg, R.J. (1981). A transitive-chain theory of syllogistic reasoning. Cognitive Psychology, 13(4), 461...personal connections. Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 39-59. Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard

  4. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...

  5. Reasoning with Geometric Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Geometry belongs to branches of mathematics that develop students' visualisation, intuition, critical thinking, problem solving, deductive reasoning, logical argument and proof (Jones, 2002). It provides the basis for the development of spatial sense and plays an important role in acquiring advanced knowledge in science, technology, engineering,…

  6. Ten past and ten future GAS/MAUS-payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniek, S.; Otto, G.; Doepkess, J.

    1988-01-01

    MAUS (materials science autonomous experiments) is one out of a series of flight opportunities which the Space Program of West Germany offers to scientists from the disciplines of materials research and processing for performing materials science investigations under microgravity conditions. Up to now, ten MAUS experiments were flown which were dealing with the following scientific topics: decomposition of binary alloys with miscibility gap in the liquid state, interaction of a solidification front with dispersed particles, critical Marangoni number, investigation of the magnetic compound MnBi, shrinkage of gas bubbles in glass melts and slip casting. The ten future experiments are partly reflights with modification of the scientific objectives as well as new experiments in the fields of chemical reactions, heat transfer, glass technology and Ostwald ripening. Looking to ten flown payloads, the peculiarities of instrument technology in GAS-cans and its evolution is discussed with emphasis on structure, electronics and thermal design. A typical modern payload using 100 percent of the resource is presented.

  7. Being Reasonable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botting David

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Where do the rules of critical discussion get their normative force? What kinds of norms are involved? Unreasonable behaviour in the critical discussion - e.g., continuing to assert the contradictory of a proven standpoint, performing some action pragmatically inconsistent with a proven standpoint, or the same with regard to the starting-points agreed to in the opening stage - is liable to moral sanction. Thus, a moral/ethical norm is involved and the rules must have a moral force. Pragma-dialectics as it stands does not seem to account for this moral force. I will attempt to fill this gap in pragma-dialectical theory.

  8. Reasoning Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Renato Pinto de Queiroz

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Esta dissertação apresenta uma ferramenta de apoio à decisão, baseada na Metodologia Multicritérios de Apoio à Decisão - MCDA, através do desenvolvimento de um software denominado Reasoning Maps. O software permite, de maneira integrada, a construção de mapas cognitivos, suas diversas análises topológicas e o cadastramento e análise de alternativas. Abor...

  9. Heuristic reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    How can we advance knowledge? Which methods do we need in order to make new discoveries? How can we rationally evaluate, reconstruct and offer discoveries as a means of improving the ‘method’ of discovery itself? And how can we use findings about scientific discovery to boost funding policies, thus fostering a deeper impact of scientific discovery itself? The respective chapters in this book provide readers with answers to these questions. They focus on a set of issues that are essential to the development of types of reasoning for advancing knowledge, such as models for both revolutionary findings and paradigm shifts; ways of rationally addressing scientific disagreement, e.g. when a revolutionary discovery sparks considerable disagreement inside the scientific community; frameworks for both discovery and inference methods; and heuristics for economics and the social sciences.

  10. Intuition, reason, and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Valerie A; Prowse Turner, Jamie A; Pennycook, Gordon

    2011-11-01

    Dual Process Theories (DPT) of reasoning posit that judgments are mediated by both fast, automatic processes and more deliberate, analytic ones. A critical, but unanswered question concerns the issue of monitoring and control: When do reasoners rely on the first, intuitive output and when do they engage more effortful thinking? We hypothesised that initial, intuitive answers are accompanied by a metacognitive experience, called the Feeling of Rightness (FOR), which can signal when additional analysis is needed. In separate experiments, reasoners completed one of four tasks: conditional reasoning (N=60), a three-term variant of conditional reasoning (N=48), problems used to measure base rate neglect (N=128), or a syllogistic reasoning task (N=64). For each task, participants were instructed to provide an initial, intuitive response to the problem along with an assessment of the rightness of that answer (FOR). They were then allowed as much time as needed to reconsider their initial answer and provide a final answer. In each experiment, we observed a robust relationship between the FOR and two measures of analytic thinking: low FOR was associated with longer rethinking times and an increased probability of answer change. In turn, FOR judgments were consistently predicted by the fluency with which the initial answer was produced, providing a link to the wider literature on metamemory. These data support a model in which a metacognitive judgment about a first, initial model determines the extent of analytic engagement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ten Top Tech Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  12. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  13. Tens bij bevallingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin-Nuis, F.D.F.

    2000-01-01

    TENS (Transcutane Electrische Neuro Stimulatie) is een pijnverlichtingsmethode die berust op de Gate Control Theory van Melzack en Wall. Door middel van electrische pulsen via de huid zou de geleiding van nociceptieve signalen (pijnprikkels) worden beïnvloed en zou het lichaam endorfinen aanmaken:

  14. Powers of ten

    CERN Multimedia

    Pyramid FILMS

    1977-01-01

    Powers of Ten is a 1977 short documentary film written and directed by Charles Eames and his wife, Ray. The film depicts the relative scale of the Universe in factors of ten (see also logarithmic scale and order of magnitude). The film begins with an aerial image of a man reclining on a blanket; the view is that of one meter across. The viewpoint, accompanied by expository voiceover, then slowly zooms out to a view ten meters across ( or 101 m in standard form), revealing that the man is picnicking in a park with a female companion. The zoom-out continues, to a view of 100 meters (102 m), then 1 kilometer (103 m), and so on, increasing the perspective—the picnic is revealed to be taking place near Soldier Field on Chicago's waterfront—and continuing to zoom out to a field of view of 1024 meters, or the size of the observable universe. The camera then zooms back in to the picnic, and then to views of negative powers of ten—10-1 m (10 centimeters), and so forth, until we are viewing a carbon nucl...

  15. "Critique of intuitive reason"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author displays and reexamines Hare’s "two-level theory" of normative moral thinking ("intuitive" level and "critical" level, including goals that are intended by its establishing. Given Hare’s holism, the met ethical level, considered as fundamental or the "third" level, has notable effect on process of normative reasoning, especially if it is taken as one of the determinant of the critical moral thin king. Central part of the analysis is examination of utilitarian character of the theory.

  16. Abductive Reasoning: Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atocha Aliseda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this piece is to provide a critical analysis on some key aspects of abduction, as conceived by several researchers through my book Abductive Reasoning. These contributions raise fundamental questions concerning the conjectural character of abduction, its psychological status, its logical and computational structure as well as its role as inference to the best explanation and as a process of epistemic change.

  17. Ten Utah Painters

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Andrew

    1984-01-01

    Today the art world is rich and diverse with regional as well as national art centers. As in the past, art is alive and well in Utah. The show Ten Utah Painters invites us to see and experiece what some of Utah's best contemporary artists are doing. Their paintings invite us to look and to enjoy but also to learn and open up our visual senses to a broader vista.

  18. The ten thousand Kims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-07-01

    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  19. Ten Challenges in Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, Audrey; Howatt, Kerry; Waddington, Ashley; Reid, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Despite the introduction of promising products into the contraceptive market, the rate of unintended pregnancies remains high. Women with underlying medical conditions should have access to safe and effective contraceptive methods for various reasons, including the potential deleterious effect of the disease on the pregnancy or the effect of the pregnancy on the disease process. Healthcare providers are often confronted with cases in which contraception counseling is problematic due to controversial evidence and persistent myths. This review will examine a number of medical conditions that often create contraception counseling challenges. It should in no way be considered as an extensive review of all contraceptive options for a given medical condition. The following topics will be explored: depression, immunosuppression, inflammatory bowel diseases, past bariatric surgery, liver diseases, family history of breast cancer, migraines, polycystic ovarian syndrome, perimenopausal state, and sickle cell disease. We advocate for improved information and accessibility to contraception as a means of decreasing the rate of unintended pregnancies.

  20. Ten-year technical and clinical outcomes in TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus II infrainguinal C/D lesions using duplex ultrasound arterial mapping as the sole imaging modality for critical lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate duplex ultrasound arterial mapping (DUAM) as the sole imaging modality when planning for bypass surgery (BS) and endovascular revascularization (EvR) in patients with critical limb ischemia for TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II C\\/D infrainguinal lesions.

  1. Clinical reasoning and critical thinking Raciocinio clínico y pensamiento crítico Raciocínio clínico e pensamento crítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinete Aparecida da Silva Bastos Cerullo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and analyzes nursing literature on clinical reasoning and critical thinking. A bibliographical search was performed in LILACS, SCIELO, PUBMED and CINAHL databases, followed by selection of abstracts and the reading of full texts. Through the review we verified that clinical reasoning develops from scientific and professional knowledge, is permeated by ethical decisions and nurses’ values and also that there are different personal and institutional strategies that might improve the critical thinking and clinical reasoning of nurses. Further research and evaluation of educational programs on clinical reasoning that integrate psychosocial responses to physiological responses of people cared by nurses is needed.El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar y analizar estudios de la literatura de enfermería sobre raciocinio clínico y pensamiento crítico. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos LILACS, SciELO, PubMed y CINAHL, selección de resúmenes, con posterior lectura completa de los textos. Esa revisión permitió verificar que el raciocinio clínico se desarrolla a partir de los conocimientos científicos y profesionales, impregnado por decisiones éticas y valores de los enfermeros y, también, que existen diversas estrategias personales e institucionales que pueden perfeccionar el pensamiento crítico y raciocinio clínico de los enfermeros y que existe necesidad de realizar investigaciones y evaluación de programas de formación sobre raciocinio clínico que integren las respuestas psicosociales a las fisiológicas de las personas cuidadas por la enfermería.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e analisar estudos da literatura de enfermagem sobre raciocínio clínico e pensamento crítico. Realizou-se busca bibliográfica nas bases de dados LILACS, SciELO, PubMed e CINAHL, escolha de resumos, com posterior leitura dos textos na íntegra. Essa revisão permitiu verificar que o racioc

  2. Practical Reasoning in Corrections Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBar, C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The article explains the six tasks involved in practical reasoning and describes a research project that centered around teaching a six-week course in critical thinking to inmates at a medium security prison in an attempt to determine the feasibility of implementing a moral education program in correctional institutions. (SB)

  3. Webometric Analysis of Top Ten Asian and Indian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal, Samir Kumar; Sutradhar, B; Mukhopadhyay, Parthasarathi

    2016-01-01

    The paper tries to assess all the existing ranking systems which are used to rank higher educational institutions. The aim of the paper is to provide sufficient background to design and develop a new ranking system for a country. An attempt has been taken to find out the reasons of low ranking of Indian universities with respect to the world university ranking through webometric analysis of top ten Indian and Asian universities. A comparative study of top Ten Indian Universities and Asian uni...

  4. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  5. Using TENS for pain control: the state of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Carol GT; Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention that activates a complex neuronal network to reduce pain by activating descending inhibitory systems in the central nervous system to reduce hyperalgesia. The evidence for TENS efficacy is conflicting and requires not only description but also critique. Population-specific systemic reviews and meta-analyses are emerging, indicating both HF and LF TENS being shown to provide analgesia, specifically when applied at a strong, nonpainful intensity. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the latest basic science and clinical evidence for TENS. Additional research is necessary to determine if TENS has effects specific to mechanical stimuli and/or beyond reduction of pain and will improve activity levels, function and quality of life. PMID:24953072

  6. Assessing Analysis and Reasoning in Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    Developing critical thinking is a perceived weakness in current education. Analysis and reasoning are core skills in bioethics making bioethics a useful vehicle to address this weakness. Assessment is widely considered to be the most influential factor on learning (Brown and Glasner, 1999) and this piece describes how analysis and reasoning in…

  7. Therapeutic reasoning: from hiatus to hypothetical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissessur, S.; Geijteman, E.C.T.; Al-Dulaimy, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Richir, M.C.; Arnold, A.E.R.; Vries, de T.P.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Extensive research has been conducted on clinical reasoning to gain better understanding of this process. Clinical reasoning has been defined as the process of thinking critically about the diagnosis and patient management. However, most research has focused on the process of diagnostic

  8. Connecting Mathematics Learning through Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2018-01-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new…

  9. Public Reason Renaturalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This article takes up recent discussions of nature and the sensorium in order to rethink public reason in deeply divided societies. The aim is not to reject the role of reason-giving but rather to infuse it with new meaning, bringing the reasonable back to its sensorially inflected circumstances....

  10. Critical Studies on Men in Ten European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)

    2002-01-01

    This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...... from Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom. The Network's initial focus is on men's relations to home and work, social exclusion, violences, and health. Some of findings on the Network's second phase of work, namely the review...

  11. Ten-dimensional Supergravity Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Roo, Mees de; Kerstan, Sven; Riccioni, Fabio; Diaz Alonso, J.; Mornas, L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that the exisiting supergravity theories in ten dimensions can be extended with extra gauge fields whose rank is equal to the spacetime dimension. These gauge fields have vanishing field strength but nevertheless play an important role in the coupling of supergravity to spacetime filling

  12. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric

    2004-09-30

    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  13. Understanding Scale: Powers of Ten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy; Minogue, James; Broadwell, Bethany; Wiebe, Eric; Carter, Glenda

    2007-01-01

    The classic film "Powers of Ten" is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students' concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and…

  14. A Ten-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  15. Ten Rules of Academic Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Creative writers are well served with 'how to' guides, but just how much do they help? And how might they be relevant to academic authors? A recent survey of writing tips by twenty-eight creative authors has been condensed to the ten most relevant to the academic, supported by some comments on

  16. Ten "Discoveries" About Basic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Raymond

    1977-01-01

    Ten conclusions about childrens' learning are presented from 15 years of research by the Educational Research Council of America. These include effectiveness of short textbooks, interest in learning technical words, need for social science curriculum to challenge, and detrimental effect of ingrained teacher attitudes to teach social studies by…

  17. Connecting mathematics learning through spatial reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2017-07-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new pathways for mathematics learning, pedagogy and curriculum. Novel analytical tools will map the unknown complex systems linking spatial and mathematical concepts. It will involve the design, implementation and evaluation of a Spatial Reasoning Mathematics Program (SRMP) in Grades 3 to 5. Benefits will be seen through development of critical spatial skills for students, increased teacher capability and informed policy and curriculum across STEM education.

  18. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning.

  19. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning. PMID:28750030

  20. Model-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental models and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental models and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…

  1. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  2. Teaching to Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros Rotge, Hector G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Physics courses is that the students learn how to use what they know to solve problems in the real world (competencies), but no one learns to do that seeing as the professor think in the blackboard. The program of a course uses topics as examples of reasoning. Reasoning involves the ability to use their knowledge. If we precisely…

  3. Applied Counterfactual Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Noel

    This chapter addresses two goals: The development of a structured method to aid intelligence and security analysts in assessing counterfactuals, and forming a structured method to educate (future) analysts in counterfactual reasoning. In order to pursue these objectives, I offer here an analysis of the purposes, problems, parts, and principles of applied counterfactual reasoning. In particular, the ways in which antecedent scenarios are selected and the ways in which scenarios are developed constitute essential (albeit often neglected) aspects of counterfactual reasoning. Both must be addressed to apply counterfactual reasoning effectively. Naturally, further issues remain, but these should serve as a useful point of departure. They are the beginning of a path to more rigorous and relevant counterfactual reasoning in intelligence analysis and counterterrorism.

  4. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  5. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  6. Ten Blue Links on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Charles L. A.; Cormack, Gordon V.; Lin, Jimmy; Roegiest, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores a simple question: How would we provide a high-quality search experience on Mars, where the fundamental physical limit is speed-of-light propagation delays on the order of tens of minutes? On Earth, users are accustomed to nearly instantaneous response times from search engines. Is it possible to overcome orders-of-magnitude longer latency to provide a tolerable user experience on Mars? In this paper, we formulate the searching from Mars problem as a tradeoff between "effo...

  7. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Berti Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  9. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento

    OpenAIRE

    De Berti Raffaele; Tomaso Subini

    2011-01-01

    Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  10. Reason without much language

    OpenAIRE

    Varley, R.

    2014-01-01

    Language is more than a system used for interpersonal communication. Linguistic representations can also form a part of reasoning in other cognitive domains. However, it is unclear whether the role of language in non-verbal domains is a necessary one, or whether it represents an optional resource that is recruited under demanding or highly intentional processing conditions. The possible role of language in categorisation, belief reasoning, calculation and cross-domain integration is explored,...

  11. Ten Keys to the Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Successful web portals help users stay informed, in touch, and up to speed. They are also a telling window into the efficiency of one's institution. To develop a cutting-edge portal takes planning, communication, and research. In this article, the author presents and discusses 10 keys to portal success: (1) make critical info visible; (2) make the…

  12. Ten Years of Net Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anklam, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective on the emergence of social media and their adoption as a critical element in knowledge management strategy. Social media are defined as the collection of software tools and web-based applications that are personalized, that is, that communications identify individuals by name and…

  13. Public Equality, Public Reason and Liberal Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Zelić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In his The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and its Limits Christiano defends an idea that democracy has authority because it realizes public equality. According to Christiano, for realization of public equality there is no need for any restriction on the content of reasons we offer each other to justify laws and policies. In this paper I try to show that there are good reasons to think that boundaries of public reason can more deeply realize public equality in plural society and I also try to defend this view from some criticisms given by Christiano in his book.

  14. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  15. Reasons For Prosecutorial Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the prosecuting policy of the National Prosecuting Authority reasons for the exercise of prosecutorial discretions should be furnished on request of persons with a legitimate interest in the decisions. In general only the broad reasons should be provided and not the specific particulars of the decision. This approach is based on two important policy considerations. The first is that the decisions of the prosecuting authority should be transparent since it is a requirement for upholding the legality principle. The second is that the furnishing of specific particulars could result in a violation of the rights of individuals, for example it could create doubt about the innocence of a person without him or her ever having been subjected to a criminal trial. This contribution investigates issues such as the nature of the duty to provide reasons for prosecutorial decisions, the identification of the parties that are entitled to the reasons for a particular prosecutorial decision, and the furnishing of reasons in order to enhance the judicial review of prosecutorial decisions.

  16. Calvin on Human Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God.

  17. Causal reasoning in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written on the role of causal notions and causal reasoning in the so-called 'special sciences' and in common sense. But does causal reasoning also play a role in physics? Mathias Frisch argues that, contrary to what influential philosophical arguments purport to show, the answer is yes. Time-asymmetric causal structures are as integral a part of the representational toolkit of physics as a theory's dynamical equations. Frisch develops his argument partly through a critique of anti-causal arguments and partly through a detailed examination of actual examples of causal notions in physics, including causal principles invoked in linear response theory and in representations of radiation phenomena. Offering a new perspective on the nature of scientific theories and causal reasoning, this book will be of interest to professional philosophers, graduate students, and anyone interested in the role of causal thinking in science.

  18. Case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodner, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  19. Reasoning=working Memoryattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehner, M.; Krumm, S.; Pick, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between attention, components of working memory, and reasoning. Therefore, twenty working memory tests, two attention tests, and nine intelligence subtests were administered to 135 students. Using structural equation modeling, we were able to replicate a functional model of working memory…

  20. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  1. Reasoning with Causal Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob

    2017-01-01

    This article assesses how people reason with categories whose features are related in causal cycles. Whereas models based on causal graphical models (CGMs) have enjoyed success modeling category-based judgments as well as a number of other cognitive phenomena, CGMs are only able to represent causal structures that are acyclic. A number of new…

  2. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  3. Assessment as Evidential Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Joanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Principles of evidential reasoning have often been discussed in the context of educational and psychological measurement with respect to construct validity and validity arguments. More recently, Mislevy proposed the metaphor of assessment as an evidentiary argument about students' learning and abilities given their…

  4. Reason destroys itself

    CERN Multimedia

    Penrose, Roger

    2008-01-01

    "Do we know for certain that 2 lus 2 equals 4? Of course we don't. Maybe every time everybody in the whole world has ever done that calculation and reasoned it through, they've made a mistake." (1 page0

  5. Reasoning about the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    In this extended abstract, we briefly recall the abstract (categorical) notion of bisimulation from open morphisms, as introduced by Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel. The approach is applicable across a wide range of models of computation, and any such bisimulation comes automatically with characterist...... of reasoning about the past....

  6. Architectural Reasoning Explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, G.

    2014-01-01

    This document addresses the way an architect can do his work. It shows many tools that belong to the architect toolkit: The CAFCR model, tools per 5 views (Customer Objectives, Application, Functional, Conceptual and Realization), Qualities, Story telling and Reasoning in multiple dimensions.

  7. Top Ten Reasons To Use InDesign for Scholastic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communication: Journalism Education Today, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Explains that Adobe InDesign 2.0 moves desktop to new possibilities because it combines the best of modern graphics techniques. Provides explanations of the following aspects of InDesign: drop shadow; align objects; define styles; type on a path; grids; accessible patterns; gradients; create outlines; indexing; and shows missing point. (PM)

  8. Recognizing Students' Scientific Reasoning: A Tool for Categorizing Complexity of Reasoning During Teaching by Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Erin; Grady, Julia

    2010-02-01

    Teaching by inquiry is touted for its potential to encourage students to reason scientifically. Yet, even when inquiry teaching is practiced, complexity of students' reasoning may be limited or unbalanced. We describe an analytic tool for recognizing when students are engaged in complex reasoning during inquiry teaching. Using classrooms that represented "best case scenarios" for inquiry teaching, we adapted and applied a matrix to categorize the complexity of students' reasoning. Our results revealed points when students' reasoning was quite complex and occasions when their reasoning was limited by the curriculum, instructional choices, or students' unprompted prescription. We propose that teachers use the matrix as a springboard for reflection and discussion that takes a sustained, critical view of inquiry teaching practice.

  9. Lily Pad Doubling: Proportional Reasoning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux-Davis, Rebecca R.

    2017-01-01

    Progressing from additive to multiplicative thinking is critical for the development of middle school students' proportional reasoning abilities. Yet, many middle school mathematics teachers lack a thorough understanding of additive versus multiplicative situations. This article describes a sequence of instructional activities used to develop the…

  10. What variables can influence clinical reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoorion, Vahid; Liaghatdar, Mohammad Javad; Adibi, Peyman

    2012-12-01

    Clinical reasoning is one of the most important competencies that a physician should achieve. Many medical schools and licensing bodies try to predict it based on some general measures such as critical thinking, personality, and emotional intelligence. This study aimed at providing a model to design the relationship between the constructs. Sixty-nine medical students participated in this study. A battery test devised that consist four parts: Clinical reasoning measures, personality NEO inventory, Bar-On EQ inventory, and California critical thinking questionnaire. All participants completed the tests. Correlation and multiple regression analysis consumed for data analysis. There is low to moderate correlations between clinical reasoning and other variables. Emotional intelligence is the only variable that contributes clinical reasoning construct (r=0.17-0.34) (R(2) chnage = 0.46, P Value = 0.000). Although, clinical reasoning can be considered as a kind of thinking, no significant correlation detected between it and other constructs. Emotional intelligence (and its subscales) is the only variable that can be used for clinical reasoning prediction.

  11. What variables can influence clinical reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ashoorion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning is one of the most important competencies that a physician should achieve. Many medical schools and licensing bodies try to predict it based on some general measures such as critical thinking, personality, and emotional intelligence. This study aimed at providing a model to design the relationship between the constructs. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine medical students participated in this study. A battery test devised that consist four parts: Clinical reasoning measures, personality NEO inventory, Bar-On EQ inventory, and California critical thinking questionnaire. All participants completed the tests. Correlation and multiple regression analysis consumed for data analysis. Results: There is low to moderate correlations between clinical reasoning and other variables. Emotional intelligence is the only variable that contributes clinical reasoning construct (r=0.17-0.34 (R 2 chnage = 0.46, P Value = 0.000. Conclusion: Although, clinical reasoning can be considered as a kind of thinking, no significant correlation detected between it and other constructs. Emotional intelligence (and its subscales is the only variable that can be used for clinical reasoning prediction.

  12. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beliefs and Bayesian reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew L; Sidlowski, Sara; Staub, Adrian

    2017-06-01

    We examine whether judgments of posterior probabilities in Bayesian reasoning problems are affected by reasoners' beliefs about corresponding real-world probabilities. In an internet-based task, participants were asked to determine the probability that a hypothesis is true (posterior probability, e.g., a person has a disease, given a positive medical test) based on relevant probabilities (e.g., that any person has the disease and the true and false positive rates of the test). We varied whether the correct posterior probability was close to, or far from, independent intuitive estimates of the corresponding 'real-world' probability. Responses were substantially closer to the correct posterior when this value was close to the intuitive estimate. A model in which the response is a weighted sum of the intuitive estimate and an additive combination of the probabilities provides an excellent account of the results.

  14. AHP 28: Review: Scripture of the Ten Kings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Nietupski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This book is a study of the various influences on the complex Tibetan visions of the afterlife. It is based on new text-critical research and includes an introduction and translation of a rare Tibetan manuscript entitled Scripture on the Ten Kings, housed in the National Gallery, Prague. The book includes extensive references to secondary scholarship, as well as collaborative work by competent scholars and an appended study of the text illustrations by Luboš Bělka.

  15. Modification of the 'ten-day rule'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempfner, G.

    1985-02-01

    In a 1964 decision the National Health and Medical Research Council recommended that radiological examinations of the lower abdomen and pelvis of women of childbearing age should be confined to the 10-day interval following the onset of menstruation. Recent evidence suggests that the first four weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period is not a critically radiosensitive period and consequently strict adherence to the ten-day rule is no longer indicated.

  16. Reasoning as simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L; Murugesan, Arthi; Bignoli, Perrin G

    2009-11-01

    The theory that human cognition proceeds through mental simulations, if true, would provide a parsimonious explanation of how the mechanisms of reasoning and problem solving integrate with and develop from mechanisms underlying forms of cognition that occur earlier in evolution and development. However, questions remain about whether simulation mechanisms are powerful enough to exhibit human-level reasoning and inference. In order to investigate this issue, we show that it is possible to characterize some of the most powerful modern artificial intelligence algorithms for logical and probabilistic inference as methods of simulating alternate states of the world. We show that a set of specific human perceptual mechanisms, even if not implemented using mechanisms described in artificial intelligence, can nevertheless perform the same operations as those algorithms. Although this result does not demonstrate that simulation theory is true, it does show that whatever mechanisms underlie perception have at least as much power to explain non-perceptual human reasoning and problem solving as some of the most powerful known algorithms.

