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Sample records for temporo mandibular dysfunction

  1. [Temporo-mandibular joints and orthognathic surgery].

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    Bouletreau, P

    2016-09-01

    Temporo-Mandibular Joints (TMJ) and orthognathic surgery are closely linked. In the past, some authors have even described (with mixed results) the correction of some dysmorphosis through direct procedures on the TMJs. Nowadays, performing orthognathic surgery involves the TMJ in three different occasions: (1) TMJ disorders potentially responsible for dento-maxillary dysmorphosis, (2) effects of orthognathic surgery on TMJs, and (3) condylar positioning methods in orthognathic surgery. These three chapters are developed in order to focus on the close relationships between TMJ and orthognathic surgery. Some perspectives close this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Low intensity laser therapy and functional orthopedics contribution in pain and temporo mandibular dysfunction treatment; Contribuicao do laser em baixa intensidade e da ortopedia funcional dos maxilares no tratamento da dor e disfuncao tempora-mandibular

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    Lollato, Renata Fronzaglia

    2003-07-01

    Temporo Mandibular Dysfunction (TMD) is a term used to describe disorders which involve temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and associated structures, isolatedly or not, whose most frequent symptoms pain. Its etiology involve controversies, and among risk factors is Class 11 malocclusion. A lot of techniques are used for TMD treatment, and the most recent are Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) and Functional Orthopedics (FO). The aim of this study was to evaluate pain and buccal mobility in subjects with Class II malocclusion and TMD symptoms, treated with LILT and FO associated or not. Eighteen subjects were selected and divided in three groups. Group 1 was treated with LILT, {lambda} = 780 nm, 70 mW, 15 J/cm{sup 2} per point, in six sessions during two weeks. The application was in three points around the TMJ and in masticatory muscles: masseter, temporalis, sternomastoid and trapezius, on both sides when there was pain. Palpation was made before and five minutes after application and subjects answered a questionnaire with a score for pain evaluation. Group 2 received functional orthopedics aparatology Planas Indirect Composed Plates, and was evaluated once a week during two weeks, after palpation and following the same score as group 1. Group 3 received both therapies at the same time, and the first application coincided with the aparatology installation. The evaluation followed the parameters of group 1. The results were statically analyzed , and in general form did not show significant differences. There was remission of pain symptoms in ali of the groups, and group 3 showed more rapidly results. This fact leaded us to a conclusion that the association of the LILT with FO was the best treatment for the pain symptoms remission in TMD. (author)

  3. Densities and sizes of the main masticatory muscles in computed tomography compared with clinical findings related to temporo mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction

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    Raustia, A.M.; Pyhtinen, J.; Virtanen, K.K.

    1986-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has a good resolution capacity and is an excellent method for measuring tissue densities. The aim here was to compare the densities and sizes of the main masticatory muscles, the masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles, as obtained with CT, with clinical findings in patients with TMJ dysfunction (25) and controls (29). The densities of the masseter muscles and the medial pterygoid muscles showed no statistical difference between the patients and controls, while the lateral pterygoid muscles of the patients had densities that were only almost significantly higher than those of the controls. The masseter muscles on the patients who more often had signs of bruxism in their dentition were statistically significantly thicker than in the controls, but the widths of the medial pterygoid muscles gave no statistical difference between the groups. The results seem to indicate that in addition to the bone density changes associated with functional disorders of the masticatory system, there may be also density and size changes in the masticatory muscles which are detectable by CT.

  4. Dislocation of temporo-mandibular joint - an uncommon circumstance of occurrence: vaginal delivery

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    Abderrahim El Bouazzaoui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ is an infrequent disease but still almost spectacular. This disease consists of a permanent, to some extent complete disruption of the temporo-mandibular joint. These dislocations often occurs in a context of yawning, and less frequently after a burst of laughing or relatively mild facial trauma (slap, punch on the chin.We report a case of TMJ occurring in an uncommon circumstance : vaginal delivery. A young woman aged 24-years with no special past medical history; primipara was admitted in the Department of Maternity of the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez for an imminent delivery of a twin pregnancy. Obstetrical analgesia was not possible so the parturient cried in a strong manner during labour. Ten minutes after admission, the patient delivered vaginally with episiotomy. She gave birth to twins weighing 2800g and 2400g. During labour, and effort of crying, the patient presented a sudden and immediate loss of function of the temporo-mandibular joint, with difficulty of speaking, the mouth permanently opened, with the chin lowered and thrown forward. The examination found an emptiness of the glenoid fossa of the temporo-mandibular joint in both sides. The diagnosis of dislocation of the TMJ has established. Performance of special radiologic screening to study the TM was technically not possible. A CT scan of facial bones has been achieved so objectifying a bilateral dislocation of TMJ. The reduction of this dislocation was performed in the operating room under sedation

  5. ESTRÉS COMO FACTOR ETIOLÓGICO O PERPETUANTE DE DISFUNCION DE ARTICULACION TEMPORO MANDIBULAR

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    López Aguilar, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    El propósito del presente trabajo fué valorar la prevalencia de pacientes con síntomas o signos de disfunción de la articulación Temporo mandibular y si existe relación entre esos síntomas o signos de DTM con el estrés. La muestra seleccionada estuvo integrada por pacientes que reunieron los criterios de selección. Se realizó la Historia clínica de Articulación Temporo Mandibular del Diplomado en prótesis fija, removible y oclusión de la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás...

  6. Widespread temporo-occipital lobe dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Loewe, Kristian; Machts, Judith; Kaufmann, Jörn; Petri, Susanne; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Borgelt, Christian; Harris, Joseph Allen; Vielhaber, Stefan; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) lie on a single clinical continuum. However, previous neuroimaging studies have found only limited involvement of temporal lobe regions in ALS. To better delineate possible temporal lobe involvement in ALS, the present study aimed to examine changes in functional connectivity across the whole brain, particularly with regard to extra-motor regions, in a group of 64 non-demented ALS patients and 38 healthy controls. To assess between-group differences in connectivity, we computed edge-level statistics across subject-specific graphs derived from resting-state functional MRI data. In addition to expected ALS-related decreases in functional connectivity in motor-related areas, we observed extensive changes in connectivity across the temporo-occipital cortex. Although ALS patients with comorbid FTD were deliberately excluded from this study, the pattern of connectivity alterations closely resembles patterns of cerebral degeneration typically seen in FTD. This evidence for subclinical temporal dysfunction supports the idea of a common pathology in ALS and FTD.

  7. Post-traumatic changes of the temporo-mandibular joint by bone scintigraphy

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    Harris, S.A.; Rood, J.P.; Testa, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    13 patients who sustained mandibular trauma were investigated with radiographs and scintiscans. The scintiscans showed abnormal uptake of radiopharmaceutical in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In patients with a long history of traumatic arthrosis, there was more positive correlation between the scintiscans, and clinical symptoms and histology than between radiographs, and symptoms and histology. In patients with mandibular body fractures and no TMJ symptoms, the scans showed abnormal uptake in the TMJ in 7/8 joints, in the absence of radiographic abnormality. The significance of the abnormal uptake and the value of scintigraphy is discussed.

  8. Oclusión y estrés en el síndrome dolor disfunción temporo-mandibular

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    María del Carmen García Cubillas; Yusimí Pérez Corso

    2015-01-01

    Se reporta el caso de una paciente femenina de 35 años con síndrome dolor disfunción temporo-mandibular, cuyo motivo de consulta fue el dolor relacionado con el lado no habitual de masticación y de dormir. Los datos fueron tomados de su historia clínica inicial. El diagnóstico se realizó fundamentalmente por el método clínico. Para ello se hizo interrogatorio y el examen clínico de músculos, articulaciones temporo-mandibulares y oclusión. Se detectaron como posibles causas el estrés y una int...

  9. EFECTO DE LOS TRATAMIENTOS ODONTOLOGICOS EN LA DISFUNCION TEMPORO MANDIBULAR EN ALUMNOS DE LA CLINICA ODONTOLOGICA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE SANTA MARÍA, AREQUIPA 2008

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    DÍAZ ANDRADE, CARLOS JAVIER

    2015-01-01

    DISFUNCION TEMPORO MANDIBULAR TRATAMIENTO DE LOS TRASTORNOS DE LOS MÚSCULOS MASTICATORIOS CO-CONTRACCIÓN PROTECTORA (FIJACIÓN MUSCULAR) DOLOR MUSCULAR LOCAL (MIALGIA NO INFLAMATORIA) CARACTERÍSTICAS CLÍNICAS TRATAMIENTO DEFINITIVO DOLOR MIOFASCIAL (MIALGIA POR PUNTOS GATILLO) MIALGIA CRÓNICA DE MEDIACIÓN CENTRAL (MIOSITIS CRÓNICA) FIBROMIALGIA (FIBROSITIS) TRATAMIENTO DEL BRUXISMO NOCTURNO TRATAMIENTOS ODONTOLOGICOS TRATAMIENTO CON FÉRULAS OCLUSALES

  10. Association between condylar asymmetry and temporo- mandibular disorders using 3D-CT

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    Yáñez-Vico, Rosa M.; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José L.; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Using reconstructed three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) models, the purpose of this study was to analyze and compare mandibular condyle morphology in patients with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Study Design: Thirty-two patients were divided into two groups: the first comprised those with TMD (n=18), and the second those who did not have TMD (n=14). A CT of each patient was obtained and reconstructed as a 3D model. The 64 resulting 3D condylar models were ...

  11. Association between condylar asymmetry and temporo- mandibular disorders using 3D-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Vico, Rosa M.; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Using reconstructed three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) models, the purpose of this study was to analyze and compare mandibular condyle morphology in patients with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Study Design: Thirty-two patients were divided into two groups: the first comprised those with TMD (n=18), and the second those who did not have TMD (n=14). A CT of each patient was obtained and reconstructed as a 3D model. The 64 resulting 3D condylar models were evaluated for possible TMD-associated length, width and height asymmetries of the condylar process. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the results and student’s t tests applied to compare the two groups. Results: Statistically significant (pasymmetries of the condylar process were observed between TMD and non-TMD groups. TMD patients showed less condylar height (p3D-CT, it was shown that condylar width, height and length asymmetries were a common feature of TMD. Key words:Condilar asymmetry, 3D-computed tomography, X-ray diagnosis , maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics. PMID:22322511

  12. Morphometric and ultrastructural studies of the effect of infrared laser on rabbit temporo-mandibular joint fibroblasts

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    Ricardo Cornejo Uribe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared laser beams has been successfully used in joint lesions treatment due to its analgesic anti inflamatory and healing action, and on a cellular level, inducing an accentuated synthesis of ATP, activating cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis. Samples of normal-control and irradiated tissue from temporo-mandibular joint disc of rabbit, were obtained, with daily doses of 2 joules/cm²during 10 consecutive days. They were prepared for transmission electronic microscopy.Transmission electronic micrographs of normal and irradiated fibroblasts were obtained with final increase of 11.500 X for morphometric studies with the purpose of quantifying the volumetric fractions of the cellular components pertaining to the mentioned cellular types. Volumetric fractions of the quoted cell corresponding to nucleus, cytoplasm, rough endoplasmatic reticule, eu and heterochromatin were evaluated. In the same manner, the nucleus - cytoplasmatic relation and the area of each cellular type were quantified. The results derived from the morphometric comparative study between the normal and irradiated fibroblasts indicated that there were significant differences with respect to the volumetric fractions of euchromatin and heterochromatin and fundamentally in the cellular areas of both types. On the other hand, the rest of quantified parameters remained constant. It could be concluded that the cellular function reflected in collagen synthesis and secretion remained constant in both cellular types. However, by means of infrared laser stimulations, this fibroblast facilitated protein synthesis, due to high percentage of transcriptionally active euchromatine.O raio laser infravermelho tem sido usado com sucesso no tratamento de lesoes articulares por sua ação analgesica, antinflamatoria e cicatrizante e, ao nivel celular, induzindo acentuada síntese de ATP, ativando a proliferação celular e a síntese do colágeno. Foram obtidas amostras do disco da

  13. Investigation of human frontal cortex under noxious thermal stimulation of temporo-mandibular joint using functional near infrared spectroscopy

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    Yennu, Amarnath; Rawat, Rohit; Manry, Michael T.; Gatchel, Robert; Liu, Hanli

    2013-03-01

    According to American Academy of Orofacial Pain, 75% of the U.S. population experiences painful symptoms of temporo-mandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD) during their lifetime. Thus, objective assessment of pain is crucial for efficient pain management. We used near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool to explore hemodynamic responses in the frontal cortex to noxious thermal stimulation of temporomadibular joint (TMJ). NIRS experiments were performed on 9 healthy volunteers under both low pain stimulation (LPS) and high pain stimulation (HPS), using a temperature-controlled thermal stimulator. To induce thermal pain, a 16X16 mm2 thermode was strapped onto the right TMJ of each subject. Initially, subjects were asked to rate perceived pain on a scale of 0 to 10 for the temperatures from 41°C to 47°C. For the NIRS measurement, two magnitudes of temperatures, one rated as 3 and another rated as 7, were chosen as LPS and HPS, respectively. By analyzing the temporal profiles of changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentration (HbO) using cluster-based statistical tests, we were able to identify several regions of interest (ROI), (e.g., secondary somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex), where significant differences (ppain, a neural-network-based classification algorithm was used. With leave-one-out cross validation from 9 subjects, the two levels of pain were identified with 100% mean sensitivity, 98% mean specificity and 99% mean accuracy to high pain. From the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.99 mean area under curve was observed.

  14. Oclusión y estrés en el síndrome dolor disfunción temporo-mandibular

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    María del Carmen García Cubillas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de una paciente femenina de 35 años con síndrome dolor disfunción temporo-mandibular, cuyo motivo de consulta fue el dolor relacionado con el lado no habitual de masticación y de dormir. Los datos fueron tomados de su historia clínica inicial. El diagnóstico se realizó fundamentalmente por el método clínico. Para ello se hizo interrogatorio y el examen clínico de músculos, articulaciones temporo-mandibulares y oclusión. Se detectaron como posibles causas el estrés y una interferencia oclusal grosera. Se realizó un tratamiento múltiple: laserterapia, exodoncias, control de las interferencias oclusales, control de placa dentobacteriana e higiene bucal, charlas educativas y remisión al psicólogo. La paciente evolucionó favorablemente

  15. Estimulação nervosa eléctrica transcutânea (TENS) no tratamento da disfunção temporo-mandibular

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    Almeida, Ana Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Medicina Dentária, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, 2012 As modalidades eléctricas apresentam uma opção adicional no tratamento da Disfunção Temporo-Mandibular (DTM). Esta dissertação visa esclarecer o mecanismo e eficácia clínica de uma dessas modalidades, a Estimulação Nervosa Eléctrica Transcutânea (TENS). A TENS é utilizada para modulação da dor e melhoria de sintomas de DTM. Vai permitir reduzir a actividade eléctrica em repouso dos músculos ma...

  16. MRI of the temporo-mandibular joint: which sequence is best suited to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyle? A cadaveric study using micro-CT as the standard of reference

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    Karlo, Christoph A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Mueller, Lukas [University of Zurich, Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kau, Thomas; Watzal, Helmut; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Oliver [University of Zurich, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Luder, Hans-Ulrich [University of Zurich, Section of Orofacial Structures and Development, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    To determine the best suited sagittal MRI sequence out of a standard temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) imaging protocol for the assessment of the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles of cadaveric specimens using micro-CT as the standard of reference. Sixteen TMJs in 8 human cadaveric heads (mean age, 81 years) were examined by MRI. Upon all sagittal sequences, two observers measured the cortical bone thickness (CBT) of the anterior, superior and posterior portions of the mandibular condyles (i.e. objective analysis), and assessed for the presence of cortical bone thinning, erosions or surface irregularities as well as subcortical bone cysts and anterior osteophytes (i.e. subjective analysis). Micro-CT of the condyles was performed to serve as the standard of reference for statistical analysis. Inter-observer agreements for objective (r = 0.83-0.99, P < 0.01) and subjective ({kappa} = 0.67-0.88) analyses were very good. Mean CBT measurements were most accurate, and cortical bone thinning, erosions, surface irregularities and subcortical bone cysts were best depicted on the 3D fast spoiled gradient echo recalled sequence (3D FSPGR). The most reliable MRI sequence to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles on sagittal imaging planes is the 3D FSPGR sequence. (orig.)

  17. Mandibular dysfunction as a reflection of bulbar involvement in SMA type 2 and 3.

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    Bruggen, H.W. van; Wadman, R.I.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Leeuw, M. de; Creugers, N.H.; Kalaykova, S.I.; Pol, W.L. van der; Steenks, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine (1) the effect of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 2 and 3 on mandibular function reflected as masticatory performance, mandibular range of motion, and bite force and (2) the predictors of mandibular dysfunction. METHODS: Sixty patients

  18. Mandibular dysfunction as a reflection of bulbar involvement in SMA type 2 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, H Willemijn; Wadman, Renske I; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Leeuw, Maureen; Creugers, Nico; Kalaykova, Stanimira I; van der Pol, W Ludo; Steenks, Michel H

    2016-02-09

    In a cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine (1) the effect of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 2 and 3 on mandibular function reflected as masticatory performance, mandibular range of motion, and bite force and (2) the predictors of mandibular dysfunction. Sixty patients with SMA type 2 and 3 (mean age 32.3 years, SD 17.4 years) and 60 age-matched controls filled out questionnaires about impairments of mandibular function. All participants underwent detailed clinical examination to document the mandibular range of motion including maximal mouth opening, bite force, and masticatory function. All mandibular movements, including mouth opening, lateral range of motion, and protrusion of the mandible, were reduced in patients with SMA type 2 and 3 compared to healthy controls (p mandibular range of motion (R(2) = 0.82) and weakness of neck muscles for bite force (R(2) = 0.47). Reduced mandibular mobility and bite force are common complications in SMA. SMA type and neck muscle strength are important correlates of these complications. We provide further evidence for clinically relevant bulbar involvement in patients with SMA. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Clinical evaluation of the low intensity laser antialgic action of GaAlAs ({lambda}=785 nm) in the treatment of the temporomandibular disorders; Avaliacao clinica da acao antialgica do laser em baixa intensidade de arseneto de galio e aluminio ({lambda}=785 nm) no tratamento das disfuncoes da articulacao temporo-mandibular

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    Sanseverino, Nelly Tichauer Maluf

    2001-07-01

    The therapy with laser emitting low intensity has been currently used in the most diverse fields of medicine as therapeutic conduct for pain. It is a non invasive, painless, non-thermal and aseptic type therapy, without any collateral effects, having a good cost/benefit relationship. However, for the therapy with low-intensity laser to result in positive effects, a correct diagnosis is fundamental, as well as a protocol of adequate application. n odontology, the majority of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), present pain and limitations in the movements of the jaw. In this work, a GaAlAs laser emitting low intensity, was used, {lambda}=785 nm, in patients having a dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint with a complaint of pain. Twenty patients were divided into two groups. The group treated received laser therapy in the temporomandibular articulations and in the muscles affected. The dose applied was 45 J/cm{sup 2}, while the ten patients in the control group received 0 J/cm{sup 2}, in a total of nine applications, carried out three times a week, during three weeks. he evaluation of the patients was made through clinical examinations of manual palpation of the masseter, temporal, cervical, posterior neck and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and measurements of opening and laterality of the mouth. The results obtained showed a diminishing of the pain and an increase of the mandibular mobility in the patients treated, when compared to the control group. These results point to this therapy as being an important tool in the treatment of pain in patients with a dysfunction in the TMJ, indicating this therapeutic modality as a co-adjuvant in these treatments. (author)

  20. Correlation between computer-assisted measurements of mandibular opening and closing movements and clinical symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction.

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    Kordass, B; Hugger, A; Bernhardt, O

    2012-01-01

    197 subjects (74 male, 123 female) were evaluated in this Study of Health in Pomerania associated project (SHIP 0). Both a clinical functional status and an instrumental analysis of functional movement patterns of the mandible were performed in each subject, in the latter case using an ultrasonic jaw motion analysis system. Correlations between instrumental movement pattern features and clinical signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD), such as joint sounds, palpable impairment of jaw movement, and the termination of opening movement at the incisal point, were particularly significant (p movement or muscle tenderness in response to pressure. A multivariate logistic regression model showed a significant correlation between Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction grades 2 and 3 and the following independent variables: frequent headaches (odds ratio [OR] 4.12; p = 0.032), frequent popping sounds in the jaw joints (OR 5.79; p = 0.012), incisal paths showing conspicuous signs of dysfunction such as deviation or deflection (OR 4.35; p = 0.05), and condylar path anomalies such as jumpy, straight/inverse or irregular tracings (OR 28.59; p = 0.006). Instrumental functional analysis of condylar path tracings allows one to draw statistically valid conclusions about the occurrence of TMD symptoms. It can be helpful to perform condylar path analysis when performing risk assessments for temporomandibular dysfunction in certain situations, particularly before prosthetic rehabilitation.

  1. Mandibular condyle movement during mastication of foods.

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    Komiyama, O; Asano, T; Suzuki, H; Kawara, M; Wada, M; Kobayashi, K; Ohtake, S

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated the mandibular condyle displacement on the working side while masticating certain foods with different textures. For referencing the mandibular condyle movement, the range of voluntary border movement of the mandibular condyle was determined based on the analysis of the sagittal, left lateral and right lateral border motion using Posselt's figure. The test foods consisted of cheese, peanuts, and beef jerky. During mastication of cheese and peanuts, the amount of displacement of the mandibular condyle in all directions was within the range of border movement. Significant posterior and superior shifts of the mandibular condyle were observed during mastication of beef jerky, compared with the findings obtained during border movement. Accordingly, it is suggested that prolonged mastication of hard fibrous foods, may stimulate the temporomandibular joint structure and mandibular dysfunction patients should limit their intake of such foods.

  2. Temporo-mandibular joint chondrosarcoma: Case report and review of the literature.

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    Giorgione, C; Passali, F M; Varakliotis, T; Sibilia, M; Ottaviani, F

    2015-06-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumour of cartilaginous origin. It represents 11% of all malignant primary bone tumours, and the pelvis, ribs, femur and humerus are most frequently involved. Chondrosarcoma of the head and neck region is a rare disease, and represents approximately 0.1% of all head and neck neoplasms. This report describes a rare localisation of chondrosarcoma in a 56-year-old man who presented with swelling in the right preauricular area and mild limitation and pain in the mouth opening. Since 1959, just a few cases of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) chondrosarcoma have been described. Computed tomography revealed a large mass (39 x 46 x 40 mm) in the right preauricular and parotid region with morpho-structural alterations of the condyle and an intense periostotic reaction. The tumour was treated by total parotidectomy and condylotomy. The VII cranial nerve was preserved. Histopathologic examination revealed a low grade chondrosarcoma with a 50% proliferation index. At present, the patient is still receiving routine follow-up after radiotherapy and physiotherapy.

  3. Customized mandibular orthotics in the prevention of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury in football players: a preliminary study.

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    Singh, G Dave; Maher, Gerald J; Padilla, Ray R

    2009-10-01

    It is accepted that sports mouthguards decrease the incidence of dental injuries in athletes, but the value of oral orthotics in the prevention of concussion/mild traumatic brain injuries in footballers remains contentious. However, previous investigations have primarily studied non-customized mouthguards without dental/temporo-mandibular joint examinations of the subjects. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine whether the use of a customized mandibular orthotic after temporo-mandibular joint assessment reduces the incidence of concussion/mild traumatic brain injuries in high-school football players. Using a longitudinal, retrospective design, data were collected from a cohort of football players (n = 28) over three seasons using a questionnaire. The mean age of the sample prior to the use of the customized mandibular orthotic was 17.3 years +/- 1.9. Prior to deployment, dental records and temporo-mandibular joint evaluations were undertaken, as well as neurocognitive assessment, including history of concussion/mild traumatic brain injuries. After establishing optimal jaw position, a customized mandibular orthotic was fabricated to the new spatial relations. The mean age of the sample after three seasons was 19.7 years +/- 2.0. Prior to the use of the customized mandibular orthotic, the mean self-reported incidence of concussion/mild traumatic brain injuries was 2.1 +/- 1.4 concussive events. After the deployment of the customized mandibular orthotic the number of concussive events fell to 0.11 +/- 0.3 with an odds ratio of 38.33 (95% CI 8.2-178.6), P brain injuries in high- school football athletes, but a comprehensive study is required to confirm these initial findings. Furthermore, additional research is necessary to indicate the possible mode(s) of action of a customized mandibular orthotic in the prevention of concussion/mild traumatic brain injuries.

  4. Reading epilepsy from the dominant temporo-occipital region.

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    Gavaret, Martine; Guedj, Eric; Koessler, Laurent; Trébuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnès; Aubert, Sandrine; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2010-07-01

    Reading epilepsy is a rare form of epilepsy, classified among idiopathic, age- and localisation-related (partial) epilepsies as a reflex epilepsy syndrome. Seizures usually consist of myoclonic jerks restricted to the jaw. However, distinct ictal features including visual symptoms and paroxysmal a- or dyslexia are described in some patients. The anatomical substrate of ictogenesis in reading epilepsy remains poorly understood. The authors report here the case of a primary reading epilepsy for which ictal semiology was characterised by visual symptoms and dyslexia, investigated by MRI, interictal high-resolution EEG and PET, ictal video-EEG and SPECT. Brain MRI was normal. Interictal high-resolution EEG was performed with 64 scalp channels, a realistic head model and different algorithms to solve the inverse problem. Interictal source localisations highlighted the left occipito-temporal junction. Interictal PET demonstrated bilateral occipito-temporal hypometabolism with left-sided predominance. Ictal EEG showed a rhythmic discharge in left temporo-parieto-occipital junction channels, with left occipito-temporal predominance. MRI fusion of the coregistered subtraction between ictal and interictal SPECT individualised relative hyperperfusion affecting (a) the left occipito-parietal junction area, (b) the left lateral middle and inferior temporal gyri and (c) the left inferior frontal area. Besides reading-induced myoclonic jerks of the jaw, a second variant of reading epilepsy exists with clearly partial seizures manifested by visual symptoms and a- or dyslexia. These seizures originate from the occipito-temporal region of the dominant hemisphere, corresponding to the posterior part of the neural network that underlies the function of reading.

  5. The effect of tDCS over the right temporo-parietal junction on pain empathy.

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    Coll, Michel-Pierre; Tremblay, Marie-Pier B; Jackson, Philip L

    2017-06-01

    Empathy is a complex psychological phenomenon crucial for social perception and interactions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the right temporo-parietal junction is involved in self-other control mechanisms that play an important role in empathic responses. However, limited direct evidence of the involvement of this region in empathic responses is currently available. In this study, inhibitory transcranial direct current stimulation over this region influenced empathic responses to others' pain. It was found that compared to participants that received anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation, participants who received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the right temporo-parietal junction perceived the pain of others as less intense compared to sham stimulation and showed decreased late event related potentials to facial expressions of pain. Furthermore, it was found the stimulation had no significant effect on measures of sensorimotor resonance and physiological responses to pain in others. Our results demonstrate that the right temporo-parietal junction plays a role in empathic responses and that its inhibition can decrease behavioural and cerebral measures related to the cognitive-evaluative component of empathy. It is proposed that the right temporo-parietal junction is a valid stimulation target to study the influence of self-other control in empathic processes and could be useful to study the involvement of this region observed in clinical conditions characterized by altered empathic responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influencia del estrés en los trastornos de la articulación temporo-mandibular

    OpenAIRE

    Orte Ruiz, Edurne

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio fue identificar la influencia del estrés en las disfunciones de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM). Para ello se ha realizado un estudio con 16 sujetos ( atletas populares) 8 hombres y 8 mujeres de entre 30 y 50 años. Se han dividido en dos grupos a) con ausencia de tratamiento y sintomatología (grupo control) y b) sujetos con patología y tratamiento (Grupo de pacientes). A su vez estos últimos se han subdividido en sujetos con tratamiento stretch y spray y s...

  7. Efecto del laser AsGa sobre la anatomia normal de la articulacion temporo mandibular de conejos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matamala V., Fernando; Cornejo U., Ricardo; Vasconcellos C., Adriana; Silva M., Hector

    2009-01-01

    ... en humanos, en lesiones de diferentes articulaciones [13,14]. Esta terapia esta siendo utilizada por mas de 20 anos, pero todavia no se ha encontrado un modelo terapeutico confiable [18], ademas que no existen suficientes evidencias cientificas sobre su accion sobre las celulas y tejidos que es necesario clarificar [20]. Los efectos del laser blando ...

  8. Bilateral bifid mandibular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

  9. The Psychological Status of Patients with Acute Mandibular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pudov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the specific features of the psychological status of patients with acute mandibular injury, to compare a psychological reaction to injury in different age groups and in persons with signs of alcohol addiction. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 37 patients of both sexes over 15 years of age. The patients were distributed by age and chronic alcohol intoxication. Psychological parameters were determined using personality questionnaires: Spielberg-Hanin, Zung, GHQ-28, and Wein ones. Results. The patients with mandibular injury were found to have higher levels of situational and personality anxiety. A state of depression as a response to acute mandibular injury of reactive genesis was found in 29.8% of cases. Autonomic dysfunction occurred in 62.2% of the patients with mandibular fractures. Occult pathopsychological states were detected in 35.1% of the study group patients. Conclusion. The main found peculiarities of the psychological status of the patients with acute mandibular injury were high anxiety and the considerable incidence of autonomic dysfunction syndrome. There were no great age differences in psychological status and the direction of reactions. The patients with chronic alcohol intoxication more frequently developed a depressive state, but the autonomic dysfunction syndrome was just less often encountered and pathopsychological states were less frequently found. Key words: acute low anxiety depression alcohol abuse, psychological status.

  10. Avaliação da mecânica ventilatória em indivíduos com disfunção têmporo-mandibular e assintomáticos Evaluation of ventilatory mechanics in individuals with temporomandibular dysfunction and in asymptomatic individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Pasinato

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A relação entre disfunções respiratórias e têmporo-mandibulares tem sido recentemente constatada pela incidência de dor orofacial entre indivíduos com história de doenças respiratórias obstrutivas tanto de vias aéreas superiores como nas inferiores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar comparativamente a mecânica ventilatória em indivíduos com disfunção têmporo-mandibular (DTM e em indivíduos assintomáticos. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 35 voluntários, sendo 20 indivíduos com DTM e 15 assintomáticos. Os participantes foram avaliados para verificação da presença e grau de disfunção têmporo-mandibular. Realizou-se avaliação respiratória, por meio de inspeção do padrão e tipo ventilatório, medida dos perímetros torácicos, teste de força dos músculos respiratórios e histórico de enfermidade respiratória. RESULTADOS: Nos indivíduos com DTM, o modo respiratório bucal (30% e misto (15%, bem como o padrão ventilatório apical (45% foram predominantes. Observou-se uma menor expansibilidade torácica e uma redução estatisticamente significante no índice de amplitude abdominal nos indivíduos com DTM. Estes indivíduos também apresentaram maior incidência de patologias respiratórias obstrutivas tanto de vias aéreas superiores (70% como inferiores (45% em relação aos assintomáticos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que existe uma influência da mecânica ventilatória sobre a ocorrência de disfunção têmporo-mandibular.BACKGROUND: The relationship between respiratory and temporomandibular dysfunctions has recently been brought to light through the incidence of orofacial pain among individuals with a history of obstructive respiratory diseases in the upper and lower airways. OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate the ventilatory mechanics in individuals with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD and in asymptomatic individuals. METHOD: Thirty-five volunteers took part in the study: 20 individuals with TMD and

  11. [Mandibular movements in speech: interference of temporomandibular disfunction according to pain indexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Esther Mandelbaum G; Paiva, Guiovaldo; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2007-01-01

    temporomandibular disorders can cause general alterations of the mandibular movements due to modification in the condition of muscles and articulations. Electrognathography, a computerized exam used to complement the diagnosis of these disorders, allows the objective delineation and record of the mandibular movements, determining their amplitude and speed. to verify the characteristics of mandibular movements of individuals with temporomandibular dysfunction and in asymptomatic individuals during speech, through computerized electrognathography, analyzing possible interferences of this dysfunction and severity implications regarding pain indexes. 135 adults were divided in four groups based on their pain indexes, using a numeric scale: zero for pain absence, one for mild pain, two for moderate pain and three for severe pain. Mandibular movements were observed during the sequential naming of balanced pictures taking in consideration the occurrence of phonemes in the Brazilian Portuguese language. Records were obtained using computerized electrognathography (BioEGN - BioPak system). the analysis of the results point that differences indicated as significant for mandibular opening amplitude and mandibular closing speed occurred between index zero and all of the other pain indexes. Regarding mandibular opening speed during speech, statistically significant differences were obtained between index zero and index three. It was observed that mandibular movements in speech are discreet, with an anteroposterior component and deviations in laterality. the presence of temporomandibular dysfunctions causes reduction in the values of maximum mandibular opening and a reduction in both mandibular opening speed and mandibular closing speed during speech The different pain indexes: mild, moderate and severe do not seem to determine larger reduction of these values.

  12. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  13. Avaliação da posição condilar e disfunção temporomandibular em pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II submetidos à protrusão mandibular ortopédica Evaluation of condylar position and temporomandibular dysfunction in Class II patients treated with mandibular orthopedic advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira Conti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a participação da protrusão mandibular ortopédica e da posição condilar na prevalência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi composta por 60 indivíduos divididos em 3 grupos, sendo o grupo I correspondente a indivíduos não tratados; o grupo II composto por jovens em tratamento com o Bionator; e o grupo III por jovens já tratados com este aparelho. Os indivíduos da amostra responderam a um questionário relativo aos principais sintomas de DTM, permitindo a classificação dos mesmos de acordo com a presença e severidade dessas disfunções. Esses jovens também se submeteram à avaliação da movimentação mandibular, palpação dos músculos mastigatórios e inspeção de ruídos articulares. Radiografias transcranianas padronizadas das ATMs direita e esquerda foram realizadas, para obtenção do grau de concentricidade condilar. RESULTADOS: os testes ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis e qui-quadrado foram utilizados para análise dos dados. De acordo com os resultados do questionário anamnésico, 66,67% da amostra foram classificados com ausência de DTM; 30% com DTM leve e apenas 3,33% com DTM moderada, sem diferença entre os grupos estudados (p > 0,05. Quanto à concentricidade condilar, o grupo II apresentou os valores de menor concentricidade (côndilos mais anteriorizados, com diferença estatisticamente significante em relação ao grupo I (p OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the possible effects of orthopedic mandibular protrusion and condyle position in the prevalence and severity of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD. METHODOLOGY: the sample was composed of 60 individuals with Angle Class II malocclusion divided into three groups depending upon the accomplishment of functional orthopedic treatment (prior, during and after therapy with the Bionator appliance. An anamnestic questionnaire, composed of questions regarding most frequent symptoms was used to classify the sample

  14. Familial aggregation of mandibular prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular prognathism is a hereditary condition where there is an excess growth of the mandible in relation to the maxilla that can be associated with maxillary retrusion, mandibular protrusion, or both. Skeletal mandibular prognathism is most prevalent in Eastern Asian populations. This paper focuses on a Korean family with skeletal mandibular prognathism that was inherited through three generations. Apparently, neither mandible nor maxilla is retruded in the affected individuals, but there is a concave facial profile. The dentition has a class I occlusion with skeletal mandibular prognathism, and the only way to treat this case would be orthognathic surgery with the help of orthodontic appliances.

  15. Avaliação da posição condilar e disfunção temporomandibular em pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II submetidos à protrusão mandibular ortopédica Evaluation of condylar position and temporomandibular dysfunction in Class II patients treated with mandibular orthopedic advancement

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira Conti; Marcos Roberto de Freitas; Paulo César Rodrigues Conti

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a participação da protrusão mandibular ortopédica e da posição condilar na prevalência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM). METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi composta por 60 indivíduos divididos em 3 grupos, sendo o grupo I correspondente a indivíduos não tratados; o grupo II composto por jovens em tratamento com o Bionator; e o grupo III por jovens já tratados com este aparelho. Os indivíduos da amostra responderam a um questionário relativo aos principais si...

  16. Oral and mandibular manifestations in the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitakides, John; Tinkle, Brad T

    2017-03-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are hereditary disorders that affect the connective tissue and collagen structures in the body. Several types of EDS have been identified. Oral and mandibular structures, which include oral soft tissue, dentition, facial and head pain, and the functioning of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), are variably affected in the various types of EDS. These various manifestations of EDS have been noted for many years, but newer diagnostic techniques and studies are shedding additional light on the challenges faced by EDS patients in the area of oral and mandibular disorders. Further, the impact of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) on musculoskeletal dysfunction and vice versa, make this an important feature to recognize. Oral and mandibular hypermobility of the TMJ with associated consequences of EDS are noted. These features, diagnostic parameters and treatment procedures are presented. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures result from fronto-temporo-basalganglial network involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rajesh Shankar; Ramakrishnan, T C R; Karunakaran; Shinto, Ajit; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppuswamy

    2017-01-01

    •Faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) are caused by autoantibodies to leucine-rich glioma-inactivated1 proteins, a component of the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC-complex) and precede the clinical presentation of limbic encephalitis.•The exact pathophysiology of FBDS is not known and whether they are seizures or movement disorder is still debated.•We suggest the fronto-temporo-basal ganglia network involving the medial frontal and temporal regions along with the corpus striatum and substantia nigra being responsible for the clinical phenomenon of FBDS.•The varied clinical, electrical and imaging features of FBDS in our cases and in the literature are best explained by involvement of this network.•Entrainment from any part of this network will result in similar clinical expression of FBDS, whereas other electro-clinical associations and duration depends on the extent of involvement of the network.

  18. Tissue engineering the mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Detamore, Michael S

    2007-08-01

    Tissue engineering provides the revolutionary possibility for curing temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Although characterization of the mandibular condyle has been extensively studied, tissue engineering of the mandibular condyle is still in an inchoate stage. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of advances relevant to tissue engineering of mandibular cartilage and bone, and to serve as a reference for future research in this field. A concise anatomical overview of the mandibular condyle is provided, and the structure and function of the mandibular condyle are reviewed, including the cell types, extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, and biomechanical properties. Collagens and proteoglycans are distributed heterogeneously (topographically and zonally). The complexity of collagen types (including types I, II, III, and X) and cell types (including fibroblast-like cells, mesenchymal cells, and differentiated chondrocytes) indicates that mandibular cartilage is an intermediate between fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. The fibrocartilaginous fibrous zone at the surface is separated from hyaline-like mature and hypertrophic zones below by a thin and highly cellular proliferative zone. Mechanically, the mandibular condylar cartilage is anisotropic under tension (stiffer anteroposteriorly) and heterogeneous under compression (anterior region stiffer than posterior). Tissue engineering of mandibular condylar cartilage and bone is reviewed, consisting of cell culture, growth factors, scaffolds, and bioreactors. Ideal engineered constructs for mandibular condyle regeneration must involve two distinct yet integrated stratified layers in a single osteochondral construct to meet the different demands for the regeneration of cartilage and bone tissues. We conclude this review with a brief discussion of tissue engineering strategies, along with future directions for tissue engineering the mandibular condyle.

  19. [CT morphology of mandibular bone and mandibular nerve canal in hemimandibular elongation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Mei; Wang, Tao; Mao, Xiaobin; Yang, Dongkun

    2012-04-01

    To study morphology feature of mandibular anatomical characteristics and mandibular nerve canal of hemimandibular elongation (HE) using CT, and provide reference for the clinical treatment. 19 patients with HE were scanned using multidetector CT. Mimics 10.0 software was used for three-dimensional reconstruction, and CT images were reconstructed on different sections. The position of mandibular nerve canal, mandibular foramen and thickness of mandibular cortical bone were measured, and compared with control group (without mandibular lesion). Compared with the control group, the distance between mandibular nerve canal and mandibular surface were statistically different at the section of long axis of mandibular first molar centre (LAMFM)-lingual, long axis of mandibular second molar centre (LAMSM)-buccal, LAMSM-superior, retromolar area centre to the mandibular angle (RAC-MA)-buccal, RAC-MA-superior, RAC-MA-inferior and horizontal level of mandibular foramen under 5 mm (HLMFU5)-lingual, HLMFU5-anterior, HLMFU5-posterior (Pmandibular cortical bone were statistically different at the LAMFM-buccal, LAMFM-inferior (Pmandibular foramen (LPMF)-superior border of mandibular ramus (SBMR) and LPMF-inferior border of mandibular ramus (IBMR) were statistically different (Pmandibular cortical bone gradually decreases in all directions from the mandibular first molar to the mandibular ramus. Compared with the control group, mandibular nerve canal located buccally and superiorly at mandibular second molar and retromolar area, mandibular foramen located more anterior and lower inside mandibular ramus.

  20. [The profile surgery. Mandibular osteotomies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, M A; Grande, C; Parri, F J; Rivera, A; Sarget, R; Morales, L

    1996-04-01

    During the years 1987-1994, 31 mandibular osteotomies have been performed in 25 patients, 15 had mandibular alteration alone, 10 of them with prognatism, 2 with microretrognatia and 3 with chin hipoplasia. The other 10 had a combined maxillary-mandibular alteration with hipoplasia and maxillary retrussion. The preoperative work-up included cephalometric and dental study, and a cast model was done to asses the theoretical benefic of the osteotomy. All these patients underwent orthodontic treatment before and after surgery. The results have been good or very good in 96% of the cases. The ortognatic surgery offers significant aesthetic and functional improvement to these patients.

  1. Malignant mandibular tumors: two case reports of rare mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular lesions can be benign or malignant, malignant being less common. The most common malignant tumor of mandible is squamous cell carcinoma. Others are ameloblastic carcinoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and metastasis. Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor.

  2. A study of mandibular foramen and mandibular canal using orthopantomograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Sang; Kim, Jhai Dhuck [Department of Dentistry, Graduate School, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessel. Th e author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal, the positional frequency of mandibular foramen to the occlusal plane and gonial angle and the positional frequency of the mental foramen to the tooth site using orthopantomorgrams. The materials considered of 295 orthopantomograms divided into seven groups ranging from the first decade to 6th decade. The results were as follows: 1. The position of mandibular foramen was most frequently below occlusal plane in Group I (78.6%) and Group II (71.2%) , above occlusal plane in Group III (63.0%), Group IV (71.1%), Group V (57.6%), Group VI (76.7%) and Group VII (70.0%). 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was 142.82 .deg. in Group I, 142.09 .deg. in Group II, 139.34 .deg. in Group III, 141.48 .deg. in Group IV, 138.45 .deg. in Group V, 140.77 .deg. in Group VI and 143.89 .deg. in Group VII. 3. The gonial angle was 125.82 .deg. in Group I, 123.18 .deg. in Group II, 124.06 .deg. in Group III, 120.45 .deg. in Group IV, 121.12 .deg. in Group V, 121.63 .deg. in Group VI and 121.24 .deg. in Group VII. 4. The position of the mental foramen was most frequently below the apex of mandibular first premolar in Group I (57.2%), between the apex of mandibular first and second premolar in Group II (59.6%) and Group III (48.9%), and below the apex of mandibular second premolar in Group IV (39.2%), Group V (48.5%) Group VI (46.7%) and Group VII (56.4%).

  3. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception – evidence from studies in chess experts

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes eRennig; Merim eBilalic; Elisabeth eHuberle; Hans-Otto eKarnath; Marc eHimmelbach

    2013-01-01

    In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact versus disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012). This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual item...

