Thurm, Audrey; Swedo, Susan E
This editorial discusses the importance of autism research, noting areas of progress and ongoing challenges and focusing on studies of the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders.
Research prospects and priorities in the field of autism are discussed with respect to (a) diagnosis, classification, and epidemiology; (b) clinical research; (c) neuropsychological research; (d) genetics; (e) structural and functional brain imaging; (f) postmortem studies; (g) other biological research; and (h) treatment research. Also, it is argued that research into autism has a priority in the broader field of developmental psychopathology because it carries the promise of throwing light on casual mechanisms that apply beyond the syndrome of autism.
Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph
Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software.
Philippe, Anne; Guilloud-Bataille, Michel; Martinez, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria; Sponheim, Eili; Coleman, Mary; Zappella, Michele; Aschauer, Harald; Penet, Christiane; Feingold, Josué; Brice, Alexis; Leboyer, Marion
We studied the possible involvement of ten candidate genes in autism: proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2 (opioid metabolism); tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptors D2 and D5, monoamine oxidases A and B (monoaminergic system); brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neural cell adhesion molecule (involved in neurodevelopment). Thirty-eight families with two affected siblings and one family with two affected half-siblings, recruited by the Paris Autism Research International Sibpair Study (PARIS), were tested using the transmission disequilibrium test and two-point affected sib-pair linkage analysis. We found no evidence for association or linkage with intragenic or linked markers. Our family sample has good power for detecting a linkage disequilibrium of 0.80. Thus, these genes are unlikely to play a major role in the families studied, but further studies in a much larger sample would be needed to highlight weaker genetic effects. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Apicella, Fabio; Auyeung, Bonnie; Beranova, Stepanka; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frederique; Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; Charman, Tony; Chericoni, Natasha; Conceição, Inês C.; Davies, Kim; Farroni, Teresa; Gomot, Marie; Jones, Emily; Kaale, Anett; Kapica, Katarzyna; Kawa, Rafal; Kylliäinen, Anneli; Larsen, Kenneth; Lefort-Besnard, Jeremy; Malvy, Joelle; Manso de Dios, Sara; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Millo, Inbal; Miranda, Natercia; Pasco, Greg; Pisula, Ewa; Raleva, Marija; Rogé, Bernadette; Salomone, Erica; Schjolberg, Synnve; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Vicente, Astrid M.; Yirmiya, Nurit
Investigation into the earliest signs of autism in infants has become a significant sub-field of autism research. This work invokes specific ethical concerns such as use of "at-risk" language, communicating study findings to parents and the future perspective of enrolled infants when they reach adulthood. This study aimed to ground this…
Fisher, Eileen; Van Dyke, Don C.; Sears, Lonnie; Matzen, Jane; Lin-Dyken, Deborah; McBrien, Dianne M.
Reviews recent research on the etiologies of autism, including genetic research, anatomic and neuroimaging studies, topics in neurophysiology research (including serotonin, dopamine, and opiods), immunologic research, studies of autism phenotype, and electroencephalographic studies. It concludes that, as of yet, research has found no clear…
Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Ssebyala, Keron; Karamagi, Charles; Kiguli, Sarah; Smith, Karen; Anderson, Meredith C; Croen, Lisa A; Trevathan, Edwin; Hansen, Robin; Smith, Daniel; Grether, Judith K
Neurodevelopmental disorders are recognized to be relatively common in developing countries but little data exist for planning effective prevention and intervention strategies. In particular, data on autism spectrum disorders are lacking. For application in Uganda, we developed a 23-question screener (23Q) that includes the Ten Questions screener and additional questions on autism spectrum disorder behaviors. We then conducted household screening of 1169 children, 2-9 years of age, followed by clinical assessment of children who screened positive and a sample of those who screened negative to evaluate the validity of the screener. We found that 320 children (27% of the total) screened positive and 68 children received a clinical diagnosis of one or more moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder; cerebral palsy; epilepsy; cognitive, speech and language, hearing, or vision impairment), including 8 children with autism spectrum disorders. Prevalence and validity of the screener were evaluated under different statistical assumptions. Sensitivity of the 23Q ranged from 0.55 to 0.80 and prevalence for ≥1 neurodevelopmental disorders from 7.7/100 children to 12.8/100 children depending on which assumptions were used. The combination of screening positive on both autism spectrum disorders and Ten Questions items was modestly successful in identifying a subgroup of children at especially high risk of autism spectrum disorders. We recommend that autism spectrum disorders and related behavioral disorders be included in studies of neurodevelopmental disorders in low-resource settings to obtain essential data for planning local and global public health responses.
Amaral, David G
The last decade has seen an enormous growth in the quantity of research directed at understanding the biological underpinnings of autism spectrum disorders. This increase has been spurred on, in part, by research funding provided through private, parent advocacy groups. While increased funding and entry into autism research by scientists from many disciplines has facilitated the speed of discoveries germane to establishing the etiologies of autism, there remain a number of roadblocks to understanding autism sufficiently well to foster new treatments. This short article provides a brief overview of some of the achievements and some of the difficulties in conducting autism research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is an extensible, scalable informatics platform for austism spectrum disorder-relevant data at all levels of biological...
Scassellati, Brian; Admoni, Henny; Matarić, Maja
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of lifelong disabilities that affect people's ability to communicate and to understand social cues. Research into applying robots as therapy tools has shown that robots seem to improve engagement and elicit novel social behaviors from people (particularly children and teenagers) with autism. Robot therapy for autism has been explored as one of the first application domains in the field of socially assistive robotics (SAR), which aims to develop robots that assist people with special needs through social interactions. In this review, we discuss the past decade's work in SAR systems designed for autism therapy by analyzing robot design decisions, human-robot interactions, and system evaluations. We conclude by discussing challenges and future trends for this young but rapidly developing research area.
Singh, Jennifer; Illes, Judy; Lazzeroni, Laura; Hallmayer, Joachim
This study shows that the number of autism research grants funded in the US from 1997 to 2006 significantly increased 15% per year. Although the majority of projects were concentrated in basic science (65%) compared to clinical (15%) and translational research (20%), there is a significant decrease in the proportion of basic research grants per…
Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, 2011
In 2010, the Office of Autism Research Coordination (OARC) and Acclaro Research Solutions, Inc., on behalf of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC), conducted a comprehensive analysis of the 2009 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portfolio of major Federal agencies and private organizations. This is the second annual analysis…
Trottier, Magan; Roberts, Wendy; Drmic, Irene; Scherer, Stephen W.; Weksberg, Rosanna; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chitayat, David; Shuman, Cheryl; Miller, Fiona A.
Genetic research in autism depends on the willingness of individuals with autism to participate; thus, there is a duty to assess participants' needs in the research process. We report on families' motives and expectations related to their participation in autism genetic research. Respondents valued having a genetic result, as it alleviates guilt,…
The author's daughter has an autism spectrum disorder, as well as numerous other medical conditions. Like all parents of kids with special needs, she has spent enormous amounts of time and energy on hospital stays, therapies, and advocacy. She has also taken some time to participate in research. First and foremost, she wants to be aware of the…
Gustafsson, Göran; Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Gustafsson, Christina
grant applications, monitoring the progress of the FORSKERSKOLER scheme and serving as the evaluation panel for the mid-term evaluation in 2013 and in 2016/2017. The task of the evaluation panel has been to: 1) evaluate the quality of and progress achieved by the ten research schools which were awarded...
Peters, S U; Beaudet, A L; Madduri, N; Bacino, C A
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, ataxia, and a happy/sociable disposition. Maternally, but not paternally, derived defects, such as duplications, within the AS critical region result in autistic symptomatology, suggesting that the UBE3A gene might be implicated in the causation of autism. This study examined the prevalence of autism in AS in 19 children representing three known molecular classes of AS. Children were studied over the course of 1 year. Forty-two percent of this population, eight of 19 children, met criteria for autism according to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Parents of children who were diagnosed with autism according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria as well as the ADOS - Generic, Module 1 (ADOS-G) were administered the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R). Data from the ADI-R were convergent with data from the ADOS-G in all cases. Children with comorbid autism and AS scored lower on measures of language, adaptive behavior, and cognition, and demonstrated a slower rate of improvement over the course of the study. Furthermore, they demonstrated deficits in communication and socialization that mirror those observed in children with idiopathic autism. The study highlights the phenotypic overlap between autism and AS and increases the probability that dysregulation of UBE3A may play a role in the causation of autism.
In a ceremony at the Fort Detrick Community Activities Center earlier this week, Maj. Gen. Barbara R. Holcomb, the commanding officer of the Fort Detrick garrison, distributed the awards for outstanding presentations and posters at the 2017 Spring Research Festival.
The concept of autism has changed across time, from the Bleulerian concept, which defined it as one of several symptoms of dementia praecox, to the present-day concept representing a pervasive development disorder. The present theoretical contribution to this special issue of EJN on autism...... introduces new theoretical ideas and discusses them in light of selected prior theories, clinical examples, and recent empirical evidence. The overall aim is to identify some present challenges of diagnostic practice and autism research and to suggest new pathways that may help direct future research. Future...... research must agree on the definitions of core concepts such as autism and psychosis. A possible redefinition of the concept of autism may be a condition in which the rationale of an individual's behaviour differs qualitatively from that of the social environment due to characteristic cognitive impairments...
Falck-Ytter, Terje; Bölte, Sven; Gredebäck, Gustaf
Eye tracking has the potential to characterize autism at a unique intermediate level, with links 'down' to underlying neurocognitive networks, as well as 'up' to everyday function and dysfunction. Because it is non-invasive and does not require advanced motor responses or language, eye tracking is particularly important for the study of young children and infants. In this article, we review eye tracking studies of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children at risk for ASD. Reduced looking time at people and faces, as well as problems with disengagement of attention, appear to be among the earliest signs of ASD, emerging during the first year of life. In toddlers with ASD, altered looking patterns across facial parts such as the eyes and mouth have been found, together with limited orienting to biological motion. We provide a detailed discussion of these and other key findings and highlight methodological opportunities and challenges for eye tracking research of young children with ASD. We conclude that eye tracking can reveal important features of the complex picture of autism.
Eye tracking has the potential to characterize autism at a unique intermediate level, with links ‘down’ to underlying neurocognitive networks, as well as ‘up’ to everyday function and dysfunction. Because it is non-invasive and does not require advanced motor responses or language, eye tracking is particularly important for the study of young children and infants. In this article, we review eye tracking studies of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children at risk for ASD. Reduced looking time at people and faces, as well as problems with disengagement of attention, appear to be among the earliest signs of ASD, emerging during the first year of life. In toddlers with ASD, altered looking patterns across facial parts such as the eyes and mouth have been found, together with limited orienting to biological motion. We provide a detailed discussion of these and other key findings and highlight methodological opportunities and challenges for eye tracking research of young children with ASD. We conclude that eye tracking can reveal important features of the complex picture of autism. PMID:24069955
Luis Humberto Fabila Castillo
Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of ten years of support for basic scientific research by the CONACYT. The paper identifies the strongest areas of knowledge in basic science in Mexico and concludes that the institutions where basic science is done are mainly public higher education institutions, followed by also public research centers, while private institutions of higher education and companies carry out almost no research in basic science. Findings show that research on basic science in state universities has grown impressively in recent years, reaching the level of the institutions of higher education of the Federal District. Finally, the implications of these findings as well as the public policies through which support has been granted are discussed.
Lajonchere, Clara M.
Autism Speaks’ Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) represents the largest private collection of genetic and phenotype data for families with ASD that is made available to qualified researchers worldwide. The availability of large and comprehensive registries that include detailed phenotype and genetic information for individuals affected with an ASD and family members is crucial for the discovery of autism susceptibility genes and the development and application of biologically-based appr...
Full Text Available This paper is a prelude to proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology to be held in Cagliari, Italy from October 21st to 25th, 2014. These proceedings will be a significant milestone, highlighting the new frontiers of perinatal and neonatal research. Over the five days of this meeting, we aim to (1 examine the roots of the new directions in perinatal and neonatal research; (2 predict the trajectories of advancement in medical technologies, research, clinical care and teaching that will be the future of perinatology and neonatology. The discussion will be in four sections:back to the future: the placenta and perinatal programming;paradigm shift: the revolution of metabolomics in perinatalogy and neonatology;brave new world: the microbiome and microbiomics from perinatal to adult life;new inhabitants on the planet earth: adults who were born with extremely low birth weight. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Hall, Dan; Huerta, Michael F; McAuliffe, Matthew J; Farber, Gregory K
The National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is a secure research data repository designed to promote scientific data sharing and collaboration among autism spectrum disorder investigators. The goal of the project is to accelerate scientific discovery through data sharing, data harmonization, and the reporting of research results. Data from over 25,000 research participants are available to qualified investigators through the NDAR portal. Summary information about the available data is available to everyone through that portal.
Goldstein, Neal D; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Lee, Brian K
In the era of globalization and with the emergence of autism spectrum disorder as a global concern, the landscape of autism research has expanded to encompass much of the world. Here, we seek to provide an overview of the world of autism research, by documenting collaboration underlying the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), the pre-eminent annual scientific meeting devoted to the presentation of the latest autism research. We analyzed published abstracts presented at IMFAR meetings, between 2008 and 2013, to determine patterns of collaboration. We described collaboration networks on the individual, institutional, and international levels, and visually depicted these results on spatial network maps. Consistent with findings from other scientific disciplines, we found that collaboration is correlated with research productivity. Collaborative hotspots of autism research throughout the years were clustered on the East and West coasts of the U.S., Canada, and northern Europe. In years when conferences were held outside of North America, the proportion of abstracts from Europe and Asia increased. While IMFAR has traditionally been dominated by a large North American presence, greater global representation may be attained by shifting meeting locations to other regions of the world. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tania, Mousumi; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Xia, Kun
Autism, a lifelong neuro-developmental disorder is a uniquely human condition. Animal models are not the perfect tools for the full understanding of human development and behavior, but they can be an important place to start. This review focused on the recent updates of animal model research in autism. We have reviewed the publications over the last three decades, which are related to animal model study in autism. Animal models are important because they allow researchers to study the underlying neurobiology in a way that is not possible in humans. Improving the availability of better animal models will help the field to increase the development of medicines that can relieve disabling symptoms. Results from the therapeutic approaches are encouraging remarkably, since some behavioral alterations could be reversed even when treatment was performed on adult mice. Finding an animal model system with similar behavioral tendencies as humans is thus vital for understanding the brain mechanisms, supporting social motivation and attention, and the manner in which these mechanisms break down in autism. The ongoing studies should therefore increase the understanding of the biological alterations associated with autism as well as the development of knowledge-based treatments therapy for those struggling with autism. In this review, we have presented recent advances in research based on animal models of autism, raising hope for understanding the disease biology for potential therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of life of autism individuals.
Gerber, Alan; Morrow, Eric; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Anders, Thomas
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interaction, language and repetitive behaviors. The need for services is rising sharply as the number of children identified with autism increases. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART) was founded in 2009 with the goal of increasing communication among autism researchers throughout the state and improving treatment for children with autism. RI-CART members have several exciting projects in progress, with its larger aim being the creation of a statewide research registry. A statewide registry would benefit research in Rhode Island and allow for larger collaborations nationally.
Lajonchere, Clara M
Autism Speaks' Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) represents the largest private collection of genetic and phenotype data for families with ASD that is made available to qualified researchers worldwide. The availability of large and comprehensive registries that include detailed phenotype and genetic information for individuals affected with an ASD and family members is crucial for the discovery of autism susceptibility genes and the development and application of biologically based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. The model that AGRE has developed can be applied broadly to other disorders with complex etiologies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Young people with autism were involved in a study examining the participation of young people with autism in drama education. This study considers the approaches devised to obtain consent from ten young people with autism who communicated in different ways. The process of obtaining consent and monitoring assent is outlined and evaluated. The…
Pellicano, Elizabeth; Stears, Marc
Recent developments in the science of autism have provoked widespread unease among autism activists. Drawing on the findings of a major international gathering of researchers, ethicists, and activists, this paper presents the first major analysis of the ethical questions arising from this unease. We outline the scientific developments that have provoked the most discomfort, analyze the response to these developments from within and without the autism community, and trace the current state of the ethical debate. Having done so, we contend that these ethical questions are unlikely to be resolved as they depend on fundamentally conflicting assumptions about the nature and desirability of neurocognitive difference. We conclude by arguing for a new range of democratic mechanisms that could enable the scientific community, autistics, and other concerned parties to respond collectively to such entrenched ethical disputes. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Reilly, Jamie; Gallagher, Louise; Chen, June L; Leader, Geraldine; Shen, Sanbing
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders with diverse clinical manifestations and symptoms. In the last 10 years, there have been significant advances in understanding the genetic basis for ASD, critically supported through the establishment of ASD bio-collections and application in research. Here, we summarise a selection of major ASD bio-collections and their associated findings. Collectively, these include mapping ASD candidate genes, assessing the nature and frequency of gene mutations and their association with ASD clinical subgroups, insights into related molecular pathways such as the synapses, chromatin remodelling, transcription and ASD-related brain regions. We also briefly review emerging studies on the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to potentially model ASD in culture. These provide deeper insight into ASD progression during development and could generate human cell models for drug screening. Finally, we provide perspectives concerning the utilities of ASD bio-collections and limitations, and highlight considerations in setting up a new bio-collection for ASD research.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Autism KidsHealth / For Teens / Autism What's in this article? ... it? And can it be treated? What Is Autism? Autism is a word that refers to a ...
Full Text Available Previous studies have claimed that children with autism are poor imitators and a lack of imitative capacity has been included by some investigators as one early sign of autism. Presented here are results from a pilot study focusing on observed imitation after presenting 15 tasks to five children with autism (mental age 25–51 months. Imitation tasks involving simple object manipulation, vocal responses, facial and manual gestures, and object substitution were presented to each child. The performance of the children with autism is compared with (1 three normal 4-year-old children (for all 15 tasks, and (2 observations from 28 healthy 1-year-olds (for 10 of the tasks used. The findings indicate that the autistic group displayed the highest level of imitation on object manipulation and vocal tasks while object substitution, facial, and motor imitation acts seemed to be difficult for children with autism. However, the small number of children included as well as the individual variation observed among the autistic subjects precludes any definite conclusions from these pilot observations. It is hypothesized that imitation in children with autism has to be studied separately for different domains and probably also for different subgroups within the autistic population.
One of the central aims of autism research is to identify specific neurodevelopmental mechanisms that cause and explain the visible autistic signs and symptoms. In this short paper, I argue that the persistent search for autism-specific pathophysiologies has two fundamental difficulties. The first regards the growing gap between basic autism science and clinical practice. The second regards the difficulties with demarcating autism as a psychiatric condition. Instead of the unremitting search for the neurobiological basis of autism, I suggest that basic autism research should focus on experiences of impairment and distress, and on how these experiences relate to particular (autistic) behaviors in particular circumstances, regardless of whether we are dealing with an autism diagnosis or not.
A. Blythe eLaGasse
Full Text Available Recently, there has been increased focus on movement and sensory abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. This has come from research demonstrating cortical and cerebellar difference in autism, with suggestion of early cerebellar dysfunction. As evidence for an extended profile of ASD grows, there are vast implications for treatment and therapy for individuals with autism. Persons with autism are often provided behavioral or cognitive strategies for navigating their environment; however, these strategies do not consider differences in motor functioning. One accommodation that has not yet been explored in the literature is the use of auditory rhythmic cueing to improve motor functioning in ASD. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential impact of auditory rhythmic cueing for motor functioning in persons with ASD. To this effect, we review research on rhythm in motor rehabilitation, draw parallels to motor dysfunction in ASD, and propose a rationale for how rhythmic input can improve sensorimotor functioning, thereby allowing individuals with autism to demonstrate their full cognitive, behavioral, social, and communicative potential.
Luschekina, E A; Strelets, V B
Autism, like schizophrenia, are heterogeneous diseases, which are directed by both genetic factors and external influences in the early stages of development. Knowledge about the similarities and differences of these disorders can help early diagnosis and treatment. Patients with autism have specific cognitive difficulties in social relations. They are characterized by impairment of social interaction, communication and behavioral flexibility. The severity of the delay the development of autistic children, clinical and psychological indicators is correlated with an increase in the high frequency of spontaneous EEG activity. Cognitive task in autistic children, unlike normal persons, does not lead to a significant restructuring of high-frequency EEG activity, which may be a violation of the reaction mechanism to external stimuli and behavioral disorders. Abnormality in high-frequency components of EEG reactivity on cognitive task, the perception of human faces and visual illusions as well as the inadequate system of mirror neurons, can be considered common mechanisms underlying disorders of autism and schizophrenia. These general mechanisms may be considered as related to violation of the inhibition-exitation balance, controlled via GABA-transmission and NMDA-receptors. A multidimensional study of patterns of disontogenesis in autism, in addition to detailing the clinical picture of disease and rehabilitation activities, allows us to clear the fundamental understanding of the brain.
Scott, Karen; Caldwell, Patrina; Schuwirth, Lambert
The approaches used to educate future clinicians must be continually improved through evidence-based methods. Clinicians interested in conducting education research need to understand the terminology and conventions of health professional education, in the same way that health professional educators from education backgrounds need to be aware of clinical practices and scientific mores and jargon. This article provides clinicians with 10 steps to conducting health professional education research, and encourages collaboration between clinicians interested in education and health professional educators. The basic steps in conducting education research are introduced, beginning with literature searches, using appropriate terminology and writing conventions, and finding research collaborators. We encourage researchers to ask themselves, 'So what?' about their research idea to ensure it is interesting and relevant to a journal's readers. The nuts and bolts of educational research are then presented, including research questions and methodologies, outcome measures, theoretical frameworks and epistemologies. The final two steps aim to foster internationally relevant and well-designed research studies. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians, who struggle with what is required. Yet clinicians who teach are ideally placed to identify the knowledge gaps about how we can more effectively educate future clinicians. These 10 steps provide clinicians with guidance on how to conduct education research so relevant research findings can inform the education of future clinicians. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The article describes the experience of the development of ideas of regional initia- tives, autism research, and the formation and development of the academic system aiming to help people with autism in Russia and abroad. The authors propose a model of autism research and the formation of a professional training system for specialists working with children and adults with autism.
Chereneva E.A.; Bogdasina O.,; Casanova F.M.,; Li X.
The article describes the experience of the development of ideas of regional initia- tives, autism research, and the formation and development of the academic system aiming to help people with autism in Russia and abroad. The authors propose a model of autism research and the formation of a professional training system for specialists working with children and adults with autism.
Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…
Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Plesa Skwerer, Daniela; Joseph, Robert M.; Brukilacchio, Brianna; Decker, Jessica; Eggleston, Brady; Meyer, Steven; Yoder, Anne
A growing number of research groups are now including older minimally verbal individuals with autism spectrum disorder in their studies to encompass the full range of heterogeneity in the population. There are numerous barriers that prevent researchers from collecting high-quality data from these individuals, in part because of the challenging…
Beyer, Julia F.
Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…
Hyman, Steven E
In the face of growing controversy about the utility of genetic mouse models of human disease, Rothwell et al. report on a shared mechanism by which two different neuroligin-3 mutations, associated with autism spectrum disorders in humans, produce an enhancement in motor learning. The open question is how much we can learn about human ills from such models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dawkins, Gemma; Milton, Damian; Martin, Nicola; Sims, Tara; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Mills, Richard
The support requirements of intellectually able adults with autism can be just as nuanced as those for people who have significant learning difficulties/disabilities. Intellectual ability can often mask this, leaving individuals without the backup they require in order to thrive. At the 2007 forum ‘Successful Futures for Adults with Autism’ participants’ highlighted challenges around navigating social life, managing practical and financial affairs, accessing education and training opportuniti...
Maurer, Martin H
Recent studies suggest that adult neural stem cells (NSCs) may play a role in the pathogenesis of a number of the developmental disorders subsumed under the term autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that have in common impaired social interaction, communication deficits, and stereotypical behavior or interests. Since there is no "unifying hypothesis" about the etiology and pathogenesis of ASD, several factors have been associated with ASD, including genetic factors, physical co-morbidity, disturbances of brain structure and function, biochemical anomalies, cognitive impairment, and disorders of speech and emotional development, mostly the lack of empathy. Most of disturbances of brain interconnectivity are regarded as main problem in autism. Since NSCs have a distinct life cycle in the mammalian brain consisting of proliferation, migration, arborization, integration into existing neuronal circuits, and myelinization, disturbances in NSCs differentiation is thought to be deleterious. In the current review, I will summarize the results of genomic and proteomic studies finding susceptibility genes and proteins for autism with regard to NSCs differentiation and maturation. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Batterham, Robin J.
The introduction of the Excellence in Research for Australia scheme has heightened debate amongst research institutions over the use of metrics such as citations, especially given the ready availability of citation data. An analysis is presented of the citation performance of nine Australian universities and the Commonwealth Scientific, Industrial…
Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter
A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…
Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony
The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members,…
Research, records and responsibility' explores developments in collaborative archiving practice between archives and the communities they serve and represent, incorporating case studies of historical recordings, visual data and material culture.
Tress, B.; Tress, G.; Fry, G.
Research in the INTELS project has revealed that many integrative (= interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary) landscape projects frequently face similar challenges. There are, however, few guidelines available to help projects avoid common problems. In this chapter, we present what we consider the
London, Eric B
The use of autism as a diagnostic category guiding translational research is fraught with so many problems that the validity of research conclusions is suspect. Neuroscientists would benefit from attending to nosological difficulties to formulate meaningful research bridging basic biological systems and human disease. I propose a diagnostic schema that could translate more efficiently between the clinical and the neuroscience perspective as a step to improve the effectiveness of this type of research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sanchez, P M
The acceptance and use of marketing techniques and concepts in the health care area is a phenomenon well known to most marketers. Prior to 1979, marketing in the health care field was relatively unknown. Since that time, however, the growth of health care marketing has not been accompanied by commensurate growth in marketing research efforts.
Full Text Available The subject of developmental regression in autism has gained importance and a growing number of studies have been conducted in recent years. It is a major issue indicating that there is not a unique form of autism onset. However the phenomenon itself and the concept of regression have been the subject of some debate: there is no consensus on the existence of regression, as there is no consensus on its definition. The aim of this paper is to review the research literature in this area and to introduce some conceptual questions about its existence and its definition.
Neik, Tina Ting Xiang; Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min; Chia, Noel Kok Hwee; Chua, Arnold Chee Keong
The prevalence of autism is increasing globally. While most of the published works are done in the Western and European countries, the trend in autism research is shifting towards the Asian continent recently. In this review, we aimed to highlight the current prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in…
Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.
A large body of autism research over the last 20 years has shown that people with autism have difficulties understanding mental states. This has been conceived of as a metarepresentational deficit. An open question is whether people with autism's metarepresentational deficit is limited to the mental domain. This research explores individuals with…
de Marchena, Ashley; Miller, Judith
Many individuals with ASD have a distinctive behavioral presentation that is recognizable within moments, a phenomenon we call "frank" ASD. This phenomenon has been discussed informally for decades, perhaps as "classic" ASD; however, there is no unitary "classic" presentation, and classic autism does not seem to correspond to level of functioning. Thus, neither "frank" nor "classic" autism has been delineated or studied as a research construct. To initiate the empirical study of frank ASD, we surveyed 151 clinicians, from a range of disciplines that diagnose ASD, about this phenomenon. Respondents completed a 13-item questionnaire about frank ASD, which was analyzed using a mixed-methods approach. Ninety-seven percentage of respondents were familiar with the phenomenon. Respondents estimated that 40% of the ASD population has a frank presentation. Respondents reported the most highly specific behaviors associated with frank presentations were a general sense of impaired reciprocity, quality of eye contact, atypical vocal prosody, presence of motor mannerisms, and atypical gait or posture. In general, respondents reported detecting frank features rapidly, with the majority forming their impressions within the first ten minutes of interaction or observation. Although unstudied empirically, "frank" presentations of ASD are familiar to diagnosing clinicians, and appear to be based on behaviors both central to ASD diagnostic criteria (e.g., impaired reciprocity), and absent from diagnostic criteria (e.g., atypical gait or posture). We discuss these findings within the context of diagnostic decision-making and behavioral phenotyping of ASD. Autism Res 2016,. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 653-662. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Crosland, Kimberly A.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen
The current trend analysis was conducted to empirically document the characteristics of individuals with autism who participated in intervention research published between 1995 and 2009 in three journals ("Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," and "Focus on Autism and Other…
Shaked, Michal; Yirmiya, Nurit
In this paper, we summarize some of our findings from a series of three meta-analyses and discuss their implications for autism research. In the first meta-analysis, we examined studies addressing the theory of mind hypothesis in autism. This analysis revealed that theory of mind disabilities are not unique to autism, although what may be unique…
Miller, Fiona Alice; Hayeems, Robin Zoe; Bytautas, Jessica Peace
Developments in genomics research have been accompanied by a controversial ethical injunction: that researchers disclose individually relevant research results to research participants. With the explosion of genomic research on complex psychiatric conditions such as autism, researchers must increasingly contend with whether--and which results--to report. We conducted a qualitative study with researchers and participants involved in autism genomics research, including 4 focus groups and 23 interviews with parents of autistic children, and 23 interviews with researchers. Respondents considered genomic research results 'reportable' when results were perceived to explain cause, and answer the question 'why;' that is, respondents set a standard for reporting individually relevant genetic research results to individual participants that is specific to autism, reflecting the metaphysical value that genetic information is seen to offer in this context. In addition to this standard of meaning, respondents required that results be deemed 'true.' Here, respondents referenced standards of validity that were context nonspecific. Yet in practice, what qualified as 'true' depended on evidentiary standards within specific research disciplines as well as fundamental, and contested, theories about how autism is 'genetic.' For research ethics, these finding suggest that uniform and context-free obligations regarding result disclosure cannot readily be specified. For researchers, they suggest that result disclosure to individuals should be justified not only by perceived meaning but also by clarity regarding appropriate evidentiary standards, and attention to the status of epistemological debates regarding the nature and cause of disorders.
In order to showcase the major research advances in ophthalmology of the recent five years (2009-2013) in China, the 11th Committee of the Ophthalmic Division of Chinese Medical Association launched the selection of Top Ten Research Advances of Ophthalmology in China. Each ophthalmic subspecialty group voted its top ten research advances and chose two out of ten to join the selection. The Committee voted top ten out from all candidates and announced the final result with honor. The following research advances were selected as the Top Ten Research Advances of Ophthalmology in China: Innovative theory and its application of fungal keratitis; Increased gradient pressure between IOP and ICP is the main cause of glaucomatous optic neuropathy; Domestic developed anti-VEGF medicine Conbercept has been applied successfully in the treatment of choriodal neovascularization; IL-23/IL-17 pathway and their regulation in the pathogenesis of uveitis; The creation of myopic animal model and the biochemical mechanism of myopia; Specialists' consensus on diagnosing amblyopia in children; Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human fibroblasts of the Tenon's capsule; The development and application of endoscopic navigation system in orbital surgery; Studies of pathogenesis on congenital cataract candidate gene mutations; The regulation for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric retinal diseases in China and its extension.
Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Natsis, Antonis
This study is a ten-year critical review of empirical research on the educational applications of Virtual Reality (VR). Results show that although the majority of the 53 reviewed articles refer to science and mathematics, researchers from social sciences also seem to appreciate the educational value of VR and incorporate their learning goals in…
Lord, Catherine; Bishop, Somer L
This article provides a selective review of advances in scientific knowledge about autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition) diagnostic criteria as a framework for the discussion. We review literature that prompted changes to the organization of ASD symptoms and diagnostic subtypes in DSM-IV, and we examine the rationale for new DSM-5 specifiers, modifiers, and severity ratings as well as the introduction of the diagnosis of social (pragmatic) communication disorder. Our goal is to summarize and critically consider the contribution of clinical psychology research, along with that of other disciplines, to the current conceptualization of ASD.
Hens, Kristien; Peeters, Hilde; Dierickx, Kris
Given the wide variety of the phenotype, the uncertain genetic origins and the discussions surrounding the status of autism itself, genetic research on autism genes generates specific ethical questions that are not completely analogous to the ethical issues of genetic research in general. In order to map ethical issues surrounding research on autism genes, as experienced by professionals in the field of autism, we interviewed 15 Belgian professionals. We found that respondents believed that the heterogeneity of the autism phenotype affects the ethics of research on several levels. It affects issues regarding who to include in research on autism genes, regarding what the aim is of such studies, and how the research is done. Although genetic research on autism genes is proliferating, a systematic ethical reflection and protocol is missing. With this study we have shown that autism professionals in Belgium express both skepticism and hope with regard to genetic research and raise important points with regard to the effect that the complexity of autism has on research aims and methodology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Basu, Saumyendra N; Kollu, Ravi; Banerjee-Basu, Sharmila
Recent advances in studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has uncovered many new candidate genes and continues to do so at an accelerated pace. To address the genetic complexity of ASD, we have developed AutDB (http://www.mindspec.org/autdb.html), a publicly available web-portal for on-going collection, manual annotation and visualization of genes linked to the disorder. We present a disease-driven database model in AutDB where all genes connected to ASD are collected and classified according to their genetic variation: candidates identified from genetic association studies, rare single gene mutations and genes linked to syndromic autism. Gene entries are richly annotated for their relevance to autism, along with an in-depth view of their molecular functions. The content of AutDB originates entirely from the published scientific literature and is organized to optimize its use by the research community. The main focus of this resource is to provide an up-to-date, annotated list of ASD candidate genes in the form of reference dataset for interrogating molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder. Our model for consolidated knowledge representation in genetically complex disorders could be replicated to study other such disorders.