  17. Calvin on Human Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God.Calvyn oor Menslike Rede. In sy onlangse boek, The Unintended Reformation, maak Brad Gregory die stelling dat die Reformasie die substantiewe teleologiese deugde-etiek van die Rooms-Katolisisme vervang het met ‘n formele etiek gebaseer op reëls wat deur magistrate afgedwing moet word. Die Reformasie was, volgens Gregory, van mening dat die menslike rede sodanig deur sonde geskend is dat die mens nie langer deugde kan beoefen nie. Dit het tot ‘n skadelike skeiding tussen waardes en reëls gelei. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag of Gregory se stelling op Calvyn van toepassing is. Die eerste afdeling bespreek die intellektuele omgewing waarin Calvyn gewerk het. Tweedens word Gregory se siening van die geskape

  18. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  19. Arguments from parallel reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, Jan Albert; Ribeiro, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is a co-production by a proponent and an opponent who engage in a critical examination of their difference of opinion, aiming to resolve it on the merits of both sides, or so I assume in this paper. I shall investigate the consequences of this view for a particular type of argument

  20. A Framework for Assessing High School Students' Statistical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Ismail, Zaleha; Sumintono, Bambang

    2016-01-01

    Based on a synthesis of literature, earlier studies, analyses and observations on high school students, this study developed an initial framework for assessing students' statistical reasoning about descriptive statistics. Framework descriptors were established across five levels of statistical reasoning and four key constructs. The former consisted of idiosyncratic reasoning, verbal reasoning, transitional reasoning, procedural reasoning, and integrated process reasoning. The latter include describing data, organizing and reducing data, representing data, and analyzing and interpreting data. In contrast to earlier studies, this initial framework formulated a complete and coherent statistical reasoning framework. A statistical reasoning assessment tool was then constructed from this initial framework. The tool was administered to 10 tenth-grade students in a task-based interview. The initial framework was refined, and the statistical reasoning assessment tool was revised. The ten students then participated in the second task-based interview, and the data obtained were used to validate the framework. The findings showed that the students' statistical reasoning levels were consistent across the four constructs, and this result confirmed the framework's cohesion. Developed to contribute to statistics education, this newly developed statistical reasoning framework provides a guide for planning learning goals and designing instruction and assessments.

  1. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...... equational theory whose free algebras correspond to well known structures. In each case we have finitary and continuous versions. The four cases are: Hausdorff metrics from quantitive semilattices; pWasserstein metrics (hence also the Kantorovich metric) from barycentric algebras and also from pointed...

  2. Reasoning about plans

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, James; Pelavin, Richard; Tenenberg, Josh

    1991-01-01

    This book presents four contributions to planning research within an integrated framework. James Allen offers a survey of his research in the field of temporal reasoning, and then describes a planning system formalized and implemented directly as an inference process in the temporal logic. Starting from the same logic, Henry Kautz develops the first formal specification of the plan recognition process and develops a powerful family of algorithms for plan recognition in complex situations. Richard Pelavin then extends the temporal logic with model operators that allow the representation to

  3. Charisma and Moral Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Flanigan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.

  4. Deconstructing climate misinformation to identify reasoning errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John; Ellerton, Peter; Kinkead, David

    2018-02-01

    Misinformation can have significant societal consequences. For example, misinformation about climate change has confused the public and stalled support for mitigation policies. When people lack the expertise and skill to evaluate the science behind a claim, they typically rely on heuristics such as substituting judgment about something complex (i.e. climate science) with judgment about something simple (i.e. the character of people who speak about climate science) and are therefore vulnerable to misleading information. Inoculation theory offers one approach to effectively neutralize the influence of misinformation. Typically, inoculations convey resistance by providing people with information that counters misinformation. In contrast, we propose inoculating against misinformation by explaining the fallacious reasoning within misleading denialist claims. We offer a strategy based on critical thinking methods to analyse and detect poor reasoning within denialist claims. This strategy includes detailing argument structure, determining the truth of the premises, and checking for validity, hidden premises, or ambiguous language. Focusing on argument structure also facilitates the identification of reasoning fallacies by locating them in the reasoning process. Because this reason-based form of inoculation is based on general critical thinking methods, it offers the distinct advantage of being accessible to those who lack expertise in climate science. We applied this approach to 42 common denialist claims and find that they all demonstrate fallacious reasoning and fail to refute the scientific consensus regarding anthropogenic global warming. This comprehensive deconstruction and refutation of the most common denialist claims about climate change is designed to act as a resource for communicators and educators who teach climate science and/or critical thinking.

  5. Registered nurses' clinical reasoning skills and reasoning process: A think-aloud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Lee, Young Joo; Bae, JuYeon; Seo, Minjeong

    2016-11-01

    As complex chronic diseases are increasing, nurses' prompt and accurate clinical reasoning skills are essential. However, little is known about the reasoning skills of registered nurses. This study aimed to determine how registered nurses use their clinical reasoning skills and to identify how the reasoning process proceeds in the complex clinical situation of hospital setting. A qualitative exploratory design was used with a think-aloud method. A total of 13 registered nurses (mean years of experience=11.4) participated in the study, solving an ill-structured clinical problem based on complex chronic patients cases in a hospital setting. Data were analyzed using deductive content analysis. Findings showed that the registered nurses used a variety of clinical reasoning skills. The most commonly used skill was 'checking accuracy and reliability.' The reasoning process of registered nurses covered assessment, analysis, diagnosis, planning/implementation, and evaluation phase. It is critical that registered nurses apply appropriate clinical reasoning skills in complex clinical practice. The main focus of registered nurses' reasoning in this study was assessing a patient's health problem, and their reasoning process was cyclic, rather than linear. There is a need for educational strategy development to enhance registered nurses' competency in determining appropriate interventions in a timely and accurate fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Contact dermatitis from polyacrylate in TENS electrode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Muller, F; Reichert-Penetrat, S; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2004-05-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is useful for many chronic pains. It induces few serious side effects, but skin reactions are not rare. We report on two cases of contact dermatitis due to TENS electrodes by sensitization to the acrylate in TENS conductive gel. A 50 year-old man suffered from post-traumatic lumbar pair. He developed eczematous lesions on the sites where the TENS electrodes were applied. Patch tests were positive with the TENS gel, with ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) and ethyl-acrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) on day 2 and 4 readings. A 54 Year-old man had a paralysis of the foot elevator following rupture of an aneurysm. After 2 months, he had an eczema on the sites where the TENS electrodes were applied. Patch tests were negative with the TENS electrodes but positive with 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (0.1 p. 100 petrolatum), triethyleneglycol diacrylate (0.1 p. 100 petrolatum), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) on day 2 and 4 readings. TENS transmits small electrical currents through the skin that induce the depolarization of the affected sensory nerve endings. They have few serious side effects but skin reactions such as irritation, burns or allergy to propylene glycol in the electrode gel, to the rubber of the electrodes (mercaptobenzothiazole) or to the metallic part of the electrodes, i.e. nickel, are not uncommon. To our knowledge, only one case of an allergy to the polyacrylates of TENS electrode gel has been previously reported in the literature. We emphasize that acrylate could be the main sensitizer in the more recently commercialized TENS electrodes and will propose alternative ways of treating patients sensitized to acrylate and who require treatment with TENS.

  7. The Christological Ontology of Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2006-01-01

    Taking the startingpoint in an assertion of an ambiguity in the Lutheran tradition’s assessment of reason, the essay argues that the Kantian unreserved confidence in reason is criticised in Bonhoeffer. Based upon a Christological understanding of reason, Bonhoeffer endorses a view of reason which...... is treated in the essay. Here it is argued that Bonhoeffer may be appropriated in attempting to outline a Christological ontology of reason holding essential implications for the sources and conditions of public discourse....

  8. Clinical experience with TENS and TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen. Report of 371 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Quarnstrom, F. C.; Milgrom, P.

    1989-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alone or TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2O) was administered for restorative dentistry without local anesthesia to 371 adult patients. A total of 55% of TENS alone and 84% of TENS/N2O visits were rated successful. A total of 53% of TENS alone and 82% of TENS/N2O patients reported slight or no pain. In multivariable analyses, pain reports were related to the anesthesia technique and patient fear and unrelated to sex, race, age, toot...

  9. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  10. Enhancing historical reasoning: a key topic in Dutch history education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, C.; van Drie, J.

    2009-01-01

    The number of Dutch studies on the learning and teaching of history has increased substantially in the last ten years. Enhancing historical reasoning is a key topic in Dutch research on history education. This paper discusses recent and current empirical studies in the Netherlands on methods to

  11. A reasoned action approach to health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the integrative model of behavioral prediction (IM), the latest formulation of a reasoned action approach. The IM attempts to identify a limited set of variables that can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in any given behavior. More specifically, consistent with the original theory of reasoned action, the IM assumes that intentions are the immediate antecedents of behavior, but in addition, the IM recognizes that environmental factors and skills and abilities can moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Similar to the theory of planned behavior, the IM also assumes that intentions are a function of attitudes, perceived normative pressure and self-efficacy, but it views perceived normative pressure as a function of descriptive as well as of injunctive (i.e., subjective) norms. After describing the theory and addressing some of the criticisms directed at a reasoned action approach, the paper illustrates how the theory can be applied to understanding and changing health related behaviors.

  12. "Clinical Reasoning Theater": A New Approach to Clinical Reasoning Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Custers, Eugene J. F. M.; van Gijn, Jan; ten Gate, Olle Th. J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a new approach to clinical reasoning education called clinical reasoning theater (CRT). With students as the audience, the doctor's clinical reasoning skills are modeled in CRT when he or she thinks aloud during conversations with the patient. Preliminary results of students' evaluations of the relevance of CRT reveal that they…

  13. Practical theology: A critically engaged practical reason approach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-11

    Apr 11, 2014 ... Studies/Theological Studies. 70(2), Art. 1950, 6 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ ... different theories of psychology and theology, as one of identity. By this he means that the two can be saying the .... need), evolutionary theory and environmental ethics. (environmental-social) and general rules (rules and ...

  14. Variations of Reasoning in Equal Sharing of Children Who Experience Low Achievement in Mathematics: Competence in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hunt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For children with persistent mathematics difficulties, research and practice espouses that an altered kind of mathematics instruction is necessary due to sustained performance differences. Yet, a critical issue in mathematics education rests in the question of why research locates the problem within these children. In this paper, we challenge a longstanding assumption about the type of mathematics children with low achievement in mathematics “need” along with how these children are positioned in terms of mathematical thinking and reasoning. Our aim in this work is to identify ways of reasoning evident in the partitioning activity of 43 fifth-grade children as they solved equal sharing situations independent of instruction over ten sessions. Results reveal three themes of reasoning that show a resemblance between these children’s reasoning and existing frameworks of reasoning in equal sharing problems found in prior research among children who did not show low achievement in mathematics. We discuss the results in terms of the problem of a continued conceptualization of low achieving students’ need for specific kinds of teaching and learning experiences and/or detached instructional experiences in school. We advocate for an increase in research that examines how teachers can support participation of these children in mathematics classrooms such that children might develop powerful mathematics conceptions.

  15. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  16. Conciliating cognition and consciousness: the perceptual foundations of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Hillel D

    2012-10-01

    Clinical reasoning has been defined as a form of cognition applied to evaluating and managing a patient's medical problem. As a kind of cognition, a product of the human psyche, it is logical to expect that clinical reasoning should be best understood through methods derived from psychology, neuropsychology and the cognitive sciences. However, the application of scientific methods to evaluating clinical reasoning is unable to analyse clinical reasoning in terms of first-person experience and consciousness. By reducing clinical reasoning to its cognitive components the cognitivist approach tends to ignore the larger context in which clinical reasoning occurs. By reducing its conception of clinical reasoning to its cognitive components, the neuropsychological approach fails to acknowledge clinical reasoning as a form of intentionality, a gestalt, grounded in human perception. A full epistemology of clinical reasoning requires a phenomenological analysis that can make sense of the relation between pre-reflective consciousness and explicit forms of knowing. In this paper I conciliate cognition and consciousness in medicine through analysing the phenomenology of perception in clinical reasoning. I compare the application of phenomenology to clinical reasoning with the attempt to model clinical reasoning on Aristotelian practical wisdom or phronesis. Finally, I analyse empathy as a type of perception critical for effective clinical interaction and exemplary for reflecting on perception as the intersubjective foundation of clinical reasoning. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Public policy, rationality and reason

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason) and rational (instrumental reason) and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure) and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can ...

  18. Ten new species of Afrotropical Pterophoridae (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Ten new Afrotropical species of Pterophoridae are described: Agdistis linnaei spec. nov., Agdistis bouyeri spec. nov., Ochyrotica bjoernstadti spec. nov., Platyptilia aarviki spec. nov., Stenoptilia kiitulo spec. nov., Exelastis caroli spec. nov., Eucapperia continentalis spec. nov., Buckleria

  19. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  20. Improving Student Reasoning in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Bobson; Bukalov, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    In their years of teaching geometry, Wong and Bukalov realized that the greatest challenge has been getting students to improve their reasoning. Many students have difficulty writing formal proofs--a task that requires a good deal of reasoning. Wong and Bukalov reasoned that the solution was to divide the lessons into parallel tasks, allowing…

  1. How and when Does Complex Reasoning Occur? Empirically Driven Development of a Learning Progression Focused on Complex Reasoning about Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songer, Nancy Butler; Kelcey, Ben; Gotwals, Amelia Wenk

    2009-01-01

    In order to compete in a global economy, students are going to need resources and curricula focusing on critical thinking and reasoning in science. Despite awareness for the need for complex reasoning, American students perform poorly relative to peers on international standardized tests measuring complex thinking in science. Research focusing on…

  2. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made...... such as Sibelius or Finale. It was hypothesized that it would be possible to develop a Sibelius plug-in, written in Manuscript 6, that would improve the critical editing work flow, but it was found that the capabilities of this scripting language were insufficient. Instead, a 3-part system was designed and built...

  3. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  4. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  5. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  6. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  7. MERISTEM DISORGANIZATION1 encodes TEN1, an essential telomere protein that modulates telomerase processivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehy, Katherine A; Lee, Jung Ro; Song, Xiangyu; Renfrew, Kyle B; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2013-04-01

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage, and they facilitate the complete replication of linear chromosomes. CST [for CTC1(Cdc13)/STN1/TEN1] is a trimeric chromosome end binding complex implicated in both aspects of telomere function. Here, we characterize TEN1 in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that TEN1 (for telomeric pathways in association with Stn1, which stands for suppressor of cdc thirteen) is encoded by a previously characterized gene, MERISTEM DISORGANIZATION1 (MDO1). A point mutation in MDO1, mdo1-1/ten1-3 (G77E), triggers stem cell differentiation and death as well as a constitutive DNA damage response. We provide biochemical and genetic evidence that ten1-3 is likely to be a null mutation. As with ctc1 and stn1 null mutants, telomere tracts in ten1-3 are shorter and more heterogeneous than the wild type. Mutants also exhibit frequent telomere fusions, increased single-strand telomeric DNA, and telomeric circles. However, unlike stn1 or ctc1 mutants, telomerase enzyme activity is elevated in ten1-3 mutants due to an increase in repeat addition processivity. In addition, TEN1 is detected at a significantly smaller fraction of telomeres than CTC1. These data indicate that TEN1 is critical for telomere stability and also plays an unexpected role in modulating telomerase enzyme activity.

  8. The Impact of Education Level and Type on Moral Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Elaine; O'Flaherty, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The importance of education in developing morally sensitive individuals who use principled moral reasoning when facing dilemmas has been widely acknowledged. In the context of the criticism levelled at the Irish higher education system for failing to fulfil the role of intellectual leader and moral critic within the public domain, this paper…

  9. Toward critical bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  10. Social Epistemology, the Reason of "Reason" and the Curriculum Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Not-with-standing the current topoi of the Knowledge Society, a particular "fact" of modernity is that power is exercised less through brute force and more through systems of reason that order and classify what is known and acted on. This article explored the system of reason that orders and classifies what is talked about, thought and…

  11. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  12. Reasoning, decision making and rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J S; Over, D E; Manktelow, K I

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that reasoning in the real world supports decision making and is aimed at the achievement of goals. A distinction is developed between two notions of rationality: rationality which is reasoning in such a way as to achieve one's goals--within cognitive constraints--and rationality which is reasoning by a process of logic. This dichotomy is related to the philosophical distinction between practical and theoretical reasoning. It is argued that logicality (rationality) does not provide a good basis for rationality and some psychological research on deductive reasoning is re-examined in this light. First, we review belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning, and argue that the phenomena do not support the interpretations of irrationality that are often placed upon them. Second, we review and discuss recent studies of deontic reasoning in the Wason selection task, which demonstrate the decision making, and rational nature of reasoning in realistic contexts. The final section of the paper examines contemporary decision theory and shows how it fails, in comparable manner to formal logic, to provide an adequate model for assessing the rationality of human reasoning and decision making.

  13. Trust and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinig, John

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the tension between trust, as an expression of interpersonal commitment, and critical thinking, which includes a demand for reasons. It explores the importance of each for individual flourishing, and then seeks to establish some ways in which they intersect, drawing on ideas of authority and trustworthiness. It argues that…

  14. Critical Thinking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the debates in the field of critical thinking by highlighting differences among thinkers such as Siegel, Ennis, Paul, McPeck, and Martin, and poses some questions that arise from these debates. Does rationality transcend particular cultures, or are there different kinds of thinking, different styles of reasoning? What…

  15. . MODERN EDUCATION: FROM RATIONALITY TO REASONABLENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Anisimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of modern education development and criticizes a pragmatic attitude to education. Based on the retrospective historical analysis, the author maintains that educational systems are generally focused on fostering the pragmatic intellect rather than reasoning, which leads to a superficial world perception, and undermines personal analytical potential and capability of strategic problem solving. Concentration on rationality is unlikely to provide a way out of the world crisis. In the author’s view, education demands both the deep and solid comprehension of existential concepts and the reference to the “absolute spirit” of Confucius, Plato, Kant and Hegel. The research is aimed at justifying the civilizational paradigm of education on the basis of Hegelian fundamental ideas of intellectual perception with the emphasis on reasonability instead of rationality. As the most adequate implementation instrument, the author suggests a game simulating technique that combines the benefits of philosophical, scientific and methodological thinking.

  16. How working memory enables fluid reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Milton J

    2017-01-01

    The strong relation between fluid reasoning (Gf) and working memory (WM) is well established. Gf depends on WM to hold necessary information in a span of awareness until the reasoning task is completed. The influence of time constraints on the Gf-WM relation indicates that the abilities to control attention and inhibit interference may be the underlying traits that account for the Gf-WM relation. Neuroanatomy also explains the interrelations among these cognitive processes. Neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have confirmed that the same regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are active during Gf and WM functioning. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFC) is also a critical structure for attention functions and inhibition.

  17. Evolution of clinical reasoning in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Shiva; Macentee, Michael I

    2011-03-01

    The approach to care in dentistry has evolved over the past couple of decades from a narrow focus on oral disease to addressing the psychosocial determinants of oral health. Subsequently, there have been many attempts to reform dental curricula through alternative models of education, such as competency-based and community-based educational models and problem-based learning. These efforts aim to improve the abilities of dental students in problem-solving, critical thinking, professionalism, and social and cultural competence to help them cope with the complexity of dealing with oral health-related issues and the constantly changing evidence underlying the practice of dentistry. However, it is not yet clear how well these educational initiatives meet their objectives or how they influence the reasoning skills of dental students. There is now a need to develop a conceptual framework for clinical reasoning in dentistry grounded on empirical evidence to direct the future evolution of dental education.

  18. Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quililongo C. J., Ríos-Ramírez M. A., Velásquez-Cumplido L., Morales-Muñoz B. and Escobar-Fica J. A. 2012 Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites isolated from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus. J. Genet.

  19. Ten-year urban forestry action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    The Ten-year Urban Forestry Action Plan: 2016-2026 was published in September, 2015 (see http://www.urbanforestry.subr.edu/FinalActionPlan_Complete_11_17_15.pdf). This 260 page heavily illustrated document was prepared by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (NUCFAC) under leadership and funding from the USDA Forest Service. The Plan's...

  20. UTILITY OF THE TEN PER CENT RULE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-11-01

    Nov 1, 2001 ... Objective: To measure asymmetry in grip strength between hands in left, right and mixed handers and to test utility of the ten per cent rule. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. Subjects: One hundred and seventy six healthy volunteers (102 males and ...

  1. Strahlungsfelder und Strahlungsqualitäten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Hanno

    Das Kapitel beginnt mit einer Darstellung der wichtigsten Größen zur Beschreibung von Strahlungsfeldern. Diese Größen können sowohl auf die Teilchenzahl als auch auf die Teilchenenergie bezogen sein. Im zweiten Teil werden ausführlich die Verfahren zur Charakterisierung der Strahlungsqualitäten der verschiedenen in der Radiologie verwendeten Strahlungsarten dargestellt.

  2. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software.

  3. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Debra H.; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    EDUCAUSE presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the higher education institution, as revealed by the ninth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. This year, "Security" moves back to the top of the list. (Contains 20 notes.)

  4. CRUDE PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS OF SEEDS OF TEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A A Essiett

    Seeds of mature fruits of ten species of Solanum were collected from the gardens near the screen house, Botany. Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Crude seed proteins were extracted from them and characterised using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inter and intra specific ...

  5. (CdnTen) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    solar cells, integrated optics and electro-optics devices. Hence, there are different experimental and theoretical studies on this group using various techniques or methods. A number of theoretical and experimental attempts (Jianguang, 2009) have been made to determine the structure and properties of small CdnTen and ...

  6. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  7. Patterns to Develop Algebraic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    What is the role of patterns in developing algebraic reasoning? This important question deserves thoughtful attention. In response, this article examines some differing views of algebraic reasoning, discusses a controversy regarding patterns, and describes how three types of patterns--in contextual problems, in growing geometric figures, and in…

  8. Human reasoning and cognitive science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenning, K.; van Lambalgen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen—a cognitive scientist and a logician—argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the

  9. Learning to Reason from Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Dani; Bakker, Arthur; Makar, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce the topic of "learning to reason from samples," which is the focus of this special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" on "statistical reasoning." Samples are data sets, taken from some wider universe (e.g., a population or a process) using a particular procedure…

  10. Learning to reason from samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Zvi, Dani; Bakker, Arthur; Makar, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce the topic of learning to reason from samples, which is the focus of this special issue of Educational Studies in Mathematics on statistical reasoning. Samples are data sets, taken from some wider universe (e.g., a population or a process) using a particular

  11. Reasoning Processes as Epistemic Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes an understanding of deductive, default and abductive reasoning as different instances of the same phenomenon: epistemic dynamics. It discusses the main intuitions behind each one of these reasoning processes, and suggest how they can be understood as different epistemic actions

  12. Cultural Differences in Justificatory Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Hannah; Lee, Richard; John, George

    2012-01-01

    Justificatory reasoning, the ability to justify one's beliefs and actions, is an important goal of education. We develop a scale to measure the three forms of justificatory reasoning--absolutism, relativism, and evaluativism--before validating the scale across two cultures and domains. The results show that the scale possessed validity and…

  13. Critical Thinking Measurement in ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Li-Jen; Schneider, Solomon; Bennett, Judith F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the status of critical thinking (CT) and reasoning skills in information communication and technology (ICT) for 190 college students in a higher education system. It analyzed how the students performed in CT, reasoning, and internet copyright and ethical issues. A CT assessment was designed to analyze the CT and reasoning…

  14. The AORTA Reasoning Framework - Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    -aware and autonomous. The reasoning component makes them organization-aware, and their autonomy is intact because the component does not change the existing reasoning mechanisms. As such, it allows the agents to decide whether to adhere to the system’s expectations. The ability to reason about organizations has......Intelligent agents are entities defined by, among other things, autonomy. In systems of many agents, the agents’ individual autonomy can lead to uncertainty since their behavior cannot always be predicted. Usually, this kind of uncertainty is accommodated by imposing an organization upon the system......; an organization that defines expected behavior of the agents and attempts to restrict the agents’ behavior to let it match the expectations. Restrictions can lead to a decrease in autonomy, contradicting one of the pillars of intelligent agents. This thesis presents the AORTA reasoning framework, which...

  15. Socio-scientific reasoning influenced by identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, Laurence; Simonneaux, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Based on the comments by Lopez-Facal and Jiménez-Aleixandre, we consider that the cultural identities within Europe interfere with the question of the re-introduction of the Slovenian bear, generating a kind of "discrimination." When the SAQs under debate run against the students' systems of value, it seems that the closer the connection between the SAQs (socially acute questions) and the territorial and cultural identity, the more deeply the associated systems of values are affected; and the more the evidence is denied, the weaker the socio-scientific reasoning becomes. This result shows the importance of attempting to get the students to clarify the values underlying their socio-scientific reasoning. As Sadler observed, there was no transfer of socio-scientific reasoning on the three questions considered; each SAQ, as they are deeply related to social representations and identity, generated a specific line of reasoning balancing more or less each operation. Among various methods of teaching SAQs—problematizing, genetic, doctrinal and praxeological methods--socio-scientific reasoning may be a complex activity of problematization fostering the development of critical thinking. Confronted with the refusal to analyse the evidence in the case of the bear, and because of the nature of SAQs, we explore the notion of tangible proof. We think it relevant to study, together with the students, the processes of investigation used by the actors to establish or disestablish tangible proof on SAQs by analysing the intermediary states of the systems of proof, and possibly the "weak signals" which result in calling for the implementation of the precautionary principle.

  16. A connectionist framework for reasoning: Reasoning with examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    We present a connectionist architecture that supports almost instantaneous deductive and abductive reasoning. The deduction algorithm responds in few steps for single rule queries and in general, takes time that is linear with the number of rules in the query. The abduction algorithm produces an explanation in few steps and the best explanation in time linear with the size of the assumption set. The size of the network is polynomially related to the size of other representations of the domain, and may even be smaller. We base our connectionist model on Valiant`s Neuroidal model (Val94) and thus make minimal assumptions about the computing elements, which are assumed to be classical threshold elements with states. Within this model we develop a reasoning framework that utilizes a model-based approach to reasoning (KKS93; KR94b). In particular, we suggest to interpret the connectionist architecture as encoding examples of the domain we reason about and show how to perform various reasoning tasks with this interpretation. We then show that the representations used can be acquired efficiently from interactions with the environment and discuss how this learning process influences the reasoning performance of the network.

  17. Synchronous ten trigger finger: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trigger finger is a disorder that presents with a blocking feeling and pain during finger movements. This condition more commonly occurs in the 2nd finger with involvement of multiple digits being extremely rare. There are very few known cases in which trigger finger was developed in all ten fingers. Here, an unusual case of ten-digit finger trigger is presented. A 44-year-old female housewife visited our clinic with painful blocking feeling in her hand. Her examination was compatible with trigger finger. Her hands were operated on in different sessions and A1 pulleys of all fingers were released. After the operations, blocking feeling and pain during flexion disappeared and normal range of motion was obtained. On the occasion of this very rare case, the etiology and approach for multiple trigger fingers is discussed. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 84-87

  18. Compartmentalized expression of zebrafish ten-m3 and ten-m4, homologues of the Drosophila ten(m)/odd Oz gene, in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieda, M; Kikuchi, Y; Hirate, Y; Aoki, M; Okamoto, H

    1999-09-01

    Zebrafish ten-m3 and ten-m4 encode proteins highly similar to the product of Drosophila pair-rule gene ten(m)/odd Oz (odz). Their products contain eight epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats that resemble mostly those of the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin. During segmentation period, ten-m3 is expressed in the somites, notochord, pharyngeal arches, and the brain, while expression of ten-m4 is mainly restricted to the brain. In the developing brain, ten-m3 and ten-m4 expression delineates several compartments. Interestingly, ten-m3 and ten-m4 show expression patterns complementary to each other in the developing forebrain and midbrain along both rostrocaudal and dorsoventral axes, depending on developmental stages and locations.