  4. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception-evidence from studies in chess experts

    OpenAIRE

    Rennig J; Bilalic M; Huberle E; Karnath HO; Himmelbach M.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact vs. disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012). This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to...

  5. Perception of Upright: Multisensory Convergence and the Role of Temporo-Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kheradmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We inherently maintain a stable perception of the world despite frequent changes in the head, eye, and body positions. Such “orientation constancy” is a prerequisite for coherent spatial perception and sensorimotor planning. As a multimodal sensory reference, perception of upright represents neural processes that subserve orientation constancy through integration of sensory information encoding the eye, head, and body positions. Although perception of upright is distinct from perception of body orientation, they share similar neural substrates within the cerebral cortical networks involved in perception of spatial orientation. These cortical networks, mainly within the temporo-parietal junction, are crucial for multisensory processing and integration that generate sensory reference frames for coherent perception of self-position and extrapersonal space transformations. In this review, we focus on these neural mechanisms and discuss (i neurobehavioral aspects of orientation constancy, (ii sensory models that address the neurophysiology underlying perception of upright, and (iii the current evidence for the role of cerebral cortex in perception of upright and orientation constancy, including findings from the neurological disorders that affect cortical function.

  6. The role of temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in global Gestalt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-07-01

    Grouping processes enable the coherent perception of our environment. A number of brain areas has been suggested to be involved in the integration of elements into objects including early and higher visual areas along the ventral visual pathway as well as motion-processing areas of the dorsal visual pathway. However, integration not only is required for the cortical representation of individual objects, but is also essential for the perception of more complex visual scenes consisting of several different objects and/or shapes. The present fMRI experiments aimed to address such integration processes. We investigated the neural correlates underlying the global Gestalt perception of hierarchically organized stimuli that allowed parametrical degrading of the object at the global level. The comparison of intact versus disturbed perception of the global Gestalt revealed a network of cortical areas including the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), anterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. The TPJ location corresponds well with the areas known to be typically lesioned in stroke patients with simultanagnosia following bilateral brain damage. These patients typically show a deficit in identifying the global Gestalt of a visual scene. Further, we found the closest relation between behavioral performance and fMRI activation for the TPJ. Our data thus argue for a significant role of the TPJ in human global Gestalt perception.

  7. Perception of Upright: Multisensory Convergence and the Role of Temporo-Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Amir; Winnick, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    We inherently maintain a stable perception of the world despite frequent changes in the head, eye, and body positions. Such “orientation constancy” is a prerequisite for coherent spatial perception and sensorimotor planning. As a multimodal sensory reference, perception of upright represents neural processes that subserve orientation constancy through integration of sensory information encoding the eye, head, and body positions. Although perception of upright is distinct from perception of body orientation, they share similar neural substrates within the cerebral cortical networks involved in perception of spatial orientation. These cortical networks, mainly within the temporo-parietal junction, are crucial for multisensory processing and integration that generate sensory reference frames for coherent perception of self-position and extrapersonal space transformations. In this review, we focus on these neural mechanisms and discuss (i) neurobehavioral aspects of orientation constancy, (ii) sensory models that address the neurophysiology underlying perception of upright, and (iii) the current evidence for the role of cerebral cortex in perception of upright and orientation constancy, including findings from the neurological disorders that affect cortical function. PMID:29118736

  8. Variable temporo-insular cortex neuroanatomy in primates suggests a bottleneck effect in eastern gorillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, Sarah K.; Bauernfeind, Amy L.; Bonar, Christopher J.; Cranfield, Michael R.; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Erwin, Joseph M.; Hopkins, William D.; Lewandowski, Albert H.; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Phillips, Kimberley A.; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Zilles, Karl; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe an atypical neuroanatomical feature present in several primate species that involves a fusion between the temporal lobe (often including Heschl’s gyrus in great apes) and the posterior dorsal insula, such that a portion of insular cortex forms an isolated pocket medial to the Sylvian fissure. We assessed the frequency of this fusion in 56 primate species (including apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and strepsirrhines) using either magnetic resonance images or histological sections. A fusion between temporal cortex and posterior insula was present in 22 species (7 apes, 2 Old World monkeys, 4 New World monkeys, and 9 strepsirrhines). The temporo-insular fusion was observed in most eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei and G. b. graueri) specimens (62% and 100% of cases, respectively) but less frequently in other great apes and was never found in humans. We further explored the histology of this fusion in eastern gorillas by examining the cyto- and myeloarchitecture within this region, and observed that the degree to which deep cortical layers and white matter are incorporated into the fusion varies among individuals within a species. We suggest that fusion between temporal and insular cortex is an example of a relatively rare neuroanatomical feature that has become more common in eastern gorillas, possibly as the result of a population bottleneck effect. Characterizing the phylogenetic distribution of this morphology highlights a derived feature of these great apes. PMID:23939630

  9. High-definition tDCS of the temporo-parietal cortex enhances access to newly learned words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perceval, Garon; Martin, Andrew K; Copland, David A; Laine, Matti; Meinzer, Marcus

    2017-12-05

    Learning associations between words and their referents is crucial for language learning in the developing and adult brain and for language re-learning after neurological injury. Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the posterior temporo-parietal cortex has been suggested to enhance this process. However, previous studies employed standard tDCS set-ups that induce diffuse current flow in the brain, preventing the attribution of stimulation effects to the target region. This study employed high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) that allowed the current flow to be constrained to the temporo-parietal cortex, to clarify its role in novel word learning. In a sham-controlled, double-blind, between-subjects design, 50 healthy adults learned associations between legal non-words and unfamiliar object pictures. Participants were stratified by baseline learning ability on a short version of the learning paradigm and pairwise randomized to active (20 mins; N = 25) or sham (40 seconds; N = 25) HD-tDCS. Accuracy was comparable during the baseline and experimental phases in both HD-tDCS conditions. However, active HD-tDCS resulted in faster retrieval of correct word-picture pairs. Our findings corroborate the critical role of the temporo-parietal cortex in novel word learning, which has implications for current theories of language acquisition.

  10. Mandibular movement range in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de

    2009-01-01

    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  11. Postoperative mandibular stability after orthognathic surgery in patients with mandibular protrusion and mandibular deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wenli; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Hanada, Kooji; Ali, Iyad M; Takagi, Ritsuo; Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Takafumi

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal stability and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) signs and symptoms were analyzed in 23 patients in whom mandibular protrusion and mandibular deviation had been corrected using bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO group, n = 10) and unilateral SSRO and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (USSRO+IVRO group, n = 13). Miniplate fixation was used in SSRO but no fixation was used in IVRO. The ratio of condylar bony change was 30.4% (7/23) and all condylar bony changes were seen on the deviated side. All preoperative signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders (4/13 patients in the USSRO+IVRO group and 2/10 patients in the BSSRO group) disappeared after surgery. Comparing the USSRO+IVRO group and the BSSRO group, in patients without condylar bony change, the mandible in both groups was stable anteriorly and horizontally after surgery, even though there was a larger horizontal mandibular movement in the USSRO+IVRO group during surgery. Comparing patients with condylar bony change versus no condylar bony change in the USSRO+IVRO group, postoperative horizontal mandibular displacement was significantly larger in the condylar bony change group than in the no condylar bony change group. These results support the idea that USSRO+IVRO can be useful in correcting mandibular deviation as well as improving signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders. However, it also seems important to be aware of the possibility of horizontal mandibular relapse in patients with condylar bony change.

  12. Temporo-mandibular disorders are an important comorbidity of migraine and may be clinically difficult to distinguish them from tension-type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariovaldo Alberto da Silva Júnior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical differentiation between the primary headaches and temporomandibular disorders (TMD can be challenging. Objectives : To investigate the relationship between TMD and primary headaches by conducting face to face assessments in patients from an orofacial pain clinic and a headache tertiary center. Method : Sample consists of 289 individuals consecutively identified at a headache center and 78 individuals seen in an orofacial pain clinic because of symptoms suggestive of TMD. Results : Migraine was diagnosed in 79.8% of headache sufferers, in headache tertiary center, and 25.6% of those in orofacial pain clinic (p<0.001. Tension-type headache was present in 20.4% and 46.1%, while the TMD painful occurred in 48.1% and 70.5% respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion : TMD is an important comorbidity of migraine and difficult to distinguish clinically from tension-type headache, and this headache was more frequent in the dental center than at the medical center.

  13. Abordagem terapêutica nas desordens temporo-mandibulares: técnicas de fisioterapia associadas ao tratamento odontológico

    OpenAIRE

    Alves-Rezende, Maria Cristina Rosifini [UNESP; Bertoz, André Pinheiro Magalhães [UNESP; Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Ávila de [UNESP; Alves-rezende, Luis Guilherme Rosifini; Alves-rezende, Ana Laura Rosifini; Montanher, Ingrid da Silva; Ruiz, Magnum Amaral Ferreira; Vargas, Joyce Maria; Felipe, Rogéria Aparecida Agos [UNESP; Pires, Maria Flávia Araújo [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are related to discomfort in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). These diseases are multifactorial and treatment usually requires a combination of different approaches because each patient presents with different and usually complex needs. It is necessary to know how each expert should plan for a successful treatment. Los trastornos temporomandibulares (TTM) se relacionan con malestar en la articulación temporomandibular (ATM). Son trastornos de origen mult...

  14. Treatment of Mandibular Prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Po Chang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular prognathism (MP or skeletal Class III malocclusion with a prognathic mandible is one of the most severe maxillofacial deformities. Facial growth modification can be an effective method of resolving skeletal Class III jaw discrepancies in growing children with dentofacial orthopedic appliances including the chincup, face mask, maxillary protraction combined with chincup traction and the Fränkel functional regulator III appliance. Orthognathic surgery in conjunction with orthodontic treatment is required for the correction of adult MP. The two most commonly applied surgical procedures to correct MP are sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy. Both procedures are suitable for patients in whom a desirable occlusal relationship can be obtained with a setback of the mandible, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In bilateral SSRO, the intentional ostectomy of the posterior part of the distal segment can offer long-term positioned stability. This may be attributable to reduction of tension in the pterygomasseteric sling that applies force in the posterior mandible. While various environmental factors have been found to contribute to the development of MP, heredity plays a substantial role. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental components in the etiology of MP are unclear. The recent identification of the genetic susceptibilities to MP constitutes the first step toward understanding the molecular pathogenesis of MP. Further studies in molecular biology are needed to identify the gene-environment interactions associated with the phenotypic diversity of MP and the heterogenic developmental mechanisms thought to be responsible for them.

  15. Differential contribution of right and left temporo-occipital and anterior temporal lesions to face recognition disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGainotti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the study of prosopagnosia, several issues (such as the specific or non-specific manifestations of prosopagnosia, the unitary or non-unitary nature of this syndrome and the mechanisms underlying face recognition disorders are still controversial. Two main sources of variance partially accounting for these controversies could be the qualitative differences between the face recognition disorders observed in patients with prevalent lesions of the right or left hemisphere and in those with lesions encroaching upon the temporo-occipital or the (right anterior temporal cortex.Results of our review seem to confirm these suggestions. Indeed, they show that (a the most specific forms of prosopagnosia are due to lesions of a right posterior network including the OFA and the FFA, whereas (b the face identification defects observed in patients with left temporo-occipital lesions seem due to a semantic defect impeding access to person-specific semantic information from the visual modality. Furthermore, face recognition defects resulting from right anterior temporal lesions can usually be considered as part of a multimodal people recognition disorder.The implications of our review are, therefore, the following: (1 to consider the components of visual agnosia often observed in prosopagnosic patients with bilateral temporo-occipital lesions as part of a semantic defect, resulting from left-sided lesions (and not from prosopagnosia proper; (2 to systematically investigate voice recognition disorders in patients with right anterior temporal lesions to determine whether the face recognition defect should be considered a form of ‘associative prosopagnosia’ or a form of the ‘multimodal people recognition disorder’.

  16. Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects Using Nonvascularized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most common cause of mandibular defects requiring reconstruction. Figure 2: A patient with mandibular central ameloblastoma. Note the jaw expansion involving the right body and angle region. Figure 3: Three-dimensional computed tomography scan of mandibular ameloblastoma showing bony destruction extending ...

  17. Protocol for mandibular reconstruction with zygomatic implants (zygomatic mandibular implant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ruben; Gajos, Golaszewski; Bladimir, Jose; Carvajal, Diaz; Luis, Alvaro; Del Valle Speranza, Grace

    2017-10-28

    This study describes a modified protocol using transmandibular zygomatic implants with immediate occlusal loading for the comprehensive dental rehabilitation of previously reconstructed mandibular defects and reports preliminary results of this modified protocol. Fifteen patients (6 female and 9 male), with a mean of age 40.26 years (range 12 to 68 years), had previously undergone immediate mandibular reconstruction using either autologous bone grafting, bone transport, or microvascular free-flap reconstruction for a variety of diagnoses. Transmandibular zygomatic implants were subsequently placed, depending on the type of defect. Implant stability was evaluated by insertion torque, percussion testing, and the implant stability quotient (ISQ). The patients were rehabilitated with an immediate provisional prosthesis. All patients' records included pre and postoperative clinical examination, radiographs, CT scan, and photographic analysis. All patients were followed for a minimum of 36 months. All patients were dentally rehabilitated immediately with functional and esthetic hybrid dentures based on either acrylic or porcelain on a metal framework. Among all cases of transmandibular zygomatic implants, the ISQ was greater than 75, which allowed immediate prosthetic loading. The zygomatic implants were considered to be successful if they were asymptomatic with no clinical mobility and no sign of infection. We have also added new indications for placement of transmandibular implants in cases of sequelae of gunshot trauma, dentoalveolar defects, and complications of orthognathic surgery, partially edentulous and/or failure of prior mandibular reconstruction. The zygomatic implant is an excellent immediate loading option for mandibular dental rehabilitation among patients with mandibular defects. According to our observation, immediate occlusal loading of transmandibular zygomatic implants has a very good potential for success.

  18. Relationship Between Mandibular Ramus Height and Masticatory Muscle Function in Patients With Unilateral Hemifacial Microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naohiro; Miyazaki, Akihiro; Igarashi, Tomohiro; Dehari, Hironari; Kobayashi, Jun-Ichi; Miki, Yoshiki; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nagai, Itaru; Sonoda, Tomoko; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi

    2017-01-01

      To clarify the relationship between mandibular ramus height and function of masticatory muscles in patients with hemifacial microsomia.   Retrospective study of imaging and physiological data.   Images and physiological data were obtained from the records of Sapporo Medical University Hospital.   A total of 29 patients with hemifacial microsomia who showed Pruzansky grades I, II deformity.   Mandibular ramus height and masticatory muscle volume were evaluated with multi-detector row computed tomography. The electromyographic value was measured by the K7 Evaluation System. The hemifacial microsomia patients were classified into three groups based on the mandibular ramus height ratio of the affected and unaffected sides: group 0, >1.00; group 1, 1.00 to 0.85; group 2, <0.85. The Tukey-Kramer method and Games-Howell method were used to determine correlations between parameters.   Decreased mandibular ramus height was significantly correlated with both reduced electromyographic values of the masseter muscle (P < .05) and the amount of mandibular lateral deviation at the time of maximum opening (P < .05) on the affected side. These differences were prominent in unilateral hemifacial microsomia patients classified as group 2.   Decreased mandibular ramus height may cause dysfunction of the masseter muscles but not the temporal muscle on the affected side in patients with hemifacial microsomia.

  19. Dislocation temporo-mandibulaire bilatérale survenue lors d'une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors predisposing to these dislocations are known and include conditions such as dimorphism, the unit's syndrome algo-dysfunctional mastication and history of dislocation. These dislocations ... A bandage immobilization of the joint has been established for a few days with a good clinical and functional outcome.

  20. Mandibular fracture in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Sahoo, N K; Roy, I D

    2017-01-01

    Mandibular fractures in the neonate are rare. The aetiological factors are traumatic delivery, accidental fall, road traffic accidents, and attempted infanticide. The diagnosis is difficult due to facial oedema masking the clinical features and the absence of dentition. The treatment of fractures in the newborn represents a unique problem in terms of investigations, diagnosis, selection of anaesthesia, and method of fixation. The case of a 1-day-old infant referred for the management of a mandibular fracture sustained in an accidental fall is presented herein. During oral suctioning, the neonatologist observed continuous blood-stained secretions, which raised the suspicion of a trauma to the oral cavity. The infant was diagnosed as having a fracture of the mandibular symphysis with displacement. The fracture was reduced under local anaesthesia with sedation, and was stabilized with an acrylic splint, which was secured with circum-mandibular wiring. The patient was followed up for 1.5 years and the healing was satisfactory. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distraction osteogenesis for mandibular advancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijen, P. J.; Perdijk, F. B.; Becking, A. G.; Breuning, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibilities of distraction osteogenesis to correct mandibular hypoplasia. Fourteen young patients (mean age 14.1 years) with a proven resistance to initial, functional orthodontic therapy, were treated by means of bilateral intraoral distractors.

  2. Mandibular condyle fractures : a consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, RRM; Booth, RPW; de Bont, LGM

    A consensus was obtained following a two-day international conference to review the management of mandibular condyle fractures. Whilst areas of disagreement still exist, there are many areas of agreement. It is hoped this editorial will stimulate debate leading to internationally accepted

  3. Permissible limit for mandibular expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Shirai, Sawa; Yano, Shinya; Nakanishi, Kotoe; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, mandibular expansion has been increasingly performed in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Lateral tipping of the molars associated with mandibular expansion should, however, be considered, because excessive expansion may result in excessive buccal tooth inclination, which may disturb the occlusal relationship. This study was conducted to quantitatively clarify molar movement during mandibular expansion using the Schwarz appliance to determine the permissible limit of mandibular expansion as a clinical index for inclination movement. Inclinations in the masticatory surface of the first molar and intermolar width were measured before expansion (T1), after expansion (T2), and before edgewise treatment (T3). Lower plaster models from 29 subjects treated with expansion plates were used and compared with models from 11 control subjects with normal occlusion. The average treatment change (T1-T2) in intermolar width was 5.42 mm (standard deviation 1.98), and the average angle of buccal tooth inclination was 10.16 degrees (standard deviation 3.83). No significant correlation was found between age prior to treatment and the treatment period when they were compared with the intermolar width increments and inclination angles. There was a significant positive correlation between retention duration and the amount of expansion. The regression coefficient of the angle of buccal tooth inclination during expansion to the increment of the intermolar width was approximately 0.2. This means that 1 mm of expansion is accompanied by 5 degrees of molar lateral tipping. This coefficient is clinically useful for estimating the permissible limit for mandibular expansion.

  4. Treatment of a Patient With Depersonalization Disorder With Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Right Temporo-Parietal Junction in a Private Practice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Fady

    2017-03-01

    Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a debilitating dissociative condition with no proven treatments. Although the pathophysiology of DPD is poorly understood, there are reports of increased excitability of the prefrontal cortex in patients with this condition. The temporo-parietal junction may also play a major role in the conscious experience of the spatial unity of the normal self and body. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown in some case studies to effectively treat this condition. This report describes an additional such case, a 26-year-old man with a 6-month history of DPD who responded safely and significantly to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to the right temporo-parietal junction.

  5. Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Hun; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    Although osteochondroma is not rare in the axial skeleton and long bones, it is very rare in the jaw. It is a benign chondroma within which partial endochondral ossification occurs. There are two types, the central one and the peripheral one. Peripheral type is more common than central one in the jaw, but it is not frequent. Especially it is rare at the mandibular condyle. When it occurred at the mandibular condyle, it is generally located at the lateral portion of the condyle. In that case, facial asymmetry with occlusal change is the characteristic clinical feature. But it is similar to condylar hyperplasia so that misdiagnosis can sometimes occur. The differential point is as follows : Hyperplasia generally appears as a generalized enlargement of the condylar process with a normal cortical thickness, but osteochondroma usually appears as a focal growth or mass. We report a very rare case of peripheral osteochondroma at the mandibular condyle in a 27-year-old male patient who visited DKUDH with a chief complaint of the facial asymmetry.

  6. Specifying the brain anatomy underlying temporo-parietal junction activations for theory of mind: A review using probabilistic atlases from different imaging modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurz, M.; Tholen, M.G.; Perner, J.; Mars, R.B.; Sallet, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this quantitative review, we specified the anatomical basis of brain activity reported in the Temporo-Parietal Junction (TPJ) in Theory of Mind (ToM) research. Using probabilistic brain atlases, we labeled TPJ peak coordinates reported in the literature. This was carried out for four different

  7. Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

  8. Anatomic Variations of the Marginal Mandibular Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Balagopal, P. G.; George, Nebu Abraham; Sebastian, P.

    2012-01-01

    Marginal Mandibular Nerve (MMN) is a branch of the facial nerve. Muscles supplied by this nerve are responsible for facial symmetry, facial expressions and phonation. Aim was to study the branching pattern and variations in the position of marginal mandibular nerve. 202 patients who underwent neck dissection from June 2005 to October 2006 at Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India were included in the study. During the course of neck dissection, the marginal mandibular nerve was first ident...

  9. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of things can interfere with sexual feelings and cause or worsen erectile dysfunction. These include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Stress Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication or other concerns ...

  10. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/men/erectile-dysfunction.html. Accessed Nov. ... medicine and a synthesis of the main available therapies. Diabetes & Metabolism. 2012;38:1. Nippoldt TB (expert opinion). ...

  11. Orgasmic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dysfunction is when a woman either cannot reach orgasm, or has trouble reaching orgasm when she is sexually excited. When sex is ... to 15% of women have never had an orgasm. Surveys suggest that up to one half of ...

  12. Erectile dysfunction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuliano, F; Droupy, S

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most commonly studied sexual disorder. ED is defined by a consistent or recurrent inability to attain and/or maintain penile erection sufficient for sexual activity...

  13. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rigid. Medications The oral medications for erectile dysfunction, sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra), relax the muscles ... to begin working; the erection helping effects of sildenafil and vardenafil last for about 8 hours and ...

  14. Relapse of mandibular incisor alignment is not associated with the total posttreatment mandibular rotation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Bollen, A.M.; Hujoel, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine whether total posttreatment mandibular rotation is associated with mandibular incisor crowding after retention. METHODS: Mandibular incisor irregularity (II) at least 10 years out of retention (T3) measured on dental casts from the postretention database

  15. Complaints related to mandibular function impairment after closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezen, E. T.; Bos, R. R. M.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    This study analysed the relationship between complaints and mandibular function after closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle in a prospective study. In a I-year follow-up, complaints were assessed during physical examination and function was assessed using the mandibular function

  16. Radiologic study of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism by three-dimensional computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Moon, Cheol Hyun; Im, Jeong Soo; Seo, Hwa Jeong [Graduate School of Public Health and Social Welfare, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    This study is aimed to evaluate the position of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism patients using 3-dimensional CT images in order to reduce the chance of an anesthetic failure of the mandibular nerve and to prevent the damage to the inferior alveolar nerve during the orthognathic surgery. The control group consist of 30 patients with class I occlusion. The experimental group consist of 44 patients with class III malocclusion. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used to evaluate the position of the mandibular foramina. The distance between mandibular plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 25.385 mm, class III was 23.628 mm. About the distance between occlusal plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 1.478 mm, class III was 5.144 mm. The distance between posterior border plan of mandibular ramus and mandibular foramen had not statistically significant. About the distance between sagittal plane of mandible and mandibular foramen did not also showed statistically significant. The result of this study could help the clinicians to apprehend more accurate anatomical locations of the foramina on the mandible with various facial skeletal types. Thereby to perform more accurate block anesthesia of the mandibular nerve and osteotomy with minimal nerve damage. In addition, this study could provide fundamental data for any related researches about the location of the mandibular foramina for other purposes.

  17. Erectile dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafi, Faysal A.; Jenkins, Lawrence; Albersen, Maarten; Corona, Giovanni; Isidori, Andrea M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Maggi, Mario; Nelson, Christian J.; Parish, Sharon; Salonia, Andrea; Tan, Ronny; Mulhall, John P.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a multidimensional but common male sexual dysfunction that involves an alteration in any of the components of the erectile response, including organic, relational and psychological. Roles for nonendocrine (neurogenic, vasculogenic and iatrogenic) and endocrine pathways have been proposed. Owing to its strong association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, cardiac assessment may be warranted in men with symptoms of erectile dysfunction. Minimally invasive interventions to relieve the symptoms of erectile dysfunction include lifestyle modifications, oral drugs, injected vasodilator agents and vacuum erection devices. Surgical therapies are reserved for the subset of patients who have contraindications to these nonsurgical interventions, those who experience adverse effects from (or are refractory to) medical therapy and those who also have penile fibrosis or penile vascular insufficiency. Erectile dysfunction can have deleterious effects on a man’s quality of life; most patients have symptoms of depression and anxiety related to sexual performance. These symptoms, in turn, affect his partner’s sexual experience and the couple’s quality of life. This Primer highlights numerous aspects of erectile dysfunction, summarizes new treatment targets and ongoing preclinical studies that evaluate new pharmacotherapies, and covers the topic of regenerative medicine, which represents the future of sexual medicine. PMID:27188339

  18. Mandibular movement patterns during speech in subjects with temporomandibular disorders and in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Esther M G; Paiva, Guiovaldo; de Andrade, Cláudia R F

    2008-01-01

    The mandibular movements used during speech modify space to allow different articulation postures proper for each sound. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) may cause modifications in these movements due to joint and muscular conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the amplitude and the characterization of the mandibular movements during speech, using computerized electrognathography, in individuals with TMD and in asymptomatic individuals, analyzing possible interferences of these dysfunctions. One hundred thirty-five (135) adult subjects were divided into two groups: GI with 90 participants diagnosed with TMD and GIII with 45 asymptomatic participants. Their mandibular movements were observed during the sequential naming of pictures containing all of the word sounds, which occur in the Brazilian Portuguese language. The records were obtained with computerized electrognathography (BioEGN-BioPak system, BioResearch Associates, Inc., Milwaukee, WI). Mean values of the amplitude were described for the two groups. The analysis of such results showed statistically significant differences between the means of the values, obtained for the two groups in the opening and retrusion ranges. Statistically significant differences were not established for the presence and the range of the deviations in laterality, during speech. Prevalence of bilateral deviations was verified in GIII and unilateral deviations in GI. This study describes the 3-dimensional thresholds of mandibular movements in speech for Brazilian Portuguese, for the investigated individuals of both groups. The presence of TMD shows reduction in mandibular opening and retrusion ranges and prevalence of unilateral deviation movements during speech.

  19. Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodmark, P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Central Hospital Halmstad (Sweden); Wattsgaard, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by rib malformations, various degrees of cerebral maldevelopment, mental deficiency, palatal defects, and micrognatia. This syndrome was first described in 1966. The majority of cases are sporadic, but a few instances of familial occurrence have been reported, some with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Mortality in early age has been high, probably mostly due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to rib abnormalities and flail chest. We report a mother and son with this disorder, suggesting autosomal dominant transmission. (orig.)

  20. Ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography of mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant tumors of the salivary glands are rare in dogs, with adenocarcinoma being the most represented. Parotid and mandibular glands are most commonly affected in dogs. Because of local invasivity and high metastatic potential, preoperative imaging evaluation of mandibular region and tumoral staging is essential ...

  1. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Niels; Svanholt, Palle; Solow, Beni

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non...

  2. Management of Pediatric Mandibular Fracture Using Orthodontic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... mandibular fracture, pediatric trauma. Management of Pediatric Mandibular Fracture Using Orthodontic. Vacuum-formed Thermoplastic Splint: A Case Report and Review of. Literature. OO Sanu, AOS Ayodele1, MO Akeredolu1. Case Report. Department of Child. Dental Health, Faculty of. Dental Sciences ...

  3. Mandibular fracture and complications associated with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular fracture sometimes is associated with complications which influence its prognosis. Aspects of the complications of mandibular fracture investigated are those emanating from the methods of treatment employed in its management. Such methods of treatment include conservative, closed reduction with ...

  4. Positional relationship between mandibular third molar and mandibular canal in cone beam computed tomographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Su Kyung; Lee, Ji Un; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Chonbuk National Univ. Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To provide diagnostic information by evaluation of the positional relationship between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal. Eighty-nine mandibular third molars were classified as mesioangular, horizontal, vertical, distoangular groups. The distances between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were measured in cone-beam computed tomographs. The height and width ratios of distances from the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal to the mandibular inferior border and to the lingual cortical plate were calculated. The vertical and buccolingual distances between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were 0.03 mm, 2.96 mm in the mesioangular, 0.37 mm, 3.38 ,, in the horizontal, -1.50 mm, 1.38 mm in the vertical, -1.10 mm, 4.20 mm in the distoangular group. There were significant differences in vertical (P<0.05), but not in buccolingual (P>0.05). The height and width ratios of distances on the mandibular third molar were 47.1%, 36.1% in the mesioangular, 47.4%, 34.4% in the horizontal, 37.0%, 46.7% in the vertical, 40.9%, 37.4% in the distoangular group. There were significant differences between the mesioangular and the vertical group, and the horizontal and the vertical group in height ratio (P>0.05). The mesioangular group showed the nearest distance between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal vertically. The root apex of the mandibular third molar was positioned more buccally in the vertical group than in the mesioangular group.

  5. Laryngeal Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    The larynx is one of the most highly innervated organs in humans and serves a number of vitally important, complex, and highly evolved biological functions. On a day-to-day basis, the larynx functions autonomously, addressing several roles including airway protection, swallowing, and phonation....... In some situations the larynx appears to adopt a functional state that could be considered maladaptive or "dysfunctional." This laryngeal dysfunction can underpin and account for a number of respiratory symptoms that otherwise appear incongruous with a clinical disease state and/or contribute...

  6. Commonalities for numerical and continuous quantity skills at temporo-parietal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Chamberlain, Rebecca; Freeman, Elliot D; Kanai, Ryota; Butterworth, Brian; Price, Cathy J; Rees, Geraint

    2014-05-01

    How do our abilities to process number and other continuous quantities such as time and space relate to each other? Recent evidence suggests that these abilities share common magnitude processing and neural resources, although other findings also highlight the role of dimension-specific processes. To further characterize the relation between number, time, and space, we first examined them in a population with a developmental numerical dysfunction (developmental dyscalculia) and then assessed the extent to which these abilities correlated both behaviorally and anatomically in numerically normal participants. We found that (1) participants with dyscalculia showed preserved continuous quantity processing and (2) in numerically normal adults, numerical and continuous quantity abilities were at least partially dissociated both behaviorally and anatomically. Specifically, gray matter volume correlated with both measures of numerical and continuous quantity processing in the right TPJ; in contrast, individual differences in number proficiency were associated with gray matter volume in number-specific cortical regions in the right parietal lobe. Together, our new converging evidence of selective numerical impairment and of number-specific brain areas at least partially distinct from common magnitude areas suggests that the human brain is equipped with different ways of quantifying the outside world.

  7. Radiographic study of mandibular asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeon Hwa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform the radiographic measurements and temporomandibular joint evaluation in mandibular asymmetry. For this study, thirty-two patients who have mandibular asymmetry were selected and submentovertex, panoramic and lateral corrected tomographic radiographs were taken. Horizontal and vertical analysis using various landmarks on these radiographs were performed. Also radiographic and clinical evaluation of temporomandibular joint were obtained. The results were as follows: 1. On the submentovertex radiograph, the mean distance of Pogonion to midline was 5.0 {+-} 3.8 mm. 2. The mean distance of Pogonion to Gonion between the deviated and the contra-lateral side (p<0.001). 3. The distance difference of Pogonion to Gonion between the deviated and the contra-lateral side was significantly related to the degree of asymmetry (p<0.001). 4. On panoramic radiograph,the condylar height of the contral-lateral side was significantly longer than the one of the deviated side (p<0.001). 5. On lateral corrected tomogram, bony of temporomandibular joint was observed in 11 condyles of the deviated side and 9 condyles of the contra-lateral side. Erosion and ostephyte were the most common changes in both the deviated and the contra-lateral sides.

  8. Erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Mohit; Goldstein, Irwin

    2011-06-29

    Erectile dysfunction may affect 30% to 50% of men aged 40 to 70 years, with age, smoking, and obesity being the main risk factors, although 20% of cases have psychological causes. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors in men with erectile dysfunction of any cause? What are the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors on erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes, with cardiovascular disease, with spinal cord injury, and with prostate cancer or undergoing prostatectomy? What are the effects of drug treatments other than phosphodiesterase inhibitors in men with erectile dysfunction of any cause? What are the effects of devices, psychological/behavioural treatments, and alternative treatments in men with erectile dysfunction of any cause? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 81 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: alprostadil (intracavernosal, intraurethral, topical), cognitive behavioural therapy, ginseng, papaverine, papaverine plus phentolamine (bimix), papaverine plus phentolamine plus alprostadil (trimix), penile prostheses, phosphodiesterase inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil), psychosexual counselling, vacuum devices, and yohimbine.

  9. Locating Mandibular Foramen in Children with Mandibular Retrognathism in Mixed Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryab, Mehrsa; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. One of the most common reasons forthe inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia failure is the variation in mandibular foramen location. The aim of this study was to assess the location of mandibular foramen in children with mandibular retrognathism in comparison to children with normal skeletal occlusion in the mixed dentition. Materials and methods. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs of patients in mixed dentition period, undergoing orthodontic treatment, were selected based on inclusion criteria, skeletal occlusion and stage of dental development. The radiographs were divided into two groups: I: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with normal skeletal occlusion (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages); II: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with mandibular retrognathism (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages). The radiographs were traced and the linear distance from the mandibular foramen to the borders of the mandibular ramus and its angular position were identified. The measurements were compared between the two groups and among the four dental age groups by t-test, ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results. No statistically significant differences werefound between the patients with normal skeletal occlusion and patients with mandibular retrognathism (P>0.05). Statistical tests showed significant differences in the vertical location of mandibular foramen and gonial angle between the four dental age groups (PMandibular retrognathism does not have a significant impact on the location of the mandibular foramen in the mixed dentition period. The child's dental age would be considered in the localization of the mandibular foramen.

  10. [The effects of orthognathic surgery on mandibular movements in patients with mandibular prognathism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinobad, Vladimir; Dodić, Slobodan; Strajnić, Ljiljana; Vukadinović, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Mandibular prognathism, one of the most severe dentofacial deformities, affects the person's appearance, psychological health and the quality of life in the most sensitive age period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sagittal split ramus osteotomy on the range of mandibular border movements in the early postoperative period. The study was conducted on 20 patients, of mean age 20.8 years, with mandibular prognathism. All patients included in this study were operated on by bilateral sagittal spliting ramus osteotomy according to Obwegeser and Dal Pont followed by mandibular immobilization during eight weeks. In all patients mandibular border movements were recorded before and six months after surgery using the computerized pantograph Arcus-Digma (KaVo EWL GmbH, Leutkirch, Germany). The analysis of the chosen kinematic parameters revealed that sagittal split ramus osteotomy followed by eight weeks of mandibular immobilization had severe effects on the mouth opening. Six months after surgery the range of maximal mouth opening decreased for approximately 13.9 mm in relation to the preoperative stage. On the contrary, the ranges of maximal protrusion and the border of laterotrusive excursions increased significantly after surgery. In patients with mandibular prognathism where enormous mandibular growth was the main causal factor of the deformity, the sagittal split ramus osteotomy yielded good results. The rigid fixation of bone fragments and reduced period of mandibular immobilization followed by appropriate physical therapy could considerably contribute to a more rapid recovery of mandibular kinematics in the postoperative period.

  11. Some mandibular geometry of Eastern Nigerians | Didia | Orient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine mean values of the mandibular angle, mandibular length and mandibular ramus height in Nigerians of Eastern origin. Methods: A prospective study of 34 prepared mandibular bones of Eastern Nigerians was conducted. The measurements were done using the mandibulometer according to ...

  12. Mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis--simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, S S; Sahoo, Nanda Kishore; Jayan, Balakrishna

    2013-01-01

    The limb lengthening technique of distraction osteogenesis (DO) used in orthopedic surgery is a well established procedure. DO has been adapted to the facial skeleton to change the anterior-posterior position of the jaws. Historically, the mandibular arch transverse dimension has been considered immutable. Mandibular arch expansion is done with a variety of methods including Schwarz plates, lingual arches, functional appliances and arch wires; these methods produce limited dimensional change with questionable long-term stability. Adapting the Ilizarov treatment protocol to the mandibular symphysis can produce a regenerate bone thereby adding dimension to the innate basal bone. This can then be used to produce a potentially greater effect than the conventional modes of mandibular expansion. The modified mandibular symphyseal distraction device used by the authors is a tooth borne device fabricated with a Schwartz screw and self cured acrylic resin coverage over all the erupted mandibular teeth. The appliance used by the authors has been found to be very economical, easy to fabricate and clinically efficient. The surgical approach used, requiring surgery under local anesthesia in the outpatient department obviates need of hospital admission and the cost and time factors associated with in-patient therapy Mandibular Symphyseal Distraction Osteogenesis (MSDO) with this innovative low cost approach may be compared in a multi centric study with other established methods of MSDO.

  13. [Orthognathic mandibular osteotomy and condyle positioning: update and innovation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurentjoye, Mathieu; Charton, Jérôme; Boileau, Marie-José

    2015-03-01

    The temporomandibular joints function in synergy with the dental occlusion within the manducatory system. Orthodontists and surgeons must take into account the condylar position since any problem related to positioning of the condyle could result in occlusal disorders including relapse and the risk of occurrence, decompensation or worsening of temporomandibular dysfunction. We wanted to answer three questions: What is the position of the condyle following orthognathic surgery? What benefit is there in repositioning the condyle? What means are available to check condylar position? Finally, in the light of the answers, we describe an innovative occlusal and condylar positioning device for mandibular osteotomies based on computer-assisted surgical planning techniques. It consists of a three-dimensional, printed guide enabling surgeons to position the condyles as desired. It is accurate, simple, reproducible, independent of operator experience as well as rapid and economical. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  14. Cathodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on the right Temporo-Parietal Junction modulates the use of mitigating circumstances during moral judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Laëtitia Leloup; Diana Dongo Miletich; Gaëlle Andriet; Vandermeeren, Yves; Dana Samson

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a few transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies have shown that the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) plays a causal role in moral reasoning especially in cases of accidental harms or failed attempted harms. The profile of results across studies is however not entirely consistent: sometimes the stimulation affects predominantly failed attempted harms while sometimes the stimulation affects predominantly accidental harms. W...

  15. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on the Right Temporo-Parietal Junction Modulates the Use of Mitigating Circumstances during Moral Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Leloup, Laëtitia; Miletich, Diana Dongo; Andriet, Gaëlle; Vandermeeren, Yves; Samson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a few transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies have shown that the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) plays a causal role in moral reasoning especially in cases of accidental harms or failed attempted harms. The profile of results across studies is however not entirely consistent: sometimes the stimulation affects predominantly failed attempted harms while sometimes the stimulation affects predominantly accidental harms. W...

  16. It's not what you say, but how you say it: a reciprocal temporo-frontal network for affective prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Leitman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans communicate emotion vocally by modulating acoustic cues such as pitch, intensity and voice quality. Research has documented how the relative presence or absence of such cues alters the likelihood of perceiving an emotion, but the neural underpinnings of acoustic cue-dependent emotion perception remain obscure. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 subjects we examined a reciprocal circuit consisting of superior temporal cortex, amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus that may underlie affective prosodic comprehension. Results showed that increased saliency of emotion-specific acoustic cues was associated with increased activation in superior temporal cortex (planum temporale (PT, posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, and posterior superior middle gyrus (pMTG and amygdala, whereas decreased saliency of acoustic cues was associated with increased inferior frontal activity and temporo-frontal connectivity. These results suggest that sensory-integrative processing is facilitated when the acoustic signal is rich in affective information, yielding increased activation in temporal cortex and amygdala. Conversely, when the acoustic signal is ambiguous, greater evaluative processes are recruited, increasing activation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and IFG STG connectivity. Auditory regions may thus integrate acoustic information with amygdala input to form emotion-specific representations, which are evaluated within inferior frontal regions.

  17. Distinct regions of right temporo-parietal junction are selective for theory of mind and exogenous attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Scholz

    Full Text Available In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies, a cortical region in the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ is recruited when participants read stories about people's thoughts ('Theory of Mind'. Both fMRI and lesion studies suggest that a region near the RTPJ is associated with attentional reorienting in response to an unexpected stimulus. Do Theory of Mind and attentional reorienting recruit a single population of neurons, or are there two neighboring but distinct neural populations in the RTPJ? One recent study compared these activations, and found evidence consistent with a single common region. However, the apparent overlap may have been due to the low resolution of the previous technique. We tested this hypothesis using a high-resolution protocol, within-subjects analyses, and more powerful statistical methods. Strict conjunction analyses revealed that the area of overlap was small and on the periphery of each activation. In addition, a bootstrap analysis identified a reliable 6-10 mm spatial displacement between the peak activations of the two tasks; the same magnitude and direction of displacement was observed in within-subjects comparisons. In all, these results suggest that there are neighboring but distinct regions within the RTPJ implicated in Theory of Mind and orienting attention.

  18. Repetitive TMS of the temporo-parietal junction disrupts participant's expectations in a spontaneous Theory of Mind task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Six, Pieter; Brass, Marcel

    2017-09-14

    A recent debate about Theory of Mind (ToM) concerns whether spontaneous and explicit mentalizing are based on the same mechanisms. However, only a few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of spontaneous ToM, with inconsistent results. The present study had two goals: first, to investigate whether the right Temporo-Parietal Junction (rTPJ) is crucially involved in spontaneous ToM and second, to gain insight into the role of the rTPJ in ToM. For the first time, we applied rTMS to the rTPJ while participants were engaged in a spontaneous false belief task. Participants watched videos of a scene including an agent who acquires a true or false belief about the location of an object. At the end of the movie, participants reacted to the presence of the object. Results show that, during stimulation of the control site, RTs were affected by both the participant's expectations and the belief of the agent. Stimulation of the rTPJ significantly modulated task performance, supporting the idea that spontaneous ToM, as well as explicit ToM, relies on TPJ activity. However, we did not observe a disruption of the representation of the agent's belief. Rather, the stimulation interfered with participant's predictions, supporting the idea that rTPJ is crucially involved in self-other distinction. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Effect of surgical treatment of mandibular fracture: electromyographic analysis, bite force, and mandibular mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepato, André Oliveira; Palinkas, Marcelo; Regalo, Simone Cecilio Hallak; de Medeiros, Eduardo Henrique Pantosso; de Vasconcelos, Paulo Batista; Sverzut, Cássio Edvard; Siéssere, Selma; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to examine individuals undergoing surgery for the treatment of the fractured mandibular angle, using bite force, mandibular mobility, and electromyographic (EMG) analysis in many different clinical conditions, after 2 months postoperatively. Bite force was recorded with a digital dynamometer, model IDDK. The EMG activity (Myosystem-Br1) included the analysis of the masseter and temporal muscles. Mandibular mobility was measured using a digital pachymeter. The subjects were divided into 3 groups: G1, mandibular angle fracture (n = 7); G2, condylar process fracture (n = 5); and G3, control (n = 12). Data were tabulated and submitted to statistical analysis using the repeated-measure test carried out over time and the Student's t-test (P mandibular mobility, both groups obtained amplitude of all mandibular movements with a high percentage, when compared with control. A good functional recovery was achieved by the individuals who had a mandible angle fracture or condylar process fracture, after 2 postoperative months.