Ashwood, Paul; Wills, Sharifia; Van de Water, Judy
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are part of a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders known as pervasive developmental disorders, which occur in childhood. They are characterized by impairments in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and the presence of restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. At the present time, the etiology of ASD is largely unknown, but genetic, environmental, immunological, and neurological factors are thought to play a role in the development of ASD. Recently, increasing research has focused on the connections between the immune system and the nervous system, including its possible role in the development of ASD. These neuroimmune interactions begin early during embryogenesis and persist throughout an individual's lifetime, with successful neurodevelopment contingent upon a normal balanced immune response. Immune aberrations consistent with a dysregulated immune response, which so far, have been reported in autistic children, include abnormal or skewed T helper cell type 1 (T(H)1)/T(H)2 cytokine profiles, decreased lymphocyte numbers, decreased T cell mitogen response, and the imbalance of serum immunoglobulin levels. In addition, autism has been linked with autoimmunity and an association with immune-based genes including human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 and complement C4 alleles described. There is potential that such aberrant immune activity during vulnerable and critical periods of neurodevelopment could participate in the generation of neurological dysfunction characteristic of ASD. This review will examine the status of the research linking the immune response with ASD.
The ten reading research studies published since 1955 and deemed by the author "most important" in terms of quality, originality, and applicability to elementary reading instruction are described in this report. Discussed are studies on reading approaches by Russell Stauffer and by Neville Bennett; a study on reading readiness by Audrey…
Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.
In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…
... Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis... of Management and Budget (OMB) a request for review and approval of the information collection listed... Autism Research Coordination, NIMH, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd., MSC 9663, Room 6184...
Bebko, James M.; Schroeder, Jessica H.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Wells, Kerry; McFee, Kristen; Goldstein, Gayle M.
Recent overviews of autism research have yielded a number of suggestions, including: additional research with very young, and with lower functioning samples, and renewed emphasis on appropriate comparison/control groups. We reviewed the abstracts from a major autism conference (IMFAR) from 2004 to 2006 to examine these trends. We found an increase…
O'Haire, Marguerite E.
Including animals in autism intervention is growing in both research and practice. A systematic literature review was conducted to collate and synthesize all empirical research on animal-assisted intervention (AAI) for autism published from 2012 to 2015. Findings from 28 included studies revealed that AAI programs generally include one animal per…
Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden; Greenberg, Jan; Swe, April
This paper examines methodological challenges inherent in conducting research on families of children with autism and in comparing these families with others who are coping with different types of disabilities or who have nondisabled children. Although most comparative research has contrasted families whose child has autism with those whose child…
Viding, Essi; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
This paper discusses the utility of the endophenotype approach in the study of developmental psychopathology. It is argued that endophenotype research holds considerable promise for the study of gene-brain/cognition-behaviour pathways for developmental disorders. This paper outlines the criteria for determining useful endophenotypes. Possible endophenotypes for autism are discussed as an example of an area where endophenotype research on developmental disorders may be fruitful. It is concluded that although the endophenotype approach holds promise for the study of gene-brain/cognition-behaviour pathways, much work remains to be done in order to validate endophenotype measures. It is also noted that the changing nature of any developmental psychopathology poses a particular challenge to this type of research.
Full Text Available We examined patterns of Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR funding on autism spectrum disorder (ASD research. From 1999 to 2013, CIHR funded 190 ASD grants worth $48 million. Biomedical research received 43% of grants (46% of dollars, clinical research 27% (41%, health services 10% (7%, and population health research 8% (3%. The greatest number of grants was given in 2009, but 2003 saw the greatest amount. Funding is clustered in a handful of provinces and institutions, favouring biomedical research and disfavouring behavioural interventions, adaptation, and institutional response. Preference for biomedical research may be due to the detriment of clinical research.
... is a problem with genes or the body's metabolism . Metabolism is the body's physical and chemical processes. ASD ... stress of dealing with autism can lead to social and emotional problems for families and caregivers, and ...
Evidence for the efficacy of treatments for autism has improved in recent years. In this systematic review the evidence for both drug and non-drug treatments is appraised and clinical guidance is provided for their use...
Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Larsen, Kenneth; Salomone, Erica
Engagement with stakeholders is an essential part of the research process. This is particularly the case for early autism research with infant cohorts and their families, where a range of ethical issues are pertinent. Here, we report on a large survey of parents who have a child on the autism spectrum (n = 1040) which specifically probed attitudes to early autism research. The large majority of parents showed positive attitudes overall, and these were associated with greater access to services, higher service quality ratings and higher rates of intellectual disability among their children. Parents valued the scientific goals of research, but half of parents also reported that an intervention component would be an essential prerequisite for them to participate in research. If enrolled in a study, parents were positive about most commonly used measures though less favourably disposed towards brain scans for children. They valued direct contact with the research team and openness in data sharing. We interpret our findings in terms of lessons for the early autism research community and for stakeholder engagement projects.
Nicholas, David B; Hodgetts, Sandra; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Leann E; Shattuck, Paul; Parr, Jeremy R; Conlon, Olivia; Germani, Tamara; Mitchell, Wendy; Sacrey, Lori; Stothers, Margot E
Research related to supports for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is under-developed. As an example, system and service development to support successful transition to adulthood and meaningful vocation for adults has received relatively little research scrutiny until recently, with practitioners and program developers lacking evidenceinformed approaches guiding service delivery. A Special Interest Group (SIG) was convened at the International Meeting for Autism Research in May 2014 and May 2015, with a focus on transitional and vocational issues in ASD. The SIG consisted of 120 international delegates, including self-advocates, family members, researchers, program and policy developers, practitioners, and interdisciplinary ASD trainees. Following a summary of the literature, subgroups of attendees were convened in smaller groups to identify research needs and priorities. International researchers facilitated these discussions with notes taken in each subgroup. Using a qualitative analytic approach, key themes across groups were identified. These key themes, outlined in this paper, address the identified need to (a) advance research capacity; (b) build employer capacity relative to employing persons with ASD; and (c) enhance support resources for adults with ASD and their families. Heightened research activity guiding practice and policy, community/employer engagement, and person and family-centered services were recommended. Implications for advancement and implementation are offered. Autism Res 2017, 10: 15-24. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Muotri, Alysson Renato
The lack of live human brain cells for research has slowed progress toward understanding the mechanisms underlying autism spectrum disorders. A human model using reprogrammed patient somatic cells offers an attractive alternative, as it captures a patient's genome in relevant cell types. Despite the current limitations, the disease-in-a-dish approach allows for progressive time course analyses of target cells, offering a unique opportunity to investigate the cellular and molecular alterations before symptomatic onset. Understanding the current drawbacks of this model is essential for the correct data interpretation and extrapolation of conclusions applicable to the human brain. Innovative strategies for collecting biological material and clinical information from large patient cohorts are important for increasing the statistical power that will allow for the extraction of information from the noise resulting from the variability introduced by reprogramming and differentiation methods. Working with large patient cohorts is also important for understanding how brain cells derived from diverse human genetic backgrounds respond to specific drugs, creating the possibility of personalized medicine for autism spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mulle, Jennifer G; Sharp, William G; Cubells, Joseph F
The human gut harbors a complex community of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of growth and development, including development of the nervous system. Advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing methods have led to rapidly expanding knowledge about this gut microbiome. Here, we review fundamental emerging data on the human gut microbiome, with a focus on potential interactions between the microbiome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and consider research on atypical patterns of feeding and nutrition in ASD and how they might interact with the microbiome. Finally we selectively survey results from studies in rodents on the impact of the microbiome on neurobehavioral development. The evidence reviewed here suggests that a deeper understanding of the gut microbiome could open up new avenues of research on ASD, including potential novel treatment strategies.
Accordino, Robert; Comer, Ronald; Heller, Wendy B.
The authors conducted a literature review on music therapy for individuals with autism because of the frequent use of music therapy for those with autism and recent research on the musical abilities of this population. To accomplish this narrative review, articles were searched from relevant databases, reference lists from articles, and book…
For three decades after Leo Kanner's first clinical description, research progress in understanding and treating autism was minimal but since the late 1960s the growth of autism discoveries has been exponential, with a remarkable number of new findings published over the past two decades, in particular. These advances were made possible first by…
This article outlines five achievements of the last 20 years that have had or have the potential for a significant effect on the communication of individuals with autism, including greater understanding of the development of language and nonverbal communication in individuals with autism. Suggestions for future research are offered. (Contains…
Damiano, Cara R; Mazefsky, Carla A; White, Susan W; Dichter, Gabriel S
This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improving our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (a) preclinical models, (b) experimental therapeutics, (c) early identification and intervention, (d) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria initiative, (e) ecological momentary assessment, (f) neurotechnologies, and (g) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families.
Evidence for the efficacy of treatments for autism has improved in recent years. In this systematic review the evidence for both drug and non-drug treatments is appraised and clinical guidance is provided for their use. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of early intensive multidisciplinary intervention programmes in children with autism? What are the effects of dietary interventions in children with autism? What are the effects of drug treatments in children with autism? What are the effects of non-drug treatments in children with autism? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: applied behavioural analysis; auditory integration training; Autism Preschool Programme; casein-free diet; chelation; Child's Talk programme; cognitive behavioural therapy; digestive enzymes; EarlyBird programme; facilitated communication; Floortime therapy; gluten-free diet; immunoglobulins; melatonin; memantine; methylphenidate; More Than Words programme; music therapy; olanzapine; omega-3 fish oil; picture exchange communication system; Portage scheme; probiotics; relationship development interventions; risperidone; secretin; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); sensory integration training; social stories; social skills training; Son-Rise programme; TEACCH
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Autism is a set of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions, characterised by early-onset difficulties in social communication and unusually restricted, repetitive behaviour and interests. The worldwide population prevalence is about 1%. Autism affects more male than female individuals, and comorbidity is common (>70% have concurrent conditions). Individuals with autism have atypical cognitive profiles, such as impaired social cognition and social perception, executive dysfunction, and atypical perceptual and information processing. These profiles are underpinned by atypical neural development at the systems level. Genetics has a key role in the aetiology of autism, in conjunction with developmentally early environmental factors. Large-effect rare mutations and small-effect common variants contribute to risk. Assessment needs to be multidisciplinary and developmental, and early detection is essential for early intervention. Early comprehensive and targeted behavioural interventions can improve social communication and reduce anxiety and aggression. Drugs can reduce comorbid symptoms, but do not directly improve social communication. Creation of a supportive environment that accepts and respects that the individual is different is crucial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, 2014
Each year, the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) releases its annual list of scientific advances that represent significant progress in the field. The 20 studies selected have given new insight into the complex causes of autism and potential risk factors, studied clues that could lead to earlier diagnosis, and evaluated promising…
Rao, Vanitha S; Raman, Vijaya; Mysore, Ashok V
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is considered to be an index of global cognitive functioning and has traditionally been used as a fulcral measure in case-control studies in neuro-developmental disorders such as autism. The aim is to highlight the issues of "matching for IQ" with controls in autism research. Percentile scores on the Coloured Progressive Matrices of 20 children with autism in the age range of 5 to 12 years have been graphically compared with 21 age matched typically developing children. The percentile scores of the so-called high functioning children with autism from special schools were well below that of typically developing children. There are many challenges when using IQ in case-control studies of autism. Alternative approaches need to be considered.
Carrington, Sarah J; Uljarević, Mirko; Roberts, Alessandra; White, Louise J; Morgan, Lynda; Wimpory, Dawn; Ramsden, Christopher; Leekam, Susan R
Government policy and national practice guidelines have created an increasing need for autism services to adopt an evidence-based practice approach. However, a gap continues to exist between research evidence and its application. This study investigated the difference between autism researchers and practitioners in their methods of acquiring knowledge. In a questionnaire study, 261 practitioners and 422 researchers reported on the methods they use and perceive to be beneficial for increasing research access and knowledge. They also reported on their level of engagement with members of the other professional community. Researchers and practitioners reported different methods used to access information. Each group, however, had similar overall priorities regarding access to research information. While researchers endorsed the use of academic journals significantly more often than practitioners, both groups included academic journals in their top three choices. The groups differed in the levels of engagement they reported; researchers indicated they were more engaged with practitioners than vice versa. Comparison of researcher and practitioner preferences led to several recommendations to improve knowledge sharing and translation, including enhancing access to original research publications, facilitating informal networking opportunities and the development of proposals for the inclusion of practitioners throughout the research process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony
The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871
Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony
The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom's pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people's day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sices, Laura; Pawlowski, Katherine; Farfel, Laura; Phillips, Deirdre; Howe, Yamini; Cochran, David M; Choueiri, Roula; Forbes, Peter W; Brewster, Stephanie J; Frazier, Jean A; Neumeyer, Ann; Bridgemohan, Carolyn
Recruitment and completion of research activities during regular clinical care has the potential to increase research participation in complex neurodevelopmental disorders. We evaluated the feasibility, and effect on clinical care, of conducting biomarker research within a subspecialty clinical visit for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children, aged 5 to 10 years, were recruited by providers in ASD clinics at 5 institutions. Biomarkers collected were growth measurements, head circumference, neurologic and dysmorphology examinations, digit ratio (2D:4D) measurement, and platelet serotonin and urinary melatonin sulfate excretion levels. Parents completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community and a medical/demographic questionnaire. Cognitive level was abstracted from the medical record. Parents and clinicians completed surveys on the effect of the study on the clinical visit. Eighty-three children and their caregivers participated. Factors limiting participation included difficulty reaching families by phone and parent concern about the study blood draw requirement. All children completed at least 4 of 7 planned research activities. Demographic factors, educational placement, and child behavior were not associated with completion of study activities. Lower nonverbal cognitive function was weakly associated with fewer activities completed. Forty-four percent of clinicians reported an effect of the research study on the clinical visit. However, neither parent-reported nor clinician-reported effect was associated with the degree of study activity completion. Recruiting study participants in the context of scheduled ASD clinical visits required significant effort. However, once recruited, participants completed most study activities, regardless of behavioral symptom severity. Research activities did not adversely affect the clinical visit.
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Objective The relationship between sex/gender differences and autism has attracted a variety of research ranging from clinical and neurobiological to etiological, stimulated by the male bias in autism prevalence. Findings are complex and do not always relate to each other in a straightforward manner. Distinct but interlinked questions on the relationship between sex/gender differences and autism remain underaddressed. To better understand the implications from existing research and to help design future studies, we propose a 4-level conceptual framework to clarify the embedded themes. Method We searched PubMed for publications before September 2014 using search terms “‘sex OR gender OR females’ AND autism.” A total of 1,906 articles were screened for relevance, along with publications identified via additional literature reviews, resulting in 329 articles that were reviewed. Results Level 1, “Nosological and diagnostic challenges,” concerns the question, “How should autism be defined and diagnosed in males and females?” Level 2, “Sex/gender-independent and sex/gender-dependent characteristics,” addresses the question, “What are the similarities and differences between males and females with autism?” Level 3, “General models of etiology: liability and threshold,” asks the question, “How is the liability for developing autism linked to sex/gender?” Level 4, “Specific etiological–developmental mechanisms,” focuses on the question, “What etiological–developmental mechanisms of autism are implicated by sex/gender and/or sexual/gender differentiation?” Conclusions Using this conceptual framework, findings can be more clearly summarized, and the implications of the links between findings from different levels can become clearer. Based on this 4-level framework, we suggest future research directions, methodology, and specific topics in sex/gender differences and autism. PMID:25524786
Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony
There has been a substantial increase in research activity on autism during the past decade. Research into effective ways of responding to the immediate needs of autistic people is, however, less advanced, as are efforts at translating basic science research into service provision. Involving community members in research is one potential way of reducing this gap. This study therefore investigated the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism researchers and of community members, including autistic adults, family members and practitioners. Results from a large-scale questionnaire study (n = 1,516) showed that researchers perceive themselves to be engaged with the autism community but that community members, most notably autistic people and their families, did not share this view. Focus groups/interviews with 72 participants further identified the potential benefits and remaining challenges to involvement in research, especially regarding the distinct perspectives of different stakeholders. Researchers were skeptical about the possibilities of dramatically increasing community engagement, while community members themselves spoke about the challenges to fully understanding and influencing the research process. We suggest that the lack of a shared approach to community engagement in UK autism research represents a key roadblock to translational endeavors.
Full Text Available There has been a substantial increase in research activity on autism during the past decade. Research into effective ways of responding to the immediate needs of autistic people is, however, less advanced, as are efforts at translating basic science research into service provision. Involving community members in research is one potential way of reducing this gap. This study therefore investigated the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism researchers and of community members, including autistic adults, family members and practitioners. Results from a large-scale questionnaire study (n = 1,516 showed that researchers perceive themselves to be engaged with the autism community but that community members, most notably autistic people and their families, did not share this view. Focus groups/interviews with 72 participants further identified the potential benefits and remaining challenges to involvement in research, especially regarding the distinct perspectives of different stakeholders. Researchers were skeptical about the possibilities of dramatically increasing community engagement, while community members themselves spoke about the challenges to fully understanding and influencing the research process. We suggest that the lack of a shared approach to community engagement in UK autism research represents a key roadblock to translational endeavors.
Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony
There has been a substantial increase in research activity on autism during the past decade. Research into effective ways of responding to the immediate needs of autistic people is, however, less advanced, as are efforts at translating basic science research into service provision. Involving community members in research is one potential way of reducing this gap. This study therefore investigated the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism researchers and of community members, including autistic adults, family members and practitioners. Results from a large-scale questionnaire study (n = 1,516) showed that researchers perceive themselves to be engaged with the autism community but that community members, most notably autistic people and their families, did not share this view. Focus groups/interviews with 72 participants further identified the potential benefits and remaining challenges to involvement in research, especially regarding the distinct perspectives of different stakeholders. Researchers were skeptical about the possibilities of dramatically increasing community engagement, while community members themselves spoke about the challenges to fully understanding and influencing the research process. We suggest that the lack of a shared approach to community engagement in UK autism research represents a key roadblock to translational endeavors. PMID:25303222
Schmeisser, Kathrin; Parker, J Alex
The small non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used in neuroscience thanks to its well-understood development and lineage of the nervous system. Furthermore, C. elegans has been used to model many human developmental and neurological conditions to better understand disease mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic strategies. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent of all neurodevelopmental disorders, and the C. elegans system may provide opportunities to learn more about this complex disorder. Since basic cell biology and biochemistry of the C. elegans nervous system is generally very similar to mammals, cellular or molecular phenotypes can be investigated, along with a repertoire of behaviours. For instance, worms have contributed greatly to the understanding of mechanisms underlying mutations in genes coding for synaptic proteins such as neuroligin and neurexin. Using worms to model neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD is an emerging topic that harbours great, untapped potential. This review summarizes the numerous contributions of C. elegans to the field of neurodevelopment and introduces the nematode system as a potential research tool to study essential roles of genes associated with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The field of Physics Education Research (PER) has for over thirty years provided insights into student thinking and guided the development and assessment of reformed teaching strategies and practices in introductory physics courses. In the last decade or so, researchers have expanded the domain of such investigations to upper-division courses where undergraduate majors study more advanced content and begin to see themselves as future physicists. The upcoming Focused Collection on Upper Division PER brings together work from researchers active in these new frontiers of PER. In this presentation we provide an overview of the studies in this collection, which offer to the PER and greater physics education communities: new insights about the thinking, behavior, and beliefs of students in the upper division; new tools to innovate instruction, assess student learning, and evaluate teaching effectiveness; and groundbreaking studies of identity development and ``thinking like a physicist'' among physics majors. In this session we also recognize the ten-year anniversary of Physical Review Special Topics: Physics Education Research, an occasion that we will celebrate with an informal reception immediately following the conclusion of this invited session.
Trottier, G; Srivastava, L; Walker, C D
The etiology of autism is complex, and in most cases the underlying pathologic mechanisms are unknown. Autism is a hetereogeneous disorder, diagnosed subjectively on the basis of a large number of criteria. Recent research has investigated genetics, in utero insults and brain function as well as neurochemical and immunological factors. On the basis of family and twin studies, there appears to be a genetic basis for a wide "autistic syndrome." About a quarter of cases of autism are associated with genetic disorders such as fragile X syndrome or with infectious diseases such as congenital rubella. Genetic studies have shown an association between autism markers of brain development such as 3 markers of the c-Harvey-ros oncogene and the homeobox gene EN2. In some cases, autism is associated with insults early in gestation, including thalidomide embryopathy. Autism may arise from abnormal central nervous system functioning, since most autistic patients have indications of brain dysfunction, and about half of them have abnormal electroencephalograms. Similarly, the pattern of evoked response potentials and conduction time is altered in autistic children. There is substantial evidence from neuroimaging studies that dysfunctions in the cerebellum and possibly the temporal lobe and association cortex occur in autistic symptoms. Neurochemical studies have investigated the role of serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine, since levels of these neurotransmitters are altered in autism, although other hypotheses implicate overactive brain opioid systems and changes in oxytocin neurotransmission. Autoimmunity may also play a role; antibodies against myelin basic protein are often found in children with autism, who also have increased eosinophil and basophil response to IgE-mediated reactions. In summary, the prevailing view is that autism is caused by a pathophysiologic process arising from the interaction of an early environmental insult and a genetic predisposition. PMID
Payakachat, Nalin; Tilford, J Mick; Ungar, Wendy J
The National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is a US National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research data repository created by integrating heterogeneous datasets through data sharing agreements between autism researchers and the NIH. To date, NDAR is considered the largest neuroscience and genomic data repository for autism research. In addition to biomedical data, NDAR contains a large collection of clinical and behavioral assessments and health outcomes from novel interventions. Importantly, NDAR has a global unique patient identifier that can be linked to aggregated individual-level data for hypothesis generation and testing, and for replicating research findings. As such, NDAR promotes collaboration and maximizes public investment in the original data collection. As screening and diagnostic technologies as well as interventions for children with autism are expensive, health services research (HSR) and health technology assessment (HTA) are needed to generate more evidence to facilitate implementation when warranted. This article describes NDAR and explains its value to health services researchers and decision scientists interested in autism and other mental health conditions. We provide a description of the scope and structure of NDAR and illustrate how data are likely to grow over time and become available for HSR and HTA.
Rogers, Tiffany D; McKimm, Eric; Dickson, Price E; Goldowitz, Dan; Blaha, Charles D; Mittleman, Guy
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social skills and communication, stereotyped and repetitive behavior, and a range of deficits in cognitive function. While the etiology of autism is unknown, current research indicates that abnormalities of the cerebellum, now believed to be involved in cognitive function and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), are associated with autism. The current paper proposes that impaired cerebello-cortical circuitry could, at least in part, underlie autistic symptoms. The use of animal models that allow for manipulation of genetic and environmental influences are an effective means of elucidating both distal and proximal etiological factors in autism and their potential impact on cerebello-cortical circuitry. Some existing rodent models of autism, as well as some models not previously applied to the study of the disorder, display cerebellar and behavioral abnormalities that parallel those commonly seen in autistic patients. The novel findings produced from research utilizing rodent models could provide a better understanding of the neurochemical and behavioral impact of changes in cerebello-cortical circuitry in autism.
Klusek, J.; Martin, G. E.; Losh, M.
Background: Prior research suggests that 60-74% of males and 16-45% of females with fragile X syndrome (FXS) meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in research settings. However, relatively little is known about the rates of clinical diagnoses in FXS and whether such diagnoses are consistent with those performed in a research setting…
Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.
Dameris, M.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere
After ten years of ozone research, depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic regions and also over Europe is still not fully understood although its progress can be predicted by models. The state of the art was presented in the report 'Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998' of the World Meteorological Organisation. There is also a national documentation '10 Jahre Deutsche Ozonforschung 1989 bis 1999', to which DLR scientists made significant contributions. Some of their projects and findings are presented here. Research will be stimulated by the 2001 start of the ENVISAT satellite of the ESA. [German] Nach zehn Jahren Ozonforschung ist die Abnahme der Ozonschicht in der Stratosphaere nicht nur ueber der Antarktis (Ozonloch), sondern auch ueber der Arktis und Europa ein Faktum, das man heute weitgehend, wenn auch immer noch nicht vollstaendig versteht und dessen weitere Entwicklung man mit Modellen berechnen kann. Der Stand des Wissens wurde in einem umfassenden Bericht 'Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998' unter Federfuehrung der World Meteorological Organisation zusammengestellt. National gibt es eine Dokumentation '10 Jahre Deutsche Ozonforschung 1989 bis 1999'. Wissenschaftler des DLR haben zu den Erkenntnissen mit zahlreichen Publikationen wesentlich beigetragen. Einige der Projekte und Ergebnisse werden hier vorgestellt. Mit dem fuer 2001 geplanten Start des Umweltsatelliten ENVISAT der ESA erhaelt das Thema neue Aktualitaet. (orig.)
Philippe, A; Martinez, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Gillberg, C; Råstam, M; Sponheim, E; Coleman, M; Zappella, M; Aschauer, H; Van Maldergem, L; Penet, C; Feingold, J; Brice, A; Leboyer, M; van Malldergerme, L
Family and twin studies have suggested a genetic component in autism. We performed a genome-wide screen with 264 microsatellites markers in 51 multiplex families, using non-parametric linkage methods. Families were recruited by a collaborative group including clinicians from Sweden, France, Norway, the USA, Italy, Austria and Belgium. Using two-point and multipoint affected sib-pair analyses, 11 regions gave nominal P -values of 0.05 or lower. Four of these regions overlapped with regions on chromosomes 2q, 7q, 16p and 19p identified by the first genome-wide scan of autism performed by the International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium. Another of our potential susceptibility regions overlapped with the 15q11-q13 region identified in previous candidate gene studies. Our study revealed six additional regions on chromosomes 4q, 5p, 6q, 10q, 18q and Xp. We found that the most significant multipoint linkage was close to marker D6S283 (maximum lod score = 2.23, P = 0.0013).
Malizia, Guglielmo; Cicatelli, Sergio
This book delineates the evolution of the Study Centre for Catholic Schools (CSSC) in its first ten years of existence since its foundation in 1998 by the Italian Bishops' Conference. The volume is divided into three main sections. The first outlines the context and the activity of the CSSC during ten years: the role, the functions, the tasks and…
Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…
Hayward, Diane W.; Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein
Outcome research has shown that early and intensive behavioural intervention (ABA) may improve intellectual, language and adaptive functioning in children with autism. However, research has also indicated that not all ABA provisions are equally effective. Therefore, it may be beneficial to describe the key variables that are common to programmes…
Breslin, Casey M.; Buchanan, Alice M.
The purpose of this study was to explore and interpret a researcher's experiences while conducting motor skill assessments of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The first author and participant-researcher was, at the time of the study, a kinesiology doctoral candidate studying motor behavior. The second author, an associate professor of…
Brandon, M. A.; Smith, J.
The next ten years have been described by influential science and policy figures as ‘the most important in human history’. Many believe that the actions taken will decide whether we catastrophically change the atmosphere and eradicate our fellow species or find an alternative, less-damaging development path. But communications and public engagement initiatives have tended to focus on near term impacts or debates - whether they emphasise hazards, or trumpet ‘solutions’. There are signs of diminishing returns on communications and public engagement efforts, and serious obstacles to engaging around 40% of publics in e.g. the US and the UK. The Creative Climate web project takes a new approach, inviting people to see humanity’s intellectual and practical journey with these issues as an inspiring, dynamic and unfolding story. We are inviting people to join us in building a huge living archive of experiences and ideas that respond to these issues. The website will collect thoughts and stories from doorstep to workplace, from lab to garden; from international conference to community meeting - from all over the world. The body of diaries lie at the core of the project, but these are supplemented by the offer of free online learning resources and broadcast-quality audio and video materials. The project is experimental in terms of its scope, its approach to environmental communications and debate and in its use of media. It works with formal partners, including the BBC, yet also makes the most of the opportunities for user generated content to create a rich multimedia resource that can support research, learning and engagement. The design of the project is informed by environmental social science and communications research, and by an awareness of the unfolding potential of Internet based communications to support social change. It is also intended that the Creative Climate platform will develop so as to serve researchers by offering an open resource of qualitative
Elsabbagh, Mayada; Barbaro, Josephine; Gladstone, Melissa; Happe, Francesca; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Lee, Li‐Ching; Rattazzi, Alexia; Stapel‐Wax, Jennifer; Stone, Wendy L.; Tager‐Flusberg, Helen; Thurm, Audrey; Tomlinson, Mark; Shih, Andy
Most research into the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of autism is based on studies in high income countries. Moreover, within high income countries, individuals of high socioeconomic status are disproportionately represented among participants in autism research. Corresponding disparities in access to autism screening, diagnosis, and treatment exist globally. One of the barriers perpetuating this imbalance is the high cost of proprietary tools for diagnosing autism and for delivering evidence‐based therapies. Another barrier is the high cost of training of professionals and para‐professionals to use the tools. Open‐source and open access models provide a way to facilitate global collaboration and training. Using these models and technologies, the autism scientific community and clinicians worldwide should be able to work more effectively and efficiently than they have to date to address the global imbalance in autism knowledge and at the same time advance our understanding of autism and our ability to deliver cost‐effective services to everyone in need. Autism Res 2015, 8: 473–476. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26437907
Ganaie S.A; Bashir A
Autism is a Neuro-Developmental Disorder affecting socialization and communication with stereotype behaviors. The research Scientists all over world found that genetic and environmental factors are causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Over the past decade, worldwide Autism, advanced rehabilitation services and research estimates of increase between 50% to over 2000% in cases of Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnoses. The rise in diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder impacts us all....
Alvares, Gail A; Quintana, Daniel S; Whitehouse, Andrew J O
Extensive research efforts in the last decade have been expended into understanding whether intranasal oxytocin may be an effective therapeutic in treating social communication impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After much hyped early findings, subsequent clinical trials of longer-term administration have yielded more conservative and mixed evidence. However, it is still unclear at this stage whether these more disappointing findings reflect a true null effect or are mitigated by methodological differences masking true effects. In this review, we comprehensively evaluate the rationale for oxytocin as a therapeutic, evaluating evidence from randomized controlled trials, case reports, and open-label studies of oxytocin administration in individuals with ASD. The evidence to date, including reviews of preregistered trials, suggests a number of critical considerations for the design and interpretation of research in this area. These include considering the choice of ASD outcome measures, dosing and nasal spray device issues, and participant selection. Despite these limitations in the field to date, there remains significant potential for oxytocin to ameliorate aspects of the persistent and debilitating social impairments in individuals with ASD. Given the considerable media hype around new treatments for ASD, as well as the needs of eager families, there is an urgent need for researchers to prioritise considering such factors when conducting well-designed and controlled studies to further advance this field. Autism Res 2017, 10: 25-41. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Soto, L.; Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Silvester, G.; Zambra, M. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, C.; Saavedra, R. [Univ. de Concepcion (Chile); Bruzzone, H. [Pladema (Antiqua and Barbuda)]|[Univ. de Mar del Plata and CONICET (Argentina); Barbaglia, M. [Pladema (Antiqua and Barbuda); Mayer, R. [Pladema (Antiqua and Barbuda)]|[Inst. Balseiro, Bariloche, CNEA and CONICET (Argentina); Sidelnikov, Y.; Kies, W. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany)
At present the Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN) has the experimental facilities in order to study dense transient discharges in a wide range of energy and current, namely: (I) energy from tens of joules to hundred of kilojoules, (II) current from tens of kiloamperes to some mega-amperes. Also several diagnostics have been implemented. An overview of the work being carried out on dense pinch discharges at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear is presented. (orig.)
Zwicker, Jennifer D; Emery, J C Herbert
There is a concern that the allocation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research funding may be misallocating resources, overemphasizing basic science at the expense of translational and clinical research. Anthony Bailey has proposed that an economic evaluation of autism research funding allocations could be beneficial for funding agencies by identifying under- or overfunded areas of research. In response to Bailey, we illustrate why economics cannot provide an objective, technical solution for identifying the "best" allocation of research resources. Economic evaluation has its greatest power as a late-stage research tool for interventions with identified objectives, outcomes, and data. This is not the case for evaluating whether research areas are over- or underfunded. Without an understanding of how research funding influences the likelihood and value of a discovery, or without a statement of the societal objectives for ASD research and level of risk aversion, economic analysis cannot provide a useful normative evaluation of ASD research. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Collection; 60-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis SUMMARY: In... be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Written comments... Information: To obtain a copy of the data collection plans and instruments, submit comments in writing, or...
Hansen, Sarah; Scott, Jessica
The current study is a systematic review on the available evidence on language development, assessment, challenging behavior, and instruction for children dually diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and deafness. Results indicate a strong need for additional research in these areas, especially in the areas of evidence-based practices.
Vaiouli, Potheini; Andreou, Georgia
Research demonstrates connections among children's music actions, their engagement abilities, and their language development. Although the link between music and the engagement abilities of young children with autism is well established, there is not enough evidence on the effectiveness of music strategies and music therapy interventions to…
Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Matthews, Fiona E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol
Little is known about research on Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) in mainland China. The few available studies in mainland China have shown the screening and diagnostic instruments for ASC used in mainland China were different from the West. Literature on screening and diagnostic instruments and criteria were reviewed and current available…
Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Shogren, Karrie; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Tonya; Lancioni, Giulio; Hopkins, Shannon
This review examined the involvement of teachers in the intervention research for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from 1996 through February 2008. Forty-nine studies involving teachers of children with ASD were coded for different types of involvement. Findings are discussed in regards to three issues: (a) the manner in which…
Lajonchere, Clara M.; Wheeler, Barbara Y.; Valente, Thomas W.; Kreutzer, Cary; Munson, Aron; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Cruz, Roxana; Martinez, Irene; Schrager, Sheree M.; Schweitzer, Lisa; Chklovski, Tara; Hwang, Darryl
Low income Hispanic families experience multiple barriers to accessing evidence-based information on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study utilized a mixed-strategy intervention to create access to information in published bio-medical research articles on ASD by distilling the content into parent-friendly English- and Spanish-language ASD…
Danker, Joanne; Strnadová, Iva; Cumming, Therese M.