  19. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for th...

  20. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants' ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as 'encouragement' for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, 'playfulness' for amusement, joy, interest, and 'harmony' for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions.

  1. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants’ ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as ‘encouragement’ for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, ‘playfulness’ for amusement, joy, interest, and ‘harmony’ for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions. PMID:28184194

  2. Clinical reasoning in massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoon, Kim

    2008-08-20

    Clinical reasoning has long been a valuable tool for health care practitioners, but it has been under-researched in the field of massage therapy. Case reports have been a useful method for exploring the clinical reasoning process in various fields of manual therapy and can provide a model for similar research in the field of massage therapy. A diagnostically challenging case concerning a client with low back pain serves as a guideline for examining the clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist. A two-part methodology was employed: Client profileReflective inquiry The inquiry included questions pertaining to beliefs about health problems; beliefs about the mechanisms of pain; medical conditions that could explain the client's symptoms; knowledge of the client's anatomy, assessment, and treatment choices; observations made during treatment; extent of experience in treating similar problems; and ability to recognize clinical patterns. The clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist contributed to a differential diagnosis, which provided an explanation for the client's symptoms and led to a satisfactory treatment resolution. The present report serves as an example of the value of clinical reasoning in the field of massage therapy, and the need for expanded research into its methods and applications. The results of such research could be beneficial in teaching the clinical reasoning process at both the introductory and the advanced levels of massage therapy education.

  3. Conditional Reasoning in Schizophrenic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Charles; Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Brevers, Damien; Tecco, Juan; Campanella, Salvatore; Noël, Xavier; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Conditional reasoning (if p then q) is used very frequently in everyday situations. Conditional reasoning is impaired in brain-lesion patients, psychopathy, alcoholism, and polydrug dependence. Many neurocognitive deficits have also been described in schizophrenia. We assessed conditional reasoning in 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 depressive patients, and 25 controls, using the Wason selection task in three different domains: social contracts, precautionary rules, and descriptive rules. Control measures included depression, anxiety, and severity of schizophrenia measures as a Verbal Intelligence Scale. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly impaired on all conditional reasoning tasks compared to depressives and controls. However, the social contract and precautions tasks yielded better results than the descriptive tasks. Differences between groups disappeared for social contract but remained for precautions and descriptive tasks when verbal intelligence was used as a covariate. These results suggest that domain-specific reasoning mechanisms, proposed by evolutionary psychologists, are relatively resilient in the face of brain network disruptions that impair more general reasoning abilities. Nevertheless, patients with schizophrenia could encounter difficulties understanding precaution rules and social contracts in real-life situations resulting in unwise risk-taking and misunderstandings in the social world.

  4. Improving verbal communication in critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Peter G; Reynolds, Stuart F

    2011-04-01

    Human errors are the most common reason for planes to crash, and of all human errors, suboptimal communication is the number 1 issue. Mounting evidence suggests the same for errors during short-term medical care. Strong verbal communication skills are key whether for establishing a shared mental model, coordinating tasks, centralizing the flow of information, or stabilizing emotions. However, in contrast to aerospace, most medical curricula rarely address communication norms during impending crises. Therefore, this article offers practical strategies borrowed from aviation and applied to critical care medicine. These crisis communication strategies include "flying by voice," the need to combat "mitigating language," the uses of "graded assertiveness" and "5-step advocacy," and the potential role of Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation communication. We also outline the "step-back method," the concept of communication "below ten thousand feet," the impetus behind "closed-loop communication," and the closely related "repeat-back method." The goal is for critical care practitioners to develop a "verbal dexterity" to match their procedural dexterity and factual expertise. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  6. Fostering Critical Thinking in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamid, Husniah

    2014-01-01

    The ability to cite reasons, to justify claims and give support to arguments is seen as primary characteristics of a critical thinker. This paper discusses how the "Elements of Reasoning" is employed with Socratic Questioning to develop critical thinking in the language classroom. The principles that guide the questioning are laid out…

  7. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  8. Ten Traits of Highly Effective Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanouette, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The Bill Gates Foundation has spent as much as a third-world country's income on the following conclusion: one of the primary reasons why students struggle in class and often leave school altogether is instructor ineffectiveness. This may be a slightly painful thing to hear, but, as the saying goes, the truth sometimes hurts. Additionally, the…

  9. Hey! Somebody Read to Me! Ten Easy Ways to Include Reading Every Day. Family Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmen, Marie Christine

    2005-01-01

    If a child does not learn to read in the early grades, there are few opportunities for them to catch up. Therefore, the extent of a child's exposure to reading before the early school years is not only important, but critical. In this column, the author suggests ten easy ways to make reading a part of every young child's day: (1) Read and reread…

  10. Educational Virtual Environments: A Ten-Year Review of Empirical Research (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Natsis, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    This study is a ten-year critical review of empirical research on the educational applications of Virtual Reality (VR). Results show that although the majority of the 53 reviewed articles refer to science and mathematics, researchers from social sciences also seem to appreciate the educational value of VR and incorporate their learning goals in…

  11. Antihypertensive effect of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in comparison with drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverdal, Jonas; Mourtzinis, Georgios; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Mannheimer, Clas; Manhem, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for vascular disease, yet blood pressure (BP) control is unsatisfactory low, partly due to side-effects. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is well tolerated and studies have demonstrated BP reduction. In this study, we compared the BP lowering effect of 2.5 mg felodipin once daily with 30 min of bidaily low-frequency TENS in 32 adult hypertensive subjects (mean office BP 152.7/90.0 mmHg) in a randomized, crossover design. Office BP and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were performed at baseline and at the end of each 4-week treatment and washout period. Felodipin reduced office BP by 10/6 mmHg (p TENS reduced office BP by 5/1.5 mmHg (p TENS washout, BP was further reduced and significantly lower than at baseline, but at levels similar to BP after felodipin washout and therefore reasonably caused by factors other than the treatment per se. ABPM revealed a significant systolic reduction of 3 mmHg by felodipin, but no significant changes were noted after TENS. We conclude that our study does not present any solid evidence of BP reduction of TENS.

  12. A dynamic model of ethical reasoning in speech pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Ten new graduate speech pathologists recounted their experiences in managing workplace ethical dilemmas in semi‐structured interviews. Their stories were analysed for elements that described the nature and management of the ethical dilemmas. Ethical reasoning themes were generated to reflect the participants' approaches to managing these dilemmas. Finally, a conceptual model, the Dynamic Model of Ethical Reasoning, was developed. This model incorporates the elements of awareness, independent problem solving, supported problem solving, and decision and outcome evaluation. Features of the model demonstrate the complexity of ethical reasoning and the challenges that new graduates encounter when managing ethical dilemmas. The results have implications for preparing new graduates to manage ethical dilemmas in the workplace. PMID:17761817

  13. Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    simplifies the theory by allowing for an ultra-local Hamiltonian (free energy), but also explains the observed general independence of chemistry. Whereas there are no long-ranged static (i.e., equal-time) correlations in the model, there are important long-ranged dynamic correlations on the alpha timescale.......Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields...

  14. Water Sustainability Assessment for Ten Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-26

    the severity of this scarcity varies by scenario. It seems that natural condi- tions play a bigger part in water availability for the region than does...question lies with: (1) a picture of how short-term water scarcity might play out across the region, which is outside of the scope of this study, and...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 11 -5 Water Sustainability Assessment for Ten Army Installations Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es

  15. Ten Guidelines for Translating Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.

  16. Supersymmetric R4-actions in ten dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    de Roo, M.; Suelmann, H.; Wiedemann, A.

    1992-01-01

    We construct supersymmetric R+R4-actions in ten dimensions. Two invariants, of which the bosonic parts are known from string amplitude and sigma model calculations, are obtained. One of these invariants can be generalized to an R+F2+F4-invariant for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity. Supersymmetry requires the presence of B ^ R ^ R ^ R ^ R-terms, (B ^ F ^ F ^ F ^ F for Yang-Mills) which correspond to counterterms in the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation.

  17. Ten essential skills for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Dorr, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Engineers know that, as in any other discipline, getting a good job requires practical, up-to-date skills. An engineering degree provides a broad set of fundamentals. Ten Essential Skills applies those fundamentals to practical tasks required by employers. Written in a user-friendly, no-nonsense format, the book reviews practical skills using the latest tools and techniques, and features a companion website with interview practice problems and advanced material for readers wishing to pursue additional skills. With this book, aspiring and current engineers may approach job interviews confident

  18. The Top Ten Algorithms in Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong

    2009-01-01

    From classification and clustering to statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, this book covers the most important topics in data mining research. It presents the ten most influential algorithms used in the data mining community today. Each chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithm, a discussion of available software implementation, advanced topics, and exercises. With a simple data set, examples illustrate how each algorithm works and highlight the overall performance of each algorithm in a real-world application. Featuring contributions from leading researc

  19. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) for labour pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.

  20. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrespective of their anxiety levels. That is, when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, children not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own

  1. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrepective of their anxiety levels. That is when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, childen not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own anciety-response.

  2. Moral Reasoning and Premarital Sexual Behavior: Toward Reasoning about Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Augelli, Judith Frankel; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that sexual involvement is a moral issue reflecting decisions about the quality of interpersonal relationships desired by the partners. A cognitive developmental model for understanding interpersonal relationships is proposed and three levels of relationship reasoning are described. (Author)

  3. Transformational leadership and moral reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Barling, Julian; Epitropaki, Olga; Butcher, Vicky; Milner, Caroline

    2002-04-01

    Terms such as moral and ethical leadership are used widely in theory, yet little systematic research has related a sociomoral dimension to leadership in organizations. This study investigated whether managers' moral reasoning (n = 132) was associated with the transformational and transactional leadership behaviors they exhibited as perceived by their subordinates (n = 407). Managers completed the Defining Issues Test (J. R. Rest, 1990), whereas their subordinates completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (B. M. Bass & B. J. Avolio, 1995). Analysis of covariance indicated that managers scoring in the highest group of the moral-reasoning distribution exhibited more transformational leadership behaviors than leaders scoring in the lowest group. As expected, there was no relationship between moral-reasoning group and transactional leadership behaviors. Implications for leadership development are discussed.

  4. On the road toward formal reasoning: reasoning with factual causal and contrary-to-fact causal premises during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the development of conditional (if-then) reasoning is critical for theoretical and educational reasons. Here we examined the hypothesis that there is a developmental transition between reasoning with true and contrary-to-fact (CF) causal conditionals. A total of 535 students between 11 and 14 years of age received priming conditions designed to encourage use of either a true or CF alternatives generation strategy and reasoning problems with true causal and CF causal premises (with counterbalanced order). Results show that priming had no effect on reasoning with true causal premises. By contrast, priming with CF alternatives significantly improved logical reasoning with CF premises. Analysis of the effect of order showed that reasoning with CF premises reduced logical responding among younger students but had no effect among older students. Results support the idea that there is a transition in the reasoning processes in this age range associated with the nature of the alternatives generation process required for logical reasoning with true and CF causal conditionals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial Reasoning: Improvement of Imagery and Abilities in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. Perspective to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Susan F.; Gobin, Latanya; Thurman, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial reasoning has become a demanded skill for students pursuing a science emphasis to compete with the dynamic growth of our professional society. The ability to reason spatially includes explorations in memory recollection and problem solving capabilities as well as critical thinking and reasoning skills. With these advancements, educational…

  6. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  7. Assessment of hypoallergenicity of ten skincare products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Staci; Lio, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a common skin complaint frequently associated with skin diseases or adverse reactions to cosmetic products. Manufacturers have produced numerous products targeted for patients with sensitive skin and frequently label these products as being hypoallergenic. This term implies that the product may be less likely to cause an allergic reaction and be better suited for those with sensitive skin. However, there is no federal regulatory definition of this term and products may not have clinical support of their claim. Patch testing ingredients is frequently done to identify potential irritants; however, patch-testing product formulations may provide more realistic expectations about potential skin sensitivity and help support claims of hypoallergenicity. Ten skincare products were assessed for their sensitizing potential and hypoallergenicity in 14 repeat insult patch test clinical studies, involving over 2,000 subjects. In these studies, the products were deemed to be hypoallergenic if there was no evidence of sensitization or allergic reactions. The results from these trials demonstrated that all ten products were well tolerated, showed no sensitization or allergic reactions, and support claims of hypoallergenicity.

  8. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Booth, Andrew; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Tony; Enderby, Pam; Roots, Alison

    2013-05-10

    Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate.

  9. CRITICAL UTILITY INFRASTRUCTURAL RESILIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Dondossola, Giovanna; Deconinck, Geert; Di Giandomenico, Felicita; Donatelli, Susanna; M. Kaaniche; Verissimo, Paulo

    2006-01-01

    The problem of security and dependability, or generically speaking, resilience [1] of Internet-oriented infrastructure systems, such as web server compounds, is reasonably well understood. Although it is not completely mastered (for example, denial of service is still a research subject), it is receiving adequate attention. However, such is not the case with the problem of resilience of critical utility infrastructures. This problem is not completely understood, mainly due to the hybrid compo...

  10. Preferential reasoning for modal logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available , and hence also rational closure, to a whole class of logics for knowledge representation and reasoning. References [1] Baral, C. and J. Lobo, Defeasible speci cations in action theories, in: Proc. IJCAI, 1997, pp. 1441{1446. [2] Blackburn, P., J. van...

  11. Expert Causal Reasoning and Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    The relationship between cognitive psychologists and researchers in artificial intelligence carries substantial benefits for both. An ongoing investigation in causal reasoning in medical problem solving systems illustrates this interaction. This paper traces a dialectic of sorts in which three different types of causal resaoning for medical…

  12. Conceptual Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldager, Steen Nikolaj

    2003-01-01

    One of the main areas in knowledge representation and logic-based artificial intelligence concerns logical formalisms that can be used for representing and reasoning with concepts. For almost 30 years, since research in this area began, the issue of intensionality has had a special status...

  13. Invention Activities Support Statistical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carmen Petrick; Kenlan, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Students' experiences with statistics and data analysis in middle school are often limited to little more than making and interpreting graphs. Although students may develop fluency in statistical procedures and vocabulary, they frequently lack the skills necessary to apply statistical reasoning in situations other than clear-cut textbook examples.…

  14. Moral Reasoning and Political Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, James; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This study showed that subjects who reasoned at the conventional moral level were politically conservative, while preconventional subjects favored violent radicalism. The seemingly intimate relationship between the logical structures of moral argumentation and the content of political idealogy is discussed. (Author/JB)

  15. Heuristic Biases in Mathematical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Matthew; Simpson, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we briefly describe the dual process account of reasoning, and explain the role of heuristic biases in human thought. Concentrating on the so-called matching bias effect, we describe a piece of research that indicates a correlation between success at advanced level mathematics and an ability to override innate and misleading…

  16. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  17. Team reasoning and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    The team reasoning approach explains cooperation in terms of group identification, which in turn is explicated in terms of agency transformation and payoff transformation. Empirical research in social psychology is consistent with the significance of agency and payoff transformation. However, it

  18. Causal Reasoning with Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-08

    similar to the second.” For Kant (1781/1934), 71 however, a necessary connection held between cause and effect, and he took this component to be a 72...reality to its alternative. 934 Psychological Review, 93, 75–88. 935 Kant , I. (1934). Critique of pure reason. Trans. J.M.D. Meiklejohn, New York

  19. Rationalization in a Reasoning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.; Wason, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    In this research subjects are asked to justify three common erroneous solutions and the correct solution, all of which purport to be the "correct solution". It was predicted that the subjects would give reasons supporting any given solution, and indicate a high degree of confidence in the correctness of their justifications. (Author/RK)

  20. Algorithms for Simple Temporal Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes research into new methods for automated temporal reasoning. For this purpose, several frameworks are available in literature. Chapter 1 presents a concise literature survey that provides a new overview of their interrelation. In the remainder of the dissertation, the

  1. CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS IN TEACHING READING

    OpenAIRE

    Elok Putri Nimasari

    2016-01-01

    In Indonesian context, it is mostly found that reading material and its exercises examine of what have been explicitly discussed. Critical thinking is less introduced within reading texts and somehow it makes the students less understandable to know what is exactly meant by the author. However, when the students are able to think critically, they will also be able to connect between ideas and to solve the problems with logical reasons. From this reason, it is clearly seen that critical thinki...

  2. The Minnesota Test of Critical Thinking: Development, Analysis, and Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Laird R. O.; Bart, William M.; Robey, Jennifer; Silverman, Jenzi

    The Minnesota Test of Critical Thinking (MTCT) has been designed to measure both critical thinking (CT) skills and a key disposition of critical reasoning: the willingness to evaluate arguments that are congruent with one's own goals and beliefs critically. The MTCT uses a taxonomy of CT skills derived from the American Philosophical Association's…

  3. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  4. The OEOP Duties of Reasonable Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedge, Angela

    1995-01-01

    I was fortunate enough to be assigned two assignments during my ten weeks here at NASA's Langley Research Center, in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP). One of my projects gave me the chance to gain experience in developing calculation formulas for the EXCEL computer system, while my second project gave me the chance to put my research skills and legal knowledge to use. The function of the OEOP is to ensure the adherence to personnel policy and practices in the employment, development, advancement and treatment of Federal employees and applicants for employment. This includes veterans and disabled as well. My initial project involved the research of hiring and promotion among the different minorities and females employed here at Langley. The objective of my first project was to develop graphs that showed the number of promotions during the past five years for each minority group here on the Center. I also had to show the average number of years it took for each promotion. The objective of my second and main research project was to find and research cases regarding the reasonable accommodation of disabled workers. The research of these cases is to ensure that individuals with disabilities are provided the necessary accommodations that are essential to the function of their job.

  5. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scott Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1 The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence; (2 logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3 a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  6. Diæten - et andet perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Frank Juul

    2014-01-01

    Temaet for den seneste udgave af vores studenterblad ”Næringsstoffet” er ”Et andet perspektiv”. Ifølge redaktionens oplæg kunne det eksempelvis dreje sig om »artikler om nye kropsidealer, at sundhed ikke kun handler om, hvad man propper i munden, forskellige perspektiver på de nye kostråd, altern......, alternative kostformer (5:2 kuren) osv.«. Det gav mig anledning til et indlæg, hvor jeg har forsøgt at strejfe flere punkter fra listen med et andet perspektiv på diæten. I bloggen gengives det indlæg i en lettere tilrettet version....

  7. Electroanaesthesia--from torpedo fish to TENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J; Dingley, J

    2015-01-01

    In 153 AD, the Roman physician Scribonius Largus identified that electric current had analgesic properties, instructing patients to stand on an electric ray for the treatment of gout. In 2014, transcranial magnetic stimulation was approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for the treatment of migraine. Although separated by nearly two millennia, these milestones represent the evolution of the utilisation of electric current in medical and anaesthetic practice. Significant advances have been made over the last century in particular, and during the 1960s and 1970s, tens of thousands of patients were reportedly anaesthetised for surgical interventions using electric current as the anaesthetic agent. Many medical interventions, including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation, have evolved in the aftermath of investigations into electroanaesthesia; the potential for electric current to be an anaesthetic agent of the future still exists. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Over ten thousand cases and counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbers, Paul W G; Van Regenmortel, Niels; Gatz, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Acidbase.org has been serving the critical care community for over a decade. The backbone of this online resource consists of Peter Stewart's original text "How to understand Acid-Base" which is freely available to everyone. In addition, Stewart's Textbook of Acid Base, which puts the theory in t...

  9. Quantitative Reasoning and the Sine Function: The Case of Zac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has identified quantitative and covariational reasoning as critical for secondary and undergraduate student learning, particularly for topics that require students to make sense of relationships between quantities. The present study extends this body of literature by characterizing an undergraduate precalculus…

  10. Exploring students' patterns of reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matloob Haghanikar, Mojgan

    As part of a collaborative study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students' reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses were considered inquiry oriented. To probe students' reasoning, we developed open-ended written content questions with the distinguishing feature of applying recently learned concepts in a new context. We devised a protocol for developing written content questions that provided a common structure for probing and classifying students' sophistication level of reasoning. In designing our protocol, we considered several distinct criteria, and classified students' responses based on their performance for each criterion. First, we classified concepts into three types: Descriptive, Hypothetical, and Theoretical and categorized the abstraction levels of the responses in terms of the types of concepts and the inter-relationship between the concepts. Second, we devised a rubric based on Bloom's revised taxonomy with seven traits (both knowledge types and cognitive processes) and a defined set of criteria to evaluate each trait. Along with analyzing students' reasoning, we visited universities and observed the courses in which the students were enrolled. We used the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to rank the courses with respect to characteristics that are valued for the inquiry courses. We conducted logistic regression for a sample of 18courses with about 900 students and reported the results for performing logistic regression to estimate the relationship between traits of reasoning and RTOP score. In addition, we analyzed conceptual structure of students' responses, based on conceptual classification schemes, and clustered students' responses into six categories. We derived regression model, to estimate the relationship between the sophistication of the categories of conceptual structure and RTOP scores. However, the

  11. Calibration biases in logical reasoning tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Macbeth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to present an experimental study about calibration in deductive reasoning tasks. Calibration is defi ned as the empirical convergence or divergence between the objective and the subjective success. The underconfi dence bias is understood as the dominance of the former over the latter. The hypothesis of this study states that the form of the propositions presented in the experiment is critical for calibration phenomena. Affi rmative and negative propositions are distinguished in their cognitive processing. Results suggests that monotonous compound propositions are prone to underconfi dence. An heuristic approach to this phenomenon is proposed. The activation of a monotony heuristic would produce an illusion of simplicity that generates the calibration bias. These evidence is analysed in the context of the metacognitive modeling of calibration phenomena.

  12. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  13. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Successful dexamethasone pulse therapy in a toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) patient featuring recurrent TEN to oxazepam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J B; Schuttelaar, M L; Toth, G G; Kardaun, S H; Beerthuizen, G; de Jong, M C; Jonkman, M F; Nieuwenhuis, P

    2001-01-01

    A 62-year-old female patient is described who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) after medication with phenytoin and oxazepam. Initially phenytoin was discontinued and dexamethasone pulse therapy (1.5 mg/kg on 3 consecutive days) was initiated on the tenth day of skin disease. This resulted

  15. Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Daniel A; Mauriat, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Critical ultrasound is a new tool for first-line physicians, including neonate intensivists. The consideration of the lung as one major target allows to redefine the priorities. Simple machines work better than up-to-date ones. We use a microconvex probe. Ten standardized signs allow a majority of uses: the bat sign (pleural line), lung sliding and the A-line (normal lung surface), the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion regardless its echogenicity, the tissue-like sign and fractal sign indicating lung consolidation, the B-line artifact and lung rockets (indicating interstitial syndrome), abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign, suggesting pneumothorax, and the lung point, indicating pneumothorax. Other signs are used for more sophisticated applications (distinguishing atelectasis from pneumonia for instance...). All these disorders were assessed in the adult using CT as gold standard with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 90 to 100%, allowing to consider ultrasound as a reasonable bedside gold standard in the critically ill. The same signs are found, with no difference in the critically ill neonate. Fast protocols such as the BLUE-protocol are available, allowing immediate diagnosis of acute respiratory failure using seven standardized profiles. Pulmonary edema e.g. yields anterior lung rockets associated with lung sliding, making the B-profile. The FALLS-protocol, inserted in a Limited Investigation including a simple model of heart and vessels, assesses acute circulatory failure using lung artifacts. Interventional ultrasound (mainly, thoracocenthesis) provides maximal safety. Referrals to CT can be postponed. CEURF proposes personnalized bedside trainings since 1990. Lung ultrasound opens physicians to a visual medicine.

  16. Inclined Buildings – Some Reasons and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    To straighten a leaning building is never easy. There are no standard solutions. On the other hand, there are several, usually historical, leaning structures which have not been rectified, mostly because in the current shape they are a touristic attraction - the best example being the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa. This does not mean however that inclination of load bearing walls can be ignored. Even though in some cases the problem can be treated in terms of serviceability limit states (the deformation is only decreasing the comfort of ‘normal use’ of the building), in the other – it may be a signal of the forthcoming structural failure. The situation must always be treated individually – if the problem concerns a residential building, then cracks on the walls, not-opening doors or tilted ceilings, which often coincide with the leaning of the external walls, are always the reason of worry and such a building needs to be straightened. The reasons of the problem lie usually in uneven settlement of the ground, which in turn, may be caused by various problems, such as the presence of too soft, too weak, unconsolidated or expansive soils under the building, varying groundwater table, mining activity etc. Solving of the problem by just straightening the building is often not enough. To prevent further deformations a detailed analysis of the possible causes is necessary. Sometimes it may be helpful to review similar cases. The paper contains a general overview of selected inclined buildings: starting with the well-known historical examples and ending with individual houses from the Region of Silesia. Since the problem of instability mostly affects structures with critical height to width ratio, tall and narrow structures (towers) are dominating in the work. The aim of the study was to describe the reasons of the problems and present solutions that have been successfully applied and can be also useful to engineers and designers to prevent similar situations.