  20. Mandibular Canal Enlargement: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jun Ai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mandibular canal is a rare radiological finding. Clinically, it may or may not be associated with sensory deficits. We report four cases of widening of the mandibular canal observed with various methods of imaging with different clinical characteristics. We describe this unique radiological finding and elaborate the importance of quality assessment of the imaging that is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Clinicians should be mindful when assessing the imaging whenever the size of the mandibular canal is implicated. The case ranged from a benign tumor to malignancy, radiological errors, and artifacts. A more superior imaging or treatment modality was necessary to ascertain the diagnosis.

  1. [Mandibular fracture in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberth, M; Szilágyi, Z; Póti, S; Redl, P

    1997-02-01

    Maxillofacial fractures under 10 years of age are uncommon, with an occurrence of 7.3%. Isolated fractures of the mandible are even more rare, due to the fact that in young children the mandible is relatively small and resilient. Some authors suggest that the occurrence of this form of fracture is about 1-5%. Different methods have been described for treatment of fractures off the mandible in children. In the therapy since the introduction of titanium mini plates the trend has been to select surgical repositioning followed by osteosynthesis. This paper describes the management of a 7-month old boy with isolated mandibular fracture, using this method to avoid the damage of the tooth germs. This particular case raises the issue of child abuse, which is on the increase in Hungary as well. To find a kind of solution would be not only a task of dentists but also of society in general.

  2. Locating Mandibular Foramen in Children with Mandibular Retrognathism in Mixed Dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrsa Paryab; Maryam Ahmadyar

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. One of the most common reasons forthe inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia failure is the variation in mandibular foramen location. The aim of this study was to assess the location of mandibular foramen in chil-dren with mandibular retrognathism in comparison to children with normal skeletal occlusion in the mixed dentition. Materials and methods. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs of patients in mixed dentition period, undergo-ing orthodontic treatment, ...

  3. The effects of orthognathic surgery on mandibular movements in patients with mandibular prognathism

    OpenAIRE

    Sinobad Vladimir; Dodić Slobodan; Strajnić Ljiljana; Vukadinović Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Mandibular prognathism, one of the most severe dentofacial deformities, affects the person’s appearance, psychological health and the quality of life in the most sensitive age period. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sagittal split ramus osteotomy on the range of mandibular border movements in the early postoperative period. Methods. The study was conducted on 20 patients, of mean age 20.8 years, with mandibular prognathism. All patients incl...

  4. New Therapeutics in Promoting and Modulating Mandibular Growth in Cases with Mandibular Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek El-Bialy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with mandibular growth deficiency may develop airway obstruction. The standard treatment of severe airway obstruction involves invasive procedures such as tracheostomy. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has been proposed in neonates with mandibular deficiency as a treatment option to avoid tracheostomy procedure later in life. Both tracheostomy and distraction osteogenesis procedures suffer from substantial shortcomings including scarring, unpredictability, and surgical complications. Forward jaw positioning appliances have been also used to enhance mandible growth. However, the effectiveness of these appliances is limited and lacks predictability. Current and future approaches to enhance mandibular growth, both experimental and clinical trials, and their effectiveness are presented and discussed.

  5. Relationship between mandibular angle fracture and state of eruption of mandibular third molar: A digital radiographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh Kumar Talkad Subbaiah; Indira Annamalai Ponnuswamy; Maria Priscilla David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between mandibular angle fracture and the status of eruption of the mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 50 mandibular angle fracture cases with or without the presence of mandibular third molars, inclusive of both genders in the age group 18 years and above. The mandibular angle fractures were assessed by taking an orthopantomograph for each case following strict radiation protection proto...

  6. Sertraline induced mandibular dystonia and bruxism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uvais, NA; Sreeraj, VS; Sathish Kumar, SV

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we describe a young female patient with a diagnosis of the moderate depressive episode who developed mandibular dystonia and bruxism with sertraline in the absence of concurrent prescription...

  7. Panoramic study of mandibular basal bone height

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayam, Raviraj; Annigeri, Rajeshwari; Rao, Balaji; Gadiputi, Satish; Gadiputi, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To provide information regarding the changes of mandibular basal bone height using panoramic radiography, in relation to age, sex, and the state of dentulousness, which could be utilized in clinical...

  8. Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Mandibular Ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eswar

    2003-01-01

    Five interesting cases of mandibular ameloblastoma are presented here, each case showing different histological pattern and corresponding computer tomographic appearance. Also an attempt is made to establish CT pattern in these histological varieties of ameloblastoma.

  9. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  10. Locating Mandibular Foramen in Children with Mandibular Retrognathism in Mixed Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsa Paryab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. One of the most common reasons forthe inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia failure is the variation in mandibular foramen location. The aim of this study was to assess the location of mandibular foramen in chil-dren with mandibular retrognathism in comparison to children with normal skeletal occlusion in the mixed dentition. Materials and methods. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs of patients in mixed dentition period, undergo-ing orthodontic treatment, were selected based on inclusion criteria, skeletal occlusion and stage of dental development. The radiographs were divided into two groups: I: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with normal skeletal occlusion (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages; II: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with mandibular retrognathism (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages. The radiographs were traced and the linear distance from the mandibular foramen to the borders of the mandibular ramus and its angular position were identified. The measurements were compared between the two groups and among the four dental age groups by t-test, ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results. No statistically significant differences werefound between the patients with normal skeletal occlusion and patients with mandibular retrognathism (P>0.05. Statistical tests showed significant differences in the vertical location of mandibu-lar foramen and gonial angle between the four dental age groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Mandibular retrognathism does not have a significant impact on the location of the mandibular foramen in the mixed dentition period. The child’s dental age would be considered in the localization of the mandibular foramen.

  11. Temporo-spectral imaging of intrinsic optical signals during hypoxia-induced spreading depression-like depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mané

    Full Text Available Spreading depression (SD is characterized by a sustained near-complete depolarization of neurons, a massive depolarization of glia, and a negative deflection of the extracellular DC potential. These electrophysiological signs are accompanied by an intrinsic optical signal (IOS which arises from changes in light scattering and absorption. Even though the underlying mechanisms are unclear, the IOS serves as non-invasive tool to define the spatiotemporal dynamics of SD in brain slices. Usually the tissue is illuminated by white light, and light reflectance or transmittance is monitored. Using a polychromatic, fast-switchable light source we now performed temporo-spectral recordings of the IOS associated with hypoxia-induced SD-like depolarization (HSD in rat hippocampal slices kept in an interface recording chamber. Recording full illumination spectra (320-680 nm yielded distinct reflectance profiles for the different phases of HSD. Early during hypoxia tissue reflectance decreased within almost the entire spectrum due to cell swelling. HSD was accompanied by a reversible reflectance increase being most pronounced at 400 nm and 460 nm. At 440 nm massive porphyrin absorption (Soret band was detected. Hypotonic solutions, Ca(2+-withdrawal and glial poisoning intensified the reflectance increase during HSD, whereas hypertonic solutions dampened it. Replacement of Cl(- inverted the reflectance increase. Inducing HSD by cyanide distorted the IOS and reflectance at 340-400 nm increased irreversibly. The pronounced changes at short wavelengths (380 nm, 460 nm and their cyanide sensitivity suggest that block of mitochondrial metabolism contributes to the IOS during HSD. For stable and reliable IOS recordings during HSD wavelengths of 460-560 nm are recommended.

  12. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception – evidence from studies in chess experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eRennig

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact versus disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012. This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to a holistic percept. Thus, increased BOLD signals should be found in this region whenever a task calls for the integration of multiple visual items. Behavioral experiments in chess experts suggested that their superior skills in comparison to chess novices are partly based on fast holistic processing of chess positions with multiple pieces. We thus analyzed BOLD data from four fMRI studies that compared chess experts with chess novices during the presentation of complex chess-related visual stimuli (Bilalić et al., 2011a, 2010, 2011b, 2012. Three regions of interests were defined by significant TPJ clusters in the abovementioned study of global gestalt perception (Huberle and Karnath, 2012 and BOLD signal amplitudes in these regions were compared between chess experts and novices. These cross-paradigm ROI analyses revealed higher signals at the TPJ in chess experts in comparison to novices during presentations of complex chess positions. This difference was consistent across the different tasks in five independent experiments. Our results confirm the assumption that the TPJ region identified in previous work on global gestalt perception plays an important role in the processing of complex visual stimulus configurations.

  13. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eGrecucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation strategies on both individual and social decision making, however the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer’s intentions as more negative, down-regulation (reappraising the proposer’s intentions as less negative, as well as a baseline ‘look’ condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, regulating regions were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, regulated regions were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners’ behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal emotion regulation strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others’ intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  14. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, "regulating regions") were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, "regulated regions") were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  15. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

  16. Differential Contribution of Right and Left Temporo-Occipital and Anterior Temporal Lesions to Face Recognition Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido; Marra, Camillo

    2011-01-01

    In the study of prosopagnosia, several issues (such as the specific or non-specific manifestations of prosopagnosia, the unitary or non-unitary nature of this syndrome and the mechanisms underlying face recognition disorders) are still controversial. Two main sources of variance partially accounting for these controversies could be the qualitative differences between the face recognition disorders observed in patients with prevalent lesions of the right or left hemisphere and in those with lesions encroaching upon the temporo-occipital (TO) or the (right) anterior temporal cortex. Results of our review seem to confirm these suggestions. Indeed, they show that (a) the most specific forms of prosopagnosia are due to lesions of a right posterior network including the occipital face area and the fusiform face area, whereas (b) the face identification defects observed in patients with left TO lesions seem due to a semantic defect impeding access to person-specific semantic information from the visual modality. Furthermore, face recognition defects resulting from right anterior temporal lesions can usually be considered as part of a multimodal people recognition disorder. The implications of our review are, therefore, the following: (1) to consider the components of visual agnosia often observed in prosopagnosic patients with bilateral TO lesions as part of a semantic defect, resulting from left-sided lesions (and not from prosopagnosia proper); (2) to systematically investigate voice recognition disorders in patients with right anterior temporal lesions to determine whether the face recognition defect should be considered a form of “associative prosopagnosia” or a form of the “multimodal people recognition disorder.” PMID:21687793

  17. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception-evidence from studies in chess experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Bilalić, Merim; Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Himmelbach, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact vs. disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012). This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to a holistic percept. Thus, increased BOLD signals should be found in this region whenever a task calls for the integration of multiple visual items. Behavioral experiments in chess experts suggested that their superior skills in comparison to chess novices are partly based on fast holistic processing of chess positions with multiple pieces. We thus analyzed BOLD data from four fMRI studies that compared chess experts with chess novices during the presentation of complex chess-related visual stimuli (Bilalić et al., 2010, 2011a,b, 2012). Three regions of interests were defined by significant TPJ clusters in the abovementioned study of global gestalt perception (Huberle and Karnath, 2012) and BOLD signal amplitudes in these regions were compared between chess experts and novices. These cross-paradigm ROI analyses revealed higher signals at the TPJ in chess experts in comparison to novices during presentations of complex chess positions. This difference was consistent across the different tasks in five independent experiments. Our results confirm the assumption that the TPJ region identified in previous work on global gestalt perception plays an important role in the processing of complex visual stimulus configurations.

  18. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception—evidence from studies in chess experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Bilalić, Merim; Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Himmelbach, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact vs. disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012). This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to a holistic percept. Thus, increased BOLD signals should be found in this region whenever a task calls for the integration of multiple visual items. Behavioral experiments in chess experts suggested that their superior skills in comparison to chess novices are partly based on fast holistic processing of chess positions with multiple pieces. We thus analyzed BOLD data from four fMRI studies that compared chess experts with chess novices during the presentation of complex chess-related visual stimuli (Bilalić et al., 2010, 2011a,b, 2012). Three regions of interests were defined by significant TPJ clusters in the abovementioned study of global gestalt perception (Huberle and Karnath, 2012) and BOLD signal amplitudes in these regions were compared between chess experts and novices. These cross-paradigm ROI analyses revealed higher signals at the TPJ in chess experts in comparison to novices during presentations of complex chess positions. This difference was consistent across the different tasks in five independent experiments. Our results confirm the assumption that the TPJ region identified in previous work on global gestalt perception plays an important role in the processing of complex visual stimulus configurations. PMID:24009574

  19. Intricate Estimation and Evaluation of Mandibular Movements in Geriatric Patients Suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Shruti; Perti, Sonali; Garhnayak, Mirna; Sahoo, Kalinga K; Dhal, Angurbala; Garhnayak, Lokanath

    2017-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder that usually affects joints and making them warm, painful, and swollen. The chief purpose of this study was to evaluate movements of mandible in geriatric patients suffering from RA with or without temporomandibular joint dysfunction. A total of 45 people were included in this study with age of 60 years and above. Partially or completely edentulous patients were divided into experimental and control group. Experimental group consists of 20 people suffering from arthritis and control group consists of 25 people without arthritis. Movements were recorded with or without prosthesis while mastication in both experimental and control group. Statistical evaluation of two studied groups showed decrease opening angle (p movements of the mandible in older people suffering from RA. Patients suffering from RA are having restricted mandibular movements thus imposing an overall negative impact however; presence of prosthesis has been shown to enforce a positive effect on mandibular movement.

  20. The effects of orthognathic surgery on mandibular movements in patients with mandibular prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mandibular prognathism, one of the most severe dentofacial deformities, affects the person’s appearance, psychological health and the quality of life in the most sensitive age period. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sagittal split ramus osteotomy on the range of mandibular border movements in the early postoperative period. Methods. The study was conducted on 20 patients, of mean age 20.8 years, with mandibular prognathism. All patients included in this study were operated on by bilateral sagittal spliting ramus osteotomy according to Obwegeser and Dal Pont followed by mandibular immobilization during eight weeks. In all patients mandibular border movements were recorded before and six months after surgery using the computerized pantograph Arcus-Digma (KaVo EWL GmbH, Leutkirch, Germany. Results. The analysis of the chosen kinematic parameters revealed that sagittal split ramus osteotomy followed by eight weeks of mandibular immobilization had severe effects on the mouth opening. Six months after surgery the range of maximal mouth opening decreased for approximately 13.9 mm in relation to the preoperative stage. On the contrary, the ranges of maximal protrusion and the border of laterotrusive excursions increased significantly after surgery. Conclusion. In patients with mandibular prognathism where enormous mandibular growth was the main causal factor of the deformity, the sagittal split ramus osteotomy yielded good results. The rigid fixation of bone fragments and reduced period of mandibular immobilization followed by appropriate physical therapy could considerably contribute to a more rapid recovery of mandibular kinematics in the postoperative period.

  1. Personality changes in patients with vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Darlington, Cynthia L

    2013-10-29

    The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved to detect linear and angular acceleration of the head in all planes so that the brain is not predominantly reliant on visual information to determine self-motion. Since the vestibular system first evolved in invertebrate species in order to detect gravitational vertical, it is likely that the central nervous system has developed a special dependence upon vestibular input. In addition to the deficits in eye movement and postural reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is convincing evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive and emotional disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in the sense of spatial orientation. Beyond this, however, patients with vestibular disorders have been reported to experience other personality changes that suggest that vestibular sensation is implicated in the sense of self. These are depersonalization and derealization symptoms such as feeling "spaced out", "body feeling strange" and "not feeling in control of self". We propose in this review that these symptoms suggest that the vestibular system may make a unique contribution to the concept of self through information regarding self-motion and self-location that it transmits, albeit indirectly, to areas of the brain such as the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ).

  2. Personality Changes in Patients with Vestibular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSmith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved to detect linear and angular acceleration of the head in all planes so that the brain is not predominantly reliant on visual information to determine self-motion. Since the vestibular system first evolved in invertebrate species in order to detect gravitational vertical, it is likely that the central nervous system has developed a special dependence upon vestibular input. In addition to the deficits in eye movement and postural reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is convincing evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive and emotional disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and cortex play in the sense of spatial orientation. Beyond this, however, patients with vestibular disorders have been reported to experience other personality changes that suggest that vestibular sensation is implicated in the sense of self. These are depersonalisation and derealisation symptoms such as feeling ‘spaced out’, ‘body feeling strange’ and ‘not feeling in control of self’. We suggest in this review that these symptoms suggest that the vestibular system may make a unique contribution to the concept of self through the information regarding self-motion and self-location that it transmits, albeit indirectly, to areas of the brain such as the temporo-parietal junction.

  3. Mandibular Surgical Navigation: An Innovative Guiding Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Vincenzo; Orabona, Giovanni Dell' Aversana; Solari, Domenico; Bonavolontà, Paola; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Califano, Luigi

    2017-11-01

    Mandibular osteotomies are usually required to treat craniomaxillofacial disorders. Losses of mandibular continuity result in esthetic and functional deficiency. During the past 30 years, the spread of the computer-assisted surgery techniques, rapid prototyping, and surgical navigation technique has improved the reliability and the outcomes of mandibular resections and reconstructions, by providing realtime feedback to surgeon. Recent studies reported the feasibility and the precision of surgical navigation applied to mandibular surgical resection and reconstruction with fibula flap but none of them describes a method to navigate the jaw allowing its full motility during the operation. To our knowledge, this is the first-time description of such a kind of method to navigate the jaw positioning the dynamic reference frame directly on the mandibular branch to maintain the full mobility of the mandible. The method described in our series has allowed an accurate surgical navigation of the jaw without the need of intermaxillary fixation. This technique could greatly facilitate resection and reconstructive surgical procedures of the jaw while ensuring precision and accuracy. The encouraging results obtained in the present report suggest to further investigate the possibilities of this technique to better define the method and its indications.

  4. Mandibular metastasis of rectum adenocarcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Çetin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mandibular metastases are quite rare and they constitute less than about %1 of the mandibular malignancies. In mandibular metastatic cases, patients’ complaints generally include bony swelling with pain, tooth pain and tooth loss. Mandibular metastatic lesions mimic periodontal diseases; therefore careful examination is necessary. In differential diagnosis, osteosarcoma, which is a primary bone tumor, primary intraosseous squamous carcinoma, ameloblastoma, and temporomandibular joint diseases should be taken into consideration. Treatment modalities are surgery and chemoradiotherapy. Because of the poor prognosis, the goal of the treatment is only palliative. Case Report: A 51-year-old woman, operated due to rectal adenocarcinoma 3 years previously, was referred to our clinic with a complaint of swelling on the jaw. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and maxillofacial computed tomography revealed a mass that extended to condyle and lead to bone destruction on the right ramus of the mandible. An incisional biopsy was performed. The histopathology was consistent with colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasis. The patient was referred to a medical oncologist. Conclusion: Differential diagnosis of mandibular lesions should be made carefully, and metastatic tumors should be kept in mind. In patients with history of lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal carcinoma or similar tumors, oral findings such as tooth pain and tooth loss should be taken into consideration, as these may be the signs of head and neck metastases. Biopsy must be performed after radiological examination.

  5. Mandibular osteonecrosis due to bisphosphonate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şalvarcı, Ahmet; Altınay, Serdar

    2015-03-01

    Due to their efficient osteoclastic inhibitor effect in bone metabolism and antiangiogenic activity, bisphosphonates are widely used in many cancer diseases particularly in prostate cancers with bone metastasis, lung cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma, as well as in systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, Paget disease and osteogenesis imperfect for the last 13 years. Prostate cancer is a common cancer in males and it is the leading cause of bone metastasis. Mandibular metastasis is rarely encountered during the course of prostate cancer. Mandibular osteonecrosis as well has begun to be observed along with the availability of more efficient and stronger formulations developed following the use of bisphosphonates. Zolendronic acid, which has been used also by our patient, has widely come into practice as a 3(rd) generation bisphosphonate. Because of prostate cancer and widespread bone metastases, our patient has been receiving zolendronic acid with maximum androgen blockage for 4 years. Tomography of the patient, who has undergone intensive treatment because of submandibular abscess, demonstrated extensive osteonecrosis in the fovea sublingual region of the mandible corpus. In large series, although, mandibular osteonecrosis was widely seen due to bisphosphonate use for the metastases of lung and breast cancers, this rate was between 9.6% and 11% for prostate cancer within the series. Although our patient had no mandibular metastasis before, mandibular necrosis was observed due to long-term bisphosphonate use. We are going to present our patient who had this rare complication with his clinical picture.

  6. Mandibular Deformity Correction by Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Asaduzzaman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO is a biological process of new bone formation. It could be used as an alternative treatment method for the correction of mandibular hypoplastic deformity. Modern distraction osteogenesis evolved primarily from the work of Gavriel llizarov. DO has been first applied to craniofacial region since McCarthy et al. In this case report, the patient was 17 years old male with bird face deformity due to hypoplasia of mandible resulted from bilateral TMJ ankylosis due to the fracture of both condyle at the age of 4 years. Patient’s intraincisal opening was absent 1 year back. He underwent condylectomy in both sides to release the ankylosis and to increase intraincisal opening. His mandibular length was markedly short. To increase his mandibular antero-posterior length, mandibular body distraction was done in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department, BSMMU. Through this procedure length of the body of mandibule was increased by 10 mm, occlusion was edge to edge and his lower facial appearance increased markedly. Mandibular body distraction osteogenesis was considerably effective when performed in a hypoplastic mandible to facilitate post-operative functional and esthetic restoration. Long term follow-up is necessary to evaluate relapse and complications. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i2.7061BSMMU J 2010; 3(2: 103-106

  7. Mandibular canine: A tool for sex identification in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Ramniwas M; Dindgire, Sarika L; Gadhari, Mangesh; Khobragade, Pratima G; Kadoo, Priyanka S; Yadav, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of mandibular canine index (MCI) and mandibular mesiodistal odontometrics in sex identification in the age group of 17-25 years in central Indian population. The study sample comprised total 300 individuals (150 males and 150 females) of an age group ranging from 17 to 25 years of central Indian population. The maximum mesiodistal diameter of mandibular canines, the linear distance between the tips of mandibular canines, was measured using digital vernier caliper on the study models. Overall sex could be predicted accurately in 79.66% (81.33% males and 78% females) of the population by MCI. Whereas, considering the mandibular canine width for sex identification, the overall accuracy was 75% for the right mandibular canine and 73% for the left mandibular canine observed. Sexual dimorphism of canine is population specific, and among the Indian population, MCI and mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine can aid in sex determination.

  8. Sexual Dimorphism in Human Mandibular Canine Teeth: A Radiomorphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Nagesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines- It can be concluded that the standard mandibular canine index is a quick and easy method for sex determination.

  9. Using tDCS to Explore the Role of the Right Temporo-Parietal Junction in Theory of Mind and Cognitive Empathy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqin eMai; Wenli eZhang; Xinmu eHu; Zhen eZhen; Zhenhua eXu; Jing eZhang; Chao eLiu

    2016-01-01

    The right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) is thought to be closely related to theory of mind (ToM) and cognitive empathy. In the present study, we investigated whether these socio-cognitive abilities could be modulated with non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the rTPJ. Participants received anodal (excitatory), cathodal (inhibitory), or sham stimulation before performing a social cognitive task which included inferring other’s intention (the ToM condition) and infe...

  10. Mandibular Condyle Fractures and Treatment Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil ibrahim Kisa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maxillofacial injuries are most commonly associated with falls, motor and vehicle accidents, sports-related trauma, and interpersonel violence. The complexity of mandibular condyle region and its anatomic proximity to other craniofacial structures complicate diagnosis and treatment. Thus, treatment approaches of mandibular condyle fracture are still controversial. In the literature, different success rates are reported about observation versus treatment, closed reduction versus open reduction and fixation methods. In the present article, controversial issues related to mandibular condyle fractures were reviewed under the light of current literature. In conclusion, the simplest way that can be done with the least risk of complication should be chosen during treatment planning. In addition, current adjunctive treatment methods accelerating healing of fracture should be considered. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 658-671

  11. Mandibular canine: A tool for sex identification in forensic odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Kumawat, Ramniwas M.; Dindgire, Sarika L.; Gadhari, Mangesh; Khobragade, Pratima G.; Kadoo, Priyanka S.; Yadav, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of mandibular canine index (MCI) and mandibular mesiodistal odontometrics in sex identification in the age group of 17–25 years in central Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised total 300 individuals (150 males and 150 females) of an age group ranging from 17 to 25 years of central Indian population. The maximum mesiodistal diameter of mandibular canines, the linear distance between the tips of mandibular...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to... requirement for premarket approval for any mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the human...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device that is...

  14. Mandibular lip bumper for molar torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Giuseppe; Longobardi, Annalisa; Cannavale, Rosangela; Perillo, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Treatment effects of lip bumpers alone include flaring of the mandibular incisors, distalization and uprighting of the mandibular first molars, and buccal expansion of the canines, premolars, and molar. Lip forces are transmitted through this appliance onto the molars. Moreover the lip bumper is able to derotate, expand or constrict, upright and reinforce the anchorage whereas torque control is lacking. Aim of this paper is the presentation of a new type of lip bumper that allows the molar torque control. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  15. Bifid Mandibular Condyle: A rare in plenty

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    V G Mahima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The bifid mandibular condyle has also been termed as Double Headed Condyle or Condylar Duplication. Bifid condyle was first reported by Hrdlicka in 1941. Since then, to the best of our knowledge, about 49 cases of bifid condyle have been reported in medical literature. We present here six cases of bifid mandibular condyle that we encountered during the span of one year. These were incidental findings on panoramic radiographs and were later confirmed with coronal computed tomographs. This article also reviews the relevant literature.

  16. Supplemental mandibular mesiodens: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganahalli, Manjunath; Honnappa, Adarsh; Chaitanya, Nallan Csk

    2013-12-01

    Developmental anomalies affecting the number of teeth are occasionally encountered clinically. The incidence of supernumerary teeth is approximately 1-3%. Among these are the maxillary anterior teeth, the maxillary molars, and the maxillo-mandubular premolars, in terms of descending order of occurrence. Supernumeraries occur rarely in the mandibular anterior teeth region. They may be either supplemental or rudimentary. We are reporting case of a supplemental type of supernumerary tooth in the mandibular anterior region and steps which were followed to distinguish supernumerary tooth from the normal series.

  17. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  18. Changes of mandibular movement tracings after the correction of mandibular protrusion by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dahui; Fu, Hongjun; Zeng, Rongsheng; Yang, Xiaoping

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the effects on mandibular movement tracings after the correction of mandibular protrusion by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO). This study was comprised of 30 control subjects and 14 mandibular protrusion patients. Mandibular movements were recorded during opening, protrusion, and laterotrusion of the jaw with the ARCUSdigma 3-dimensional mandibular kinesiograph (KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany). The kinematic center and incisor point were used as reference points. The mandibular movement tracings of patients before the correction of mandibular protrusion by BSSRO were significantly different from those in subjects in the control group, whereas there were no significant differences between the mandibular movement tracings after the correction of mandibular protrusion by BSSRO and those in the control group. Furthermore, the mean biases of the condylar kinematic center in the 3-dimensional directions during the opening, protrusive, and laterotrusive movements of the jaws in the preoperative group were smaller than those in the postoperative group (P .05). After correction by BSSRO, the mandibular movement tracings in mandibular protrusion patients will be altered to be similar to those in subjects in the control group, which we believe might support the return of mandibular functional movements in treated patients.

  19. The relationship of the marginal mandibular nerve to the mandibular osseocutaneous ligament and lesser ligaments of the lower face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettner, Franziska; Rueda, Steven; Ozturk, Cemile N; Ozturk, Can; Drake, Richard; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Zins, James E

    2015-02-01

    An in-depth understanding of the nuances of facial anatomy is the best means of preventing complications during facelift surgery. An appreciation of the operative details is complicated not only by the complexity of the anatomy but also by the variability in the nomenclature used. The authors have attempted to clarify these issues by detailing the relationships of the ligaments of the lower face both to each other and to the marginal mandibular nerve. The mandibular ligament, the platysma mandibular ligament, and the marginal mandibular nerve were identified in 22 cadaver halves. The gonial angle, and the lower mandibular border were used as perpendicular reference lines. The mean length, height, and depth of the mandibular ligament and the platysma mandibular ligament were calculated. The mean distance of the mandibular ligament from the gonial angle along the mandibular border was also noted:it was always located superior to the platysma mandibular ligament. The marginal mandibular "danger zone" was identified a quarter of the length of the mandibular body along the lower jaw border. Finally variability in nomenclature of the lower face ligaments was clarified. A topographic map of the structures of surgical importance in the lower face was constructed in the hope that this will prevent surgical errors during facelift surgery. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction and its association to caries in mandibular second molar: A clinical variant

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    V K Prajapati

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: According to this study, pattern of mandibular third molar impaction is in association to caries in mandibular second molar. More future studies are needed. In addition, the results of the present study can be used to screen and inform the patients about the possibility of caries in relation to third molar mandibular impaction.

  1. [The position and course of mandibular canal through mandibular ramus in patients with prognathism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jia; Lu, Li; Song, Cong-Xiao

    2008-04-01

    PUEPOSE: To investigate the position and course of mandibular canal through mandibular ramus in patients with prognathism using computed tomography, and to relate the findings to sagittal split ramus osteotomy, and also to describe the anatomical variability of mandibular canal in order to reduce injuries to the inferior alveolar nerve. The mandibles of 45 patients with skeletal Class III prognathism undergoing sagittal split ramus osteotomy were examined by spiral computed tomography. The region from a plane containing the lowest point of mandibular foramen(base plane 0) to 25 mm below it was measured with 5 mm distance every plane. The following parameters were measured: total thickness of mandible through the center of mandibular canal, thickness of buccal and lingular cortical plate, and narrowest portion of bone marrow space between the outer mandibular canal and both the buccal and lingular cortex. All measurements were analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package. The thickness of mandible increased from the mandibular formen to mandibular body, there was no statistical difference among the sites with regards to the inner diameter of mandibular canal (F=1.044,P=0.391). The width of bone marrow space at the buccal side was significantly different between 3,4 plane and 0 plane,and the measured widths on the lingual side were significantly increased. The width of the buccal side bone marrow space at each site could be classified into three types, the separate type was most prevalent in this study(n=391 of 456,85.5%), contact and fusion type were 12.71% and 1.54% respectively. There was no significant difference between the left and right side. On average, the mandibular canal is situated more lingually at all sites, and the width of bone marrow space at the buccal side is more narrow at 15-20mm below the mandibular foramen. When the width of marrow space at buccal side is absent, especially the fusion type, it is suggested to select an other procedure rather than

  2. Mandibular reconstruction: a new defect classification system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Dental Journal ... This paper presents a new mandibular segmental defect classification system (La-Co-CE) with a view to highlight the complexity and difficulty of the reconstruction with free autogenous bone grafts which the most frequently used method for surgeons practicing in developing countries. We submit ...

  3. Mandibular osteosynthesis in a Boa constrictor snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Costa Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays are observed an increase in the finding of certain wild animals in urban areas, due to environmental changes caused by deforestation and economic use of natural areas. It causes disappearance of usual prey and forces these animals, including snakes, to migrate to urban areas, becoming vulnerable to injuries caused by aggressions, car accidents and capture. Mandibular and maxillar fractures are common in many animal species, representing about 3-6% of all bone fractures in dogs and cats. Mandibular trauma usually occurs as a result of fights, car accidents and improper handling and/or restraint, and fractures can be closed or open, clean or contaminated. The jaw is a flat bone with differences from the long bones that should be taken into consideration for successful treatment, being minimal muscle coverage and need to maintain occlusion factors that influence the definition of the best ostheosynthesis method. The methods of stabilization include using intramedullary pins, wires, external skeletal fixation, bone plate, and acrylic resin. Conventional bone plates are efficient but related to some complications, such as the necessity of muscular elevation and high risk of injuries to mandibular structures. This article describes the successful results of the application of plate and screws in the ostheosynthesis of a mandibular fracture in a female Boa constrictor snake with weight of 8.0 kg and length of 1.80 m, at the RIOZOO Foundation (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

  4. Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Peltomäki, Timo; Müller, Lukas; Luder, Hans U

    2009-02-01

    Deviations in the growth of the mandibular condyle can affect both the functional occlusion and the aesthetic appearance of the face. The reasons for these growth deviations are numerous and often entail complex sequences of malfunction at the cellular level. The aim of this review is to summarize recent progress in the understanding of pathological alterations occurring during childhood and adolescence that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and, hence, result in disorders of mandibular growth. Pathological conditions taken into account are subdivided into (1) congenital malformations with associated growth disorders, (2) primary growth disorders, and (3) acquired diseases or trauma with associated growth disorders. Among the congenital malformations, hemifacial microsomia (HFM) appears to be the principal syndrome entailing severe growth disturbances, whereas growth abnormalities occurring in conjunction with other craniofacial dysplasias seem far less prominent than could be anticipated based on their often disfiguring nature. Hemimandibular hyperplasia and elongation undoubtedly constitute the most obscure conditions that are associated with prominent, often unilateral, abnormalities of condylar, and mandibular growth. Finally, disturbances of mandibular growth as a result of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and condylar fractures seem to be direct consequences of inflammatory and/or mechanical damage to the condylar cartilage.

  5. Biomechanical analysis of mandibular angle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsal, Julie; Baack, Bret; Candelaria, Lionel; Khraishi, Tariq; Lovald, Scott

    2011-12-01

    Clinical evidence has suggested that minimal fixation can reduce complications of mandibular angle fractures, though no detailed biomechanical model has yet explored this unique and somewhat unexpected finding. The current study uses finite element analysis to biomechanically evaluate different fixation schemes used to fixate mandibular angle fractures. Three fixation scenarios were considered: a single tension band at the superior mandibular border, a single bicortical angle compression plate at the inferior border and the tension band and bicortical plate used together. The dual plate model incurred the lowest von Mises stresses in the plates and the lowest principal strain in the callus. The tension band model observed the highest plate and screw von Mises stresses, but had fracture-site callus strain near to that of the dual plate model. The bicortical angle compression plate model observed the highest fracture-site callus strain. The results from this study support the use of the single tension band configuration as a less invasive fixation approach to fractures of the mandibular angle. This is the first known study to explore and confirm clinical observations of angle fracture fixation outcomes with a detailed biomechanical modeling methodology. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome with consanguinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, E.A.; Nguyen, V.D.

    1985-05-01

    The cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by unique posterior rib defects, micrognathia, and mental deficiency. The mode of transmission is undetermined. This report describes the first case with documented parental consanguinity as well as hitherto undescribed CT and skeletal findings.

  7. A standardized formula for aesthetic mandibular reconstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detect any vascular pathology or anatomical variations of the lower extremity, and cutaneous perforators were confirmed and marked with a Doppler flowmeter (Fig- ... C, Ferri T, Sesenna E. Mandibular resection and re- construction in the management of extensive ame- lobalstoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013;71:528-. 537.

  8. Management of pediatric mandibular fracture using orthodontic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractures of the mandible are relatively less frequent in children when compared to adults. The anatomic features of children are protected. Children have a higher adaptation to maxillofacial fractures compared to adults. Treatment principles of mandibular fractures in children differ from that of adults due to concerns ...

  9. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven

    2003-01-01

    This work contains a clinical validation using biological landmarks of a Geometry Constrained Diffusion registration of mandibular surfaces. Canonical Correlations Analysis is extended to analyse 3D landmarks and the correlations are used as similarity measures for landmark clustering. A novel Ac...

  10. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-four injection injuries in 52 patients were caused by mandibular block analgesia affecting the lingual nerve (n=42) and/or the inferior alveolar nerve (n=12). All patients were examined with a standardized test of neurosensory functions. The perception of the following stimuli was assessed:...

  11. Mandibular dimensional changes and skeletal maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Growth and development of the human face provides a fascinating interplay of form and function. Among the various facial bones, the mandible plays a very important role during various growth-modification therapies. These treatment modalities will yield a better result in less time if properly correlated with skeletal maturity. It is very essential to know where the site of growth occurs and also the time when it occurs or ceases to occur. This study was conducted to assess the mandibular dimensions at various stages of skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: The subjects included 6 to 18-year-old children who were grouped according to their middle phalanx of the third finger stages of skeletal maturity. Lateral cephalographs were taken and, from their cephalometric tracings, linear and angular measurements of the mandible were made. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Results showed that the mandibular height, length and symphysis thickness increased with skeletal maturity. An increase in angles SNB (Sella, Nasion, Supramentale and L1-MP (Long axis lower incisors- Mandibular plane and a decrease in the gonial angle and ANB (Subspinale, Nasion, Supramentale angle were observed. Conclusion: The study showed a significant correlation between mandibular growth and skeletal maturity.

  12. Mandibular dimensional changes and skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Naidu, Premila

    2010-10-01

    Growth and development of the human face provides a fascinating interplay of form and function. Among the various facial bones, the mandible plays a very important role during various growth-modification therapies. These treatment modalities will yield a better result in less time if properly correlated with skeletal maturity. It is very essential to know where the site of growth occurs and also the time when it occurs or ceases to occur. This study was conducted to assess the mandibular dimensions at various stages of skeletal maturation. The subjects included 6 to 18-year-old children who were grouped according to their middle phalanx of the third finger stages of skeletal maturity. Lateral cephalographs were taken and, from their cephalometric tracings, linear and angular measurements of the mandible were made. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that the mandibular height, length and symphysis thickness increased with skeletal maturity. An increase in angles SNB (Sella, Nasion, Supramentale) and L1-MP (Long axis lower incisors- Mandibular plane) and a decrease in the gonial angle and ANB (Subspinale, Nasion, Supramentale) angle were observed. The study showed a significant correlation between mandibular growth and skeletal maturity.

  13. Computed Tomography Findings of Mandibular Nutrient Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Sekiya, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Tsukioka, Tsuneyuki; Muramatsu, Teruaki; Kaneda, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of mandibular nutrient canals using CT images. We retrospectively analyzed the mandibular CT images of 194 consecutive patients. For image analysis such as canal prevalence, location, number, size, shape, and the CT value of nutrient foramina were determined using CT axial images of 0.5 and 3 mm slice thickness. We revealed that the nutrient canals were seen 94.3% in the mandible, mostly seen in the anterior region. By location, nutrient canals were particularly seen between the central and lateral incisors. The mean number of nutrient canals was 2.7. The mean diameter of the nutrient foramen between the central and lateral incisors was 1.0 mm. In about 80% of the cases, foramina between the central and lateral incisors were ovoid. The mean CT value for the nutrient foramina between the central and lateral incisors was 411 HU. Mandibular nutrient canals were ovoid shape, and the mean CT value was 411 HU. By preoperative knowledge of the position and anatomy of the mandibular nutrient canals, complications such as injury to the nutrient canals can be avoided.

  14. Mandibular segmental reconstruction with iliac crest | Obiechina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty patients consisting of 14 males and 6 females with benign destructive lesions of the mandible were reconstructed using free nonvascularised iliac crest. Harvested bone was contoured and secured with 0.5mm stainless steel wire and reinforced with maxillo-mandibular fixation. Five patients has ...

  15. Unexpected complications of bonded mandibular lingual retainers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsaros, C.; Livas, C.; Renkema, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) retainer is the most frequently used type of fixed retainer bonded on all 6 anterior teeth. Our aim in this article was to demonstrate unexpected posttreatment changes in the labiolingual position of the mandibular anterior teeth associated with the use

  16. Ultrasound stimulation of mandibular bone defect healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, Jurjen

    2004-01-01

    The conclusions of the experimental work presented in this thesis are: 1. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is not effective in stimulating bone growth into a rat mandibular defect, either with or without the use of osteoconductive membranes. 2. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound does not seem to have an

  17. Three-dimensional mandibular motion after closed and open reduction of unilateral mandibular condylar process fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Chiarella; Ugolini, Alessandro; Sozzi, Davide; Galante, Domenico; Mapelli, Andrea; Bozzetti, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    To detect the changes in 3D mandibular motion after two types of condylar fracture therapies. Using a 3D motion analyzer, free mandibular border movements were recorded in 21 patients successfully treated for unilateral fractures of the mandibular condylar process (nine patients: open reduction, rigid internal fixation, and functional treatment; 12 patients: closed reduction and functional treatment; follow-up: 6-66 months), and in 25 control subjects. No differences were found among the groups at maximum mouth opening (MO), protrusion and in lateral excursions. During opening, the patients had a larger maximal deviation to the fractured side than the controls (controls 2.3 mm, open treatment 3.9 mm, closed treatment 4.2 mm; Kruskal-Wallis test, p=0.014; closed treatment vs. controls, p=0.004), with a larger coronal plane angle (controls 2.4°, open treatment 3.6°, closed treatment 4.4°; p=0.016; closed treatment vs. controls, p=0.013). In the closed treatment patients, a longer follow-up was related to increased maximum MO (p=0.04), sagittal plane angle (p=0.03), and reduced lateral mandibular deviation during MO (p=0.03). Mandibular condylar fractures can recover good function; some kinematic variables of mandibular motion were more similar to the norm in the open treatment patients than in closed treatment patients. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mandibular advancement and obstructive sleep apnoea: a method for determining effective mandibular protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dort, L C; Hadjuk, E; Remmers, J E

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to test the hypotheses that it is possible, during routine polysomnography (PSG), to prospectively identify favourable candidates for mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) therapy in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to accurately estimate an optimal protrusive distance at which to fabricate the MRA. A series of subjects underwent a remotely controlled mandibular positioner (RCMP) test during PSG monitoring. The ability of the RCMP test to eliminate OSA and the target protrusion at which that occurred was compared with the success of a custom oral MRA in the 33 subjects who completed the protocol. The RCMP test was a success in 15 subjects and a failure in 18 subjects. Appliance therapy was initiated in 38 subjects and completed in 33. MRA therapy was successful at target protrusion in 80% of subjects who had a successful RCMP test and failed in 78% of those who failed the RCMP test. In conclusion the remotely controlled mandibular positioner test outcome demonstrated a statistically significant association with mandibular repositioning appliance outcome. The target protrusion determined during the remotely controlled mandibular positioner test was the effective therapeutic protrusion in subjects with a successful remotely controlled mandibular positioner test.

  19. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Calder, Alistair Duncan [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Muthialu, Nagarajan [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects (''rib gaps''). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  20. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Muthialu, Nagarajan; Calder, Alistair Duncan

    2014-02-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects ("rib gaps"). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia.

  1. Anatomic variations of the marginal mandibular nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, P G; George, Nebu Abraham; Sebastian, P

    2012-03-01

    Marginal Mandibular Nerve (MMN) is a branch of the facial nerve. Muscles supplied by this nerve are responsible for facial symmetry, facial expressions and phonation. Aim was to study the branching pattern and variations in the position of marginal mandibular nerve. 202 patients who underwent neck dissection from June 2005 to October 2006 at Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India were included in the study. During the course of neck dissection, the marginal mandibular nerve was first identified around the point where the facial artery crossed the lower border of the mandible. Once the nerve was identified, it was traced both backwards and forward till the whole nerve was exposed. Position of the nerve and its relation to lower border of mandible at the point where the facial artery crossed the lower border of the mandible was noted and number and position of each branches were recorded. In 161of the 202 patients (79.7%) the MMN had a single division. Two branches were noted in 26 patients (12.9%). Three branches for MMN are not uncommon, it was noted in 14 patients (6.9%) and in one patient there were four branches. Every effort should be made to preserve all the branches of MMN to ensure cosmesis and decrease morbidity. The mean distance from the lower border of the mandible to the point where the marginal mandibular nerve crossed the facial artery for all the branches taken together was 1.73 mm below the mandible. In 49 patients there was communication between MMN and the cervical branch of facial nerve. The point where the facial artery crosses the lower border of the mandible is a reliable landmark to locate the MMN. Variation in the branching pattern of marginal mandibular nerve is very common.