Participant-driven photo-elicitation, a visual research technique, is commonly used with marginalised and vulnerable groups of individuals. Reflections on the use of this technique are illustrated through a study examining the conceptualisation of student wellbeing from the perspectives of teachers, parents, and students with autism spectrum…
Ward-King, Jessica; Cohen, Ira L.; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J. A.
The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised is one of the "gold standard" diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorders. It is traditionally administered face-to-face. Cost and geographical concerns constrain the employment of the ADI-R for large-scale research projects. The telephone interview is a reasonable alternative, but has not yet been…
Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.
Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…
Shaked, Michal; Yirmiya, Nurit
In this paper, we summarize some of our findings from a series of three meta-analyses and discuss their implications for autism research. In the first meta-analysis, we examined studies addressing the theory of mind hypothesis in autism. This analysis revealed that theory of mind disabilities are not unique to autism, although what may be unique is the severity of the dysfunction in this group. Variables such as the chronological and mental age of the participants, and the matching procedures that the researchers employed, were found to be significant moderator variables. In the next two meta-analyses, data regarding siblings and parents of individuals with autism were analyzed. Type of comparison group (e.g., siblings or parents of individuals with Down syndrome or learning disabilities) and type of outcome measure (cognitive, psychiatric, language) were found to be important moderator variables. Furthermore, method of assessing the psychiatric difficulties (e.g., self-report, clinical measures) was found to be a moderator variable in parents' meta-analysis. Suggestions for future research are discussed, highlighting variables such as type of comparison group, matching procedures, chronological and mental ages, gender, and birth order.
Arunachalam, Sudha; Luyster, Rhiannon J
Research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has rapidly expanded in recent years, yielding important developments in both theory and practice. While we have gained important insights into how children with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) children in terms of phenotypic features, less has been learned about if and how development in ASD differs from typical development in terms of underlying mechanisms of change. This article aims to provide a review of processes subserving lexical development in ASD, with the goal of identifying contributing factors to the heterogeneity of language outcomes in ASD. The focus is on available evidence of the integrity or disruption of these mechanisms in ASD, as well as their significance for vocabulary development; topics include early speech perception and preference, speech segmentation, word learning, and category formation. Significant gaps in the literature are identified and future directions are suggested. Autism Res 2016, 9: 810-828. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Grinker, Roy Richard; Chambers, Nola; Njongwe, Nono; Lagman, Adrienne E; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri; Richard, Bonnie O; Kauchali, Shuaib; Killian, Beverley; Chhagan, Meera; Yucel, Fikri; Kudumu, Mwenda; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Grether, Judith; Wetherby, Amy M
Little research has been conducted on behavioral characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from diverse cultures within the US, or from countries outside of the US or Europe, with little reliable information yet reported from developing countries. We describe the process used to engage diverse communities in ASD research in two community-based research projects-an epidemiologic investigation of 7- to 12-year olds in South Korea and the Early Autism Project, an ASD detection program for 18- to 36-month-old Zulu-speaking children in South Africa. Despite the differences in wealth between these communities, ASD is underdiagnosed in both settings, and generally not reported in clinical or educational records. Moreover, in both countries, there is low availability of services. In both cases, local knowledge helped researchers to address both ethnographic as well as practical problems. Researchers identified the ways in which these communities generate and negotiate the cultural meanings of developmental disorders. Researchers incorporated that knowledge, as they engaged communities in a research protocol, adapted and translated screening and diagnostic tools, and developed methods for screening, evaluating, and diagnosing children with ASD. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shochet, Ian M; Saggers, Beth R; Carrington, Suzanne B; Orr, Jayne A; Wurfl, Astrid M; Duncan, Bonnie M; Smith, Coral L
Despite an increased risk of mental health problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is limited research on effective prevention approaches for this population. Funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, a theoretically and empirically supported school-based preventative model has been developed to alter the negative trajectory and promote wellbeing and positive mental health in adolescents with ASD. This conceptual paper provides the rationale, theoretical, empirical and methodological framework of a multilayered intervention targeting the school, parents and adolescents on the spectrum. Two important interrelated protective factors have been identified in community adolescent samples, namely the sense of belonging (connectedness) to school and the capacity for self and affect regulation in the face of stress (i.e. resilience). We describe how a confluence of theories from social psychology, developmental psychology and family systems theory, along with empirical evidence (including emerging neurobiological evidence), supports the interrelationships between these protective factors and many indices of wellbeing. However, the characteristics of ASD (including social and communication difficulties, and frequently difficulties with changes and transitions, and diminished optimism and self-esteem) impair access to these vital protective factors. The paper describes how evidence-based interventions at the school level for promoting inclusive schools (using the Index for Inclusion) and interventions for adolescents and parents to promote resilience and belonging [using the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] are adapted and integrated for adolescents with ASD. This multisite proof-of-concept study will confirm whether this multilevel school-based intervention is promising, feasible and sustainable.
Lucas, Robert [University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute; Ang, James [Sandia National Laboratories; Bergman, Keren [Columbia University; Borkar, Shekhar [Intel; Carlson, William [Institute for Defense Analyses; Carrington, Laura [University of California, San Diego; Chiu, George [IBM; Colwell, Robert [DARPA; Dally, William [NVIDIA; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Geist, Al [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Haring, Rud [IBM; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Hoisie, Adolfy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Klein, Dean Micron; Kogge, Peter [University of Notre Dame; Lethin, Richard [Reservoir Labs; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Schreiber, Robert [Hewlett Packard; Shalf, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Sterling, Thomas [Indiana University; Stevens, Rick [Argonne National Laboratory; Bashor, Jon [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Brightwell, Ron [Sandia National Laboratories; Coteus, Paul [IBM; Debenedictus, Erik [Sandia National Laboratories; Hiller, Jon [Science and Technology Associates; Kim, K. H. [IBM; Langston, Harper [Reservoir Labs; Murphy, Richard Micron; Webster, Clayton [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Wild, Stefan [Argonne National Laboratory; Grider, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Rob [Argonne National Laboratory; Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory; Laros III, James [Sandia National Laboratories
Exascale computing systems are essential for the scientific fields that will transform the 21st century global economy, including energy, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and materials science. Progress in these fields is predicated on the ability to perform advanced scientific and engineering simulations, and analyze the deluge of data. On July 29, 2013, ASCAC was charged by Patricia Dehmer, the Acting Director of the Office of Science, to assemble a subcommittee to provide advice on exascale computing. This subcommittee was directed to return a list of no more than ten technical approaches (hardware and software) that will enable the development of a system that achieves the Department's goals for exascale computing. Numerous reports over the past few years have documented the technical challenges and the non¬-viability of simply scaling existing computer designs to reach exascale. The technical challenges revolve around energy consumption, memory performance, resilience, extreme concurrency, and big data. Drawing from these reports and more recent experience, this ASCAC subcommittee has identified the top ten computing technology advancements that are critical to making a capable, economically viable, exascale system.
van Middendorp, J J; Allison, H C; Ahuja, S; Bracher, D; Dyson, C; Fairbank, J; Gall, A; Glover, A; Gray, L; Masri, W El; Uttridge, A; Cowan, K
This is a mixed-method consensus development project. The objective of this study was to identify a top ten list of priorities for future research into spinal cord injury (SCI). The British Spinal Cord Injury Priority Setting Partnership was established in 2013 and completed in 2014. Stakeholders included consumer organisations, healthcare professional societies and caregivers. This partnership involved the following four key stages: (i) gathering of research questions, (ii) checking of existing research evidence, (iii) interim prioritisation and (iv) a final consensus meeting to reach agreement on the top ten research priorities. Adult individuals with spinal cord dysfunction because of trauma or non-traumatic causes, including transverse myelitis, and individuals with a cauda equina syndrome (henceforth grouped and referred to as SCI) were invited to participate in this priority setting partnership. We collected 784 questions from 403 survey respondents (290 individuals with SCI), which, after merging duplicate questions and checking systematic reviews for evidence, were reduced to 109 unique unanswered research questions. A total of 293 people (211 individuals with SCI) participated in the interim prioritisation process, leading to the identification of 25 priorities. At a final consensus meeting, a representative group of individuals with SCI, caregivers and health professionals agreed on their top ten research priorities. Following a comprehensive, rigorous and inclusive process, with participation from individuals with SCI, caregivers and health professionals, the SCI research agenda has been defined by people to whom it matters most and should inform the scope and future activities of funders and researchers for the years to come. The NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre provided core funding for this project.
Bayés, M; Ramos, J A; Cormand, B; Hervas-Zúñiga, A; del Campo, M; Duran-Tauleria, E; Ribasés, M; Vilella-Cuadrada, E; de Diego-Otero, Y; Casas-Brugué, M; Estivill, X
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two neuropsychiatric disorders beginning in childhood that present a high degree of familial aggregation. ASD is characterised by social interaction and communication disorders, whereas patients with ADHD display persistent inattention and/or hyperactive-impulsive behaviour. With the exception of a few cases of autism in which cytogenetic anomalies or mutations have been reported in specific genes, the aetiology of these diseases remains unknown. This is a group of multifactorial diseases with several genes having a lesser effect and there is also an environmental component. Genetic linkage studies have pointed to about 20 chromosomal regions that could well contain genes that grant susceptibility to autism, to ADHD or to both disorders. The challenge to researchers lies in the clinical characterisation, recruitment of patients with ASD and ADHD, gene dosage quantification studies, comparative genomic methylation and hybridisation in order to identify chromosomal rearrangements in patients with autism and severe mental retardation. Genotyping large SNP-type collections that are potentially functional in genes that are candidates for these disorders, based on pharmacological, biochemical and neuropathological data together with that coming from animal models and linkage studies in a wide collection of samples from patients and controls, will enable us to identify the genetic components of these pathologies and to define their biological foundations.
Tripathy, J P; Bhatnagar, A; Shewade, H D; Kumar, A M V; Zachariah, R; Harries, A D
Effective dissemination of evidence is important in bridging the gap between research and policy. In this paper, we list 10 approaches for improving the visibility of research findings, which in turn will hopefully contribute towards changes in policy. Current approaches include using social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn); sharing podcasts and other research outputs such as conference papers, posters, presentations, reports, protocols, preprint copy and research data (figshare, Zenodo, Slideshare, Scribd); and using personal blogs and unique author identifiers (ORCID, ResearcherID). Researchers and funders could consider drawing up a systematic plan for dissemination of research during the stage of protocol development.
Al-Jawahiri, Reem; Milne, Elizabeth
Recently, there has been a move encouraged by many stakeholders towards generating big, open data in many areas of research. One area where big, open data is particularly valuable is in research relating to complex heterogeneous disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The inconsistencies of findings and the great heterogeneity of ASD necessitate the use of big and open data to tackle important challenges such as understanding and defining the heterogeneity and potential subtypes of ASD. To this end, a number of initiatives have been established that aim to develop big and/or open data resources for autism research. In order to provide a useful data reference for autism researchers, a systematic search for ASD data resources was conducted using the Scopus database, the Google search engine, and the pages on 'recommended repositories' by key journals, and the findings were translated into a comprehensive list focused on ASD data. The aim of this review is to systematically search for all available ASD data resources providing the following data types: phenotypic, neuroimaging, human brain connectivity matrices, human brain statistical maps, biospecimens, and ASD participant recruitment. A total of 33 resources were found containing different types of data from varying numbers of participants. Description of the data available from each data resource, and links to each resource is provided. Moreover, key implications are addressed and underrepresented areas of data are identified.
Full Text Available Recently, there has been a move encouraged by many stakeholders towards generating big, open data in many areas of research. One area where big, open data is particularly valuable is in research relating to complex heterogeneous disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. The inconsistencies of findings and the great heterogeneity of ASD necessitate the use of big and open data to tackle important challenges such as understanding and defining the heterogeneity and potential subtypes of ASD. To this end, a number of initiatives have been established that aim to develop big and/or open data resources for autism research. In order to provide a useful data reference for autism researchers, a systematic search for ASD data resources was conducted using the Scopus database, the Google search engine, and the pages on ‘recommended repositories’ by key journals, and the findings were translated into a comprehensive list focused on ASD data. The aim of this review is to systematically search for all available ASD data resources providing the following data types: phenotypic, neuroimaging, human brain connectivity matrices, human brain statistical maps, biospecimens, and ASD participant recruitment. A total of 33 resources were found containing different types of data from varying numbers of participants. Description of the data available from each data resource, and links to each resource is provided. Moreover, key implications are addressed and underrepresented areas of data are identified.
Abstract Background \\'Compassionate use\\' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726\\/2004\\/EC is clear on the intentions of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that \\'compassionate use\\' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions \\'Compassionate use\\' is a misleading term and should be replaced with \\'expanded access\\'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes.
Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Nisantzi, Argyro; Papoutsa, Christiana; Tzouvaras, Marios; Neoclous, Kyriacos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Michaelides, Silas
This paper presents the achievements for the last 10 years of the Remote Sensing and Geo-Environment Laboratory of the Cyprus University of Technology in the Earth observation through the ERATOSTHENES Research Centre. Over the past 10 years, the Centre has secured competitive research funding from various sources, such as the European Commission, the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, as well as industrial partners, having participated either as a coordinator or as a partner in more than 60 research projects. The research activities of the Centre encompass remote sensing and GIS applications in the fields of Cultural Heritage, Agriculture, Water Resource Management, Environment, Infrastructure, Marine Spatial Planning, Atmospheric, Air Pollution and Coastal Applications, Natural Resource Management and Hazard Assessment. The aim of this paper is to map the existing activities and identify the future trends and goals of the Eratosthenes Research Centre for the next 15 years.
Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R
Autism is a disorder characterized by pervasive delays in the development of language and socialization, and the presence of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors or nonfunctional interests. Although a multitude of treatments for autism exist, very few have been the subject of scientific research. The only treatment that has been supported by substantial empirical research is treatment based on applied behavior analysis (ABA). This article describes components of comprehensive ABA treatment programs, reviews research on effectiveness, and discusses issues related to collaboration between ABA and psychiatry. ABA has been supported by several hundred single case experiments and an increasing number of between-groups studies. Comprehensive ABA treatment programs are comprised of multiple intervention procedures, such as discrete trial instruction and natural environment training, and are founded on basic principles of learning and motivation, such as positive reinforcement, extinction, stimulus control, and generalization. Clinicians in the fields of ABA and psychiatry have similar goals regarding client outcome, and several ABA measurement and analysis procedures produce information that may be useful to psychiatrists. ABA treatment programs for individuals with autism are supported by a significant amount of scientific evidence and are therefore recommended for use. Patient care would likely benefit from a greater degree of collaboration between practitioners in the fields of ABA and psychiatry.
Frimodt-Møller, Søren; Grund, Cynthia M.; Jensen, Kristoffer
This article briefly chronicles the history of the Nordic Network of Music Informatics, Performance and Aesthetics (NNIMIPA) and its roots in previous research networks and milieus. It explains how a cross-disciplinary network works and gives rise to research projects that bridge the gap between...
Yeung-Courchesne, R; Courchesne, E
The incomplete interface between remediation-oriented research and basic science research has hampered progress toward gaining insight into the etiologies of autism, despite the availability of abundant research data. Investigators of these two research domains differ in their background training and primary goals, which necessarily affect their missions, perspectives, research questions posed, methodologies selected, and interpretation of data from the research. Miscommunication between the two types of researchers has brought about disagreement on nearly every aspect of the research process. We discuss both sides of the impasse: a traditional clinical practice perspective based on the requirement for finding immediate answers to the remediation question and the basic science perspective with the goal of delineating the sequence of biological changes from the initial cause(s) of abnormal development to behavioral outcome. Although remediation-oriented research aims at alleviation of symptoms for today's patients, we propose that a basic science perspective seeks insight into the triggering causes and pathogenesis of the disorder from which better diagnosis and remediation may be devised for patients in the future. We suggest that research in autism can progress beyond the impasse of disagreement and competition toward information integration and insight by means of dialogue, data exchange, discussion, collaboration, and cooperation.
Freed, Rachel; Fitzgerald, Michael; Genet, Russell; Davidson, Brendan
The astronomy research seminar, initially designed and taught by Russell Genet at Cuesta College over the past decade, has resulted in over 100 published student research papers in the Journal of Double Star Observations along with dozens of other papers and conference presentations. While the seminar began at a single community college it has now spread to include students from dozens of institutions and instructors, reaching students from middle school through graduate school. The seminar has integrated the large community-of-practice of amateur and professional astronomers, educators, students, and hardware and software engineers while providing an important experience for student researchers. In this paper, we provide an overview analysis of 109 publications authored by 320 individual students involved in the astronomy research seminar over the last decade.
Freed, R.; Fitzgerald, M.; Genet, R.; Davidson, B.
(Abstract only) The astronomy research seminar, initially designed and taught by Russell Genet at Cuesta College over the past decade, has resulted in over 100 published student research papers in the Journal of Double Star Observations along with dozens of other papers and conference presentations. While the seminar began at a single community college, it has now spread to include students from dozens of institutions and instructors, reaching students from middle school through graduate school. The seminar has integrated the large community-of-practice of amateur and professional astronomers, educators, students, and hardware and software engineers while providing an important experience for student researchers. In this paper, we provide an overview analysis of 109 publications authored by 320 individual students involved in the astronomy research seminar over the last decade.
Salvaterra, Elena; Giorda, Roberto; Bassi, Maria Teresa
and data handling, and return of results as faced in 10 European countries. Because of the lack of comparative analyses of these topics, a pilot study was designed. Following a qualitative methodology, a questionnaire draft mostly including open-ended queries was developed, tested, and sent by e...... such as decision making, privacy protection, minor recontact, and research withdrawal by focusing on theoretical or empirical perspectives. Our research attempted to analyze such issues in a comprehensive manner by exploring practices, rules, and researcher opinions regarding proxy consent, minor assent, specimens......-mail to a selected group of researchers dealing with pediatric biobanking (n=57). Returned questionnaires (n=31) highlighted that the collection, storage, distribution, and use of biospecimens and data from children were widely practiced in the contacted laboratories. In most cases, pediatric biobanking...
Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] The paper analyzes the 542 literatures related to knowledge organizations in 2007-2016, which are included in the core database of Web of ScienceTM, and aims to grasp the current research situation in this field and provides references for domestic relevant research. [Method/process] Based on the method of bibliometrics, the CiteSpace software was used to analyze and draw the knowledge map from the aspects of annual issuers, authors, countries and research institutions, keywords, co-citation and so on. [Result/conclusion] The results show that authors the most publications are B. Hjorland, I. Dahlberg , V. Broughton etc; the cooperation between researchers and institutions is relatively rare; knowledge organization research areas focus on the knowledge organization itself and classification, ontology and so on; B. Hjorland, H.A. Olson, I. Nonaka and other cited scholars and their cited literatures have high influence on this theme; Knowledge Organization, Journal of Documentation is most important journals for the knowledge organization.
Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Krensky, Alan M; Turka, Laurence A; Rotrosen, Daniel; Matthews, Jeffrey B
The U.S. National Institutes of Health Roadmap and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Critical Path Initiative have endorsed the establishment of large academic clinical research networks as part of the solution to the growing divide between increased R&D spending and the lagging number of new drugs making it to market. Clearly, the role of these networks as translational science incubators that complement industry-sponsored programs is laudable and much-needed. However, the path to success for such organizations is less clear. Here, drawing on the experiences of the Immune Tolerance Network, a multidisciplinary clinical research network founded in 1999, we discuss some of the barriers inherent in developing such consortia and offer firsthand insight into the planning, resources, and organizational infrastructure required for a successful research program.
Pierce, Nigel P.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sorrells, Audrey M.; Fragale, Christina L.; White, Pamela J.; Aguilar, Jeannie M.; Cole, Heather A.
This review examines ethnicity reporting in three autism-related journals ("Autism," "Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities," and "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders") over a 6-year period. A comprehensive multistep search of articles is used to identify ethnicity as a demographic variable in…
Globally, pulses—legumes such as peas, beans, or lentils—are essential to achieving resilient agricultural systems and healthy diets. However, there remains a large gap between current pulse production and the significant potential of pulse crops for meeting global sustainability challenges. In particular, research funding ...
Keeney, Sinead; Hasson, Felicity; McKenna, Hugh
The aim of this paper was to provide insight into the Delphi technique by outlining our personal experiences during its use over a 10-year period in a variety of applications. As a means of achieving consensus on an issue, the Delphi research method has become widely used in healthcare research generally and nursing research in particular. The literature on this technique is expanding, mainly addressing what it is and how it should be used. However, there is still much confusion and uncertainty surrounding it, particularly about issues such as modifications, consensus, anonymity, definition of experts, how 'experts' are selected and how non-respondents are pursued. This issues that arise when planning and carrying out a Delphi study include the definition of consensus; the issue of anonymity vs. quasi-anonymity for participants; how to estimate the time needed to collect the data, analyse each 'round', feed back results to participants, and gain their responses to this feedback; how to define and select the 'experts' who will be asked to participate; how to enhance response rates; and how many 'rounds' to conduct. Many challenges and questions are raised when using the Delphi technique, but there is no doubt that it is an important method for achieving consensus on issues where none previously existed. Researchers need to adapt the method to suit their particular study.
Mikropoulos, Tassos; Natsis, Antonios
value of VR and incorporate their learning goals in Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). Although VR supports multisensory interaction channels, visual representations predominate. Few are the studies that incorporate intuitive interactivity, indicating a research trend in this direction. Few...... are the settings that use immersive EVEs reporting positive results on users’ attitudes and learning outcomes, indicating that there is a need for further research on the capabilities of such systems. Features of VR that contribute to learning such as first order experiences, natural semantics, size, transduction......, reification, autonomy and presence are exploited according to the educational context and content. Presence seems to play an important role in learning and it is a subject needing further and intensive studies. Constructivism seems to be the theoretical model the majority of the EVEs are based on. The studies...
Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; Zyoud, Sa'ed H
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group conditions classified as neuro-developmental disorders. Research activity on ASD is important for all countries since such disorders have both social and health consequences. The objective of this study was to analyze research output on ASD during the period 2005-2014. All articles relevant to ASD plus all articles published in autism journals were retrieved using Scopus database. VOSviewer software was used to create density and network visualization maps. Bibliometric indicators were investigated by analyzing annual research output, languages, countries, institutions, journals, title terms, highly cited articles, and co-authorship relations. A progressive annual growth of ASD research was observed from 2005 to 2014. During this period, a total of 18,490 articles were retrieved. The majority of these articles was published in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders with 48,416 citations and an average citation of 23.59 citations per article. The countries that published the largest number of articles were the United States (US) (n = 8594; 46.48 %), United Kingdom (n = 2430; 13.14 %) and Canada (n = 1077; 5.8 %). International collaborations produced 30.18 % of the articles published by top 10 productive countries. King's College London (UK) ranked first in number of publications and total citations. The top 10 list of productive institutions was dominated by US academic and research institutions. More than half of the highly cited articles were in the field of molecular genetics. Articles with more than 50 citations were published mainly by authors from USA, UK and Canada. There is a worldwide growth of publications on ASD led by countries in Northern America and Europe. Retrieved articles were published in a wide range of journals. Molecular genetics of ASD is the primary hot topic on ASD. For some leading countries, intra country collaboration is dominant.
Kern, Janet K; Geier, David A; Deth, Richard C; Sykes, Lisa K; Hooker, Brian S; Love, James M; Bjørklund, Geir; Chaigneau, Carmen G; Haley, Boyd E; Geier, Mark R
Historically, entities with a vested interest in a product that critics have suggested is harmful have consistently used research to back their claims that the product is safe. Prominent examples are: tobacco, lead, bisphenol A, and atrazine. Research literature indicates that about 80-90 % of studies with industry affiliation found no harm from the product, while only about 10-20 % of studies without industry affiliation found no harm. In parallel to other historical debates, recent studies examining a possible relationship between mercury (Hg) exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a similar dichotomy. Studies sponsored and supported by industry or entities with an apparent conflict of interest have most often shown no evidence of harm or no "consistent" evidence of harm, while studies without such affiliations report positive evidence of a Hg/autism association. The potentially causal relationship between Hg exposure and ASD differs from other toxic products since there is a broad coalition of entities for whom a conflict of interest arises. These include influential governmental public health entities, the pharmaceutical industry, and even the coal burning industry. This review includes a systematic literature search of original studies on the potential relationship between Hg and ASD from 1999 to date, finding that of the studies with public health and/or industry affiliation, 86 % reported no relationship between Hg and ASD. However, among studies without public health and/or industry affiliation, only 19 % find no relationship between Hg and ASD. The discrepancy in these results suggests a bias indicative of a conflict of interest.
Kern, Janet K; Geier, David A; Deth, Richard C; Sykes, Lisa K; Hooker, Brian S; Love, James M; Bjørklund, Geir; Chaigneau, Carmen G; Haley, Boyd E; Geier, Mark R
Historically, entities with a vested interest in a product that critics have suggested is harmful have consistently used research to back their claims that the product is safe. Prominent examples are: tobacco, lead, bisphenol A, and atrazine. Research literature indicates that about 80-90% of studies with industry affiliation found no harm from the product, while only about 10-20% of studies without industry affiliation found no harm. In parallel to other historical debates, recent studies examining a possible relationship between mercury (Hg) exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a similar dichotomy. Studies sponsored and supported by industry or entities with an apparent conflict of interest have most often shown no evidence of harm or no "consistent" evidence of harm, while studies without such affiliations report positive evidence of a Hg/autism association. The potentially causal relationship between Hg exposure and ASD differs from other toxic products since there is a broad coalition of entities for whom a conflict of interest arises. These include influential governmental public health entities, the pharmaceutical industry, and even the coal burning industry. This review includes a systematic literature search of original studies on the potential relationship between Hg and ASD from 1999 to August 2015, finding that of the studies with public health and/or industry affiliation, 86% reported no relationship between Hg and ASD. However, among studies without public health and/or industry affiliation, only 21% find no relationship between Hg and ASD. The discrepancy in these results suggests a bias indicative of a conflict of interest.
Ravet, Jackie; Williams, Justin H. G.
Background: Knowledge about the brain has been growing rapidly since the 1990s as a result of developments in neuroscientific research linked to improvements in functional neuroimaging and other brain imaging technologies. As the brain is the "principal organ involved in learning" (1), it would seem reasonable to assume that education…
Greenberg, Alissa L.
Despite expansive improvements in both treatments and research, the majority of persons with autism use non-empirically supported interventions. One way to decrease the research-to-practice gap involves increasing the direct applicability of research findings to clinical settings. Effectiveness research achieves this goal by identifying treatments…
Torgerson, Carinna M; Quinn, Catherine; Dinov, Ivo; Liu, Zhizhong; Petrosyan, Petros; Pelphrey, Kevin; Haselgrove, Christian; Kennedy, David N; Toga, Arthur W; Van Horn, John Darrell
Under the umbrella of the National Database for Clinical Trials (NDCT) related to mental illnesses, the National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) seeks to gather, curate, and make openly available neuroimaging data from NIH-funded studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). NDAR has recently made its database accessible through the LONI Pipeline workflow design and execution environment to enable large-scale analyses of cortical architecture and function via local, cluster, or "cloud"-based computing resources. This presents a unique opportunity to overcome many of the customary limitations to fostering biomedical neuroimaging as a science of discovery. Providing open access to primary neuroimaging data, workflow methods, and high-performance computing will increase uniformity in data collection protocols, encourage greater reliability of published data, results replication, and broaden the range of researchers now able to perform larger studies than ever before. To illustrate the use of NDAR and LONI Pipeline for performing several commonly performed neuroimaging processing steps and analyses, this paper presents example workflows useful for ASD neuroimaging researchers seeking to begin using this valuable combination of online data and computational resources. We discuss the utility of such database and workflow processing interactivity as a motivation for the sharing of additional primary data in ASD research and elsewhere.
This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for ‘mental defectives’ and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081
McDonald, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Batey, J.E. [Energy Research Center (United States)
This report summarizes a joint research agenda planned for the US Department of Energy and the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) under a cooperative effort between the Federal government and the private sector industries involved in oilheat marketing. The objective of the oilheat research program is to develop the technical basis for improved equipment designs and operating strategies based on an enhanced understanding of oil-burning fundamentals, heat transfer, and associated environmental factors. The program will continue to provide the oil-fueled heating equipment industry with the basis for developing a new, modern generation of equipment and provide the oil marketers, equipment installers, and consumers with improved knowledge of how best to install, maintain, and operate such equipment for maximum performance and minimum fuel use and environmental impact.
Torgerson, Carinna M.; Quinn, Catherine; Dinov, Ivo; Liu, Zhizhong; Petrosyan, Petros; Pelphrey, Kevin; Haselgrove, Christian; Kennedy, David N.; Toga, Arthur W.; Van Horn, John Darrell
The National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) seeks to gather, curate, and make openly available neuroimaging data from NIH-funded studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). NDAR has recently made its database accessible through the LONI Pipeline processing environment to enable large-scale analyses of cortical architecture and function via local, cluster, or “cloud”-based computing resources. This presents a unique opportunity to overcome many of the customary limitations to fostering biomedical neuroimaging as a science of discovery. Providing open access to primary neuroimaging data, workflow methods, and high-performance computing will increase uniformity in data collection protocols, encourage greater reliability of published data, results replication, and broaden the range of researchers now able to perform larger studies than ever before. To illustrate the use of NDAR and LONI Pipeline for performing several commonly performed neuroimaging processing steps and analyses, this paper presents example workflows useful for ASD neuroimaging researchers seeking to begin using this valuable combination of online data and computational resources. PMID:25666423
Cowan, Richard J.; Abel, Leah; Candel, Lindsay
We conducted a meta-analysis of single-subject research studies investigating the effectiveness of antecedent strategies grounded in behavioral momentum for improving compliance and on-task performance for students with autism. First, we assessed the research rigor of those studies meeting our inclusionary criteria. Next, in order to apply a…
Purpose: To review and assess theory and research supporting DIR/Floortime™, a method proposed for treatment of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods: Published materials describing the principles of DIR/Floortime™were evaluated. Published outcome research articles were assessed for the adequacy of their design and…
Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard
methodological perspective on the study of problems in communication and strive towards a more humanized methodology. The claim is that the standard clinical discourse in relation to e.g. autism covers only an isolated concept of mind and thus of autism. As it is discussed in this article, studies in autism rely...
Jack, Allison; Pelphrey, Kevin A.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions that vary in both etiology and phenotypic expression. Expressions of ASD characterized by a more severe phenotype, including autism with intellectual disability (ASD + ID), autism with a history of developmental regression (ASD + R), and minimally verbal…
Compart, Pamela J.
Autism has been classically defined by its behavioral symptoms. Traditional medical research has focused on genetic or intrinsic brain-based causes of autism. While both of these are important, additional research has focused on the underlying disordered biochemistry seen in many individuals with autism. Many of these biomedical factors are amenable to treatment. This article will review the main pathophysiologic factors seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.
Lord, Catherine; Jones, Rebecca M
The nosology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is at a critical point in history as the field seeks to better define dimensions of social-communication deficits and restricted/repetitive behaviors on an individual level for both clinical and neurobiological purposes. These different dimensions also suggest an increasing need for quantitative measures that accurately map their differences, independent of developmental factors such as age, language level and IQ. Psychometric measures, clinical observation as well as genetic, neurobiological and physiological research from toddlers, children and adults with ASD are reviewed. The question of how to conceptualize ASDs along dimensions versus categories is discussed within the nosology of autism and the proposed changes to the DSM-5 and ICD-11. Differences across development are incorporated into the new classification frameworks. It is crucial to balance the needs of clinical practice in ASD diagnostic systems, with neurobiologically based theories that address the associations between social-communication and restricted/repetitive dimensions in individuals. Clarifying terminology, improving description of the core features of ASD and other dimensions that interact with them and providing more valid and reliable ways to quantify them, both for research and clinical purposes, will move forward both practice and science. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
The paper uses both the author's experience of research training, and the empirical studies of autism in which he participated over the last 40-plus years, to derive research lessons and to consider the needs and prospects for future research. Attention is drawn to: the importance of mentors; the need to use technologies in a hypothesis-testing fashion; the important of possible creative/innovative leaps and of recognition of the unexpected; the need to ask challenging questions and to recognize when the original ideas were mistaken. There is great value in broadening the scientific strategies used to investigate a particular condition and much is to be gained by deliberately seeking parallels with other conditions.
Lisa Marie Unwin
Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are currently diagnosed in the presence of impairments in social interaction and communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. However, there is considerable variability in the behaviours of different individuals with an ASD diagnosis. The heterogeneity spans the entire range of IQ and language abilities, as well as other behavioural, communicative and social functions. While any psychiatric condition is likely to incorporate a degree of heterogeneity, the variability in the nature and severity of behaviours observed in ASD is thought to exceed that of other disorders. The current paper aims to provide a model for future research into ASD subgroups. In doing so, we examined whether two proposed risk factors – low birth weight (LBW, and in-utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs – are associated with greater behavioural homogeneity. Using data from the Western Australian Autism Biological Registry, this study found that LBW and maternal SSRI use during pregnancy were associated with greater sleep disturbances and a greater number of gastrointestinal complaints in children with ASD, respectively. The findings from this ‘proof of principle’ paper provide support for this 'bottom-up' approach as a feasible method for creating homogenous groups.
Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika
Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…
Barbaresi, William J; Colligan, Robert C; Weaver, Amy L; Katusic, Slavica K
Autism prevalence studies have often relied on administrative prevalence or clinical diagnosis as case-identification strategies. We report the incidence of clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), versus research-identified autism among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, age 1997. The incidence of clinically diagnosed ASD (with 95% CI) was 1.5 per 100,000 (0.0-3.7) in 1980-1983 and 33.1 (22.8-43.3) in 1995-1997, a 22.1-fold increase. In contrast, the incidence of research-identified autism increased from 5.5 (1.4-9.5) per 100,000 to 44.9 (32.9-56.9), an 8.2-fold increase. Only 46.8% of research-identified cases received a clinical diagnosis of ASD. These findings demonstrate the potential for misleading interpretation of results from epidemiologic studies that rely on clinical diagnosis of autism to identify cases.
Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna
Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...
Kalb, Luther G; Cohen, Cheryl; Lehmann, Harold; Law, Paul
To evaluate non-response rates to follow-up online surveys using a prospective cohort of parents raising at least one child with an autism spectrum disorder. A secondary objective was to investigate predictors of non-response over time. Data were collected from a US-based online research database, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). A total of 19,497 youths, aged 1.9-19 years (mean 9 years, SD 3.94), were included in the present study. Response to three follow-up surveys, solicited from parents after baseline enrollment, served as the outcome measures. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were then used to examine predictors of non-response. 31,216 survey instances were examined, of which 8772 or 28.1% were partly or completely responded to. Results from the multivariate model found non-response of baseline surveys (OR 28.0), years since enrollment in the online protocol (OR 2.06), and numerous sociodemographic characteristics were associated with non-response to follow-up surveys (all p<0.05). Consistent with the current literature, response rates to online surveys were somewhat low. While many demographic characteristics were associated with non-response, time since registration and participation at baseline played the greatest role in predicting follow-up survey non-response. An important hazard to the generalizability of findings from research is non-response bias; however, little is known about this problem in longitudinal internet-mediated research (IMR). This study sheds new light on important predictors of longitudinal response rates that should be considered before launching a prospective IMR study.
Sharif Khajehpasha, Sepideh; Sharifi M, Ebrahim Samin; Arezoumand, Hadi; Saeidi M, Kamal
Lately many researches have done in relation to the link between architecture and autism or the autism likely environments which show that architecture could be effective in the states of the children suffering from autism disorders. The education center for the autism children need special spaces for education and treatment. Surveys in many Asian countries show that most of the care centers of the children suffering from autism are created by the changing the use of the spaces like houses or...
Retico, Alessandra; Arezzini, Silvia; Bosco, Paolo; Calderoni, Sara; Ciampa, Alberto; Coscetti, Simone; Cuomo, Stefano; De Santis, Luca; Fabiani, Dario; Fantacci, Maria Evelina; Giuliano, Alessia; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mercatali, Pietro; Miscali, Giovanni; Pardini, Massimiliano; Prosperi, Margherita; Romano, Francesco; Tamburini, Elena; Tosetti, Michela; Muratori, Filippo
The complexity and heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) require the implementation of dedicated analysis techniques to obtain the maximum from the interrelationship among many variables that describe affected individuals, spanning from clinical phenotypic characterization and genetic profile to structural and functional brain images. The ARIANNA project has developed a collaborative interdisciplinary research environment that is easily accessible to the community of researchers working on ASD (https://arianna.pi.infn.it). The main goals of the project are: to analyze neuroimaging data acquired in multiple sites with multivariate approaches based on machine learning; to detect structural and functional brain characteristics that allow the distinguishing of individuals with ASD from control subjects; to identify neuroimaging-based criteria to stratify the population with ASD to support the future development of personalized treatments. Secure data handling and storage are guaranteed within the project, as well as the access to fast grid/cloud-based computational resources. This paper outlines the web-based architecture, the computing infrastructure and the collaborative analysis workflows at the basis of the ARIANNA interdisciplinary working environment. It also demonstrates the full functionality of the research platform. The availability of this innovative working environment for analyzing clinical and neuroimaging information of individuals with ASD is expected to support researchers in disentangling complex data thus facilitating their interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Varanda, Cristina de Andrade; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda
Abstract Autism is defined by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction in multiple contexts as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. There are also reported difficulties in the dynamic activation and modification of cognitive processes in response to changes in tasks’ demands. Such difficulties are believed to be due to poor flexible cognition. This research aimed to assess and intervene in cognitive flexibility in subjects with autism. Ten subjects...
Mevel, Katell; Fransson, Peter; Bölte, Sven
Current evidence suggests the phenotype of autism spectrum disorder to be driven by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors impacting onto brain maturation, synaptic function, and cortical networks. However, findings are heterogeneous, and the exact neurobiological pathways of autism spectrum disorder still remain poorly…
Mazefsky, Carla A.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with emotional distress and psychiatric comorbidities. Atypical emotion regulation (ER) may underlie these accompanying features. This special issue of the "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders" presents a series of mechanistic and applied papers on ER and emotional experiences…
Kostyuk, Nataliya; Rajnarayanan, Rajendram V; Isokpehi, Raphael D; Cohly, Hari H
The aim of this pilot study was to test autistic children, siblings and their parents using a biometric device based on the gas discharge visualization (GDV) technique in order to assess their psycho-emotional and physiological functional state based on the activity of the autonomic nervous system. We hypothesize that the biometric assessment based on GDV will enable us: (1) to evaluate some specific features associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as to compare autistic children to their siblings and to controls; (2) to analyze the differences in individual values of parents of autistic children versus parents of normal children. Out of total of 48 acupuncture points present on ten fingertips of both hands and associated to organs/organ systems, autistic children differed significantly from controls (p autism. The biometric method based on GDV is a promising step in autism research that may lead towards creating a disease profile and identify unique signature/biomarker for autism. Further work should involve more participants in order to augment our findings.
Happé, F G
The unusually uneven intelligence test profile found in autism has been consistently replicated. However, few psychological theories of autism give prominence to this feature. Nor is it clear how currently influential theories, such as the theory of mind account or the executive function hypothesis, can explain the marked peaks and troughs found in the performance of both high- and low-functioning individuals with autism. The present study reports the pattern of Wechsler subtest results for subjects with autism who do or do not pass standard theory of mind tasks. The results suggest that while difficulty with the Comprehension subtest may reflect poor theory of mind, relative skill on the Block Design subtest is characteristic of subjects with autism regardless of theory of mind performance. Implications of this finding for the central coherence hypothesis are considered.
Whitfield, Kate; Huemer, Karl-Heinz; Winter, Diana
'Compassionate use' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten ...
Introduction. There are many goals of cultural psychology. Research with a focus on culture itself is concerned with thought processes within members of a particular culture and how those thought processes are similar and different between cultures. For this research, culture is a crucial variable because culture itself is the ...
... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...
... What is Autism? Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Living ... What is Autism? Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Living ...
Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Jackson, Kelley M.; Maxim, Rolanda A.; Bosworth, Christopher C.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Constantino, John N.
African American children with autism are seriously under-represented in existing genetic registries and biomedical research studies of autism. We estimated the number of African American children with autism in the St. Louis region using CDC surveillance data and present the outcomes of a concerted effort to enroll approximately one-third of that population into either of two large national genetic autism registries. The results revealed that even after traditional barriers to research participation were addressed and all contacted families expressed a willingness to participate, 67% of the reachable families were disqualified from participation because of family structure alone. Comprehensive efforts—including expansion of eligibility to families of diverse structure—are warranted to facilitate the inclusion of African American children in biomedical research. PMID:19936905
Full Text Available As the first individualization-information processing equipment put into practical service worldwide, Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS has always been regarded as the first choice in individualization of criminal suspects or those who died in mass disasters. By integrating data within the existing regional large-scale AFIS database, many countries are constructing an ultra large state-of-the-art AFIS (or Imperial Scale AFIS system. Therefore, it is very important to develop a series of ten-print data quality controlling process for this system of this type, which would insure a substantial matching efficiency, as the pouring data come into this imperial scale being. As the image quality of ten-print data is closely relevant to AFIS matching proficiency, a lot of police departments have allocated huge amount of human and financial resources over this issue by carrying out manual verification works for years. Unfortunately, quality control method above is always proved to be inadequate because it is an astronomical task involved, in which it has always been problematic and less affiant for potential errors. Hence, we will implement quality control in the above procedure with supplementary-acquisition effect caused by the delay of feedback instructions sent from the human verification teams. In this article, a series of fingerprint image quality supervising techniques has been put forward, which makes it possible for computer programs to supervise the ten-print image quality in real-time and more accurate manner as substitute for traditional manual verifications. Besides its prominent advantages in the human and financial expenditures, it has also been proved to obviously improve the image quality of the AFIS ten-print database, which leads up to a dramatic improvement in the AFIS-matching accuracy as well.
Freitag, Christine M
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in DSM-5 comprises the former DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and PDD-nos. The criteria for ASD in DSM-5 were considerably revised from those of ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR. The present article compares the diagnostic criteria, presents studies on the validity and reliability of ASD, and discusses open questions. It ends with a clinical and research perspective.
Rogers, Tiffany D; McKimm, Eric; Dickson, Price E; Goldowitz, Dan; Blaha, Charles D; Mittleman, Guy
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social skills and communication, stereotyped and repetitive behavior, and a range of deficits in cognitive function...
Johnson, Mark H.; Gliga, Teodora; Jones, Emily; Charman, Tony
BackgroundAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, with a high degree of co-occurrence.MethodsProspective longitudinal studies of infants who later meet criteria for ASD or ADHD offer the opportunity to determine whether the two disorders share developmental pathways.ResultsProspective studies of younger siblings of children with autism have revealed a range of infant behavioral and neural mark...
Acab, Allan; Muotri, Alysson Renato
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders sharing a core set of symptoms, including impaired social interaction, language deficits, and repetitive behaviors. While ASDs are highly heritable and demonstrate a clear genetic component, the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving ASD etiology remain undefined. The unavailability of live patient-specific neurons has contributed to the difficulty in studying ASD pathophysiology. The recent advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has provided the ability to generate patient-specific human neurons from somatic cells. The iPSC field has quickly grown, as researchers have demonstrated the utility of this technology to model several diseases, especially neurologic disorders. Here, we review the current literature around using iPSCs to model ASDs, and discuss the notable findings, and the promise and limitations of this technology. The recent report of a nonsyndromic ASD iPSC model and several previous ASD models demonstrating similar results points to the ability of iPSC to reveal potential novel biomarkers and therapeutics.
Hoang, Ny; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Scherer, Stephen W
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) share characteristics (impairments in socialization and communication, and repetitive interests and behaviour), but differ in their developmental course, pattern of symptoms, and cognitive and language abilities. The development of standardized phenotyping has revealed ASD to clinically be vastly heterogeneous, ranging from milder presentations to more severe forms associated with profound intellectual disability. Some 100 genes have now been implicated in the etiology of ASD, and advances in genome-wide testing continue to yield new data at an unprecedented rate. As the translation of this data is incorporated into clinical care, genetic professionals/counsellors, as well as other health care providers, will benefit from guidelines and tools to effectively communicate such genomic information. Here, we present a model to facilitate communication regarding the complexities of ASD, where clinical and genetic heterogeneity, as well as overlapping neurological conditions are inherent. We outline an approach for counselling families about their genomic results grounded in our direct experience from counselling families participating in an ASD research study, and supported by rationale from the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.
Background and Scope The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to involve the neuropeptide oxytocin. Here, we review the evidence for oxytocin effects in ASD, and discuss its potential role in one important social cognitive behavior. Methods Systematic searches were conducted using the PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases and the search terms “oxytocin”, and “autism”; the same databases were used for separate searches for “joint attention”, “intervention”, and “autism”, using the same inclusion criteria as an earlier 2011 review but updating it for the period 2010 to October 2012. Findings Several studies suggest that giving oxytocin to both individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals can enhance performance on social cognitive tasks. Studies that have attempted to intervene in joint attention in ASD suggest that social motivation may be a particular obstacle to lasting effects. Conclusions The review of the evidence for the SMH suggests a potential role for oxytocin in social motivation deficits in ASD. Because of its importance for later communicative and social development, the focus here is on implications of oxytocin and social motivation in the development of and interventions in joint attention. Joint attention is a central impairment in ASD, and as a result is the focus of several behavioral interventions. In describing this previous research on joint attention interventions in ASD, we pay particular attention to problems encountered in such studies, and propose ways that oxytocin may facilitate behavioral intervention in this area. For future research, integrating behavioral and pharmacological interventions (oxytocin administration) would be a worthwhile
London, E A
Autism is one of a group of developmental disorders that have devastating lifelong effects on its victims. Despite the severity of the disease and the fact that it is relatively common (15 in 10,000), there is still little understanding of its etiology. Although believed to be highly genetic, no abnormal genes have been found. Recent findings in autism and in related disorders point to the possibility that the disease is caused by a gene-environment interaction. Epidemiologic studies indicate that the number of cases of autism is increasing dramatically each year. It is not clear whether this is due to a real increase in the disease or whether this is an artifact of ascertainment. A new theory regarding the etiology of autism suggests that it may be a disease of very early fetal development (approximately day 20-24 of gestation). This theory has initiated new lines of investigation into developmental genes. Environmental exposures during pregnancy could cause or contribute to autism based on the neurobiology of these genes.
Schroeder, Jessica H; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Bebko, James M; Pepler, Debra J; Weiss, Jonathan A
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. As a result, individuals with ASD are at an increased risk of bullying victimization, compared to typically developing peers. This paper reviews the literature that has emerged over the past decade regarding prevalence of bullying involvement in the ASD population, as well as associated psychosocial factors. Directions for future research are suggested, including areas of research that are currently unexplored or underdeveloped. Methodological issues such as defining and measuring bullying, as well as informant validity and reliability, are considered. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Schendel, Diana E.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Croen, Lisa A.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Reed, Philip L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Wiggins, Lisa D.; Daniels, Julie; Grether, Judith; Levy, Susan E.; Miller, Lisa; Newschaffer, Craig; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Robinson, Cordelia; Windham, Gayle C.; Alexander, Aimee; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Bernal, Pilar; Bonner, Joseph D.; Blaskey, Lisa; Bradley, Chyrise; Collins, Jack; Ferretti, Casara J.; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Giarelli, Ellen; Harvey, Marques; Hepburn, Susan; Herr, Matthew; Kaparich, Kristina; Landa, Rebecca; Lee, Li-Ching; Levenseller, Brooke; Meyerer, Stacey; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Ratchford, Andria; Reynolds, Ann; Rosenberg, Steven; Rusyniak, Julie; Shapira, Stuart K.; Smith, Karen; Souders, Margaret; Thompson, Patrick Aaron; Young, Lisa; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multisite investigation addressing knowledge gaps in autism phenotype and etiology, aims to: (1) characterize the autism behavioral phenotype and associated developmental, medical, and behavioral conditions and (2) investigate genetic and environmental risks with emphasis on immunologic, hormonal,…
Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Lewis, Karyn; Feder, Joshua D.; Reed, Sarah
This article describes the formation and initial outcomes of a research-community collaborative group that was developed based on community-based participatory research principles. The group includes a transdisciplinary team of practitioners, funding agency representatives, researchers, and families of children with autism spectrum disorders, who…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is one of many federal agencies working to understand autism. The NICHD supports and conducts research on what causes autism, how many people have autism, how best to treat…
Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.
Background and Scope: The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to…
Lord, Catherine; Jones, Rebecca M.
Background: The nosology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is at a critical point in history as the field seeks to better define dimensions of social-communication deficits and restricted/repetitive behaviors on an individual level for both clinical and neurobiological purposes. These different dimensions also suggest an increasing need for…
Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.
The ability to understand the goals and intentions behind other people's actions is central to many social interactions. Given the profound social difficulties seen in autism, we might expect goal understanding to be impaired in these individuals. Two influential theories, the "broken mirror" theory and the mentalising theory, can both predict…
Elsabbagh, Mayada; Yusuf, Afiqah; Prasanna, Shreya; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Ruff, Crystal A.; Fehlings, Michael G.
The last decade has seen significant growth in scientific understanding and public awareness of autism. There is still a long road ahead before this awareness can be matched with parallel improvements in evidence-based practice. The process of translating evidence into community care has been hampered by the seeming disconnect between the…
Goodwin, Matthew S.
In their article, Kimball and Smith nicely articulated the benefits and challenges of creating computer technology to support individuals with autism. They also provided a well-devised three-point plan to stimulate and support progress in technology development for this population. As a follow-up to their article, this article expands the…
Background Interaction programs involving dolphins and patients with various pathologies or developmental disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment, autism, atopic dermatitis, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression) have stimulated interest in their beneficial effects and therapeutic potential. However, the true effects observed in different clinical and psycho-educational setups are still controversial. Results An evaluation protocol consisting of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Psychoeducational Profile-Revised (PEP-R), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), Theory of Mind Tasks (ToM Tasks) and a custom-made Interaction Evaluation Grid (IEG) to evaluate behavioural complexity during in-pool interactions was applied to 10 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The ATEC, ToM Tasks and CARS results show no benefits of the dolphin interaction program. Interestingly, the PEP-R suggests some statistically significant effects on ‘Overall development score’, as well as on their ‘Fine motor development’, ‘Cognitive performance’ and ‘Cognitive verbal development’. Also, a significant evolution in behavioural complexity was shown by the IEG. Conclusions This study does not support significant developmental progress resulting from the dolphin interaction program. PMID:22537536
Salgueiro, Emílio; Nunes, Laura; Barros, Alexandra; Maroco, João; Salgueiro, Ana Isabel; Dos Santos, Manuel E
Interaction programs involving dolphins and patients with various pathologies or developmental disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment, autism, atopic dermatitis, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression) have stimulated interest in their beneficial effects and therapeutic potential. However, the true effects observed in different clinical and psycho-educational setups are still controversial. An evaluation protocol consisting of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Psychoeducational Profile-Revised (PEP-R), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), Theory of Mind Tasks (ToM Tasks) and a custom-made Interaction Evaluation Grid (IEG) to evaluate behavioural complexity during in-pool interactions was applied to 10 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The ATEC, ToM Tasks and CARS results show no benefits of the dolphin interaction program. Interestingly, the PEP-R suggests some statistically significant effects on 'Overall development score', as well as on their 'Fine motor development', 'Cognitive performance' and 'Cognitive verbal development'. Also, a significant evolution in behavioural complexity was shown by the IEG. This study does not support significant developmental progress resulting from the dolphin interaction program.
McCleery, Joseph P.
The purpose of this letter to the editor is to comment on several review papers recently published in the current "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Special Issue on Technology: Software, Robotics, and Translational Science." These reviews address a variety of aspects relating to technology-aided intervention and instruction…
El Zein, Farah; Solis, Michael; Vaughn, Sharon; McCulley, Lisa
The authors synthesized reading intervention studies conducted between 1980 and 2012 with K-12 students identified with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nine single-subject design studies, one quasi-experimental study, and two single-group design studies met the criteria for inclusion. Findings from the studies indicate that modifying…
Johnson, Mark H.; Gliga, Teodora; Jones, Emily; Charman, Tony
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, with a high degree of co-occurrence. Methods: Prospective longitudinal studies of infants who later meet criteria for ASD or ADHD offer the opportunity to determine whether the two disorders share…
Abubakar, Amina; Ssewanyana, Derrick; Newton, Charles R.
The burden of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not well known. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to identify published work from SSA. We have systematically searched four databases, namely, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Child Development &
Emin Ceylan, Mehmet; Fulya Maner, Ayse; Turkcan, Ahmet; Aydin, Agah
LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Autism is a wide spectrum disorder and a lot of factors play role in the etiology. Autism may accompany some genetic disorders such as fragile X, tuberosclerosis, neurofibromatosis and phenylketonuria . However, the absence of sufficient evidence on the etiological roles of environmental, neuroanatomical and biochemical factors has shifted the direction of research to genetics and cytology .
Emin Ceylan, Mehmet; Fulya Maner, Ayse; Turkcan, Ahmet; Aydin, Agah
Letter to the editor: Autism is a wide spectrum disorder and a lot of factors play role in the etiology. Autism may accompany some genetic disorders such as fragile X, tuberosclerosis, neurofibromatosis and phenylketonuria . However, the absence of sufficient evidence on the etiological roles of environmental, neuroanatomical and biochemical factors has shifted the direction of research to genetics and cytology .
Skip to main content Learning About Autism Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...
This research synthesis verifies the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for improving the functional communication skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research synthesis was focused on the degree to which variations in PECS training are associated with variations in functional…
Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Heath, Amy K.; Parker, Richard I.; Rispoli, Mandy J.; Duran, Jaime B.
Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches have been investigated. Most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single…
Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul
Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Forward translation of the EGPRN's definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached. 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care.
Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul
Background Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. Objective To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Method Forward translation of the EGPRN’s definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached Results 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. Conclusion A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care. PMID:25607642
Charman, Tony; Young, Gregory S; Brian, Jessica; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie J; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Jones, Emily J; Landa, Rebecca; Macari, Suzanne; Messinger, Daniel S; Nelson, Charles A; Ozonoff, Sally; Saulnier, Celine; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Webb, Sara Jane; Yirmiya, Nurit; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
We characterized developmental outcomes of a large sample of siblings at familial high-risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who themselves did not have ASD (n = 859), and low-risk controls with no family history of ASD (n = 473). We report outcomes at age 3 years using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and adaptive functioning on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Around 11% of high-risk siblings had mild-to-moderate levels of developmental delay, a rate higher than the low-risk controls. The groups did not differ in the proportion of toddlers with mild-to-moderate language delay. Thirty percent of high-risk siblings had elevated scores on the ADOS, double the rate seen in the low-risk controls. High-risk siblings also had higher parent reported levels of ASD symptoms on the ADI-R and lower adaptive functioning on the Vineland. Males were more likely to show higher levels of ASD symptoms and lower levels of developmental ability and adaptive behavior than females across most measures but not mild-to-moderate language delay. Lower maternal education was associated with lower developmental and adaptive behavior outcomes. These findings are evidence for early emerging characteristics related to the "broader autism phenotype" (BAP) previously described in older family members of individuals with ASD. There is a need for ongoing clinical monitoring of high-risk siblings who do not have an ASD by age 3 years, as well as continued follow-up into school age to determine their developmental and behavioral outcomes. Autism Res 2017, 10: 169-178. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McLay, Laura-Lee Kathleen; France, Karyn
This paper examines the efficacy of non-behavioural and non-pharmacological approaches to the treatment of sleep disturbance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. A systematic search of electronic databases and reference lists identified eight studies that met inclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated according to (a) treatment used, (b) participants, (c) experimental design, (d) baseline measures, (e) dependent variables, (f) follow-up measures, (g) reliability and treatment integrity, (h) results and certainty of evidence and (i) implications for treatment. Positive outcomes were reported for the use of massage therapy and vitamin supplements. Aromatherapy was reported to have no effect on sleep. No studies were found that examined other non-traditional treatment approaches, nor did any of the studies provide conclusive evidence. The limited corpus of evidence and the methodological limitations suggests that the efficacy of non-traditional approaches to treatment of sleep problems in individuals with autism is yet to be demonstrated.
This selective review examines the lack of an explanation for the sharply increasing prevalence of autism, and the lack of any synthesis of the proliferating theories of autism. The most controversial and most widely disseminated notion for increasing prevalence is the measles-mumps-rubella/thimerosal vaccine theory. Less controversial causes that have been proposed include changes in autism diagnostic criteria, increasing services for autism, and growing awareness of the disorder. Regardless of its causes, the increasing prevalence of autism has put pressure on the field of autism research to generate productive and predictive theories of autism. However, the heterogeneity of brain deficits, impaired behaviors, and genetic variants in autism have challenged researchers and theorists, and despite 45 years of research, no standard causal synthesis has emerged. Research going forward should assume that autism is an aggregation of myriad independent disorders of impaired sociality, social cognition, communication, and motor and cognitive skills.
The paper presents a novel analysis focused on showing that education is possible through robotic enhancement of the Gestalt processing in children with autism, which is not comparable to alternative educational methods such as demonstration and instruction provided solely by human tutors. The paper underlines the conceptualization of cognitive processing of holistic representations traditionally named in psychology as Gestalt structures, emerging in the process of human-robot interaction in ...
Salgueiro, Emílio; Nunes, Laura; Barros, Alexandra; Maroco, João; Salgueiro, Ana Isabel; dos Santos, Manuel E
Abstract Background Interaction programs involving dolphins and patients with various pathologies or developmental disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment, autism, atopic dermatitis, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression) have stimulated interest in their beneficial effects and therapeutic potential. However, the true effects observed in different clinical and psycho-educational setups are still controversial. Results An evaluation protocol consisting of the Childhood Au...
Stoltenberg, Camilla; Schjølberg, Synnve; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hornig, Mady; Hirtz, Deborah; Dahl, Cathrine; Lie, Kari Kveim; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schreuder, Patricia; Alsaker, Elin; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Magnus, Per; Surén, Pål; Susser, Ezra; Lipkin, W. Ian
The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased 5–10× over the past 20 years. Whether ASD are truly more frequent is controversial; nonetheless, the burden is profound in human and economic terms. Although autism is among the most heritable of mental disorders, its pathogenesis remains obscure. Environmental factors are proposed; however, none is implicated. Furthermore, there are no biomarkers to screen for ASD or risk of ASD. The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC) was initiated to investigate gene × environment × timing interactions and enable early diagnosis. It employs a large, unselected birth cohort wherein cases are prospectively ascertained through population screening. Samples collected serially through pregnancy and childhood include parental blood, maternal urine, cord blood, milk teeth and rectal swabs. More than 107 000 children are continuously screened via questionnaires, referral and a national registry. Cases are compared with a control group from the same cohort in a “nested case-control” design. Early screening, diagnostic assessments and re-assessments are designed to provide a rich view of longitudinal trajectory. Genetic, proteomic, immunologic, metagenomic and microbiological tools will be used to exploit unique biological samples. The ABC is a paradigm for investigating the role of genetic and environmental factors in complex disorders. PMID:20571529
Heaton, Pamela; Davis, Robert E; Happé, Francesca G E
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterised by deficits in socialisation and communication, with repetitive and stereotyped behaviours [American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA]. Whilst intellectual and language impairment is observed in a significant proportion of diagnosed individuals [Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (2000). The biology of the autistic syndromes (3rd ed.). London: Mac Keith Press; Klinger, L., Dawson, G., & Renner, P. (2002). Autistic disorder. In E. Masn, & R. Barkley (Eds.), Child pyschopathology (2nd ed., pp. 409-454). New York: Guildford Press], the disorder is also strongly associated with the presence of highly developed, idiosyncratic, or savant skills [Heaton, P., & Wallace, G. (2004) Annotation: The savant syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45 (5), 899-911]. We tested identification of fundamental pitch frequencies in complex tones, sine tones and words in AC, an intellectually able man with autism and absolute pitch (AP) and a group of healthy controls with self-reported AP. The analysis showed that AC's naming of speech pitch was highly superior in comparison to controls. The results suggest that explicit access to perceptual information in speech is retained to a significantly higher degree in autism.
Torres, E B; Denisova, K
The human body is in constant motion, from every breath that we take, to every visibly purposeful action that we perform. Remaining completely still on command is a major achievement as involuntary fluctuations in our motions are difficult to keep under control. Here we examine the noise-to-signal ratio of micro-movements present in time-series of head motions extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 1048 participants. These included individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy-controls in shared data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-200) databases. We find excess noise and randomness in the ASD cases, suggesting an uncertain motor-feedback signal. A power-law emerged describing an orderly relation between the dispersion and shape of the probability distribution functions best describing the stochastic properties under consideration with respect to intelligence quotient (IQ-scores). In ASD, deleterious patterns of noise are consistently exacerbated with the presence of secondary (comorbid) neuropsychiatric diagnoses, lower verbal and performance intelligence, and autism severity. Importantly, such patterns in ASD are present whether or not the participant takes psychotropic medication. These data unambiguously establish specific noise-to-signal levels of head micro-movements as a biologically informed core feature of ASD.
Levelt, P.; Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, J.; Tamminen, J.
On July 15, 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was successfully launched on board of NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft. OMI is the first of a new generation of UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter imaging spectrometers, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 13 x 24 km2. OMI measures solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. OMI is designed and built by the Netherlands and Finland, and is also a third party mission of ESA. The major step that was made in the OMI instrument compared to its predecessors is the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays (CCDs) in a highly innovative small optical design. These innovations enable the combination of a high spatial resolution and a good spectral resolution with daily global coverage. OMI measures a range of trace gases (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, OClO, H2O), clouds and aerosols. Albeit OMI is already 5 years over its design lifetime, the instrument is still fully operational. The successor of OMI is TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on the Copernicus Sentinel-5 precursor mission, planned for launch in 2016. OMI's unique capabilities rely in measuring tropospheric trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the instrument revealed for the first time tropospheric pollution maps on a daily basis with urban scale resolution leading to improved air quality forecasts. The OMI measurements also improve our understanding of air quality and the interaction between air quality and climate change by combining measurements of air pollutants and aerosols. In recent years the data are also used for obtaining high-resolution global emission maps using inverse modelling or related techniques, challenging the bottom-up inventories based emission maps. In addition to scientific research, OMI also contributes to several operational services, including
Gupta, Abha R; State, Matthew W
Autism is a strongly genetic disorder, with an estimated heritability of greater than 90%. A combination of phenotypic heterogeneity and the likely involvement of multiple interacting loci have hampered efforts at gene discovery. As a consequence, the genetic etiology of the spectrum of autism related disorders remains largely unknown. Over the past several years, the convergence of rapidly advancing genomic technologies, the completion of the human genome project, and increasingly successful collaborative efforts to increase the number of patients available for study have led to the first solid clues to the biological origins of these disorders. This paper will review the literature to date summarizing the results of linkage, cytogenetic, and candidate gene studies with a focus on recent progress. In addition, promising avenues for future research are considered.
Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.
In the recent years there has been a ten-fold increase in the incidence of autism in the USA. It is also estimated that approximately 67 million people are affected by autism worldwide. This worldwide epidemic has led to an increased interest in the identification and use of evidence-based interventions for individuals with autism. Interventions…
Larkin, Fionnuala; Guerin, Suzanne; Hobson, Jessica A; Gutstein, Steven E
The aim of this project was to replicate and extend findings from two recent studies on parent-child relatedness in autism (Beurkens, Hobson, & Hobson, 2013; Hobson, Tarver, Beurkens, & Hobson, 2013, under review) by adapting an observational assessment and coding schemes of parent-child relatedness for the clinical context and examining their validity and reliability. The coding schemes focussed on three aspects of relatedness: joint attentional focus (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), the capacity to co-regulate an interaction and the capacity to share emotional experiences. The participants were 40 children (20 with autism, 20 without autism) aged 6-14, and their parents. Parent-child dyads took part in the observational assessment and were coded on these schemes. Comparisons were made with standardised measures of autism severity (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001; Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS: Constantino & Gruber, 2005), relationship quality (Parent Child Relationship Inventory, PCRI: Gerard, 1994) and quality of parent-child interaction (Dyadic Coding Scales, DCS: Humber & Moss, 2005). Inter-rater reliability was very good and, as predicted, codes both diverged from the measure of parent-child relationship and converged with a separate measure of parent-child interaction quality. A detailed profile review revealed nuanced areas of group and individual differences which may be specific to verbally-able school-age children. The results support the utility of the Relationship Development Assessment - Research Version for clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2013.
Background The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding are maternity practices proven to support successful achievement of exclusive breastfeeding. They also are the basis for the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). This study explores implementation of these steps in hospitals that serve predominantly low wealth populations. Methods A quasi-experimental design with mixed methods for data collection and analysis was included within an intervention project. We compared the impact of a modified Ten Steps implementation approach to a control group. The intervention was carried out in hospitals where: 1) BFHI designation was not necessarily under consideration, and 2) the majority of the patient population was low wealth, i.e., eligible for Medicaid. Hospitals in the research aspect of this project were systematically assigned to one of two groups: Initial Intervention or Initial Control/Later Intervention. This paper includes analyses from the baseline data collection, which consisted of an eSurvey (i.e., Carolina B-KAP), Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey tool (mPINC), the BFHI Self-Appraisal, key informant interviews, breastfeeding data, and formatted feedback discussion. Results Comparability was ensured by statistical and non-parametric tests of baseline characteristics of the two groups. Additional findings of interest included: 1) a universal lack of consistent breastfeeding records and statistics for regular monitoring/review, 2) widespread misinterpretation of associated terminology, 3) health care providers’ reported practices not necessarily reflective of their knowledge and attitudes, and 4) specific steps were found to be associated with hospital breastfeeding rates. A comprehensive set of facilitators and obstacles to initiation of the Ten Steps emerged, and hospital-specific practice change challenges were identified. Discussion This is one of the first studies to examine introduction of the Ten Steps in multiple
Gauthier, C; Doyen, C; Amado, I; Lôo, H; Gaillard, R
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is an evolutionary highly conserved molecule that plays a part in the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviours. From a pathophysiological point of view, several studies have evidenced dysfunctions of the oxytocinergic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD): a lowering of plasma OT and genetic or epigenetic anomalies of the OT receptor. Therefore, some authors have hypothesized that an abnormality in the OT neurotransmission may account for several features of autism and that a treatment restoring a normal OT pathway functioning could improve social abilities. OT administration has thus been used in clinical trials, especially in groups of subjects suffering from autism. Some studies found that OT decreased repetitive behaviours, enhanced emotional understanding of speech intonation, improved performance of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and reinforced cooperation. Nevertheless, the findings of the OT administration studies on clinical samples show great diversity. The context, the personality and childhood experiences of the subject could be moderators influencing the effect of exogenous OT. Besides, three mechanisms could play a part in the action of OT on ASD social symptoms: anxiety reduction (with a lowering in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness and in the amygdale reactivity to social stimuli), increased affiliative motivation (involving the dopaminergic pathway and several regions of the social brain) and enhanced perceptual selectivity and social stimuli salience. To conclude, OT could be a promising molecule used as a treatment to promote social behaviours, helping individuals with ASD to develop new relationships. OT could be administered during a cognitive-behavioural therapy to reinforce the efficacy of such procedures. More studies are needed, on larger samples, to investigate the safety and efficacy of OT administration and to specify optimal dosages and characteristics of
Zhang, Jie; Mayton, Michael R.; Wheeler, John J.