  17. Reasoning, cognitive control, and moral intuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Rothstein, Jared; Barbey, Aron K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent Social Intuitionist work suggests that moral judgments are intuitive (not based on conscious deliberation or any significant chain of inference), and that the reasons we produce to explain or justify our judgments and actions are for the most part post hoc rationalizations rather than the actual source of those judgments. This is consistent with work on judgment and explanation in other domains, and it correctly challenges one-sidedly rationalistic accounts. We suggest that in fact reasoning has a great deal of influence on moral judgments and on intuitive judgments in general. This influence is not apparent from study of judgments simply in their immediate context, but it is crucial for the question of how cognition can help us avoid deleterious effects and enhance potentially beneficial effects of affect on judgment, action, and cognition itself. We begin with established work on several reactive strategies for cognitive control of affect (e.g., suppression, reappraisal), then give special attention to more complex sorts of conflict (“extended deliberation”) involving multiple interacting factors, both affective and reflective. These situations are especially difficult to study in a controlled way, but we propose some possible experimental approaches. We then review proactive strategies for control, including avoidance of temptation and mindfulness meditation (Froeliger et al., 2012, this issue). We give special attention to the role of slow or “cool” cognitive processes (e.g., deliberation, planning, and executive control) in the inculcation of long-term dispositions, traits, intuitions, skills, or habits. The latter are critical because they in turn give rise to a great many of our fast, intuitive judgments. The reasoning processes involved here are distinct from post hoc rationalizations and have a very real impact on countless intuitive judgments in concrete situations. This calls for a substantial enlargement of research on cognitive control

  18. Reasoning, Cognitive Control, and Moral Intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent Social Intuitionist work suggests that moral judgments are intuitive (not based on conscious deliberation or any significant chain of inference, and that the reasons we produce to explain or justify our judgments and actions are for the most part post hoc rationalizations rather than the actual source of those judgments. This is consistent with work on judgment and explanation in other domains, and it correctly challenges one-sidedly rationalistic accounts. We suggest that in fact reasoning has a great deal of influence on moral judgments and on intuitive judgments in general. This influence is not apparent from study of judgments simply in their immediate context, but it is crucial for the question of how cognition can help us avoid deleterious effects and enhance potentially beneficial effects of affect on judgment, action, and cognition itself. We begin with established work on several reactive strategies for cognitive control of affect (e.g., suppression, reappraisal, then give special attention to more complex sorts of conflict (extended deliberation involving multiple interacting factors, both affective and reflective. These situations are especially difficult to study in a controlled way, but we propose some possible experimental approaches. We then review proactive strategies for control, including avoidance of temptation and mindfulness meditation (Froeliger, et al, 2012, This Issue. We give special attention to the role of slow or cool cognitive processes (e.g., deliberation, planning, executive control in the inculcation of long-term dispositions, traits, intuitions, skills or habits. The latter are critical because they in turn give rise to a great many of our fast, intuitive judgments. The reasoning processes involved here are distinct from post hoc rationalizations and have a very real impact on countless intuitive judgments in concrete situations. This calls for a substantial enlargement of research on cognitive control.

  19. Reasoning, cognitive control, and moral intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Rothstein, Jared; Barbey, Aron K

    2012-01-01

    Recent Social Intuitionist work suggests that moral judgments are intuitive (not based on conscious deliberation or any significant chain of inference), and that the reasons we produce to explain or justify our judgments and actions are for the most part post hoc rationalizations rather than the actual source of those judgments. This is consistent with work on judgment and explanation in other domains, and it correctly challenges one-sidedly rationalistic accounts. We suggest that in fact reasoning has a great deal of influence on moral judgments and on intuitive judgments in general. This influence is not apparent from study of judgments simply in their immediate context, but it is crucial for the question of how cognition can help us avoid deleterious effects and enhance potentially beneficial effects of affect on judgment, action, and cognition itself. We begin with established work on several reactive strategies for cognitive control of affect (e.g., suppression, reappraisal), then give special attention to more complex sorts of conflict ("extended deliberation") involving multiple interacting factors, both affective and reflective. These situations are especially difficult to study in a controlled way, but we propose some possible experimental approaches. We then review proactive strategies for control, including avoidance of temptation and mindfulness meditation (Froeliger et al., 2012, this issue). We give special attention to the role of slow or "cool" cognitive processes (e.g., deliberation, planning, and executive control) in the inculcation of long-term dispositions, traits, intuitions, skills, or habits. The latter are critical because they in turn give rise to a great many of our fast, intuitive judgments. The reasoning processes involved here are distinct from post hoc rationalizations and have a very real impact on countless intuitive judgments in concrete situations. This calls for a substantial enlargement of research on cognitive control, drawing

  20. Paraconsistent Reasoning for OWL 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Hitzler, Pascal

    A four-valued description logic has been proposed to reason with description logic based inconsistent knowledge bases. This approach has a distinct advantage that it can be implemented by invoking classical reasoners to keep the same complexity as under the classical semantics. However, this approach has so far only been studied for the basic description logic mathcal{ALC}. In this paper, we further study how to extend the four-valued semantics to the more expressive description logic mathcal{SROIQ} which underlies the forthcoming revision of the Web Ontology Language, OWL 2, and also investigate how it fares when adapted to tractable description logics including mathcal{EL++}, DL-Lite, and Horn-DLs. We define the four-valued semantics along the same lines as for mathcal{ALC} and show that we can retain most of the desired properties.

  1. Causal reasoning with mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.

  2. The Joy of Quantitative Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren Diefenderfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the advantages of focusing on quantitative reasoning is that it spans a wide variety of topics. As incoming president of the National Numeracy Network, I would like to take the opportunity of this editorial to tell my story of intellectual reward from finding common purpose in quantitative reasoning with colleagues from disciplines outside of mathematics. The story starts with an NSF-funded faculty development project (DUE-9952807 to further a QR across-the-curriculum program and the finding from that program that merging authentic context with mathematics brings interaction and collaboration. That joy in learning from and working with colleagues in other disciplines has now expanded to seeking authentic context for all of my mathematics courses and being open to new ways of thinking.

  3. [Hypnoanalgesia and clinical nursing reasoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudan, Corinne

    2017-05-01

    Hypnoanalgesia is practised in accordance with care ethics and as a complement to other medical and/or psychological therapies. It is aimed at people with acute, chronic or treatment-related pain. Its practice is founded on clinical nursing reasoning, which targets the health problem and the therapeutic objectives guiding the hypnosis session. A clinical assessment finalises the interactional process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical reasoning as social deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorgård, Keld

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I will challenge the individualistic model of clinical reasoning. I will argue that sometimes clinical practice is rather machine-like, and information is called to mind and weighed, but the clinician is not just calculating how to use particular means to reach fixed ends. Often...... of the means and ends in clinical practice where the means and ends are formed in this process....

  5. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  6. Ten reasons why operating department practitioners and theatre nurses might not want to quote or cite from this article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bernard V

    2010-03-01

    Academic writing can fill pre- and postregistration students with fear and dread. Students often construct written work around re-worded passages from their sources. This results in poor quality work, low marks and frustration. The aim of this article is to inform students embarking on courses in higher education about what academic writing is and equally importantly what it is not.

  7. Critical success factors in ERP implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerta Abazi Chaushi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study conducts state of the art literature review of critical success factors for enterprise resource planning systems implementation success. Since research on critical success factors for ERP implementation success is very rare and fragmented, this study provides a more comprehensive list of ten factors that companies that have adopted and struggle with the implementation, as well as companies who are in the process of considering implementation of ERP system can easily adopt and follow. The main contribution of this paper is that these ten new critical success factors are identifi ed through a thorough analysis of 22 selected research papers and is more comprehensive and straightforwardly employable for use.

  8. Stn1-Ten1 is an Rpa2-Rpa3-like complex at telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Eun Young; Yang, Yuting; Confer, Laura A; Sun, Steven H; Wan, Ke; Lue, Neal F; Lei, Ming; (Weill); (Michigan-Med)

    2010-09-02

    In budding yeast, Cdc13, Stn1, and Ten1 form a heterotrimeric complex (CST) that is essential for telomere protection and maintenance. Previous bioinformatics analysis revealed a putative oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold at the N terminus of Stn1 (Stn1N) that shows limited sequence similarity to the OB fold of Rpa2, a subunit of the eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein complex replication protein A (RPA). Here we present functional and structural analyses of Stn1 and Ten1 from multiple budding and fission yeast. The crystal structure of the Candida tropicalis Stn1N complexed with Ten1 demonstrates an Rpa2N-Rpa3-like complex. In both structures, the OB folds of the two components pack against each other through interactions between two C-terminal helices. The structure of the C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Stn1 (Stn1C) was found to comprise two related winged helix-turn-helix (WH) motifs, one of which is most similar to the WH motif at the C terminus of Rpa2, again supporting the notion that Stn1 resembles Rpa2. The crystal structure of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Stn1N-Ten1 complex exhibits a virtually identical architecture as the C. tropicalis Stn1N-Ten1. Functional analyses of the Candida albicans Stn1 and Ten1 proteins revealed critical roles for these proteins in suppressing aberrant telomerase and recombination activities at telomeres. Mutations that disrupt the Stn1-Ten1 interaction induce telomere uncapping and abolish the telomere localization of Ten1. Collectively, our structural and functional studies illustrate that, instead of being confined to budding yeast telomeres, the CST complex may represent an evolutionarily conserved RPA-like telomeric complex at the 3' overhangs that works in parallel with or instead of the well-characterized POT1-TPP1/TEBP{alpha}-{beta} complex.

  9. The Case Method in Teaching Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Vernon W.

    When one instructor teaches a course called "Communication and Critical Thinking," he uses Josina Makau's book "Reasoning and Communication: Thinking Critically about Arguments" (1990), which maintains that critical thinking requires training. Case methodology can be used for training, not exclusively but as an alternative to…

  10. Logical studies of paraconsistent reasoning in science and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Verdée, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book covers work written by leading scholars from different schools within the research area of paraconsistency. The authors critically investigate how contemporary paraconsistent logics can be used to better understand human reasoning in science and mathematics. Offering a variety of perspectives, they shed a new light on the question of whether paraconsistent logics can function as the underlying logics of inconsistent but useful scientific and mathematical theories. The great variety of paraconsistent logics gives rise to various, interrelated questions, such as what are the desiderata a paraconsistent logic should satisfy, is there prospect of a universal approach to paraconsistent reasoning with axiomatic theories, and to what extent is reasoning about sets structurally analogous to reasoning about truth. Furthermore, the authors consider paraconsistent logic’s status as either a normative or descriptive discipline (or one which falls in between) and which inconsistent but non-trivial axiomatic th...

  11. The curse of knowledge in reasoning about false beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Susan A J; Bloom, Paul

    2007-05-01

    Assessing what other people know and believe is critical for accurately understanding human action. Young children find it difficult to reason about false beliefs (i.e., beliefs that conflict with reality). The source of this difficulty is a matter of considerable debate. Here we show that if sensitive-enough measures are used, adults show deficits in a false-belief task similar to one used with young children. In particular, we show a curse-of-knowledge bias in false-belief reasoning. That is, adults' own knowledge of an event's outcome can compromise their ability to reason about another person's beliefs about that event. We also found that adults' perception of the plausibility of an event mediates the extent of this bias. These findings shed light on the factors involved in false-belief reasoning and are discussed in light of their implications for both adults' and children's social cognition.

  12. Medical Reasons for a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labor & birth > Medical reasons for a c-section Medical reasons for a c-section E-mail to ... have your baby through vaginal birth. What are medical reasons for having a c-section? Your health ...

  13. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...

  14. Critical Muralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  15. The Possibility of Moral Reasoning in Hare’s Prescriptivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m zamani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approaches to moral philosophy have experienced diverging directions regarding the possibility and justification of reasoning. Hare claims that in spite of the fact that intuitivists like Moore, Ross, and Prichard block the use of reasoning by accepting the intuitiveness of knowledge of good and bad, emotivism takes the same rout by focusing on emotions and emphasizing the freedom of choice. While descriptivism and also naturalism accept the possibility of reasoning through admitting the indicative nature of ethical speech, they reject or limit the freedom of choice. He tries to justify both the freedom of choice and the possibility of rational reasoning in moral. In so doing, Hare takes refuge in the non-self-contradiction and compatibility principles to insist on the universalizability of rules of moral reasoning. To make judgments of relevance is the prerequisite in morals which subsequently encompasses universalizability and the possibility of reasoning. Using the linguistic analysis, Hare tries to show that as language in which predicate-logic governs statements, imperatives and moral sentences are governed by rational relationships and principles of compatibility. From this point of view, an individual’s judgments are justifiable, provided that it is not in contradiction with his previous judgments. The aim of this study is to state, analyze, and criticize Hare’s views regarding the provision of rational reasoning and its possibility in terms of the challenges he faces with regard to competing schools of thought.

  16. Formality and Informality in Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnion, William E.

    Advocates and teachers of critical thinking tend to deny that intuition and justification are logical, even though they assume that both processes are rational. However, it can be demonstrated that the relation between intuition and inference, between justification and explanation, is dialectical and complementary, so that there is no mystery as…

  17. Reasons for Leaving the Academy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    (and male) researchers, at a critical transition point epitomised by high demands for scholarly productivity, international mobility and accumulation of social capital. Located within the context of Danish higher education, our study also adds to the current discussion of why academic gender...... stratifications persist in a country renowned for its leading international position on issues of societal gender equality....

  18. Romania: Ten Years of EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By joining the European Union as of 1st of January 2007, Romania made use of a window of opportunity which may not have been open later. In the ten years that followed, advantages and challenges of the membership have in part been overshadowed by the impact of the global financial crisis. The country went through a boom-bust-boom economic cycle. The swing from overheating to depression and back again to overheating has been amplified by pro-cyclical economic policy. Romania has been a selective policy taker in the EU often delaying fiscal and legal actions resulting in lost benefits. By reviewing the current political uncertainties in Europe, the conclusion emerges that more effective governance and more active foreign policy is necessary under the current Europe-wide orientation loss. The country may need to develop a mobilising strategy and policy beyond the direct benefits provided by the EU, one that also contributes to the success of the European integration.

  19. Questioning ten common assumptions about peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    University of Leeds Peat Club:

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands have been widely studied in terms of their ecohydrology, carbon dynamics, ecosystem services and palaeoenvironmental archives. However, several assumptions are frequently made about peatlands in the academic literature, practitioner reports and the popular media which are either ambiguous or in some cases incorrect. Here we discuss the following ten common assumptions about peatlands: 1. the northern peatland carbon store will shrink under a warming climate; 2. peatlands are fragile ecosystems; 3. wet peatlands have greater rates of net carbon accumulation; 4. different rules apply to tropical peatlands; 5. peat is a single soil type; 6. peatlands behave like sponges; 7. Sphagnum is the main ‘ecosystem engineer’ in peatlands; 8. a single core provides a representative palaeo-archive from a peatland; 9. water-table reconstructions from peatlands provide direct records of past climate change; and 10. restoration of peatlands results in the re-establishment of their carbon sink function. In each case we consider the evidence supporting the assumption and, where appropriate, identify its shortcomings or ways in which it may be misleading.

  20. Ten tips for authors of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-08-01

    Writing a good quality scientific article takes experience and skill. I propose 'Ten Tips' that may help to improve the quality of manuscripts for scholarly journals. It is advisable to draft first version of manuscript and revise it repeatedly for consistency and accuracy of the writing. During the drafting and revising the following tips can be considered: 1) focus on design to have proper content, conclusion, points compliant with scope of the target journal, appropriate authors and contributors list, and relevant references from widely visible sources; 2) format the manuscript in accordance with instructions to authors of the target journal; 3) ensure consistency and logical flow of ideas and scientific facts; 4) provide scientific confidence; 5) make your story interesting for your readers; 6) write up short, simple and attractive sentences; 7) bear in mind that properly composed and reflective titles increase chances of attracting more readers; 8) do not forget that well-structured and readable abstracts improve citability of your publications; 9) when revising adhere to the rule of 'First and Last' - open your text with topic paragraph and close it with resolution paragraph; 10) use connecting words linking sentences within a paragraph by repeating relevant keywords.

  1. Choledochal cysts: our ten year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cianci, F

    2012-04-01

    We present our experience in the management of choledochal cysts from 1999 to 2009. A retrospective review of all charts with a diagnosis of choledochal cysts in our institution in this ten-year period. Data was collated using Excel. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cyst: 9 females and 8 males. The average age at diagnosis was 28 months (range from 0 to 9 years). The most common presenting symptoms were obstructive jaundice 6 (35%) and abdominal pain and vomiting 4 (23%). Ultrasound (US) was the initial diagnostic test in all cases with 4 patients requiring further investigations. All patients underwent Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy. The average length of stay was 11 days. Patients were followed up with Liver Function Tests (LFTS) and US 4-6 weeks post-operatively. Three patients developed complications including post-op collection, high drain output requiring blood transfusion and adhesive bowel obstruction. Our overall experience with choledochal cyst patients has been a positive one with effective management and low complication rates.

  2. The first ten years of Swift supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter A.

    2015-09-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has proven to be an incredible platform for studying the multiwavelength properties of supernova explosions. In its first ten years, Swift has observed over three hundred supernovae. The ultraviolet observations reveal a complex diversity of behavior across supernova types and classes. Even amongst the standard candle type Ia supernovae, ultraviolet observations reveal distinct groups. When the UVOT data is combined with higher redshift optical data, the relative populations of these groups appear to change with redshift. Among core-collapse supernovae, Swift discovered the shock breakout of two supernovae and the Swift data show a diversity in the cooling phase of the shock breakout of supernovae discovered from the ground and promptly followed up with Swift. Swift observations have resulted in an incredible dataset of UV and X-ray data for comparison with high-redshift supernova observations and theoretical models. Swift's supernova program has the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of stellar life and death as well as the history of our universe.

  3. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.

  4. Ten years for the public Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago, CERN issued a statement declaring that a little known piece of software called the World Wide Web was in the public domain. Nowadays, the Web is an indispensable part of modern communications. The idea for the Web goes back to March 1989 when CERN Computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal for a 'Distributed Information Management System' for the high-energy physics community. The Web was originaly conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between scientists working all over the world. There were many obstacles in the 1980s to the effective exchange of information. There was, for example a great variety of computer and network systems, with hardly any common features. The main purpose of the web was to allow scientists to access information from any source in a consistent and simple way. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee's idea had become the World Wide Web, with its first server and browser running at CERN. Through 1991, the Web spread to other particle physics ...

  5. Motivated doubts : A comment on Walton's theory of criticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, Jan Albert

    2014-01-01

    In his theory of criticism, D. N. Walton presupposes that an opponent either critically questions an argument, without supplementing this questioning with any reasoning of her own, or that she puts forward a critical question and supplements it with a counterargument, that is, with reasoning in

  6. Incidentes críticos em anestesia no Uruguai - dez anos após: estudo comparativo (1990-2000 Incidentes criticos en anestesia en el Uruguay - diez años después: estudio comparativo (1990 - 2000 Critical anesthetic incidents in Uruguay - ten years after: comparative study (1990-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel da Fonte Bello

    2003-12-01

    Incidentes Criticos en anestesia. Se compararon los resultados actuales con los de 1990, buscando cambios en el patrón de IC a lo largo de esta década. MÉTODO: Se utilizaron 2 formulários distintos: El primero (F1 constaba de un listado predeterminado de IC para el estudio de la frecuencia relativa de cada incidente, y el segundo (F2 pedía la descripción de un incidente en particular, a elección del encuestado. RESULTADOS: En el F1 se señalaron 9482 IC, los 13 IC más frecuentes dan cuenta del 50 % de todos los ocurridos en el período. Los resultados son muy similares a los de 1990, ya que entre los más frecuentes, 9 de ellos se repiten en ambas encuestas, y tanto el primero como el segundo lugar también se repiten: Intubación dificultosa y disritmias. En el F2 se describieron un 20 % de IC con consecuencia mortal. El 54% de las muertes se debieron a 5 IC: paro cardíaco inopinado, tromboembolismo pulmonar, infarto agudo de miocardio, aspiración de vómito, y shock hipovolémico. El 46% de los IC fueron de origen respiratorio y el 24% hemodinámicos. Se destaca un incremento significativo de IC en el despertar y postoperatorio inmediato. En el 63% de los casos la detección del IC se debió a la observación clínica del paciente. Se comprueba un incremento sustancial de los IC relatados como imprevisibles. CONCLUSIONES: se mantiene la diversidad de IC con disminución de los fenómenos respiratorios. Este igualmente sigue siendo el grupo más frecuente. Hay una clara reducción de los accidentes graves hipóxicos vinculados a Intubación esofágica y Protóxido como gas único, y se mantiene la gravedad de los incidentes hemodinámicos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A survey of Critical Incidents (CI in Anesthesia is described. Year 2000 results are compared to those obtained in 1990 in search for CI pattern changes throughout this decade. METHODS: Two different forms were used: the first, F1, was a list of predetermined CI to determine the relative frequency of

  7. Role of nanocrystalline silver dressings in the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and TEN/Stevens-Johnson syndrome overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Saxon D; Dodds, Annabel; Dixit, Shreya; Cooper, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are severe mucocutaneous eruptions. There is currently no defined optimal approach to wound care. The objective of this study was to evaluate silver dressings in the wound-care management of TEN and SJS/TEN syndrome overlap with a retrospective case review of nine patients with TEN and SJS/TEN overlap presenting to our institution. Nanocrystalline silver dressings appear to be useful in the rapid commencement of healing in these patients. TEN and SJS/TEN overlap are rare conditions. This contributed to a relatively small number of cases included in the study. The ease of application, antimicrobial properties and low frequency of change make nanocrystalline silver dressings ideal in TEN/SJS. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. The sightless eyes of reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    There is a gap between the aims of school geometry in terms of the teaching of spatial abilities to young children, and the dominance of a school geometry rooted in Euclid’s axioms and abstractions. Such gap is not to be explained in terms of a “misimplementation” of the curricular intentions. Ra...... geometry curriculum. We argue that school geometry fabricates the scientific minds of the future by training students to see not with the eyes of their bodies, but with the eyes of reason and logic...

  9. Numeracy, frequency, and Bayesian reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen B. Chapman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that Bayesian reasoning performance is improved if uncertainty information is presented as natural frequencies rather than single-event probabilities. A questionnaire study of 342 college students replicated this effect but also found that the performance-boosting benefits of the natural frequency presentation occurred primarily for participants who scored high in numeracy. This finding suggests that even comprehension and manipulation of natural frequencies requires a certain threshold of numeracy abilities, and that the beneficial effects of natural frequency presentation may not be as general as previously believed.

  10. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2010-09-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  11. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2012-02-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  12. The TEN-T core network and the Fehmarnbelt region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    This note is a snapshot picture, taken in early 2014, that places the Green STRING corridor project within the context of the TEN-T strategy and gives a summarized overview on the impact of this strategy in the region. Chapter 1 contains a summary of the TEN-T strategy today, chapter 2 presents...... the sources used for this note, chapter 3 presents all the relevant EU regulations with direct impact on the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 4 gives practical examples of the challenges for the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 5 pre-sents the national initiatives related to the TEN-T corridor...

  13. Fuzzy reasoning of accident provenance in pervasive healthcare monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Hu, Xiaohua

    2013-11-01

    In pervasive healthcare monitoring environments, data provenance, as one metadata, can help people analyze the reasons for medical accidents that are generated by complex events. This reasoning processing often encounters inaccurate time and irreversible reasoning problems. How to solve the uncertain process and fuzzy transformation time presents many challenges to the study of data provenance. In this paper, we propose a backward derivation model with the provenance semantic, backward fuzzy time reasoning net (BFTRN), to solve these two problems. We design a backward reasoning algorithm motivated by time automation theory based on this model. With regard to given life-critical alarms and some constraints, it cannot only derive all evolution paths and the possibility distribution of paths from historical information, but also efficiently compute the value of fuzzy time function for each transition of lift-critical complex alarms in the healthcare monitoring system. We also analyze the properties of BFTRN model in this paper. Experiments on real dataset show that the proposed model is efficient.

  14. Heuristic errors in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Guerrasio, Jeannette

    2016-08-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of heuristic errors made by third-year medical students and first-year residents. This study surveyed approximately 150 clinical educators inquiring about the types of heuristic errors they observed in third-year medical students and first-year residents. Anchoring and premature closure were the two most common errors observed amongst third-year medical students and first-year residents. There was no difference in the types of errors observed in the two groups. Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality Clinical educators perceived that both third-year medical students and first-year residents committed similar heuristic errors, implying that additional medical knowledge and clinical experience do not affect the types of heuristic errors made. Further work is needed to help identify methods that can be used to reduce heuristic errors early in a clinician's education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  16. Writing audit findings: Be reasonable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address root cause'' as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a root problems'' approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee's part. This in itself, is its own reward.

  17. Writing audit findings: Be reasonable!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address ``root cause`` as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a ``root problems`` approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee`s part. This in itself, is its own reward.

  18. Rawls, reasonableness, and international toleration

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Rawls's account of international toleration in The Law of Peoples has been the subject of vigorous critiques by critics who believe that he unacceptably dilutes the principles of his Law of Peoples in order to accommodate non-liberal societies. One important component in these critiques takes issue specifically with Rawls's inclusion of certain non-liberal societies ('decent peoples') in the constituency of justification for the Law of Peoples. In Rawls's defence, I argue that the explanation...

  19. Critical Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  20. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  1. The Uses of Reason in Times of Technical Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrestijn, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The art of living idiom suits well a practice-oriented approach in ethics of technology. But what remains or becomes of the functioning and use of reason in ethics? In reaction to the comments by Huijer this reply elaborates in more detail how Foucault's art of living can be adapted for a critical contemporary ethics of technology. And the aesthetic-political rationality in Foucault's ethics is compared with Wellner's suggestions of holding on to the notion of code but with a new meaning. Foucault's fourfold scheme of subjectivation and a distinction of "below and above reason" structure the argument.