  2. Predicting pathology in impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveek Mukherji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rising incidence of the impacted mandibular third molars and their association with pathologies is now considered a public health problem. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the position of impacted mandibular third molars that are prone to developing pathologies and to determine the frequency and type of pathological conditions associated with these impacted teeth to facilitate planning for their prophylactic removal. Materials and Methods: Consecutive panoramic radiographs and clinical examination of 300 patients with impacted mandibular third molars were collected. They were segregated according to Pell and Gregory’s classification, Winter’s classification, and according to their state of eruption. These were correlated with associated pathologies based on clinical and radiological criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included computation of percentages, mean, and standard deviations. The statistical test applied for the analysis was Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2. For this test, confidence interval and P value were set at 93% and ≤0.03, respectively. Results: The pathology most commonly associated with impacted third molars was pericoronitis, which had the highest frequency of occurrence in partially erupted, distoangular, and IA positioned (as per Pell and Gregory classification impacted teeth. Impacted mandibular third molars, which were in IA position, placed mesially, and partially erupted, were prone to develop pathologies such as dental caries and periodontitis. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographical features of impacted third molar may be correlated to the development of their pathological complications. The partially impacted mandibular third molars with mesioangularly aligned in IA position have the highest potential to cause pathological complications.

  3. Determination of range of mandibular movements in children without temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Silvina G; Oliver, Liliana M; Biondi, Ana María

    2007-07-01

    Mandibular movement values are an important parameter within the clinical evaluation of the temporomandibular joint. Limited or increased movement is a sign of dysfunction. Normal values used as reference correspond to adult populations, and information on child populations is scant. The aim of this study was to establish reference measurements of children with primary (Group A) and mixed dentition (Group B) without signs of temporomandibular disorders. The study population comprised 212 boys and girls, aged 3 to 11 years, attending a state school in the San Martin district in the province of Buenos Aires, who presented no joint sounds, clicking or pain. A calibrated operator determined maximal opening, protrusion, and lateral movements. Group A (n=105): mean age 4.61+/-0.9; maximal opening 38.59 mm +/- 4.03; protrusion 3.71 mm+/-1.79; right lateral movement 5.43 mm+/-1.83 and left lateral movement 5.52 mm +/- 1.73. Group B (n= 107): mean age 6.9+/-1.65; maximal opening 41.97 mm +/- 5.27; protrusion 3.96 mm+/-1.92; right lateral movement 6.05 mm+/-1.99 and left lateral movement 6.13 mm+/-2.21. Opening and lateral movements were found to increase with age. Comparison between groups using Welch t Test showed significant differences in maximal opening (pmovement. Mandibular movements are associated with growth. Mandibular movements of pediatric patients must be assessed in relation to age and type of dentition.

  4. Incidencia de fracturas mandibulares en Guyana INCIDENCE OF MANDIBULAR FRACTURES IN GUYANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernández Pedroso

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio retrospectivo de la incidencia de las fracturas mandibulares en relación con el total de las fracturas maxilofaciales atendidas en la República de Guyana durante el año 2001 debido a su alta presentación en nuestro quehacer diario, con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento de estas lesiones y su relación con la edad, sexo, etiología y área mandibular vulnerable. Las variables estudiadas fueron sexo, edad, causa de la fractura y región afectada. Las fracturas mandibulares ocuparon el 56,6 % del total de fracturas maxilofaciales y fue más frecuente en los hombres ( 89,5 %. Los grupos etáreos de mayor incidencia fueron de 25 a 34 y de 35 a 44 años, con el 30,6 %. La causa más común de fracturas mandibulares fue la agresión personal ( 68,6 % y la región anatómica más afectada el ángulo mandibular ( 67,4 %.A retrospective study of the incidence of mandibular fractures in relation to the total of maxillofacial fractures attended in the Republic of Guyana during 2001 was conducted taking into account its high ocurrence in our daily practice in order to determine the behavior of these injuries and its connection with age, sex, etiology and vulnerable mandibular area. The variables studied were sex, age, cause of the fracture and affected region. The mandibular fractures accounted for 56.6 % of the total of maxillofacial fractures and they were more frequent in men (89.5 %. The age groups with the highest incidence were from 25 to 34 and from 35 to 44 years old, accounting for 30.6 %. The most frequent cause of mandibular fracture was personal aggression (68.6 % and the commonest anatomical region was the mandibular angle (67.4 %.

  5. Effect of Mandibular Advancement Device Therapy on the Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Näpänkangas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mandibular advancement device therapy is effectively used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, but also several side effects in the masticatory system have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders connected to mandibular advancement device therapy. Material and Methods: The material consisted of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women, mean age 51.1 years, range 21 to 70 years diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Subjective symptoms and clinical temporomandibular disorders (TMD signs were recorded at the beginning of the treatment (baseline and at 1-month, 3-month, 6-month and 24-month follow-ups. The degree of TMD was assessed using the anamnestic (Ai and the clinical dysfunction index (Di of Helkimo. For assessing the effect of TMD the patients were divided in discontinuing and continuing groups. Results: According to Ai and Di, the severity of TMD remained unchanged during the follow-up in most of the patients. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ crepitation was found more frequently in discontinuing patients at all follow-ups. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05 at the six-month follow-up. Masticatory muscle pain during palpation was a frequent clinical sign at the baseline and during the follow-up period but the difference between discontinuing and continuing patients was not significant. Conclusions: It seems that signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders do not necessarily increase during long-term mandibular advancement device therapy. However, it seems that patients with clinically assessed temporomandibular joint crepitation may discontinue their mandibular advancement device therapy due to temporomandibular disorders.

  6. Mandibular distraction combined with orthognathic techniques for the correction of severe adult mandibular hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lin; Tang, Xiaojun; Shi, Lei; Yin, Hongyu; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-11-01

    Mandibular hypoplasia may result from congenital deformities or trauma or infection during the early stage of facial skeleton development. Deficiencies in the growth of the mandible can not only cause various degrees of facial deformity but also affect breathing and occlusal function. Here, we report our experiences with mandibular distraction combined with orthognathic surgical techniques for the treatment of severe adult mandibular hypoplasia. Cephalometric analysis was conducted in all patients for quantitative evaluation. A computer-assisted surgical simulation was prepared before distraction. According to the simulation data, an operative osteotomy guide plate was designed and three-dimensionally printed with photosensitive resin. With the help of the guide plate, the osteotomy line was precisely placed. An internal distractor was then placed through an extraoral incision created under general anesthesia. Distraction began after 7 days of latency at the rate of 1 mm/d. After a 6- to 8-month consolidation period, the distractor was removed. At the same time, genioplasty and/or subapical osteotomy was performed to correct the patient's crossbite and improve the facial contour for bilateral mandibular hypoplasia. For unilateral mandibular hypoplasia, a Le Fort I osteotomy was performed to correct the open bite on the affected side, whereas a mandibular outer cortex excision was performed on the unaffected side to improve lower facial symmetry. The mandible symmetry and chin protrusion were efficiently improved in all 36 patients (mean age, 20.3 y). No facial nerve palsy was reported, nor were there complaints about postoperative facial scarring. The postoperative infection rate was 2.8%. The distance of lengthening was 26.2 (2.8) mm. The increased ramus length on the affected side was 18.9 (9.3) mm. At the end of the consolidation period (T2), the affected mandibular ramus length increased by 46.3% (23.6%) in unilateral distraction osteogenesis; however, it

  7. [Mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction for hemifacial microsomia with rapid prototyping technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Quan-Wen; Song, Hui-Feng; Xu, Ming-Huo; Liu, Chun-Ming; Chai, Jia-Ke

    2013-11-01

    To explore the clinical application of mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandihular distraction to correct hemifacial microsomia with rapid prototyping technology. The patient' s skull resin model was manufactured with rapid prototyping technology. The osteotomy was designed on skull resin model. According to the preoperative design, the patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular ramus osteotomy. The internal mandible distractor was embedded onto the osteotomy position. The occlusal titanium pin was implanted. Distraction were carried out by mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandihular distraction 5 days after operation. The distraction in five patients was complete as designed. No infection and dysosteogenesis happened. The longest distance of distraction was 28 mm, and the shortest distance was 16 mm. The facial asymmetry deformity was significantly improved at the end of distraction. The ocelusal plane of patients obviously improved. Rapid prototyping technology is helpful to design precisely osteotomy before operation. Mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction can correct hemifacial microsomia. It is worth to clinical application.

  8. Dynamic MR imaging of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Store, G.; Smith, H.J.; Larheim, T.A. [National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Maxillo-Facial Surgery

    2000-07-01

    Osteoradionecrotic bone has been characterised as hypovascular and metabolically inactive tissue with impaired perfusion. The present study was conducted to determine if dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging could provide additional information about the vascularity of radionecrotic mandibular bone. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed on 10 patients with mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN), and on 6 patients, irradiated for oropharyngeal tumours, without symptoms or signs of ORN. Nine patients in the ORN group received a series of 20 hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments, after which the dynamic MR investigation was repeated. Radiation per se did not lead to increased contrast enhancement, whereas all patients with ORN showed marked contrast enhancement of the osteoradionecrotic bone marrow. After HBO treatment, pathological contrast enhancement of the abnormal bone marrow could still be seen, but the rate of enhancementwas less than before in 7 of 9 patients. Two patients had an increase in the enhancement rate. The findings suggest the existence of an increased and patent microvasculature.

  9. Mandibular Advancement Apparatus: Myth or Reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Quintero, Natalia; Botero Mariaca, Paola María

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion present a retruded position of the mandible. Functional appliances are fixed or removable appliances designed to alter the sagittal and vertical mandibular position, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic skele- tal changes. Despite their long history, functional appliances remain controversial in their use, effectiveness and mode of action. This review will reveal the different treatment options for skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by m...

  10. Ceramic onlay for endodontically treated mandibular molar

    OpenAIRE

    Roopadevi Garlapati; Bhuvan Shome Venigalla; Shekhar Kamishetty; Jayaprakash Thumu

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is important for the success of endodontic treatment. In full coverage restorations, maximum amount of tooth structure is compromised, so as to conserve the amount of tooth structure partial coverage restorations, can be preferred. This case report is on fabrication of a conservative tooth colored restoration for an endodontically treated posterior tooth. A 22-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular left first molar. After endodo...

  11. Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Peltomäki, Timo; Müller, Lukas; Luder, Hans U.

    2017-01-01

    Deviations in the growth of the mandibular condyle can affect both the functional occlusion and the aesthetic appearance of the face. The reasons for these growth deviations are numerous and often entail complex sequences of malfunction at the cellular level. The aim of this review is to summarize recent progress in the understanding of pathological alterations occurring during childhood and adolescence that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and, hence, result in disorders of mandibula...

  12. Mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Tae Min [Dept. of Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Dong; Jeong, Ho Gui; Park, Won Se [Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Tumors metastasizing from distant regions to the oral and maxillofacial region are uncommon, comprising only 1%-2% of all malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy that arises from cholangiocytes, which are epithelial cells that line the bile ducts. These cancers are difficult to diagnose and have a poor prognosis. In this paper, we report a rare case of mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed at the primary site and discuss the radiographic findings observed in this case.

  13. Multiple myeloma presenting as mandibular pain

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, Miriam

    2016-10-01

    Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a systemic malignancy of plasma cells defined by monoclonal production of circulating immunoglobulins. Bone pain is a presenting feature in the majority of cases. Treatment may involve intravenous use of bisphosphonates, chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, we illustrate a first presentation of MM in a patient with mandibular pain and discuss radiographic, diagnostic and treatment challenges of orofacial issues in patients with MM.\\r\

  14. Relationship between mandibular angle fracture and state of eruption of mandibular third molar: A digital radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar Talkad Subbaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between mandibular angle fracture and the status of eruption of the mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 50 mandibular angle fracture cases with or without the presence of mandibular third molars, inclusive of both genders in the age group 18 years and above. The mandibular angle fractures were assessed by taking an orthopantomograph for each case following strict radiation protection protocol after an informed consent was obtained. The captured image was assessed and traced for the presence of mandibular angle fracture, angulation, and status of mandibular third molar by using Windows Trophy DICOM and Master View 3.0 software. Pell and Gregory′s and Winter′s classifications were followed. Results: We observed the following: Increased incidence of angle fractures in the presence of mandibular third molar, male predominance, the mean average age being 29 years, and the most common cause of angle fractures was road traffic accident; the fractures were observed more on the left side. In the total sample, mandibular third molar was present in 90% of the cases with angle fracture; of this, 73% of the teeth were impacted. Increased incidence of mandibular angle fracture was observed in position A, class II, and mesioangular impaction of third molar, which were statistically significant. Conclusion: The presence of mandibular third molar was in strong association with mandibular angle fracture and there was an increased incidence of position A, class II, and mesioangular impaction, when compared with other positions. This study concludes that there is a direct relationship between the presence and status of impacted third molars with increased risk of mandibular angle fracture.

  15. Lucia Jig - temporomandibular dysfunction promotes muscle relaxation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Piccolo Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assess whether the Lucia Jig is a device that promotes masticatory muscle relaxation in individuals with temporomandibular dysfunction. This study was carried out in three stages (interviews, clinical examination, and laboratory and participation of adult individuals, between 21 and 40 years of age, of both genders, who replied to the RDC/TMD questionnaire to diagnose muscular temporomandibular dysfunction. The Lucia Jig was prepared and electromyographic examination of the masseter and temporal muscles was performed bilaterally, in the postural condition of the mandibular at rest, after immediately installing the Lucia Jig in the oral cavity and at periods of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min. The values obtained were compared using repeated measures (p < 0.05 over the entire duration of the experiment (0 to 30 min with the Lucia Jig. There was an increase in the normalized electromyographic signal of the masticatory muscles, with the use of the Lucia Jig over the period of 30 min, with no statistically significant difference. Based on the results of this study through electromyographic data, the device did not promote masticatory muscle relaxation in individuals with muscular temporomandibular dysfunction.

  16. Mandibular arch changes following nonextraction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, David T; Pender, Neil; Counihan, Dan

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate mandibular tooth position changes following treatment with a lip bumper and fixed appliance. Specifically, we aimed to determine how space was obtained to align crowded lower incisors. Thirty-four consecutively treated children with a mean age of 10.6 years (SD: 1.14 years) were selected from a specialist orthodontic practice in Eire. All subjects were treated with a lip bumper followed by a fixed appliance. The positions and angulations of the lower first molars and most proclined lower incisor were measured on the pretreatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs and study models with a reflex metrograph. The changes were also compared with published growth data. After lip bumper and fixed appliance treatment the mandibular arch depth decreased (Mean difference: 1.2 mm; p lip bumper followed by fixed appliance treatment were to maintain the leeway space, expand the mandibular arch and 'upright' the lower molars. The treatment had no effect on the position of the lower incisors.

  17. Hyperplastic conditions of the mandibular condyles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of unilateral hyperplastic mandibular condyles for some useful preliminary diagnostic recommendations. Clinical records, radiographs and histologic diagnoses of 35 cases with asymmetric mandibular condyles due to apparent unilateral condylar hyperplasia were evaluated retrospectively. Among 35 cases, 28 were true hyperplastic conditions of condyles whereas the remaining 7 were unilateral internal derangement occurring on the short side. 17 of the 28 hyperplastic condyles showed a mass or irregular radiographic shadow with histologic diagnosis including osteochondroma and osteoma. Only 5 of these cases showed facial asymmetry. 2 out of ths 17 cases showed hyperplastic round shaped irregular condyles consistent with ankylosis and their histologic diagnoses were osteochondromas. 11 of the 28 cases showed smooth enlargement of condylar head with elongation of the neck causing facial asymmetry, but histologic diagnoses were not available because the surgical operation conserved the condyles. The hyperplastic conditions of the mandibular condyles include not only true hyperplasia, osteochondroma, osteoma, and ankylosis, but also unilateral internal derangement occurring on the short side.

  18. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Page ( 1 ) Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It occurs when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the ...

  19. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  20. Evidencias de asociación entre los factores oclusales y los desórdenes temporo-mandibulares mediante un análisis de regresión logística.

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Palacios, Marco Antonio; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,; Paredes Ruiz, Daniel A.; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,; Balarezo Razzeto, Jose Antonio; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio determinó mediante un análisis de regresión logística la asociación entre los factores oclusales (FO) y los desórdenes temporomandibulares (DTM) basados en el índice craneomandibular de Fricton en 85 sujetos (37 casos y 48 controles) entre 15 y 20 años de edad estudiantes del primer año de la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia y Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. Se encontró como FO significativos: 1) tipos de contacto en el lado de no trabajo en lateralidades, 2)...

  1. Altered mandibular growth under functional posterior displacement in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farias-Neto, A; Martins, APVB; Figueroba, SR; Groppo, FC; Almeida, SM; Rizzatti-Barbosa, CM

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in mandibular growth between growing rats with posterior functional mandibular displacement and growing rats without functional mandibular displacement. Materials and Methods: Twenty female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were randomized into two groups: (1) control and (2) mandible posterior displacement in the occluded condition induced by an occlusal guiding appliance. After 8 weeks all animals were sacrificed, cone beam computed...

  2. Incidence Of The Mandibular Accessory Foramina In Brazilian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, A. R.; Rossi, A. C.; Prado, F. B.; Caria, P. H F; Botacin, Paulo Roberto [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the mandibular accessory foramina are variables and are located on the medial surface of the mandible in positions above or below of the mandibular foramen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the mandibular accessory foramina in Brazilians human mandibles and discuss the clinical aspects related to the presence of these foramina. Were evaluated 222 mandibles, adults, irrespective of gender. Was observed that 27.93% and 43.24% of the mandibles presented at least ...

  3. Reconstruction of beagle hemi-mandibular defects with allogenic mandibular scaffolds and autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangKui Liu

    Full Text Available Massive bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive surgery, but carry a high failure rate of approximately 25%. We tested whether treatment of graft with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can increase the integration of massive allografts (hemi-mandible in a large animal model.Thirty beagle dogs received surgical left-sided hemi-mandibular defects, and then divided into two equal groups. Bony defects of the control group were reconstructed using allografts only. Those of the experimental group were reconstructed using allogenic mandibular scaffold-loaded autologous MSCs. Beagles from each group were killed at 4 (n = 4, 12 (n = 4, 24 (n = 4 or 48 weeks (n = 3 postoperatively. CT and micro-CT scans, histological analyses and the bone mineral density (BMD of transplants were used to evaluate defect reconstruction outcomes.Gross and CT examinations showed that the autologous bone grafts had healed in both groups. At 48 weeks, the allogenic mandibular scaffolds of the experimental group had been completely replaced by new bone, which has a smaller surface area to that of the original allogenic scaffold, whereas the scaffold in control dogs remained the same size as the original allogenic scaffold throughout. At 12 weeks, the BMD of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05, and all micro-architectural parameters were significantly different between groups (p<0.05. Histological analyses showed almost all transplanted allogeneic bone was replaced by new bone, principally fibrous ossification, in the experimental group, which differed from the control group where little new bone formed.Our study demonstrated the feasibility of MSC-loaded allogenic mandibular scaffolds for the reconstruction of hemi-mandibular defects. Further studies are needed to test whether these results can be surpassed by the use of allogenic mandibular scaffolds loaded with a combination of MSCs and osteoinductive growth

  4. Integrative Temporo-Spatial, Mineralogic, Spectroscopic, and Proteomic Analysis of Postnatal Enamel Development in Teeth with Limited Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Pandya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tooth amelogenesis is a complex process beginning with enamel organ cell differentiation and enamel matrix secretion, transitioning through changes in ameloblast polarity, cytoskeletal, and matrix organization, that affects crucial biomineralization events such as mineral nucleation, enamel crystal growth, and enamel prism organization. Here we have harvested the enamel organ including the pliable enamel matrix of postnatal first mandibular mouse molars during the first 8 days of tooth enamel development to conduct a step-wise cross-sectional analysis of the changes in the mineral and protein phase. Mineral phase diffraction pattern analysis using single-crystal, powder sample X-ray diffraction analysis indicated conversion of calcium phosphate precursors to partially fluoride substituted hydroxyapatite from postnatal day 4 (4 dpn onwards. Attenuated total reflectance spectra (ATR revealed a substantial elevation in phosphate and carbonate incorporation as well as structural reconfiguration between postnatal days 6 and 8. Nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS demonstrated highest protein counts for ECM/cell surface proteins, stress/heat shock proteins, and alkaline phosphatase on postnatal day 2, high counts for ameloblast cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulin β5, tropomyosin, β-actin, and vimentin on postnatal day 4, and elevated levels of cofilin-1, calmodulin, and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase on day 6. Western blot analysis of hydrophobic enamel proteins illustrated continuously increasing amelogenin levels from 1 dpn until 8 dpn, while enamelin peaked on days 1 and 2 dpn, and ameloblastin on days 1–5 dpn. In summary, these data document the substantial changes in the enamel matrix protein and mineral phase that take place during postnatal mouse molar amelogenesis from a systems biological perspective, including (i relatively high levels of matrix protein expression during the early

  5. Correlations between mandibular asymmetries and temporomandibular disorders (TMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippolito, Simona; Ursini, Roberto; Giuliante, Luca; Deli, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Mandibular asymmetries are the fulcrum of many debates among modern orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons. The interest is even greater when facial asymmetries are correlated to the development of TMJ symptoms and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of this study is to investigate how mandibular asymmetries constitute etiological or predisposing factors for the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). We considered patients with mandibular asymmetries associated with TMD. Using orthodontic or surgical-orthodontic treatment, patients experienced correction of their TMJ symptoms. Thus, mandibular asymmetries represent a major risk factor for the development of TMD. We studied a sample of 16 subjects aged between 14 and 36-years-old (11 females and 5 males) with mandibular asymmetries (81% structural asymmetry, 19% functional asymmetry). These subjects presented skeletal and dental malocclusions combined with several temporomandibular disorders, mostly due to muscle tension. In 100% of cases, patients received orthodontic treatment. We compared pre- and post-treatment postero-anterior (PA) cephalometric analyses in order to evaluate asymmetry resolution. Comparison of measurements from pre- and post-therapy PA cephalograms showed resolution of mandibular asymmetries after treatment. The treatment resolved mandibular asymmetries and completely eliminated temporomandibular symptoms. Orthodontic treatment of patients presenting mandibular asymmetry enables correction of all TMJ symptoms and TMD. Mandibular symmetries can therefore be considered to constitute etiological or predisposing factors for the development of TMD. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Mandibular hypo-hyperdontia: A report of three cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, S. V. S. G.; Sandeep, C.; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Dental anomalies of tooth number in development of the permanent dentition are quite common than the primary dentition, however, the combined occurrence of hypodontia and hyperdontia is a rare phenomenon, especially in the same dental arch. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of concomitant hypo-hyperdontia (CHH) in three patients (one girl and two boys) with missing mandibular central incisor and an erupted mandibular mesiodens. Three rare cases of mandibular CHH were observed during routine examination, where the two anomalies manifested in the anterior region of the mandible. Furthermore, these are the only cases exhibited taurodontism in association with mandibular CHH. PMID:24778987

  7. Morphology of the mandibular canal and the angulation between the mandibular and mental canals in dry skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, S R; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between external and internal mandibular morphology in adult or adolescent normal anthropological mandibles. Lateral radiographs of 31 symmetrical mandibles were analysed. The external morphology was defined by the gonial and beta-angles....... In order to analyse internal morphology, a metallic pin was placed in the mental canal on the left side before radiography. The angle between the mental and the mandibular canals was termed the 'mental angle' and that expressing the curvature of the mandibular canal, the 'mandibular angle'. Spearman...... correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the angles. Internal morphology: a statistically significant correlation was found between the mental and mandibular angles (correlation coefficient: -0.60, P=0.0004). When the mental angle was narrow, the mandibular angle tended...

  8. Effect of mandibular mobilization on electromyographic signals in muscles of mastication and static balance in individuals with temporomandibular disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, Yasmin; Politti, Fabiano; de Sousa, Dowglas F Magalhães; Herpich, Carolina Marciela; Gloria, Igor Phillip dos Santos; Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Amaral, Ana Paula; de Melo, Nívea Cristina; da Silva, Thais Correa; Arruda, Eric Edmur Camargo; Amorim, Cesar Ferreira; Gadotti, Inaê Caroline; Gonzalez, Tabajara Oliveira; Berzin, Fausto; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Garcia, Marília Barbosa Santos; Barbosa, Bruno Roberto Borges; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2013-10-01

    The stomatognathic system and dysfunction in this system may be related to postural control. The proposal of the present study is to assess the effect of mandibular mobilization in individuals with temporomandibular disorder using surface electromyography of the muscles of mastication and stabilometric variables. A randomized, controlled, blind, clinical trial will be carried out, with the participants divided into three groups: 1) facial massage therapy (control group), 2) nonspecific mandibular mobilization and 3) specific mandibular mobilization. All groups will be assessed before and after treatment using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, surface electromyography of the masseter and temporal muscles and stabilometry. This study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (RBR9x8ssz). A large number of studies have employed surface electromyography to investigate the function/dysfunction of the muscles of mastication and associations with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. However, it has not yet been determined whether stabilometric variables offer adequate reliability in patients with this disorder. The results of the proposed study will help determine whether specific and/or nonspecific mandibular mobilization exerts an effect on the muscles of mastication and postural control. Moreover, if an effect is detected, the methodology defined in the proposed study will allow identifying whether the effect is local (found only in the muscles of mastication), global (found only in postural control) or generalized.

  9. Cone beam computed tomography findings of ectopic mandibular third molar in the mandibular condyle: report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Soo [School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Impaction of third molar is a common developmental abnormality. However, ectopic impaction of the mandibular third molar in condylar region is an extremely rare condition. This report describes a case of impacted tooth in the mandibular condyle without any associated pathologic condition. Also, this report presents the spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar to the surrounding anatomic structures using cone beam computed tomography.

  10. Costochondral graft with green-stick fracture used in reconstruction of the mandibular condyle: experience in 13 clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Alcojol, Laura; Monje-Gil, Florencio; Gonzalez-Garcia, Raúl; Moreno-Garcia, Carlos; Serrano-Gil, Herminia; Maestre-Rodriguez, Oscar; Ruiz-Laza, Luis; Manzano-Solo de Zaldivar, Damián; Mateo-Arias, Jesús

    2009-12-01

    Since its publication in 1920 by Gillies, costochondral grafts have been used by surgeons to replace and injured mandibular condyle and to reconstruct the temporomandibular joint. This procedure is currently applied in cases of congenital dysplasia, developmental defects, temporomandibular ankylosis, neoplastic disease, osteoarthritis and post-traumatic dysfunction. Over the years, various procedures for the reconstruction with this type of graft have been described. In 1989, Mosby and Hiatt described a technique for setting the graft securely, reducing the space between the graft and the mandibular area. In 1998, Monje and Martín-Granizo developed a variation of this method, enabling a precise adaptation of the costochondral graft to the remaining mandibular ramus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functional and anatomic results of the costochondral graft treatment by green-stick fracture for reconstruction of the TMJ in the 10 years following the description of this technique. We carry out a retrospective study of thirteen cases of temporomandibular pathology (tumors, ankylosis and hypoplasia) treated during a period of ten years from 1998 to 2008. In all these cases, the technique described by Monje and Martín-Granizo was used: removal of the sixth rib, fixation to a titanium mini-plate using screws, making an internal corticotomy in order to obtain a green-stick fracture of the outer cortex, providing adequate adaptation of the graft to the mandibular ramus. The graft was then set in place, attaching it with titanium screws. This technique was successful in achieving optimal ossification, a good interincisal opening and satisfactory cosmetic results. In conclusion, according to our experience, the green-stick fracture for the adaptation of costochondral grafts to the remaining mandibular ramus has presented outstanding results in the surgical treatment of temporomandibular pathology.

  11. Upper airway asymmetry in skeletal Class III malocclusions with mandibular deviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De-Hua Zheng; Xu-Xia Wang; Dan Ma; Yuan Zhou; Jun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between bilateral differences of upper airway and mandibular morphologic patterns in subjects with skeletal Class III mandibular deviation...

  12. Mandibular resection via mandibular-lip L flap for the treatment of extensive multicystic Ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Martins Oliveira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor accounting for 1% of all tumors of the maxilla and mandibula. The mandibula is committed in 85% of the cases. The tumor is locally invasive, able to infiltrate bone marrow spaces, without radiographic or macroscopic evidence. High recurrence rates are associated with different surgical techniques, which range from simple tumoral enucleation to extensive resections. The authors report a case of a 26-year old female patient with an 8-year history of progressive, non-tender, swelling of the left mandibular region. The intraoral examination showed that the floor of mouth was raised on the left side by a bulging along the bottom of the left mandibular vestibule as well as the lingual region. Over this area, there were ulcerated areas in the alveolar region of the molars and mucosal fenestration in the alveolar and lingual regions were present. A panoramic radiography revealed a multicystic lesion, resembling the soap-bubble shape endosseous lesion. The computed tomography revealed an expandable multicystic lesion compromising both mandibular cortices. The patient underwent a biopsy, which revealed the diagnosis of a multicystic variant of Ameloblastoma, with plexiform pattern, treated with left mandibular resection and immediate installation of a customized prosthesis. After a year of follow-up, no evidence of the tumor relapse was evidenced.

  13. Analysis of head and mandibular tapping movements in patients with mandibular protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibe, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Fukui, Tadao; Kohno, Shoji; Hanada, Kooji

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether there was a functional coupling between the head and mandibular movements in ten patients with mandibular protrusion (MP) and ten control subjects with normal occlusion (Normal), using a six degrees-of-freedom measuring device. Single-peak waveforms were predominantly seen in both MP (98.2%) and Normal (99.3%). However, vertical displacements of the upper and lower incisor points (VD(UIP) and VD(LIP)) were all significantly larger in MP than those in Normal. The ratio VD(UIP)/VD(LIP) also increased more sharply with an increase in VD(LIP) in MP, compared to that in Normal. Mandibular rotation in MP was also significantly larger than that in Normal. The results showed that, in MP, the head moves more vertically in rhythmical coordination with mandibular movement during tapping. Finally, it may be that this larger vertical head movement is related to the greater condylar rotation in MP subjects.

  14. Anquilosis mandibular: una frecuente secuela por Noma Mandibular ankylosis: a Noma frequent sequel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernández García-Guilarte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocemos poco sobre el Noma o Enfermedad Cancrum Oris. Esta entidad afecta a niños con malnutrición crónica, poca higiene oral, poco desarrollo sanitario y enfermedades concurrentes debilitantes. Existe un consenso general sobre que el Noma empieza como una gingivitis; en su fase aguda, puede haber respuesta al tratamiento antibiótico, no obstante, las secuelas tras su curación incluyen daños estéticos y funcionales variables, que pueden requerir cirugía reconstructiva. Presentamos 3 casos de anquilosis mandibular que en el examen preoperatorio presentaron dimorfismo mandibular, fusión de hueso maxilar y mandibular y anquilosis de la articulación témporomandibular. La ortopantografía y la Tomografía Axial Computerizada (TAC fueron muy útiles en la planificación de la cirugía. El tratamiento quirúrgico consistió en todos los casos en la resección del hueso anquilótico y la reconstrucción con injerto condrocostal en uno de los casos. En el postoperatorio se siguió fisioterapia intensiva. Clínicamente todos los pacientes mostraron una gran mejoría en la masticación, la alimentación y el habla, obviamente debido a una buena oclusión. El problema más común fue la baja colaboración en la rehabilitación mandibular por parte de los pacientes.Little is known about Noma or Cancrum Oris Disease. This entity affects to children with chronic malnutrition, poor oral hygiene, poor environmental sanitation and debilitating concurrent illness. There is general consensus that noma starts as gingivitis. The acute stage responds readily to antibiotic treatment. The sequelae after healing include variable functional and aesthetic impairments, which require reconstructive surgery. We report 3 cases of mandibular ankylosis. Preoperative examination revealed mandibular dismorphism, fusion of maxilla and mandible and ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint. Orthopantography and Computed Thomography scan (TCS were very useful in planning

  15. Predictors of treatment preference for mandibular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Gironda, Melanie W; Black, Edward E; Belin, Thomas R; Atchison, Kathryn A

    2010-01-01

    Patient treatment preferences do not necessarily remain stable over time. This study focuses on predictors of patient treatment choice and on the extent to which patients are willing to take risks by choosing surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for mandibular fracture. Surveys of African-American and Hispanic adults receiving treatment at King/Drew Medical Center for either a mandibular fracture (n = 98) or third-molar removal (n = 105) were used to investigate patterns of patient preference over the course of a 4-month study period using generalized estimating equations controlling for age, gender, income, and fracture versus third-molar patient. The study examined the effects of symptom rating and a"standard gamble" measure reflecting a patient's willingness to accept scarring or nerve damage. This analysis is based on 169 patients who participated in four waves of data collection. The most salient predictor of patient treatment was the standard gamble measure at 1-month follow-up. Subjects with higher risk tolerance were more likely to select surgery versus jaw wiring. A higher likelihood of choosing surgery was associated with higher income and greater symptom severity. Fracture patients were more likely to select surgery compared with third-molar patients. The significance of symptom severity 1-month post-surgery raises an important issue regarding the healing process. Moreover, the significance of standard gamble as a predictor of treatment choice for mandibular fracture should encourage other researchers to use this measure of willingness to accept risk when studying acute conditions such as jaw fracture.

  16. Cephalometric evaluation of surgical mandibular advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Marcantônio Boeck

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Class II adult individuals with mandibular deficiency has been the combination of orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, a study was conducted in which cephalometric analysis was used to evaluate the influence of dentoalveolar decompensation in Class II patients submitted to orthodontic and surgical treatment for mandibular advancement, by bilateral osteotomy of the mandibular ramus. A sample of 15 leukoderma adult female patients were selected and three cephalometric radiographs of each patient, taken before the orthodontic treatment, before surgery and after at least 6 months postoperatively, were analyzed in a total of 45 roentgenograms. The tracings were made by the manual method and the points were digitalized using software. The results showed that values of SNB increased from 75.6 to 78.6°. The measures BNP and PGNP were reduced from -12.7 to -7.7 mm and -12.7 to -6.6 mm, respectively. For ANB there was a reduction of 3.23° (from 8.1° to 4.9°. Likewise, the values of AOBO were diminished by 6.3 mm (from 7.6 to 1.3 mm, and in the values of OJ there was a reduction of 5.7 mm (from 9 to 3.3 mm. It was concluded that the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment promoted minimal and variable dental and skeletal changes in the final result. The surgical treatment caused significant skeletal changes, especially in the measurements related to the mandible (SNB, BNP, PGNP and SNPM or indirectly to it (ANB, AOBO and OJ.

  17. Mandibular unilateral fusion in primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Eregowda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is a developmental anomaly which occurs due to a union of one or more adjacent teeth during morphodifferentiation of the dental germs. The prevalence of tooth fusion is estimated at 0.5%–2.5% in the primary dentition. These anomalies may be unilateral or bilateral and may affect either dentition although the deciduous teeth are more commonly affected. Early diagnosis of such condition is important because it may cause clinical problems, such as esthetic concerns, and caries. This report describes a case of unilateral fusion of the primary mandibular lateral incisor and canine and aims to evaluate any associated pathology.

  18. Osteomielitis mandibular por actinomices: Reporte de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Villalobos, David; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Paniura Rodríguez, Ditel; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,; Huamaní Parra, Jaime; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Barreto Almea, Ana; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.

    2014-01-01

    Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón de 27 años con antecedente de exodoncia compleja de la tercera molar mandibular inferior derecha que presentaba una tumefacción circunscrita dolorosa en la región submandibular ipsilateral. En el estudio imaginológico, la radiografía panorámica presentaba un proceso osteolítico periapical e interradicular con un patrón osteogénico circundante por lo que se utilizó como complemento una tomografía cone beam, en donde se evidenció compromiso desde la rama ...

  19. Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesenna Enrico

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate. Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO. All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%. Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the

  20. Mandibular segmental reconstruction with iliac crest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiechina, A E; Ogunlade, S O; Fasola, A O; Arotiba, J T

    2003-01-01

    Twenty patients consisting of 14 males and 6 females with benign destructive lesions of the mandible were reconstructed using free nonvascularised iliac crest. Harvested bone was contoured and secured with 0.5 mm stainless steel wire and reinforced with maxillo-mandibular fixation. Five patients has hemimandibulectomy with immediate reconstruction. The other 15 patients had 1 to 3 segments of the mandible reconstructed. There was only one failure. Mouth opening and closure were centric except in the patients that had hemimandibulectomy without condylar reconstruction. Mastication and facial appearance were satisfactory. In conclusion, the iliac crest is recommended for reconstruction of hemimandible as well as long contiguous segments of the mandible.

  1. Augmented mandibular bone structurally adapts to functional loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J. W.; Ruijter, J. M.; Koole, R.; de Putter, C.; Terlou, M.; Cune, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term changes in trabecular bone structure during the 10 years following onlay grafting with simultaneous mandibular implant placement were studied. Extraoral radiographs of both mandibular sides in eight patients were taken regularly. Bone structure was analysed using a custom-written image

  2. Mandibular asymmetry in patients with the Crouzon or Apert Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmi, P.; Reitsma, J.H.; Buschang, P.H.; Wolvius, E.B.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe directional and fluctuating mandibular asymmetry over time in children with Crouzon or Apert syndrome. Mandibular asymmetry of children between 7.5 and 14 years of age with Crouzon syndrome (n = 35) and Apert syndrome (n = 24) were compared with controls (n =

  3. Mandibular meslodens with agenesis of central incisors - A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mesiodens is commonly located in maxillary central incisor region and rarely in the mandible. Congenital absence of mandibular central incisor is uncommon. This is a report of a rare association of mandibular mesiodens with congenitally absent permanent central incisors. This is the first case report of such an association.

  4. Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and impacted teeth. Isaac Kipyator Bokindo, Fawzia Butt, Francis Macigo. Abstract. The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology which leads to increased difficulty during its extraction. The root morphology ...

  5. Morphology of the mandibular condyle in a Kenyan population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphology of the mandibular condyle in a Kenyan population. L Wangai, P Mandela, F Butt, K Ongeti. Abstract. Use of condylar prostheses in mandibular reconstructive surgery is increasing in Kenya. To retain functional capability, condylar prostheses have to preserve the form of the condyle. Although condylar shape and ...

  6. Prospective audit of mandibular fractures at the Charlotte Maxeke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This study was a prospective cross-sectional clinical audit of patients with mandibular fractures at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. Methods. Between 1 March and 31 August 2004, patients with mandibular fractures seen by one clinician had their details recorded. Results. The female:male ...

  7. Coronal views of the paediatric mandibular condyle on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article highlights the importance of routinely reviewing the mandibular condyle on computerised tomography brain studies in a trauma setting, that often extends to involve the mandibular condyles in the scan parameters. We discuss 4 cases seen over the last 18 months at our institution, and review the relevant ...

  8. Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular molars instrumented with different single-file nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 distal roots of mandibular molar teeth were randomly assigned into three main ...

  9. Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: Report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, Wael; Panigrahy, Ashok; Bartoletti, Stefano C.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a rare syndrome that includes a constellation of mandibular hypoplasia and posterior rib defects as its basic features. Additional features can include hearing loss, tracheal cartilage abnormalities, scoliosis, elbow hypoplasia, and spina bifida. Here we report two cases of CCMS and discuss the reported long-term outcome of the disease.

  10. Radiographic features of mandibular trabecular bone structure in hypodontia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Créton, M.; Geraets, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Verhey, H.; Cune, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiographic parameters of mandibular trabecular bone structure between 67 subjects having hypodontia and those without were studied on digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Three regions of interest (ROI) were defined: the ascending ramus, apical of the mandibular molar and

  11. Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Wael; Panigrahy, Ashok; Bartoletti, Stefano C

    2011-01-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a rare syndrome that includes a constellation of mandibular hypoplasia and posterior rib defects as its basic features. Additional features can include hearing loss, tracheal cartilage abnormalities, scoliosis, elbow hypoplasia, and spina bifida. Here we report two cases of CCMS and discuss the reported long-term outcome of the disease.

  12. Bonded mandibular posterior bite plane: Fabrication, insertion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bite planes are one of the most commonly used auxiliaries during orthodontic treatment. They can be used in different segments of the maxillary and mandibular arch depending upon the type of malocclusion. The present paper describes the requirements of the bonded mandibular posterior bite plane and its fabrication.

  13. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords like impaction, mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, complications, anatomy, inferior alveolar nerve injury, lingual nerve injury were used to search the databases. A total of 826 articles were screened, and 50 articles were included in the review which was obtained from 1980 to February 2015.

  14. Internal root morphology in mandibular first permanent molars in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the internal root morphology and gender variations in mandibular first permanent molars in a Kenyan population. Design: In vitro descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi Results: The mesial root of mandibular first molars had two canals in 96.3% of ...

  15. [Clinical analysis of caries status of the mandibular second molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chun-an; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Ning; Su, Qin

    2014-04-01

    To collect the cases which have caries on the mandibular second molar and analyze the caries status and correlative factors. Patients treated in the Department of Endodontics in West China Hospital of Stomatology were randomly collected. The baseline information, primary sites and severity of dental caries on the mandibular second molar, and eruption pattern of the mandibular third molar were recorded. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Four hundred eighty-one patients including 227 males and 254 females were collected. Caries on the mandibular second molar starting from the occlusal, distal proximal and buccal surfaces accounted for 33.8%, 33.2% and 24.4%, respectively. Caries involving dental pulp (49.7%) were significantly more than deep and shallow to moderate caries (31.7% and 18.6%). Gender was not correlated with the site and severity of caries. However, impacted mandibular third molars and age were significantly related to both caries site and severity. Occlusal and distal proximal surfaces are the most predisposed sites to have caries on mandibular second molar. Impacted mandibular third molar and age are significantly related to caries of mandibular second molar.

  16. A simple method to locate mandibular foramen: preliminary radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Olivier; Salignon, Vivien; Cheynel, Nicolas; Malka, Gabriel; Trouilloud, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    The position of mandibular foramen is variable at the medial aspect of mandibular ramus. Nevertheless its location is useful for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon in orthognatic surgery, especially in vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO) procedure. The aim of our study is to analyse the position of mandibular foramen in order to provide simple and reliable surgical landmarks. A radio-anatomical study was undertaken on normal mandibular panoramic X-ray examinations. Precise reproductions were outlined on tracing paper. Original orthonormal landmark was designed using posterior border of the ramus, mandibular incisure and anterior border of the ramus. All these elements are visible in the patient in VRO. Measurements of the position of mandibular foramen in horizontal and vertical dimensions were then performed with a ruler by two independent observers: l (width of mandibular branch), x (distance between posterior border of the ramus and mandibular foramen), h (height of mandibular branch) and y (distance between sigmoid notch and mandibular ramus). x/l and y/h ratios were calculated in order to minimise magnifications and image distortions due to the imaging process. Forty-six panoramic X-rays were analysed, including 24 male and 22 female specimens (sex-ratio 1.1/1) with the mean-age 21 years. In vertical dimension, y/h ratio was distributed on a gaussian mode with a peak around 0.30-0.35, mandibular foramen was located around the midpoint of the inferior two-thirds and the superior third of the ramus, preferentially under this point. In horizontal dimension, x/l ratio observed the same model with a peak around 0.35; mandibular foramen was located around the midpoint of the anterior two-thirds and the posterior third of the ramus, preferentially in front of this point. Mandibular foramen was situated in the ventral and inferior two-thirds of the ramus without difference according to the side, sex or age. Posterior and superior thirds of the ramus constitute a "safety

  17. Geometry-based algorithm for the prediction of nonpathologic mandibular movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Jeremy J; Xia, James J; Andersen, Clark R; Gateno, Jaime; Buford, William; Liebschner, Michael A K

    2007-12-01

    The goal of this study was to create a model for human mandibular movement prediction based on the geometry of the mandible. Ten nonpathologic individuals underwent motion tracking and sagittal radiographs. From the data, a mathematical algorithm for mandibular movement prediction was developed based on mandibular geometry. The algorithm was then used to predict the mandibular movement of a cadaver subject. The algorithm was also validated in a living subject by comparing to recorded mandibular movement. Both mandibular movement predictions were free of bone collisions and showed mandibular movement that mimicked the in vivo situation. Comparisons between the predicted and recorded mandibular movements for the living human subject verified that the prediction model was accurate. The mandibular movement can be predicted based on the mandibular opening radius. The model is validated in living human subjects and shows effectiveness in predictions for cadaver models. Mandibular movement prediction may be a useful tool for physicians as well as investigators who focus on temporomandibular joint research.