In order to better assist practitioners and better serve persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families, it is vital for professionals to systematically evaluate the existing body of literature and synthesize its scientific evidence, so that the efficacy of research can be translated to evidence-based practices (EBPs) (Wheeler,…
Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham
The effects of a socially interactive robot on the conversational turns between four young children with autism and their mothers were investigated as part of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes where a practitioner facilitated…
Porges, S. W. (2010). Emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: Relations to eye gaze and autonomic state. Journal of Autism and... emotional stroop in adults with autism spectrum disorders: Influence of medication. Autism Research, 4, 98–108. McCulloch, D. L., & Skarf, B. (1991...autonomic, and electro- physiological correlates of emotional face processing in 1924 J Autism Dev Disord (2013) 43:1910–1925 123 adolescents with autism
ABSTRACT Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Today it has observed a continuing and rapid increase in its prevalence. Autism increase, in combination with unknown factors that cause it, so far, has drawn the interest of several researchers (from different scientific fields). It could be characterized as a multiple-factors disorder. In recent decades, many researchers have implicated mainly environmental, chemical, genetic, hereditary, and biological factors. The present article focus...
Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R
(1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ
Full Text Available Different syndromes hide under the mask of autism. Each is caused by a certain genetic fault disturbing the development of the brain and leading to symptoms of autism showing. A correctly done genetic diagnosis helps to avoid mistakes when choosing a way of treatment. The focus of this article is Phelan-McDermid Syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder. The clinical example provided is Sasha’s story: how his treatment changed after specifying the diagnosis.
Full Text Available The paper presents a novel analysis focused on showing that education is possible through robotic enhancement of the Gestalt processing in children with autism, which is not comparable to alternative educational methods such as demonstration and instruction provided solely by human tutors. The paper underlines the conceptualization of cognitive processing of holistic representations traditionally named in psychology as Gestalt structures, emerging in the process of human-robot interaction in educational settings. Two cognitive processes are proposed in the present study - bounding and unfolding - and their role in Gestalt emergence is outlined. The proposed theoretical approach explains novel findings of autistic perception and gives guidelines for design of robot-assistants to the rehabilitation process.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The reliability and validity of instruments used to survey health-care providers' views about and experiences with research evidence have seldom been examined. Methods Country teams from ten low- and middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Laos, Mexico, Pakistan, Senegal and Tanzania participated in the development, translation, pilot-testing and administration of a questionnaire designed to measure health-care providers' views and activities related to improving their clinical practice and their awareness of, access to and use of research evidence, as well as changes in their clinical practice that they attribute to particular sources of research evidence that they have used. We use internal consistency as a measure of the questionnaire's reliability and, whenever possible, we use explanatory factor analyses to assess the degree to which questions that pertain to a single domain actually address common themes. We assess the questionnaire's face validity and content validity and, to a lesser extent, we also explore its criterion validity. Results The questionnaire has high internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas between 0.7 and 0.9 for 16 of 20 domains and sub-domains (identified by factor analyses. Cronbach's alphas are greater than 0.9 for two domains, suggesting some item redundancy. Pre- and post-field work assessments indicate the questionnaire has good face validity and content validity. Our limited assessment of criterion validity shows weak but statistically significant associations between the general influence of research evidence among providers and more specific measures of providers' change in approach to preventing or treating a clinical condition. Conclusion Our analysis points to a number of strengths of the questionnaire - high internal consistency (reliability and good face and content validity - but also to areas where it can be shortened without losing important conceptual
Ten conclusions about childrens' learning are presented from 15 years of research by the Educational Research Council of America. These include effectiveness of short textbooks, interest in learning technical words, need for social science curriculum to challenge, and detrimental effect of ingrained teacher attitudes to teach social studies by…
Dian Eka A. F. Ningrum
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the needs of learning variations on Biotechnology courses using bioinformatics approaches. One example of applied use of bioinformatics in biotechnology course is the analysis of protein profiles carbonic anhydrase II as a potential cause of autism candidate. This research is a qualitative descriptive study consisted of two phases. The first phase of the data obtained from observations of learning, student questionnaires, and questionnaires lecturer. Results from the first phase, namely the need for variations learning in Biotechnology course using bioinformatics. Collecting data on the second stage uses three webserver to predict the target protein and scientific articles. Visualization of proteins using PyMOL software. 3 based webserver which is used, the candidate of target proteins associated with autism is carbonic anhydrase II. The survey results revealed that the protein carbonic anhydrase II as a potential candidate for the cause of autism classified metaloenzim are able to bind with heavy metals. The content of heavy metals in autistic patients high that affect metabolism. This prediction of protein candidate cause autism is applied use to solve the problem in society, so that can achieve the learning outcome in biotechnology course.
de Jonge, Maretha; Kemner, Chantal; Naber, Fabienne; van Engeland, Herman
Superior performance on block design tasks is reported in autistic individuals, although it is not consistently found in high-functioning individuals or individuals with Asperger Syndrome. It is assumed to reflect weak central coherence: an underlying cognitive deficit, which might also be part of the genetic makeup of the disorder. We assessed block design reconstruction skills in high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from multi-incidence families and in their parents. Performance was compared to relevant matched control groups. We used a task that was assumed to be highly sensitive to subtle performance differences. We did not find individuals with ASD to be significantly faster on this task than the matched control group, not even when the difference between reconstruction time of segmented and pre-segmented designs was compared. However, we found individuals with ASD to make fewer errors during the process of reconstruction which might indicate some dexterity in mental segmentation. However, parents of individuals with ASD did not perform better on the task than control parents. Therefore, based on our data, we conclude that mental segmentation ability as measured with a block design reconstruction task is not a neurocognitive marker or endophenotype useful in genetic studies.
Full Text Available The burden of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is not well known. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to identify published work from SSA. We have systematically searched four databases, namely, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Child Development & Adolescent Studies, through EBSCO and identified studies from across SSA. Based on predefined inclusion criteria, 47 studies were included in this review. Most of the identified studies (74% were conducted in only 2 African countries, that is, South Africa and Nigeria. Additionally, most of these studies (83% were carried out in the last decade. These studies had four major themes: development of measurement tools of ASD in Africa, examining the prevalence of ASD, identifying risk factors and risk markers, and examining psychosocial issues. We identified only a single population level study aimed at documenting the prevalence of ASD and could not identify a single case-control study aimed at examining a comprehensive set of potential risk factors. All intervention studies were based on very small sample sizes. Put together, our findings suggest that current evidence base is too scanty to provide the required information to plan adequately for effective intervention strategies for children with ASD in Africa.
Davis, Greg; Plaisted-Grant, Kate
"Heuristic" theories of autism postulate that a single mechanism or process underpins the diverse psychological features of autism spectrum disorder. Although no such theory can offer a comprehensive account, the parsimonious descriptions they provide are powerful catalysts to autism research. One recent proposal holds that…
Geurts, H.M.; Vissers, M.E.
Cognitive autism research is mainly focusing on children and young adults even though we know that autism is a life-long disorder and that healthy aging already has a strong impact on cognitive functioning. We compared the neuropsychological profile of 23 individuals with autism and 23 healthy
Geurts, Hilde M.; Vissers, Marlies E.
Cognitive autism research is mainly focusing on children and young adults even though we know that autism is a life-long disorder and that healthy aging already has a strong impact on cognitive functioning. We compared the neuropsychological profile of 23 individuals with autism and 23 healthy controls (age range 51-83 years). Deficits were…
Waterhouse, Lynn; Gillberg, Christopher
Although accumulated evidence has demonstrated that autism is found with many varied brain dysfunctions, researchers have tried to find a single brain dysfunction that would provide neurobiological validity for autism. However, unitary models of autism brain dysfunction have not adequately addressed conflicting evidence, and efforts to find a…
Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.
Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…
Lombardo, Michael V.; Suckling, John; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C. L.; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon
In autism, heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. One obvious source of heterogeneity is biological sex. Since autism was first recognized, males with autism have disproportionately skewed research. Females with autism have thus been relatively overlooked, and have generally been assumed to have the same underlying neurobiology as males with autism. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this is an oversimplification that risks obscuring the biological base of autism. This study seeks to answer two questions about how autism is modulated by biological sex at the level of the brain: (i) is the neuroanatomy of autism different in males and females? and (ii) does the neuroanatomy of autism fit predictions from the ‘extreme male brain’ theory of autism, in males and/or in females? Neuroanatomical features derived from voxel-based morphometry were compared in a sample of equal-sized high-functioning male and female adults with and without autism (n = 120, n = 30/group). The first question was investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design, and by spatial overlap analyses of the neuroanatomy of autism in males and females. The second question was tested through spatial overlap analyses of specific patterns predicted by the extreme male brain theory. We found that the neuroanatomy of autism differed between adult males and females, evidenced by minimal spatial overlap (not different from that occurred under random condition) in both grey and white matter, and substantially large white matter regions showing significant sex × diagnosis interactions in the 2 × 2 factorial design. These suggest that autism manifests differently by biological sex. Furthermore, atypical brain areas in females with autism substantially and non-randomly (P females with autism remains to be understood. Future research should stratify by biological sex to reduce heterogeneity and to provide greater insight into the neurobiology of autism. PMID:23935125
Wang, RuoSi; Liu, Ling; Liu, Jia
Deficits in social communication are one of the behavioral signatures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because faces are arguably the most important social stimuli that we encounter in everyday life, investigating the ability of individuals with ASD to process faces is thought to be important for understanding the nature of ASD. However, although a considerable body of evidence suggests that ASD individuals show specific impairments in face processing, a significant number of studies argue otherwise. Through a literature review, we found that this controversy is largely attributable to the different face tests used across different studies. Therefore, a more reliable and valid face test is needed. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis on data gleaned from a variety of face tests conducted on individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) who suffer a selective deficit in face processing. Based on this meta-analysis, we selected an old/new face recognition test that relies on face memory as a standard diagnostic test for measuring specific face processing deficits. This test not only reliably reflects DP individuals' subjective experiences with faces in their daily lives, but also effectively differentiates deficits in face processing from deficits caused by other general problems. In addition, DP individuals' performance in this test predicts their performance in a variety of face tests that examine specific components of face processing (e.g., holistic processing of faces). Finally, this test can be easily administrated and is not overly sensitive to prior knowledge. In summary, this test can be used to evaluate face-processing ability, and it helped to resolve the controversy whether individuals with ASD exhibit face-processing deficits.
Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth
The reported prevalence of autism is going up and up. We propose that some-even much-of the increase in the rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is driven by "Autism Plus". Autism Plus refers to autism with comorbidities (including intellectual developmental disorder, language disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), and this is what is now being diagnosed by clinicians as ASD. In clinical practice, a diagnosis of ASD much more often entails that the child will receive support at school and in the community, which is not the case for other diagnoses. In the past the comorbidities were given diagnostic priority and the "autistic features" might, or might not be mentioned as the "plus bit" in the diagnostic summary. It is high time that the comorbidities, sometimes even more important than the autism, came back on the diagnostic agenda. Autism is but one of the Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination (ESSENCE), not the one and only.
Heavner, Karyn; Burstyn, Igor
Variation in the odds ratio (OR) resulting from selection of cutoffs for categorizing continuous variables is rarely discussed. We present results for the effect of varying cutoffs used to categorize a mismeasured exposure in a simulated population in the context of autism spectrum disorders research. Simulated cohorts were created with three distinct exposure-outcome curves and three measurement error variances for the exposure. ORs were calculated using logistic regression for 61 cutoffs (mean ± 3 standard deviations) used to dichotomize the observed exposure. ORs were calculated for five categories with a wide range for the cutoffs. For each scenario and cutoff, the OR, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. The three exposure-outcome relationships had distinctly shaped OR (versus cutoff) curves, but increasing measurement error obscured the shape. At extreme cutoffs, there was non-monotonic oscillation in the ORs that cannot be attributed to "small numbers." Exposure misclassification following categorization of the mismeasured exposure was differential, as predicted by theory. Sensitivity was higher among cases and specificity among controls. Cutoffs chosen for categorizing continuous variables can have profound effects on study results. When measurement error is not too great, the shape of the OR curve may provide insight into the true shape of the exposure-disease relationship.
Full Text Available Variation in the odds ratio (OR resulting from selection of cutoffs for categorizing continuous variables is rarely discussed. We present results for the effect of varying cutoffs used to categorize a mismeasured exposure in a simulated population in the context of autism spectrum disorders research. Simulated cohorts were created with three distinct exposure-outcome curves and three measurement error variances for the exposure. ORs were calculated using logistic regression for 61 cutoffs (mean ± 3 standard deviations used to dichotomize the observed exposure. ORs were calculated for five categories with a wide range for the cutoffs. For each scenario and cutoff, the OR, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. The three exposure-outcome relationships had distinctly shaped OR (versus cutoff curves, but increasing measurement error obscured the shape. At extreme cutoffs, there was non-monotonic oscillation in the ORs that cannot be attributed to “small numbers.” Exposure misclassification following categorization of the mismeasured exposure was differential, as predicted by theory. Sensitivity was higher among cases and specificity among controls. Cutoffs chosen for categorizing continuous variables can have profound effects on study results. When measurement error is not too great, the shape of the OR curve may provide insight into the true shape of the exposure-disease relationship.
It is argued that further research to achieve more detailed diagnostic systems in many psychiatric disorders is unlikely to be productive without taking genetic effects into account. Even when this is done, for example when carrying out segregation analysis to determine a mode of genetic transmission, mental illnesses often pose specific problems that preclude accurate analysis. Because techniques in molecular biology and genetics have made it possible to study gene effects in human disease systematically it should now be possible to specify the genes that are involved. When this has been achieved then a diagnostic system based on genetic causation can develop. This will have the advantage of helping to pinpoint environmental factors more accurately. Specific strategies will need to be adopted to overcome uncertain modes of inheritance, incomplete or non-penetrance of disease alleles and disease heterogeneity. Highly speculative hypotheses can be put forward for a locus causing Alzheimer's disease on a portion of the long arm of chromosome 21. For autism it is plausible that there is a disease locus at or near the fragile X site on the X chromosome. A locus for manic depression has been very tentatively mapped using DNA markers to chromosome 11 and in a small proportion of families DNA markers have also shown some evidence for X linkage. Schizophrenia does not seem to be associated with any favoured loci. Candidate genes for schizophrenia include those encoding dopamine, other neurotransmitter receptors or enzymes and various neuropeptides such as enkephalin and beta endorphin.
Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.
Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24149029
Hari H. Cohly
Full Text Available Purpose:The aim of this pilot study was to test autistic children, siblings and their parents using a biometric device based on the gas discharge visualization (GDV technique in order to assess their psycho-emotional and physiological functional state based on the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the biometric assessment based on GDV will enable us: (1 to evaluate some specific features associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD as well as to compare autistic children to their siblings and to controls; (2 to analyze the differences in individual values of parents of autistic children versus parents of normal children. Results: Out of total of 48 acupuncture points present on ten fingertips of both hands and associated to organs/organ systems, autistic children differed significantly from controls (p < 0.05 in 36 (images without filter and 12 (images with filter, siblings differed significantly from controls (p < 0.05 in 12 (images without filter and seven (images with filter, autistic children differed significantly (p < 0.05 from siblings in eight (images without filter and one (images with filter, fathers of autistic children differed significantly (p < 0.05 from controls in 14 (images without filter and three (images with filter and mothers of autistic children differed significantly (p < 0.05 from controls in five (images without filter and nine (images with filter acupuncture points. Conclusions: All compared groups have shown significant difference on both psycho-emotional (images without filter and physiological (images with filter levels. However, the differences between autistic children and controls expressed on psycho-emotional level were the most significant as compared to the other groups. Therefore, the activity of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system is significantly altered in children with autism. The biometric method based on GDV is a promising step in autism research that may
Nutrition and biomarkers in psychiatry: research on micronutrient deficiencies in schizophrenia, the role of the intestine in the hyperserotonemia of autism, and a method for non-hypothesis driven discovery of biomarkers in urine
Kemperman, Ramses Franciscus Jacobus
This thesis describes the study of markers of nutrition and intestinal motility in mental disorders with a focus on schizophrenia and autism, and the development, evaluation and application of a biomarker discovery method for urine. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), B-vitamins and platelet (PLT) serotonin (5-HT) in schizophrenia and autism. The thesis proposes also that biomarker research in psychiatric disease is of great rel...
Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function
Davidson, Julie; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Green-Snyder, Lee Anne; Hundley, Rachel J.; Warren, Zachary; Peters, Sarika U.
The broad autism phenotype (BAP) refers to the phenotypic expression of an underlying genetic liability to autism, manifest in non-autistic relatives. This study examined the relationship among the "Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire" (BAPQ), "Social Responsiveness Scale: Adult Research Version" (SRS:ARV), and "Family…
Lazarus, Jeff; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Atun, Rifat A
there have been many declarations and strategies addressing HIV/AIDS, today the goal is universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support services by 2010. The articles included in this thematic issue of the Central European Journal of Public Health on HIV/AIDS reflect this, while the ten...
Blanchard, Margaret R.
It is argued that teachers must experience inquiry in order to be able to translate it to their classrooms. The National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Research Experiences for Teachers (RETs) offer promising programs, yet scant empirical support documents the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, ten experienced, secondary science teachers were followed back to the classroom after a five-week, marine ecology RET, addressing the questions: How do teachers' conceptions and enactment of classroom inquiry change after the program?; What are the program's goals?; What accounts for these differences?; and What do these findings imply for future RETs? Data collected includes pre and post program questionnaires, audiotapes and videotapes of pre and post program teaching, post program STIR instrument responses, interviews, and field notes. The study found that an extensive, reflective program model, conducted by scientists who are teacher-centered, successfully conveyed the program model of inquiry. Post program, teachers' conceptions of inquiry were more student centered, focused less on assessment and classroom management and more on authentic content, questions, and presentations, and incorporated program language. Question patterns during enactment shifted to fewer teacher questions, more student questions, and increased higher order questions by students and teachers. More procedural questions indicated role shifts. The STIR instrument fostered understanding of enactment and, with critical incidents analyses, highlighted underlying teacher value structures. Teachers with more theoretical sophistication and who had Rationalistic and Egalitarian value structures applied inquiry throughout their teaching and moved beyond contextual constraints. Implications suggest that those who develop and implement RETs need to be masterful "bridge builders" to help transition teachers and their learning back to the classroom. Reflection holds promise for illuminating teachers
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Suckling, John; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C L; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon
In autism, heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. One obvious source of heterogeneity is biological sex. Since autism was first recognized, males with autism have disproportionately skewed research. Females with autism have thus been relatively overlooked, and have generally been assumed to have the same underlying neurobiology as males with autism. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this is an oversimplification that risks obscuring the biological base of autism. This study seeks to answer two questions about how autism is modulated by biological sex at the level of the brain: (i) is the neuroanatomy of autism different in males and females? and (ii) does the neuroanatomy of autism fit predictions from the 'extreme male brain' theory of autism, in males and/or in females? Neuroanatomical features derived from voxel-based morphometry were compared in a sample of equal-sized high-functioning male and female adults with and without autism (n = 120, n = 30/group). The first question was investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design, and by spatial overlap analyses of the neuroanatomy of autism in males and females. The second question was tested through spatial overlap analyses of specific patterns predicted by the extreme male brain theory. We found that the neuroanatomy of autism differed between adult males and females, evidenced by minimal spatial overlap (not different from that occurred under random condition) in both grey and white matter, and substantially large white matter regions showing significant sex × diagnosis interactions in the 2 × 2 factorial design. These suggest that autism manifests differently by biological sex. Furthermore, atypical brain areas in females with autism substantially and non-randomly (P neurobiology of autism.
Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, Frederick; Macari, Suzanne; Campbell, Daniel J.; Brian, Jessica; Landa, Rebecca; Hutman, Ted; Nelson, Charles A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Young, Gregory S.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Cohen, Ira L.; Charman, Tony; Messinger, Daniel S.; Klin, Ami; Johnson, Scott; Bryson, Susan
Objective Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk (HR) for developing ASD as well as features of the broader autism phenotype. While this complicates early diagnostic considerations in this cohort, it also provides an opportunity to examine patterns of behavior associated specifically with ASD compared to other developmental outcomes. Method We applied Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analysis to individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in 719 HR siblings to identify behavioral features at 18 months predictive of diagnostic outcomes (ASD, atypical development, and typical development) at 36 months. Results Three distinct combinations of features at 18 months were predictive of ASD outcome: 1) poor eye contact combined with lack of communicative gestures and giving; 2) poor eye contact combined with a lack of imaginative play; and 3) lack of giving and presence of repetitive behaviors, but with intact eye contact. These 18-month behavioral profiles predicted ASD versus non-ASD status at 36 months with 82.7% accuracy in an initial test sample and 77.3% accuracy in a validation sample. Clinical features at age 3 among children with ASD varied as a function of their 18-month symptom profiles. Children with ASD who were misclassified at 18 months were higher functioning, and their autism symptoms increased between 18 and 36 months. Conclusion These findings suggest the presence of different developmental pathways to ASD in HR siblings. Understanding such pathways will provide clearer targets for neural and genetic research and identification of developmentally specific treatments for ASD. PMID:25457930
... organization or corporations with approved assurance from the DHHS Office of Human Research Protections to... Shropshire, NIMH PRA Liaison, Science Policy & Evaluation Branch, OSPPC, NIMH, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001...
Dingfelder, Hilary E; Mandell, David S
There is growing evidence that efficacious interventions for autism are rarely adopted or successfully implemented in public mental health and education systems. We propose applying diffusion of innovation theory to further our understanding of why this is the case. We pose a practical set of questions that administrators face as they decide about the use of interventions. Using literature from autism intervention and dissemination science, we describe reasons why efficacious interventions for autism are rarely adopted, implemented, and maintained in community settings, all revolving around the perceived fit between the intervention and the needs and capacities of the setting. Finally, we suggest strategies for intervention development that may increase the probability that these interventions will be used in real-world settings.
Op 8 maart (Wereldvrouwen-dag) sprak prof. dr. Hilde Geurts de oratie uit naar aanleiding van haar benoeming tot bijzonder hoogleraar Autisme aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam vanwege Stichting Dr. Leo Kannerhuis. De titel MAutisme verandert? zou kunnen suggereren dat autisme wordt gezien als een op
Zamora, Irina; Williams, Marian E.; Higareda, Marcia; Wheeler, Barbara Y.; Levitt, Pat
Given the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in health research (Heiat et al. in "Arch Int Med" 162(15):1-17, 2002; Kelly et al. in "J Nat Med Assoc" 97:777-783, 2005; United States Department of Health and Human Services. "Monitoring adherence to the NIH policy on the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in…
The proliferation of mobile technologies and apps raises questions for researchers in the field of educational technology. Many apps are marketed as having impact on learning or therapeutic outcome in populations with additional support needs. This paper briefly outlines three possible academic responses to the rise of therapeutic technologies for…
... What is Autism? Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Living ... What is Autism? Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Living ...
Slides for a talk about family process and the importance of parenting dimensions in adolescent development. The slides list findings to date, and propose research into the influence of family on outcomes for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.
Messinger, Daniel; Young, Gregory S.; Ozonoff, Sally; Dobkins, Karen; Carter, Alice; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Landa, Rebecca J.; Charman, Tony; Stone, Wendy L.; Constantino, John N.; Hutman, Ted; Carver, Leslie J.; Bryson, Susan; Iverson, Jana M.; Strauss, Mark S.; Rogers, Sally J.; Sigman, Marian
Objective: First-degree relatives of persons with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for ASD-related characteristics. As little is known about the early expression of these characteristics, this study characterizes the non-ASD outcomes of 3-year-old high-risk (HR) siblings of children with ASD. Method: Two groups of children…
Maxam, Susan L.
Despite the growing number of students on the autism spectrum in postsecondary institutions around the nation, there is a paucity of literature dealing with issues and interventions related to creating inclusive, collegiate learning environments from the perspectives of both faculty and these students. Therefore, this study sought to gain a deeper…
Denning, Christopher B.
More than a decade ago, Asperger syndrome (AS) was added to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-4th Edition" (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994). Although there is much debate over the differentiation between high-functioning autism (HFA) and AS, social skills deficits are a hallmark of both disorders (Klin, 2000). These…
Dingfelder, Hilary E.; Mandell, David S.
There is growing evidence that efficacious interventions for autism are rarely adopted or successfully implemented in public mental health and education systems. We propose applying diffusion of innovation theory to further our understanding of why this is the case. We pose a practical set of questions that administrators face as they decide about…
Ganz, Jennifer B; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L; Heath, Amy K; Parker, Richard I; Rispoli, Mandy J; Duran, Jaime B
Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches have been investigated. Most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single case research on the use of aided AAC with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-four single-case studies were analyzed via an effect size measure, the Improvement Rate Difference (IRD). Three research questions were investigated concerning the overall impact of AAC interventions on targeted behavioral outcomes, effects of AAC interventions on individual targeted behavioral outcomes, and effects of three types of AAC interventions. Results indicated that, overall, aided AAC interventions had large effects on targeted behavioral outcomes in individuals with ASD. AAC interventions had positive effects on all of the targeted behavioral outcome; however, effects were greater for communication skills than other categories of skills. Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System and speech-generating devices were larger than those for other picture-based systems, though picture-based systems did have small effects.
Martos-Pérez, J; Ayuda-Pascual, R
Hyperlexia is described in children who present alterations or retardation in development and is frequently characterised by their teaching themselves to read at an early age. This ability to decode words does not correlate with their intellectual level and can course with different degrees of mental retardation. It is always accompanied by difficulty in establishing social relationships. Autism is a disorder that is prototypical of the autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), which are essentially characterised by qualitative alterations in social interaction, in communication and language development, and in the presence of a limited repertory of interests, accompanied by stereotyped or peculiar responses. The presence of hyperlexia in autistic children is more frequent than in other development disorders. This phenomenon is linked with the increased skills involving visual memory, visual discrimination and motivation/interest towards visually represented material that is to be found in people with autism. However, not all autistic individuals present hyperlexia and not all children with hyperlexia present autism, although evidence shows that hyperlexia is a phenomenon that is observed with greater frequency in autism and in ASD. Hyperlexia, understood as meaning a little island of ability in children with autism and ASD, poses a number of questions and represents an important challenge in neuropsychological research in this population.
Full Text Available In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.
Nobuo's paper  marks a pioneering attempt to reconcile the provocative concept of neurodiversity - the notion that developmental disabilities like autism, dyslexia, and ADHD are not inherently pathological, but reflect natural human variations that deserve societal accommodations equivalent to those afforded to people with physical disabilities - with the ongoing effort to investigate the neurological underpinnings of these conditions. As the framework of neurodiversity rapidly gains social acceptance and influence in education, employment, service provision, and related fields, it is important for researchers to understand this concept and consider how it may inform and shape their work in the coming years. Nobuo's paper provides a useful template for these efforts.
Full Text Available Although there is good evidence that autism is a multifactorial disorder, an adequate understanding of the genetic and nongenetic causes has yet to be achieved. With empirical research findings review is made to evidence on possible causal influences. Much the strongest evidence concerns the importance of susceptibility genes, but such genes have yet to be identified. Specific somatic conditions (tuberous sclerosis and the fragile X syndrome account for a small proportion of cases. Over recent decades there has been a major rise in the rate of diagnosed autism. The main explanation for this rise is to be found in better ascertainment and a broadening of the diagnostic concept. Progress on the elucidation of the causes of autism will be crucially dependent on the combination of epidemiology with more basic science laboratory studies.
In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…
Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria
Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…
TENS (Transcutane Electrische Neuro Stimulatie) is een pijnverlichtingsmethode die berust op de Gate Control Theory van Melzack en Wall. Door middel van electrische pulsen via de huid zou de geleiding van nociceptieve signalen (pijnprikkels) worden beïnvloed en zou het lichaam endorfinen aanmaken:
Powers of Ten is a 1977 short documentary film written and directed by Charles Eames and his wife, Ray. The film depicts the relative scale of the Universe in factors of ten (see also logarithmic scale and order of magnitude). The film begins with an aerial image of a man reclining on a blanket; the view is that of one meter across. The viewpoint, accompanied by expository voiceover, then slowly zooms out to a view ten meters across ( or 101 m in standard form), revealing that the man is picnicking in a park with a female companion. The zoom-out continues, to a view of 100 meters (102 m), then 1 kilometer (103 m), and so on, increasing the perspectiveâthe picnic is revealed to be taking place near Soldier Field on Chicago's waterfrontâand continuing to zoom out to a field of view of 1024 meters, or the size of the observable universe. The camera then zooms back in to the picnic, and then to views of negative powers of tenâ10-1 m (10 centimeters), and so forth, until we are viewing a carbon nucl...
Malik, Norjasween Abdul; Shamsuddin, Syamimi; Yussof, Hanafiah; Azfar Miskam, Mohd; Che Hamid, Aminullah
Research evidences are accumulating with regards to the potential use of robots for the rehabilitation of children with autism. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the results of communicational response in two children with autism during interaction with the humanoid robot NAO. Both autistic subjects in this study have been diagnosed with mild autism. Following the outcome from our first pilot study; the aim of this current experiment is to explore the application of NAO robot to engage with a child and further teach about emotions through a game-centered and song-based approach. The experiment procedure involved interaction between humanoid robot NAO with each child through a series of four different modules. The observation items are based on ten items selected and referenced to GARS-2 (Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-second edition) and also input from clinicians and therapists. The results clearly indicated that both of the children showed optimistic response through the interaction. Negative responses such as feeling scared or shying away from the robot were not detected. Two-way communication between the child and robot in real time significantly gives positive impact in the responses towards the robot. To conclude, it is feasible to include robot-based interaction specifically to elicit communicational response as a part of the rehabilitation intervention of children with autism.
... on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Autism Center First to Study Minimally Verbal Children Past ... research exploring the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a complex developmental disorder that ...
Full Text Available DSM-5 has moved autism from the level of subgroups ("apples and oranges" to the prototypical level ("fruit". But making progress in research, and ultimately improving clinical practice, will require identifying subgroups within the autism spectrum.
Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.
There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…
Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit
elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.
The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training
Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.
The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists…
Staniek, S.; Otto, G.; Doepkess, J.
MAUS (materials science autonomous experiments) is one out of a series of flight opportunities which the Space Program of West Germany offers to scientists from the disciplines of materials research and processing for performing materials science investigations under microgravity conditions. Up to now, ten MAUS experiments were flown which were dealing with the following scientific topics: decomposition of binary alloys with miscibility gap in the liquid state, interaction of a solidification front with dispersed particles, critical Marangoni number, investigation of the magnetic compound MnBi, shrinkage of gas bubbles in glass melts and slip casting. The ten future experiments are partly reflights with modification of the scientific objectives as well as new experiments in the fields of chemical reactions, heat transfer, glass technology and Ostwald ripening. Looking to ten flown payloads, the peculiarities of instrument technology in GAS-cans and its evolution is discussed with emphasis on structure, electronics and thermal design. A typical modern payload using 100 percent of the resource is presented.
Today the art world is rich and diverse with regional as well as national art centers. As in the past, art is alive and well in Utah. The show Ten Utah Painters invites us to see and experiece what some of Utah's best contemporary artists are doing. Their paintings invite us to look and to enjoy but also to learn and open up our visual senses to a broader vista.
Al Backer, Nouf Backer
Identification of health issues in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is paramount to provide appropriate care and interventions. The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) is the one of the few current measures that assesses ASD-associated health problems thus informing intervention decisions. However, little research has been conducted to compare ATEC with other more recognized measures such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). It is unclear whether these two scales ...
Coldevin, Grete Haakonsen
RENERGI is the The Research Council of Norway's strategic research program aimed the energy sector. The program has given and gives us central knowledge about technologies, solutions, policies and instruments that could help solve the energy and climate challenges and support the Norwegian business opportunities for value creation.The program period extending from 2004 to 2013. This booklet presents an analysis Research shows the development of the research program has funded from the beginning to the present. The analysis of RENERGI, we call it 'Long Track' follows selected projects and portfolios of projects through more year to track the effectiveness Research Council funding had. And what are the key findings? Experiences from RENERGI and from the precursors to the program, show that increased funding for research in this field triggers innovative research and innovation.The program means adapted to industry characteristics: Energy requires strong communities, and the program has helped to build up such over time. These strong communities nest ground for the establishment of Centres for environmentally friendly energy (FME), the newest addition by the Research Council of instruments in this area. Analysis of research over time are important because they show effect of investing public funds in research. When initiate research, there is great expectations to short-term results. We know it can take time before results come. What gives returns today often based on research many years. Research using these analyzes as part of our knowledge base for future priorities and in our dialogue with research funding ministries. Research teams can use the results to summarize own operations over time. Businesses can benefit greatly Long-term analysis showing that energy research has opened for business start-ups and established companies given new products they can create value from. 'Long Track' emphasizes the importance of thinking long-term: When
García-Nonell, C; Rigau-Ratera, E; Artigas-Pallarés, J
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent cause of hereditary mental retardation, as well as being a common cause of learning disorders and psychiatric problems. It is characterised by very specific physical and behavioural phenotypes. For this reason FXS is an excellent model of the relation between behaviour and genes. FXS is also the commonest cause of autism identified to date. Between 2 and 6% of children with autism have FXS, and approximately 3% of children with FXS have autism. The paper takes these findings as the basis on which to deal with the complex relations between FXS and autism. The relations between autism and gene FMR1, which causes FXS, are not limited to the complete mutation -some extremely interesting correlations between autism and the premutation of this gene are also being found. The discovery of an increase in mRNA in gene FMR1 in the premutation has facilitated our understanding of the complex pathology associated to the premutation. These findings open up a line of research that will not only enable us to further our understanding of the genetics of FXS, but can also help us to comprehend the complex genetic interactions that give rise to autism.