  2. Tenåringsdrikking i utviklingspsykologisk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Pape

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGHvorfor er alkohol så populært blant unge mennesker? Dette viktige spørsmålet har vært gjenstand for fåempiriske studier. Forskningsbasert kunnskap om alkoholens positive sider og forsterkende egenskaper erderfor av begrenset omfang. Derimot har tallrike undersøkelser fokusert på ulike skadevirkninger som følgeav tenåringsdrikking. Resultatene av denne forskningen har bidratt til å understreke behovet for en aktivrusforebyggende innsats. Innsikt i alkoholens opplevde goder er imidlertid nødvendig for å kunne utvikleeffektive forebyggingsstrategier. På denne bakgrunn er søkelyset i artikkelen rettet mot psykososiale funksjonerved unge menneskers drikkevaner. Spørsmål knyttet til gruppepress og modell-læring vil også bli berørt.Hensikten er å formidle sentrale funn fra nyere forskning på feltet. Oppsummeringsvis tyder resultatene på atalkohol har en særlig appell til ungdom som er veltilpassede og sosialt anlagte. Samtidig ser det ut til atdrikking kan bidra til å fremme utviklingsprosessen i ungdomstida, men at det primært handler om indirekteeffekter. Hvilke implikasjoner de ulike funnene har mht. forebygging, er skissert i avslutningsdelen.Pape H. Teenage alcohol use from the perspective of psychological development.Nor J EpidemiolEWhy is alcohol so popular among young people? So far, few studies have addressed this important question.The body of scientific research on the positive and reinforcing aspects of drinking is accordingly of limitedextent. Numerous studies have focused on the harmful effects of teenage alcohol use and the findings clearlyunderscore the importance of primary prevention. Knowledge about the perceived advantages of alcohol useis needed to develop effective preventive programs, however. On this background, the article focuses onpsychosocial functions of youthful drinking. Findings from recent research regarding the link between alcoholuse and various indicators of adolescent

  3. Open Graphs and Computational Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dixon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a form of algebraic reasoning for computational objects which are expressed as graphs. Edges describe the flow of data between primitive operations which are represented by vertices. These graphs have an interface made of half-edges (edges which are drawn with an unconnected end and enjoy rich compositional principles by connecting graphs along these half-edges. In particular, this allows equations and rewrite rules to be specified between graphs. Particular computational models can then be encoded as an axiomatic set of such rules. Further rules can be derived graphically and rewriting can be used to simulate the dynamics of a computational system, e.g. evaluating a program on an input. Examples of models which can be formalised in this way include traditional electronic circuits as well as recent categorical accounts of quantum information.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF A GUILLAIN BARRE SYNDROME PATIENT THROUGH THREE TRACK REASONING: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Islam Nipa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning is a thinking and decision making process which occur in clinical practice. It helps the health care providers to solve the clinical problem by using their reasoning process in an effective and efficient manner. Three track reasoning in one of the clinical reasoning process which includes the procedural, interactive and conditional reasoning to diagnose as well as ensure proper rehabilitation service according to patient and patient’s family members’ needs. Methods: A single case based study through the three track reasoning process. The purpose of this study was to explore the management strategies of a Gullian Barrie Syndrome (GBS patient through three track reasoning. We have tried to show how the basic idea behind the reasoning process helped to determine the reasoning process and diagnosis. However it has performed through theory and observation. We have also showed how we used the reasoning process through with the common sense reasoning. However it was the part of procedural reasoning in three track clinical reasoning. In three track reasoning, there is also interactive and procedural reasoning part through which we told patient story about his condition, identified his and his family members expectations and to establish hypothesis as GBS. So three track reasoning also supported us to do reasoning process rather than selecting another reasoning process. Results: After analyzing the reasoning process it was identified that to be strict in a single reasoning process is very difficult. Clinical reasoning is the clinician’s ability through which they can consider the interpretation of different clinical findings. An expert clinician must have critical thinking skill rather than ignoring any symptoms or overemphasize the symptoms. In addition, patient’s knowledge, believes and reasoning was found an important part of clinical reasoning process in this study. Conclusion: We have been practicing clinical

  5. Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: A Closer Look at the Top Ten in University Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Soh Kay

    2011-01-01

    Notwithstanding criticisms and discussions on methodological grounds, much attention has been and still will be paid to university rankings for various reasons. The present paper uses published information of the 10 top-ranking universities of the world and demonstrates the problem of spurious precision. In view of the problem of measurement error…

  6. Western Perceptions of Hong Kong Ten Years on: A Corpus-Driven Critical Discourse Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winnie; Lam, Phoenix W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the Western perceptions of and relations with Hong Kong a decade after the reversion of the sovereignty from Britain to China in 1997. Previous studies have demonstrated that the West had a significantly negative view on the future of Hong Kong with respect to the handover. According to recent observations, however, the…

  7. Thinking in Pharmacy Practice: A Study of Community Pharmacists' Clinical Reasoning in Medication Supply Using the Think-Aloud Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Hayley; Gilligan, Conor; Rasiah, Rohan; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Schneider, Jennifer

    2017-12-31

    Medication review and supply by pharmacists involves both cognitive and technical skills related to the safety and appropriateness of prescribed medicines. The cognitive ability of pharmacists to recall, synthesise and memorise information is a critical aspect of safe and optimal medicines use, yet few studies have investigated the clinical reasoning and decision-making processes pharmacists use when supplying prescribed medicines. The objective of this study was to examine the patterns and processes of pharmacists' clinical reasoning and to identify the information sources used, when making decisions about the safety and appropriateness of prescribed medicines. Ten community pharmacists participated in a simulation in which they were required to review a prescription and make decisions about the safety and appropriateness of supplying the prescribed medicines to the patient, whilst at the same time thinking aloud about the tasks required. Following the simulation each pharmacist was asked a series of questions to prompt retrospective thinking aloud using video-stimulated recall. The simulated consultation and retrospective interview were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. All of the pharmacists made a safe and appropriate supply of two prescribed medicines to the simulated patient. Qualitative analysis identified seven core thinking processes used during the supply process: considering prescription in context, retrieving information, identifying medication-related issues, processing information, collaborative planning, decision making and reflection; and align closely with other health professionals. The insights from this study have implications for enhancing awareness of decision making processes in pharmacy practice and informing teaching and assessment approaches in medication supply.

  8. A cross-cultural analysis of work values and moral reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hugo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to explore the cultural differences with regard to work values and moral reasoning in the context of the management of diversity. A secondary aim was to determine whether individuals in the various stages of moral reasoning, differ with regard to the work values espoused. The sample group (N=182 consisted of black and white students at under-graduate and post-graduate levels. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between cultural groups with regard to work values and moral reasoning, but indicated no difference in stages of moral reasoning with regard to work values. The implications of the findings for work organisations and tertiary institutions are discussed. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die studie was om vanuit 'n bestuur-van-diversiteit konteks vas te stel of daar interkulturele verskille bestaan ten opsigte van werkwaardes en morele redenering. 'n Sekondere doelwit was om te bepaal of individue in verskillende fases van morele redenering verskil ten opsigte van werkwaardes. Die steekproef (N=182 is saamgestel uit swart en wit studente op voor- en nagraadse vlak. Statisties-beduidende verskille tussen kultuurgroepe ten opsigte van werkwaardes en morele redenering het na vore gekom, maar geen verskille tussen fases van morele redenering ten opsigte van werkwaardes is gevind nie. Die implikasies van die bevindinge soos dit werkorganisasies en tersiere instellings raak, word bespreek.

  9. Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

  10. [TEN YEARS OF OPIOID CONSUMPTION BY CHILDREN (2001-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Tamar; Sherf, Michael; Battat, Erez; Vardy, Daniel; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2015-09-01

    Opioids are considered a cornerstone in the treatment of pain. They are rarely used in almost half of the countries of the world, especially in children. The aim of this study was to assess opioid use over a ten-year study period from 2001-2010, among children 0-18 years old who are members of Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest HMO in Israel Data on the purchase of opioids, authorized for use in Israel, was obtained from the computerized databases of CHS. In addition, the patient's demographic details and cancer morbidity were also extracted. The data was analyzed after all the doses of all opioids consumed (fentanyl patch, oxycodone, methadone, hydromorphone, oral transmucosal fentanyl) were converted into oral morphine equivalents (OME). In all, 1,098 children purchased at least one opioid prescription during the study period. Of them, 27.3% had a diagnosis of cancer and 55.5% were female. A 42% decrease in total annual OME (mg) purchased, from 209,443 mg to 122,048 mg, was observed from 2001 to 2010. There was no specific pattern or trend in the annual number of pediatric and adolescent patients who purchased at least one opioid drug during the study period. In 86.5% of the cases, children with a non-cancer cause of pain purchased opioids for only one month. There is a low and inconsistent rate of opioid consumption among pediatric and adolescent members of the CHS. Further study is needed to explore the reasons for this low opioid consumption rate in this population group.

  11. Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning and educational skills. We found that women performed better than men on our reasoning-about-teaching measure, and that factorially, our reasoning-about-teaching measure clustered with our reasoning-about-research measures but not with our measures of abstract cognitive reasoning and educational skills.

  12. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-12-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.

  13. Fostering Critical Thinking in Undergraduate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LuPone, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Results from previous studies indicated nursing students needed to further develop critical thinking (CT) especially with respect to employing it in their clinical reasoning. Thus, the study was conducted to support development of students' CT in the areas of inference subskills that could be applied as they engaged in clinical reasoning during…

  14. Consequence Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Consequence reasoning is a major element for operation support system to assess the plant situations. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how Multilevel Flow Models can be used to reason about consequences of disturbances in complex engineering systems. MFM is a modelling methodology...... syntax and gives detailed reasoning formulas for consequence reasoning. The reasoning formulas offers basis for developing rule-based system to perform consequence reasoning based on MFM, which can be used for alarm design, risk monitoring, and supervision and operation support system design....

  15. The origin of the future ten questions for the next ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2006-01-01

    How did the universe begin? Where do galaxies come from? How do stars and planets form? Where do the material particles we are made of come from? How did life begin? Today we have only provisional answers to such questions. But scientific progress will improve these answers dramatically over the next ten years, predicts John Gribbin in this riveting book. He focuses on what we know—or think we know—about ten controversial, unanswered issues in the physical sciences and explains how current cutting-edge research may yield solutions in the very near future. With his trademark facility for engaging readers with or without a scientific background, the author explores ideas concerning the creation of the universe, the possibility of other forms of life, and the fate of the expanding cosmos. He examines “theories of everything,” including grand unified theories and string theory, and he discusses the Big Bang theory, the origin of structure and patterns of matter in the galaxies, and dark mass and dark ene...

  16. One-reason decision making in risky choice? A closer look at the priority heuristic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2008-01-01

    .... However, the choices predicted by the PH and other pieces of information are often confounded, thus rendering critical tests of whether decisions are actually based on one reason only, impossible...

  17. Scientific Reasoning for Pre-service Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of K-12 teacher education science courses often focus on conceptual learning and improving students overall attitude towards science. It is often assumed that with the use of research-based curriculum material and more hands on inquiry approaches, without any explicit instruction, student scientific and critical thinking skills would also be enhanced. In the last three years, we have been investigating student scientific and evidence-based reasoning abilities in a K-8 pre-service science course at Cal Poly Pomona. After recognizing student difficulties understanding the elements of scientific reasoning, we have provided explicit feedback using a rubric to assist students to become more rigorous and reflective thinkers; to use appropriate and accurate vocabulary; exercise evidence-base reasoning; and develop skepticism with respect to their own views. We will share the rubric and report on the preliminary results.

  18. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Increasing intensity of TENS prevents analgesic tolerance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Karina L.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Rakel, Barbara A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces hyperalgesia and pain. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) TENS, delivered at the same intensity (90% motor threshold (MT)) daily, result in analgesic tolerance with repeated use by the 5th day of treatment. Thecurrentstudytestedif 1) increasingintensityby 10% per daypreventsthedevelopmentoftolerance to repeated TENS, and 2) iflowerintensity TENS (50 % MT) produces an equivalentreduction in hyperalgesia when compared to 90% MT TENS. Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral knee joint inflammation (3% carrageenan) were separated according to the intensity of TENS used: Sham, 50% LF, 50% HF, 90% LF, 90% HF, and increased intensity by 10% per day (LF and HF). The reduced mechanical withdrawal threshold following the induction of inflammation was reversed by application of TENS applied at 90% MT and increasing intensity for the first 4 days. On the 5th day, the groups that received 90% MT intensity showed tolerance. Nevertheless, the group that received an increased intensity on each day still showed a reversal of the mechanical withdrawal threshold with TENS. These results show that the development of tolerance can be delayed by increasing intensity of TENS. PMID:22858165

  20. Reasons behind the participation in biomedical research: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Clinical research is essential for the advancement of Medicine, especially regarding the development of new drugs. Understanding the reasons behind patients' decision of participating in these studies is critical for the recruitment and retention in the research. OBJECTIVES: To examine the decision-making of participants in biomedical research, taking into account different settings and environments where clinical research is performed. Methods: A critical review of the literature was performed through several databases using the keywords: "motivation", "decision", "reason", "biomedical research", "clinical research", "recruitment", "enrollment", "participation", "benefits", "altruism", "decline", "vulnerability" and "ethics", between August and November 2013, in English and in Portuguese. RESULTS: The review pointed out that the reasons can be different according to some characteristics such as the disease being treated, study phase, prognoses and socioeconomic and cultural environment. Access to better health care, personal benefits, financial rewards and altruism are mentioned depending on the circumstances. CONCLUSION: Finding out more about individuals' reasons for taking part in the research will allow clinical investigators to design studies of greater benefit for the community and will probably help to remove undesirable barriers imposed to participation. Improving the information to health care professionals and patients on the benefits and risks of clinical trials is certainly a good start.

  1. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical ...

  2. Clinical reasoning of nursing students on clinical placement: Clinical educators' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sharyn; Arthur, Carol

    2016-05-01

    Graduate nurses may have knowledge and adequate clinical psychomotor skills however they have been identified as lacking the clinical reasoning skills to deliver safe, effective care suggesting contemporary educational approaches do not always facilitate the development of nursing students' clinical reasoning. While nursing literature explicates the concept of clinical reasoning and develops models that demonstrate clinical reasoning, there is very little published about nursing students and clinical reasoning during clinical placements. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten clinical educators to gain an understanding of how they recognised, developed and appraised nursing students' clinical reasoning while on clinical placement. This study found variability in the clinical educators' conceptualisation, recognition, and facilitation of students' clinical reasoning. Although most of the clinical educators conceptualised clinical reasoning as a process those who did not demonstrated the greatest variability in the recognition and facilitation of students' clinical reasoning. The clinical educators in this study also described being unable to adequately appraise a student's clinical reasoning during clinical placement with the use of the current performance assessment tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Francis Bacon On Understanding, Reason and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Karl R.

    1971-01-01

    Bacon's views of the faculties of understanding and reason are presented and explained in reference to Baconian rhetoric. Understanding, Rhetoric, Insinuative and Imaginative Reason are defined. (Author/MS)

  4. Nursing Faculty Experiences of Virtual Learning Environments for Teaching Clinical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharzuk-Marciano, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Nurses need sharp, clinical reasoning skills to respond to critical situations and to be successful at work in a complex and challenging healthcare system. While past research has focused on using virtual learning environments to teach clinical reasoning, there has been limited research on the experiences of nursing faculty and there is a need for…

  5. Complementary and alternative treatment for neck pain: chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Sorosky, Susan; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan; Lansky, Rebecca

    2011-08-01

    Of the multitude of treatment options for the management of neck pain, no obvious single treatment modality has been shown to be most efficacious. As such, the clinician should consider alternative treatment modalities if a modality is engaging, available, financially feasible, potentially efficacious, and is low risk for the patient. As evidence-based medicine for neck pain develops, the clinician is faced with the challenge of which treatments to encourage patients to pursue. Treatment modalities explored in this article, including chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais, represent reasonable complementary and alternative medicine methods for patients with neck pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Teaching Inductive Reasoning in Primary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Els; Hamers, Jo H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Vermeer, Adri

    2002-01-01

    Used a three-phase teaching procedure based on the development of metacognition to extend emphasis on inductive reasoning in primary education to Grades 3 and 4. Found that teachers could apply the programs as intended, but needed support to shift attention from reasoning product to reasoning process. Program learning effects indicated that better…

  7. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  8. Lung ultrasound in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Daniel A

    2014-01-09

    Lung ultrasound is a basic application of critical ultrasound, defined as a loop associating urgent diagnoses with immediate therapeutic decisions. It requires the mastery of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line), lung sliding (yielding seashore sign), the A-line (horizontal artifact), the quad sign, and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion, the fractal, and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation, the B-line, and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndrome, abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax, and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. All of these disorders were assessed using CT as the "gold standard" with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 90% to 100%, allowing ultrasound to be considered as a reasonable bedside "gold standard" in the critically ill. The BLUE-protocol is a fast protocol (sliding, making the "B-profile." The FALLS-protocol adapts the BLUE-protocol to acute circulatory failure. It makes sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography (right ventricle dilatation, pericardial effusion), then lung ultrasound for assessing a direct parameter of clinical volemia: the apparition of B-lines, schematically, is considered as the endpoint for fluid therapy. Other aims of lung ultrasound are decreasing medical irradiation: the LUCIFLR program (most CTs in ARDS or trauma can be postponed), a use in traumatology, intensive care unit, neonates (the signs are the same than in adults), many disciplines (pulmonology, cardiology…), austere countries, and a help in any procedure (thoracentesis). A 1992, cost-effective gray-scale unit, without Doppler, and a microconvex probe are efficient. Lung ultrasound is a holistic discipline for many reasons (e.g., one probe, perfect for the lung, is able to scan the whole

  9. Fear of knowledge: Clinical hypotheses in diagnostic and prognostic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffi, Daniele; Zanotti, Renzo

    2017-10-01

    Patients are interested in receiving accurate diagnostic and prognostic information. Models and reasoning about diagnoses have been extensively investigated from a foundational perspective; however, for all its importance, prognosis has yet to receive a comparable degree of philosophical and methodological attention, and this may be due to the difficulties inherent in accurate prognostics. In the light of these considerations, we discuss a considerable body of critical thinking on the topic of prognostication and its strict relations with diagnostic reasoning, pointing out the distinction between nosographic and pathophysiological types of diagnosis and prognosis, underlying the importance of the explication and explanation processes. We then distinguish between various forms of hypothetical reasoning applied to reach diagnostic and prognostic judgments, comparing them with specific forms of abductive reasoning. The main thesis is that creative abduction regarding clinical hypotheses in diagnostic process is very unlikely to occur, whereas this seems to be often the case for prognostic judgments. The reasons behind this distinction are due to the different types of uncertainty involved in diagnostic and prognostic judgments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Socioscientific issues in science education: labels, reasoning, and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of some of the issues raised in Simonneaux and Simonneaux's analysis of socioscientific reasoning among a group of university level students negotiating three socioscientific issues. I first discuss the labels used to reference approaches in science education that prioritize socially relevant issues and the science related to these issues. I draw distinctions between approaches labeled science-technology-society (STS), the socioscientific issues framework, and les questions socialement vives (socially acute questions), which Simonneaux and Simonneaux introduce. Next, I discuss ways in which Simonneaux and Simonneaux's use socioscientific reasoning as an analytic construct varies with respect to its initial conceptualization. The primary distinctions include linguistic inconsistencies and the conceptual differences these language choices confer, expansion of the construct to subsume a broader range of practices, and issues related to unit of analysis (i.e., applying socioscientific reasoning as an analytic resource for assessing individual practice vs. group patterns). Finally, the issue of transfer of socioscientific reasoning is addressed. When considering the extent to which and how students leverage experiences and practice relative to the exploration of one socioscientific issue to inform their negotiation of another, I suggest that researchers and practitioners consider the distinction between the content of arguments advanced and underlying reasoning patterns. The tension between embedding science in meaningful, specific contexts and promoting forms of scientific literacy applicable to diverse, socially-relevant issues emerges as an important point of emphasis for educators interested in the socioscientific issues (or socially acute questions) movement.

  11. Screening Of Ten Indian Medicinal Plants For Their Antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening Of Ten Indian Medicinal Plants For Their Antibacterial Activity Against Shigella sSpecies And Escherichia coli. J Thomas, B Veda. Abstract. Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of ten Indian medicinal plants were tested for their antibacterial properties against Shigella sonei, S. boydi, S. flexeneri, S. dysenteriae and ...

  12. Travels in Tartary : Decoding Ten Export Winter Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese export paintings collection of the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden includes ten winter views in Tartary painted on canvas. That these ten paintings have never before been studied as a group has inspired the present author to conduct research into their origins, the findings of

  13. Benchmark Dose Software Development and Maintenance Ten Berge Cxt Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is intended to provide an overview of beta version 1.0 of the implementation of a concentration-time (CxT) model originally programmed and provided by Wil ten Berge (referred to hereafter as the ten Berge model). The recoding and development described here represent ...

  14. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2017-09-14

    Neuropathic pain, which is due to nerve disease or damage, represents a significant burden on people and society. It can be particularly unpleasant and achieving adequate symptom control can be difficult. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment are often employed by people with neuropathic pain and may include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). This review supersedes one Cochrane Review 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain' (Nnoaham 2014) and one withdrawn protocol 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults' (Claydon 2014). This review replaces the original protocol for neuropathic pain that was withdrawn. To determine the analgesic effectiveness of TENS versus placebo (sham) TENS, TENS versus usual care, TENS versus no treatment and TENS in addition to usual care versus usual care alone in the management of neuropathic pain in adults. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, PEDro, LILACS (up to September 2016) and various clinical trials registries. We also searched bibliographies of included studies for further relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials where TENS was evaluated in the treatment of central or peripheral neuropathic pain. We included studies if they investigated the following: TENS versus placebo (sham) TENS, TENS versus usual care, TENS versus no treatment and TENS in addition to usual care versus usual care alone in the management of neuropathic pain in adults. Two review authors independently screened all database search results and identified papers requiring full-text assessment. Subsequently, two review authors independently applied inclusion/exclusion criteria to these studies. The same review authors then independently extracted data, assessed for risk of bias using the Cochrane standard tool and rated the quality of evidence using GRADE. We included 15 studies with 724 participants. We found a

  15. Ten Things Every Professor Should Know about Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kenneth; Dunlap, Joanna; Stevens, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes ten key assessment practices for advancing student learning that all professors should be familiar with and strategically incorporate in their classrooms and programs. Each practice or concept is explained with examples and guidance for putting it into practice. The ten are: learning outcomes, performance assessments,…

  16. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE-STIMULATION (TENS) IN RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, P; DOMPELING, EC; VANSLOCHTERENVANDERBOOR, JC; KUIPERS, WD; SMIT, AJ

    Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been described as resulting in vasodilatation. The effect of 2 Hz TENS of the right hand during forty-five minutes on skin temperature and plethysmography of the third digit of both hands and feet and on transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcpO2) of the right

  17. Epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis in Ethiopia: A ten-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A time-series study design was applied to analyze the ten-year trends of Tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Data on ten-key indicators for the period of 2000-2009 was obtained from the Ministry of Health public documents. Five stratifying variables were used to analyze the trends in the key TB indicators. The data on the indicators ...

  18. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  19. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Claydon, Leica S; Herbison, G Peter; Jones, Gareth; Paley, Carole A

    2017-10-09

    Fibromyalgia is characterised by persistent, widespread pain; sleep problems; and fatigue. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is the delivery of pulsed electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin to stimulate peripheral nerves and is used extensively to manage painful conditions. TENS is inexpensive, safe, and can be self-administered. TENS reduces pain during movement in some people so it may be a useful adjunct to assist participation in exercise and activities of daily living. To date, there has been only one systematic review in 2012 which included TENS, amongst other treatments, for fibromyalgia, and the authors concluded that TENS was not effective. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of TENS alone or added to usual care (including exercise) compared with placebo (sham) TENS; no treatment; exercise alone; or other treatment including medication, electroacupuncture, warmth therapy, or hydrotherapy for fibromyalgia in adults. We searched the following electronic databases up to 18 January 2017: CENTRAL (CRSO); MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase (Ovid); CINAHL (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); LILACS; PEDRO; Web of Science (ISI); AMED (Ovid); and SPORTDiscus (EBSCO). We also searched three trial registries. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised trials of TENS treatment for pain associated with fibromyalgia in adults. We included cross-over and parallel-group trial designs. We included studies that evaluated TENS administered using non-invasive techniques at intensities that produced perceptible TENS sensations during stimulation at either the site of pain or over nerve bundles proximal (or near) to the site of pain. We included TENS administered as a sole treatment or TENS in combination with other treatments, and TENS given as a single treatment or as a course of treatments. Two review authors independently determined study eligibility by assessing each record and

  20. Effect of burst TENS and conventional TENS combined with cryotherapy on pressure pain threshold: randomised, controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, L B; Josué, A M; Maia, P H B; Câmara, A E; Brasileiro, J S

    2015-06-01

    To assess the immediate effect of conventional and burst transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in combination with cryotherapy on pain threshold and tolerance in healthy individuals. Randomised, controlled trial. University laboratory. One hundred and twelve healthy women. Volunteers were allocated at random to seven groups (n=16): (1) control, (2) placebo TENS, (3) conventional TENS, (4) burst TENS, (5) cryotherapy, (6) cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS, and (7) cryotherapy in combination with conventional TENS. Pain threshold and tolerance were measured by applying a pressure algometer at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, before and after each intervention. The primary outcome measure was pressure pain threshold. A significant increase in pain threshold and tolerance at the 5% level of significance was recorded as follows: burst TENS {pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 1.2]; pain tolerance: mean difference 3.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 3.7)}, cryotherapy [pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.2); pain tolerance: mean difference 1.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.0)] and cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS [pain threshold: mean difference 2.6 (95% CI 2.4 to 2.8); pain tolerance: mean difference 4.9 (95% CI 5.0 to 4.8)]. Cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS provided greater analgesia compared with the other groups (Pcryotherapy in combination with burst TENS to reduce induced pain, and suggest a potentiating effect when these techniques are combined. No such association was found between cryotherapy and conventional TENS. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Sequence of Critical Thinking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, John

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking skills remain at the forefront of educational discussions. These higher order thinking processes, including but not limited to reflection, inference, and synthesizing information, enable individuals to make reasoned judgments not only in the classroom but in everyday life. School systems demand that critical thinking be…

  2. Critical thinking as reflecting on understanding others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torringa, J.G.H.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation about critical thinking processes three questions. The first regards the question what critical thinking means when conceptualizing the phrase away from the dominant account in which it refers to the ability to reason well and the disposition to do so (Bailin & Siegel, 2003). A

  3. Media Literacy Function in Critical Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander; Levitskaya, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The Internet is widely recognized as playing an important role in facilitating education on a range of issues, including media literacy. Analyzing the media critical activity of contemporary Russian bloggers, the authors of the article reveal the following reasons for popularity or, on the contrary, unpopularity of blogger's media criticism:…

  4. Clinical reasoning of Filipino physical therapists: Experiences in a developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotor, Esmerita R; Capio, Catherine M

    2017-10-25

    Clinical reasoning is essential for physical therapists to engage in the process of client care, and has been known to contribute to professional development. The literature on clinical reasoning and experiences have been based on studies from Western and developed nations, from which multiple influencing factors have been found. A developing nation, the Philippines, has distinct social, economic, political, and cultural circumstances. Using a phenomenological approach, this study explored experiences of Filipino physical therapists on clinical reasoning. Ten therapists working in three settings: 1) hospital; 2) outpatient clinic; and 3) home health were interviewed. Major findings were: a prescription-based referral system limited clinical reasoning; procedural reasoning was a commonly experienced strategy while diagnostic and predictive reasoning were limited; factors that influenced clinical reasoning included practice setting and the professional relationship with the referring physician. Physical therapists' responses suggested a lack of autonomy in practice that appeared to stifle clinical reasoning. Based on our findings, we recommend that the current regulations governing PT practice in the Philippines may be updated, and encourage educators to strengthen teaching approaches and strategies that support clinical reasoning. These recommendations are consistent with the global trend toward autonomous practice.