  18. Mandibular condyle position in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate position of the mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. Cone beam computed tomography of 60 temporomandibular joints was performed on 15 males and 15 females with no history of any temporomandibular disorders, or any other orthodontic or photoconductors treatments. Position of mandibular condyle within articular fossa at centric occlusion was evaluated. A statistical evaluation was done using a SPSS. In the sagittal views, mandibular condyle within articular fossa was laterally located at central section. Mandibular condyles in the right and left sides were showed asymmetric positional relationship at medial, central, and lateral sections. Mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population was observed non-concentric position in the sagittal and coronal views.

  19. Unilateral Aplasia of Mandibular Condyle: A Rare Case Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil G Ghom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplasia of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare when not seen in association with or as a part of any syndrome. The incidence is estimated to be 1 in 5.600 births. Growth disturbances in the development of the mandibular condyle may occur in utero late in the first trimester and may result in disorders, such as aplasia or hypoplasia of the mandibular condyle. We report a case of aplasia of left mandibular condyle along with hypoplasia of right condylar head in a 20-year-old female patent. The patient reported to the clinic with the complaint of proclined upper front teeth, wanting to improve her esthetics. Clinical, conventional radiography and computer tomographic studies revealed the complete absence of condyle on the left and hypoplasia of the head of mandibular condyle on the right side. The etiology was unknown and on the basis of history, clinical study and radiological examination it was suggested to be of developmental origin.

  20. The influence of craniofacial morphology on mandibular border movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoki; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Shiraga, Noriko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Deguchi, Toru; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Although they are widely used as diagnostic signs of temporomandibular disorders, mandibular border movements reflect not only condylar movement, but also other factors. In the present study, the authors investigated the effect of craniofacial morphology on three different mandibular border movements: maximum jaw opening, maximum jaw protrusion, and maximum jaw laterotrusion. One hundred female subjects were selected from outpatients visiting the orthodontic clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The mandibular border movements were measured using an optical recording system in three dimensions as six degrees of freedom. The craniofacial morphology was evaluated using lateral cephalograms. The results suggest that craniofacial morphology had different influences on each mandibular border movement. In particular, during maximum jaw laterotrusion, lower incisor movement strongly reflected condylar movement, and the influence of craniofacial morphology on mandibular border movement was minimal. Therefore, lower incisor movement during maximum jaw laterotrusion appears suitable to evaluate condylar movement.

  1. Prosthodontic management of mandibular deviation using palatal ramp appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmental resection of the mandible generally results in deviation of the mandible to the defective side. This loss of continuity of the mandible destroys the balance of the lower face and leads to decreased mandibular function by deviation of the residual segment toward the surgical site. Prosthetic methods advocated to reduce or eliminate mandibular deviation include intermaxillary fixation, removable mandibular guide flange, palatal ramp, implant-supported prosthesis and palatal guidance restorations which may be useful in reducing mandibular deviation and improving masticatory performance and efficiency. These methods and restorations would be combined with a well organized mandibular exercise regimen. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.

  2. Intermaxillary Fixation Screw Morbidity in Treatment of Mandibular Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florescu, Vlad-Andrei; Kofod, Thomas; Pinholt, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present retrospective study was to investigate the morbidity of screws used for intermaxillary fixation (IMF) in the treatment of mandibular fractures. A review of the published data was also performed for a comparison of outcomes. Our hypothesis was that the use of screws...... for IMF of mandibular fractures would result in minimal morbidity. Materials and Methods Patients treated for mandibular fractures from 2007 to 2013, using screws for IMF, using the international diagnosis code for mandibular fracture, DS026, were anonymously selected (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial...... retrospective study have shown that the use of screws is a valid choice for IMF in mandibular fracture treatment with minimal morbidity. The 793 screws used for IMF resulted in a negligible amount of central and peripheral tooth root trauma. © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons...

  3. Temporo-spatial cell-cycle kinetics in HeLa cells irradiated by Ir-192 high dose-rate remote afterloading system (HDR-RALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, Taito; Kaida, Atsushi; Goto, Tatsuaki; Yoshimura, Ryo-Ichi; Sasai, Keisuke; Miura, Masahiko

    2016-07-29

    Intracavitary irradiation plays a pivotal role in definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer, and the Ir-192 high dose-rate remote afterloading system (HDR-RALS) is often used for this purpose. Under this condition, tumor tissues receive remarkably different absorption doses, with a steep gradient, depending on distance from the radiation source. To obtain temporo-spatial information regarding cell-cycle kinetics in cervical cancer following irradiation by Ir-192 HDR-RALS, we examined HeLa cells expressing the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci), which allowed us to visualize cell-cycle progression. HeLa-Fucci cells, which emit red and green fluorescence in G1 and S/G2/M phases, respectively, were grown on 35-mm dishes and irradiated by Ir-192 HDR-RALS under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. A 6 French (Fr) catheter was used as an applicator. A radiation dose of 6 Gy was prescribed at hypothetical treatment point A, located 20 mm from the radiation source. Changes in Fucci fluorescence after irradiation were visualized for cells from 5 to 20 mm from the Ir-192 source. Several indices, including first green phase duration after irradiation (FGPD), were measured by analysis of time-lapse images. Cells located 5 to 20 mm from the Ir-192 source became green, reflecting arrest in G2, in a similar manner up to 12 h after irradiation; at more distant positions, however, cells were gradually released from the G2 arrest and became red. This could be explained by the observation that the FGPD was longer for cells closer to the radiation source. Detailed observation revealed that FGPD was significantly longer in cells irradiated in the green phase than in the red phase at positions closer to the Ir-192 source. Unexpectedly, the FGPD was significantly longer after irradiation under hypoxia than normoxia, due in large part to the elongation of FGPD in cells irradiated in the red phase. Using HeLa-Fucci cells, we obtained the first temporo

  4. Thin-plate spline analysis of mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    2001-04-01

    The analysis of mandibular growth changes around the pubertal spurt in humans has several important implications for the diagnosis and orthopedic correction of skeletal disharmonies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular shape and size growth changes around the pubertal spurt in a longitudinal sample of subjects with normal occlusion by means of an appropriate morphometric technique (thin-plate spline analysis). Ten mandibular landmarks were identified on lateral cephalograms of 29 subjects at 6 different developmental phases. The 6 phases corresponded to 6 different maturational stages in cervical vertebrae during accelerative and decelerative phases of the pubertal growth curve of the mandible. Differences in shape between average mandibular configurations at the 6 developmental stages were visualized by means of thin-plate spline analysis and subjected to permutation test. Centroid size was used as the measure of the geometric size of each mandibular specimen. Differences in size at the 6 developmental phases were tested statistically. The results of graphical analysis indicated a statistically significant change in mandibular shape only for the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation. Significant increases in centroid size were found at all developmental phases, with evidence of a prepubertal minimum and of a pubertal maximum. The existence of a pubertal peak in human mandibular growth, therefore, is confirmed by thin-plate spline analysis. Significant morphological changes in the mandible during the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation may be described as an upward-forward direction of condylar growth determining an overall "shrinkage" of the mandibular configuration along the measurement of total mandibular length. This biological mechanism is particularly efficient in compensating for major increments in mandibular size at the adolescent spurt.

  5. Rigid internal fixation of infected mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Pushkar; Van Heukelom, Emily; Cottrell, David A

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcomes of rigid internal fixation for the management of infected mandible fractures. A retrospective chart review of infected mandible fractures managed by a single oral and maxillofacial surgeon at a level I trauma center during a 7-year period was accomplished by independent examiners. All patients were treated with incision and drainage, culture and sensitivity testing, extraction of nonsalvageable teeth, placement of maxillomandibular fixation when possible, fracture reduction with bone debridement and decortication, rigid internal fixation of the mandible by an extraoral approach, and antibiotic therapy. The medical and social history was contributory in most patients. The analysis was stratified by the differentiation of the fractures into 2 groups: those with soft tissue infections in the fracture region versus those with hard tissue-infected fractures (biopsy-proven osteomyelitis). A total of 44 patients were included in this study, with an average follow-up of 18.2 months from the date of surgery (range 3 to 48). The treatment protocol was successful in all 18 patients (100%) with soft tissue infected mandibular fractures and 24 (92%) of 26 patients with hard tissue-infected fractures. A protocol consisting of concomitant incision and drainage, mandibular debridement, fracture reduction, and stabilization with rigid internal fixation can be effectively used for single-stage management of infected mandible fractures.

  6. Canine Trichomonas tenax mandibular gland infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Łojszczyk-Szczepaniak, Anna; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Lisiak, Barbara; Abd-Al-Hammza Abbass, Zahrai

    2016-02-18

    Several species of trichomonads are intestinal or urogenital parasites of humans and animals, with only a few species typically being located in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral trichomoniasis in dogs is approximately 15-25 %, although the prevalence varies among different populations and depends on age, sex and the health of the oral cavity. A case of mandibular gland infestation by trichomonads in a 13-year-old female Dachshund with advanced periodontal disease and oral trichomoniasis is reported. The dog was referred due to a history of a painless swelling over the left submandibular region that increased in size over time. Based on physical and ultrasound examinations, a final diagnosis of mandibular gland cyst was established and transcutaneous needle aspiration was carried out. Numerous mobile trophozoites of trichomonads were found by microscopy and culturing for trichomonas was performed. The species was finally characterized as Trichomonas tenax by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Studies have shown that T. tenax can be found in humans in atypical locations such as the salivary glands and upper and lower respiratory tracts. According to our knowledge this is the first report of T. tenax being present in the salivary glands of a dog. Because of the relatively high prevalence of trichomoniasis in dogs with periodontal diseases, these parasites should be considered together with bacterial and viral agents in salivary gland infections, especially in individuals with compromised oral health.

  7. In Vivo Bioreactors for Mandibular Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, A.M.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Large mandibular defects are difficult to reconstruct with good functional and aesthetic outcomes because of the complex geometry of craniofacial bone. While the current gold standard is free tissue flap transfer, this treatment is limited in fidelity by the shape of the harvested tissue and can result in significant donor site morbidity. To address these problems, in vivo bioreactors have been explored as an approach to generate autologous prefabricated tissue flaps. These bioreactors are implanted in an ectopic site in the body, where ossified tissue grows into the bioreactor in predefined geometries and local vessels are recruited to vascularize the developing construct. The prefabricated flap can then be harvested with vessels and transferred to a mandibular defect for optimal reconstruction. The objective of this review article is to introduce the concept of the in vivo bioreactor, describe important preclinical models in the field, summarize the human cases that have been reported through this strategy, and offer future directions for this exciting approach. PMID:25139360

  8. Mandibular appliance modulates condylar growth through integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M Rubia; Hajjar, D; Franchini, K Gomes; Moriscot, A Sigari; Santos, M Fagundes

    2008-02-01

    Functional orthopedic therapy corrects growth discrepancies between the maxilla and mandible, possibly through postural changes in the musculature and modulation of the mandibular condylar cartilage growth. Using Wistar rats, we tested the hypothesis that chondrocytes respond to forces generated by a mandibular propulsor appliance by changes in gene expression, and that integrins are important mediators in this response. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the use of the appliance for different periods of time modulated the expression of fibronectin, alpha5 and alphav integrin subunits, as well as cell proliferation in the cartilage. In vitro, cyclic distension of condylar cartilage-derived cells increased fibronectin mRNA, as well as Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and II mRNA and cell proliferation. A peptide containing the Arginine-Glycine-Asparagine sequence (RGD), the main cell-binding sequence in fibronectin, blocked almost all these effects, confirming that force itself modulates the growth of the rat condylar cartilage, and that RGD-binding integrins participate in mechanotransduction.

  9. Pyogenic granuloma associated with mandibular odontoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ocampo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: pyogenic granuloma is a kind of inflammatory hyperplasia of multifactorial origin, which is usually related to trauma or constant irritation, drug use, hormonal factors, among others. Meanwhile the odontoma is a benign tumor odontogenic composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cells, their development is usually associated with trauma, infections, inherited disorders or hyperactivity odontoblast. Objectives: The objective is to present the clinical case of a patient that presented a case of pyogenic granuloma related to the presence of a mandibular odontoma, and therapeutic management and postoperative results. Case report: The case shows a female patient of 32 years old with a history of multinodular goiter and hypothyroidism, developing a mandibular odontoma of the left side associated with pyogenic granuloma in the same area, which was treated with surgical excision and reconstructed affected tissues with lyophilized bone and collagen membrane. Favorable outcome after surgery without evidence of recurrence, with proper osseointegration of alloplastic materials and soft tissues. Conclusions: The irritant effect of the presence of a tumor (odontoma in developing confirmed pyogenic granuloma.

  10. [Higher Brain Dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    The technical term "higher brain dysfunction" is used widely in Japan. However, it is not always clear what "higher" means. The author thinks that the term "higher" is understood as being associated with a meaning. In this article, the differences between higher brain dysfunctions and elementary brain dysfunctions are discussed from the point of view of lesion localization and the consistency of symptoms. The psychiatric approach is indispensable for the assessment of higher brain dysfunction. A simple test for mild Alzheimer-type dementia is also introduced.

  11. Temporo-parietal and fronto-parietal lobe contributions to theory of mind and executive control: an fMRI study of verbal jokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen; Lavallee, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Getting a joke’ always requires resolving an apparent incongruity, but the particular cognitive operations called upon vary depending on the nature of the joke itself. Previous research has identified the primary neural correlates of the cognitive and affective processes called upon to respond to humor generally, but little work has been done on the substrates underlying the distinct cognitive operations required to comprehend particular joke types. This study explored the neural correlates of the cognitive processes required to successfully comprehend three joke types: bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs). For all joke types, the left dlPFC appeared to support common cognitive mechanisms, such as script-shifting, while the vACC was associated with affective appreciation. The temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ and MTG) was associated with BJs, suggesting involvement of these regions with ‘theory of mind’ processing. The fronto-parietal lobe (IPL and IFG) was associated with both EJs and AJs, suggesting that it supports executive control processes such as retrieval from episodic memory, self-awareness, and language-based decoding. The social-affective appreciation of verbal jokes was associated with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and parahippocampal gyrus. These results allow a more precise account of the neural processes required to support the particular cognitive operations required for the understanding of different types of humor. PMID:26388803

  12. Temporo-insular enhancement of EEG low and high frequencies in patients with chronic tinnitus. QEEG study of chronic tinnitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisz Nathan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiopathological mechanism underlying the tinnitus phenomenon is still the subject of an ongoing debate. Since oscillatory EEG activity is increasingly recognized as a fundamental hallmark of cortical integrative functions, this study investigates deviations from the norm of different resting EEG parameters in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Results Spectral parameters of resting EEG of male tinnitus patients (n = 8, mean age 54 years were compared to those of age-matched healthy males (n = 15, mean age 58.8 years. On average, the patient group exhibited higher spectral power over the frequency range of 2-100 Hz. Using LORETA source analysis, the generators of delta, theta, alpha and beta power increases were localized dominantly to left auditory (Brodmann Areas (BA 41,42, 22, temporo-parietal, insular posterior, cingulate anterior and parahippocampal cortical areas. Conclusions Tinnitus patients show a deviation from the norm of different resting EEG parameters, characterized by an overproduction of resting state delta, theta and beta brain activities, providing further support for the microphysiological and magnetoencephalographic evidence pointing to a thalamocortical dysrhythmic process at the source of tinnitus. These results also provide further confirmation that reciprocal involvements of both auditory and associative/paralimbic areas are essential in the generation of tinnitus.

  13. Cathodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on the right Temporo-Parietal Junction modulates the use of mitigating circumstances during moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Leloup

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a few transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS studies have shown that the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ plays a causal role in moral reasoning especially in cases of accidental harms or failed attempted harms. The profile of results across studies is however not entirely consistent: sometimes the stimulation affects predominantly failed attempted harms while sometimes the stimulation affects predominantly accidental harms. We argue that such discrepancy could reflect different functional contributions of the rTPJ in moral judgments and that the chosen design parameters or stimulation method may differentially bring to light one or the other functional role of the rTPJ. In the current study, we found that tDCS specifically affected accidental harms but not failed attempted harms. Low cathodal stimulation of the rTPJ led to a marginally significant increase in the severity of judgments of accidental harms (Experiment 1 while higher cathodal current intensity led to a highly significant decrease in the severity of judgments of accidental harms (Experiment 2. Our pattern of results in the context of our experimental design can best be explained by a causal role of the rTPJ in processing the mitigating circumstances which reduce a protagonist’s moral responsibility. We discuss these results in relation to the idea that the rTPJ may play multiple roles in moral cognition and in relation to methodological aspects related to the use of tDCS.

  14. Using tDCS to Explore the Role of the Right Temporo-Parietal Junction in Theory of Mind and Cognitive Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin eMai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ is thought to be closely related to theory of mind (ToM and cognitive empathy. In the present study, we investigated whether these socio-cognitive abilities could be modulated with noninvasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the rTPJ. Participants received anodal (excitatory, cathodal (inhibitory, or sham stimulation before performing a social cognitive task which included inferring other’s intention (the ToM condition and inferring other’s emotion (the cognitive empathy condition. Our results showed that the accuracy of both ToM and cognitive empathy decreased after receiving the cathodal stimulation, suggesting that altering the cortical excitability in the rTPJ could influence human’s socio-cognitive abilities. The results of this study emphasize the critical role of the rTPJ in ToM and cognitive empathy and demonstrate that these socio-cognitive abilities could be modulated by the tDCS.

  15. EEG UPPER/LOW ALPHA FREQUENCY POWER RATIO RELATES TO TEMPORO-PARIETAL BRAIN ATROPHY AND MEMORY PERFORMANCES IN MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Vito Moretti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: temporo-parietal cortex thinning is associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI due to Alzheimer disease (AD. The increase of EEG upper/low alpha power ratio has been associated with AD-converter MCI subjects. We investigated the association of alpha3/alpha2 ratio with patterns of cortical thickness in MCI.Methods: 74 adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of upper/low alpha power ratio . Difference of cortical thikness among the groups was estimated. Pearson’s r was used to assess the topography of the correlation between cortical thinning and memory impairment.Results: High upper/low alpha power ratio group had total cortical grey matter (CGM volume reduction of 471 mm2 than low upper/low alpha power ratio group (p

  16. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildana Džemidžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. Materials and methods. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years. The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI, as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Results. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. Conclusions. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase.

  17. Prevalence and pattern of mandibular fracture in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Dhananjay; Mudhol, Anupama; Madan, Ramnik

    2014-01-01

    The etiology and pattern of mandibular fracture vary considerably among different study populations. Despite many reports about the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of mandibular fracture there is limited knowledge about the specific type or pattern of mandibular fractures in South Asian countries. This study attempts to delineate predictable patterns of fracture based on patient demographics and mechanism of injury in central part of India. The medical records of patients with mandibular fractures treated over a 3 years period were identified and analyzed based on age, sex, mechanism of trauma, seasonal variation, drug/alcohol abuse, number and anatomic location. We reviewed 464 patients having mandibular fractures with age ranging from 7 to 89 years. Male (343, 79%) to female (91, 21%) ratio was 3.7:1, significantly higher for males. The highest incidence (37.5%) of mandibular fractures was in the age group of 21-30 years. The main cause was road traffic accidents (RTAs, 68.8%) followed by falls (16.8%), assaults (11%) and other reasons (3.8%). Parasymphyseal fractures were the most frequent 331 (41.1%), followed by condyle (135) and angle (124) fractures in occurrence. Mandibular angle fractures were found mostly to be associated with assault victims. The mechanism of injury correlates significantly with the anatomic location of fracture and knowledge of these associations should guide the surgeons for appropriate and timely management. Because RTAs are most frequent, good traffic sense needs to be imbibed and developed by the government as well as the public.

  18. The research of mandibular foramen in panorex X-ray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mohammad Reza

    2010-11-01

    In the present investigation position of mandibular foramen of the mandible in relation to other landmarks were studied. Panoramic x-ray of 103 females and 94 males who come to above mentioned clinic selected by available sampling. All samples were Iranian with the age above 18 years old. X-ray machine and method were same for all samples. Special landmarks in right side of mandible were identified and their distance from mandibular foramen were recorded by millimetric ruler. The measured landmarks were as follow: Mandibular angle, Coronoid process, Mandibular notch, Head of mandible, Posterior border of ramus of mandible, Anterior border of the ramus, External oblique line, Mylohyoid line, Occlusal plane: mandibular angle were measured by protractor. Results between male and female were compared by Mann Whitney U test. The average of both sexes ages were 34.7 years. Difference between distance of mandibular foramen from following landmarks between male and females were significant: (1) Mandibular angle, (2) Head of mandible, (3) Posterior border of ramus, (4) Mylohyoid and (5) Occlusal plane. Present investigation revealed position variation of M.F. in relation to other landmarks and differences between male and female, we suggest kind of investigation individual under 18 years old.

  19. Mandibular canine dimensions as an aid in gender estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarathnam, Basetty Neelakantam; David, Maria Priscilla; Indira, Annamalai Ponnuswamy

    2016-01-01

    All humans have an identity in life; compassionate societies require this identity to be recognized even after death. To measure the dimensions of the mandibular canine and assess the usefulness of the mandibular canine as an aid in gender estimation. The study population comprised 200 subjects inclusive of 100 males and 100 females with an age range of 18-25 years. Measurements made in mm at the contact point were of mesiodistal width of the right and left canines and intercanine distance both intraorally and on casts, and the mandibular canine index (MCI) was calculated. The obtained data were subjected to t-test/Mann-Whitney test and discriminant function analysis. All parameters of mandibular canines, namely, intercanine distance, canine width, and canine index were greater in males compared to females suggesting significant sexual dimorphism of mandibular canines. On subjecting the data to discriminant function analysis, it classified sex correctly in 73% of the samples. The result of our study establishes the existence of significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines. We can therefore, recommend the use of mandibular canine dimensions as an applicable and additional method for gender determination in human identification.

  20. Radiologic study of mandibular third molar of Korean youths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-11-15

    The author has made a study on the classification of the mandibular 3rd molars of Korean youths through dental radiography by means of Pell and Gregory's classification and on the prevalence of the dental caries of distal surface of the mandibular 2nd molar adjacent to the mandibular 3rd molars turned anteriorly. The results are as follow; 1. It was found that the largest case number was class I (272 cases, 52.9%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar. 2. The mesio-angular position was the largest number (239 cases, 46.5%) in the relation of the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd molar to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 3. The mesio-angular position of class I was the largest number (140 cases, 27.2%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar and the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd moral to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 4. The average angle of the long axis of mandibular 3rd molar in mesioangular position or horizontal position to the occlusal plane was 143 W 5. Mandibular 3rd molar with lesion such as dental cries or pericoronitis was 73 cases (14.2). 6. The caries incidence rate of the distal surface of the 2nd molar was about 3.1%.

  1. Complications and Reoperations in Mandibular Angle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Collin L; Zenga, Joseph; Patel, Ruchin; Branham, Gregory

    2018-01-04

    Mandible angle fractures can be repaired in a variety of ways, with no consensus on the outcomes of complications and reoperation rates. To analyze patient, injury, and surgical factors, including approach to the angle and plating technique, associated with postoperative complications, as well as the rate of reoperation with regard to mandible angle fractures. Retrospective cohort study analyzing the surgical outcomes of patients with mandible angle fractures between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, who underwent open reduction and internal fixation. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, had 3 or less mandible fractures with 1 involving the mandibular angle, and had adequate follow-up data. Patients with comminuted angle fractures, bilateral angle fractures, and multiple surgical approaches were excluded. A total of 135 patients were included in the study. All procedures were conducted at a single, large academic hospital located in an urban setting. Major complications and reoperation rates. Major complications included in this study were nonunion, malunion, severe malocclusion, severe infection, and exposed hardware. Of 135 patients 113 (83.7%) were men; median age was 29 years (range, 18-82 years). Eighty-seven patients (64.4%) underwent the transcervical approach and 48 patients (35.6%) received the transoral approach. Fifteen (17.2%) patients in the transcervical group and 9 (18.8%) patients in the transoral group experienced major complications (difference, 1%; 95% CI, -8% to 10%). Thirteen (14.9%) patients in the transcervical group and 8 (16.7%) patients in the transoral group underwent reoperations (difference, 2%; 95% CI, -13% to 17%). Active smoking had a significant effect on the rate of major complications (odds ratio, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.07 to 15.34; P = .04). During repair of noncomminuted mandibular angle fractures, both of the commonly used approaches-transcervical and transoral-can be used during treatment with equal

  2. Surgical approach to impacted mandibular third molars--operative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-El Naaj, Imad; Braun, Refael; Leiser, Yoav; Peled, Micha

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to suggest a convenient way to classify the position of the impacted third mandibular molar relative to the mandibular canal and to suggest indications for the use of each surgical approach for mandibular third molar extraction. The presented new typing system, Third Molar Classification (TMC), is a simple and easy-to-apply method for the surgical management of mandibular third molars and can be extended for any ectopic or impacted mandibular tooth. There are 3 major types of third molar positions. The second type is subdivided further into 2 subtypes. In the present study, 9 patients with high-risk mandibular third molars were treated according to the present classification and are presented and discussed. Patients typed as TMC IIb were treated with a sagittal split osteotomy approach and patients typed as TMC III were treated with an extraoral approach. The operative classification was successfully implemented in very rare cases of deeply impacted mandibular third molars. In 3 of 9 cases (33%) minor complications included some degree of hypoesthesia using the extraoral approach; these complications resolved spontaneously without the need for any intervention. The present study describes the use of a new surgical classification system for treatment planning in all types of mandibular third molar extractions. We believe that the present classification could help the oral and maxillofacial surgeon in decision-making and limit the possible risks that are present when attempting to extract impacted mandibular third molars. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mandibular movement and frontal craniofacial morphology in orthognathic surgery patients with mandibular deviation and protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Y; Yamada, K; Fukui, T; Hanada, K; Kohno, S

    2003-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mandibular movement (lateral excursion and masticatory movements) and craniofacial morphology in 16 patients with mandibular deviation, using a six degrees-of-freedom measuring device. (i) Mandibular deviation was found to be significantly related to frontal maxillary and occlusal plane angles. (ii) Three-dimensional non-working condylar and incisal path lengths were longer during the lateral excursion to the non-deviated side than to the deviated side, and the incisal path moved antero-inferior. (iii) The lateral motion range of the incisal path was wider during masticatory movement on the non-deviated side than on the deviated side, and the molar and non-working condylar path lengths corresponding to the lateral range of the incisal path were also longer on the non-deviated side. The group with posterior crossbite showed a significantly smaller horizontal range of incisal path, and also significantly smaller frontal projected incisal and molar path angles during masticatory movement on the deviated side than on the non-deviated side. These results suggest that lateral excursion and masticatory movements could be related to craniofacial morphology and posterior crossbite.

  4. Material Properties of the Mandibular Trabecular Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Lakatos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a numerical simulation aided, experimental method for the measurement of Young’s modulus of the trabecular substance in the human mandible. Compression tests were performed on fresh cadaveric samples containing trabecular bone covered with cortical layer, thus avoiding the destruction caused by the sterilization, preservation, and storage and the underestimation of the stiffness resulting from the individual failure of the trabeculae cut on the surfaces. The elastic modulus of the spongiosa was determined by the numerical simulation of each compression test using a specimen specific finite element model of each sample. The received mandibular trabecular bone Young’s modulus values ranged from 6.9 to 199.5 MPa.

  5. Ceramic onlay for endodontically treated mandibular molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopadevi Garlapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is important for the success of endodontic treatment. In full coverage restorations, maximum amount of tooth structure is compromised, so as to conserve the amount of tooth structure partial coverage restorations, can be preferred. This case report is on fabrication of a conservative tooth colored restoration for an endodontically treated posterior tooth. A 22-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular left first molar. After endodontic treatment, composite material was used as postendodontic restoration. The tooth was then prepared to receive a ceramic onlay and bonded with self-adhesive universal resin cement. Ceramic onlay restoration was periodically examined up to 2 years.

  6. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  7. [Occlusion, mandibular position and orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ding; Han, Xianglong

    2013-08-01

    One of the ultimate goals for orthodontic treatment is to establish an esthetic, healthy, stable and efficient occlusion. Currently, however, most of the criteria are limited to static occlusion, with little attention to dynamic occlusion. During the therapy, the orthodontists may sometimes find the maximum intercuspation (MI) is remarkably inconsistent with the centric relation (CR), or the mandibular positions are different before and after the therapy. These definitely will influence the stability of the treatment, or even the health of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and stomatognathic system. The functional occlusion theory emphasizes that the displacement of TMJ in the glenoid fossa is the reason for the inharmony between MI and CR, and the relapse. What is more, this theory also gives the orthodontists the ways to evaluate the relationships among the MI, CR and TMJ. In this paper, we will introduce the contents and methods of the functional occlusion theory.

  8. Dynamic relationships of the mandibular anterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Hnat, W P

    1997-05-01

    The hyperbolic cosine function is shown to be an accurate representation of the form of the mandibular anterior teeth from the canine/first premolar contact on one side around the perimeter to the opposite side (r = 0.951). On the basis of this mathematical function, the changes in canine width, anterior segment depth, arch perimeter, and their related incisor angular alterations are forecastable. This knowledge will allow the clinician to predict the effects on various aspects of the anterior segment arch form as one or more of these variables are altered without resorting to trial and error or performing a wax-up. For example, the clinician can predict the change in the anterior segment arch depth and incisor angulation that would occur with alterations in canine width.

  9. Effects of bodily retraction of mandibular incisors versus mandibular setback surgery on pharyngeal airway space: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Byeong-Tak; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Baik, Hyoung-Seon; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the changes induced in the pharyngeal airway space by orthodontic treatment with bodily retraction of the mandibular incisors and mandibular setback surgery without extraction. This retrospective study included 63 adult patients (32 men and 31 women). Thirty-three patients who had been treated via four-bicuspid extraction and bodily retraction of the mandibular incisors (incisor retraction, IR group) were compared with 30 patients who had been treated via mandibular setback surgery (MS group) without extraction. Lateral cephalograms were acquired and analyzed before (T1) and after treatment (T2). The superior pharyngeal airway space did not change significantly in either group during treatment. The middle pharyngeal airway space decreased by 1.15 ± 1.17 mm and 1.25 ± 1.35 mm after treatment in the IR and MS groups, respectively, and the decrease was comparable between the two groups. In the MS group, the inferior pharyngeal airway space (E-IPW) decreased by 0.88 ± 1.67 mm after treatment (p space and the skeletal and dental variables in each group. The middle pharyngeal airway space decreased because of the posterior displacement of the mandibular incisors and/or the mandibular body. The E-IPW decreased only in the MS group because of the posterior displacement of only the mandibular body.

  10. Mandibular asymmetry: a three-dimensional quantification of bilateral condyles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Han; Zhu, Ping; Lin, Yi; Wan, Shuangquan; Shu, Xin; Xu, Yue; Zheng, Youhua

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) quantification of bilateral asymmetrical condyles was firstly conducted to identify the specific role of 3-D condylar configuration for mandibular asymmetry...

  11. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Combined ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  12. Reliability of Panoramic Radiographs in the Localization of Mandibular Foramen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of panoramic radiographs in the localization of mandibular foramen. Materials and Methods Twenty five Indian dry human adult mandibles constituted the study material. Ten measurements were carried on each of them to evaluate the location of mandibular foramen with respect to adjacent anatomic landmarks. Panoramic radiographs were then made of the mandibles. Same distances were measured on the traced images of the radiographs. Paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were applied to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of panoramic radiographs in localization of mandibular foramen. Results The mean distances measured on dry mandibles and panoramic radiographs showed statistically significant difference (ppositive correlation between the measurements on dry mandible and panoramic radiographs. Conclusion The panoramic radiographs can serve as a guide in locating the anterosuperior point of mandibular foramen on panoramic radiographs. PMID:26155559

  13. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at the dental centre, University of Benin teaching hospital.

  14. Microvascular free flaps for mandibular reconstruction in Goldenhar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Cornelia Katharina; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Although Goldenhar syndrome is a relatively common craniofacial malformation, there is some debate regarding the ideal treatment of severe mandibular hypoplasia. Traditionally, patients with severe mandibular deficits have been treated with iliac or costochondral bone grafts followed by distraction osteogenesis, with mixed results. The authors present their experience with the use of the osteocutaneous fibula and scapula free flap for mandibular reconstruction in patients with severe mandibular hypoplasia. The cases of 4 patients who underwent free-flap reconstruction of a severely hypoplastic mandible due to Goldenhar syndrome are presented. Microvascular reconstruction of the severely hypoplastic mandible is possible with the osteocutaneous scapula and the fibula flap. Minimal donor-site morbidity is elicited. Furthermore, the vertical relationship can be restored adequately, and breathing is facilitated. The microvascular fibula and scapula flap are a viable option for reconstruction of the severely hypoplastic mandible in patients with Goldenhar syndrome.

  15. Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabbati Ravi kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous transplantation is a feasible, fast, and economical option for the treatment of nonsalvageable teeth when a suitable donor tooth is available. This paper presents successful autotransplantation of a mature mandibular left third molar (38 without anatomical variances is used to replace a mandibular left second molar (37. The mandibular second molar was nonrestorable due to extensive root caries and resorption of distal root. After extraction of mandibular second and third molars, root canal therapy was done for the third molar extraorally, and the tooth was reimplanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. After one year, clinical and radiographic examination revealed satisfactory outcome with no signs or symptoms suggestive of pathology. In selected cases, autogenous tooth transplantation, even after complete root formation of the donor tooth, may be considered as a practical treatment alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation or implant treatment.

  16. Accuracy of Mandibular Rami Measurements in Prediction of Sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related dimorphism is evident in rami of mandibles indicating its potential usage in mass disasters and otherwise in prediction of sex in individuals with disputed identity. Keywords: Mandibular ramus, Digital Orthopantomographs (OPGs), Prediction ...

  17. Prediction of postoperative pain after mandibular third molar surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudin, Asa; Eriksson, Lars; Liedholm, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive potential of preoperative psychological and psychophysiological variables in estimating severity of postoperative pain following mandibular third molar surgery (MTMS). Methods: Following ethical committee approval and informed consent, 40 consecutive patients scheduled...

  18. Development of a Mandibular Motion Simulator for Total Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Nukhet; Rohner, E. Carlos; Gateno, Jaime; Noble, Philip C.; Ismaily, Sabir K.; Teichgraeber, John F.; Xia, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a motion simulator capable of recreating and recording the full range of mandibular motions in a cadaveric preparation for an intact temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and after total joint replacement. Material and Methods A human cadaver head was used. Two sets of tracking balls were attached to the forehead and mandible, respectively. Computed tomographic (CT) scan was performed and 3-dimensional CT models of the skull were generated. The cadaver head was then dissected to attach the muscle activation cables and mounted onto the TMJ simulator. Realistic jaw motions were generated through the application of the following muscle forces: lateral pterygoid muscle, suprahyoid depressors (geniohyoid, mylohyoid, and digastric muscles), and elevator muscles. To simulate muscle contraction, cables were inserted into the mandible at the center area of each muscle's attachment. To provide a minimum mouth closing force at the initial position, the elevator muscles were combined at the anterior mandible. During mandibular movement, each motion was recorded using a high-resolution laser scanner. The right TMJ of the same head was reconstructed with a total TMJ prosthesis. The same forces were applied and the jaw motions were recorded again. CT scan was performed and 3-dimensional CT models of the skull with TMJ prosthesis were generated. Results Mandibular motions, before and after TMJ replacement, with and without lateral pterygoid muscle reattachment, were re-created in a cadaveric preparation. The laser-scanned data during the mandibular motion were used to drive 3-dimensional CT models. A movie for each mandibular motion was subsequently created for motion path analysis. Compared with mandibular motion before TMJ replacement, mandibular lateral and protrusive motions after TMJ replacement, with and without lateral pterygoid muscle reattachment, were greatly limited. The jaw motion recorded before total joint replacement was

  19. Lingual foramina on the mandibular midline revisited: A macroanatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xin; JACOBS, Romain; Lambrichts, Ivo; Vandewalle, Giovani

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence, size, location, course, and content of the foramina and bony canals located on the lingual side of the mandibular midline. Fifty dry human mandibles were morphometrically analyzed by measuring the distances of these midline foramina from the mandibular base and the dimensions of these foramina and their bony canals. In addition, macro- and microanatomical dissection was performed on 12 intact cadaver mandibles. The macroanatomic...

  20. Unusal canal configuration in maxillary and mandibular second molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Ragunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical article describes three different case reports of maxillary and mandibular second molars with the unusual anatomy of single root with a single canal and their endodontic management. An unusual case of bilateralism is observed in the first two cases in the form of single-rooted second mandibular molars in both the quadrant of the same patient. The presence of maxillary second molar with single root and single canal in the third case is unusual.

  1. Mandibular condylar hyperplasia: diagnosis and management. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Isabel; Fonseca, Júlio; Vinagre, Alexandra; Ângelo,David; Sanz, David; Grossmann, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mandibular condylar hyperplasia is a disease where excessive growth of mandibular condyle, ramus and body elicits facial asymmetry. Its therapeutic management is not a consensus and, due to its complexity, is a challenge for maxillofacial surgeons and orthodontists. This study aimed at discussing clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the management of this disease, and at explaining the role of condylectomy. CASE REPORT: Female patient, 19 years...

  2. Effect of hyposalivation on mastication and mandibular movements during speech

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Simone Guimarães Farias; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with hyposalivation present damaged mastication or mandibular movements during speech. Forty subjects composed 2 groups: control and hyposalivation. Masticatory performance was assessed with a silicon-based artificial material and a 10-sieve method. Mandibular movements during speech were observed with a 3D jaw-tracking device. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney method (P < 0.05). The masticatory performance (mm)...

  3. Tongue and lateral upper airway movement with mandibular advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth C; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C; Bilston, Lynne E

    2013-03-01

    To characterize tongue and lateral upper airway movement and to image tongue deformation during mandibular advancement. Dynamic imaging study of a wide range of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI) subjects. Not-for-profit research institute. 30 subjects (aged 31-69 y, AHI 0-75 events/h, BMI 17-39 kg/m(2)). Subjects were imaged using dynamic tagged magnetic resonance imaging during mandibular advancement. Tissue displacements were quantified with the harmonic phase technique. Mean mandibular advancement was 5.6 ± 1.8 mm (mean ± standard deviation). This produced movement through a connection from the ramus of the mandible to the pharyngeal lateral walls in all subjects. In the sagittal plane, 3 patterns of posterior tongue deformation were seen with mandibular advancement-(A) en bloc anterior movement, (B) anterior movement of the oropharyngeal region, and (C) minimal anterior movement. Subjects with lower AHI were more likely to have en bloc movement (P = 0.04) than minimal movement. Antero-posterior elongation of the tongue increased with AHI (R = 0.461, P = 0.01). Mean anterior displacements of the posterior nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal regions of the tongue were 20% ± 13% and 31% ± 17% of mandibular advancement. The posterior tongue compressed 1.1 ± 2.2 mm supero-inferiorly. Mandibular advancement has two mechanisms of action which increase airway size. In subjects with low AHI, the entire tongue moves forward. Mandibular advancement also produces lateral airway expansion via a direct connection between the lateral walls and the ramus of the mandible. Brown EC; Cheng S; McKenzie DK; Butler JE; Gandevia SC; Bilston LE. Tongue and lateral upper airway movement with mandibular advancement. SLEEP 2013;36(3):397-404.

  4. Split-Framework in Mandibular Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Omar Mendoza Marin; Kássia de Carvalho Dias; André Gustavo Paleari; Ana Carolina Pero; João Neudenir Arioli Filho; Marco Antonio Compagnoni

    2015-01-01

    During oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with an implant-supported prosthesis, mandibular flexure must be considered an important biomechanical factor when planning the metal framework design, especially if implants are installed posterior to the interforaminal region. When an edentulous mandible is restored with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis connected by a fixed full-arch framework, mandibular flexure may cause needless stress in the overall restorative system and lead to s...

  5. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Afkhami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography.Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured.Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm.Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions.

  6. Mandibular Ramus Fracture: An Overview of Rare Anatomical Subsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anendd Jadhav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present study aims at exemplifying the incidence, and aetiology and analyses the outcomes of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF over closed treatment of mandibular ramus fractures. Patients and Method. In the present retrospective analysis of mandibular fracture patients, variables analysed were age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF, and posttreatment occlusion. Results. Out of 388 mandibular fractures treated, ramus fractures were 12 (3.09%. In the present study, predominant cause of mandibular ramus fracture was road traffic accident (RTA n = 07 (58.33% followed by fall n = 04 (33.33% and assault n = 1 (8.33%. The average age was 35.9 years with a male predilection. Of these, 9 patients were treated with ORIF while remaining 3 with closed treatment. The average MMF after closed treatment was 21 days and 3 to 5 days after ORIF. There was improvement in occlusion in all 12 patients posttreatment with no major complication except for reduced mouth opening in cases treated with ORIF which recovered with physiotherapy and muscle relaxants. Conclusion. Mandibular ramus fractures accounted for 3.09% with RTA as a common aetiology. ORIF of ramus fractures facilitated adequate functional and anatomic reduction with early return of function.

  7. LOCALIZATION OF THE MANDIBULAR FORAMEN ON THE PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Asma Saher; Ahmed, Imtiaz

    2015-01-01

    The mandibular foramen is of particular importance to the dentist and dental specialist as it marks the beginning of the mandibular canal, which transmits inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The aim of this study was the localization of anteroposterior and superioinferior position of the mandibular foramen on the panoramic radiographs in adolescent and young adult in a selected sample of Pakistani population. This cross Sectional study was conducted in the Orthodontic department of Dr Ishrat ul ebad khan institute of oral health science, Dow University Karachi. Material comprised 150 panoramic radiographs. The radiographs were traced on a cellophane sheet. Landmarks were marked and measurements from the centre of the mandibular foramen to other landmarks were recorded. All measurements were recorded to the nearest millimetre. The mandibular foramen occupies the posterior portion of middle third on antero-posterior width of mandible. A ratio between the sides of one or almost one indicated bilateral symmetry. The locations of the mandibular foramen occupy the middle third of ramus maintains bilateral symmetry in human mandibles.