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with yet unknown etiology. The research point out abnormalities in the immune system of pacients with autism, which could be related to the development of the disease. This thesis reviews current scientific knowledge about the role of the immune system in the development of autism. The leading chapters include family history of autoimmune diseases, specific HLA alleles, the most common autoantibodies and maternal antibodies, lowered NK cell acti...
Carlos Romero Martins
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The invasion of exotic species is considered to be a major threat to the preservation of biodiversity. In the Parque Nacional de Brasília (National Park of Brasília, the invasive Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass occupies more than 10 % of the area of the park. The present, long-term, study compared two treatments of exposure to molasses grass: 1 fire and 2 integrated management (fire + herbicide sprays + manual removal. The aerial biomass of molasses grass in the experimental area initially represented ca. 55 % of the total aerial biomass, a percentage that apparently did not influence native plant species richness at this site. Fire alone was not sufficient to control molasses grass, which attained its pre-treatment biomass values after two years. Integrated management reduced, and maintained, biomass to less than 1 % of its original value after ten years, and maintained this level throughout the study, demonstrating that it is a promising strategy for the recovery of areas invaded by molasses grass in the Cerrado. However, because of the recolonization by molasses grass, long-term monitoring efforts are targeting outbreaks, which would require immediate intervention in order to maintain the native biological diversity of the region.
O'Hara, Joe; Holm, Gunilla
Drawing on their personal experiences, the authors reflect on the relationship between the European Educational Research Association (EERA) Council and the National Educational Research Associations (NERAs). The article will argue that while much of the work undertaken by the EERA Council is hugely valuable, at times it can be difficult to see a…
Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth; Kočovská, Eva; Minnis, Helen; Bourgeron, Thomas; Thompson, Lucy; Allely, Clare S
Based on evidence from the relevant research literature, we present a hypothesis that there may be a link between cholesterol, vitamin D, and steroid hormones which subsequently impacts on the development of at least some of the "autisms" [Coleman & Gillberg]. Our hypothesis, driven by the peer reviewed literature, posits that there may be links between cholesterol metabolism, which we will refer to as "steroid metabolism" and findings of steroid abnormalities of various kinds (cortisol, testosterone, estrogens, progesterone, vitamin D) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Further research investigating these potential links is warranted to further our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1022-1044. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.
Organization for Autism Research (NJ3), 2013
The DVD, a key component of the "Autism in the Schoolhouse" initiative, is designed to provide general education teachers with strategies for supporting their middle and high school students with autism. It was produced by the Organization for Autism Research (OAR) in collaboration with Fairfax County (VA) Public Schools, and made possible by…
Burnette, Courtney P.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne Pradella; Zahka, Nicole E.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.
Individual differences in the expression of autism complicate research on the nature and treatment of this disorder. In the Modifier Model of Autism (Mundy et al. 2007), we proposed that individual differences in autism may result not only from syndrome specific causal processes, but also from variability in generic, non-syndrome specific…
Giunco, C T; Moretti-Ferreira, D; Silva, A E; Rocha, S S; Fett-Conte, A C
This is a case report of macrosomia, obesity, macrocephaly and ocular abnormalities (MOMO syndrome) associated with autism. Studies on genetic or environmental syndromes associated with autism can provide genetic markers or uncover relevant events, and are very important for the definition of autism subgroups in future molecular research.
Stewart, Mary E.; Barnard, Louise; Pearson, Joanne; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory
Depression is common in autism and Asperger syndrome, but despite this, there has been little research into this issue. This review considers the current literature on the prevalence, presentation, treatment and assessment of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome. There are diagnostic difficulties when considering depression in autism and…
Macedoni-Luksic, Marta; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Rogers, Sally J.; Gosar, David; Lemons-Chitwood, Kerrie; Hagerman, Randi
To address the specific impairment of imitation in autism, the imitation abilities of 22 children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with and without autism were compared. Based on previous research, we predicted that children with FXS and autism would have significantly more difficulty with non-meaningful imitation tasks. After controlling for…
Hepburn, Susan; Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J.; Rogers, Sally
Background: Research suggests that children with Down syndrome may be at increased risk of having an autism spectrum disorder; however, previous studies have not utilized comprehensive, state-of-the-art diagnostic tools to address the question of comorbid autism and Down syndrome. Method: Comprehensive evaluations for autism were conducted in 20…
Allen, Ryan A.; Robins, Diana L.; Decker, Scott L.
This study reviews recent research related to the neurobiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) an provides an empirical analysis of current assessment practices. Data were collected through a survey of 117 school psychologists. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale…
Autism Speaks, the world's largest autism non-profit organization, is addressing a struggle to obtain evidence-based treatment on autism. The mission of Autism Speaks is to change the future for all who struggle with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Part of their focus is to change state insurance laws to require private health insurance policies…
A combination of fresh government and industry money and a sense of optimism have stimulated hiring, new construction and an aura of aggressive expansion in Ottowa's science research facilities (1 page).
Davis, Greg; Plaisted-Grant, Kate
'Heuristic' theories of autism postulate that a single mechanism or process underpins the diverse psychological features of autism spectrum disorder. Although no such theory can offer a comprehensive account, the parsimonious descriptions they provide are powerful catalysts to autism research. One recent proposal holds that 'noisy' neuronal signalling explains not only some deficits in autism spectrum disorder, but also some superior abilities, due to 'stochastic resonance'. Here, we discuss three distinct actions of noise in neural networks, arguing in each case that autism spectrum disorder symptoms reflect too little, rather than too much, neural noise. Such reduced noise, perhaps a function of atypical brainstem activation, would enhance detection and discrimination in autism spectrum disorder but at significant cost, foregoing the widespread benefits of noise in neural networks. © The Author(s) 2014.
Luong, June; Yoder, Marian K.; Canham, Daryl
Autism is a developmental disability increasing in incidence over the past decade. Parents of children with autism experience prolonged levels of stress and isolation. Using qualitative research design, nine parents of children with autism participated in this study that focused on the effect of autism on the family, coping styles, and support…
Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander
Research has highlighted potential differences in the phenotypic and clinical presentation of autism spectrum conditions across sex. Furthermore, the measures utilised to evaluate autism spectrum conditions may be biased towards the male autism phenotype. It is important to determine whether these instruments measure the autism phenotype…
Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion
The aim of this review is to summarize the key findings from genetic and epidemiological research, which show that autism is a complex disorder resulting from the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Remarkable advances in the knowledge of genetic causes of autism have resulted from the great efforts made in the field of genetics. The identification of specific alleles contributing to the autism spectrum has supplied important pieces for the autism puzzle. However, many questions...
Tsai, Peter T
Autism is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder whose origins are not well understood. Cerebellar involvement has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders with increasing evidence from both clinical studies and animal models supporting an important role for cerebellar dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. This article discusses the various cerebellar contributions to autism spectrum disorders. Both clinical and preclinical studies are discussed and future research directions highlighted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sacco, Roberto; Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M
Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of developmental origin, where multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact resulting in a clinical continuum between "affected" and "unaffected" individuals in the general population. During the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in identifying chromosomal regions and genes in linkage or association with autism, but no single gene has emerged as a major cause of disease in a large number of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific methodological issues and experimental strategies in autism genetic research, based on fourteen years of experience in patient recruitment and association studies of autism spectrum disorder in Italy.
Magana, Sandy; Smith, Leann E.
Research shows that Latinos are less likely to be diagnosed with autism than their non-Latino counterparts. One factor that may contribute to these differences is that autism diagnostic instruments have not been adapted for the Latino population. The present study compared scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised for two groups: 48…
Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.
Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.
Harrington, John W; Allen, Korrie
On the basis of the most recent epidemiologic research, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1% to 2% of all children. (1)(2) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers isa helpful tool to screen for autism in children between ages 16 and 30 months. (11) The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, changes to a 2-symptom category from a 3-symptom category in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-5): deficits in social communication and social interaction are combined with repetitive and restrictive behaviors, and more criteria are required per category. The DSM-5 subsumes all the previous diagnoses of autism (classic autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) into just ASDs. On the basis of moderate to strong evidence, the use of applied behavioral analysis and intensive behavioral programs has a beneficial effect on language and the core deficits of children with autism. (16) Currently, minimal or no evidence is available to endorse most complementary and alternative medicine therapies used by parents, such as dietary changes (gluten free), vitamins, chelation, and hyperbaric oxygen. (16) On the basis of consensus and some studies, pediatric clinicians should improve their capacity to provide children with ASD a medical home that is accessible and provides family-centered, continuous, comprehensive and coordinated, compassionate, and culturally sensitive care. (20)
Carvellas, B.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.
From 2002-2012 NSF and NOAA have supported a Vermont high school biology teacher to work with Dr. Jackie Grebmeier on 8 research cruises to the Arctic. Not only was the teacher embedded in Dr. Grebmeier's research team efforts, but her students were able to follow the work on board through her daily journals and photos. Subsequently, Dr. Grebmeier traveled to Vermont for a personal visit to students in multiple classes, grades 4-12. The opportunity for teachers to be teamed with a researcher, especially over an extended period of time as we will discuss in our presentation, allows their students to share in the tremendous learning experience and gain a deeper understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of science. The result is that the students begin to understand how the content they learn in the classroom is utilized in a real world setting. We will also discuss the more subtle benefits that occurred throughout the school year through connecting academic content with personal examples of "real" science. Note that the recently released Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), when fully implemented, will change the way students learn science. Appendix A of the NGSS lists 7 Conceptual Shifts in these new standards. #1 states "K-12 Science Education Should Reflect the Interconnected Nature of Science as it is Practiced and Experienced in the Real World" and #4 calls for a "Focus on Deeper Understanding of Content as well as Application of Content." What better way to address the standards than bringing real world science research into the classroom? Many K-12 science teachers, particularly those in elementary classrooms, have never had the opportunity to pursue their own research and even fewer have experienced first hand the real world work of a research scientist. This presentation will provide insights about our successful collaboration and value-added aspects to enhance the educational experience.
Meece, Stephanie; Robinson, Amy; Gramstadt, Marie-Therese
Open access institutional repositories can be ill-equipped to manage the complexity of research outputs from departments of fine arts, media, drama, music, cultural heritage, and the creative arts in general. The U.K.-based Kultur project was funded to create a flexible multimedia repository model using EPrints software. The project launched the…
... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that ... interview about being fathers of sons who have autism. Watch more Autism videos COMMUNITY REPORT The Community ...
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santosh; Molitoris, Sarah; Mayes, Rebecca D.
Unusual fears have long been recognized as common in autism, but little research exists. In our sample of 1033 children with autism, unusual fears were reported by parents of 421 (41%) of the children, representing 92 different fears. Many additional children had common childhood fears (e.g., dogs, bugs, and the dark). More than half of children…
Shahid, Hafiza Maimoona; Tariq, Sohaib; Saleem, Imran; Butt, Muhammad Adil; Tariq, Arslan; Tariq, Iqra
Recently, considerable advancement has been seen for educating the people with autism. Research has shown that people with autism reveals positive behavior while interacting with innovative information technologies as compared to therapies. This review focuses on the possible use of ICT in the education and development of the people with autism…
Persicke, Angela; Tarbox, Jonathan; Ranick, Jennifer; St. Clair, Megan
Researchers have shown that children with autism have difficulty with non-literal language, such as irony, sarcasm, deception, humor, and metaphors. To date, few studies have attempted to remediate these deficits, and no studies of which we are aware have attempted to teach children with autism to understand metaphors. Metaphorical reasoning…
... of social or personal indifference, many people with autism say eye contact causes them discomfort or stress, the study authors noted. The new research traces the problem to part of the brain that triggers ... people with and without autism looked at images of faces either freely or ...
Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria
Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special…
"What is autism and where has it come from? Increased diagnostic rates, the rise of the 'neurodiversity' movement, and growing autism journalism, have recently fuelled autism's fame and controversy. The metamorphosis of autism is the first book to explain our fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, Bonnie Evans traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the id...
Muhle, Rebecca; Trentacoste, Stephanie V; Rapin, Isabelle
diagnosis will exist only for the rare cases ascribable to single-gene defects or overt chromosomal abnormalities. Parents who wish to have more children must be told of their increased statistical risk. It is crucial for pediatricians to try to involve families with multiple affected members in formal research projects, as family studies are key to unraveling the causes and pathogenesis of autism. Parents need to understand that they and their affected children are the only available sources for identifying and studying the elusive genes responsible for autism. Future clinically useful insights and potential medications depend on identifying these genes and elucidating the influences of their products on brain development and physiology.
Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Donielle; Asher, Julian; Wheelwright, Sally; Fisher, Simon E; Gregersen, Peter K; Allison, Carrie
Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition in which a sensation in one modality triggers a perception in a second modality. Autism (shorthand for Autism Spectrum Conditions) is a neurodevelopmental condition involving social-communication disability alongside resistance to change and unusually narrow interests or activities. Whilst on the surface they appear distinct, they have been suggested to share common atypical neural connectivity. In the present study, we carried out the first prevalence study of synaesthesia in autism to formally test whether these conditions are independent. After exclusions, 164 adults with autism and 97 controls completed a synaesthesia questionnaire, Autism Spectrum Quotient, and Test of Genuineness-Revised (ToG-R) online. The rate of synaesthesia in adults with autism was 18.9% (31 out of 164), almost three times greater than in controls (7.22%, 7 out of 97, P <0.05). ToG-R proved unsuitable for synaesthetes with autism. The significant increase in synaesthesia prevalence in autism suggests that the two conditions may share some common underlying mechanisms. Future research is needed to develop more feasible validation methods of synaesthesia in autism.
Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun
In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.
Raahauge, Kirsten Marie
This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...
Yamada, Satoshi; Oki, Koichi; Itoh, Yoshiaki; Kuroda, Satoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Miyamoto, Susumu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Suzuki, Norihiro
Despite the common practice of surgery and antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with moyamoya disease, the benefit of these treatments is controversial. We analyzed the stroke recurrence rate in the Registry Study of Research Committee on Moyamoya Disease in Japan funded by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry of Japan. An annual follow-up study of the registered cases was continued for 10 years. The rate of recurrent stroke, including cerebral infarction and hemorrhage but not transient ischemic attack and seizure, was evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. The proportion of childhood-onset cases decreased in recently registered cases (within 10 years, n = 541) compared to remote cases (> 10 years, n = 735). Among types at disease onset in adult-onset cases, intracerebral hemorrhage decreased recently. In recent cases, the rate of subsequent cerebral hemorrhage was much higher in the hemorrhagic group (10.9 ± 3.3%/5 years) than in the ischemic group (2.0 ± .9%/5 years). The recurrence rate of cerebral infarction was lower in the surgery group (1.8 ± .9%/5 years) than in the nonsurgery group (3.8 ± 2.2%/5 years). In the adult-onset ischemic group, the proportion of surgically treated patients increased and their recurrence rate was lower than that of nonsurgery patients. In the ischemic group, the rate of cerebral infarction was not significantly different between the antiplatelet subgroup and the non-antiplatelet subgroup, whereas the rate of cerebral hemorrhage was higher in the non-antiplatelet subgroup than in the antiplatelet subgroup. Our results suggest revascularization surgery may suppress recurrent ischemic attacks in patients with moyamoya disease. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Anak autis diartikan sebagai gangguan perkembangan pervasif yang ditandai oleh adanya abnormalitas dan kelainan yang muncul sebelum anak berusia 3 tahun. Hampir semua anak autisme mempunyai keterlambatan dalam perkembangan motorik halus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas terapi okupasi terhadap perkembangan motorik halus anak dengan autisme di Sekolah Luar Biasa (SLB Khusus Autis Al-Ikhlas Bukittinggi tahun 2014. Menggunakan rancangan penelitian eksperimen dengan menggunakan One Group Pretest Post Test Design, dengan cara total sampling dan jumlah sampel 13 orang. Hasil penelitian didapatkan sebelum intervensi yaitu mean 3,62 (diragukan dan setelah intervensi menjadi mean 7,85 (sesuai tahap perkembangan dimana p value = 0.00 (α<0.05. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa terapi okupasi efektif terhadap perkembangan motorik halus anak dengan autisme dan kepada pihak petugas sekolah autis agar dapat secara rutin melaksanakan terapi okupasi sebagai salah satu intervensi keperawatan terhadap perkembangan motorik halus anak dengan autisme. Diharapkan dengan adanya penelitian ini, terapi yang telah diteliti dapat berguna dalam memberikan intervensi khususnya anak yang mengalami gangguan motorik halus agar bisa lebih mandiri. Kata kunci: Terapi Okupasi, Motorik Halus, Anak Autisme This study aims to determine the effectiveness of occupational therapy on the development of fine motor skills in children with autism in Al-Ikhlas Special Children’s School (SCS for Autism Bukittinggi 2014.This research was conducted by observation in SCS for Autism Al-Ikhlas from November 2014 until December 2014. The design of this research was an experimental research using One Group Pretest Post Test Design. The sample was taken by using total sampling technique with the total sample of 13 people. The result of this research showed the average of stimulation in child’s development before the intervention, was 3.62 (doubtful and after the intervention, the
This investigation studied the effectiveness of using food preparation to teach students with Autism about the three states of matter. A hands-on learning approach was used within the home and careers classroom. One class of five students, three boys and two girls, all diagnosed with Autism, participated in a five day academic unit about the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The class received hands-on learning science instruction using food through various differentiated activities. Results indicate that students express focus when using food to learn. In addition, this study acknowledges that hands-on learning in science enhances the learning process of students with Autism. One of the main reasons is that students enjoy learning when this teaching style is used in the classroom, and students that enjoy what they are learning are more likely to be engaged and motivated to learn. After using this approach, all the students in the study increased their scores from the pre-assessments to the post-assessments. Students expressed through actions and words that they enjoyed using hands-on experiences to learn in the classroom. Implications for practice indicate that a variety of manipulatives are needed to teach students with Autism. Future research would help uncover additional information about student motivation and learning in the home and careers classroom.
Conceição, Inês C.; Rasga, Célia; Miranda, Natércia; Vicente, A.M.
Dada a sua elevada prevalência global (cerca de 1 em 100), gravidade e complexidade etiológica, o autismo é hoje uma importante área de investigação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo compreender quais as preocupações éticas, perspetivas e expetativas de pais e profissionais da saúde e educadores ligados ao autismo, no que diz respeito à investigação desta patologia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de uma rede de investigação europeia sobre sinais precoces de auti...
Johnson, Norah L; Simpson, Pippa M
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has an estimated prevalence of greater than 1% of people in the U.S. Caring for children with ASD is stressful and challenging for parents. The purpose of the study is to understand the ramifications of the findings of a spouse/father's lack of participation for a study focused on stress and family functioning that attempted to recruit both parents of a child with ASD. The Kruskal-Wallis test compared medians of three groups of mothers of children with ASD in order to assess differences in parenting stress and family functioning discrepancy depending on their marital status and spouse survey participation. There were differences across the groups of mothers of children with ASD for the discrepancy in expectations for help, from the participants' spouse or relatives, with family tasks, meeting the demands of other work responsibilities, child care, challenging behaviors, and school absences. Mothers of children with ASD are at risk for isolation and stress from negotiating family functions with the fathers of the children. Health care providers can assess for stress and family functioning and may anticipate different needs based on marital status and by father's involvement in decision-making.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to assess the available literature concerning pain and autism. First, authors summarized the published articles on pain reactivity in people with autism. Second, the hypotheses envisaged to explain the presence of expressive particularities in people with autism spectrum disorders were reviewed; these included endogenous opioid excess theory, sensorial abnormalities and sociocommunicative deficit. Finally, the present review dealt with the tools available to assess and manage pain in people with autism. In conclusion, the authors revealed the need for more research to obtain more consensual data and provided some recommendations in this domain that were underexploited by the scientific community. From a clinical point of view, more knowledge about pain in people with autism should enable the development of specific assessment tools and, consequently, better pain management in daily care.
Meskell, Kathrin Ann
Autism is a complex biobgical disorder that usually lasts throughout a person's life (CDC, 2015). Persons with autism often find themselves cut off from the world around them. People with autism may exhibit a broad and diverse range of characteristics so doctors now think of autism as a spectrum disorder. Research studies reported that principals…
Taylor, Bridget A; DeQuinzio, Jaime A
A skill essential for successful inclusion in general education settings is the ability to learn by observing others. Research, however, has documented children with autism display significant deficits in the fundamental skills necessary for observational learning. This article outlines the skills essential for observational learning from an operant learning perspective, the research base on teaching observational learning to children with autism, and suggests practical strategies to increase these skills in children with autism so they may more fully benefit from inclusion in general education settings.
Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”
Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."
Widayati, F. E.; Usodo, B.; Pamudya, I.
The purpose of this research is to describe: (1) the mathematics learning process in an inclusion class and (2) the obstacle during the process of mathematics learning in the inclusion class. This research is a descriptive qualitative research. The subjects were a mathematics teacher, children with autism, and a teacher assistant. Method of collecting data was observation and interview. Data validation technique is triangulation technique. The results of this research are : (1) There is a modification of lesson plan for children with autism. This modification such as the indicator of success, material, time, and assessment. Lesson plan for children with autism is arranged by mathematics teacher and teacher assistant. There is no special media for children with autism used by mathematics teacher. (2) The obstacle of children with autism is that they are difficult to understand mathematics concept. Besides, children with autism are easy to lose their focus.
Spann, Marisa N; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Brown, Alan S
There is evidence that some maternal infections during the prenatal period are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as childhood autism. However, the association between autism and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an intracellular parasite, remains unclear. The authors examined whether serologically confirmed maternal antibodies to T. gondii are associated with odds of childhood autism in offspring. The study is based on a nested case-control design of a large national birth cohort (N = 1.2 million) and the national psychiatric registries in Finland. There were 874 cases of childhood autism and controls matched 1:1 on date of birth, sex, birthplace and residence in Finland. Maternal sera were prospectively assayed from a national biobank for T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies; IgG avidity analyses were also performed. High maternal T. gondii IgM antibody was associated with a significantly decreased odds of childhood autism. Low maternal T. gondii IgG antibody was associated with increased offspring odds of autism. In women with high T. gondii IgM antibodies, the IgG avidity was high for both cases and controls, with the exception of three controls. The findings suggest that the relationship between maternal T. gondii antibodies and odds of childhood autism may be related to the immune response to this pathogen or the overall activation of the immune system. Autism Res 2017, 10: 769-777. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Walsh, Mary Beth
We who advocate for applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorders often construct our arguments based on the scientific evidence. However, the audience that most needs to hear this argument, that is, the parents of children, especially very young children, diagnosed with autism, may not be convinced by the science alone. This essay attempts to make the case for the multiple benefits of ABA intervention through the use of humor and anecdotes couched in a “Top Ten ...
Mechler, Konstantin; Hoffmann, Georg F; Dittmann, Ralf W; Ries, Markus
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a prevalence of up to 2.7% and show significant rates of comorbidities. Pharmacological treatment can be difficult. New treatment options are needed, several are currently under investigation. Publication bias presents a major problem in current clinical research. This study was designed to quantify publication bias in rigorously designed ASD research. The database at ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for all completed randomized controlled clinical trials investigating interventions in ASD and their results made public. If results could neither be retrieved through search of the database, nor of scientific databases nor by enquiries of the responsible parties or sponsors listed, a trial was defined as not published. The search delivered N = 30 (60%) trials were published, N = 20 (40%) remained unpublished, N = 2,421 (59%) patients were enrolled in the published trials, N = 1,664 (41%) patients in the unpublished trials, time to publication was 21.4 months [standard deviation (SD) = 18.48; range = -5 to 80 months]. Results of N = 22 trials were available through ClinicalTrials.gov. Characteristics of published compared to unpublished trials did not show apparent differences. The majority of trials investigated drugs. The results emphasize the serious issue of publication bias. The large proportion of unpublished results precludes valuable information and has the potential to distort evidence for treatment approaches in ASD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer instruments to identify possible caseness and to provide proxies for clinical diagnoses are needed in epidemiological research on child and adolescent mental health. The aim of this study is to provide further validity data for a parent telephone interview focused on Autism - Tics, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD, and other Comorbidities (A-TAC, for which reliability and preliminary validation data have been previously reported. Methods Parents of 91 children clinically diagnosed at a specialized Child Neuropsychiatric Clinic, 366 control children and 319 children for whom clinical diagnoses had been previously assigned were interviewed by the A-TAC over the phone. Interviewers were blind to clinical information. Different scores from the A-TAC were compared to the diagnostic outcome. Results Areas under ROC curves for interview scores as predictors of clinical diagnoses were around 0.95 for most disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorders (DCD and learning disorders, indicating excellent screening properties. Screening cut-off scores with sensitivities above 0.90 (0.95 for ASD and AD/HD were established for most conditions, as well as cut-off scores to identify proxies to clinical diagnoses with specificities above 0.90 (0.95 for ASD and AD/HD. Conclusions The previously reported validity of the A-TAC was supported by this larger replication study using broader scales from the A-TAC-items and a larger number of diagnostic categories. Short versions of algorithms worked as well as larger. Different cut-off levels for screening versus identifying proxies for clinical diagnoses are warranted. Data on the validity for mood problems and oppositional defiant/conduct problems are still lacking. Although the A-TAC is principally intended for epidemiological research
The current multi-strategy study addressed the paucity of research examining the effectiveness of ‘transition planning’ and particularly its suitability for young people with autism. This study employed a review of the literature and a multi-strategy of quantitative and qualitative research to investigate the issues associated with this intervention, and the ways in which the experience could be improved for young people with autism. Findings indicated deficits in the system as a whole, as re...
Walsh, Mary Beth
We who advocate for applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorders often construct our arguments based on the scientific evidence. However, the audience that most needs to hear this argument, that is, the parents of children, especially very young children, diagnosed with autism, may not be convinced by the science alone. This essay attempts to make the case for the multiple benefits of ABA intervention through the use of humor and anecdotes couched in a "Top Ten List," and illustrating most points with stories of an engaging child with autism (my son, Ben).
Zyga, Olena; Russ, Sandra; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E.; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia
Children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including pervasive social deficits. While play impairments in ASD are well documented, play abilities in PWS have not been evaluated. Fourteen children with PWS and ten children with ASD were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)…
Brown, Kirsten R.; Peña, Edlyn Vallejo; Rankin, Susan
Ten percent of college students identify as having a disability, and a subsample of this population, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are increasingly participating in higher education. Autism spectrum disorders represent a spectrum of neurodevelopmental differences that can contribute to difficulties in communication and social…
Kissine, Mikhail; De Brabanter, Philippe; Leybaert, Jacqueline
This study assesses the extent to which children with autism understand requests performed with grammatically non-imperative sentence types. Ten children with autism were videotaped in naturalistic conditions. Four grammatical sentence types were distinguished: imperative, declarative, interrogative and sub-sentential. For each category, the…
Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal W.; Kelly, Donna; Mailloux-Maggio, Zoe
Objective: To examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of a manualized protocol of occupational therapy using sensory integration principles for children with autism. Methods: Ten children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ages 4-8 years received intensive occupational therapy intervention using sensory integration principles…
Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.
Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna
Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with the loss of participants in long-term longitudinal studies of ageing, due to refusal or moves, have been discussed less than those with short term follow-up. Methods In a population-based study of cognition and ageing (the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS, factors associated with dropout due to refusal and moving in the first follow-up period (over two years are compared with factors associated with dropout over ten years. Participants at 10-year follow-up are compared with their age-standardised baseline contemporaries. Results Some consistent trends are found over the longer term. Refusers tended to have poorer cognition, less years of education, not have a family history of dementia and be women. Characteristics of people who moved differed between waves, but the oldest and people in worse health moved more. When surviving and responding individuals at ten years are compared with those of the same age at baseline many differences are found. Individuals of lower social class, education, cognitive ability, in residential care, with sight/hearing problems and poor/fair self-reported health are less likely to be seen after 10 years of follow-up. Individuals report more health problems when they participate in multiple interviews. Conclusion The characteristics of refusers in the longer term are similar to those refusing to participate over the shorter term. Long-term follow-up studies will under represent the disadvantaged and disabled but represent full health status of participating individuals better. There are advantages and disadvantages to both short-term and long-term follow-up.
... Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Do vaccines cause autism? Is it OK to skip certain vaccines? Get ... their potentially serious complications. Vaccines do not cause autism. Despite much controversy on the topic, researchers haven' ...
Eliçin, Özge; Kaya, Ali
This study explores 67 experimental research articles written about children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using high-tech devices. The studies in this research were accessed through EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, ERIC, and Uludag University online search engines using keywords such as "autism and technology", "autism and…
Rubenstein, Eric; Wiggins, Lisa D; Schieve, Laura A; Bradley, Chyrise; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Moody, Eric; Pandey, Juhi; Pretzel, Rebecca Edmondson; Howard, Annie Green; Olshan, Andrew F; Pence, Brian W; Daniels, Julie
The autism spectrum disorder phenotype varies by social and communication ability and co-occurring developmental, behavioral, and medical conditions. Etiology is also diverse, with myriad potential genetic origins and environmental risk factors. Examining the influence of parental broader autism phenotype-a set of sub-clinical characteristics of autism spectrum disorder-on child autism spectrum disorder phenotypes may help reduce heterogeneity in potential genetic predisposition for autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the associations between parental broader autism phenotype and child phenotype among children of age 30-68 months enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (N = 707). Child autism spectrum disorder phenotype was defined by a replication of latent classes derived from multiple developmental and behavioral measures: Mild Language Delay with Cognitive Rigidity, Mild Language and Motor Delay with Dysregulation (e.g. anxiety/depression), General Developmental Delay, and Significant Developmental Delay with Repetitive Motor Behaviors. Scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult measured parent broader autism phenotype. Broader autism phenotype in at least one parent was associated with a child having increased odds of being classified as mild language and motor delay with dysregulation compared to significant developmental delay with repetitive motor behaviors (odds ratio: 2.44; 95% confidence interval: 1.16, 5.09). Children of parents with broader autism phenotype were more likely to have a phenotype qualitatively similar to broader autism phenotype presentation; this may have implications for etiologic research.
Dandulakis, Mary G; Meganathan, Kesavan; Kroll, Kristen L; Bonni, Azad; Constantino, John N
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allow researchers to make customized patient-derived cell lines by reprogramming noninvasively retrieved somatic cells. These cell lines have the potential to faithfully represent an individual's genetic background; therefore, in the absence of available human brain tissue from a living patient, these models have a significant advantage relative to other models of neurodevelopmental disease. When using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to model X-linked developmental disorders or inherited conditions that undergo sex-specific modulation of penetrance (e.g., autism spectrum disorders), there are significant complexities in the course and status of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) that are crucial to consider in establishing the validity of cellular models. There are major gaps and inconsistencies in the existing literature regarding XCI status during the derivation and maintenance of hiPSCs and their differentiation into neurons. Here, we briefly describe the importance of the problem, review the findings and inconsistencies of the existing literature, delineate options for specifying XCI status in clonal populations, and develop recommendations for future studies.
Kissine, Mikhail; Clin, Elise; de Villiers, Jessica
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by primary pragmatic difficulties, out of step with verbal and non-verbal developmental level. This selective survey paper addresses three recent domains of research on pragmatic functions in autism. First, we provide an up-to-date discussion of how lack of sensitivity to social cues impacts early acquisition of words. Second, we review recent findings on the comprehension of non-literal language, pointing to a more refined clinical reality. Third, we describe recent developments in the study of conversation skills in autism. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although motor deficits are gaining attention in autism research much less attention has been paid to the physical activity patterns in this group of children. The participants in this study were a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 72 between the ages of 9-18 years. This cross-sectional study explored the physical activity patterns of seventy-two children with autism spectrum disorder as they aged. Findings Results indicated significant differences between the mean time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and the mean time spent in sedentary activity. Older children with autism spectrum disorder are significantly more physically inactive, compared to younger children. Conclusions Physical activity programs and interventions need to address this deficit, in physical activity. Children with autism have a similar trend in physical activity patterns compared to their peers without autism; associated benefits and future research will be discussed.
The topic of early intervention for autism is widely researched and discussed within the literature. The application of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) continues to be an important topic. Due to the extensive amount of research on behavioral treatments for autism, and its widespread practice, the focus of this paper will be based upon treatment…
Full Text Available Atypical integration is a topic of debate in the autism literature. Some theories suggest that altered perception in autism spectrum disorder (ASD is due to a failure to integrate information from meaningful context into the final percept, whereas others suggest that integration of low-level features is impaired. Empirical research which forms the basis for these theories has failed to account for higher-level influences not inherent in the stimuli (i.e. instructions and goals and assess integration at both lower and higher perceptual levels within the same task. Here, we describe how perceived expectations and goals of a task can modulate the processing of low-level visual input via the medial pre-frontal cortex. We then go on to illustrate how future research might assess the relative contribution of both low and high-level processes using the same paradigm. We conclude by recommending that when results appear conflicting, consideration of the relative strength of low-level input versus feedback or high-level processes may prove helpful. Importantly, research in this area needs to more broadly consider the various influences on perception, and find better ways to assess the contributions of early and later visual processes.