  5. An assessment of ten ocean reanalyses in the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotila, Petteri

    2017-04-01

    Ocean reanalysis (ORA) combines observations either statistically or with a hydrodynamical model, to reconstruct historical changes in the ocean. Global and regional ORA products are increasingly used in polar research, but their quality remains to be systematically assessed. To address this, the Polar ORA Intercomparison Project (PORA-IP) has been established following on from the ORA-IP project (Balmaseda et al. 2015, with other papers in a special issue of Climate Dynamics). The PORA-IP is constituted under the COST EOS initiative with plans to review reanalyses products in both the Arctic and Antarctic, and is endorsed by YOPP - the Year of Polar Prediction project. Currently, the PORA-IP team consists of 21 researchers from 15 institutes and universities. The ORA-IP products with polar physics, such as sea ice, have been updated where necessary and collected in a public database. In addition to model output, available observational polar climatologies are collected and used in the assessments. Due to the extensive variety of products, this database should become a valuable resource outside the PORA-IP community. For a comprehensive evaluation of the ten ORA products (CGLORSv5, ECDA3.1, GECCO2, Glorys2v4, GloSea5_GO5, MOVEG2i, ORAP5, SODA3.3.1, TOPAZ4 and UR025.4) in the Arctic and Southern Oceans several specific diagnostics are assessed. The PORA-IP diagnostics target the following topics: hydrography; heat, salinity and freshwater content; ocean transports and surface currents; mixed layer depth; sea-ice concentration and thickness; and snow thickness over sea ice. Based on these diagnostics, ORA product biases against observed data and their mutual spread are quantified, and possible reasons for discrepancies discussed. So far, we have identified product outliers and evaluated the multi-model mean. We have identified the importance of the atmospheric forcing, air-ocean coupling protocol and sea-ice data assimilation for the product performance. Moreover, we

  6. Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.

  7. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  8. Thinking on writing a critical essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lillian Lywan

    2017-04-01

    To provide a strategy for writing a critical essay for the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists examination using a sample question. To prepare for writing a critical essay, candidates are advised to read widely and critically, to practise writing essays with a clear structure under examination conditions and seek constructive critique from colleagues. This will help them to write succinctly and develop a reasoned argument that is relevant to the quotation.

  9. Meta-evaluation of meta-analysis: ten appraisal questions for biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Noble, Daniel W A; Senior, Alistair M; Lagisz, Malgorzata

    2017-03-03

    Meta-analysis is a statistical procedure for analyzing the combined data from different studies, and can be a major source of concise up-to-date information. The overall conclusions of a meta-analysis, however, depend heavily on the quality of the meta-analytic process, and an appropriate evaluation of the quality of meta-analysis (meta-evaluation) can be challenging. We outline ten questions biologists can ask to critically appraise a meta-analysis. These questions could also act as simple and accessible guidelines for the authors of meta-analyses. We focus on meta-analyses using non-human species, which we term 'biological' meta-analysis. Our ten questions are aimed at enabling a biologist to evaluate whether a biological meta-analysis embodies 'mega-enlightenment', a 'mega-mistake', or something in between.

  10. Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…

  11. The ethical reasoning variations of personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a comparison of the ethical reasoning components of business managers and executives based on personal characteristics of working experiences, gender and age group. Data were collected in Malaysia within the small and medium sized industry in the form of questionnaires which contain vignettes of questionable ethical reasoning issues. Factor analysis was used to identify the major ethical reasoning dimensions which were then used as the basic comparison. Our study reviews that SMEs managers’ and executives’ ethical reasoning influenced by their years of working experiences. The gap analysis between male and female managers and executives revealed that the significant difference only occurs for ethical awareness in business management and business practices but not for other dimensions. Besides, there are indications that generally, business people tend to have higher ethical reasoning evaluation when they reach thirty six years old. Based on our results, recommendations are made to improve the ethical reasoning evaluation of business managers and executives.

  12. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian W

    2017-08-22

    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  13. Reasons of Tourists’ Preferences of All-Inclusive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YAYLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to identify the reasons of tourists’ preferences of all inclusive system. Scale that has developed by Wong and Kwong (2004 has been used in this study. Population of study has been consisted of tourists that have come to Antalya by purchasing all inclusive system package tours. In the study which carried out by participated 387 tourists, statements of “guaranty of tour”, “price of travel” and “items included in the tour price” that are the most important criteria of tourists while they prefer all inclusive system were ranked among first three. Moreover, according to the results of factor analysis, ten factors were determined and was seen that factors of “innovations”, “price” and “specifications of travel” were ranked among first three.

  14. Public Equality, Public Reason and Liberal Community

    OpenAIRE

    Nebojša Zelić

    2016-01-01

    In his The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and its Limits Christiano defends an idea that democracy has authority because it realizes public equality. According to Christiano, for realization of public equality there is no need for any restriction on the content of reasons we offer each other to justify laws and policies. In this paper I try to show that there are good reasons to think that boundaries of public reason can more deeply realize public equality in plural society an...

  15. Theoretical and practical significance of formal reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Piaget's theory has profoundly influenced science education research. Following Piaget, researchers have focused on content-free strategies, developmentally based mechanisms, and structural models of each stage of reasoning. In practice, factors besides those considered in Piaget's theory influence whether or not a theoretically available strategy is used. Piaget's focus has minimized the research attention placed on what could be called practical factors in reasoning. Practical factors are factors that influence application of a theoretically available strategy, for example, previous experience with the task content, familiarity with task instructions, or personality style of the student. Piagetian theory has minimized the importance of practical factors and discouraged investigation of (1) the role of factual knowledge in reasoning, (2) the diagnosis of specific, task-based errors in reasoning, (3) the influence of individual aptitudes on reasoning (e.g., field dependence-independence), and (4) the effect of educational interventions designed to change reasoning. This article calls for new emphasis on practical factors in reasoning and suggests why research on practical factors in reasoning will enhance our understanding of how scientific reasoning is acquired and of how science education programs can foster it.

  16. Reasons for Whistleblowing: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BALTACI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Whistleblowing has become a commonly encountered concept in recent times. Negative behaviors and actions can be experienced in any organization, and whistleblowing, as a communication process, is a kind of ethical behavior. Whistleblowing is the transmission of an unfavorable situation discovered in the organization to either internal or external authorities. An examination of the reasons for the employee’s whistleblowing is important for a better understanding of this concept; hence, this research focuses on the reasons for whistleblowing. In addition, the reasons for avoiding whistleblowing were also investigated. This research, which is designed as a qualitative study, is based on the phenomenological approach. Interviews were conducted with open-ended, semi-structured interview form in the study. The research was conducted on 20 teachers, 12 administrators, and 7 inspectors. The data were analyzed using the content analysis method. As a result of the research, the individual, organizational and social reasons for whistleblowing have been differentiated. Among the individual reasons for whistleblowing are the considerations of protecting and gaining interests. Organizational reasons include business ethics and the expectation of subsequent promotion. Social reasons encompass social benefits, social justice, and religious belief. Reasons for avoiding whistleblowing vary based on retaliation and worry. This research is considered important because as it is believed to be the first qualitative research to approach the reasons for whistleblowing. The results of this research have revealed gaps in the understanding of this area for future studies.

  17. Case-based reasoning a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    López, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is a methodology with a long tradition in artificial intelligence that brings together reasoning and machine learning techniques to solve problems based on past experiences or cases. Given a problem to be solved, reasoning involves the use of methods to retrieve similar past cases in order to reuse their solution for the problem at hand. Once the problem has been solved, learning methods can be applied to improve the knowledge based on past experiences. In spite of being a broad methodology applied in industry and services, case-based reasoning has often been forgotten in

  18. Dictionary criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Dictionary criticism is part of the lexicographical universe and reviewing of electronic and printed dictionaries is not an exercise in linguistics or in subject fields but an exercise in lexicography. It does not follow from this that dictionary reviews should not be based on a linguistic approach......, but that the linguistic approach is only one of several approaches to dictionary reviewing. Similarly, the linguistic and factual competences of reviewers should not be relegated to an insignificant position in the review process. Moreover, reviewers should define the object of their reviews, the dictionary, as a complex...... information tool with several components and in terms of significant lexicographical features: lexicographical functions, data and structures. This emphasises the fact that dictionaries are much more than mere vessels of linguistic categories, namely lexicographical tools that have been developed to fulfil...

  19. Litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics of ten selected tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Litter decomposition processes in tropical rainforests are still poorly understood. Leaf litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics of ten contrasting tree species, Entandraphragma utile, Guibourtia tessmannii, Klainedoxa gabonensis, Musanga cecropioides, Panda oleosa, Plagiostyles africana, Pterocarpus soyauxii, ...

  20. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  1. Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Ten Thousand Islands NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Ten Thousand Islands NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory...

  3. Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Specht, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Koper, R., & Specht, M. (2008). Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning. In M-A. Cicilia (Ed.), Competencies in Organizational e-learning: concepts and tools (pp. 234-252). Hershey: IGI-Global.

  4. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1961-01-01

    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  5. The Sport Students’ Ability of Literacy and Statistical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, N.

    2017-03-01

    The ability of literacy and statistical reasoning is very important for the students of sport education college due to the materials of statistical learning can be taken from their many activities such as sport competition, the result of test and measurement, predicting achievement based on training, finding connection among variables, and others. This research tries to describe the sport education college students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning related to the identification of data type, probability, table interpretation, description and explanation by using bar or pie graphic, explanation of variability, interpretation, the calculation and explanation of mean, median, and mode through an instrument. This instrument is tested to 50 college students majoring in sport resulting only 26% of all students have the ability above 30% while others still below 30%. Observing from all subjects; 56% of students have the ability of identification data classification, 49% of students have the ability to read, display and interpret table through graphic, 27% students have the ability in probability, 33% students have the ability to describe variability, and 16.32% students have the ability to read, count and describe mean, median and mode. The result of this research shows that the sport students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning has not been adequate and students’ statistical study has not reached comprehending concept, literary ability trining and statistical rasoning, so it is critical to increase the sport students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning

  6. Contextual object understanding through geospatial analysis and reasoning (COUGAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Joel; Antone, Matthew; Coggins, James; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Sobel, Erik; Stolle, Frank; Vinciguerra, Lori; Zandipour, Majid; Zhong, Yu

    2009-05-01

    Military operations in urban areas often require detailed knowledge of the location and identity of commonly occurring objects and spatial features. The ability to rapidly acquire and reason over urban scenes is critically important to such tasks as mission and route planning, visibility prediction, communications simulation, target recognition, and inference of higher-level form and function. Under DARPA's Urban Reasoning and Geospatial ExploitatioN Technology (URGENT) Program, the BAE Systems team has developed a system that combines a suite of complementary feature extraction and matching algorithms with higher-level inference and contextual reasoning to detect, segment, and classify urban entities of interest in a fully automated fashion. Our system operates solely on colored 3D point clouds, and considers object categories with a wide range of specificity (fire hydrants, windows, parking lots), scale (street lights, roads, buildings, forests), and shape (compact shapes, extended regions, terrain). As no single method can recognize the diverse set of categories under consideration, we have integrated multiple state-of-the-art technologies that couple hierarchical associative reasoning with robust computer vision and machine learning techniques. Our solution leverages contextual cues and evidence propagation from features to objects to scenes in order to exploit the combined descriptive power of 3D shape, appearance, and learned inter-object spatial relationships. The result is a set of tools designed to significantly enhance the productivity of analysts in exploiting emerging 3D data sources.

  7. How repeatable are the physiological effects of TENS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Alvarez-Sauco, Maria; Koch, Giacomo; Franca, Michele; Marquez, Gonzalo; Sanchez, Jose A; Acero, Rafael M; Rothwell, John C

    2008-08-01

    Several studies suggest that transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) can have a variety of effects on the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we tried to replicate the physiological effects of TENS and to explore its effects on intracortical circuits. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and spinal reflex testing to examine excitability of intracortical and spinal cord circuits before and after a 30-min period of TENS over the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle. We measured the amplitude of TMS-evoked muscle responses (MEP), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical antagonist inhibition (CAI) in flexor and extensor carpial radialis (FCR, ECR) muscles as well as spinal reciprocal inhibition (RI) and presynaptic inhibition (PI) from ECR to FCR. TENS had no significant effect on any of these measures apart from a reduction in median nerve induced facilitation of FCR when testing CAI. When compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the effects of TENS are highly variable and unreliable, likely by the difficulty in defining precise parameters of stimulation in individual subjects. Care should be taken in assuming that effects after TENS observed in small populations of subjects will apply equally to a wider population.

  8. Reasonableness in situated discourse: Fallacies as derailments of strategic manoeuvring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans H. van Eemeren

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the pragma-dialectical approach fallacies are defined as violations of rules for critical discussion which manifest themselves in derailments of strategic manoeuvring. These may easily escape attention because they can be very similar to sound instances of strategic manoeuvring. Strategic manoeuvring only derails into fallaciousness if it goes against the norms for having a reasonable exchange embodied in the rules for critical discussion. This means in practice that the argumentative moves that were made are not in agreement with the relevant criteria for complying with a particular norm. These criteria vary to some extent according to the argumentative context and, in so far as this is the case, they are determined by the soundness conditions the argumentative moves have to fulfill to remain within the bounds of dialectical reasonableness in the activity type concerned. Fallacy judgments are in the end contextual judgments that depend on the specific circumstances of situated argumentative acting. The criteria for determining whether or not a certain norm for critical discussion has been violated may depend on the institutional conventions of the argumentative activity type concerned. This does not mean that there are no clear criteria for determining whether the strategic manoeuvring has gone astray, but only that the specific shape these criteria take may vary from the one argumentative activity to the other.

  9. Children's Judgments and Reasoning About Same-Sex Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C; Cosentino, Nicole

    2017-03-06

    Children's (5-, 7- to 8-, and 10- to 11-year-olds), and adolescents' (13- to 14-year-olds) judgments and reasoning about same-sex romantic relationships were examined (N = 128). Participants' beliefs about the acceptability and legal regulation of these relationships were assessed, along with their judgments and beliefs about excluding someone because of his or her sexual orientation and the origins of same-sex attraction. Older participants evaluated same-sex romantic relationships more positively and used more references to personal choice and justice/discrimination reasoning to support their judgments. Younger participants were less critical of a law prohibiting same-sex relationships and were more likely to believe it was not acceptable to violate this law. Beliefs about origins of same-sex attraction showed age-specific patterns in their associations with evaluations. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Reasoning in Design: Idea Generation Condition Effects on Reasoning Processes and Evaluation of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning is at the core of design activity and thinking. Thus, understanding and explaining reasoning in design is fundamental to understand and support design practice. This paper investigates reasoning in design and its relationship to varying foci at the stage of idea generation and subsequent...... performance of ideas developed. Understanding reasoning in design and its relationship to the performance of ideas generated is important to understand design activity, which can be used to develop tools or methods that can improve the effectiveness of design teams. Protocol analyses were conducted...... to investigate idea generation sessions of two industry cases. Reasoning was found to appear in sequences of alternating reasoning types where the initiating reasoning type was decisive. The study found that abductive reasoning led to more radical ideas, whereas deductive reasoning led to ideas being for project...

  11. Reason and Creativity in Classroom Dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegerif, Rupert

    2005-01-01

    The development of reason has long been an important aim for education. This is possibly reflected in the emphasis on the importance of explicit verbal reasoning in definitions of "Exploratory Talk", a concept that has had some influence on classroom teaching. In this paper I argue from transcript evidence that, while Exploratory Talk is a…

  12. Reasons for prosecutorial decisions | du Toit | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of the prosecuting policy of the National Prosecuting Authority reasons for the exercise of prosecutorial discretions should be furnished on request of persons with a legitimate interest in the decisions. In general only the broad reasons should be provided and not the specific particulars of the decision. This approach ...

  13. 24 CFR 983.303 - Reasonable rent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable rent. 983.303 Section... PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Rent to Owner § 983.303 Reasonable rent. (a) Comparability requirement. At all times during the term of the HAP contract, the rent to owner for a contract unit may not...

  14. The Pursuit of Understanding in Clinical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltovich, Paul J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    Trends in emphases in the study of clinical reasoning are examined, with attention to three major branches of research: problem-solving, knowledge engineering, and propositional analysis. There has been a general progression from a focus on the generic form of clinical reasoning to an emphasis on medical content that supports the reasoning…

  15. Reasons for Home Schooling in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, A. Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Studied the reasons Canadian parents choose to home school their children through interviews with 23 home-schooling families and compared findings with those from previous studies in the United States. Findings suggest that Canadian home schoolers have very different reasons from those of their U.S. counterparts. (SLD)

  16. Comparing Box Plot Distributions: A Teacher's Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuch, Maxine

    2006-01-01

    Drawing conclusions from the comparison of datasets using informal statistical inference is a challenging task since the nature and type of reasoning expected is not fully understood. In this paper a secondary teacher's reasoning from the comparison of box plot distributions during the teaching of a Year 11 (15-year-old) class is analyzed. From…

  17. Heidegger and Leibniz: Reason and Faith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Cristin sets out to analyze. Heidegger's treatment and use of Leibniz, and in so doing presents a view of. Leibniz which reconciles his monadology and mysticism with his calculative reason in a way which could be said to prefigure Dasein. He shows how Heidegger was aware that for Leibniz too, the reason for Being is the ...

  18. Moral Reasoning and Attitudes towards Refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutlaca, Maja; Kuppens, T.; Blikmans, Martijn; Gootjes, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the moral underpinnings of attitudes towards refugees, by applying insights from moral reasoning theories. We created and in two pilot studies validated a short self-report measure of two moral reasoning styles. Next, we used this measure to investigate perceived threats,

  19. Anchored Narratives in Reasoning about Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bex, F.J.; Prakken, H; Verheij, B; van Engers, T M

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the reasoning with stories, evidence and generalisations in a legal context. We will make some notions from the existing Anchored Narratives theory more clear by making use of two formal techniques from Al. namely causal-abductive reasoning and default-style argumentation. We

  20. Anchored narratives in reasoning about evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bex, F.J.; Prakken, H.; Verheij, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the reasoning with stories, evidence and generalisations in a legal context. We will make some notions from the existing Anchored Narratives theory more clear by making use of two formal techniques from AI, namely causal-abductive reasoning and default-style argumentation. We

  1. Reasons for applying innovations for scaffolding work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.M. de; Molen, H. van der; Vink, P.; Eikhout, S.; Koningsveld, E.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper reasons for applying and for not applying technical and organisational innovations in scaffolding work are studied. In a participatory ergonomic approach these innovations were developed to reduce problems concerning physical load of scaffolders. In this study reasons for the adoption

  2. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism...

  3. Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2012-01-01

    In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about ...

  4. College Teaching and the Development of Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; Campbell, Thomas C., Ed.; Dykstra, Dewey I., Jr., Ed.; Stevens, Scott M., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to offer college faculty members the insights of the development of reasoning movement that enlighten physics educators in the late 1970s and led to a variety of college programs directed at improving the reasoning patterns used by college students. While the original materials were directed at physics concepts, they quickly…

  5. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  6. Clinical reasoning strategies in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Jones, Mark; Carr, Judi; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Jensen, Gail M

    2004-04-01

    Clinical reasoning remains a relatively under-researched subject in physical therapy. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the clinical reasoning of expert physical therapists in 3 different fields of physical therapy: orthopedic (manual) physical therapy, neurological physical therapy, and domiciliary care (home health) physical therapy. The subjects were 6 peer-designated expert physical therapists (2 from each field) nominated by leaders within the Australian Physiotherapy Association and 6 other interviewed experts representing each of the same 3 fields. Guided by a grounded theory method, a multiple case study approach was used to study the clinical practice of the 6 physical therapists in the 3 fields. A model of clinical reasoning in physical therapy characterized by the notion of "clinical reasoning strategies" is proposed by the authors. Within these clinical reasoning strategies, the application of different paradigms of knowledge and their interplay within reasoning is termed "dialectical reasoning." The findings of this study provide a potential clinical reasoning framework for the adoption of emerging models of impairment and disability in physical therapy.

  7. Default logic and specification of nonmonotonic reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Marek, V.W.; Treur, J.; Truszczynski, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper constructions leading to the formation of belief sets by agents are studied. The focus is on the situation when possible belief sets are built incrementally in stages. An infinite sequence of theories that represents such a process is called a reasoning trace. A set of reasoning traces

  8. Counterfactual Reasoning: From Childhood to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions…

  9. Deductive Reasoning. Technical Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; And Others

    A progress report of work done in formulating a theory of deductive reasoning is given. Models for the three main kinds of syllogisms that have been investigated by students of human reasoning (categorical, conditional, and linear) have been formulated and tested. The theory and data for each of the three kinds of syllogisms is summarized. Some…

  10. Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyard, Cinnamon

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

  11. One-reason decision making in risky choice? A closer look at the priority heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Hilbig

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Although many models for risky choices between gambles assume that information is somehow integrated, the recently proposed priority heuristic (PH claims that choices are based on one piece of information only. That is, although the current reason for a choice according to the PH can vary, all other reasons are claimed to be ignored. However, the choices predicted by the PH and other pieces of information are often confounded, thus rendering critical tests of whether decisions are actually based on one reason only, impossible. The current study aims to remedy this problem by manipulating the number of reasons additionally in line with the choice implied by the PH. The results show that participants' choices and decision times depend heavily on the number of reasons in line with the PH --- thus contradicting the notion of non-compensatory, one-reason decision making.

  12. Scientific Facts and Methods in Public Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin; Kappel, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Should scientific facts and methods have an epistemically privileged status in public reason? In Rawls’s public reason account he asserts what we will label the Scientific Standard Stricture: citizens engaged in public reason must be guided by non-controversial scientific methods, and public reason...... must be in line with non-controversial scientific conclusions. The Scientific Standard Stricture is meant to fulfill important tasks such as enabling the determinateness and publicity of the public reason framework. However, Rawls leaves us without elucidation with regard to when science...... is and is not ‘non-controversial’ and more importantly, we are left without a justification for a stricture which excludes certain controversial beliefs and methods of inquiry from the realm of political justification. In this article, we offer what we deem to be the most plausible interpretation of Rawls...

  13. Emerging critical issues and technology needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, D.E.; Baker, A.B.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1997, a panel of experts representing private sector electricity companies met to identify emerging critical issues in the electricity sector and to ascertain how technology can help with these issues. Sandia National laboratories sponsored and conducted the meeting. The panel determined the top eight issues that will be critically important over the next five to ten years, when the electricity sector is expected to undergo a major transition in its market and the regulations that govern it. This report presents a discussion of the selection and ranking of critical issues identified by the panel and the research priorities that were identified.

  14. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paans Wolter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Knowledge sources can support nurses in deriving diagnoses. A nurse’s disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills is also thought to influence the accuracy of his or her nursing diagnoses. Method A randomised factorial design was used in 2008–2009 to determine the effect of knowledge sources. We used the following instruments to assess the influence of ready knowledge, disposition, and reasoning skills on the accuracy of diagnoses: (1 a knowledge inventory, (2 the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (3 the Health Science Reasoning Test. Nurses (n = 249 were randomly assigned to one of four factorial groups, and were instructed to derive diagnoses based on an assessment interview with a simulated patient/actor. Results The use of a predefined record structure resulted in a significantly higher accuracy of nursing diagnoses. A regression analysis reveals that almost half of the variance in the accuracy of diagnoses is explained by the use of a predefined record structure, a nurse’s age and the reasoning skills of `deduction’ and `analysis’. Conclusions Improving nurses’ dispositions toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, and the use of a predefined record structure, improves accuracy of nursing diagnoses.

  15. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Knowledge sources can support nurses in deriving diagnoses. A nurse’s disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills is also thought to influence the accuracy of his or her nursing diagnoses. Method A randomised factorial design was used in 2008–2009 to determine the effect of knowledge sources. We used the following instruments to assess the influence of ready knowledge, disposition, and reasoning skills on the accuracy of diagnoses: (1) a knowledge inventory, (2) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (3) the Health Science Reasoning Test. Nurses (n = 249) were randomly assigned to one of four factorial groups, and were instructed to derive diagnoses based on an assessment interview with a simulated patient/actor. Results The use of a predefined record structure resulted in a significantly higher accuracy of nursing diagnoses. A regression analysis reveals that almost half of the variance in the accuracy of diagnoses is explained by the use of a predefined record structure, a nurse’s age and the reasoning skills of `deduction’ and `analysis’. Conclusions Improving nurses’ dispositions toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, and the use of a predefined record structure, improves accuracy of nursing diagnoses. PMID:22852577

  16. Electroencephalographic changes in the dominant hemisphere during memorizing and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigsby, B; Risberg, J; Ingvar, D H

    1977-05-01

    The EEG was recorded with bipolar technique in ten normal subjects in the frontal, temporal and occipital regions of the dominant hemisphere in four situations: (1) during an auditory memory test, (2) during 'auditory rest' (listening to white noise), (3) during a visual reasoning test and (4) during 'visual rest' (watching a black dot on a white screen). Computer analysis of the EEG was made by (a) an on-line automatic EEG analyser yielding measures of mean power, mean frequency and frequency spread (complexity) and (b) an off-line period-amplitude (P-A) analysis, which gave per cent activity time and mean voltage in 21 frequency bands. As compared to auditory rest the auditory memory test gave an amplitude increase frontally in the alpha, theta, and delta bands. During the visual reasoning test there was in addition an amplitude increase in the alpha band in the temporal region. During the auditory test a tendency to a decrease of the alpha activity was seen in all three regions but this decrease occurred only occipitally during the visual test. The two types of mental activity thus induced two patterns of regional EEG changes. These showed principal similarities to regional cerebral blood flow patterns which have been recorded during visual and auditory tests of about the same types as those used in the present study.

  17. Delta inflation: a bias in the design of randomized controlled trials in critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberegg, Scott K; Richards, D Roxanne; O'Brien, James M

    2010-01-01

    Mortality is the most widely accepted outcome measure in randomized controlled trials of therapies for critically ill adults, but most of these trials fail to show a statistically significant mortality benefit. The reasons for this are unknown. We searched five high impact journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, JAMA, The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine) for randomized controlled trials comparing mortality of therapies for critically ill adults over a ten year period. We abstracted data on the statistical design and results of these trials to compare the predicted delta (delta; the effect size of the therapy compared to control expressed as an absolute mortality reduction) to the observed delta to determine if there is a systematic overestimation of predicted delta that might explain the high prevalence of negative results in these trials. We found 38 trials meeting our inclusion criteria. Only 5/38 (13.2%) of the trials provided justification for the predicted delta. The mean predicted delta among the 38 trials was 10.1% and the mean observed delta was 1.4% (P inflation", is a potential reason that these trials have a high rate of negative results."Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence."

  18. Japanese comics : the reasons for their popularity and place in the popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese comics industry is several times larger than that of comparable nations, and in the past ten years, it has made inroads in the west. This paper analyzes the reasons for the vast success of the Japanese comics industry compared to the other two great comics industries, the American and the French. The first chapter deals with the basics of production: Japanese comics are well distributed; available everywhere when American comics are only sold in specialised comics stores. Ja...