  8. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Farzaneh; Haraji, Afshin; Boostani, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured. Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm. Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions. PMID:24910651

  9. Relationship between neck disability and mandibular range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Amanda Carine; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Souza Costa, Ana Cláudia; dos Santos Berni, Kelly Cristina; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2014-01-01

    There is a close interaction between the mandibular and cervical systems due to the existing neurological and biomechanical communications. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between neck disability and mandibular range of motion (ROM). Fifty-two women aged between 18 and 40 years were recruited and allocated to four groups using two outcome measures: the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD): Group I (n=13), healthy volunteers; Group II (n=13), volunteers with TMD and neck disability; Group III (n=13), volunteers with TMD and without neck disability; and Group IV (n=13), volunteers with neck disability and without TMD. Mandibular ROM was evaluated as part of the RDC/TMD clinical examination. Statistical analysis involved one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test for comparisons between groups. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to determined correlations among the variables. Significant differences were found in the mandibular ROM of functional opening in the comparisons between Groups I and III (p=0.009) and between Groups III and IV (p=0.024). No significant association was found between mandibular ROM and the NDI score (p > 0.05). Based on the methodology employed, there is no association between mandibular ROM and neck disability in university women. In this sense, clinical interventions focusing on the flexibility of the temporomandibular joint does not have repercussions on the neck disability and vice versa.

  10. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  12. Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiese, Signe Skovgaard; Halgreen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Development of esophageal varices, ascites, and hepatic nephropathy is among the major complications of cirrhosis. The presence of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, which includes a left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD), seems to deteriorate the course of the disease and the prognosis. Increased...

  13. Cirugía de torus mandibular

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    Manuel Ramon Osorio Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos huesos maxilares no son ajenos a las patologías que se pueden presentar en el sistema esquelético. Algunas de esas condiciones y patologías son singulares por sus características clínicas, su distribución y prevalencia. Los torus palatinos, los torus mandibulares (TM y las exostosis de los maxilares son un claro ejemplo de ellos. Hasta la presente existen ideas especulativas acerca de su etiopatogenia, de los factores asociados, de su incidencia y prevalencia, de su necesidad de tratamiento, lo que puede crear confusión entre los clínicos tanto en diagnóstico como en el manejo.El torus como tumor óseo benigno puede localizarse en el maxilar a nivel del paladar, o en la mandíbula a nivel de las tablas internas; o puede aparecer en cualquier parte del esqueleto. El TM es una exostosis o crecimiento óseo en la superficie lingual de la mandíbula. Este crecimiento ocurre generalmente cerca de la línea milohioidea, opuesto a los premolares, pero se puede extender del canino al primer molar. La mucosa que los recubre tiende a ser fina y no tolera por lo general las fuerzas de las prótesis que se colocan encima de ellos. La incidencia del torus de la mandíbula es baja en el 6% a 12.5% entre caucásicos y en los habitantes de la llanura africana. De manera contraria, algunos autores reportan una prevalencia mucho más elevada en la Costa Atlántica Colombiana.Se presenta el caso de un paciente con torus mandibulares bilaterales, con muchos años de crecimiento, hasta que por situaciones tanto fonéticas como de ulceraciones repetitivas decidió someterse al acto quirúrgico de forma bilateral. Se presentan algunas consideraciones para el manejo de esta. (Duazary 2008; 111-114AbstractThe jawbone is not a strange to the pathologies that can occur in the skeletal system. Some of these terms and conditions are unique for their clinical features, distribution and prevalence. The torus palate, jawbone torus (TM in spanish and

  14. [Psychological impact of alveolar mandibular distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castry, G; Ella, B; Emparanza, A; Siberchicot, F; Zwetyenga, N

    2009-11-01

    Implant supported dental prostheses are the most up-to-date solution for edentulous patients. This technique requires and adequate bone quantity and quality. Bone distraction may allow compensating for some bone deficit, especially mandibulary. Few studies have been dedicated to how patients adjusted to this therapy (Int J oral Maxillofac Surg 34 [2005] 238-42, Int J oral Maxillofac Surg 36 [2007] 896-9, Med Oral Pathol Oral Cir Bucal 12 [2007] E225-8). We evaluated the psychological impact of alveolar mandibular distraction. Between 1999 and 2006, 31 patients aged 27 to 70 years underwent vertical alveolar mandibular distraction. Seventeen patients (54.8%) presented with complications. A questionnaire assessed the psychological impact by using notions used in healthcare psychology: perceived stress, perceived control, and social support. Twenty-three answers (74.2% of operated cases) were studied. In 87% of the cases, patients adjusted well the distraction procedure. Eighty-one percent felt no stress. Fifty-seven percent reported light to moderate pain, and 43% found the treatment painful. Confrontation to adverse events was mentioned only in 13% of the cases. In 17% of the cases, there was a slight alteration of sleep. Fifty-seven percent of the patients managed to forget the presence of the distractor. The most difficult stages were insertion of the distractor (48%) and the activation phase (17%). Seventy-one percent of the patients did not find the protocol restraining. The treatment length was not a problem for 65%. Two patients (9%) found it too long. Ninety-one percent of the patients activated the device on their own, for two (9% of the cases) the surgeon activated the device. Ninety-seven percent of the patients found supervision satisfactory. Medical information helped to adjust well to the procedure in 96% of the cases. Forty-three percent of the patients (10 cases) required specific help during the treatment: family support, attending physician, or

  15. Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H; Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Rockey, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Renal dysfunction causes significant morbidity in cirrhotic patients. Diagnosis is challenging because it is based on serum creatinine, which is used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate, which itself is not an ideal measure of renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Finding the exact cause of renal injury in patients with cirrhosis remains problematic due to the limitations of the current diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies used to diagnose renal dysfunction in patients with renal dysfunction and review current treatments. New diagnostic criteria and classification of renal dysfunction, especially for acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed in hopes of optimizing treatment and improving outcomes. New biomarkers that help to differentiate structural from functional AKI in cirrhotic patients have been developed, but require further investigation. Vasoconstrictors are the most commonly recommended treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given the high mortality in patients with type 1 HRS, all patients with HRS should be evaluated for liver transplantation. When renal dysfunction is considered irreversible, combined liver-kidney transplantation is advised. Development of new biomarkers to differentiate the different types of AKI in cirrhosis holds promise. Early intervention in cirrhotic patients with renal dysfunction offers the best hope of improving outcomes.

  16. Control of human mandibular posture during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Timothy S; Flavel, Stanley C; Nordstrom, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Mandibular movements and masseter muscle activity were measured in humans during hopping, walking and running to determine whether reflexes contribute to the maintenance of jaw position during locomotion. In initial experiments, subjects hopped so that they landed either on their toes or on their heel. Landing on the toes provoked only small mandibular movements and no reflex responses in the masseter electromyogram (EMG). Landing on the heels with the jaw muscles relaxed caused the mandible to move vertically downwards relative to the maxilla, and evoked a brisk reflex response in the masseter at monosynaptic latency. Neither this relative movement of the mandible nor the reflex was seen when the teeth were clenched: hence the reflex is not the result of vestibular activation during head movement. The same variables were measured in a second series of experiments while subjects stood, walked and ran at various speeds and at various inclinations on a treadmill. During walking, the vertical movements of the head and therefore the mandible were slow and small, and there was no tonic masseter EMG or gait-related activity in the jaw-closing muscles. When subjects ran, the vertical head and jaw movement depended on the running speed and the inclination of the treadmill. Landing on the heels induced larger movements than landing on the toes. About 10 ms after each foot-strike, the mandible moved downwards relative to the maxilla, thereby stretching the jaw-closing muscles and activating them at segmental reflex latency. This caused the mandible to move back upwards. The strength of the reflex response was related to the speed and amplitude of the vertical jaw movement following landing. It is concluded that, during walking, the small, slow movements of the mandible relative to the maxilla are subthreshold for stretch reflexes in the jaw muscles: i.e. the mandible is supported by visco-elasticity of the soft tissues in the masticatory system. However, the brisker downward

  17. Diversity Of Mandibular Morphology In Some Carnivorans

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    Rahmat S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of mandibular morphology of some aquatic (seals, walruses, and sea otters and terrestrial (hyenas and pandas carnivorans demonstrates a rather general pattern correlating size of condyloid angle, size of gape, and diet. Structural differences of carnivoran jaws reveal morphological and ecological adaptations that are directly correlated with availability of prey, diving depth, feeding competition and specialized feeding methods. Specifically, the inclination of the condyloid process relative to the axis of the alveolar row (= condyloid angle can be used to determine dietary preferences, including size of prey. Generally, carnivorans with a large condyloid angle feed on larger prey, while a low condyloid angle suggests feeding on small prey or can be an advantageous feeding mechanism. Mirounga angustirostris (Northern elephant seal displays sex-specific characters in cranial and postcranial elements. Likewise, significant sexually dimorphic differences in the size of condyloid angle imply that deeper-diving male Northern elephant seals have a feeding niche dissimilar to that of females. Morphological assessment of male M. angustirostris suggests they are bottom-feeding seals that utilize a suction-feeding mechanism to capture small prey and crush shells with their teeth, which become weaker as they age.

  18. Long term results of mandibular distraction

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    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  19. Long term results of mandibular distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Puneet; Ryan, F S; Witherow, H; Calvert, M L

    2006-03-01

    Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction) where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  20. Herbal remedies for mandibular fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U S; Pradhan, R; Singh, Nimisha

    2014-01-01

    When a bone is fractured it is usually necessary to employ a mechanical means to reduce and maintain the fragments in position. However, healing of the fracture is governed by biological principles, with which the mechanical measures must be coordinated to the end, such that a satisfactory bony union and restoration of form and function are obtained. We have studied the effect of Cissus quadrangularis (Harjor) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), in the healing of mandibular fractures. A total of 29 cases having a fracture in the body of the mandible were included in the study and divided into three groups. Groups A and B were treated with Ocimum sanctum and Cissus quadrangularis, respectively, and fracture healing was assessed with biochemical markers and the bite force. Group C was the control group. The period of immobilization was the lowest in the Group A followed by Group B. A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium was seen in Group B. The tensile strength in terms of the biting force was the maximum in cases of Group B. We conclude that Cissus quadrangularis and Ocimum sanctum help in fracture healing, and use of such traditional drugs will be a breakthrough in the management and early mobilization of facial fractures.

  1. Relationship between trauma mechanism and etiology on mandibular fracture patterns

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    Fakhrurrazi Fakhrurrazi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mandibular fracture occurs more commonly than maxillary fracture because of its prominent position and its arrow arch like bone anatomy. Many factors may cause mandibular fracture. Motorcycle accident is the main etiology of mandibular fracture in the world. Based on the literature, 43% mandibular fractures are caused by motorcycle accident, 34% by violence, 7% by accident at work, 7% by fall, 4% by sports and the others were caused by various things. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to know the relation between the etiology and mechanisms of trauma and the patterns of mandibular fracture at Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, from January 2006 to October 2007. Method: The study was taken on patients with mandibular fractures who came to Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung. The data were taken retrospectively by documenting the etiologies of mandibular fracture, the mechanisms of fracture, and the location of mandibular fracture. The data were analyzed with Chi Square statistic test. Result: The result showed that There were 83 mandibular fractures. The mandibular fracture more commonly attacks men about 77%, and women about 22.9%. Mandibular fracture occurs more often between the age group of 21-30 years old, about 31 people (37.3%. Mandibular fracture was mostles often caused by motorcycle accident, affecting about 71 people (85.5%. Parasymphysis fracture is the most common fracture location among mandibular fracture cases, about 47 people (56.6%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is no significant relationship between the etiology and mechanisms of trauma and the pattern of mandibular fracture.Latar belakang: Fraktur mandibula lebih sering terjadi dibandingkan dengan fraktur maksilla karenaposisinya yang lebihprominen dan bentuk anatomi tulang seperti busur panah. Banyak faktor yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinya fraktur mandibula. Kecelakaan kendaraan bermotor merupakan etiologi utama penyebab fraktur mandibula di dunia

  2. Evidence of secular trend in mandibular pubertal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcas, Raphael; Wiedemeier, Daniel B; Markic, Goran; Beit, Philipp; Keller, Heidi

    2017-04-20

    During puberty, mandibular growth follows a growth curve comparable to somatic growth. This study aimed to review the relationship between mandibular pubertal peak height velocity (PHV) and skeletal age, and to investigate the possibility of a secular trend. Retrospective analysis was performed of two historical craniofacial growth studies (Denver Growth Study; observational time: 1943-1965, and Zurich Growth Study; observational time: 1982-1984) of healthy untreated subjects. Two mandibular growth measures (Articulare-Pogonion [Ar-Pg], Condylion-Pogonion [Co-Pg]) were retrieved from cephalograms (n: 990) and corresponding skeletal age based on hand-wrist radiographs. Mandibular growth velocity was related to skeletal age, PHV was established by use of cubic smoothing splines and variability was calculated by bootstrap resampling for every growth study and gender separately. Sexual dimorphism in mandibular growth was apparent in both cohorts. In subjects of the Denver Growth Study, mandibular PHV occurred at a more advanced skeletal age than in subjects of the Zurich Growth Study. This trend was more pronounced in males, for whom PHV of Co-Pg shifted from 14.4 to 13.8 years and of Ar-Pg from 14.6 to 13.7 years. This tendency was more subtle in females: PHV of Co-Pg shifted from 12.7 to 12.4 years and of Ar-Pg from 12.6 to 11.8 years. Mandibular growth appears to be subject to a secular trend. When related to skeletal age, this secular trend seems to be more accentuated than the established secular trend for somatic pubertal growth.

  3. Improved Temporomandibular Joint Position After 3-Dimensional Planned Mandibular Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra; Parsaei, Yassmin; Wu, Robin; Lin, Alexander; Metzler, Philipp; DeSesa, Christopher; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2017-01-01

    Virtual surgical planning (VSP) using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) has been reported to aid in craniofacial reconstruction. The reported improvements have been related mainly to operative performance, with limited evaluations of the position and function of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This study analyzed the radiographic detail of postoperative outcomes related to the TMJ. Patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction with and without VSP were analyzed. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography (CT) of their mandible. In the VSP group, CAD-CAM planning was performed preoperatively using CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data. Postoperative CT images from the 2 groups were quantitatively compared to evaluate the TMJ. CT images were digitized for 2- and 3-dimensional analysis using surgical planning software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). Anatomic landmarks and cephalometric relations were analyzed. Sixteen patients who underwent traditional planning or VSP for mandibular reconstruction were compared. Two groups (n = 8 each) were compared for positioning of the mandibular condyle in the glenoid fossa. Measurements of superior, anterior, and lateral movements were comparable in the pre- and postoperative groups for the traditional and VSP groups (P mandibular condyle position for traditional planning versus VSP noted decreased percentages of change in superior (22 vs 10%; P mandibular reconstructions (n = 8). Ipsilateral right mandibular reconstructions (n = 6) showed changes in superior (62 vs 15%; P mandibular reconstructions. Evaluation of condyle movements showed differences in the ipsilateral position in the pre- and postoperative groups. VSP resulted in decreased superior and lateral shifts of the ipsilateral condyle and decreased changes in the condylar and condylar neck angles. This work shows that VSP can lead to increased precision in reconstruction leading to preserved normative

  4. Mandibular movement during sleep bruxism associated with current tooth attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Kazuo; Shigemoto, Shuji; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Noguchi, Naoto; Omoto, Katsuhiro; Abe, Susumu; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2017-01-01

    Observation of attrition patterns suggests that mandibular movement in sleep bruxism (SB) may be associated with current tooth attrition. The aim of this study was to confirm this phenomenon by investigating mandibular movement and masseter muscle activity. The subject was a healthy 21-year-old Japanese male. We recorded biological signals including mandibular movement and masseter electromyograms (EMGs) with a polysomnograph. Based on the EMG using Okura's criteria, SB events were classified into clenching, grinding and mixed types according to mandibular movement criteria. The close-open mandibular movement cycles (CO-cycles) during grinding and mixed type events were selected based on mandibular movement trajectories. Fifty-eight CO-cycles were selected in seven grinding and three mixed types. We found that SB mandibular movements associated with current tooth attrition. Excessive lateral movements (ELM) beyond the canine edge-to-edge position were observed in the closing (10.3%) and opening (13.8%) phases of the CO-cycle. Total masseter muscle activity was significantly higher during voluntary grinding (VGR) than during CO-cycle including ELM (working side: P=0.036, balancing side: P=0.025). However, in the middle and late parts of the opening phase, working side masseter muscle activity was significantly higher during CO-cycle including ELM than during VGR (P=0.012). In the early part of the closing phase, balancing side masseter muscle activity was significantly higher during CO-cycle including ELM than during VGR (P=0.017). These findings suggest that excessive forceful grinding during ongoing SB events may have caused canine attrition in this patient. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lesion mapping of stroke-related erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Klemens; Seifert, Frank; Köhrmann, Martin; Crodel, Carl; Kloska, Stephan; Dörfler, Arnd; Hösl, Katharina M; Schwab, Stefan; Hilz, Max J

    2017-06-01

    showed associations between stroke-related erectile dysfunction and lesion sites in the right occipito-parietal cortex and thalamus, as well as in the left insula and adjacent temporo-parietal areas. Using voxel-wise t-test statistics, we showed associations between deterioration of erectile function and lesion sites in the right occipital and thalamic region, and the left parietal association area. The linear regression analysis showed that stroke-related erectile dysfunction remained associated with lesions of the right occipital and left parietal association areas after adjusting for confounding factors. In conclusion, our voxel-wise analysis indicates that deteriorating erectile function after stroke is associated with lesions in the right occipito-parietal and thalamic areas integrating visual and somatosensory information, as well as lesions in the left insular and adjacent parieto-temporal areas contributing to generating and mapping visceral arousal states. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle: Resection and reconstruction using vertical sliding osteotomy of the mandibular ramus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Otero, Sergio; Navarro-Cuéllar, Carlos; Escrig-de Teigeiro, Margarita; Fernández-Alba-Luengo, Javier; Navarro-Vila, Carlos

    2009-04-01

    Osteochondroma is one of the most common benign bone tumours, although not in the craniofacial region. More than half of these appear in the coronoid process. It can appear on the mandibular condyle, especially in its medial half, and mainly affects women aged around forty years. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman with pain of several months' duration in the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and no other symptoms. Panoramic radiography showed an enlarged condyle with no subchondral cysts. Computed tomography showed a bony proliferation with benign signs and a scintigraphy revealed an increased uptake in the condyle. Due to the painful clinical symptoms, a surgical procedure using preauricular and retromandibular approaches was performed to excise the condyle. The resulting defect, which was 9 mm high, was reconstructed by means of a vertical sliding osteotomy of the mandibular ramus and two miniplates for osteosynthesis. Almost two years later, the patient is symptom-free and has a normal opening with no malocclusion or deviation in the opening pattern. We present and discuss different reconstruction options after condylectomy.

  7. Voiding dysfunction - A review

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    Sripathi V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a child who is toilet trained the sudden onset of daytime wetting with frequency or urgency is alarming to the parents. Initially this subject was subdivided into a number of descriptive clinical conditions which led to a lot of confusion in recognition and management. Subsequently, the term elimination dysfunction was coined by Stephen Koff to emphasise the association between recurrent urinary infection, wetting, constipation and bladder overactivity. From a urodynamic point of view, in voiding dysfunction, there is either detrusor overactivity during bladder filling or dyssynergic action between the detrusor and the external sphincter during voiding. Identifying a given condition as a ′filling phase dysfunction′ or ′voiding phase dysfunction′ helps to provide appropriate therapy. Objective clinical criteria should be used to define voiding dysfunction. These include bladder wall thickening, large capacity bladder and infrequent voiding, bladder trabeculation and spinning top deformity of the urethra and a clinically demonstrated Vincent′s curtsy. The recognition and treatment of constipation is central to the adequate treatment of voiding dysfunction. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimuation for the treatment of detrusor overactivity, biofeedback with uroflow EMG to correct dyssynergic voiding, and behavioral therapy all serve to correct voiding dysfunction in its early stages. In established neurogenic bladder disease the use of Botulinum Toxin A injections into the detrusor or the external sphincter may help in restoring continence especially in those refractory to drug therapy. However in those children in whom the upper tracts are threatened, augmentation of the bladder may still be needed.

  8. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

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    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  9. Skeletal stability following mandibular advancement: is it influenced by the magnitude of advancement or changes of the mandibular plane angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Nili, Mahsa; Aliabadi, Ehsan; Pourdanesh, Fereydoun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of advancement magnitude and changes in mandibular plane angle on the stability of mandibular advancement. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the postoperative stability of mandibular advancement in class II skeletal subjects who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Radiographs taken preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and 1 year postoperatively were traced and analyzed using linear and angular measurements. To determine horizontal and vertical relapse, an X-Y coordinate system was established in which the X-axis was constructed by rotating S-N downward by 7° (approximation of the Frankfort horizontal plane) and the Y-axis was defined as a line perpendicular to the X-axis and passing through the point Sella. For certain reference points including point A, point B, pogonion and menton, the perpendicular distance between each point and both axes was determined and cephalometric variables were recorded as X and Y coordinates. Twenty-five subjects were studied. A significant correlation between the amount of mandibular advancement and relapse in the B point (vertical and horizontal) and the pogonion point was observed (vertical and horizontal, Pplane angle (SN/ML) change and vertical relapse in the B point (Pcharacteristic test showed that 8.5 mm mandibular advancement is related to a relapse rate of 1 mm or more in the pogonion, vertically or horizontally. The magnitude of mandibular advancement is a stronger surgical predictor for horizontal rather than vertical relapse at the B point. Changes in mandibular plane angle (SN/ML) during surgery affect vertical, but not horizontal relapse at the B point.

  10. Endodontic management of mandibular canine with two canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment may sometimes fail because morphological features of the tooth adversely affect the treatment procedures. Many investigators have reported the anatomical variations associated with mandibular canines. Mandibular canines are recognized as usually having one root and one root canal in most cases. This case report describes a clinical case of mandibular canine with two canals. Human mandibular canines do not present internal anatomy as simple as could be expected; there are such canines with a single root and two canals, two roots or fused roots. The existence of mandibular canines with more than one root canal is a fact that clinicians ought to keep in mind, in order to avoid failure during endodontic treatment. In spite of the low incidence of lower canines with one root and two canals, this possibility cannot be forgotten, inasmuch as the presence of a second canal in these teeth leads to difficulties in endodontic treatment. The precise knowledge of the dental endocanalicular system′s anatomy is essential in the success of the root canal therapy, because the failure to detect the accessories canals and the incomplete radicular obturation leads to the infection of the periapical space, which will ultimately result in the loss of the tooth.

  11. Application of endoscopy to treat mandibular keratocystic odontogenic tumors

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    Z. Gao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopy to remove keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs with virtual 3D mandibular images. Fifteen patients (mean age, 40.27±14.58 years who underwent endoscopic mandibular KCOT enucleation between May 2009 and October 2009 were included. Virtual 3D mandibular reconstructions derived from computed tomography (CT imaging were generated for all patients. Recurrence and pathological fracture were evaluated as the primary outcome variables at 1 and 12 months after operation. Secondary infection and inferior alveolar nerve injury were evaluated as the secondary outcome variables at 1 and 6 months after operation. None of the 15 patients exhibited signs of recurrence or pathological fracture after operation. During long-term follow-up, no symptoms of inferior alveolar nerve injury or secondary infection were observed and no signs of recurrence were found in any of the patients. Endoscopy helps surgeons to remove mandibular KCOTs with small incisions. Moreover, endoscopy can provide clear and magnified views and help to avoid damage to the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Therefore, under the support of preoperative virtual 3D mandibular images, the application of endoscopy to remove the tumors should be considered to be a treatment option for KCOTs.

  12. Application of endoscopy to treat mandibular keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z; Ni, Q W; Gao, W; Liu, Y P; Zhang, Q

    2017-07-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopy to remove keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) with virtual 3D mandibular images. Fifteen patients (mean age, 40.27±14.58 years) who underwent endoscopic mandibular KCOT enucleation between May 2009 and October 2009 were included. Virtual 3D mandibular reconstructions derived from computed tomography (CT) imaging were generated for all patients. Recurrence and pathological fracture were evaluated as the primary outcome variables at 1 and 12 months after operation. Secondary infection and inferior alveolar nerve injury were evaluated as the secondary outcome variables at 1 and 6 months after operation. None of the 15 patients exhibited signs of recurrence or pathological fracture after operation. During long-term follow-up, no symptoms of inferior alveolar nerve injury or secondary infection were observed and no signs of recurrence were found in any of the patients. Endoscopy helps surgeons to remove mandibular KCOTs with small incisions. Moreover, endoscopy can provide clear and magnified views and help to avoid damage to the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Therefore, under the support of preoperative virtual 3D mandibular images, the application of endoscopy to remove the tumors should be considered to be a treatment option for KCOTs.

  13. Influence of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation on esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cherobini Dalla Corte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to assess the degree of perception of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation in facial esthetics, assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists.Methods:A woman with 5.88° of inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation was selected and, based on her original photograph, four new images were created correcting the deviations and creating more symmetric faces and smiles. Examiners assessed the images by means of a questionnaire. Their opinions were compared by qualitative and quantitative analyses.Results:A total of 45 laypeople, 27 dentists and 31 orthodontists filled out the questionnaires. All groups were able to perceive the asymmetry; however, orthodontists were more sensitive, identifying asymmetries as from 4.32° of occlusal plane inclination and 4.155 mm of mandibular deviation (p< 0.05. The other categories of evaluators identified asymmetries and assigned significantly lower grades, starting from 5.88° of occlusal plane inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation (p< 0.05.Conclusion:Occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation were perceived by all groups, but orthodontists presented higher perception of deviations.

  14. Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Un; Kim, Hyung Seop; Song, Ju Seop; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.78{sub 0}.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images.

  15. Position of the mandibular foramen in adult male Tanzania mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russa, Afadhali D; Fabian, Flora M

    2014-01-01

    Failure of the inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia is common in various dental operations. Anatomical variations of the location of the inferior alveolar nerve as it enters the mandibular foramen have been implicated as a main cause of these anesthesia failures. The aim of this work was to determine the location of the mandibular foramen in relation to the occlusal plane at the level of mandibular first molar and second premolar--often used as landmarks during the blocking procedure--and to different landmarks on the ramus of the mandible. The study was performed using mandibles from adult black male Tanzanians aged 30-45 years. Measurements were accomplished using two-digit electronic Vernier calipers. The distances were determined from the center of the mandibular foramen to the different reference points. The mandibular foramen was above the occlusal plane at the M1 and PM2 reference points in all the mandibles studied. It was also located about 20 mm and 12 mm from the anterior and posterior borders of the ramus respectively. There was no significant difference between the left and right side in any of the measurements. These results indicate that during anesthetic or other clinical procedures, the clinician can precisely determine the position of neurovascular bundle of the inferior alveolar nerve above the occlusal plane.

  16. Mandibular movements in older people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kelly Machado de; Alfenas, Bruna Fernandes Moreira; Campos, Camila Heitor; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular movements in older people with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thirty partially or completely edentulous older adults (65.33 ± 4.7 years) were assigned to 2 groups: (1) with RA and TMD and (2) without RA and TMD. Chewing movements of the jaws during mastication of the test material (Optocal) and the range of mandibular movements were evaluated by using the JT-3-D kinesiographic device before and after new removable prosthesis insertion. Multiple comparisons were made with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer test. Comparisons between the 2 groups before and after new prosthesis insertion revealed that the RA and TMD group had reduced opening angles (P mandibular range of motion results showed that patients with RA and TMD exhibited lower aperture and laterality movements (P protrusion values after new prosthesis insertion in both groups. TMD associated with RA may impair mandibular movements. Well-fitted prostheses may improve mandibular movements in older adults, especially those with RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Split-Framework in Mandibular Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Omar Mendoza Marin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with an implant-supported prosthesis, mandibular flexure must be considered an important biomechanical factor when planning the metal framework design, especially if implants are installed posterior to the interforaminal region. When an edentulous mandible is restored with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis connected by a fixed full-arch framework, mandibular flexure may cause needless stress in the overall restorative system and lead to screw loosening, poor fit of prosthesis, loss of the posterior implant, and patient’s discomfort due to deformation properties of the mandible during functional movements. The use of a split-framework could decrease the stress with a precise and passive fit on the implants and restore a more natural functional condition of the mandible, helping in the longevity of the prosthesis. Therefore, the present clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient by a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis with a split-framework to compensate for mandibular flexure. Clinical Significance. The present clinical report shows that the use of a split-framework reduced the risk of loss of the posterior implants or screws loosening with acceptable patient comfort over the period of a year. The split-framework might have compensated for the mandibular flexure during functional activities.

  18. Effects of mastication on mandibular growth evaluated by microcomputed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Akiko; Watahiki, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Irie, Tarou; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Maki, Koutaro

    2010-02-01

    It is well known that mastication has a significant influence on mandibular growth and development, but the mechanism behind this effect has not yet been clarified. Furthermore, no studies have examined the effects of changes in mastication on the three-dimensional (3D) morphometry of the mandible. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of changes in mastication on mandibular growth and morphology. Twenty-five 3-week-old (at the time of weaning) imprinting control region mice were randomly divided into three groups: mice fed a hard diet (HD), mice fed a soft diet (SD), and mice alternately fed hard and soft diets (HSDs) every week for 4 weeks. The morphometry of the mandible was analysed using 3D microcomputed tomography (muCT). Statistical analysis was undertaken using a t-test. muCT analysis showed that the condylar width was significantly greater in the HD group than in the SD group after 1 week. After 4 weeks, mandibular length was significantly longer and ramus height was greater in the HSD group than in the other two groups. Bone volume was significantly less in the SD group than in the other two groups after 4 weeks. These findings suggest that changes in mastication markedly affect mandibular condylar cartilage growth and mandibular morphology. It is considered that dietary education at an early age is important in order to prevent disruption of the development of the mandible.

  19. Assessment of Mandibular Movements in 10 to 15 Year-old Patients With and Without Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M; Fridman, Diana E; Guitelman, Ingrid; Farah, Catalina L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mandibular movements in 10- to 15-year-olds without dysfunction and compare these values to those in patients of the same age with tempromandibular disorders (TMD) and those found previously in a group of children younger than 11 years old without TMD. Children of both genders who visited the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry at Buenos Aires University in 2013 and whose parents or guardians provided consent were evaluated using TMD/RDC by standardized pediatric dentists (Kappa 0.88). Three groups were formed according to diagnostic summary: Group C, without TMD; Group Ia, with myofascial pain, and Group Ib, pain with limited mouth opening. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender and mandibular movements. The sample included 169 patients aged 12.5±1.76 years, of whom 62.36% did not have TMD (C) while 37.27% were diagnosed with muscle disorder (29.58% Ia and 7.69% Ib). For Group C, the following values (in mm) were recorded: maximal unassisted opening: 48.28±6.14; right lateral movement 8.78±2.50; left lateral movement: 9.60±2.64; protrusion: 4.94±2.58 and overbite: 2.98 ± 2.5, with no variation associated to sex, but with differences in the values recorded for all movements compared to those obtained for mixed dentition (p=0.0001). Analysis of mean values for mandibular movements in all 3 groups only revealed differences for maximal unassisted opening (p= 0.0317). With relation to gender, TMD was more frequent in females, with significant differences between Groups C and Ia (p=0.019). In males without dysfunction, average maximal opening was 48.28±6.14mm, with lower values in patients with TMD. Mandibular movements in pediatric patients without TMD showed significant differences according to dentition type and age. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  20. Patient compliance following isolated mandibular fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radabaugh, J Paul; Horn, Adam Van; Chan, Stephen A; Shelton, Jared M; Gal, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Compliance with postoperative care in the maxillofacial trauma population often is considered poor. This lack of follow-up does not seem to be a function of decreased access to care but rather its anticipated lack of utilization. The goal of this study is to identify what factors are associated with increased compliance in postoperative management of mandible fractures. Retrospective cohort study. Using Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify maxillofacial injuries requiring operative repair, a subset of isolated mandibular fractures was identified. Age, gender, race, insurance type, travel distance, mandible fracture location, surgical approach, and complications were used as variables in univariate regression modeling to examine factors associated with compliance to postoperative care. Between 2010 and 2013, 344 isolated mandible fractures were identified. A total of 83.1% of patients made their first postoperative follow-up visit. Demographic data, fracture location, distance to medical center (odds ratio [OR] = 1, P = 0.75), type of repair, use of drains (OR = 1.27, P = 0.61), or nonabsorbable suture (OR = 1.44, P = 0.32) did not appear to be associated with compliance. No association between complications and postoperative compliance was observed (OR = 2.37, P = 0.17). Trends toward improved compliance were observed when evaluating insurance type and use of temporary fixation hardware. The presence of current tobacco use was found to be negatively associated with patient compliance (OR = 0.33, P compliance after surgical repair is better than what is currently represented in the literature. It appears that postoperative compliance is dependent on patient-related factors more so than what can be modified by the surgeon. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2230-2235, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Delayed dental maturity in dentitions with agenesis of mandibular second premolars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, S; Christensen, I J; Kjaer, I

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate dental maturity in the mandibular canine/premolar and molar innervation fields in children with agenesis of the 2nd mandibular premolar and to associate these findings with normal control material....

  2. Gingival labial recessions and the post-treatment proclination of mandibular incisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Navratilova, Z.; Mazurova, K.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A prerequisite for development of gingival recession is the presence of alveolar bone dehiscence. Proclination of mandibular incisors can result in thinning of the alveolus and dehiscence formation. OBJECTIVE: To assess an association between proclination of mandibular incisor and

  3. Multicentre prospective evaluation of implant-assisted mandibular bilateral distal extension removable partial dentures: patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismeijer, D.; Tawse-Smith, A.; Payne, A.G.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the levels of patient satisfaction with either conventional mandibular bilateral distal extension partial dentures or those assisted by bilateral distal implants. Materials and methods Forty-eight participants who were dissatisfied with their existing conventional mandibular

  4. Signaling pathways regulating the expression of Prx1 and Prx2 in the Chick Mandibular Mesenchyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doufexi, Aikaterini-El; Mina, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Prx1 and Prx2 are members of the aristaless-related homeobox genes shown to play redundant but essential roles in morphogenesis of the mandibular processes. To gain insight into the signaling pathways that regulate expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme, we used the chick as a model system. We examined the patterns of gene expression in the face and the roles of signals derived from the epithelium on the expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme. Our results demonstrated stage-dependent roles of mandibular epithelium on the expression of Prx in the mandibular mesenchyme and provide evidence for positive roles of members of the fibroblast and hedgehog families derived from mandibular epithelium on the expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme. Our studies suggest that endothelin-1 signaling derived from the mesenchyme is involved in restricting the expression of Prx2 to the medial mandibular mesenchyme. PMID:18942149

  5. Occlusion and temporomandibular function among subjects with mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creugers, N.H.J.; Witter, D.J.; Spijker, A. van 't; Gerritsen, A.E.; Kreulen, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To quantify effects on occlusion and temporomandibular function of mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures in shortened dental arches. Methods. Subjects wearing mandibular extension removable partial dentures (n = 25) were compared with subjects with shortened dental arches

  6. A Three-rooted Mandibular Second Premolar: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Fathi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presence of extra roots and canals should be considered before initiation of root canal treatment for the success of endodontic treatment. A mandibular second premolar with three separate roots is very rare and its prevalence has been reported to be around 0.1%. This case report explains non-surgical endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three separate roots and three separate mesiobuccal, midbuccal, and lingual canal orifices. Close attention to anatomic variations, thorough radiographic examinations, thorough evaluation of the pulp chamber floor, and use of magnifying and optical devices have been recommended for the success of endodontic treatment of mandibular second premolars with complicated root canal system anatomy.

  7. Bilateral mandibular second premolars with three separate roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Hakam Mukhaimer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mandibular second premolar is usually described as a single-rooted tooth with a single root canal. However, three root canals may be found but the occurrence of three separate roots is extremely rare. This report describes the case of a patient with bilateral mandibular second premolar with three roots and three root canals. The pre-operative radiograph of the right premolar revealed the presence of three roots, while the radiograph of the left premolar looked unusual and showed two roots. The access cavity preparation was extended and three orifices leading to three roots were found. All root canals were cleaned, shaped, and obturated. The post-operative radiograph showed a satisfactory root canal filling. Clinicians should always consider the presence of anatomical variations in the teeth during endodontic treatments. Despite the low prevalence, variations may occur in the number of roots and root canals of mandibular second premolars, as demonstrated in this case report.

  8. Mandibular ceramic veneers: an examination of complex cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, R L

    1995-05-01

    The indications for mandibular anterior ceramic veneers, tooth preparation design, provisionalization considerations, and placement procedures were presented in a previous article by the author. The functional utility, tissue biocompatibility, and dissimilarities of mandibular veneers, in comparison to maxillary anterior ceramic veneers, were explored, along with indications and contraindications for this form of treatment. This article demonstrates the aesthetic range of these restorations in the context of more complex cases. The learning objective of this article is to illustrate the viability of mandibular ceramic veneers in realigning teeth nonorthodontically, while sustaining the biologic health of the periodontium, stability of the occlusion, and aesthetic parameters of each case. The importance of wax mock-ups is outlined for visualization of the final result, as well as the evaluation of root proximity to avoid subgingival ledging of the teeth and subsequent periodontal disease. Orthodontics and other methods for the correction of anterior crowding are discussed.

  9. Recurrent osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Eun; Choi, Karp Shik; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, So Young; An, Seo Young [School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A 21-year-old woman presented with facial asymmetry. Crepitus and clicking of the temporomandibular joint were noted. The midline deviated 5.5 mm to the left, and secondary malocclusion was observed. Panoramic and cone-beam computed tomographic images showed an irregular and exophytic bony mass on the anteromedial surface of the right mandibular condyle. A 3-phase bone scan revealed increased tracer uptake on the affected side. The lesion was treated with excision and reshaping under the diagnosis of osteochondroma confirmed by a histopathological examination. The lesion recurred after 3 years, and the patient underwent condylectomy. Mandibular condylar osteochondroma is often resected because it causes functional and aesthetic problems, but it rarely recurs. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases of recurrent osteochondromas of the mandibular condyle have been reported previously. Surgical treatment of the osteochondroma should be performed considering the possibility of recurrence, and long-term follow-up is recommended.

  10. Position of mandibular joint surface in cenrric relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suljak-Loncarević, Azijada; Ajanović, Muhamed

    2006-08-01

    The position of mandible in centric relation is the initial position in prosthodontic rehabilitation. This fact is especially significant today when, due to development of implantology, the use of osseointegrated prostheses is increasingly discussed. The aim of the study is to define if the peak of the articulating surface of mandible in centric relation position is directed towards the zenith of madibular fossa, or is in the retroposition. The research was conducted on macerated human sculls in anthropometric system, based on objective measuring techniques and methods. The results showed that if the zenith of mandibular fossa is determined according to the vertical line of the Frankfurt horizontal, the peak of the mandibular caput articulating surface is in retroposition. The relation of the lower joint surface to the mandibular fossa zenith is the same on both right and left side. The correlation coefficient demonstrates a high correlation between the sides, highly significant with probability level of pocclusal imbalances.

  11. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  12. Surgical-prosthetic treatment of large mandibular cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džambas Ljubiša D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a combined surgical-prosthetic procedure of reconstructing mandibular bone defect in a 53 year old patient, following enucleation of a mandibular cyst (Cystectomy Partsch II. After a thorough diagnostic evaluation, a surgical procedure was planned with the particular attention to the nature of the disease, patient’s condition, size and extension of the cyst, tissue loss, and the possibilities of prosthetic management of a mandibular bone defect with partial postresection dental prosthesis. It is of great importance to point to the significance of teamwork of a maxillofacial surgeon and a specialist in prosthodontics. This kind of cooperation provided very effective and less risky soft tissue, as well as bone tissue regeneration (osteogenesis. The patient’s recovery was fast, and he could return to his daily activities and work without significant changes regarding quality of life after surgery and prosthetic treatment.

  13. Microbiology of the pericoronal pouch in mandibular third molar pericoronitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, W K; Theilade, E; Comfort, M B; Lim, P L

    1993-10-01

    The microorganisms associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis were investigated using direct microscopy and anaerobic culture method. The pericoronal pouch was sampled with paper points in A) 8 patients without mandibular third molar pericoronitis and B) 6 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Under the microscope, the microflora was found to be a complex mixture comprising gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, rods and filaments (including fusiform and curved rods), motile rods and spirochetes. Significantly higher proportions of motile, gram-negative rods were found in group B than in group A. The predominant cultivable microflora of 9 samples: A (4) and B (5) comprised several species of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria, namely Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Veillonella, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Bacteriodes, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Stomatococcus, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus, Selenomonas and Centipeda species. The microflora in pericoronitis appeared similar to that of diseased periodontal pockets.

  14. The effect of loss of occlusal support on mandibular morphology in growing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farias-Neto, A; Martins, APVB; Rizzatti-Barbosa, CM

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of unilateral and bilateral premature loss of posterior occlusal support on mandibular bone dimensions in growing rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were randomized into three groups: control, unilateral mandibular molar teeth extraction, and bilateral mandibular molar teeth extraction. After 8 weeks, animals were sacrificed and acrylic rapid-prototyped templates of the mandibles were constructed. Mandibular length, ramus he...

  15. Immediately loaded implants in a patient with involuntary mandibular movements: A clinical report

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, JW; Plesh, O; Curtis, DA

    2014-01-01

    Immediately loaded implant prostheses have been used to successfully rehabilitate completely edentulous arches. Risk factors for successful treatment have not included involuntary mandibular movements. The treatment was completed on a patient with a history of neuroleptic medications who had remaining mandibular teeth extracted and then developed involuntary mandibular movements. The patient was dissatisfied with a mandibular removable prosthesis and wanted a fixed prosthesis. The immediate i...

  16. Comparative study using video analysis and an ultrasonic measurement system to quantify mandibular movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoli, M; Edelhoff, J M; Gersdorff, N; Nicolet, J; Braidot, A; Engelke, W

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a direct comparison between two registration systems used in quantifying mandibular opening movements: two-dimensional videography and electronic axiography, which is used as a reference. A total of 32 volunteers (age: 27.2 ± 6.8 - gender: 17 F - 15 M) participated in the study and repeated a characteristic movement, the frontal Posselt, used in the clinical evaluation of the temporomandibular joint. Frontal Posselt diagrams were reconstructed with the data gathered from both systems, which yielded acceptably similar data. Three commonly assessed parameters were obtained from each diagram and compared. These parameters were: maximum opening, right laterotrusion and left laterotrusion. Both descriptive statistics and the ANOVA test suggested that there was no significant difference between the estimated maximum opening parameter and the reference system (p = 0.217, 95% confidence). Laterotrusion values, on the other hand, appear to be overestimated by videography system and to show greater variability. Two-dimensional videography appears to be a suitable tool with resolution that is adequate for tracing mandibular movements - and opening values, in particular - for screening purposes, long-term observation, and as a quick check for dysfunction as far as frontal plane trajectories are concerned. Reliability and acceptable quality of 2D videography data, acquired in this work, show that it has clear advantages for its wide application in the dental office due to simplicity and low cost for maximum opening measurement given the usefulness of this parameter in the detection of temporomandibular disorders.