McCary, L M; Roberts, J E
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading genetic cause of autism, accounting for approximately 5% of autism cases with as many as 50% of individuals with FXS meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder. Both FXS and idiopathic autism (IA) are attributed to genetic causes; however, FXS is an identified single gene disorder whereas autism is a complex disorder with multiple potential causes, some of which have been identified. Studies in IA have focused on the prospective longitudinal examination of infant siblings of children with autism as a target group due to their high risk of developing the disorder. We propose that this same model be applied to the study of infants with FXS. There is a lack of research focusing on the early development of autism within FXS and debate in the literature regarding how to best conceptualise this co-morbidity or whether it should be considered a co-morbid condition at all. Studying the emergence and stability of autism in infants with FXS has multiple benefits such as clarifying the underlying mechanisms of the development of autism in FXS and solidifying similarities and differences between co-morbid FXS with autism and IA. Infant research in both IA and FXS are discussed as well as conclusions and implications for practice and future research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Seeberg, Jens; Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard
Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...... is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...... with children diagnosed with autism, seen from a parental perspective. The article points to diagnostic dynamics that contribute to explaining why girls with autism are not diagnosed as easily as boys. We unfold these dynamics through the analysis of a case of a Danish family with autism....
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Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard; Seeberg, Jens
is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...... with children diagnosed with autism, seen from a parental perspective. The article points to diagnostic dynamics that contribute to explaining why girls with autism are not diagnosed as easily as boys. We unfold these dynamics through the analysis of a case of a Danish family with autism.......Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...
... the category. These were autistic disorder ("classic" autism), Asperger syndrome (which usually involved milder symptoms, mostly related ... all, of the features of classic autism or Asperger syndrome). 2 Health care providers no longer use ...
Donohue, Sarah E; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R
Autism spectrum disorder is typically associated with social deficits and is often specifically linked to difficulty with processing faces and other socially relevant stimuli. Emerging research has suggested that children with autism might also have deficits in basic perceptual abilities including multisensory processing (e.g., simultaneously processing visual and auditory inputs). The current study examined the relationship between multisensory temporal processing (assessed via a simultaneity judgment task wherein participants were to report whether a visual stimulus and an auditory stimulus occurred at the same time or at different times) and self-reported symptoms of autism (assessed via the Autism Spectrum Quotient questionnaire). Data from over 100 healthy adults revealed a relationship between these two factors as multisensory timing perception correlated with symptoms of autism. Specifically, a stronger bias to perceive auditory stimuli occurring before visual stimuli as simultaneous was associated with greater levels of autistic symptoms. Additional data and analyses confirm that this relationship is specific to multisensory processing and symptoms of autism. These results provide insight into the nature of multisensory processing while also revealing a continuum over which perceptual abilities correlate with symptoms of autism and that this continuum is not just specific to clinical populations but is present within the general population.
Sobol, Elise S.
This research study was built upon findings in neuroscience of the brain's natural ability to physically change itself through cognitive modifiability by creating new pathways and neural connections. The purpose of the research was to investigate instructional music applications for improvement in basic math skills with students who are on the…
Research on autism and environmental risk factors has expanded substantially in recent years. My analysis draws attention to the regimes of perceptibility that shape how the environment is materialized in post-genomic science. I focus on how more complex narratives of autism’s causes and social anxieties surrounding child development have helped situate autism risk in women’s bodies before and during pregnancy. This has resulted in what I call the maternal body as environment in autism scienc...
data point for those already enrolled in the study. 10 Structural differences in ASD compared to NT Using high-resolution 3D T1 weighted...way of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange 2 (ABIDE-2), thereby providing new data for the greater Autism research community. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...Autism, aging, functional MRI , fMRI, neuroimaging, executive functioning, memory, cognition, cortical thickness, connectivity, white matter, sparse
Full Text Available The "spectrum" has become the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing autism, with fundamental consequences for notions of disability, diversity, and normality. In this article, we draw on ethnographic research with autistic communities to explore how the notion of the autism spectrum has become a focus of explicit identification, reflection, and contestation. To further this inquiry, we place these debates into conversation with earlier debates regarding another spectrum—the Kinsey Scale, a "spectrum" for conceptualizing sexual orientation that first appeared in 1948 but has been critiqued since the 1970s. How might responses to the Kinsey Scale (like the Klein Grid contribute to rethinking the autism spectrum? This is a question about the cultural and political implications of metaphors and conceptual models. It is of broad importance because the spectrum metaphor is being extended to a range of conditions beyond autism itself. Our goal is thus to build on insights from sexuality studies as well as the insights of autistic persons, advocates, and researchers who wish to forestall the naturalization of "the spectrum." In doing so, we seek to contribute to a discussion of what alternative frameworks might bring to questions of social justice, ability, and human flourishing.
Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Campbell, Jonathan M; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick
Problem or challenging behaviors are highly prevalent among persons with autism and bring along major risks for the individual with autism and his/her family. In order to reduce the problem behavior, several behavioral interventions are used. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of single-subject studies to examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism. Two hundred and thirteen studies representing 358 persons with autism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analyses. Overall, we found that behavioral interventions were on average effective in reducing problem behavior in individuals with autism, but some interventions were significantly more effective than others. The results further showed that the use of positive (nonaversive) behavioral interventions was increasing over time. The behavioral interventions were on average equally effective regardless of the type of problem behavior that was targeted. Interventions preceded by a functional analysis reduced problem behavior significantly more than interventions not preceded by a functional analysis. Finally, treatment and experimental characteristics, but not participant characteristics, were statistically significant moderators of the behavioral treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Samuel S.-H.; Kloth, Alexander D.; Badura, Aleksandra
Cerebellar research has focused principally on adult motor function. However, the cerebellum also maintains abundant connections with nonmotor brain regions throughout postnatal life. Here we review evidence that the cerebellum may guide the maturation of remote nonmotor neural circuitry and influence cognitive development, with a focus on its relationship with autism. Specific cerebellar zones influence neocortical substrates for social interaction, and we propose that sensitive-period disruption of such internal brain communication can account for autism's key features. PMID:25102558
Solt, Ido; Bornstein, Jacob
The increased diagnoses of autism and developmental disorders in recent decades, together with the childhood vaccination program, has led to the hypothesis that vaccination in general, and the measles, mumps, and rubella virus live vaccine, and vaccines that contain mercury, in particular, cause autism. It has been hypothesized that intestinal infection caused by live virus vaccines change the permeability of the intestinal wall, and subsequently, the passage of peptides through the intestinal wall to the blood, and from there to the brain. It has been suggested that the accumulation of these peptides in the central nervous system causes autism. Studies that investigated this theory did not find an association between vaccine administration and between digestive system symptoms and autism. According to a second hypothesis, an organomercury compound (Thimerosal), used as a preservative in vaccines that do not include live viruses, is a cause of autism. Like the former, this hypothesis has been well researched, and refuted. Some studies have in fact found an increase in autism diagnosis among children who were vaccinated after Thimerosal was removed from the vaccine preparation. Recent studies have refuted the theory that the consecutive administration of vaccines weakens the young immune system in children, and leads to an autoimmune process that causes autism. The etiology of autism is still unknown, with research continuing from different directions. The extensive research conducted so far indicates that childhood vaccination is not a cause of the sharp increase in autism diagnoses in recent decades.
Full Text Available In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen, yet autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiologic findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism.Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.
In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations. PMID:26869906
Hundley, Rachel J.; Shui, Amy; Malow, Beth A.
We examined the association of two types of restricted and repetitive behaviors, repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS), with sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 532 children (aged 2-17) who participated in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network research registry.…
Brisson, Julie; Warreyn, Petra; Serres, Josette; Foussier, Stephane; Adrien-Louis, Jean
Previous studies on autism have shown a lack of motor anticipation in children and adults with autism. As part of a programme of research into early detection of autism, we focussed on an everyday situation: spoon-feeding. We hypothesize that an anticipation deficit may be found very early on by observing whether the baby opens his or her mouth in…
Kheir, Nadir; Ghoneim, Ola; Sandridge, Amy L.; Al-Ismail, Muna; Hayder, Sara; Al-Rawi, Fadhila
Introduction: Caring for a child diagnosed with autism could affect the quality of life of the caregiver in various different ways. No previous research has assessed the quality of lives of caregivers of children with autism in Qatar. Methods: Caregivers of a child with autism between 3 and 17 years old were recruited from child rehabilitation…
Only a few decades ago, autism was a rare and largely unknown psychiatric disorder. Today, autism is one of the most diagnosed, researched and discussed psychiatric disorders. What is more, in less than thirty years, autism has become an almost inescapable cultural phenomenon. Despite its current
Due to the relatively late age of clinical diagnosis of autism, the early brain pathology of children with autism has remained largely unstudied. The increased use of retrospective measures such as head circumference, along with a surge of MRI studies of toddlers with autism, have opened a whole new area of research and discovery. Recent studies…
It is only in recent years that research has begun to focus on gender differences in males and females on the autism spectrum. There is now an increasing awareness that we are missing women and girls on the autism spectrum and the assumption has been that there are more males with autism or Asperger syndrome. The questions needing to be asked are…
Dewinter, Jeroen; Van Parys, Hanna; Vermeiren, Robert; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
This qualitative study explored how adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder experience their sexuality. Previous research has demonstrated that sexuality is a developmental task for boys with autism spectrum disorder, as it is for their peers. Case studies have suggested a relation between autism spectrum disorder and atypical sexual…
With the increase in the numbers of diagnosed children on the autism spectrum, schools are being challenged to provide proper educational services for these children. In Educating Children with Autism, the National Research Council recommended that educational programs for students with autism include three basic components. These are direct…
Gold, Mireille; McCabe, Paul C.
Over the course of 3 decades, autism has evolved from a nearly unheard of disorder to one that is widely diagnosed (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). This surge in diagnosis has initiated a renewed interest in autism research across disciplines. The impact of autism on the family is of particular significance to school…
Genet 1996;58: 28Y34 41. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview Y Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers ...Rutter M, Le Couteur A (1994) Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible...Ghaziuddin N, Greden J (2002) Depression in persons with autism : implications for research and clinical care. J Autism Dev Disord 32:299-306 49. Gillberg C
Vorstman, Jacob A S; Parr, Jeremy R; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Anney, Richard J L; Nurnberger, John I; Hallmayer, Joachim F
Genetic studies have revealed the involvement of hundreds of gene variants in autism. Their risk effects are highly variable, and they are frequently related to other conditions besides autism. However, many different variants converge on common biological pathways. These findings indicate that aetiological heterogeneity, variable penetrance and genetic pleiotropy are pervasive characteristics of autism genetics. Although this advancing insight should improve clinical care, at present there is a substantial discrepancy between research knowledge and its clinical application. In this Review, we discuss the current challenges and opportunities for the translation of autism genetics knowledge into clinical practice.
Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa; Dadlani, Mamta B
Language acquisition research in autism has traditionally focused on high-level pragmatic deficits. Few studies have examined grammatical abilities in autism, with mixed findings. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by providing a detailed investigation of syntactic and higher-level discourse abilities in verbal children with autism, age 5 years. Findings indicate clear language difficulties that go beyond what would be expected based on developmental level; specifically, syntactic delays, impairments in discourse management and increased production of non-meaningful words (jargon). The present study indicates a highly specific pattern of language impairments, and importantly, syntactic delays, in a group of children with autism carefully matched on lexical level and non-verbal mental age with children with developmental delays and typical development.
Poel, van der R.H.M.
The Chinese export paintings collection of the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden includes ten winter views in Tartary painted on canvas. That these ten paintings have never before been studied as a group has inspired the present author to conduct research into their origins, the findings of
Zyga, Olena; Russ, Sandra; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia
Children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including pervasive social deficits. While play impairments in ASD are well documented, play abilities in PWS have not been evaluated. Fourteen children with PWS and ten children with ASD were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) (Lord et al. in Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2006) as part of a larger project. A modified Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ in Play in child development and psychotherapy: toward empirically supported practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, 2004; Pretend play in childhood: foundation of adult creativity. APA Books, Washington, 2014) was used to score ADOS play activities. Results indicate both groups scored below normative data on measures of imagination, organization, and affective expression during individual play. In addition, the inclusion of a play partner in both groups increased all scaled scores on the APS. These findings suggest children with PWS show impaired pretend play abilities similar to ASD. Further research is warranted and should focus on constructing and validating programs aimed at improving symbolic and functional play abilities within these populations.
Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara
Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.
Decoteau, Claire Laurier; Underman, Kelly
After 5600 families of children diagnosed with autism filed claims with the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program in the United States, the court selected 'test' cases consolidated into the Omnibus Autism Proceedings, held from 2007 to 2008, to examine claims that vaccines caused the development of autism. The court found all of the causation theories presented to be untenable and did not award damages to any parents. We analyze the Omnibus Autism Proceedings as a struggle within the scientific field between the scientific orthodoxy of the respondents and the heterodox position taken by the plaintiffs, suggesting that the ruling in these cases helped to shore up hegemony on autism causation. Drawing on the literature on non-knowledge, we suggest that only the respondents had enough scientific capital to strategically direct non-knowledge toward genetic research, thereby foreclosing the possibility of environmental causation of autism. The plaintiffs, who promote a non-standard ontology of autism, suggest that the science on autism remains undone and should not be circumscribed. In analyzing the Omnibus Autism Proceedings with field theory, we highlight the way in which scientific consensus-building and the setting of research agendas are the result of struggle, and we show that the strategic deployment of non-knowledge becomes a major stake in battles for scientific legitimacy and the settling of scientific controversies.
Landrigan, Philip J
Autism is a biologically based disorder of brain development. Genetic factors--mutations, deletions, and copy number variants--are clearly implicated in causation of autism. However, they account for only a small fraction of cases, and do not easily explain key clinical and epidemiological features. This suggests that early environmental exposures also contribute. This review explores this hypothesis. Indirect evidence for an environmental contribution to autism comes from studies demonstrating the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead, ethyl alcohol and methyl mercury. But the most powerful proof-of-concept evidence derives from studies specifically linking autism to exposures in early pregnancy - thalidomide, misoprostol, and valproic acid; maternal rubella infection; and the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos. There is no credible evidence that vaccines cause autism. Expanded research is needed into environmental causation of autism. Children today are surrounded by thousands of synthetic chemicals. Two hundred of them are neurotoxic in adult humans, and 1000 more in laboratory models. Yet fewer than 20% of high-volume chemicals have been tested for neurodevelopmental toxicity. I propose a targeted discovery strategy focused on suspect chemicals, which combines expanded toxicological screening, neurobiological research and prospective epidemiological studies.
Bergshoeff, Eric; Roo, Mees de; Kerstan, Sven; Riccioni, Fabio; Diaz Alonso, J.; Mornas, L.
We show that the exisiting supergravity theories in ten dimensions can be extended with extra gauge fields whose rank is equal to the spacetime dimension. These gauge fields have vanishing field strength but nevertheless play an important role in the coupling of supergravity to spacetime filling
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric
This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.
Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy; Minogue, James; Broadwell, Bethany; Wiebe, Eric; Carter, Glenda
The classic film "Powers of Ten" is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students' concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and…
Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…
Creative writers are well served with 'how to' guides, but just how much do they help? And how might they be relevant to academic authors? A recent survey of writing tips by twenty-eight creative authors has been condensed to the ten most relevant to the academic, supported by some comments on
Matson, Johnny L; Williams, Lindsey W
Knowledge in the area of developmental disabilities has been expanding rapidly. One area that has received particular attention is the topic of related comorbid conditions. This phenomenon is not exclusive to the field of developmental disabilities. However, research with this population is of recent origin. The purpose of this paper is to review the origins of this field including some of the notable developments and potential future trends. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong and often devastating conditions that severely affect social functioning and self-sufficiency. The etiopathogenesis is presumably multifactorial, resulting from a very complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The dramatic increase in autism spectrum disorder prevalence observed during the last decades has led to placing more emphasis on the role of environmental factors in the etiopathogenesis. The objective of this narrative biomedical review was to summarize and discuss the results of the most recent and relevant studies about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis. Sources: A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in the non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis, including: air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, electromagnetic pollution, vaccinations, and diet modifications. Summary of the findings: While the association between air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and risk for autism spectrum disorder is receiving increasing confirmation, the hypothesis of a real causal relation between them needs further data. The possible pathogenic mechanisms by which environmental factors can lead to autism spectrum disorder in genetically predisposed individuals were summarized, giving particular emphasis to the increasingly important role of epigenetics. Conclusions: Future research should investigate whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among nations with high and low levels of the various types of pollution. A very important goal of the research concerning the interactions between genetic and environmental factors in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis is the identification of vulnerable
Posar, Annio; Visconti, Paola
Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong and often devastating conditions that severely affect social functioning and self-sufficiency. The etiopathogenesis is presumably multifactorial, resulting from a very complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The dramatic increase in autism spectrum disorder prevalence observed during the last decades has led to placing more emphasis on the role of environmental factors in the etiopathogenesis. The objective of this narrative biomedical review was to summarize and discuss the results of the most recent and relevant studies about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis. A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in the non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis, including: air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, electromagnetic pollution, vaccinations, and diet modifications. While the association between air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and risk for autism spectrum disorder is receiving increasing confirmation, the hypothesis of a real causal relation between them needs further data. The possible pathogenic mechanisms by which environmental factors can lead to autism spectrum disorder in genetically predisposed individuals were summarized, giving particular emphasis to the increasingly important role of epigenetics. Future research should investigate whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among nations with high and low levels of the various types of pollution. A very important goal of the research concerning the interactions between genetic and environmental factors in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis is the identification of vulnerable populations, also in view of proper prevention. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de
Senokossoff, Gwyn W.
The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe a structured literature review that was completed to determine how reading comprehension instruction has been studied with high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and (b) to provide insight into the reading strategies that teachers might use to support these children.…
Whalon, Kelly J.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Martinez, Jose R.; Werch, Brittany L.
The purpose of this review was to critically examine and summarize the impact of school-based interventions designed to facilitate the peer-related social competence of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reviewed studies employed a single-case experimental design, targeted peer-related social competence, included children 3-12 years old…
Jones, Christopher D.; Schwartz, Ilene S.
This investigation examined communication patterns between high functioning children with autism and their families and typically developing children and their families within traditional dinner time conversation. Twenty families with a child with autism (3.5-7 years.) and ten families with typically developing children (3.5-6 years) were video…
In this paper, I argue that a new relation between past and present - a supposed historical continuity in the meaning of autism - is created by the histories written by the discipline itself. In histories of autism written by 'practitioner-historians', a sense of scientific progress and an essentialist understanding of autism legitimize and reinforce current understandings and research directions in the field of autism. Conceptual discontinuities and earlier complexities and disputes concerning classifying and delineating autism are usually left out of the positivist narrative of autism. In an alternative history of the concept of autism, I demonstrate that there have been major shifts in the type of symptoms, signs and impairments that were - and are - thought to be essential and specific for autism.
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Kapp, Steven K; Brooks, Patricia J; Pickens, Jonathan; Schwartzman, Ben
Autistic and non-autistic adults' agreement with scientific knowledge about autism, how they define autism, and their endorsement of stigmatizing conceptions of autism has not previously been examined. Using an online survey, we assessed autism knowledge and stigma among 636 adults with varied relationships to autism, including autistic people and nuclear family members. Autistic participants exhibited more scientifically based knowledge than others. They were more likely to describe autism experientially or as a neutral difference, and more often opposed the medical model. Autistic participants and family members reported lower stigma. Greater endorsement of the importance of normalizing autistic people was associated with heightened stigma. Findings suggest that autistic adults should be considered autism experts and involved as partners in autism research.
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Kapp, Steven K.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Pickens, Jonathan; Schwartzman, Ben
Autistic and non-autistic adults’ agreement with scientific knowledge about autism, how they define autism, and their endorsement of stigmatizing conceptions of autism has not previously been examined. Using an online survey, we assessed autism knowledge and stigma among 636 adults with varied relationships to autism, including autistic people and nuclear family members. Autistic participants exhibited more scientifically based knowledge than others. They were more likely to describe autism experientially or as a neutral difference, and more often opposed the medical model. Autistic participants and family members reported lower stigma. Greater endorsement of the importance of normalizing autistic people was associated with heightened stigma. Findings suggest that autistic adults should be considered autism experts and involved as partners in autism research. PMID:28400742
Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E
The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the history of music therapy research and treatment of children with autism. Understanding such history is important in order to improve clinical efficacy and inform future research. This paper includes a history of autism diagnosis, reviews strengths and limitations of music therapy practice with children with autism from 1940-2009, and suggests direction for future music therapy research and clinical practice with this population. Literature was limited to the English language and obtained with the following search terms: autism, autistic, (early) infantile autism, child, therapeutic music, musical therapy, and music therapy. Table of contents from music therapy journals were searched, and reference lists from obtained articles were perused for additional articles. This historical review focused primarily on journal articles, however, books and book chapters that appeared to hold particular historical significance were also included.
Gavin-Evans, Karen M.; Owings-Fonner, Nicole M.; Ziegert, Amanda K.; Carr, Colleen M.; Thomas, Tina S.
"A Parent's Guide to Assessment" is the fifth volume in the "Life Journey through Autism" series published by the Organization for Autism Research (OAR). It is intended to remove the mystery surrounding assessment, provide parents with a practical understanding of the assessment process, equip them as a parent with the knowledge and confidence to…
... for the Mentally Handicapped (NIMH), Manovikasnagar, Secunderabad 500 009, India; Child Neurology and Epilepsy, P.D. Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Veer Savarkar Marg, Mahim, Mumbai 400 016, India; Action For Autism (AFA), The National Centre for Autism, Pocket 7 and 8 Jasola Vihar, ...
The number of children diagnosed with autism around the world is increasing. Unlike a few years ago, more about the disorder is known today, which facilitates the improvement of outcomes of the many children diagnosed with the disorder. However, most of what is documented about autism today is based on research ...
Tanaka, James W.; Sung, Andrew
Although a growing body of research indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit selective deficits in their ability to recognize facial identities and expressions, the source of their face impairment is, as yet, undetermined. In this paper, we consider three possible accounts of the autism face deficit: (1) the holistic…
Persicke, Angela; Tarbox, Jonathan; Ranick, Jennifer; St. Clair, Megan
Previous research has demonstrated that children with autism often have difficulty using and understanding non-literal language ("e.g.," irony, sarcasm, deception, humor, and metaphors). Irony and sarcasm may be especially difficult for children with autism because the meaning of an utterance is the opposite of what is stated. The current study…
Cascio, Carissa; McGlone, Francis; Folger, Stephen; Tannan, Vinay; Baranek, Grace; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Essick, Gregory
Although sensory problems, including unusual tactile sensitivity, are heavily associated with autism, there is a dearth of rigorous psychophysical research. We compared tactile sensation in adults with autism to controls on the palm and forearm, the latter innervated by low-threshold unmyelinated afferents subserving a social/affiliative…
McDaniel Peters, B. Caitlin; Wood, Wendy
This systematic mapping review mapped current knowledge of equine-assisted interventions for people with autism to help guide future practice and research. Thirty-three studies including children and adolescents with autism, 3 of which confirmed diagnoses, were reviewed. Five types of equine-assisted activities were identified across 25 studies,…
Little research addresses the experiences of students with autism living in multilingual families. This multiple case study project examines the language-development-related knowledge and beliefs of paired mothers and educators of three Somali American boys with autism. Data include serial interviews, observations, and analysis of educational…
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Aldaqre, Iyad; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate
While typically developing children can use referential gaze to guide their word learning, those with autism spectrum disorder are often described to have problems with that. However, some researchers assume that the ability to follow gaze to select the correct referent can develop in autism later compared to typically developing individuals. To…
Rudra, Alokananda; Banerjee, Saoni; Singhal, Nidhi; Barua, Merry; Mukerji, Shaneel; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev
There is a critical need for screening and diagnostic tools (SDT) for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in regional languages in South Asia. To address this, we translated four widely used SDT (Social Communication Disorder Checklist, Autism Spectrum Quotient, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) into Bengali and Hindi, two main regional languages (~ 360 million speakers), and tested their usability in children with and without ASC. We found a significant difference in scores between children with ASC (n = 45 in Bengali, n = 40 in Hindi) and typically developing children (n = 43 in Bengali, n = 42 in Hindi) on all SDTs. These results demonstrate that these SDTs are usable in South Asia, and constitute an important resource for epidemiology research and clinical diagnosis in the region. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Samadi, Sayyed Ali; McConkey, Roy
Screening and assessment tools for developmental disabilities such as autism may need to be adjusted to particular cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use in Iran of a rating scale for autism commonly used in western society. A Persian translation of the GARS was completed by parents of 658 children: 442 who had been diagnosed with Autism; 112 intellectually disabled and 102 normally developing. The psychometric properties of the subscales were assessed and comparisons made across the three groups. Factor analysis broadly confirmed the three subscales; each of which had high internal consistency. Individuals with autism were clearly distinguished from the other two groups and a cut-off score was identified that maximised the scale's sensitivity and specificity. Ten items were identified that best discriminated the three groups and these could form the basis for a shorter screening tool as they had good internal reliability and predictive validity. Iranian parents identified items relating to impaired social interaction and repetitive behaviours as more indicative of autism rather than those relating to communication and language. Attuning screening tools to cultural contexts is an important step towards a better understanding of autism internationally. Implications for Rehabilitation Early identification of autism enables appropriate interventions to be commenced and support offered to families. Screening tools developed in western society needs to be evaluated for their suitability in other cultures internationally as well as with immigrant communities. Iranian professionals working in child development clinics could use the translated version of GARS with some confidence. In addition a shorter screening tool was developed comprising 10 autistic traits that were especially salient to an Iranian culture.
Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan
Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might…
Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K.; Howlin, Patricia
Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This…
... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...
Full Text Available Frank MC Besag Neurodevelopmental Team, East London Foundation NHS Trust, Family Consultation Clinic, Bedford, UK Abstract: Autism is more common in people with epilepsy, approximately 20%, and epilepsy is more common in people with autism with reported rates of approximately 20%. However, these figures are likely to be affected by the current broader criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, which have contributed to an increased prevalence of autism, with the result that the rate for ASD in epilepsy is likely to be higher and the figure for epilepsy in ASD is likely to be lower. Some evidence suggests that there are two peaks of epilepsy onset in autism, in infancy and adolescence. The rate of autism in epilepsy is much higher in those with intellectual disability. In conditions such as the Landau–Kleffner syndrome and nonconvulsive status epilepticus, the epilepsy itself may present with autistic features. There is no plausible mechanism for autism causing epilepsy, however. The co-occurrence of autism and epilepsy is almost certainly the result of underlying factors predisposing to both conditions, including both genetic and environmental factors. Conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and sleep disorders are common in both epilepsy and autism. Epilepsy is generally not a contraindication to treating these conditions with suitable medication, but it is important to take account of relevant drug interactions. One of the greatest challenges in autism is to determine why early childhood regression occurs in perhaps 25%. Further research should focus on finding the cause for such regression. Whether epilepsy plays a role in the regression of a subgroup of children with autism who lose skills remains to be determined. Keywords: epilepsy, autism, regression, genetics, environment, Landau-Kleffner, CSWS
2011; Coury et al., 2012). A significant subset of ASD children display GI abnormalities, including abdominal cramps, chronic diarrhea or constipation...ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics 125 Suppl 1, S1-18. Coury, D.L., Ashwood, P., Fasano, A., Fuchs, G., Geraghty, M., Kaul, A., Mawe, G., Patterson...P., and Jones, N.E. (2012). Gastrointestinal conditions in children with autism spectrum disorder: developing a research agenda. Pediatrics 130
Bharathi S. Gadad
Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.
Croen, Lisa A; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa
Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured population of adults with autism in the United States. Participants were adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California enrolled from 2008 to 2012. Autism spectrum disorder cases (N = 1507) were adults with autism spectrum disorder diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modification codes 299.0, 299.8, 299.9) recorded in medical records on at least two separate occasions. Controls (N = 15,070) were adults without any autism spectrum disorder diagnoses sampled at a 10:1 ratio and frequency matched to cases on sex and age. Adults with autism had significantly increased rates of all major psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and suicide attempts. Nearly all medical conditions were significantly more common in adults with autism, including immune conditions, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders, seizure, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Rarer conditions, such as stroke and Parkinson's disease, were also significantly more common among adults with autism. Future research is needed to understand the social, healthcare access, and biological factors underlying these observations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Victoria L. Chester
Full Text Available Most studies examining gait asymmetry have focused on infants and toddlers and have tended to use subjective methods of evaluating movement. No previous studies have examined gait symmetry in older children with autism using objective motion capture systems. The purpose of this paper was to quantify gait symmetry in children with autism versus age-matched controls. Fourteen children with autism (N=14 and twenty-two (N=22 age, height, and weight-matched controls participated in the study. An eight camera Vicon motion capture system and four Kistler force plates were used to compute temporal-spatial parameters and symmetry indices during walking. Group differences in these measures were tested using MANOVAs. No significant differences between the autism and control group were found for any of the temporal-spatial measures or symmetry indices. Therefore, results suggest that children with autism demonstrate typical symmetry or interlimb movement during gait. Further research is needed to examine the use of different gait inputs to the symmetry indices (e.g., joint angles and moments. A greater awareness of the movement patterns associated with autism may increase our understanding of this disorder and have important implications for treatment planning.
Nicolas J. Bourguignon
Full Text Available This contribution attempts to import the study of autism into the biolinguistics program by reviewing the current state of knowledge on its neurobiology, physiology and verbal phenotypes from a comparative vantage point. A closer look at alternative approaches to the primacy of social cognition impairments in autism spectrum disorders suggests fundamental differences in every aspect of language comprehension and production, suggesting productive directions of research in auditory and visual speech processing as well as executive control. Strong emphasis is put on the great heterogeneity of autism phenotypes, raising important caveats towards an all-or-nothing classification of autism. The study of autism brings interesting clues about the nature and evolution of language, in particular its ontological connections with musical and visual perception as well as executive functions and generativity. Success in this endeavor hinges upon expanding beyond the received wisdom of autism as a purely social disorder and favoring a “cognitive style” approach increasingly called for both inside and outside the autistic community.
Gulec-Aslan, Yesim; Ozbey, Fidan; Yassibas, Ugur
The purpose of the study is to describe the life experiences of a young man who has been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) through a narrative research. In other words, our research aim is to investigate the nature of life and especially the social and school experiences of individual affected by this syndrome. Data were collected via…
Khramova, T V; Kaysheva, Anna L; Ivanov, Y D; Pleshakova, T O; Iourov, I Y; Vorsanova, S G; Yurov, Y B; Schetkin, A A; Archakov, A I
According to WHO data, about 67 million people worldwide are affected by autism, and this number grows by 14% annually. Among the possible causes of autism are genetic modifications, organic lesions of the central nervous system, metabolic disorders, influence of viral and bacterial infections, chemical influence to the mother's body during pregnancy, etc. The conducted research shows that research papers published until today do not name any potential protein markers that meet the requirements of the basic parameters for evaluating the efficiency of disease diagnostics, in particular high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Conducting proteomic research on a big scale in order to detect serologic markers of protein nature associated with development of autism spectrum disorders seems to be highly relevant.
From classification and clustering to statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, this book covers the most important topics in data mining research. It presents the ten most influential algorithms used in the data mining community today. Each chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithm, a discussion of available software implementation, advanced topics, and exercises. With a simple data set, examples illustrate how each algorithm works and highlight the overall performance of each algorithm in a real-world application. Featuring contributions from leading researc
Twomey, Miriam; Shevlin, Michael
The importance of Early Intervention for children with Autism has been established however little attention has been given to the role of the parent and their perspective (Griffin & Shevlin, 2011). Research on Early Intervention has proliferated and innovative research on involving parents as partners has emerged (Carpenter, 2007; Hornby,…
Matson, Johnny L; Goldin, Rachel L
The starting point for any research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) involves the identification of people who evince the condition. From this point follows research on symptom presentation, genetics, epidemiology, animal models, treatment efficacy, and many other important topics. Major advances have been made in differential diagnosis, particularly with young children. This fact is particularly important since ASD is a life long condition. This review documents recent advances and the current state of research on this topic. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K
In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...
Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K
to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...
Clarke, Charles L. A.; Cormack, Gordon V.; Lin, Jimmy; Roegiest, Adam
This paper explores a simple question: How would we provide a high-quality search experience on Mars, where the fundamental physical limit is speed-of-light propagation delays on the order of tens of minutes? On Earth, users are accustomed to nearly instantaneous response times from search engines. Is it possible to overcome orders-of-magnitude longer latency to provide a tolerable user experience on Mars? In this paper, we formulate the searching from Mars problem as a tradeoff between "effo...
Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))
This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Vance, Carol GT; Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A
Summary Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention that activates a complex neuronal network to reduce pain by activating descending inhibitory systems in the central nervous system to reduce hyperalgesia. The evidence for TENS efficacy is conflicting and requires not only description but also critique. Population-specific systemic reviews and meta-analyses are emerging, indicating both HF and LF TENS being shown to provide analgesia, specifically when applied at a strong, nonpainful intensity. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the latest basic science and clinical evidence for TENS. Additional research is necessary to determine if TENS has effects specific to mechanical stimuli and/or beyond reduction of pain and will improve activity levels, function and quality of life. PMID:24953072
Foxx, Richard M
The treatment of individuals with autism is associated with fad, controversial, unsupported, disproven, and unvalidated treatments. Eclecticism is not the best approach for treating and educating children and adolescents who have autism. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) uses methods derived from scientifically established principles of behavior and incorporates all of the factors identified by the US National Research Council as characteristic of effective interventions in educational and treatment programs for children who have autism. ABA is a primary method of treating aberrant behavior in individuals who have autism. The only interventions that have been shown to produce comprehensive, lasting results in autism have been based on the principles of ABA.