  19. 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, James Nathan; Fiorello, Maria Luisa; Bailey, Damian Miles

    2018-01-28

    The human brain consumes 20% of the total basal oxygen (O 2 ) budget to support ATP intensive neuronal activity. Without sufficient O 2 to support ATP demands, neuronal activity fails, such that, even transient ischemia is neurodegenerative. While the essentiality of O 2 to brain function is clear, how oxidative stress causes neurodegeneration is ambiguous. Ambiguity exists because many of the reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress remain obscure. Many are erroneously understood as the deleterious result of adventitious O 2 derived free radical and non-radical species generation. To understand how many reasons underpin oxidative stress, one must first re-cast free radical and non-radical species in a positive light because their deliberate generation enables the brain to achieve critical functions (e.g. synaptic plasticity) through redox signalling (i.e. positive functionality). Using free radicals and non-radical derivatives to signal sensitises the brain to oxidative stress when redox signalling goes awry (i.e. negative functionality). To advance mechanistic understanding, we rationalise 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress. Key reasons include inter alia unsaturated lipid enrichment, mitochondria, calcium, glutamate, modest antioxidant defence, redox active transition metals and neurotransmitter auto-oxidation. We review RNA oxidation as an underappreciated cause of oxidative stress. The complex interplay between each reason dictates neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress in a dynamic context and neural identity dependent manner. Our discourse sets the stage for investigators to interrogate the biochemical basis of oxidative stress in the brain in health and disease. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  1. Musical Ontology: Critical, not Metaphysical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Neufeld

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontology of musical works often sets the boundaries within which evaluation of musical works and performances takes place. Questions of ontology are therefore often taken to be prior to and apart from the evaluative questions considered by either performers as they present works to audiences or an audience’s critical reflection on a performance. In this paper I argue that, while the ontology of musical works may well set the boundaries of legitimate evaluation, ontological questions should not be considered as prior to or apart from critical evaluation. Rather, ontological claims are a type of critical evaluation made within musical practices. I argue that philosophers of music might learn from the debate in political philosophy about the difficulty of setting the limits of public reason in a way that remains open to a plurality of legitimate evaluative perspectives. Just as pre-political or metaphysical identification of the boundaries of public reason fail to accommodate the fact of pluralism in contemporary democratic politics, so too does a metaphysical identification of the boundaries of legitimate evaluation of musical works and performances fail to accommodate the fact of pluralism in contemporary musical practices. I apply John Rawls’s formulation of political liberalism, arguing that musical ontology should be critical, not metaphysical.

  2. Freedom and Equality in a Pluralist Society: An Explanation and Defence of the Public Reason View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Baccarini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to replies to Christiano’s criticism of Rawlsian public reason. Although Christiano’s criticism is successful in relation to one possible interpretation of the public reason view, a better and more fructuous interpretation of the public reason view is at the disposition of the Rawlsian project. This view of public reason is deliberately an idealization. It shows how public justification would function in a well-ordered society where citizens are committed to liberal values. The shared reasons relevant for public justification are represented by the ideal of society as a fair system of cooperation between free and equal citizens, as well as by the three features of the liberal conceptions of justice (basic rights and liberties, their priority, and the means to use them. In virtue of this view of public reason, it avoids Christiano’s objection of the utopianism of shared reasons, and it replies to the inequality argument, as well as to the generality and vagueness objection, and the inconsistency argument. The advantages of the proposal in the view of public reason, in comparison to Christiano’s proceduralist democratic proposal, are shown in the reply to the inequality argument.

  3. Odmiany rozumu ludzkiego według Emila Ciorana [Types on human reason according to Emil Cioran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wójs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Scattered remarks on different types of reason can be found in Emil Cioran’s books. In the here presented essay it was shown that all the distinguished varieties of reason are connected to each other and it is possible to talk about emerging of another type from the previous one. These types are: naïve reason, rationalistic reason, negating reason, doubtful reason and expanded reason. Naïve reason is the one that serves life without self-consciousness. Rationalistic reason makes decrees on reality. In his critical remarks Cioran describes rationalistic reason as being dangerous. Two other types of reason are the negating and the doubtful one. Cioran proves that affirmation leads human beings to giving up themselves and that liberation always comes through constant fight for negation. Negating reason is always turned towards something external to itself. Doubtful reason goes much further by actually turning against itself, it is in constant struggle against itself. Cioran describes this process as separating the reason and standing face to face with yourself. Therefore he is aware that only the reason itself can become a judge of reason. The fifth type of reason which can be distinguished in Cioran’s philosophy might be called the extended reason as it is a demand for unfolding the reason. When one realizes that there is nothing permanent in the world and cognition can’t bring any permanent results either, the reason according to Cioran might become active again by turning back towards reality – however without any further dogma of objective truth – and by using “flowing” ideas it can unite with reality.

  4. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-02

    1i TITLE ( lude Security Ca .fcation) Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment rt 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) w]ba1oa Ui.tm A Limor Fix axd...editions are obsolete. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment * Limor Fix Fred B. Schneider TR 94-1409 February 1994 Department of Computer...agencies. Limor Fix is also supported, in part, by a Fullbright post-doctoral award. Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment ---- NITIS GRA&I

  5. Reasoning from inconsistency: a field exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristien Dieussaert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This issue has proceeded from the Fifth International Conference on Thinking, which was held in the Department of Psychology of the University of Leuven, Belgium, July 22-24, 2004. The conference, which was sponsored by the Fund for Scientific Research Flanders and the British Psychological Society (Cognitive Section, intended to bring together researchers working in different domains of the psychology of thinking and reasoning. Five keynote speakers (Ruth Byrne, Vinod Goel, Karl-Christoph Klauer, Paolo Legrenzi, & Douglas Medin were introducing some of the important topics (the rational imagination, the neuropsychology of reasoning, the Wason selection task, reasoning to consistency, biological thought within and across cultures.

  6. "In this scenario, I do this, for these reasons": narrative, genre and ethical reasoning in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, Christopher F C; Little, Miles

    2004-05-01

    Narrative analysis has been applied by health researchers to investigate (among other things) clinical reasoning, clinical ethics and human identity. The term 'narrative' is often used as a broad category that covers a variety of spoken genres, however, and it thereby lacks delicacy as an analytic tool. We introduce genre theory, which enables us to differentiate more clearly between story genres and other spoken genres. We then apply the theory to ten narrative-style interviews with clinicians involved in the treatment and management of colorectal cancer in Sydney, Australia. We characterise the narrative-style interview as a macro-genre, and draw attention to the occurrence of spoken genres other than stories. We focus our analysis on a policy genre that occurred naturally and frequently in the spoken discourse of the informants, but which has not been described before in either the literature of social linguistics or the health and medical literature. We analyse two examples of this genre in detail in order to characterise its main semantic features, and differentiate it from story genres. We then discuss the genre with reference to Aristotelian interpretations of ethical reasoning in the clinic. We conclude that the policy genre is both the unfolding of practical wisdom in speech, and the appropriate choice of genre where a display of ethical identity is called for. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for ongoing research, for ethics education, for bioethical theory, and for communication between some of the different stakeholder groups in clinical medicine.

  7. Recognizing Students' Scientific Reasoning: A Tool for Categorizing Complexity of Reasoning During Teaching by Inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    DOLAN, ERIN; Grady, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Teaching by inquiry is touted for its potential to encourage students to reason scientifically. Yet, even when inquiry teaching is practiced, complexity of students' reasoning may be limited or unbalanced. We describe an analytic tool for recognizing when students are engaged in complex reasoning during inquiry teaching. Using classrooms that represented “best case scenarios” for inquiry teaching, we adapted and applied a matrix to categorize the complexity of students' reasoning. Our results...

  8. Critical infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    The need to protect critical electrical infrastructure from terrorist attacks, or other physical damage, including weather related events, or the potential impact of computer viruses and other attacks on IT resources are discussed. Activities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) are highlighted which seek to safeguard the North American bulk electric power system principally through the Information Sharing and Analysis Sector (ES-ISAC). ES-ISAC serves the electricity sector by facilitating communication between electric sector participants, federal government and other critical infrastructure industries by disseminating threat indications, analyses and warnings, together with interpretations, to assist the industry in taking infrastructure protection actions. Attention is drawn to the numerous cyber incidents in recent years, which although resulted in no loss of service to electricity customers so far, in at least one instance (the January 25th SOL-Slammer worm incident) resulted in degradation of service in a number of sectors, including financial, transportation and telecommunication services. The increasing frequency of cyber-based attacks, coupled with the industry's growing dependence on e-commerce and electronic controls, are good reasons to believe that critical infrastructure protection (CIP) poses a serious challenge to the industry's risk management practices. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) is an active participant in ES-ISAC and works cooperatively with a range of partners, such as the Edison Electric Institute and the American Public Power Association to ensure coordination and effective protection program delivery for the electric power sector. The Early Warning System (EWS) developed by the CIP Working Group is one of the results of this cooperation. EWS uses the Internet, e-mail, web-enabled cell phones and Blackberry hand-held devices to deliver real-time threat information to members on a 24/7 basis. EWS

  9. Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Daly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.

  10. Delaktighet i avstämningsmöten

    OpenAIRE

    Pia H. Bülow; Wilinska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Den här rapporten handlar om de lagstadgade möten som kallas avstämningsmöten. Det är Försäkringskassan som kallar olika aktörer till dessa flerpartssamtal, för att utreda arbetsförmågan hos en sjukskriven person (här: försäkrad), och eventuella behov av rehabilitering för att denne ska kunna återgå till arbete. Syftet med det här redovisade forskningsprojektet var att studera den kommunikativa processen i sådana möten avseende främst de försäkrades delaktighet och upplevelse av mötet. Studie...

  11. Critical Infrastructure Awareness Required by Civil Emergency Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Modern societies are increasingly dependent on a set of critical products and services which comprise the Critical Infrastructure (CI). This makes Critical infrastructures increasingly important as a planning factor in case of emergencies. For that reason, we studied a number of emergencies and a

  12. Time in powers of ten natural phenomena and their timescales

    CERN Document Server

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    In this richly illustrated book, Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft and Theoretical Physicist Stefan Vandoren describe the enormous diversity of natural phenomena that take place at different time scales. In the tradition of the bestseller Powers of Ten , the authors zoom in and out in time, each step with a factor of ten. Starting from one second, time scales are enlarged until processes are reached that take much longer than the age of the universe. After the largest possible eternities, the reader is treated to the shortest and fastest phenomena known. Then the authors increase with powers of t

  13. Public reason as a political ideal: John Rawls’s conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Đorđe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with Rawlsian idea of public reason as a convergence point of his conception of political liberalism. The idea of public reason is taken as a norm of political justification a as well as a political ideal. Major lines of criticism of the Rawls' conception are also discussed in the article. The conclusion is that is possible to defend major elements of Rawls' conception against criticism along Rawlsian lines of argumentation. The thesis advocated through the text is that it is significant legacy of Rawls' conception of public reason that it discloses limitations of political ideal of liberal democracy. It is argued that one important consequence is that liberalism has to disclaim its own moral superiority in order to make political ideal viable. The other is that any particular society has to find its moral bases in public reason of particular society, that is burdened with peculiar culture and history. .

  14. Dialectical Reason and Education: Sartre's Fused Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Haim

    1985-01-01

    Philosophers of education tend to stress the importance of analytic and scientific thinking. A discussion of how dialectical reasoning, as developed by Jean Paul Sartre, can contribute to educational thought is offered. (DF)

  15. Fuzzy Case-Based Reasoning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fuzzy case-based reasoning system, using a case-based reasoning (CBR system that learns from experience to solve problems. Different from a traditional case-based reasoning system that uses crisp cases, our system works with fuzzy ones. Specifically, we change a crisp case into a fuzzy one by fuzzifying each crisp case element (feature, according to the maximum degree principle. Thus, we add the “vague” concept into a case-based reasoning system. It is these somewhat vague inputs that make the outcomes of the prediction more meaningful and accurate, which illustrates that it is not necessarily helpful when we always create accurate predictive relations through crisp cases. Finally, we prove this and apply this model to practical weather forecasting, and experiments show that using fuzzy cases can make some prediction results more accurate than using crisp cases.

  16. Reasons for Patronage of Traditional Bone Setters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    people, ranging from the uneducated to the very highly educated group in the society. ... on patronage of TBS and reason for presenting to hospital for orthodox ..... regretted ever seeking help from them, though few were still indecisive.

  17. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  18. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  19. Family Correlates of Verbal Reasoning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellaghan, Thomas; MacNamara, John

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between verbal reasoning ability on the one hand and sex, social class, family size, and ordinal position in the family on the other were examined for a representative sample of 11-year-old Irish children. (Authors)

  20. Individual differences in conflict detection during reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Darren; Johnson, Eric D; De Neys, Wim

    2017-04-05

    Decades of reasoning and decision-making research have established that human judgment is often biased by intuitive heuristics. Recent "error" or bias detection studies have focused on reasoners' abilities to detect whether their heuristic answer conflicts with logical or probabilistic principles. A key open question is whether there are individual differences in this bias detection efficiency. Here we present three studies in which co-registration of different error detection measures (confidence, response time, and confidence response time) allowed us to assess bias detection sensitivity at the individual participant level in a range of reasoning tasks. Results indicate that although most individuals show robust bias detection, as indexed by increased latencies and decreased confidence, there is a subgroup of reasoners who consistently fails to do so. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for the field.

  1. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Magda L; Joergensen, Gitte H

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity.

  2. Friendship and the grounds of reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Jeske

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Friendship and other intimate relationships have created difficulties for moral philosophers. While morality seems to require us to remain impartial between persons, friendship seems to generate demands or obligations of partiality toward our intimates. But the difficulty can be removed once we cease to focus on categorizing reasons as moral or non-moral. This tendency to divide reasons into categories of moral vs. non-moral leads us to give those that we label ‘moral’ pride of place and to assume that the category must be uniform. If we abandon these assumptions, then reasons of intimacy or friendship will no longer be so puzzling. We will then be able to see that all reasons, in the end, are importantly egocentric, and that deliberation must always proceed from an egocentric perspective.

  3. Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

  4. Appreciating Reasons for Nonadherence in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonsky, Jennifer G; Webel, Allison; Rose, Carol Dawson; Johnson, Mallory; Asher, Alice; Cuca, Yvette; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Hanson, Jan E; Portillo, Carmen J

    2015-09-01

    Women aged 15-24 years have an HIV infection rate twice that of men the same age. In this study we examined reasons why HIV-infected women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) report missing HIV medications. Women (N = 206) on ART were 2.2 times more likely to endorse reasons pertaining to forgetfulness versus reasons pertaining to problems taking pills (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.63, 2.94, p <.001). There was a difference between the adherent and nonadherent groups in types of reasons overall (p <.001, 95% CI = -3.82, -2.03). Using a patient-centered approach to understand type of nonadherence (intentional vs. unintentional) may support development of novel interventions.

  5. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  6. Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical Inference. Mohan Delampady V R Padmawar. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 49-58 ...

  7. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  8. Successful case-based reasoning applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    Case-based reasoning paradigms offer automatic reasoning capabilities which are useful for the implementation of human like machines in a limited sense. This research book is the second volume in a series devoted to presenting Case-based reasoning (CBR) applications. The first volume, published in 2010, testified the flexibility of CBR, and its applicability in all those fields where experiential knowledge is available. This second volume further witnesses the heterogeneity of the domains in which CBR can be exploited, but also reveals some common directions that are clearly emerging in recent years. This book will prove useful to the application engineers, scientists, professors and students who wish to develop successful case-based reasoning applications.

  9. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Cornhill, Dennis; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Mack, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A systems view is necessary to detect, diagnose, predict, and mitigate adverse events during the flight of an aircraft. While most aircraft subsystems look for simple threshold exceedances and report them to a central maintenance computer, the vehicle integrated prognostic reasoner (VIPR) proactively generates evidence and takes an active role in aircraft-level health assessment. Establishing the technical feasibility and a design trade-space for this next-generation vehicle-level reasoning system (VLRS) is the focus of our work.

  10. The Hybrid Ethical Reasoning Agent IMMANUEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose; Linder, Felix

    We introduce a novel software library that supportsthe implementation of hybrid ethical reasoning agents (HERA).The objective is to make moral principles available to robotprogramming. At its current stage, HERA can assess the moralpermissibility of actions using the principle of double effect, a......, andit can make utilitarian judgments.We present the prototype robotIMMANUEL based on HERA. The robot will be used to conductresearch on joint moral reasoning in human-robot interaction....

  11. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are ...

  12. The Need for Systematic Reviews of Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Neema; Strech, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    There are many ethical decisions in the practice of health research and care, and in the creation of policy and guidelines. We argue that those charged with making such decisions need a new genre of review. The new genre is an application of the systematic review, which was developed over decades to inform medical decision-makers about what the totality of studies that investigate links between smoking and cancer, for example, implies about whether smoking causes cancer. We argue that there is a need for similarly inclusive and rigorous reviews of reason-based bioethics, which uses reasoning to address ethical questions. After presenting a brief history of the systematic review, we reject the only existing model for writing a systematic review of reason-based bioethics, which holds that such a review should address an ethical question. We argue that such a systematic review may mislead decision-makers when a literature is incomplete, or when there are mutually incompatible but individually reasonable answers to the ethical question. Furthermore, such a review can be written without identifying all the reasons given when the ethical questions are discussed, their alleged implications for the ethical question, and the attitudes taken to the reasons. The reviews we propose address instead the empirical question of which reasons have been given when addressing a specified ethical question, and present such detailed information on the reasons. We argue that this information is likely to improve decision-making, both directly and indirectly, and also the academic literature. We explain the limitations of our alternative model for systematic reviews. PMID:21521251

  13. Fluid reasoning and the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ferrer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluid reasoning is a cornerstone of human cognition, both during development and in adulthood. In spite of this, the neural mechanisms underlying the development of fluid reasoning are largely unknown. Here we provide an overview of this important cognitive ability, how it is measured, how it changes over childhood and adolescence, and what is known about its neurobiological underpinnings. We review important findings from the psychometric, cognitive, and neuroscientific literatures, and outline important future directions for this interdisciplinary research.

  14. Improving global health: counting reasons why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines cumulative ethical and self-interested reasons why wealthy developed nations should be motivated to do more to improve health care in developing countries. Egalitarian and human rights reasons why wealthy nations should do more to improve global health are that doing so would (1) promote equality of opportunity (2) improve the situation of the worst-off, (3) promote respect of the human right to have one's most basic needs met, and (4) reduce undeserved inequalities in well-being. Utilitarian reasons for improving global health are that this would (5) promote the greater good of humankind, and (6) achieve enormous benefits while requiring only small sacrifices. Libertarian reasons are that this would (7) amend historical injustices and (8) meet the obligation to amend injustices that developed world countries have contributed to. Self-interested reasons why wealthy nations should do more to improve global health are that doing so would (9) reduce the threat of infectious diseases to developed countries, (10) promote developed countries' economic interests, and (11) promote global security. All of these reasons count, and together they add up to make an overwhelmingly powerful case for change. Those opposed to wealthy government funding of developing world health improvement would most likely appeal, implicitly or explicitly to the idea that coercive taxation for redistributive purposes would violate the right of an individual to keep his hard-earned income. The idea that this reason not to improve global health should outweigh the combination of rights and values embodied in the eleven reasons enumerated above, however is implausibly extreme, morally repugnant and perhaps imprudent.

  15. A quantitative analysis of reasoning for RMSes

    OpenAIRE

    Buisson, Laurent; Euzenat, Jérôme

    1991-01-01

    buisson1991a; International audience; For reasoning systems, it is sometime useful to cache away the inferred values. Meanwhile, when the system works in a dynamic environment, cache coherence has to be performed, and this can be achieved with the help of a reasoning maintenance system (RMS). The questions to be answered, before implementing such a system for a particular application, are: how much is caching useful ? Does the system need a dynamicity management system ? Is a RMS suited (what...

  16. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  17. Constructionism and the space of reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrell, Kate; Pratt, Dave

    2017-02-01

    Constructionism, best known as the framework for action underpinning Seymour Papert's work with Logo, has stressed the importance of engaging students in creating their own products. Noss and Hoyles have argued that such activity enables students to participate increasingly in a web of connections to further their activity. Ainley and Pratt have elaborated that learning is best facilitated when the student is engaged in a purposeful activity that leads to appreciation of the power of mathematical ideas. Constructionism gives prominence to how the learner's logical reasoning and emotion-driven reasons for engagement are inseparable. We argue that the dependence of constructionism upon the orienting framework of constructivism fails to provide sufficient theoretical underpinning for these ideas. We therefore propose an alternative orienting framework, in which learning takes place through initiation into the space of reasons, such that a person's thoughts, actions and feelings are increasingly open to critique and justification. We argue that knowing as responsiveness to reasons encompasses not only the powerful ideas of mathematics and disciplinary knowledge of modes of enquiry but also the extralogical, such as in feelings of the aesthetic, control, excitement, elegance and efficiency. We discuss the implication that mathematics educators deeply consider the learner's reasons for purposeful activity and design settings in which these reasons can be made public and open to critique.

  18. Reasoning anomalies associated with delusions in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Robyn; Ward, Philip B; Coltheart, Max

    2010-03-01

    Deluded people differ from nondeluded controls on attributional style questionnaires and probabilistic-reasoning and theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks. No study to date has examined the relations between these 3 reasoning anomalies in the same individuals so as to evaluate their functional independence and potentially inform theories of delusion formation. We did so in 35 schizophrenic patients with a history of delusions, 30 of whom were currently deluded, and 34 healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, patients showed (a) a jumping-to-conclusions bias and a bias to overadjust when confronted with a change of evidence on probabilistic-reasoning tasks, (b) an excessive externalizing attributional bias, and (c) performance deficits on 3 ToM tasks. Probabilistic-reasoning and ToM measures correlated, while attributional-bias scores were independent of other task measures. A general proneness to delusional ideation correlated with probabilistic-reasoning and ToM measures, while externalizing bias was unrelated to the study measures of delusional ideation. Personalizing bias associated specifically with paranoia across the clinical and nonclinical participants. Findings are consistent with a common underlying mechanism in schizophrenia which contributes to the anomalies on probabilistic-reasoning and ToM tasks associated with delusions. We speculate that this mechanism is impairment of the normal capacity to inhibit "perceived reality" (the evidence of our senses), a capacity that evolved as part of the "social brain" to facilitate intersubjective communication within a shared reality.

  19. Constructionism and the space of reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrell, Kate; Pratt, Dave

    2017-12-01

    Constructionism, best known as the framework for action underpinning Seymour Papert's work with Logo, has stressed the importance of engaging students in creating their own products. Noss and Hoyles have argued that such activity enables students to participate increasingly in a web of connections to further their activity. Ainley and Pratt have elaborated that learning is best facilitated when the student is engaged in a purposeful activity that leads to appreciation of the power of mathematical ideas. Constructionism gives prominence to how the learner's logical reasoning and emotion-driven reasons for engagement are inseparable. We argue that the dependence of constructionism upon the orienting framework of constructivism fails to provide sufficient theoretical underpinning for these ideas. We therefore propose an alternative orienting framework, in which learning takes place through initiation into the space of reasons, such that a person's thoughts, actions and feelings are increasingly open to critique and justification. We argue that knowing as responsiveness to reasons encompasses not only the powerful ideas of mathematics and disciplinary knowledge of modes of enquiry but also the extralogical, such as in feelings of the aesthetic, control, excitement, elegance and efficiency. We discuss the implication that mathematics educators deeply consider the learner's reasons for purposeful activity and design settings in which these reasons can be made public and open to critique.

  20. Self-Explanation, An Instructional Strategy to Foster Clinical Reasoning in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberland, Martine; Mamede, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is a critical and complex skill that medical students have to develop in the course of their training. Although research on medical expertise has successfully examined the different components of that skill, designing educational interventions that support the development of clinical reasoning in students remains a challenge for medical educators. The theory of medical expertise describes how students׳ medical knowledge develops and is progressively restructured during thei...

  1. Reasonable Plurality and Moral Education. New Perspectives on Old Paradoxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Salmerón Castro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This article faces an old paradox of moral education: the apparently logical impossibility of choosing the transmission of agreed-upon values and the autonomous exercise of reason. The author takes an epistemological position in which human learning is considered the result of an interaction of individual developmental processes and the acquisition of knowledge. She assumes knowledge as a category subjected to criteria of truth, and this, as preceded by an agreement concerning values. She states that transmission of the community consensus is not only inevitable, but is essential to the development of the autonomous deliberative game and to the exercise of critical intelligence as well. However, she warns us against a possible danger: the mere transmission of accepted principles and values may place moral education under a heterogeneous direction of conduct. Educators should, by all means, avoid such a risk. She suggests seeking a reasonable plurality as a means of transmitting agreed-upon values. The notion of reasonable plurality derives from a feature assigned to John Rawls’ concept of “overlapping consensus”.

  2. Ten Things You Should Know about the Dynamic Conditional Correlation Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Caporin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to discuss ten things potential users should know about the limits of the Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC representation for estimating and forecasting time-varying conditional correlations. The reasons given for caution about the use of DCC include the following: DCC represents the dynamic conditional covariances of the standardized residuals, and hence does not yield dynamic conditional correlations; DCC is stated rather than derived; DCC has no moments; DCC does not have testable regularity conditions; DCC yields inconsistent two step estimators; DCC has no asymptotic properties; DCC is not a special case of Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Correlation (GARCC, which has testable regularity conditions and standard asymptotic properties; DCC is not dynamic empirically as the effect of news is typically extremely small; DCC cannot be distinguished empirically from diagonal Baba, Engle, Kraft and Kroner (BEKK in small systems; and DCC may be a useful filter or a diagnostic check, but it is not a model.

  3. Ten genes and two topologies: an exploration of higher relationships in skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Kumar Sahoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple attempts to infer the higher-level phylogenetic relationships of skipper butterflies (Family Hesperiidae, uncertainties in the deep clade relationships persist. The most recent phylogenetic analysis included fewer than 30% of known genera and data from three gene markers. Here we reconstruct the higher-level relationships with a rich sampling of ten nuclear and mitochondrial markers (7,726 bp from 270 genera and find two distinct but equally plausible topologies among subfamilies at the base of the tree. In one set of analyses, the nuclear markers suggest two contrasting topologies, one of which is supported by the mitochondrial dataset. However, another set of analyses suggests mito-nuclear conflict as the reason for topological incongruence. Neither topology is strongly supported, and we conclude that there is insufficient phylogenetic evidence in the molecular dataset to resolve these relationships. Nevertheless, taking morphological characters into consideration, we suggest that one of the topologies is more likely.

  4. Closer to zero: Reflections on ten years of ART rollout

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To reflect upon ten years of antiretroviral therapy. (ART) rollout, one really should set the clock back a little further to see the massive impact of ART on our lives – for clinicians and patients alike. My own journey with HIV began in 1999 when, as a young doctor, I decided to venture into private practice with a local general ...

  5. WISE Albedos for Tens of Thousands of Main Belt Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; Delbo, M.; Grav, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Mueller, M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; WISE Science Team, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    Using thermal IR data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission we have calculated diameters for tens of thousands of previously known Main Belt asteroids. Using archival optical observations we have also determined albedos for each object. We present our results from this

  6. Ten Indicators of Vitality in Smaller Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a means of quickly ascertaining the relative health of smaller academic libraries by presenting a top ten list of vitality indicators. The list is based on an observational convenience sampling of thirty smaller academic libraries across the United States. The indicators making the list were those which appeared most often in…

  7. A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-31

    Jul 31, 2010 ... Original Research: A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy in India. 267. Vol 53 No 3. S Afr Fam Pract 2011. Introduction. The body contains approximately 600 lymph nodes, but only those in the submandibular, axillary and inguinal regions may be palpable in healthy people.