  17. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  18. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Gliomas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Anni, H.; Dráber, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 216-227 ISSN 1071-9091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12050 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gliomas * mitochondrial dysfunction * microtubule proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2013

  19. Volumetric mandibular change after angle ostectomy and outer cortex grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyi; Song, Guodong; Zong, Xianlei; Yang, Xiaonan; Du, Le; Guo, Xiaoshuang; Lai, Chenzhi; Qi, Zuoliang; Jin, Xiaolei

    2017-12-29

    Mandibular angle ostectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures for facial contouring in Asian women. However, some patients complain about mandibular angle hypertrophy recurrence after surgery. The present study evaluated volumetric change of the mandible after angle ostectomy and outer cortex grinding. Twenty-four patients who underwent bilateral mandibular angle ostectomy and outer cortex grinding from 2013 to 2016 were enrolled. Three-dimensional computed tomography data were used to evaluate the preoperative, immediate postoperative, and long-term follow-up (≥12 months) volume of the mandible. The volumetric change between different groups was analyzed. The results of software measurements showed that the preoperative mandible volume was significantly larger than immediate and long-term postoperative volumes (P = 0.000), and there was no significant difference between immediate and long-term postoperative mandibular volume (P > 0.05). Mean bone regeneration at long-term follow-up was 1.42% ± 3.84% for those who underwent mandibular angle ostectomy with outer cortex grinding alone and 1.69% ± 2.45% on the left and 2.59% ± 3.61% on the right sides of patients who underwent this procedure along with advancement genioplasty. Mandibular angle ostectomy can effectively change the facial contour to achieve a more oval-shaped face favored by most Asians. Postoperative bone remodeling is mostly regenerated, although bone absorption did occur. However, the mean bone volume did not reach preoperative levels, and the difference between preoperative and long-term postoperative bone volume at follow-up (≥12 months) was significant. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impacted mandibular permanent incisors related to supernumerary teeth: a rare condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Melkote, Tejas Harsha; Mohapatra, Abinash; Nirmala, S V S G

    2012-01-01

    Supernumerary permanent teeth in the mandibular incisor area are rare, and there are very few reported cases of the supernumerary teeth in the mandibular incisor area leading to impaction of incisors. A south Indian boy aged 14 presented with 3 supernumerary teeth in the mandibular right permanent incisor area resulting in impacted permanent central and lateral incisors.

  1. Posttraumatic Mandibular Asymmetry Presenting in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi, DDS,MS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common sites of injury of the facial skeleton is mandibular condyle. However, it is the least diagnosed site of trauma in the head and neck regions. A trauma to the mandible and specifically condylar zone during childhood, may lead to asymmetry or mandibular bilateral distortion, which is usually manifested in the second decade of life when the etiology is unknown to most people. This report is about an adult male complaining about facial asymmetry with an unknown source. Obvious clicking at the right side and shorter right ramus and condyle's head deviation directed us to a childhood trauma and fracture.

  2. How will mandibular third molar surgery affect mandibular second molar periodontal parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Arabion, Hamidreza; Gholami, Mehdi

    2013-07-01

    Several conflicting findings have been published in the previous literature regarding the effects of impacted third molar surgery on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar; some authors have shown improvement of periodontal health distal to the adjacent second molar, whilst others have demonstrated loss of attachment level (AL) and reduction of alveolar bone height. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in periodontal health parameters distal to the adjacent second molar following extraction of an impacted third molar. Out of 50 patients participated in the study, 42 patients completed the study. The mean age of the sample was 20.9 (range, 18-25) years. All teeth were mesioangular impacted mandibular third molars categorized at C1 class based on the Pell and Gregory classification. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon and the same surgeon recorded the pre-operative and post-operative measurements of probing depth (PD) and AL on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars. Data analysis were carried out with the SPSS software (version 19), using the paired-samples t-test and one sample t-test. Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar resulted in a significant increase of PD on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars, whereas AL was decreased significantly after surgery (P molar after extraction of impacted third molar, our study showed a significant increase in PD at the distal aspect of the second molar. Further follow-up on clinical and radiological parameters are required for more profound understanding of the long-term effects of third molar extraction on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar.

  3. Improvement in the airway after mandibular distraction osteogenesis surgery in children with temporomandibular joint ankylosis and mandibular hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaty, Ola; El Metainy, Shahira; Abo Alia, Doaa; Medra, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis accompanied by mandibular micrognathia can severely obstruct a patient's upper airway. The obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) resulting from TMJ ankylosis and accompanied by mandibular micrognathia, can severely influence the patient's life. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a difference in Cormack and Lehane score before and after distraction osteogenesis in such patients, and to evaluate the airway changes and the respiratory outcome using polysomnography after mandibular distraction osteogenesis. This observational prospective study was carried out on 30 ASA II patients with micrognathia and TMJ ankylosis undergoing internal distraction osteogenesis. All patients were assessed with polysomnography before surgery and 6 month after surgery. Nasal intubation was done using a fiberoptic bronchoscope, then patients were subjected to the same anesthetic protocol. Direct laryngoscopy was attempted for the Cormack and Lehane grading after induction. The Cormack and Lehane grade was reassessed after facial symmetry was obtained on removal of the distractor. Mouth opening and Cormack and Lehane score improved significantly between the initial presentation for placement of mandibular distraction osteogenesis devices and on removal of the destructor under general anesthesia. Polysomnographic studies conducted after distraction confirmed the correction of airway obstruction in all patients: Improvement in Apnea-Hypopnea Index, mean difference (95% CI), 39.8 (38.8-40.9); the number of apneas per hour, mean difference, (95% CI) 41.1 (42.1-40.1); and oxygen-desaturation-index mean difference (95% CI) 27.6 (28.3-26.8). Mandibular distraction osteogenesis improved laryngeal view. Distraction osteogenesis can be successfully used for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in mandibular hypoplasia patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mandibular corpus bone strain in goats and alpacas: implications for understanding the biomechanics of mandibular form in selenodont artiodactyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Hylander, William L

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify the functional and biomechanical relationship between jaw morphology and in vivo masticatory loading in selenodont artiodactyls. We compare in vivo strains from the mandibular corpus of goats and alpacas to predicted strain patterns derived from biomechanical models for mandibular corpus loading during mastication. Peak shear strains in both species average 600-700 microepsilon on the working side and approximately 450 microepsilon on the balancing side. Maximum principal tension in goats and alpacas is directed at approximately 30 degrees dorsocaudally relative to the long axis of the corpus on the working side and approximately perpendicular to the long axis on the balancing side. Strain patterns in both species indicate primarily torsion of the working-side corpus about the long axis and parasagittal bending and/or lateral transverse bending of the balancing-side corpus. Interpretation of the strain patterns is consistent with comparative biomechanical analyses of jaw morphology suggesting that in goats, the balancing-side mandibular corpus is parasagittally bent whereas in alpacas it experiences lateral transverse bending. However, in light of higher working-side corpus strains, biomechanical explanations of mandibular form also need to consider that torsion influences relative corpus size and shape. Furthermore, the complex combination of loads that occur along the selenodont artiodactyl mandibular corpus during the power stroke has two implications. First, added clarification of these loading patterns requires in vivo approaches for elucidating biomechanical links between mandibular corpus morphology and masticatory loading. Second, morphometric approaches may be limited in their ability to accurately infer masticatory loading regimes of selenodont artiodactyl jaws.

  5. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  6. Jacob's disease associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Ana; Rodríguez, Francisco J; Blasco, Ana; Muñoz, Mario F

    2005-01-01

    Jacob's disease is regarded a rare condition in which a joint formation is established between an enlarged mandibular coronoid process and the inner aspect of the zygomatic body. Chronic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk displacement has been proposed as etiological factor of coronoid process enlargement. We present a 23-year-old woman with long-standing TMJ dysfunction and restricted interincisal opening, who developed a progressive zygomatic asymmetry. The patient underwent treatment by intraoral coronoidectomy and homolateral TMJ arthroscopy in the same surgery. The histopathological diagnosis of the coronoid sample was cartilage-capped exostoses with presence of articular fibrous cartilage. Although the low prevalence of this entity, it should be considered as a possible diagnosis in patients with progressive limitation of mouth opening, although a TMJ syndrome may be present as a cause of this entity.

  7. What Is a Dysfunctional School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a school is dysfunctional depends largely on how dysfunctionality in schools is defined and measured. Dysfunctionality, as any construct, is subject to definition and interpretation, and it is thus always marked by perspectivism. But regardless of the definition games occasionally played by academics, some form of reality takes…

  8. Management of mandibular body fractures in pediatric patients: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baby John

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular fractures are relatively less frequent in children when compared to adults, which may be due to the child′s protected anatomic features and infrequent exposure of children to alcohol related traffic accidents. Treatment principles of mandibular fractures differ from that of adults due to concerns regarding mandibular growth and development of dentition. A case of a 4.5-year-old boy with fractured body of mandible managed by closed reduction using open occlusal acrylic splint and circum mandibular wiring is presented. This article also provides a review of literature regarding the management of mandibular body fracture in young children.

  9. [The influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wendi; Fu, Kiayuan

    2016-03-01

    Anterior disc displacement is a common subtype seen in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. It may cause mandibular movement disorders, such as clicking of joint, intermittent closed lock, limitation of mouth opening, etc. These disorders may affect the life qualities of patients. Anterior disc displacement may also cause mandibular malformations, especially among adolescents, which may affect the growth of condyle, therefore may have a correlation with mandibular retrusion or mandibular deviation when grown up. This paper going to review the influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms.

  10. Sexual dysfunction in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Várkonyi; Kempler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to summarize the etiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and possible treatment options of sexual dysfunction in diabetic patients of both sexes. Details of dysfunction in diabetic women are less conclusive than in men due to the lack of standardized evaluation of sexual function in women. Male sexual dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes, including abnormalities of orgasmic/ejaculatory function and desire/libido in addition to penile erection. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among diabetic men varies from 35% to 75%. Diabetes-induced ED has a multifactorial etiology including metabolic, neurologic, vascular, hormonal, and psychological components. ED should be regarded as the first sign of cardiovascular disease because it can be present before development of symptomatic coronary artery disease, as larger coronary vessels better tolerate the same amount of plaque compared to smaller penile arteries. The diagnosis of ED is based on validated questionnaires and determination of functional and organic abnormalities. First-, second- and third-line therapy may be applied. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor treatment from the first-line options leads to smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum and enhancement in blood flow, resulting in erection during sexual stimulus. The use of PDE-5 inhibitors in the presence of oral nitrates is strictly contraindicated in diabetic men, as in nondiabetic subjects. All PDE-5 inhibitors have been evaluated for ED in diabetic patients with convincing efficacy data. Second-line therapy includes intracavernosal, trans- or intraurethral administration of vasoactive drugs or application of a vacuum device. Third-line therapies are the implantation of penile prosthesis and penile revascularization.

  11. Variant Root Morphology of Third Mandibular Molar in Normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isaac kipyator

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017. Vol 6 (3): 1052 - 1061. 1052. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION. Variant Root Morphology of Third Mandibular Molar in Normal and. Impacted Teeth. Isaac Kipyator Bokindo1, Fawzia Butt 2,3, Francis Macigo4. 1School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

  12. Aetiological Factors for Mandibular Fractures seen in the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road traffic accidents, both vehicular road and traffic accidents (VRTA) and Motorcycle road traffic accidents (MRTA) were the commonest cause (79.9%) of mandibular fractures with MRTA accounting for 36.2% of total and 45.3% of all the RTS's followed by assault, sporting events, falls from heights, gun shot and industrial ...

  13. Mandibular Fractures at Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the trauma centre of Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Government Medical Science and ... most frequently affected sites were parasymphysis and angle. .... mandibular fracture. When history of fall from height was considered symphysis, condyle and body were the most affected sites. On history taking it was found that most ...

  14. Evaluation of Mandibular Condylar Changes in Patients Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... remodeling changes occurring in the TMJ after mandibular advancement surgery in the adult Macaca mulatta monkey.[2]. Condylar resorption was first reported by Burke in 1961.[3] Condylar resorption is. Departments of Oral and. Maxillofacial Surgery and 1Periodontology and. Implantology, Maharaja.

  15. Modular endoprosthesis for mandibular reconstruction: a preliminary animal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Goh, B.T.; Tideman, H.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of a mandibular modular endoprosthesis after segmental resection of part of the body of the mandible was studied. This preliminary study was carried out on four pigs and four monkeys. The devices were made of a titanium alloy and were cemented in the prepared medullary spaces with

  16. Mandibular trauma treatment: a comparison of two protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Kommers, S.C.; Roccia, F.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of mandibular fractures treated in two European centre in 10 years. Study Design: This study is based on 2 systematic computer-assisted databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two

  17. Severe complication of a bonded mandibular lingual retainer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pazera, P.; Fudalej, P.S.; Katsaros, C.

    2012-01-01

    Bonding a flexible spiral wire retainer to the lingual surfaces of all 6 anterior mandibular teeth is a commonly used type of retention. Complications are rare but can be serious enough to produce biologic damage. This article presents a serious complication of a lingual flexible spiral wire

  18. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impacted mandibular third molar surgery: 1‑year results. Int. J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1993;13:397. 43. Edwards MJ, Brickley MR, Goodey RD, Shepherd JP. The cost, effectiveness and cost effectiveness of removal and retention of asymptomatic, disease free third molars. Br Dent. J 1999;187:380‑4. 44. Smith WP.

  19. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy versus distraction osteogenesis for mandibular advancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to compare the treatment modality of distraction osteogenesis (DO) with the gold standard for mandibular advancement surgery. In fact we compare distraction osteogenesis with the standard of care, which is a conventional bilateral sagittal split osteotomy as described by

  20. Mandibular Advancing Positive Pressure Apnea Remediation Device (MAPPARD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Obstructed sleep apnea , remediation devices, modeling and simulations, health care simulations, mandibular advancing positive pressure apnea ...School NURBS non-uniform rational basis spline OSA obstructive sleep apnea OPAL oral , pharyngeal and laryngeal OP oropharynx REM rapid eye...Lobbezoo, F., Hamburger, H. L., & Naeije, M. (2011). Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea

  1. Horizontal angle of inclination of the Mandibular condyle in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The horizontal angle of inclination, is important in maintaining the function of the temporomandibular joint. It should be maintained in the manufacture of condylar prostheses since deviation may lead to disk displacement and degeneration of the articular fossa. While inter-population variations exist in mandibular ...

  2. RADIOLOGICAL TIPS Coronal views of the paediatric mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We discuss 4 cases seen over the last 18 months at Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital in an effort to highlight the importance of routinely reviewing coronal views of the mandibular condyle when interpreting trauma-related computerised tomography brain (CTB) studies in a paediatric setting. The mandible is the ...

  3. Bone Suture in Management of Mandibular Degloving Injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, the author describes the mandibular degloving injury, characterized by the separation of periosteum and soft tissues of the anterior buccal side of the mandible, and the bone suture technique. This article outlines that a correct diagnostic assessment and appropriate treatment plan can reduce the complications ...

  4. Mandibular fractures associated with domestic violence in Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pattern of mandibular fractures associated with domestic violence. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) in the Accident and Emergency Centre and Dental and Maxillofacial Clinic between the ...

  5. Appearance of the mandibular incisive canal on panoramic radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, R.; Mraiwa, N.; van Steenberghe, D.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; Quirynen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs are routinely used in the dental office for various diagnostic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the visibility of neurovascular structures in the mandibular interforaminal region on such radiographs. Panoramic radiographs were obtained with a Cranex Tome (Soredex) from

  6. High condylectomy for the treatment of mandibular condylar hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghawsi, Sodaba; Aagaard, Esben; Thygesen, Torben Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular condylar hyperplasia (MCH) is a rare, idiopathic disorder, which can cause both functional and aesthetic problems. MCH has often been described in the literature, but a comprehensive analysis of the current literature on MCH has not been undertaken. This study presents a systematic rev...

  7. Clinical outcomes of surgical management of anterior bilateral mandibular fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Gallesio, C.; Roccia, F.; van den Bergh, B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess the clinical outcomes of patients with anterior bifocal mandibular fractures and to discuss the management of this peculiar type of trauma. Methods: From the systematic computer-assisted database that has continuously recorded patients hospitalized with

  8. An Audit of Mandibular Third Molar Surgery | Saheeb | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this audit was to identify areas where there could be improvement in patient management as well as evaluating our methods of treatment and effective utilisation of resources. Methods: A retrospective study of mandibular third surgery at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City in ...

  9. Mandibular osteomas in sporadic colorectal carcinoma. A genetic marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, J O; Rasmussen, M S; Videbaek, H

    1993-01-01

    polyposis. Sporadic colorectal cancer examinations of married couples have shown that diet has only a moderate influence on the development of colorectal cancer, whereas pedigree studies indicate a genetic component. On this basis we conclude that mandibular osteomas are probably genetic markers...

  10. internal root morphology in mandibular first permanent molars in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... and for disinfection. Subsequently, the teeth were ... (70%, 95%, 100%) of ethyl alcohol (Scharlab S.L.. Sentmenat, Spain) for three ... Number of canals in mandibular first molars. 100. 90. 80. 70. 60. 50. 40. 30. 20. 10. 0. 3.2%.

  11. Microvascular temporomandibular joint and mandibular ramus reconstruction in hemifacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkki, S K; Hukki, J; Nietosvaara, Y; Hurmerinta, K; Suominen, E

    2002-11-01

    Microvascular temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and mandibular ramus reconstruction was performed in a 4-year-old hemifacial microsomia patient with multiple craniofacial and extracranial anomalies (Goldenhar syndrome). Her major craniofacial anomalies included bilateral cleft lip and palate, left macrostomia, left microtia, and complete absence of the left vertical mandibular ramus and TMJ. Most of her other anomalies had been corrected surgically before TMJ and vertical mandibular ramus reconstruction, which was accomplished with a metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint transplantation. The MTP joint was placed in hyperextended position in the skull base inserting the proximal phalanx under the remnants of the zygomatic arch and replacing the vertical mandibular ramus with the metatarsal bone. Straight mouth opening, correction of the midline, and normalized lateral movements of the mandible were accomplished. The graft includes two epiphyseal plates, which should maintain growth of the transplant. During the follow-up period (16 months) the achieved results have been maintained without adverse effects. The present technique appears to be a promising alternative in the treatment of children with Pruzansky type 3 hemifacial microsomia.

  12. Variant Root Morphology of Third Mandibular Molar in Normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isaac kipyator

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology which leads to increased difficulty during its .... Regeneration within the canal will thus be unimpeded unless obstructed by ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. A descriptive study was carried out at the.

  13. Morphological results of customized microvascular mandibular reconstruction: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitano, Achille; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Virtual planning and guided surgery with customized reconstructive plates are becoming more and more common for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flaps. Although the literature describes many potential applications, no systematic analyses have been made about morphological results regarding computer-aided reconstruction compared to traditional freehand bent plate. In the present study, we propose a comparative study in this innovative field, analysing a case series of 30 CAD/CAM reconstructed mandibles, compared to traditional reconstructed mandibles, in terms of morphological results. All patients were evaluated by pre-operative and a post-operative CT scan. To evaluate the morphological results, several anatomical landmarks were measured on CT scan: 1) the midline deviation; 2) the amplitude variation, in grades, of the mandibular angle; 3) the bi-gonial diameter of the mandibular and 4) the chin protrusion. The mean differences registered between pre-operative and post-operative CT scan were significantly better for test group regarding mandibular angle (p = 0.034), bi-gonial diameter (p = 0.041), chin protrusion (p = 0.05). No significant differences were registered for midline deviation (p = 0.092). CAD/CAM reconstructive technique appears to be a valid method to accurately restore the pre-operative morphological situation. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating Mandibular Motion Based on Chin Surface Targets During Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jordan R.; Wilson, Erin M.; Wang, Yu-Tsai; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The movement of the jaw during speech and chewing has frequently been studied by tracking surface landmarks on the chin. However, the extent to which chin motions accurately represent those of the underlying mandible remains in question. In this investigation, the movements of a pellet attached to the incisor of the mandible were compared with those of pellets attached to different regions of the chin. Method Ten healthy talkers served as participants. Three speaking contexts were recorded from each participant: word, sentence, and paragraph. Chin position errors were estimated by computing the standard distance between the mandibular incisor pellet and the chin pellets. Results Relative to the underlying mandible, chin pellets moved with an average absolute and relative error of 0.81 mm and 7.30%, respectively. The movements of chin and mandibular pellets were tightly coupled in time. Conclusion The chin tracking errors observed in this investigation are considered acceptable for descriptive studies of oromotor behavior, particularly in situations where mandibular placements are not practical (e.g., young children or edentulous adults). The observed amount of error, however, may not be tolerable for fine-grained analyses of mandibular biomechanics. Several guidelines are provided for minimizing error associated with tracking surface landmarks on the chin. PMID:17675597

  15. Degree and distribution of mineralization in the human mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renders, G.A.P.; Mulder, L.; van Ruijven, L.J.; van Eijden, T.M.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The degree of mineralization of bone (DMB) in the mandibular condyle reflects the age and remodeling rate of the bone tissue. Quantification of DMB facilitates a better understanding of possible effects of adaptive remodeling on mineralization of the condyle and its possible consequences for its

  16. Bone Suture in Management of Mandibular Degloving Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence of the degloving injuries of the mandible. Moreover, the highest incidence of mandibular degloving injuries is reported in ... Dental Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry,. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Vakilabad Blvd,. Mashhad, Iran. E-mail: khajehahmadis@mums.ac.ir region. The patient, one ...

  17. Tempero-Mandibular Joint Ankylosis in Children: Management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An analysis of 45 cases of Tempero-mandibular joint ankylosis in Nigerian children seen and managed over a ten- year period is presented. Patients and Method: The clinical presentation and management of 45 children with ankylosis of the mandible over a ten- year period (1991 – 2000) were retrospectively ...

  18. Morphometric Analysis of Mandibular Growth in Skeletal Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis and the finite element morphometric method are efficient for the localization and quantification of size and shape changes that occur during mandibular growth. Plots of maximum and minimum principal directions can provide useful information about the trends of growth changes.

  19. Influence of mastication and edentulism on mandibular bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsuan-Yu; Satpute, Devesh; Müftü, Ali; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Müftü, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that external loading due to daily activities, including mastication, speech and involuntary open-close cycles of the jaw contributes to the internal architecture of the mandible. A bone remodelling algorithm that regulates the bone density as a function of stress and loading cycles is incorporated into finite element analysis. A three-dimensional computational model is constructed on the basis of computerised tomography (CT) images of a human mandible. Masticatory muscle activation involved during clenching is modelled by static analysis using linear optimisation. Other loading conditions are approximated by imposing mandibular flexure. The simulations predict that mandibular bone density distribution results in a tubular structure similar to what is observed in the CT images. Such bone architecture is known to provide the bone optimum strength to resist bending and torsion during mastication while reducing the bone mass. The remodelling algorithm is used to simulate the influence of edentulism on mandibular bone loss. It is shown that depending on the location and number of missing teeth, up to one-third of the mandibular bone mass can be lost due to lack of adequate mechanical stimulation.

  20. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  1. Mandibular trauma treatment: A comparison of two protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Kommers, S.C.; Roccia, F.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of mandibular fractures treated in two European centre in 10 years. Study Design: This study is based on 2 systematic computer-assisted databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two

  2. Acute Pericoronitis And The Position Of The Mandibular Third Molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the relationship of acute pericoronitis to the position of the mandibular third molar in Nigerians. One hundred and thirty-two cases of acute pericoronitis seen over a period of 6 months at the state Dental Centre, Kaduna were studied. The tooth with the highest risk for acute pericoronitis was found to be ...

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Aline Haas; Costa, Ana Beatriz; Engel, Jéssica Della Giustina; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza

    2018-01-01

    Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation. This increase in ROS production by the respiratory chain may also cause oxidative stress, which may exacerbate the inflammatory process in obesity. All these intracellular changes can lead to cellular apoptosis. These processes have been described in obesity as occurring mainly in peripheral tissues. However, some studies have already shown that obesity is also associated with changes in the central nervous system (CNS), with alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in cerebral structures such as hypothalamus and hippocampus. In this sense, this review presents a general view about mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity, including related alterations, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and focusing on the whole organism, covering alterations in peripheral tissues, BBB, and CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [A study on individual mandibular prostheses according to 3D reconstruction of CT images and CNC simulation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liu-guo; Sun, Li-qun

    2007-03-01

    The new method of manufacturing individual mandibular prostheses, in combination with CT data and CNC technique, can duplicate bone tissues accurately, and can have the individual mandibular prosthesis made to order, and repair the mandibular defect (especially the lager mandibular segmental defect).

  5. The effect of maxillary first premolar extraction and incisor retraction on mandibular position: testing the central dogma of "functional orthodontics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, P E; Johnston, L E

    1992-01-01

    It has been argued by a vocal coterie of disaffected dentists that premolar extraction, incisor retraction, and "backward-pulling" mechanics conspire to "distalize" the condyles and, pari passu, to produce craniomandibular dysfunction. Given the gravity of this conjecture, it seemed appropriate to test the predictions it generates in a sample of patients of the type most often said to be at risk: 42 "edgewise" patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions, treated in conjunction with the extraction of two maxillary first premolars. Regional and anterior cranial-base cephalometric superimpositions were used to quantify the individual components of the molar and overjet corrections, to measure both at the chin and condyles the mandibular displacement seen during treatment, and to examine the extent to which this displacement is related to the correction of maxillary incisor protrusion. Although the present patients underwent marked upper incisor retraction (on average, about 5 mm), lip retraction was much less pronounced, and 70% of the sample showed a net forward displacement of mandibular basal bone. Significantly, changes in condylar position were not correlated with incisor retraction, as the "functional orthodontists" would have it, but rather with the changes in the buccal occlusion and the growth of the maxilla. Thus, 30% of the patients who showed evidence of distal displacement were generally nongrowing patients who underwent more than average anchorage loss in the mandible and less than average loss in the maxilla.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Analysis by computed tomography of bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in relation to clinical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Nakajima, Tamio; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1994-12-01

    Bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in 33 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were studied with axial computed tomography in relation to clinical findings to clarify possible factors leading to bone changes in this phenomenon. Bone changes of the mandibular head were observed in 45 (68%) of the 66 TMJs. The mandibular head was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in 13 (29%) of the 45 joints in centric occlusion and in 29 joints (64%) in the anterior position on CT, whereas the mandibular head with no pathological bone change was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in none of the 21 joints in centric occlusion and in only 1 joint (5%) in the anterior position. In the two groups of patients with and without juxtaposition of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa with bone changes, the incidence of the initial symptoms such as pain, crepitus, and difficulty in opening the mouth was increased compared with the symptoms at presentation. However, the former group had severer symptoms than the latter group. These findings suggest that bony degeneration of the TMJ is accelerated by juxtaposition of the head and fossa. (author).

  7. New method for an evaluation of the esthetical improvements resulting from a mandibular angle reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hwan; Han, Se-Jin; Kim, Moon-Young

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes Han's ratio as an objective and quantitative comparative result obtained from pre and postoperative data in patients with a mandibular angle reduction. Thirty patients, 12 men and 18 women, who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with the chief complaints of skeletal mandibular prognathism and prominent mandibular angle were selected. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to the types of surgical procedures involved. Group A consisted of patients who underwent mandibular angle resection and mandibular setback. Group B was comprised of patients with mandibular angle resection, mandibular setback and genioplasty. Group C consisted of patients with mandibular angle resection, mandibular setback, Le Fort I osteotomy, and genioplasty. The landmarks placed in pre and postoperative frontal photographs were used to obtain the Han's ratio in each group. The Han's ratios were compared pre- and postoperation and according to the surgical techniques applied. Of the 3 groups who had undergone a mandibular angle resection, all showed a statistically significant increase in Han's ratio. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference based on the surgical techniques used. The ratio of the lateral lower face proposed in this study is a potential indicator of postoperative esthetic enhancement in mandibular angle reduction surgery.

  8. Panoramic radiographic findings of the mandibular foramen from deciduous to early permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Huey

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the position of the mandibular foramen from deciduous (Hellman's stage IIA) to early permanent dentition (Hellman's stage IVA). Panoramic radiographs of 311 Taiwanese children were used. The results revealed that the distances between the mandibular foramen and ramus anterior plane were greater than those between the mandibular foramen and ramus posterior plane through all stages. The mean difference between them was the smallest (0.25 mm) in stage IIA and the greatest (1.18 mm) in stage IIIC. The distance from the mandibular foramen to the alveolar crest plane showed a little change from stage IIA (3.99 mm) to IVA (5.26 mm). The gonial angle had a negative correlation with the distances between the mandibular foramen and each mandibular border. Evaluation of the mandibular foramen from the oral aspect can be influenced by the degree of mouth opening.

  9. Do flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges improve retention of mandibular complete dentures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Elmorsy, Ayman Elmorsy; Ahmed Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa; Ela, Alaa Aboul; Fahmy, Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures with that of mandibular complete dentures having lingual flanges constructed with flexible acrylic resin “Versacryl.” Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 10 completely edentulous patients. Each patient received one maxillary complete denture and two mandibular complete dentures. One mandibular denture was made of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin and the other had its lingual flanges made of flexible acrylic resin Versacryl. Digital force-meter was used to measure retention of mandibular dentures at delivery and at 2 weeks and 45 days following denture insertion. Results: The statistical analysis showed that at baseline and follow-up appointments, retention of mandibular complete dentures with flexible lingual flanges was significantly greater than retention of conventional mandibular dentures (P dentures, retention of dentures increased significantly over the follow-up period (P dentures improved denture retention. PMID:26539387

  10. Mandibular defect reconstruction with nonvascularized iliac crest bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoje, V N; Obimakinde, O S; Arotiba, J T; Fasola, A O; Ogunlade, S O; Obiechina, A E

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of mandibular defect is a challenge to the head and neck surgeon because of associated functional and esthetic problems. Our experience with the use of nonvascularized iliac crest bone graft is hereby reported. The aim was to report our experience with the use of nonvascularized iliac crest bone for mandibular defect reconstruction at University College Hospital, Ibadan. Nigeria. A retrospective descriptive study was performed. Cases of mandibular reconstruction with iliac crest bone graft between January 2001 and December 2007 were included in this study. Grafts were secured with either a stainless steel wire or a titanium plate. Preoperative diagnosis, postoperative follow-up records including investigations, diagnosis of graft infection and subsequent treatment modalities were extracted from the available records. Descriptive variables were analyzed with SPSS version 14. A total of 47 patients had mandibular defect reconstruction with nonvascularized iliac crest block bone during the study period. Thirty-eight patients had graft secured with transosseous wire [NVIBw] while 9 had a titanium plate [NVIBp]. The male:female ratio was 26:21 while the mean age of the patients was 24.6±4.25 years. Ten patients (21.3%) developed persistent graft infection during the postoperative period. All cases of infection occurred in patients who had transosseous wiring and analysis showed that 60% of the infected grafts revealed mixed microbial isolates containing Klebsiela spp, Pseudomonas Aeurogenosa, and E coli. Six (60%) of the infected grafts were removed as a result of unabated infection while 4 (40%) were successfully treated by exploration and pus drainage. Nonvascularized iliac crest bone graft provides an affordable and less technical choice for mandibular reconstruction with minimal complications in a resource-limited economy.

  11. Benign paediatric mandibular tumours: experience in reconstruction using vascularised fibula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamoon; Tamimy, Muhammad Sarmad; Ehtesham-Ul-Haq; Sarwar, Saad Ur Rahman; Rizvi, Syed Taokeer Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    The majority of the paediatric oral and maxillofacial tumours are benign and the mandible is involved in one-third of these cases. A review of the literature reveals only a handful of studies pertaining exclusively to benign paediatric mandibular tumours. The basis of this study was to fulfil the need to assess the suitability of major mandibular reconstructions using a vascularised fibular graft in cases of benign tumours in children. From April 1999 to April 2011 we have managed 18 cases of benign paediatric mandibular tumours. All the reconstructions were done using vascularised fibular graft. The age of these patients ranged from 8 to 16 years. The most common pathology seen in our series was Ameloblastoma, followed by Giant Cell Granuloma and vascular malformation. Other cases included fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst and odontogenic myxoma. Five of these were recurrent lesions. The mean length of the fibula harvested was 12 ± 2 cm. All the flaps in this series survived. Bone union occurred in all cases by 6 weeks. All the patients have maintained a satisfactory chin contour of the mandible during the follow-up period with minimal distortion occurring secondary to contralateral native mandibular growth in two cases. We conclude that, for benign paediatric mandibular tumours requiring major bone resection, the vascularised fibula is an excellent reconstructive option with the advantages of having a good bone stock, possibility for osteotomy, long pedicle length and potential for growth along with the possibility of dental rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Mandibular Condylar Mobility Sonography Measurements Predict Difficult Laryngoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weidong; Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Bin; Yu, Tao; Shen, Zhongbing; Wu, Hao; Jin, Xiaoju; Li, Yuanhai

    2017-03-01

    Limited mandibular condylar mobility plays an important role in difficult laryngoscopy. Indirect assessment methods, such as mouth opening, have been proven to be useful predictors of difficult laryngoscopy. Sonography is a new direct assessment method for the limited mandibular condylar mobility. However, whether this method could be used in predicting difficult laryngoscopy still remains unknown. This study aimed to observe its ability to predict difficult laryngoscopy. Adult patients who were administered tracheal intubations for elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Mandibular condylar mobility was assessed by sonography through condylar translation measurements. Beside mouth opening, other indirect variables that correlated with temporomandibular joint mobility, such as mandibular protrusion distance, upper lip bite test, and whether the condyle-tragus distance was Cormack-Lehane level 3 or 4. A total of 484 patients were prospectively included, and difficult laryngoscopy was reported in 41 patients. The condylar translation prediction criterion for difficult laryngoscopy was ≤10 mm. The condylar translation was correlated with Cormack-Lehane level (Spearman correlation coefficient, -0.46; 99% confidence interval [CI], -0.55 to -0.36) and owned the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.93; 99% CI, 0.90 to 0.96, compared with that of the other predictors, P < .001) with difficult laryngoscopy. The condylar translation ≤10 mm was with a considerable κ value (κ = 0.52; 99% CI, 0.37 to 0.67) to difficult laryngoscopy and proved to be an independent predictor by a multivariate logistic regression. Compared with indirect assessments, such as mouth opening and other parameters, mandibular condylar mobility, as assessed directly using sonography, was correlated with difficult laryngoscopy and demonstrated an independent and notably predictive property.

  13. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Mandibular Spanning Plate Technique Compared to Standard Plating Techniques to Treat Mandibular Symphyseal Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Richardson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical behavior of the spanning reconstruction plate compared to standard plating techniques for mandibular symphyseal fractures. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five human mandible replicas were used. Five unaltered synthetic mandibles were used as controls. Four experimental groups of different reconstruction techniques with five in each group were tested. Each synthetic mandible was subjected to a splaying force applied to the mandibular angle by a mechanical testing unit until the construct failed. Peak load and stiffness were recorded. The peak load and stiffness were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test at a confidence level of 95% (P<0.05. Results. The two parallel plates’ group showed statistically significant lower values for peak load and stiffness compared to all other groups. No statistically significant difference was found for peak load and stiffness between the control (C group, lag screw (LS group, and the spanning plate (SP1 group. Conclusions. The spanning reconstruction plate technique for fixation of mandibular symphyseal fractures showed similar mechanical behavior to the lag screw technique when subjected to splaying forces between the mandibular gonial angles and may be considered as an alternative technique when increased reconstructive strength is needed.

  14. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction and its association to caries in mandibular second molar: A clinical variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, V K; Mitra, Ruchi; Vinayak, K M

    2017-01-01

    Caries in second molar is common and prophylactic removal of the impacted teeth may be considered appropriate. Caries detection and restoration can be difficult and a restored second molar can undergo recurrent caries if the third molar is not removed prophylactically. In this study, the clinical findings related to impaction and its association with angular position and depth of impacted third molar were evaluated. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out among the patients visiting the outpatient, department of Dentistry, RIMS, Ranchi. The clinical examination, periapical radiographs and Pre-op OPG were taken. Teeth positions were analyzed by Pell and Gregory and Winter classification. The angulation and depth of mandibular third molar impaction and caries in the second molar with the eruption status of the mandibular third molar was determined. A total of 200 patients were included in the study between age group 17-45 years. Majority of the Patients reported to the hospital with complaints of decayed tooth (66%) and pain (59%). The most common third molar impaction was mesioangular followed by distoangular. A statistically highly significant difference (P = 0.001) was obtained with the presence of caries in second molar adjacent to mesioangular third molar in class I and level B. According to this study, pattern of mandibular third molar impaction is in association to caries in mandibular second molar. More future studies are needed. In addition, the results of the present study can be used to screen and inform the patients about the possibility of caries in relation to third molar mandibular impaction.

  15. Aging and Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri Tirado, Laura C; Ferrer, Julio E; Herrera, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been identified as the most common sexual problem that affects mainly men older than 40 years. According to this, there is a strong evidence linking ED with a number of medical conditions and related risk factors that had been described in the literature, yet there is limited information about the specific mechanism involved in the establishment of ED among healthy older men. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and mainly focus on the basic physiologic and vascular alterations and morphologic changes related to aging and its related risk factors, summarizing the main and the latest findings in basic research of tissue remodeling process involved in ED pathophysiology. Data from the pertinent literature were examined to inform our conclusions. This article defines the morphologic and physiologic mechanisms involved in the process of aging, which play a key role in the development of sexual dysfunction. ED has been considered as a nonlife-threatening condition, but the recognition of its multiple comorbid conditions, the importance of aging process over the male sexual performance among them its relation with vascular and nitric oxide content alteration, as well as penile morphologic changes, and the fact that it is a widespread under-reported disease, have established the need of an early diagnosis and treatment of this common sexual problem within the general male population. In this case, morphologic and physiologic mechanisms that are involved in the aging process play a key role in the development of sexual dysfunction in the absence of any other clinical or medical condition. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cervico-mandibular muscle activity in females with chronic cervical pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological mechanisms behind pain in chroniccervical musculoskeletal conditions (MSC in office workers remainunclear. Chronic cervical pain has established links with temporomandibular(TM disorders. Yet there is no current published evidence to reportwhether individuals with cervical dysfunction exhibit altered masseterand cervical extensor (CE muscle activity. Objective: To explore CE andmasseter surface electromyographic (sEMG activity and teeth clenchinghabits in females with chronic cervical dysfunction and no TM disorder.Design: Descriptive cross-sectional correlational study with singleblinding.Participants: University students and staff with or without chroniccervical pain and no TM involvement. Methods: Descriptive and paindata captured from Research Diagnostic Criteria for TM disorders, NeckDisability Index, Computer Usage, Brief Pain Inventory, and EuroQoL-5Dquestionnaires. Female participants allocated to a chronic cervical (n = 20 and a control group (n = 22. Investigator blindedto the study groups recorded sEMG of bilateral masseter and CE muscles (C4/5 level at rest and during light teeth clenching.Results: No differences in socio-demographic profile; or in masseter or CE sEMG activity at rest or during light clench betweengroups. The pain group had higher scores for pain, reported a daytime teeth clenching habit, and had worse scores for the healthrelatedquality of life (HRQoL sub-sections for pain, anxiety/depression, and lower scores for perceived health status. Conclusion:No relationship established between cervico-mandibular sEMG activity and reported disability in females with chronic cervicaldysfunction and no TM disorder. Association between biopsychosocial factors of teeth clenching and anxiety/depression highlightscomplex pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic recurrent cervical pain.

  17. Computer assisted mandibular reconstruction using a custom-made titan mesh tray and removable denture based on the top-down treatment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Tomoko; Shigeta, Yuko; Hirabayashi, Rio; Hirai, Shinya; Hirai, Kentaro; Harada, Naohiko; Kawamura, Noboru; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to propose a computer assisted mandibular reconstruction procedure, utilizing a custom-made Ti-mesh tray with particulate cancellous bone and marrow, and a removable denture. This procedure was based on the top-down treatment technique, and reviews the case of a representative patient with mandibular continuity defect. The patient was a 74-year old female with a chief complaint of facial asymmetry and masticatory dysfunction. Due to gingival carcinoma, she underwent a segmental mandibulectomy on the left mandibule. On the VR space, using 3-D reconstructed computer tomography data, the residual right-side mandibular fragment was repositioned based on the condylar position and the occlusal relation. The mandibular fragment was then mirrored for a central sagittal plane. The position of the mirrored object was slightly arranged with the occlusal relation. Through the above operations, the landmark configuration, for the custom-made Ti-mesh tray as a virtual simulation model, was fabricated. On the physical model, we produced a custom-made Ti-mesh tray with a commercial Ti-mesh sheet. Surgical treatment was carried out using the tray. The denture pattern was designed by a dental technician on the VR space, fabricated using a 3D printer, and modified to create an impression tray with resin. Using the impression, the temporary removable denture was fabricated. We propose a computer assisted design for a custom-made Ti-mesh tray and a removable denture, based on the Top-down treatment concept. We feel this technique is advantageous in reconstructing functional occlusion, and in accurately regaining dental and facial esthetics. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transparotid approach for mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, A; Moretti, A; Vitullo, F; Castriotta, A; Rosa, De M; Citraro, L

    2010-12-01

    Mandibular condylar neck fractures and subcondylar fractures represent, respectively, 19-29% and 62-70% of all mandibular fractures; treatment involves some problems, common to both, concerning the choice of an adequate approach. Herewith, personal experience is reported related to the surgical treatment of some cases of mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures by transparotid approaches with partial parotidectomy, removing the salivary tissue overlying the condylar neck and/or the subcondylar region. Over the last 5 years, we observed 22 fractures of the condylar neck and 10 fractures of the subcondylar region. In 13 patients (11 male, 2 female, age range 10-68 years, mean 33 years), 10 of whom had other mandibular and/or other maxillo-facial and skeleton fractures - 50% of these with dislocated condylar heads - and the other 3 for their free choice, regarding the different treatments, 18 transparotid approaches with partial parotidectomy (bilateral in 5 cases), were performed reducing and fixing 12 condylar neck fractures and 5 subcondylar region fractures with appropriate plates (2.0 mm) and screws. After surgery, no intermaxillary fixation was performed. Complications included 4 salivary fistulae (bilateral in 1 patient), which closed spontaneously after 4 or 5 weeks with a dressing, 1 case of Frey's syndrome, which healed after 2 treatments with botulin and 6 cases of transient facial palsy lasting 4-8 weeks (1 case bilateral) affecting zygomatic, buccal and marginal mandibular nerves. During follow-up, functional parameters considered were: restoration of original pre-injury occlusion; vertical, lateral and protrusion mandibular movements. All patients re-acquired the original pre-injury occlusion; the maximal post-operative intrinsical distance was at least 40 mm after a variable period of rehabilitation and lateral and protrusion movements also led to satisfactory final results. All patients were free of pain and had no deflection or clicking upon

  19. Mandibular condyle position: comparison of articulator mountings and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, S R; Moore, R N; DuBois, L M

    1993-09-01

    This study evaluated the reliability of jaw positions, the existence of distinct jaw positions, and condyle-disk-fossa relationships in a symptom-free population by using articulator mountings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The subjects examined included 28 men, 22 to 35 years of age, all having Angle Class I molar relationships and no discernible TMJ dysfunction. Records taken included the following: an axiographic face-bow to locate retruded hinge axis position, an interocclusal registration of retruded position (RE), a series of interocclusal registrations for centric occlusion (CO), a leaf gauge-generated centric relation (CR), a series of interocclusal registrations for CR, and MRI. The mandibular position indicator of the SAM articulator (Great Lakes Orthodontics, Ltd., Tonawanda, N.Y.) was used to determine reliability and existence of distinct jaw positions. Magnetic resonance imaging also evaluated jaw positions and anatomic relationships. The results indicate: (1) The articulator analysis of CO and CR is statistically replicable. (2) A distinct jaw position could be demonstrated for CO that was separate from RE and CR. It was not possible to discriminate between RE and CR. (3) Condylar concentricity was observed in half of the sample and remained consistent in RE, CO, and CR. (4) Of the sample 13% demonstrated anteriorly displaced disks that were not influenced by posterior condyle placement. (5) The clinical concept of treating to CR as a preventive measure to improve disk-to-condyle relationships was not supported by this study.