Koesoemo, Rizki Fitryasari Patra
Introduction: Children with autism will be a stressor to their family. This research aims to describe about family grieving process and family burden when taking care of their children with autism at Special Needs School Bangun Bangsa, Surabaya. Method: This research used descriptive phenomenology design with indepth interview method. The participant of this research was six member of a family who plays role as the main caregiver for autism child. This study employs the purposive sampling met...
Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth; Kočovská, Eva; Minnis, Helen; Bourgeron, Thomas; Thompson, Lucy
Based on evidence from the relevant research literature, we present a hypothesis that there may be a link between cholesterol, vitamin D, and steroid hormones which subsequently impacts on the development of at least some of the “autisms” [Coleman & Gillberg]. Our hypothesis, driven by the peer reviewed literature, posits that there may be links between cholesterol metabolism, which we will refer to as “steroid metabolism” and findings of steroid abnormalities of various kinds (cortisol, testosterone, estrogens, progesterone, vitamin D) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Further research investigating these potential links is warranted to further our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1022–1044. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28401679
Autism is the most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although autism is considered a low-incidence disorder, many music educators in schools today teach students with autism each week. Students with ASDs usually require similar educational interventions that are adapted to their…
Knapp, Thomas R; Brown, Jean K
Quantitative researchers must choose among a variety of statistical methods when analyzing their data. In this article, the authors identify ten common errors in how statistical techniques are used and reported in clinical research and recommend stronger alternatives. Useful references to the methodological research literature in which such matters are discussed are provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo
to extend the applicability of the RHC system are providing the continuous impetus for research on RHC systems. This paper summarizes the important issues involved in the research on RHC system, whereby ten questions and answers concerning the RHC system are discussed, which will help researchers to conduct...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition, which is typically characterized by a triad of symptoms: impaired social communication, social reciprocity and repetitive stereotypic behavior. While the behavioral phenotype of ASD is well described, the search for reliable ‘autism biomarkers’ continues. CONTENT: Insulin growth factor (IGF is essential for the myelination of developing fetal neurons; this is in addition to the well-known links between IGF, maternal inflammation, infection and autism supporting IGF as a potential marker. Combining IGF data with data regarding levels of the known markers, serotonin and anti-myelin basic protein, in order to calculate an autism index, could provide a new diagnostic method for at-risk neonates. Disruptions to multiple pathophysiological systems, including redox, folate, methylation, tryptophan metabolism, and mitochondrial metabolism, have been well documented in autistic patients. Maternal infection and inflammation have known links with autism. Autoimmunity has therefore been a well-studied area of autism research. The potential of using autoantibodies as novel biomarkers for autism, in addition to providing insights into the neurodevelopmental processes that lead to autism. SUMMARY: The six proposed causes of autism involve both metabolic and immunologic dysfunctions and include: increased oxidative stress; decreased methionine metabolism and trans-sulfuration: aberrant free and bound metal burden; gastrointestinal (GI disturbances; immune/inflammation dysregulation; and autoimmune targeting. A newborn screening program for early-onset ASD should be capable of utilizing a combination of ASD-associated biomarkers representative of the six proposed causes of autism in order to identify newborns at risk. The biomarkers discussed in this article are useful to guide the selection, efficacy and sufficiency of biomedical interventions, which would likely
technologies involves several very different educational approaches to supporting young people’s learning and development. The paper discusses how robot technologies as learning resources have been related to the field of autism and education, and argues for a need to further expand the areas of application...... in the future, with a focus on children and young people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, their ICT interests and engagement in innovative and creative learning. The paper draws on international research and examples from the author’s own research into education for children and young people diagnosed...... with autism spectrum disorders, drawing on teachers’ and the students’ interests in working with ICT (e.g. robot technology)....
Kim, So Hyun; Thurm, Audrey; Shumway, Stacy; Lord, Catherine
Using two independent datasets provided by National Institute of Health funded consortia, the Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism and Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment (n = 641) and the National Institute of Mental Health (n = 167), diagnostic validity and factor structure of the new Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R)…
Hoeksma, Marco Rudolf
Autism is a severe developmental neuropsychiatric disorder, with an onset in the first three years of life. It essentially affects aspects of behaviour which are generally regarded as 'human'. Core characteristics of autism are abnormalities in language, communication and soical interaction,
Ruslan Ruslan; Eko Suhartono
Latar belakang: autisme merupakan gangguan perkembangan berat dalam hal berkomunikasi, interaksi sosial, dan perilaku yang tampak sebelum anak berusia 3 tahun. Gangguan perkembangan ini dihubungkan dengan faktor psikologi, kelainan neurobiologi, genetik, gangguan metabolik, pencernaan, keracunan logam berat dan biokimia. Tujuan: mengetahui kelainan biokimia yaitu senyawa oksigen reaktif (SOR) dan nitrogen oksida (NO) pada autisme. Peningkatan SOR dan NO diduga menyebabkan st...
Rutgers, Anna Hinderika
Autisme en veilige gehechtheid Men heeft lang gedacht dat kinderen met autisme, door hun problemen in sociale interacties en communicatie, niet in staat zijn om een emotionele band te ontwikkelen met hun ouders, met andere woorden zich te hechten aan hun ouders. Empirisch onderzoek heeft echter
van Berckelaer-Onnes, I A
The concept of autism has been broadened the last few years from 'early infantile autism' to 'an autistic spectrum'. Autism and related contact disorders are grouped together under 'pervasive developmental disorders' or 'autistic spectrum disorders'. The autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett's disorder and the childhood disintegrative disorder all belong to this group. People with an autistic spectrum disorder have severe difficulties in the integration of perceived stimuli into a meaningful entity. More than two-thirds of the people with the autistic disorder (classical autism) are also mentally retarded. Although autism can still only be diagnosed at the behavioural level, there is considerable consensus regarding an underlying organic aetiology. Autism is clearly a multifactorial condition. Autism cannot be cured, but adequate intervention can significantly improve the quality of life of people with this disorder. Diagnosis and intervention are highly interrelated. In the intervention, a distinction is made between family-oriented and child-oriented strategies. Augmentative communication plays a key role in the treatment. People with autism need a lot of structure, clarity and predictability, also when they have become adults.
Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion
The aim of this review is to summarize the key findings from genetic and epidemiological research, which show that autism is a complex disorder resulting from the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Remarkable advances in the knowledge of genetic causes of autism have resulted from the great efforts made in the field of genetics. The identification of specific alleles contributing to the autism spectrum has supplied important pieces for the autism puzzle. However, many questions remain unanswered, and new questions are raised by recent results. Moreover, given the amount of evidence supporting a significant contribution of environmental factors to autism risk, it is now clear that the search for environmental factors should be reinforced. One aspect of this search that has been neglected so far is the study of interactions between genes and environmental factors.
Ali, Asad; Cui, Xiaoying; Eyles, Darryl
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disease that presents in early life. Despite a considerable amount of studies, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying autism remain obscure. Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of autism. Vitamin D deficiency is emerging as a consistently reported risk factor in children. One reason for the prominence now being given to this risk factor is that it would appear to interact with several other epidemiological risk factors for autism. Vitamin D is an active neurosteroid and plays crucial neuroprotective roles in the developing brain. It has important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, immunomodulation, regulation of neurotransmission and steroidogenesis. Animal studies have suggested that transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with altered brain development. Here we review the potential neurobiological mechanisms linking prenatal vitamin D deficiency and autism and also discuss what future research targets must now be addressed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cook, Richard; Brewer, Rebecca; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey
Despite considerable research into whether face perception is impaired in autistic individuals, clear answers have proved elusive. In the present study, we sought to determine whether co-occurring alexithymia (characterized by difficulties interpreting emotional states) may be responsible for face-perception deficits previously attributed to autism. Two experiments were conducted using psychophysical procedures to determine the relative contributions of alexithymia and autism to identity and expression recognition. Experiment 1 showed that alexithymia correlates strongly with the precision of expression attributions, whereas autism severity was unrelated to expression-recognition ability. Experiment 2 confirmed that alexithymia is not associated with impaired ability to detect expression variation; instead, results suggested that alexithymia is associated with difficulties interpreting intact sensory descriptions. Neither alexithymia nor autism was associated with biased or imprecise identity attributions. These findings accord with the hypothesis that the emotional symptoms of autism are in fact due to co-occurring alexithymia and that existing diagnostic criteria may need to be revised.
Full Text Available Given the severe and chronic problems associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and the limitations of available treatments, there exists a large public health need for additional interventions. As more parents are inquiring about complementary and alternative treatments (CATs, both parents and practitioners require up-to-date information about them and whether and how to integrate them into treatment. After presenting data on CAT usage patterns for ASD, we review 13 ingestible (i.e., orally administered and 6 noningestible (i.e., externally administered CATs for ASD. For each CAT we briefly describe its definition; rationale for use; current research support, limitations, and future directions; safety issues; and whether we currently recommend, not recommend, or find it acceptable for the treatment of ASD. We conclude this paper with recommendations for future research and ten clinical recommendations for practitioners.
Waligórska, Anna; Pisula, Ewa; Waligórski, Michał; Letachowicz, Maciej
The efficacy of early intervention programs for children with autism has been emphasized in many studies. However, access for people with autism to professional services in Poland is very limited and the burden of supporting a child's development often falls on parents, especially in families with low socioeconomic status and families living far away from big cities. Using Internet resources in planning and delivering individualized intervention may be useful. This study examined the effects of a home program of intervention based on the AutismPro system with elements of consultative therapy. Ten families of children with a diagnosis of autism participated in the project; nine of them completed the 6-month program of intervention. Parents were taught to use the AutismPro system and implement the intervention techniques in a home setting. Modification of the intervention program to suit individual children's needs and evaluations of children's progress were performed during consultation meetings with therapists. The pre- and post-treatment measurement of child development was performed using the Psychoeducational Profile - Revised (PEP-R). Children involved in the study progressed in total PEP-R scores and on the PEP-R subtest of fine motor, gross motor, non-verbal and verbal cognitive skills and eye-hand integration. Parents expressed positive opinions on the program. The results suggest that an intervention which combines the use of the Internet support tool and professional consultations may provide benefits to the children with autism. There are, however, methodological limitations of the study to be taken into account when interpreting the results. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.
Bessette Gorlin, Jocelyn; McAlpine, Cynthia Peden; Garwick, Ann; Wieling, Elizabeth
This research examined the experiences of families living with a child with severe autism. There is limited literature on the experiences of families when a child has severe autism as distinct from milder autism and includes the voices of multiple family members. Van Manen's phenomenological approach was used for data collection and analysis. This approach allowed for the use of innovative data sources, including unstructured individual and family interviews, observations, and family lifelines (a pictorial, temporal picture with comments of the families lives). This study included 29 interviews with 22 participants from 11 families. All data were creatively triangulated and interpreted. Six essential themes were identified. First, families experienced autism as mysterious and complex because it is an invisible and unpredictable condition with diagnostic challenges. Second, families described severe autism behaviors that often caused self-injury, harm to others and damaged homes. Third, profound communication deficits resulted in isolation between the family and child. Fourth, families discussed the unrelenting stress from lack of sleep, managing the child's developmental delays, coordinating and financing services, and concern for the child's future. Fifth, families described consequences of isolation from friends, school, the public, and health providers. Sixth, families portrayed their need for compassionate support and formed 'hybrid families' (nuclear, extended families and friends) to gain support. Study results can be utilized to educate nurses/other providers about the unique needs of families with children with severe autism and could influence health care policies to improve the care for families caring for children with severe autism. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohammad S. I. Mullick
Full Text Available Background: Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurological origin. Abnormality in neuroimaging is reported in autism.Objectives: To delineate the proportion of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro encephalography (EEG abnormality among the children with Autism and to assess any association of MRI and EEG changes with co morbid mental illness.Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study done at a child and adolescent consultation centre, Dhaka. The study was Carried out from January 2009 to December 2009. Both boys and girls were included in the study. A total of 42 children with childhood autism aged between two and 12 years participated in this study. Diagnosis of autism was based on ICD-10(DCR criteria. Results: Abnormalities were found to be 35.7% in MRI and 42.9% in EEG. EEG abnormalities were found in the form of defuse slow waves activities, generalized faster activities, epileptogenic discharge and mixed discharge. The abnormalities in MRI was found in the form of diffuse cortical atrophic changes, focal cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal cortex with widening of major sulci, prominent ventricles, periventricular degeneration and abnormal basal ganglia. EEG changes were significantly associated with increased number of co-morbid illness (mental retardation, epilepsy and others. Conclusion: A number of abnom1alities that observed in the present study indicative of relations between structural and physiological dysfunctions and childhood autism. Further exploratory and in-depth researches are certainly required in this field. Intervention of autism needs to address co morbidities for better outcome.
In their landmark papers, both Kanner and Asperger employed a series of case histories to shape clinical insight into autistic disorders. This way of introducing, assessing and representing disorders has disappeared from today's psychiatric practice, yet it offers a convincing model of the way stereotypes may build up as a result of representations of autism. Considering that much of what society at large learns on disorders on the autism spectrum is produced by representations of autism in novels, TV-series, movies or autobiographies, it will be of vital importance to scrutinize these representations and to check whether or not they are, in fact, misrepresenting autism. In quite a few cases, media representations of talent and special abilities can be said to have contributed to a harmful divergence between the general image of autism and the clinical reality of the autistic condition.
Kern, Janet K; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Grannemann, Bruce D; Garver, Carolyn R; Johnson, Danny G; Andrews, Alonzo A; Savla, Jayshree S; Mehta, Jyutika A; Schroeder, Jennifer L
This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different processing modalities using total scores. Analysis also showed a significant correlation between processing modalities for both high and low thresholds, with the exception that auditory high threshold processing did not correlate with oral low threshold or touch low threshold processing. Examination of the different age groups suggests that sensory disturbance correlates with severity of autism in children, but not in adolescents and adults. Evidence from this study suggests that: all the main modalities and multisensory processing appear to be affected; sensory processing dysfunction in autism is global in nature; and sensory processing problems need to be considered part of the disorder.
Ronald, A; Larsson, H; Anckarsäter, H; Lichtenstein, P
This study aimed to identify empirically the number of factors underlying autism symptoms-social impairments, communication impairments, and restricted repetitive behaviors and interests-when assessed in a general population sample. It also investigated to what extent these autism symptoms are caused by the same or different genetic and environmental influences. Autistic symptoms were assessed in a population-based twin cohort of >12,000 (9- and 12-year-old) children by parental interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses, principal component analyses and multivariate structural equation model fitting were carried out. A multiple factor solution was suggested, with nearly all analyses pointing to a three-factor model for both boys and girls and at both ages. A common pathway twin model fit the data best, which showed that there were some underlying common genetic and environmental influences across the different autism dimensions, but also significant specific genetic effects on each symptom type. These results suggest that the autism triad consists of three partly independent dimensions when assessed in the general population, and that these different autism symptoms, to a considerable extent, have partly separate genetic influences. These findings may explain the large number of children who do not meet current criteria for autism but who show some autism symptoms. Molecular genetic research may benefit from taking a symptom-specific approach to finding genes associated with autism.
The article brings together contemporary research on autism spectrum disorder and historical sources concerning the medical condition of a 12th century nun, Hildegard of Bingen, to test two hypotheses: first, that Hildegard manifested disabilities that meet the criteria for autism spectrum disorder and, second, that medieval monasticism was unwittingly well-suited to treat Hildegard's condition. Abundant Hildegardian sources document traces of autism spectrum disorder behaviour in Hildegard's unusual childhood and the composite picture that emerges, when these individual traits are gathered together, is consistent with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. The role monasticism played in helping Hildegard overcome these behaviours is documented and aspects that monasticism shares with modern autism spectrum disorder treatment programs are identified. By recognizing the presence of autism spectrum disorder traits in a major cultural leader of another era and by identifying the type of life she lived while those traits were minimized, we gain insight into the history of autism, medieval monastic life and effective elements of autism spectrum disorder treatment. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Thomas, Nicole; Blake, Sharon; Morris, Christopher; Moles, David R
Accessing and receiving preventative dental treatment can be difficult for children with autism due to sensory processing disorders and/or challenging behaviours coupled with a reported reluctance by dentists to treat these children. To gather dental experiences of UK parents of children with autism or working diagnosis of autism and explore how they feel primary care dental services can be improved. A total of 17 parents of children with a diagnosis or working diagnosis of autism took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed thematically. Key themes identified were flexibility of the dental team and environment, confidence of the parents to advocate for their children's needs, continuity of services and clear referral pathways to specialist services. Cross-cutting all themes was the value of clear communication. The experiences provide greater understanding of issues such as hyper-empathy, the dental chair, challenges of the waiting room, perceived medical authority, and the importance of continuation of care. In line with previous research about the importance of family-centred care, a strong relationship between parents and the whole dental team is essential for children with autism to access dental examinations and have satisfactory experience of care. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In this article, I argue that the history and philosophy of autism need to account for two kinds of autism. Contemporary autism research and practice is structured, directed and connected by an 'ontological understanding of disease'. This implies that autism is understood as a disease like any other medical disease, existing independently of its particular manifestations in individual patients. In contrast, autism in the 1950s and 1960s was structured by a psychoanalytical framework and an 'individual understanding of disease'. This implied that autism was not a distinct disease but an idiosyncratic and meaningful response of the child to a disturbed development of the ego. These two kinds of autism are embedded in and reveal two very different 'styles of psychiatric thought'.
... ASD speak in a high-pitched or sing-song voice or use robot-like speech. Other children ... Spotlight Autism Research and the NIDCD Related Topics Aphasia Auditory Processing Disorder Developmental Milestones in Children Through ...
... the autism spectrum, providers, educators, researchers and other individuals with professional or..., gender, sexual orientation, disability, and cultural, religious, or socioeconomic status. Requests for... appointment to the IACC, including relevant personal and professional experience with ASD, as well as contact...
Volkert, Valerie M.; Vaz, Petula C. M.
This paper reviews recent studies on behavioral interventions for children with autism and feeding problems. The applicability of interventions that have been tested with other populations of children with feeding problems is discussed, as well as directions for future research.
Volkert, Valerie M; Vaz, Petula C.M
This paper reviews recent studies on behavioral interventions for children with autism and feeding problems. The applicability of interventions that have been tested with other populations of children with feeding problems is discussed, as well as directions for future research.
Dell'Osso, Liliana; Luche, Riccardo Dalle; Gesi, Camilla; Moroni, Ilenia; Carmassi, Claudia; Maj, Mario
Growing interest has recently been devoted to partial forms of autism, lying at the diagnostic boundaries of those conditions previously diagnosed as Asperger's Disorder. This latter includes an important retrieval of the European classical psychopathological concepts of adult autism to which Hans Asperger referred in his work. Based on the review of Asperger's Autistische Psychopathie, from first descriptions through the DSM-IV Asperger's Disorder and up to the recent DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder, the paper aims to propose a Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model that encompasses not only threshold-level manifestations but also mild/atypical symptoms, gender-specific features, behavioral manifestations and personality traits associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This model includes, but is not limited to, the so-called broad autism phenotype spanning across the general population that does not fully meet Autism Spectrum Disorder criteria. From this perspective, we propose a subthreshold autism as a unique psychological/behavioral model for research that could help to understand the neurodevelopmental trajectories leading from autistic traits to a broad range of mental disorders.
Dell’Osso, Liliana; Luche, Riccardo Dalle; Gesi, Camilla; Moroni, Ilenia; Carmassi, Claudia; Maj, Mario
Growing interest has recently been devoted to partial forms of autism, lying at the diagnostic boundaries of those conditions previously diagnosed as Asperger’s Disorder. This latter includes an important retrieval of the European classical psychopathological concepts of adult autism to which Hans Asperger referred in his work. Based on the review of Asperger's Autistische Psychopathie, from first descriptions through the DSM-IV Asperger’s Disorder and up to the recent DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder, the paper aims to propose a Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model that encompasses not only threshold-level manifestations but also mild/atypical symptoms, gender-specific features, behavioral manifestations and personality traits associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This model includes, but is not limited to, the so-called broad autism phenotype spanning across the general population that does not fully meet Autism Spectrum Disorder criteria. From this perspective, we propose a subthreshold autism as a unique psychological/behavioral model for research that could help to understand the neurodevelopmental trajectories leading from autistic traits to a broad range of mental disorders. PMID:27867417
Tsai, Hsiao-Wei Joy; Cebula, Katie; Fletcher-Watson, Sue
The influence of the broader autism phenotype (BAP) on the adjustment of siblings of children with autism has previously been researched mainly in Western cultures. The present research evaluated a diathesis-stress model of sibling adjustment using a questionnaire study including 80 and 75 mother-typically developing sibling dyads in Taiwan and…
Schendel, Diana E.; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Carter, Kim W.; Francis, Richard W.; Gissler, Mika; Grønborg, Therese K.; Gross, Raz; Gunnes, Nina; Hornig, Mady; Hultman, Christina M.; Langridge, Amanda; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Leonard, Helen; Parner, Erik T.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Sandin, Sven; Sourander, Andre; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Suominen, Auli; Surén, Pål; Susser, Ezra
The International Collaboration for Autism Registry Epidemiology (iCARE) is the first multinational research consortium (Australia, Denmark, Finland, Israel, Norway, Sweden, USA) to promote research in autism geographical and temporal heterogeneity, phenotype, family and life course patterns, and etiology. iCARE devised solutions to challenges in…
Khoridatul Bahiyah; Ah Yusuf; Sri Kusmawati
Introduction: Autism is social interaction disorder in children. They were seemingly living in their own world. ABA method was a technique to decrease behaviour disorder or social interaction in autism children. The aimed of this research was to evaluate correlation between ABA method implementation and parents role with social interaction development in children with autism. Method: This research was used a cross sectional with purposive sampling. There were 22 respondents who met to the in...
Bahiyah, Khoridatul; Yusuf, Ah.; Kusmawati, Sri
Introduction: Autism is social interaction disorder in children. They were seemingly living in their own world. ABA method was a technique to decrease behaviour disorder or social interaction in autism children. The aimed of this research was to evaluate correlation between ABA method implementation and parents role with social interaction development in children with autism. Method: This research was used a cross sectional with purposive sampling. There were 22 respondents who met to the in...
Plaisted, Kate C.
This chapter appeared in: "The development of Autism: Perspectives from Theory and Research" (2001) Eds :Jacob A. Burack, Tony Charman, Nurit Yirmiya & Philip R. Zelazo. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Publishers. (p 149-169) Copyright 2001 From "The development of Autism: Perspectives from Theory and Research" by Jacob A. Burack, Tony Charman, Nurit Yirmiya & Philip R. Zelazo. Reproduced by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Full Text Available There is no specifically marked medicine for the treatment of autism. A number of approaches have been used in evaluating the safety and efficiency of pharmacological treatments of both children and adults with autism. Two study parameters are particularly important, the presence of “blind” and control groups. The highest quality studies utilize equally “blind” and control procedures as well. They have to be performed at multiple sites with a large number of subjects.Research evaluating medicine proposed for treatment of autism, is on the increase. There is accelerated emphasis on medicine testing and better information on treatments should be more available than in the past. In this article, the following classes of medicine and therapies will be discussed: possible future medicine treatments - such as oxytocin, tetrahydrobiopterin and ampakines, hormone therapies, anti-yeast therapies, vitamin therapies, dimethylglycine, alpha lipoic acid and diet therapies.
In the 70 years since autism was described and named there have been huge changes in the conceptualization of this enigmatic condition. This review takes a personal perspective on the history of autism research. The origins of the first cognitive theories of autism, theory of mind and weak central coherence, are discussed and updated to inform future developments. Selected experimental findings are interpreted in the historical context of changes that have been brought about by advances in methodology. A three-level framework graphically illustrates a causal chain between brain, mind, and behaviour to facilitate the identification of phenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders. Cognition is placed at the centre of the diagram to reveal that it can link together brain and behaviour, when there are complex multiple mappings between the different levels.
Gupta, Abha R; State, Matthew W
Autism is a strongly genetic disorder, with an estimated heritability of greater than 90%. Nonetheless, its specific genetic etiology remains largely unknown. Over the past several years, the convergence of rapidly advancing genomic technologies, the completion of the human genome project, and successful collaborative efforts to increase the number of deoxyribonucleic acid samples available for study have led to the first solid clues regarding the genetic origins of autism spectrum disorders. This article addresses the obstacles that have confronted gene discovery efforts and reviews recent linkage, cytogenetic, and candidate gene association studies relevant to autism spectrum disorders. In addition, promising avenues for future research and the potential contribution of emerging genomic technologies are considered.
Geurts, Hilde M; Corbett, Blythe; Solomon, Marjorie
We present an overview of current literature addressing cognitive flexibility in autism spectrum disorders. Based on recent studies at multiple sites, using diverse methods and participants of different autism subtypes, ages and cognitive levels, no consistent evidence for cognitive flexibility deficits was found. Researchers and clinicians assume that inflexible everyday behaviors in autism are directly related to cognitive flexibility deficits as assessed by clinical and experimental measures. However, there is a large gap between the day-to-day behavioral flexibility and that measured with these cognitive flexibility tasks. To advance the field, experimental measures must evolve to reflect mechanistic models of flexibility deficits. Moreover, ecologically valid measures are required to be able to resolve the paradox between cognitive and behavioral inflexibility.
Full Text Available Music therapy is shown to be an effective intervention for emotional recognition deficits in autism. However, researchers to date have yet to propose a model that accounts for the neurobiological and cognitive components that are responsible for such improvements. The current paper outlines a model whereby the encoding of tonal pitch is proposed as the underlying mechanism. Accurate tonal pitch perception is important for recognizing emotions like happiness and sadness in the auditory domain. Once acquired, the ability to perceive tonal pitch functions as a domain-specific module that proves beneficial for music cognition. There is biological preparedness for the development of such a module and it is hypothesized to be preserved in autism. The current paper reinforces the need to build intervention programs based on this preserved module in autism, and proposes that this module may form the basis for a range of benefits related to music therapy. Possible brain areas associated with this module are suggested.
Taylor, Bridget A.; DeQuinzio, Jaime A.
A skill essential for successful inclusion in general education settings is the ability to learn by observing others. Research, however, has documented children with autism display significant deficits in the fundamental skills necessary for observational learning. This article outlines the skills essential for observational learning from an…
MacDonald, Jacquelyn; Ahearn, William H.
Observational learning (OL) is critical for the acquisition of social skills and may be an important skill for learning in traditional educational settings. Although OL occurs during early childhood in the typically developing population, research suggests that it may be limited in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The…
Zane, Thomas; Davis, Cheryl; Rosswurm, Mary
With the increase in the incidence of autism, there has been a corresponding increase in the number of treatments for this disorder. Professionals generally recognize the need for effective treatments. Effectiveness is typically considered to mean the use of quality research with good control over internal and external validity threats. Thus, only…
This commentary reviews previous articles that discuss major educational approaches for young children with autism, including applied behavior analysis, pivotal response training, and the developmental, individual-difference, relationship-based model. It emphasizes the need for research on which children do better with which particular…
Mintz, Joseph; Gyori, Miklos; Aagaard, Morten
apps designed to develop social and daily life skills in young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), should be developed and implemented in the future. We also set out a roadmap for a future research agenda, indicating further promising lines of enquiry that could potentially lead...
Ekas, Naomi; Whitman, Thomas L.
Researchers examining the relationship of autism "symptomatology" and maternal stress have defined symptomatology in terms of level of severity, frequency of occurrence, or symptom type. In the present study, the relationship of maternal perceptions of these dimensions, along with a fourth, symptom diversity, and negative and positive indices of…
Sansosti, Frank J.; Lavik, Katherine B.; Sansosti, Jenine M.
The primary aim of this study was to investigate common family experiences during the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic process, and the child and family variables that may relate to different diagnostic outcomes. A secondary aim of this study was to evaluate families' knowledge of the research support for various interventions. To…
Kocovska, Eva; Fernell, Elisabeth; Billstedt, Eva; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. The interplay between genetic and environmental factors has become the subject of intensified research in the last several years. Vitamin D deficiency has recently been proposed as a possible environmental risk…
Koegel, Lynn Kern
This article discusses research findings in increasing language skills in children with autism, assessing and teaching precursors relating to positive outcome, the importance of family involvement in intervention, best practices for communicative interventions, interrelationships between language and other autistic behaviors, and the social and…
Özgen, Mihriban Heval
The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and
Schroeder, Jessica H.; Desrocher, Mary; Bebko, James M.; Cappadocia, M. Catherine
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurological disorders characterized by heterogeneity in skills and impairments. A variety of models have been developed to describe the disorders and a wide range of brain processes have been implicated. This review attempts to integrate some of the consistent neurological findings in the research with…
Autism spectrum disorder shows deficits in social communication and interaction including nonverbal communicative behaviors (e.g., eye contact, gestures, voice prosody, and facial expressions) and restricted and repetitive behaviors as its core symptoms. These core symptoms are emerged as an atypical behavioral development in toddlers with the disorder. Atypical neural development is considered to be a neural underpinning of such behaviorally atypical development. A number of studies using voxel-based morphometry have already been conducted to compare regional brain volumes between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development. Furthermore, more than ten papers employing meta-analyses of the comparisons using voxel based morphometry between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development have already been published. The current review paper adds some brief discussions about potential factors contributing to the inconsistency observed in the previous findings such as difficulty in controlling the confounding effects of different developmental phases among study participants.
Hollin, Gregory J S; Pilnick, Alison
Twenty academic psychologists and neuroscientists, with an interest in autism and based within the United Kingdom, were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 on a variety of topics related to the condition. Within these qualitative interviews researchers often argued that there had been a 'turn to infancy' since the beginning of the 21st century with focus moving away from the high functioning adolescent and towards the pre-diagnostic infant deemed to be 'at risk' of autism. The archetypal research of this type is the 'infant sibs' study whereby infants with an elder sibling already diagnosed with autism are subjected to a range of tests, the results of which are examined only once it becomes apparent whether that infant has autism. It is claimed in this paper that the turn to infancy has been facilitated by two phenomena; the autism epidemic of the 1990s and the emergence of various methodological techniques, largely although not exclusively based within neuroscience, which seek to examine social disorder in the absence of comprehension or engagement on the part of the participant: these are experiments done to participants rather than with them. Interviewees claimed that these novel methods allowed researchers to see a 'real' autism that lay 'behind' methodology. That claim is disputed here and instead it is argued that these emerging methodologies other various phenomena, reorienting the social abnormality believed typical of autism away from language and meaning and towards the body. The paper concludes by suggesting that an attempt to draw comparisons between the symptoms of autism in infant populations and adults with the condition inevitably leads to a somaticisation of autism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kellerman, Gabriella R; Fan, Jin; Gorman, Jack M
Recently, findings on a wide range of auditory abnormalities among individuals with autism have been reported. To date, functional distinctions among these varied findings are poorly established. Such distinctions should be of interest to clinicians and researchers alike given their potential therapeutic and experimental applications. This review suggests three general trends among these findings as a starting point for future analyses. First, studies of auditory perception of linguistic and social auditory stimuli among individuals with autism generally have found impaired perception versus normal controls. Such findings may correlate with impaired language and communication skills and social isolation observed among individuals with autism. Second, studies of auditory perception of pitch and music among individuals with autism generally have found enhanced perception versus normal controls. These findings may correlate with the restrictive and highly focused behaviors observed among individuals with autism. Third, findings on the auditory perception of non-linguistic, non-musical stimuli among autism patients resist any generalized conclusions. Ultimately, as some researchers have already suggested, the distinction between impaired global processing and enhanced local processing may prove useful in making sense of apparently discordant findings on auditory abnormalities among individuals with autism.
Jeanette M. Daly
Full Text Available Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.
Crawley, Jacqueline N
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose diagnosis is based on three behavioral criteria: unusual reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and stereotyped repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. A large number of de novo single gene mutations and chromosomal deletions are associated with autism spectrum disorders. Based on the strong genetic evidence, mice with targeted mutations in homologous genes have been generated as translational research tools. Mouse models of autism have revealed behavioral and biological outcomes of mutations in risk genes. The field is now poised to employ the most robust phenotypes in the most replicable mouse models for preclinical screening of novel therapeutics.
Full Text Available Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 hours in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these.
Burbach, J Peter H
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with shared symptoms in the area of communication and language, restricted interests, and stereotyped and social behaviors. Causes lie in perturbations of brain development, which can be manifold, but genetic
Constantino, John N; Marrus, Natasha
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders whose core features of impaired social communication and atypical repetitive behaviors and/or restrictions in range of interests emerge in toddlerhood and carry significant implications at successive stages of development. The ability to reliably identify most cases of the condition far earlier than the average age of diagnosis presents a novel opportunity for early intervention, but the availability of such an intervention is disparate across US communities, and its impact is imperfectly understood. New research may transform the clinical approach to these conditions in early childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... findings that have been obtained so far are also reported. Some attentional processes, such as selective or sustained attention, are not altered in autism or not enough evidence has been found to support such a hypothesis...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a person's life. ... be known as Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people ...
... related to language, movement and coordination, and other brain functions), and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, or "atypical" autism, which included some, but not all, of the ...
Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.