  8. DIE APOSTOLAAT VAN DIE KERK IN HIERDIE TYD TEN OPSIGTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Hierdie verkondiging het net een doel en net een inhoud. Die doel ... is die vlees- geworde Woord, Christus. Die apostalaat is nie een funksie van die kerk tussen ander nie. Die kerk is apostel in alles wat hy is en doen. Die doel van die. 239 ... skawing, nie vir uitbreiding van politieke magssfere nie, ens. Selfs ten koste van ...

  9. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day...

  10. A Design Taxonomy Utilizing Ten Major Evaluation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Barry

    This paper discusses ten evaluation strategies selected on the basis of their general acceptance and their relatively unique approach to the field: (1) State, "Countenance of Evaluation"; (2) Stufflebeam, "Decision Centered Evaluation (CIPP)"; (3) Provus, "Discrepancy Evaluation"; (4) Scriven, "Goal Free Evaluation"; (5) Scriven, "Formative and…

  11. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  12. Effects of TENS and methylphenidate in tuberculous meningo-encephalistis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Deursen, S.; Manen, S.R.; Ferenschild, K.C.M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Primary objective: Beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition and behaviour were observed in a child with probable Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Based on these positive findings, it was examined in the present case study whether a child who had been

  13. Ten Strengths of How Teachers Do Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaocbs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning involves students in working together with peers to learn, to develop learning skills and to enjoy the learning process. This paper examines ten areas in which the author believes he and other teachers do cooperative learning well. These areas are: (1) keeping group size small, usually four or fewer; (2) encouraging students…

  14. Ten Helpful Ideas for Teaching English to Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joan Kang

    2006-01-01

    This article offers ten suggestions for teaching young learners between the age of 7 and 12 based on language-teaching principles. They include supplementing activities with visuals, realia and movement; involving students in making visuals and realia; moving from activity to activity; teaching in themes; using stories and contexts familiar to…

  15. Ten statistics commandments that almost never should be broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Thomas R; Brown, Jean K

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative researchers must choose among a variety of statistical methods when analyzing their data. In this article, the authors identify ten common errors in how statistical techniques are used and reported in clinical research and recommend stronger alternatives. Useful references to the methodological research literature in which such matters are discussed are provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mid-term evaluation of ten National Research schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Göran; Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Gustafsson, Christina

    grant applications, monitoring the progress of the FORSKERSKOLER scheme and serving as the evaluation panel for the mid-term evaluation in 2013 and in 2016/2017. The task of the evaluation panel has been to: 1) evaluate the quality of and progress achieved by the ten research schools which were awarded...

  17. Ten years into the marshes – Hapalemur alaotrensis conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the approach that Madagascar Wildlife Conservation has been implementing during the past ten years at Lake Alaotra, discussing the plan of action and challenges for environmental education, ecotourism and alternative livelihoods. Les problèmes de gestion des ressources naturelles impliquent ...

  18. Changes in users' Web search performance after ten years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in users' Web search performance using search engines over ten years was investigated in this study. Matched data obtained from samples in 2000 and 2010 were used for the comparative analysis. The patterns of Web search engine use suggested a dominance in using a particular search engine. Statistical ...

  19. A Survey of Ten Money and Banking Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Christine E.

    1985-01-01

    Ten college-level money and banking textbooks were arrayed along six continua representing professors' major preferences when choosing a text. The continua topics are theoretical approach, complexity of presentation, theory/institution mix, nuts and bolts explanations, organizational approach, and writing style. (RM)

  20. Phytochemical and Anticancer Studies on Ten Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten medicinal plants used in Nigerian ethno medicine were subjected to phytochemical and anticancer studies using established standard procedures. The result of the study revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Anona muricata, Andrographis paniculata ...

  1. Does the Russian Economy Need Human Capital? Ten Doubts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpelson, V. E.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human capital is an important factor in economic growth, but its impact on growth depends on the demand for education and skills on the labor market. Demand for human capital is largely determined by the institutional environment that governs the basic conditions for economic activity. The author expresses ten doubts…

  2. Ten Challenges of the Amyloid Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    The inability to effectively halt or cure Alzheimer's disease (AD), exacerbated by the recent failures of high-profile clinical trials, emphasizes the urgent need to understand the complex biochemistry of this major neurodegenerative disease. In this paper, ten central, current challenges...

  3. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    to extend the applicability of the RHC system are providing the continuous impetus for research on RHC systems. This paper summarizes the important issues involved in the research on RHC system, whereby ten questions and answers concerning the RHC system are discussed, which will help researchers to conduct...

  4. Molecular characterization of ten mango cultivars using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEAN

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... Molecular characterization of ten mango cultivars using simple sequences repeat (SSR) markers. M. Kumar1*, V. Ponnuswami1, P. Nagarajan2, P. Jeyakumar3 and N. Senthil2. 1Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam, Tamil Nadu, 625604, India. 2Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, ...

  5. Ten Years after Columbine: The Tragedy of Youth Deepens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    For young people it just gets worse. Ten years after the Columbine tragedy, the debate over school safety has clearly shown that educators, parents, politicians, and the mainstream media have created the conditions in which young people have increasingly become the victims of adult mistreatment, indifference, neglect, even violence. The tragic…

  6. HIV Testing Within At-Risk Populations in the United States and the Reasons for Seeking or Avoiding HIV Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellerman, Scott E; Lehman, Stan J; Lansky, Amy; Stevens, Mark R; Hecht, Frederick M; Bindman, Andrew B; Wortley, Pascale M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:We determined proportions of high-risk persons tested for HIV, the reasons for testing and not testing, and attitudes and perceptions regarding HIV testing, information that is critical for planning prevention programs...

  7. A FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT MODEL OF CRITICAL THINKING IN MATHEMATICS LEARNING IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rosnawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to obtain a valid and reliable formative evaluation model of critical thinking. The method used in this research was the research and development by integrating Borg & Gall's model and  Plomp's development model. The ten steps Borg & Gall’s model were modified into five stages as the stages in the Plomp's model. The subjects in this study were 1,446 students of junior high schools in DIY, 14 mathematics teacher, and six experts. The content validity employed was expert judgment, the empirical validity and reliability used were loading factor, item analysis used PCM 1PL, and the relationship between disposition and critical thinking skill used was structural equation modeling (SEM. The developed formative evaluation model is the procedural model. There are five aspects of critical thinking skill: mathematic reasoning, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, which entirely composed of 42 items. The validity of the critical thinking skill instruments achieves a significance degree as indicated by the lowest and the highest loading factors of 0.38 and 0.74 subsequently, the reliability of every aspect in a good category. The average level of difficulty is 0.00 with the standard deviation of 0.45 which is in a good category. The peer assessment questionnaire of critical thinking disposition consists of seven aspects: truth-seeking, open-minded, analysis, systematic, self-confidence, inquisitiveness, and maturity with 23 items. The critical thinking disposition validity achieves the significance degree as indicated by the lowest and the high factor loading of 0.66 and 0.76 subsequently, and the reliability of every aspect in a good category. Based on the analysis of the structural equation model, the model fits the data.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF SOME OF STUDENTS` MOTORIC ABILITIES AFTER TEN-DAY-SKIING COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Lilić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that one of the most fundamental tasks of training is developing motoric dimensions of sportsmen, the common goal of this work was to achieve relevant knowledge on the infl uence of ten-day-skiing course on students`* development and to establish their level. The special aim of this work was diagnosing the amount of some of the students` motoric abilities. According to the subjects, problems and goal of the research, there was a hypothesis put: motoric and morphological dimensions of students are coherent with their chrono logical growth and development ten-day-skiing course has signifi cant infl uence on developing some of the students` motoric abilities Besides remaining, the choice of examined samples was put under limits of organizational capacities for realizing researching procedure.It was necessary to insure required devices and standardized conditions under which planned research was supposed to be realized. The sample is taken from students` population implied in regular skiing course. Examined sample consists of thirty male students, each of which is twenty years old. Because of technical and organizational reasons it was not possible to diagnose the whole motoric range of tested students. Due to that a specifi c selection of tests was done and only six variables (that reliably predict levels of motoric abilities on which the training affects were taken: foot tapping, medicine ball throwing, pull-ups with undertaking, trunk lifting in 60 seconds and deep forward band. The level of students` motoric abilities after ten-day-skiing course is on a higher level then initial measuring, and we can certainly claim that it is the result of programmed training process during skiing course. According to the data gained from control and fi nal measuring you can fi nd out the effects of applied resources towards initial measuring.

  9. Flexibility in faculty work-life policies at medical schools in the Big Ten conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Julie L; Wiehe, Sarah E; Palmer-Smith, Victoria; Dankoski, Mary E

    2011-05-01

    Women lag behind men in several key academic indicators, such as advancement, retention, and securing leadership positions. Although reasons for these disparities are multifactorial, policies that do not support work-life integration contribute to the problem. The objective of this descriptive study was to compare the faculty work-life policies among medical schools in the Big Ten conference. Each institution's website was accessed in order to assess its work-life policies in the following areas: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of probationary period, part-time appointments, part-time benefits (specifically health insurance), child care options, and lactation policy. Institutions were sent requests to validate the online data and supply additional information if needed. Each institution received an overall score and subscale scores for family leave policies and part-time issues. Data were verified by the human resources office at 8 of the 10 schools. Work-life policies varied among Big Ten schools, with total scores between 9.25 and 13.5 (possible score: 0-21; higher scores indicate greater flexibility). Subscores were not consistently high or low within schools. Comparing the flexibility of faculty work-life policies in relation to other schools will help raise awareness of these issues and promote more progressive policies among less progressive schools. Ultimately, flexible policies will lead to greater equity and institutional cultures that are conducive to recruiting, retaining, and advancing diverse faculty.

  10. Media Literacy Function in Critical Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is widely recognized as playing an important role in facilitating education on a range of issues, including media literacy. Analyzing the media critical activity of contemporary Russian bloggers, the authors of the article reveal the following reasons for popularity or, on the contrary, unpopularity of blogger's media criticism: targeted orientation, emotional charge, entertainment nature, duration, interactiveness, multimedia mode, simplicity/complexity of the language of a media text, the level of conformity.

  11. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Stevenson

    Full Text Available Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72 and non-autistic participants (N = 72 completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal. Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract, suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

  12. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  13. Finding a Reasonable Foundation for Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bayer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Can world peace come about through a world federation of governments? Is growing agreement and appreciation for, throughout the world, the doctrine of equal human rights inevitable? Such questions are raised by Mortimer Adler in How to Think about War and Peace. Adler argues in this book that both are possible, and in doing so he argues that the insights of liberal contract thinkers, particularly Immanuel Kant, are essentially true. Kant argues that each person has the capacity to discover within himself the foundation for human rights because they are self-evident. It follows that over time inequalities and prejudices will disappear, and people will gain the freedom to advance the cause of peace. About this account of the possibility of world peace I ask the question: is it indeed reasonable? For if it is reasonable, it is not reasonable for the reasons that would have been advanced by Aristotle or Plato or their medieval followers. In older political philosophy it is agreement about the unchanging truth of things that can bring peace. To seek the unchanging truth of things, philosophical speculation about God and things divine, is the highest human activity. It is that end to which life in this world is directed, and upon which human flourishing depends. Freedom depends upon our openness to unchanging eternal truth, even more than self-evident rights; the exercise of speculative reasoning allows for political discourse and an open society.

  14. Examining the Impact of Prior Academic Achievement on Moral Reasoning Development among College Students: A Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Roisin P.; O'Flaherty, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning is concerned with making decisions regarding the appropriate course of action in particular situations and has been highlighted as a critical factor that may facilitate (or impede) the effectiveness of educational programs in promoting positive outcomes. This study examined the trajectories of moral reasoning as measured by the…

  15. Zastosowanie elektroterapii TENS w łagodzeniu bólu porodowego / Application of TENS electrotherapy in alleviating labour pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowa Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Easing labour pain is an extremely important issue in obstetric practice. Various physiotherapy methods are increasingly often applied in obstetric practice. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS aiming at central and peripheral modulation of pain sensation is one of them.

  16. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlow, Adam; Bennett, Michael I; Robb, Karen A; Johnson, Mark I; Simpson, Karen H; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2012-03-14

    Cancer-related pain is complex and multi-dimensional but the mainstay of cancer pain management has predominantly used a biomedical approach. There is a need for non-pharmacological and innovative approaches. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) may have a role in pain management but the effectiveness of TENS is currently unknown. This is an update of the original review published in Issue 3, 2008. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of TENS for cancer-related pain in adults. The initial review searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED and PEDRO databases in April 2008. We performed an updated search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDRO databases in November 2011. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTS) investigating the use of TENS for the management of cancer-related pain in adults. The search strategy identified a further two studies for possible inclusion. One of the review authors screened each abstract using a study eligibility tool. Where eligibility could not be determined, a second author assessed the full paper. One author used a standardised data extraction sheet to collect information on the studies and independently assess the quality of the studies using the validated five-point Oxford Quality Scale. The small sample sizes and differences in patient study populations of the three included studies (two from the original review and a third included in this update) prevented meta-analysis. For the original review the search strategy identified 37 possible published studies; we divided these between two pairs of review authors who decided on study selection; all four review authors discussed and agreed final scores. Only one additional RCT met the eligibility criteria (24 participants) for this updated review. Although this was a feasibility study, not designed to investigate intervention effect, it suggested that TENS may improve bone pain on movement in a

  17. Qualitative Reasoning for Additional Die Casting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller; Dehua Cui; Yuming Ma

    2003-05-28

    If manufacturing incompatibility of a product can be evaluated at the early product design stage, the designers can modify their design to reduce the effect of potential manufacturing problems. This will result in fewer manufacturing problems, less redsign, less expensive tooling, lower cost, better quality, and shorter development time. For a given design, geometric reasoning can predict qualitatively the behaviors of a physical manufacturing process by representing and reasoning with incomplete knowledge of the physical phenomena. It integrates a design with manufacturing processes to help designers simultaneously consider design goals and manufacturing constraints during the early design stage. The geometric reasoning approach can encourage design engineers to qualitatively evaluate the compatibility of their design with manufacturing limitations and requirements.

  18. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  19. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are effect indicators that reflect the operation of a latent variable scale. We identify the issues when effect and causal indicators are present in a single analysis and conclude that both types of indicators can be incorporated in the analysis of data based on the reasoned action approach.

  20. Reasoning about modular datatypes with Mendler induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torrini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In functional programming, datatypes a la carte provide a convenient modular representation of recursive datatypes, based on their initial algebra semantics. Unfortunately it is highly challenging to implement this technique in proof assistants that are based on type theory, like Coq. The reason is that it involves type definitions, such as those of type-level fixpoint operators, that are not strictly positive. The known work-around of impredicative encodings is problematic, insofar as it impedes conventional inductive reasoning. Weak induction principles can be used instead, but they considerably complicate proofs. This paper proposes a novel and simpler technique to reason inductively about impredicative encodings, based on Mendler-style induction. This technique involves dispensing with dependent induction, ensuring that datatypes can be lifted to predicates and relying on relational formulations. A case study on proving subject reduction for structural operational semantics illustrates that the approach enables modular proofs, and that these proofs are essentially similar to conventional ones.

  1. REASON-GIVING IN COURT PRACTICE: THE EXAMPLE OF FRENCH IMMIGRATION LITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Cohen, Columbia Law School-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This Article examines the thesis according to which the practice of giving reasons for decisions is a central element of liberal democracies. In this view, public institutions’ practice—and sometimes duty—to give reasons is required so that each individual may view the state as reasonable and therefore, according to deliberative democratic theory, legitimate. Does the giving of reasons in actual court practice achieve these goals?  Drawing on empirical research carried out in a French administrative court, this Article argues that, in practice, reason-giving often falls either short of democracy or beyond democracy. Reasons fall short of democracy in the first case because they are transformed from a device designed to “protect” citizens from arbitrariness into a professional norm intended to “protect” the judges themselves and perhaps further their career goals. In the second case, reasons go beyond democracy because judges’ ambitions are much greater than to merely provide petitioners with a ground for understanding and criticizing the decision: they aim at positively—and paternalistically in some instances—guiding people’s conduct.  The discussion proceeds by drawing attention to social aspects that are often neglected in theoretical discussions on reason-giving. A skeptical conclusion is suggested: one can rarely guarantee that any predetermined value will be achieved by the giving of reasons. The degree to which individuals are empowered by the reasons given to them is dependent on the way in which decision-givers envision their reason-giving activity, and this representation is itself conditioned by the social setting of the court. Keywords: Arbitrariness. Reason-giving. Judges.

  2. Cartoon Violence and Children's Aggression: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapkiewicz, Walter G.

    This paper reviews ten studies on the effects of television cartoon violence on aggressive behavior in children and discusses possible reasons for the inconsistent results. Methodology and results of field and laboratory studies are compared, and study limitations are noted. The impact of cartoons is discussed in terms of human vs. animal…

  3. Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....

  4. Honor Killing: Where Pride Defeats Reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Tandon, Abhishek; Krishan, Kewal

    2016-12-01

    Honor killings are graceless and ferocious murders by chauvinists with an antediluvian mind. These are categorized separately because these killings are committed for the prime reason of satisfying the ego of the people whom the victim trusts and always looks up to for support and protection. It is for this sole reason that honor killings demand strict and stern punishment, not only for the person who committed the murder but also for any person who contributed or was party to the act. A positive change can occur with stricter legislation and changes in the ethos of the society we live in today.

  5. CRACK REASON ANALYSIS OF DAMAGED CARBONITRIDED PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kocúrová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of a damaged part, which was designed for use in a mechanical clutch of a car. The crack in the part was found during the production inspection. The aim of metallographic and fractography analyses of the fracture surfaces was to discover the reasons for the crack. The reason for creating the crack was the formation of smaller cracks in the production during pressing process of the semiproduct. These cracks even grew after the following thermochemical treatment. The fracture was initiated during the straightening process of quenched part.

  6. Scientific reasoning during adolescence: The influence of instruction in science knowledge and reasoning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, M. C.; Clement, C.; Pulos, S.; Sullivan, P.

    The mechanism linking instruction in scientific topics and instruction in logical reasoning strategies is not well understood. This study assesses the role of science topic instruction combined with logical reasoning strategy instruction in teaching adolescent students about blood pressure problems. Logical reasoning instruction for this study emphasizes the controlling-variables strategy. Science topic instruction emphasizes variables affecting blood pressure. Subjects receiving logical reasoning instruction link their knowledge of blood pressure variables to their knowledge of controlling variables more effectively than those receiving science topic instruction alone - their specific responses show how they attempt to integrate their understanding.Received: 15 April 1988

  7. [THE TEN MOST CITED ARTICLES OF THE JOURNAL "NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-12-01

    After 36 years of continued publication of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, a list with the ten most cited articles published in it is elaborated. The top ten most cited articles in the world literature and stratification according to language, English or Spanish, subject, or period of time published are also analyzed. Nutr Hosp is the most important Ibero latin American nutrition journal. Nutr Hosp published 369 items in 2014 gaining the fourth position among all the world's journals devoted to nutrition. Article publication in English, or simultaneously in Spanish and English and Open Access policy probably benefit the number of citations. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood herpes zoster: A clustering of ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Smitha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster occurs due to reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus and is usually a disease of the elderly. Childhood herpes zoster is believed to be rare, though recent studies suggest increasing incidence in children. Here we report ten cases of childhood herpes zoster, seven of which occurred within a short span of six months, at a tertiary care level hospital in Pokhara, Nepal. Only three of the ten children reported previous history of varicella infection and none was immunized against varicella. Though childhood herpes zoster accounted for less than 1% of the total zoster cases in the past, recent reports show an increase in the number of cases in apparently healthy children. So far, no studies have been done linking childhood herpes zoster with HIV, though there are many studies linking it with other immunocompromised conditions.

  9. Clinical alarm hazards: a "top ten" health technology safety concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, James P

    2012-01-01

    For the past several years ECRI Institute has published a list of Top Ten Health Technology Hazards. This list is based on ECRI's extensive research in health technology safety and on data provided to its problemreporting systems. For every year that the Top Ten list has been published, Alarm Hazards have been at or near the top of the list. Improving alarm safety requires a systematic review of a hospital's alarm-based technologies and analysis of alarm management policies like alarm escalation strategies and staffing patterns. It also requires careful selection of alarm setting criteria for each clinical care area. This article will overview the clinical alarm problems that have been identified through ECRI Institute's research and analysis of various problem reporting databases, including those operated by ECRI Institute. It will also highlight suggestions for improvement, particularly from a technology design and technology management perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Naive (commonsense) geography and geobrowser usability after ten years of Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlinck, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    In 1995, the concept of ‘naive geography’ was formally introduced as an area of cognitive geographic information science representing ‘the body of knowledge that people have about the surrounding geographic world’ and reflecting ‘the way people think and reason about geographic space and time, both consciously and subconsciously’. The need to incorporate such commonsense knowledge and reasoning into design of geospatial technologies was identified but faced challenges in formalizing these relationships and processes in software implementation. Ten years later, the Google Earth geobrowser was released, marking the beginning of a new era of open access to, and application of, geographic data and information in society. Fast-forward to today, and the opportunity presents itself to take stock of twenty years of naive geography and a decade of the ubiquitous virtual globe. This paper introduces an ongoing research effort to explore the integration of naive (or commonsense) geography concepts in the Google Earth geobrowser virtual globe and their possible impact on Google Earth's usability, utility, and usefulness. A multi-phase methodology is described, combining usability reviews and usability testing with use-case scenarios involving the U.S.-Canadian Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative. Initial progress on a usability review combining cognitive walkthroughs and heuristics evaluation is presented.

  11. TEN KEY CONCEPTS AND THE SUCCESS OF ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Mirela TOMESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on ten key concepts which influence the success of theorganizations at the beginning of XXI century. The great changes generatedby globalization determine firms to be more competitive. This means that wehave to focus on: mission, leadership, emotional intelligence, innovation,organizational culture, human resources, total quality management, ethics,conflict management, brand, and the value offered to the clients.

  12. Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings

    OpenAIRE

    Oberbauer, A. M.; Belanger, J. M.; Bellumori, T.; BANNASCH, D. L.; Famula, T R

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic po...

  13. Fundamental Field Theory in Ten Dimensions and The Early Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Ajay

    2006-01-01

    A unified field theory in ten dimensions, of all interactions, can describe high energy processes occuring in the early universe. In such a theory transitions that give properties of the universe can occur due to the presence of algebraic and geometric structures. A correspondence between theory and observations of the universe is made, to obtain a new interpretation and properties. This paper consists of a field theory and cosmological model of dark and normal energy and matter, cosmological...

  14. The African Association for Lexicography: After Ten Years

    OpenAIRE

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This year it has been ten years since the establishment of AFRILEX. After an expla-nation of what led to its forming, this article gives a short overview of its composition and activi-ties.


    Keywords: AFRICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LEXICOGRAPHY (AFRILEX), AFRICAN LAN-GUAGES ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AFRICA (ALASA), BUREAU OF THE WOORDEBOEK VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE TAAL (WAT), DICTIONARY OF SOUTH AFRICAN ENGLISH (DSAE), LINGUISTIC ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (L...

  15. Quantitation of Ten Flavor Compounds in Unburned Tobacco Products†

    OpenAIRE

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2014-01-01

    Most research on unburned tobacco has focused on the harmful chemicals associated with the tobacco itself. However, certain flavor additives in tobacco products can pose additional health risks. Flavors like camphor, coumarin, pulegone, eugenol, methyl salicylate, menthol and diphenyl ether have exhibited biological activity and/or toxicity in both lab animals and humans. This publication presents a new GC/MS method for the quantitation of ten flavor compounds (eucalyptol, camphor, menthol, p...

  16. What Is Critical in Critical Language Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the question of what is critical in critical language awareness by drawing on Hans Georg Gadamer's development of the dialectic of experience, historically effected consciousness, and the dialectic of question and answer. The openness found to characterize these three events initiates the space of distance by which the critical instance…

  17. Critical Thinking in Liberal Education: A Case of Overkill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kerry S.

    1986-01-01

    While there is good reason to stress critical thinking skills in the liberal arts curriculum, these skills should be complemented by training in alternative methodologies that focus on synthetic, dialectic, and creative modes of awareness and expression. (MSE)

  18. Criticism, Contact With Reality and Truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Andy F.

    1996-01-01

    Partly in reply to D. Cannon’s critique of his analytical reconstruction (1988) of Polanyi’s post-critical theory of tacit knowledge, the author argues that there are good reasons for not appropriating Polanyi’s programme of self-identication and the confessional rhetoric which may be derived from

  19. Mathematics and Liberature: Fajfer’s Ten Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszyk Łukasz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses liberature in the context of its mathematical qualities. In this trend which inextricably connects the textual and physical layer of the work, each element in the book is expected to be created according to a certain formula which should bring a holistic piece of literature. After 1999, a great number of mathematically-oriented works have appeared which are strictly liberary. In the presentation, I base on the theoretical idea behind liberature when discussing Zenon Fajfer’s liberary work Ten Letters (Pol. Dwadzieścia jeden liter. This innovative piece is analysed mainly from the point of view of geometry and play with numbers, which is visible already in the title: the ten-letter phrase “ten letters.” Mathematical qualities are indicated on various layers of the piece: the physical, the textual, and the visual, but especially in its form. The game of numbers is found not only where it is obviously visible and essential to understand the message, but also in places which might not have been intended. Liberature is analysed as literature but at the same time, it is shown not to be literature, and in this respect, to be mathematical at the core.

  20. Frictional amyloidosis in Oman - A study of ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular amyloidosis is an important cause for cutaneous pigmentation, the aetiology of which is poorly understood. Friction has recently been implicated the causation of early lesions, referred to as frictional amyloidosis. Confirmation of diagnosis by the detect on of amyloid using histochemical stains is inconsistent. Ten patients with pigmentation suggestive of macular amyloidosis were studied with detailed history, clinical examination, biopsy for histochemistry and electron microscopy. Nine out of ten patients had a history of prolonged friction with various objects such as bath sponges, brushes, towels, plant sticks and leaves. Amyloid was demonstrated by histochemical staining in only six out of ten cases. In the remaining four cases, amyloid was detected by electron microscopy. These consisted of aggregates of non-branching, extracellular, intertwining fibres measuring between 200-500 nm in length and between 20-25 nm in diameter. The study confirms the role of friction in the causation of this condition. Histochemical stains are not always successful in the detection of amyloid and electron microscopy is helpful for confirming its presence. The term frictional amyloidosis aptly describes the condition.