  20. Resolution of neurosensory deficit after mandibular orthognathic surgery: A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolayan, Albraa Badr; Leung, Yiu Yan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the longitudinal resolution of neurosensory deficit (NSD) and the possible risk factors that might contribute to NSD following mandibular orthognathic procedures. A prospective longitudinal observational study on patients who had mandibular orthognathic procedures was performed. Standardized neurosensory assessments were performed. The 2 years longitudinal resolution and risk factors of NSD including patients' age and gender, specific mandibular procedures and surgeons' experience were analyzed. 66 patients (44 females) with 132 sides of mandibular procedures were enrolled in the study. Surgical procedures included mandibular ramus surgery, anterior mandibular surgery, or the combination of the two. The overall occurrences of subjective NSD improved from 78.8% at postoperative 2 weeks to 13.8% at post-operative 2 years. Combinations of ramus surgery and anterior mandibular surgery increased the risk of NSD at the first three post-operative months (p orthognathic surgery. The occurrence of NSD after mandibular orthognathic procedures reduced progressively within the post-operative 2 years. Combination of mandibular ramus surgery and anterior mandibular surgery increased the risk of NSD in the early post-operative period. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation between 3-dimensional facial morphology and mandibular movement during maximum mouth opening and closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Seung; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Hwang, Soon-Jung; Yi, Won-Jin

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between mandibular movement and facial morphology parameters measured using 3-dimensional CT data. We have developed a mandibular movement tracking and simulation system. The mandibular movement data were acquired from 22 subjects (6 males and 16 females), 3 who had no clinical facial deformities and 19 who had orthofacial deformities. The subjects voluntarily performed maximum mouth opening and closing movements. Three-dimensional maximum linear movements of selected points (bilateral condylions, infradentale, and pogonion) were calculated to represent mandibular movement. Facial morphology values were measured 3-dimensionally from CT data and bilateral morphological values were divided into 2 groups according to the mandibular deviation, the deviated side, and counter-deviated side groups. Correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationship between mandibular movements and facial morphology. Maximum linear movements of all selected points on the mandible were positively correlated with sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and sella-nasion-point B (SNB). Movements of the infradentale and pogonion were significantly correlated with ramus inclination, lateral mandibular body angle, ramus length, and mandibular body length. Condylar movement was positively correlated with lateral mandibular body angle and mandibular body length. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the model predicting the effect of morphological values on mandibular movement. Condylar movement was associated with the SNA (R(2) value = 0.32 for the deviated side, R(2) value = 0.26 for the counter-deviated side), and movement of the infradentale was associated with both SNA and ramus length (R(2) value = 0.57). Movement of the pogonion could be predicted by SNA, mandibular length, and condylar head length (R(2) value = 0.65). The 3D facial morphology values were associated with variations in mandibular

  2. Managing female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, John E

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MANDIBULAR REZEKSİYON GEÇİRMİŞ HASTALARDA PROTETİK TEDAVİ-PROSTHETIC REHABILITATION FOR THE RESECTED MANDIBULAR PATIENT

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, Haluk; Derviş, Emel; Uygun, Nurcan; Somtürk, Esra; Karakullukçu, Aytaç; İyigün, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETMandibular rezeksiyonda; Enfekte bölge, oral neoplazma-dan etkilenen mandibuîaya ait dişler, gingiva, ve alveol kemiği marginal rezeksiyonla kaldırılır. Cerrahi rezeksiyon sonucu oluşan mandibulamn devamsızlığı, mandibular fonksiyonunun simetri ve balansını bozar, buna defekt kenarında kalan parçanın deviasyonu ve değişen mandibular hareket eklenir. Mandibular rezeksiyon çeşitlerine göre protezlerin düzenlenmesi yapılır.Anahtar sözcük: Mandibular rezeksiyon.ABSTRACTIn mandibular resection...

  4. Vesicoureteral reflux and bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Lee, Yong Seung; Im, Young Jae; Han, Sang Won

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between vesicoureteral reflux and bladder dysfunction is inseparable and has long been emphasized. However, the primary concern of all physicians treating patients with vesicoureteral reflux is the prevention of renal scarring and eventual deterioration of renal function. Bladder dysfunction, urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux are the three important factors which are closely related to each other and contribute to the formation of renal scar. Especially, there is ongoing discussion regarding the role of bladder dysfunction in the prognosis of both medically and surgically treated vesicoureteral reflux. The effect of bladder dysfunction on VUR is mostly via inadequate sphincter relaxation during infancy which is closer to immature bladder dyscoordination rather than true dysfunction. But after toilet training, functional obstruction caused by voluntary sphincter constriction during voiding is responsible through elevation in bladder pressure, thus distorting the architecture of bladder and ureterovesical junction. Reports suggest that voiding phase abnormalities in lower urinary tract dysfunction contributes to lower spontaneous resolution rate of VUR. However, filling phase abnormalities such as involuntary detrusor contraction can also cause VUR even in the absence of dysfunctional voiding. With regards to the effect of bladder dysfunction on treatment, meta-analysis reveals that the cure rate of VUR following endoscopic treatment is less in children with bladder bowel dysfunction but there is no difference for open surgery. The pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction associated with UTI can be explained by the 'milk-back' of contaminated urine back into the bladder and significant residual urine resulting from functional outlet obstruction. In addition, involuntary detrusor contraction can decrease perfusion of the bladder mucosa thus decreasing mucosal immunity and creating a condition prone to UTI. In terms of renal scarring

  5. Predator deterrence by mandibular gland secretions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, J H

    1986-06-01

    Volatile lipids from the mandibular gland secretions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) are potent olfactory repellents of foraging ants (Formica, Crematogaster) in biologically relevant contexts and quantities. In contrast, differential success in capture of bee and fly prey by predatory asilid flies (Efferia), reduviid bugs (Apiomerus), and arachnids (Agelenopsis, Argiope) is better explained by prey size than by chemical repellence, aposematism, or possession of a sting. Supernormal doses of some allomones, applied to worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) that were fed toArgiope aurantia spiders, elicted more frequent preenvenomation pauses following ensnarement but did not significantly increase other prey-handling times. These pauses merely delayed the bee's demise. Mandibular gland secretions of solitary bees augment their other secondary defenses in at least two contexts: (1) during intranest encounters when repelling intruding ants, and (2) retaliation delivered to their arthropodan predators which, if the bee is nearly too large for the predator to handle, may allow the bee to escape.

  6. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  7. Deforming mandibular osteomyelitis in a cow caused by Trueperella pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Antas Caffaro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an unusual case of deforming mandibular osteomyelitis in a cow caused by Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes, on the face of the ventrolateral caudal portion of the right branch of the mandible. Fragment aspired of lesion by fine needle allowed cytological characterization, isolation and identification of T. pyogenes. Radiographic examination showed marked periosteal reaction in the right mandible, numerous lytic areas and cortical bone destruction. Despite of treatment based on in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity test, it was recommended the euthanasia due to progressive worsening of the cow's condition. Multiple abscesses were observed in the mandibular region at necropsy. Pyogranuloma was characterized in histological exam. Sampled material collected from the lesion after necropsy resulted in microbiological reisolation of T. pyogenes

  8. Implant mandibular rehabilitation postoncologic segmental resection: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta Gil, Matias; Bucci, Tommaso; Ruiz, Blanca Duarte; Vila, Carlos Navarro; Marenzi, Gaetano; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2012-04-01

    In cases of reconstruction of a discontinuity defect of the mandible, the surgeon has a major responsibility to maximize function as well as cosmetics and to preserve quality of life, restoring mastication, speech, and appearance. Treatment of mandibular discontinuity defects is a complex process and, among other methods, includes the use of free vascularized flaps. A variety of donor sites have been used for this purpose, including the iliac crest, radius, scapula, and fibula.At this time, the iliac crest free flap represents a versatile reconstruction method after mandibular ablation. This article reports a clinical case using the iliac crest free flap for comprehensive reconstruction of discontinuity defects in the mandible after resections of an aggressive odontogenic tumor. The immediate implant positioning reduced the number of surgical procedures and the rehabilitation time.

  9. Three-dimensional analysis of mandibular growth and tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2005-01-01

    Normal and abnormal jaw growth and tooth eruption are topics of great importance for several dental and medical disciplines. Thus far, clinical studies on these topics have used two-dimensional (2D) radiographic techniques. The purpose of the present study was to analyse normal mandibular growth...... and tooth eruption in three dimensions based on computer tomography (CT) scans, extending the principles of mandibular growth analysis proposed by Bjork in 1969 from two to three dimensions. As longitudinal CT data from normal children are not available (for ethical reasons), CT data from children......, relocated laterally during growth. Furthermore, the position of tooth buds remained relatively stable inside the jaw until root formation started. Eruption paths of canines and premolars were vertical, whereas molars erupted in a lingual direction. The 3D method would seem to offer new insight into jaw...

  10. Guided and unguided mandibular reference positions in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celar, A; Freudenthaler, J; Crismani, A; Graf, A

    2013-02-01

    To determine the difference between guided and unguided mandibular reference positions assessed by articulator simulation. This study was carried out at the Division of Orthodontics at Vienna Medical University. The sample population consisted of 19 men and 18 women aged 23-32 years and without temporomandibular disorder. Three examiners used bimanual operator guidance and unguided mandibular stationary hinging at final jaw closure before occlusal contact and made occlusal wax recordings. The examiners repeated both techniques after 8 and 17 days on the same subjects. Condylar positions were assessed using articulator-mounted casts and a three-dimensional electronic condylar position indicator. Bimanual guidance positioned the condylar spheres, on average, 0.1 mm more right and 0.6 mm more posterior and superior to unguided hinging (p articulator study, the spatial variability of condylar sphere positions suggested a statistically but not clinically relevant methodological difference between bimanual guidance and unguided stationary hinging. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Dimorphism of Mandibular Canine Index Establishing in Sex Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaliputra P Magar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation study to establish the effectiveness of using mesiodistal width of mandible and intercanine arch width in mandible in sex identity in Madhya Pradesh. The study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Modem Dental College and Research Center, Indore. The subjects selected for the investigation included 350 individuals from rural and urban localities visiting to Modem Dental College and Research Center, and camp was conducted in school and junior college in Madhya Pradesh (MP region. Results were statistically analyzed by using mandibular canine index (MCI, calculated by formula and observed that the mean mesiodistal width of the right as well as left mandibular canine was larger in males as compared with females. Due to accuracy and easy method, it is considered for use in sex identity.

  12. Rapid Prototyping as an Auxiliary in Mandibular Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Pedro Henrique da Hora; Cetira Filho, Edson Luiz; Oliveira Neto, Jair Queiroz de; Silva, Julianne Coelho da; Aguiar, Andrea Silvia Walter de; Mello, Manoel de Jesus Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    The reconstruction of mandible is a challenge with regard to aesthetic and reconstructive demands. The etiology of mandibular fractures is variable, trauma, pathology, bone infections. There are many materials that provide an excellent form of rehabilitation for these defects, where the autogenous graft presents important characteristics that favor a greater success rate. Furthermore, the rapid prototyping method is quite interesting, because it brings a series of advantages to the surgeon, like reducing the operative time, among others. The purpose of the present article is to describe a clinical case of a patient with mandible bone defect caused by gunshot perforation, treated through iliac crest bone graft with planning through rapid prototyping. The mandibular reconstruction can present a real challenge for the surgeon. Biomodels should be required in complex cases because they help to decrease surgical time and to increase the predictability of the procedure.

  13. Should patients take vitamin D before mandibular operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, N; Chiu, G A; Korczak, P

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is endemic in the United Kingdom (UK), particularly in high-risk groups. We report the outcomes of patients with low concentrations of the vitamin who had complications after reduction of mandibular fractures or osteotomy, and those who were screened preoperatively. A deficiency can be diagnosed with a simple and inexpensive blood test, and in the UK the cost of a vitamin D tablet is about £0.04/tablet/day. Patients at risk of a deficiency should be screened before mandibular operations, and those listed for orthognathic surgery or replacement of the temporomandibular joint should be asked to take a supplement before operation. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Internal maxillary artery pseudoaneurysm in a case of mandibular fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanth Siddharth

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of internal maxillary artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient with a subcondylar fracture of the mandible. Though traumatic pseudoaneurysm in the craniofacial region is a known entity, a situation in which a closed mandibular fracture presents as a rapidly growing swelling in the neck and facial region is a rare presentation. Such a warning sign should be taken seriously and investigated further.

  15. Factors contributing to the surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate contributing factors in patients requiring surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures. Of all the patients with mandibular fractures who were treated using internal fixation at a trauma hospital over a seven-year period, 20 patients (4.7% required a second surgery and thus composed the “reoperated” group. The control group comprised 42 consecutive patients with mandibular fractures who were treated at the same clinic and who healed without complications. Medical charts were reviewed for gender, age, substance abuse history, dental condition, etiology, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure, teeth in the fracture line, associated facial fractures, polytrauma, time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, surgical approach and fixation system. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0; descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test were used to determine differences between groups. Significant differences in substance abuse (p = 0.006, dental condition (p < 0.001, location of fracture (p = 0.010, degree of fragmentation (p = 0.003 and fracture exposure (p < 0.001 were found. With regard to age and time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, older patients (31.4 years, SD = 11.1 and a delay in fracture repair (19.1 days, SD = 18.7 were more likely to be associated with reoperation. It was concluded that substance abuse, age, dental condition, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure and the time between trauma and initial treatment should be considered contributing factors to the occurrence of complications that require surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures.

  16. Prediction of postoperative pain after mandibular third molar surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudin, Asa; Eriksson, Lars; Liedholm, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive potential of preoperative psychological and psychophysiological variables in estimating severity of postoperative pain following mandibular third molar surgery (MTMS). Methods: Following ethical committee approval and informed consent, 40 consecutive patients scheduled...... for MTMS were included. Preoperative psychometric indicators of anxiety, depression, and vulnerability were evaluated by patient questionnaires. Thermal thresholds and heat pain perception (1 second phasic stimuli: 44 degrees C to 48 degrees C) were evaluated with quantitative sensory testing techniques...

  17. Occurrence of the fused permanent mandibular lateral incisor and canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is the union of two normally adjacent tooth germs resulting in the formation of a single large tooth. The incidence of fused teeth is 0.1% in the permanent and 0.5% in the primary dentitions and it may be unilateral or bilateral. The purpose of this article is to report a rare case of unilateral fusion of permanent mandibular lateral incisor and canine with two pulp chambers and a single root canal.

  18. [Mandibular metastasis disclosing a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essakalli, L; Jazouli, N; Kzadri, M

    1994-01-01

    The thyroïd well differentiated carcinoma could be originate of the osseous metastasis and/or pulmonary or others. Sometimes, the cancer of the thyroïd stay latent, discovered by the occasion of secondary osseous localisations. We bring back a personally observation of papillary cancer of the thyroïd discovered by the occasion of mandibular metastasis. Helping ourselves by literary datum, we will comment on essentially the diagnostic and therapeutic problems breeded by this kind of metastasis.

  19. EVALUATION OF MANDIBULAR HARD AND SOFT TISSUES IN CLEFT PATIENTS*

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    Işıl ARAS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular hard and soft tissue measurements of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate patients with non-cleft individuals. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of lateral cephalograms of 45 subjects. Sample included 15 non-cleft (NC, 15 unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP and 15 bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP cases whose age were between 15 to 17. 1 angular 13 linear measurements were carried out using Arnett and Gunson soft tissue cephalometric analysis and 4 angular measurements were calculated with Steiner Analysis. Results: Mandibular incisor inclinations relative to the occlusal plane (Md1-Md OP were significantly greater and mandibular incisor projections (Md1-TVL were significantly retrusive in cleft subjects (p<0.05. Projection values pertaining to lower lip anterior (LLA-TVL, soft tissue B point (B’-TVL, and soft tissue pogonion (Pog’-TVL were significantly deficient as well in cleft patients (p<0.05. Sagittal position of the maxilla (SNA (p<0.001 and intermaxillary relation of the jaws (ANB were significantly deficient in UCLP subjects (p<0.05 and BCLP individuals (p<0.01. LLA-TVL and B’-TVL correlated with SNB in cleft patients (p<0.05. Conclusion: Decreased lower lip and chin projection values suggest that mandibular region of cleft patients should be taken into account in forming the treatment plan to improve the esthetic outcome of orthodontic and plastic surgery interventions.

  20. Suppurative sialadenitis in mandibular gland of a dog: ultrasonographic aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco [UNESP; Arruda, Vanesa Kutz de [UNESP; Silva, Maria Claudia Lopes [UNESP; Lourenço, Maria Lucia Gomes; Rocha, Noeme Sousa [UNESP; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos [UNESP; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Sialoadenitis is a rare inflammatory disease of salivary glands, which may be caused by infection, trauma or auto-immune disease. Ultrasonography is an imaging method considered extremely advantageous in the identification and assessment of glandular diseases. In this report we describe the cervical sonographic findings in a dog diagnosed with suppurative sialadenitis in bilateral mandibular gland. La sialoadenitis es una enfermedad inflamatoria rara de las glándulas salivares, que puede s...

  1. Epidemiological analysis of mandibular fractures treated in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Marinho

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The treatment of mandibular fractures should be aimed at restoring the occlusion and mastication function, with surgery being the most indicated treatment, using reduction and internal fixation with the use of a plates and screws system based on the experience of the authors. Knowledge of surgical techniques and methods of reduction and fixation of fractures, and periodic monitoring allow these patients to receive the appropriate treatment.

  2. Mandibular microsurgical reconstruction in patients with hemifacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Eric; Morales, Christian; Taylor, Jesse Adam; Hay, Alejandra; Ortiz-Monasterio, Fernando

    2008-12-01

    Although hemifacial microsomia is a relatively common craniofacial malformation, there is some debate regarding the ideal treatment of severe mandibular hypoplasia. Traditionally, patients with severe mandibular deficits have been treated with iliac or costochondral bone grafts followed by distraction osteogenesis, with mixed results. The authors present their experience with the use of the fibula osteocutaneous free flap for mandibular reconstruction in severe hemifacial microsomia patients. From 1999 to 2006, 10 patients aged 3 to 10 years (mean, 7.2 years) underwent 10 free flap reconstructions. Of the 10 patients, six were girls and four were boys. Data were collected retrospectively from the patients' records, photographs, and radiographs. The authors report the surgical technique used, complications, and long-term outcome. Nine of 10 flaps were successful, for a flap survival rate of 90 percent. Donor bone length was 5 to 10 cm, with a mean of 6.3 cm. Skin paddles ranged from 8 to 36 cm, with a mean size of 18.7 cm. Mean operation time was 412 minutes and mean follow-up was 45.4 months (range, 12 to 94 months). Two patients underwent successful distraction osteogenesis subsequent to their free flap mandible reconstruction. All patients demonstrated stable bony union of the free flap by physical and radiographic examination. One major complication (a failed free flap) and two minor complications were observed. The free flap is safe and effective, and should be considered as a first choice in mandibular reconstruction in severe cases of hemifacial microsomia where distraction osteogenesis is not possible.

  3. Position and course of the mandibular canal in skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ayla; Potluri, Anitha; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the topography of the mandibular canal (MC) in both vertical and occlusal dimensions. Fifty-two adult skulls deposited in the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine skull collection were evaluated in this study. Cone-beam computerized tomographic scans of each skull were obtained. The vertical course of MC was classified into 3 types: straight projection (12.2%), catenary-like configuration (51.1%), and progressive descent from posterior to anterior (36.7%). The evaluation of the buccolingual dimension showed that the mandibular canal was located either in contact with or close to the lingual cortical plate (≤ 2 mm) in the molar region of the majority of the cases. As it proceeds anteriorly it moves toward the buccal aspect of the mandible, where it finally emerges through the mental foramen. Three emerging patterns of mandibular canal were observed: sharp turn (53.2%), soft curved exit (28.8%), and straight path (17.4%). The examination of the vertical dimension showed that the canal was located almost 1 cm above the inferior border of the mandible and then ascended to reach the mental foramen, which is located ~16 mm (range 13.4-20.3 mm) above the inferior border of the mandible. We found a strong correlation between height of the mandible and location of the mental foramen (r = 0.64; P mandibular canal described in vertical and axial dimensions and variation in its path have been classified. In addition to variation in location of MC, it has different anatomic configurations which clinicians should be familiar with in any surgical procedures involving the posterior mandible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of Mandibular Osteotomy on articulation and resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsa Geffen

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre- and post-operative speech samples were studied in nine adult cases who received Mandibular Osteotomy. Lateral cephalograms were taken during sustained production of selected sounds and trained listeners judged recordings. In most cases there was an improvement in the general quality of the speech. Considering that the functional  relationships between the speech organs had altered, it would appear that some form of adaptation by the speaker had in fact taken place.

  5. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jordão Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving “second and third” molar.

  6. Inferior alveolar nerve sensitivity changes after mandibular trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Simonas Grybauskas; Algirdas Lukosiunas; Gintautas Sabalys; Ricardas Kubilius; Dainius Razukevicius

    2010-01-01

    The investigation was performed on 195 patients, who had fracture on mandibular angle zone. In control group pain thresholds of infraorbital nerve and inferior alveolar nerve did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Consequently, lesion degree of inferior alveolar nerve and its functional recovery dynamics were estimated objectively according to pain threshold and lesion index of neural function. Stump dislocation extent has influence on neural lesion: the more expressed dislocation, the high...

  7. Canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population

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    Hatem A. Alhadainy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population. Two hundred fifty human extracted mandibular first premolars were collected from Egyptian patients and a small hole in the center of the occlusal surface of each tooth was made perforating the roof of the pulp chamber. Teeth were decalcified by immersing in nitric acid and dehydrated in ascending concentrations of ethyl alcohol. A waterproof black ink was passively injected from the occlusal hole into pulp system and stained teeth were immersed in methyl salicylate solution for clearing. Standardized pictures of the cleared teeth were obtained and anatomical features of the root canal were observed. The average length of the mandibular first premolar teeth was 22.48 ± 1.74 mm, one-rooted teeth were 96.8% and the two-rooted were 3.2%. Vertucci Type I canal configuration represented the highest percentage (61.2% followed by Type V (16.4%, Type IV (13.2%, Type II (5.6% and Type III (2.8%. Vertucci Type VI canal configuration represented the lowest percentage (0.4% and a complex configuration was found in one tooth. Accessory canals were detected in 22.8% and inter-canal connections were observed in 24.8% while 54% showed apical delta. Such knowledge is clinically useful for localization and negotiation of canals of mandibular first premolar, as well as their subsequent management in Egyptian population.

  8. Ocular Features of Cerebro-Costo-Mandibular Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Zoya; Taylor, Simon; Lindfield, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by micrognathia, posterior rib gaps, and secondary developmental delay. Patients often require ventilation and feeding support throughout life. We describe the first reported ophthalmic findings of CCMS and propose that defects in choroidal permeability lead to chronic macular edema and refractory aqueous misdirection syndrome. Here we discuss the medical and surgical management concerns of recurrent angle closure and raised intraocular pressure in a CCMS patient.

  9. Masticatory efficiency after rehabilitation of acquired maxillary and mandibular defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, N. Vasantha; Ramesh, Ganesh; Thareja, Amit; Patil, Seema

    2015-01-01

    The effect of oral cancer with its therapeutic intervention involves significant facial and functional disabilities. It is customary to rehabilitate these patients by surgical or prosthetic means. Studies have been done to assess mastication and other functions after rehabilitation. A review of these studies for assessing masticatory function has been done under separate sections for maxillary and mandibular defects. Different masticatory tests are mentioned. Further scope for research has been highlighted. PMID:26392731

  10. Osteossíntese mandibular em jiboia (Boa constrictor)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Jorge Luiz Costa; Pontíficia Universidade Católica do Paraná; Santalucia, Sérgio; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; Pachaly, José Ricardo; Universidade Paranaense; Villanova Junior, José Ademar; Pontífica Universidade Católica do Paraná; Castro, Verônica Souza Paiva; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; Balthazar, Daniel Almeida; Fundação RIOZOO - RJ.; Spadetti, Alex Lucas; Fundação Parque Jardim Zoológico; Souza, Wilker Nazareth; Universidade Castelo Branco; Fedullo, Luiz Paulo Luzes; Fundação RIOZOO - RJ; Raiser, Alceu Gaspar; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays are observed an increase in the finding of certain wild animals in urban areas, due to environmental changes caused by deforestation and economic use of natural areas. It causes disappearance of usual prey and forces these animals, including snakes, to migrate to urban areas, becoming vulnerable to injuries caused by aggressions, car accidents and capture. Mandibular and maxillar fractures are common in many animal species, representing about 3-6% of all bone fractures in dogs and ca...

  11. Mandibular osteomas in sporadic colorectal carcinoma. A genetic marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, J O; Rasmussen, M S; Videbaek, H

    1993-01-01

    Pantomography of the mandible was performed in 98 patients with sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma. Twenty-eight patients (29%) had osteomas versus 5% in a control group (P osteomas are found in most patients with the premalignant dominant syndrome familial adenomatous...... polyposis. Sporadic colorectal cancer examinations of married couples have shown that diet has only a moderate influence on the development of colorectal cancer, whereas pedigree studies indicate a genetic component. On this basis we conclude that mandibular osteomas are probably genetic markers...

  12. [Synthesis and characteristics of integrated bionic mandibular condylar scaffold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihong, Xi; Zhen, Wang; Hong-shui, Zhu; Xiaofeng, Li; Yuanfei, Xiong

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aims to construct a chitosan (CS)-polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) composite biomimetic scaffold to replace condyle and to explore the tissue engineering applications of condylar. A resin mold of the mandibular condyle was prepared by using rapid prototyping techniques. A mandibular condylar integrated biomimetic scaffold model was prepared by solution casting-ice Lek. PCL and CS were mixed at a ratio of 4:1. HA at quality ratios of 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% was added to groups a, b, c, and d, respectively. The microscopic morphology, porosity, infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, and mechanical properties of the scaffold were observed. The scaffold that includes both upper and lower parts displayed the same features (i.e., shape, yellow-white appearance, and hard texture) as the mandibular condyle. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the composite scaffold had a 3D network spatial structure, 70%-85% porosity, and 10-200 µm pore size. Infrared spectra showed that the peak intensity reduced with decreasing HA content. X-ray diffraction showed that the diffraction peak decreased with increasing HA content. Suitable tensile and compressive and flexural strength were discovered in the presence of 50% HA. The scaffold prepared by solution casting-ice Lek shows favorable comprehensive features and is expected to replace human condylar.

  13. 3-D diagnosis-assisted management of anomalous mandibular molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the successful non-surgical endodontic management of carious exposed three-rooted mandibular molar with four root canals detected on the pre-operative radiograph taken with 20 degrees mesial angulation and confirmed with a 64-slice helical computed tomography scan-assisted 3-D-reconstructed images. Access cavity shape was modified to locate the extra canal with respect to the distolingual root in the left mandibular first molar. Copious irrigation was accomplished with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA. Biomechanical preparation was done using protapers. Calcium hydroxide dressing was done for 1 week. The tooth was obturated using gutta percha and AH 26 root canal sealer, and it was permanently restored with composite. Clinical examination on follow-up visits revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in the left mandibular first molar. Thorough knowledge of root canal variations and use of advanced diagnostic modalities lead to successful non-surgical management of the complex cases.

  14. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with mandibular skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ezgi; Malkoç, Siddik; Kirtay, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this case report was to present the dentofacial changes obtained with bone anchorage in a Class II patient with moderate to severe crowding. A boy, aged 14.5 years, with a dolichofacial type, convex profile, and skeletal and dental Class II relationships was examined. After evaluation, functional treatment with bone anchorage and 4 first premolar extractions was decided as the treatment approach. Miniplates were placed on the buccal shelves of the mandibular third molars. The hook of the anchor was revealed from the first molar level. After surgery, the 4 first premolars were extracted to retract the protrusive mandibular incisors. The maxillary and mandibular first molars were banded, and a lip bumper was inserted to apply elastics and to help distalize the maxillary first molars. Orthodontic forces of 300 to 500 g were applied immediately after placement, originating from the miniscrews to the hooks of the appliance to advance the mandible. After 20 months of treatment, the patient had a dental and skeletal Class I relationship, the mandible was advanced, the maxilla was restrained, and overjet was decreased. The combination of a bone anchor, Class II elastics, and an inner bow is a promising alternative to functional treatment, along with extractions, in Class II patients. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aneurysmal bone cyst located in the mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelo, Sandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Boniello, Roberto; Moro, Alessandro; Amoroso, Pier Francesco

    2009-02-16

    A rare case of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) located in the mandibular condyle in a 10-year-old boy is presented. The patient came to our attention for a sudden swelling in the right temporomandibular region, the mouth opening was not reduced. A rapid growing mass, depicting soft tissue invasion, in the right condyle of the mandible was found. Clinically and radiographically it resembled to a malignant lesion. The surgical excision of the mandibular condyle allowed a complete removal of the lesion. The histological examination revealed a pseudocystic expanding osteolytic lesion containing blood-filled space separated by connective tissue and many osteoclastic giant cells, which was a conventional vascular ABC. The ABC is an infrequent bone lesion which can only be found very rarely at the craniofacial skeleton. There have been described about 160 cases of ABC originated in the molar region or in upper maxilla and even more rare is the location of this cyst in the mandibular condyle. Only 6 cases were reported in the literature to date. A complete surgical resection of this osteolytic lesion is the treatment of choice considering its high recurrence rate. The condyle was not replaced with any graft. Therefore a functional device was used after surgery to overcome the lack of the condyle and to stimulate the growth of the ramus.

  16. Craniomandibular Disorders and Mandibular Reference Position in Orthodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Bourzgui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring into focus the literature on the choice of the mandibular reference position in orthodontic treatment; of a particular reference to this paper is intercuspal position, centric relation position, or therapeutic position. To give a comprehensive account of the literature review on craniomandibular disorders (CMD, we have relied on books and articles using both Google Scholar and PubMed. Selection criteria included a combination of Mesh and type of article. Article classification was made by two authors, using the following structure outline: prevalence of craniomandibular disorders, its etiology and pathophysiology, occlusion and craniomandibular disorders, orthodontic treatment and CMD, and the mandibular reference position in orthodontics. An important conclusion that emerged from the present literature review is that CMD do not seem to be directly related to orthodontic treatment, and their appearance cannot be predicted or prevented by any means. Therefore, orthodontists must adopt a mandibular reference suitable to their patients and which best respects the balance existing in the stomatognathic system.

  17. Longitudinal results of mandibular distraction osteogenesis in hemifacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisinga-Fischer, Clara E; Vaandrager, J Michiel; Prahl-Andersen, Birte

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mandibular distraction therapy by three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) imaging so as to be able to improve the treatment results. The study group consisted of eight children (3 male and 5 female) with hemifacial microsomia. For each child, CT scans of the head were available (Pro Speed S Fast Spiral scanner; General Electric). Longitudinal measurements of the mandible, bony and soft tissue 3-D reconstructions, and masticatory muscles were demonstrated. Three-dimensional CT scans provide important data concerning the results of mandibular distraction therapy and should be used in treatment evaluation. In some patients and for some muscles only, a small increase in the volume of the affected side of the masticatory muscles in comparison to the normal side was found 3 years after mandibular distraction. In around 50% of the cases, there seems to be a relapse occurring 1 year after distraction osteogenesis, and this relapse has a progressive character when seen 3 years after distraction osteogenesis in comparison to 15 weeks after distraction osteogenesis.

  18. Effect of hyposalivation on mastication and mandibular movements during speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with hyposalivation present damaged mastication or mandibular movements during speech. Forty subjects composed 2 groups: control and hyposalivation. Masticatory performance was assessed with a silicon-based artificial material and a 10-sieve method. Mandibular movements during speech were observed with a 3D jaw-tracking device. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney method (P < 0.05. The masticatory performance (mm of control and hyposalivation were 4.40 ± 0.62 and 4.74 ± 1.34, respectively. Outcomes for speech movements (mm were as follows: maximum vertical opening amplitude (10.8 ± 4.2; 9.9 ± 2.7 and displacements to the right (1.0 ± 0.8; 0.5 ± 0.6, left (1.8 ± 1.4; 2.3 ± 1.2, or anterior-posterior (2.8 ± 1.1; 2.9 ± 1.0 for control and hyposalivation, respectively. No statistical difference was found between groups for any variable. The results indicated that hyposalivation did not affect masticatory performance or mandibular movements during speech.

  19. Effect of hyposalivation on mastication and mandibular movements during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Simone Guimarães Farias; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with hyposalivation present damaged mastication or mandibular movements during speech. Forty subjects composed 2 groups: control and hyposalivation. Masticatory performance was assessed with a silicon-based artificial material and a 10-sieve method. Mandibular movements during speech were observed with a 3D jaw-tracking device. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney method (P hyposalivation were 4.40 ± 0.62 and 4.74 ± 1.34, respectively. Outcomes for speech movements (mm) were as follows: maximum vertical opening amplitude (10.8 ± 4.2; 9.9 ± 2.7) and displacements to the right (1.0 ± 0.8; 0.5 ± 0.6), left (1.8 ± 1.4; 2.3 ± 1.2), or anterior-posterior (2.8 ± 1.1; 2.9 ± 1.0) for control and hyposalivation, respectively. No statistical difference was found between groups for any variable. The results indicated that hyposalivation did not affect masticatory performance or mandibular movements during speech.

  20. Mandibular movements identify respiratory effort in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Senny, Fréderic; Denison, Stéphane; Cuthbert, Valérie; Gueulette, Emmanuelle; Guénard, Hervé; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OAH) diagnosis in children is based on the quantification of flow and respiratory effort (RE). Pulse transit time (PTT) is one validated tool to recognize RE. Pattern analysis of mandibular movements (MM) might be an alternative method to detect RE. We compared several patterns of MM to concomittant changes in PTT during OAH in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. 33 consecutive children with snoring and symptoms/signs of OAH. MMs were measured during polysomnography with a magnetometer device (Brizzy Nomics, Liege, Belgium) placed on the chin and forehead. Patterns of MM were evaluated representing peak to peak fluctuations > 0.3 mm in mandibular excursion (MML), mandibular opening (MMO), and sharp MM (MMS), which closed the mouth on cortical arousal (CAr). The median (95% CI) hourly rate of at least 1 MM (MML, or MMO, or MMS) was 18.1 (13.2-36.3) and strongly correlated with OAHI (p = 0.003) but not with central apnea-hypopnea index (CAHI; p = 0.292). The durations when the MM amplitude was > 0.4 mm and PTT > 15 ms were strongly correlated (p 0.4 mm occurred frequently during periods of OAH and were frequently terminated by MMS corresponding to mouth closure on CAr. The MM findings strongly correlated with changes in PTT. MM analysis could be a simple and accurate promising tool for RE characterization and optimization of OAH diagnosis in children. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  1. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst located in the Mandibular Condyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Alessandro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A rare case of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC located in the mandibular condyle in a 10-year-old boy is presented. The patient came to our attention for a sudden swelling in the right temporomandibular region, the mouth opening was not reduced. A rapid growing mass, depicting soft tissue invasion, in the right condyle of the mandible was found. Clinically and radiographically it resembled to a malignant lesion. The surgical excision of the mandibular condyle allowed a complete removal of the lesion. The histological examination revealed a pseudocystic expanding osteolytic lesion containing blood-filled space separated by connective tissue and many osteoclastic giant cells, which was a conventional vascular ABC. The ABC is an infrequent bone lesion which can only be found very rarely at the craniofacial skeleton. There have been described about 160 cases of ABC originated in the molar region or in upper maxilla and even more rare is the location of this cyst in the mandibular condyle. Only 6 cases were reported in the literature to date. A complete surgical resection of this osteolytic lesion is the treatment of choice considering its high recurrence rate. The condyle was not replaced with any graft. Therefore a functional device was used after surgery to overcome the lack of the condyle and to stimulate the growth of the ramus.

  2. Is the mandibular nerve block passé?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Stanley F

    2011-09-01

    Providing effective pain control is a critical part of dental treatment, yet achieving consistently reliable anesthesia in the mandible has proved elusive. The traditional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) has a high failure rate; for example, the failure rate in lateral incisors is 81 percent. As a consequence, new approaches and techniques have been developed. The purpose of this supplement to The Journal of the American Dental Association is to determine whether the mandibular nerve block has become passé. The high failure rate of the IANB can be frustrating for dentists and lead to discomfort for the patient during treatment. The reasons for this high failure rate include thickness of the cortical plate of bone in adults, thickness of the soft tissue at the injection site leading to increased needle deflection, the difficulty of locating the inferior alveolar nerve and the possibility of accessory innervation. Although the IANB can be unreliable, it is used commonly to provide mandibular anesthesia. Pain control is an essential part of dental treatment. Alternative injection techniques and devices that can help increase the success rate of mandibular anesthesia are available.

  3. Morphologic, functional, and occlusal characterization of mandibular lateral displacement malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kyoko; Suzuki, Koichi; Mito, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Eliana Midori; Sato, Sadao

    2010-04-01

    Mandibular lateral displacement (MLD) is clinically characterized by deviation of the chin, facial asymmetry, dental midline discrepancy, crossbite in the posterior region, and high prevalence of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint. Morphologic and functional characteristics of MLD should be clarified to correct and prevent this malocclusion. We examined the morphologic features, occlusal scheme, and functional behavior of MLD in 116 patients. Facial morphology was examined with posteroanterior cephalograms, occlusion guidance on the articulator after face-bow transfer, and condylar movement with the condylograph. The superiorly inclined occlusal plane was associated with mandibular deviation in the same direction. The posterior occlusal plane on the shifted side was significantly steeper than that on the nonshifted side. Functional analysis of condylar movement showed a close relationship between the direction of MLD and the direction of condylar lateral shift during opening and closing, and protrusion and retrusion. The occlusal guidance inclination in the buccal segment of the nonshifted side was steeper than that in the shifted side. The results suggested that reduced vertical height of the dentition on 1 side induced mandibular lateral adaptation with contralateral condylar shift (asymmetry); this leads to condylar lateral shift during functional movement. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Craniomandibular Disorders and Mandibular Reference Position in Orthodontic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourzgui, Farid; Aghoutan, Hakima; Diouny, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring into focus the literature on the choice of the mandibular reference position in orthodontic treatment; of a particular reference to this paper is intercuspal position, centric relation position, or therapeutic position. To give a comprehensive account of the literature review on craniomandibular disorders (CMD), we have relied on books and articles using both Google Scholar and PubMed. Selection criteria included a combination of Mesh and type of article. Article classification was made by two authors, using the following structure outline: prevalence of craniomandibular disorders, its etiology and pathophysiology, occlusion and craniomandibular disorders, orthodontic treatment and CMD, and the mandibular reference position in orthodontics. An important conclusion that emerged from the present literature review is that CMD do not seem to be directly related to orthodontic treatment, and their appearance cannot be predicted or prevented by any means. Therefore, orthodontists must adopt a mandibular reference suitable to their patients and which best respects the balance existing in the stomatognathic system. PMID:24101929

  5. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad

    2009-11-01

    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  6. Central condylar displacement with brain abscess from chronic mandibular osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas; Green, Ross; Hsu, Jack

    2013-06-01

    In this case report, we describe a unique long-term complication from undiagnosed mandibular osteomyelitis. A 53-year-old female who underwent a dental extraction complicated by chronic postoperative odontogenic infection and cutaneous parotid fistula formation 2 years earlier presented with acute mental status change, gradual unilateral facial nerve palsy (House-Brackmann score V), and nontraumatic dislocation of the condylar head into the middle cranial fossa. The patient's chronic mandibular osteomyelitis led to glenoid fossa erosion, middle cranial fossa penetration, and temporal lobe abscess formation. A combined middle cranial fossa approach through a burr hole placed in the squamous temporal bone near the zygomatic root and intraoral mandibular approach to ipsilateral condylar head was performed to complete partial mandibulectomy, including condylectomy. The patient was treated with 6 weeks of meropenem perioperatively. Four months after the surgery, the patient had complete resolution of skull base osteomyelitis, parotid fistula, and neurologic deficits and full recovery of facial nerve function (House-Brackmann score of I). Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Accuracy of perioperative mandibular positions in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, A M; Ribeiro-Junior, O; Brozoski, M A; Cé, P S; Espinosa, M M; Deboni, M C Z; Miloro, M; Naclério-Homem, M G

    2014-08-01

    Mandibular position is an important parameter used for the diagnosis of dentofacial deformities, as well as for orthognathic surgery planning and execution. Centric relation (anterior and superior relationship of the mandibular condyles interposed by the thinnest portion of their disks against the articular eminencies), centric occlusion (when lower teeth contact upper teeth at centric relation), and maximal intercuspation (complete interdigitation of lower and upper teeth) are not often addressed as factors that influence the results of orthognathic surgery, although these relationships are critical to ensure accuracy during the surgery. The present study assessed occlusal measurements taken before and after the induction of general anaesthesia from consecutive orthognathic surgery subjects. The variables assessed included the differences between these occlusal measurements, patient age, gender, type of deformity, and type of proposed orthognathic surgical procedure. The results demonstrated statistically significant differences for mandibular retrusion from maximal intercuspation to centric occlusion position, whereas the mandible appeared not to change significantly from centric occlusion after the induction of general anaesthesia. Patient age and the type of deformity appeared to influence the results. While in most instances centric occlusion can be adequately reproduced under general anaesthesia, for some specific orthognathic cases more accurate results might be obtained if the mandible-first sequence is used. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention Network Dysfunction in Bulimia Nervosa - An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Jochen; Hueck, Manuel; Dahmen, Brigitte; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Legenbauer, Tanja; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested an increased rate of comorbid ADHD and subclinical attentional impairments in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. However, little is known regarding the underlying neural mechanisms of attentional functions in BN. Twenty BN patients and twenty age- and weight-matched healthy controls (HC) were investigated using a modified version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an fMRI study. This design enabled an investigation of the neural mechanisms associated with the three attention networks involved in alerting, reorienting and executive attention. The BN patients showed hyperactivation in parieto-occipital regions and reduced deactivation of default-mode-network (DMN) areas during alerting compared with HCs. Posterior cingulate activation during alerting correlated with the severity of eating-disorder symptoms within the patient group. Conversely, BN patients showed hypoactivation during reorienting and executive attention in anterior cingulate regions, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and parahippocampus compared with HCs, which was negatively associated with global ADHD symptoms and impulsivity, respectively. Our findings demonstrate altered brain mechanisms in BN associated with all three attentional networks. Failure to deactivate the DMN and increased parieto-occipital activation required for alerting might be associated with a constant preoccupation with food or body image-related thoughts. Hypoactivation of executive control networks and TPJ might increase the likelihood of inattentive and impulsive behaviors and poor emotion regulation. Thus, dysfunction in the attentional network in BN goes beyond an altered executive attentional domain and needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of BN.

  9. Investigation of erectile dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D V; Halls, J; Patel, U

    2012-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) represents a common and debilitating condition with a wide range of organic and non-organic causes. Physical aetiologies can be divided into disorders affecting arterial inflow, the venous occlusion mechanism or the penile structure itself. Various imaging modalities can be utilised to investigate the physical causes of ED, but penile Doppler sonography (PDS) is the most informative technique, indicated in those patients with ED who do not respond to oral pharmacological agents (e.g. phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). This review will examine the anatomical and physiological basis of penile erection, the method for performing PDS and features of specific causes of ED, and will also consider the alternative imaging modalities available. PMID:23118101

  10. Depression and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagraves, R T

    2000-05-01

    The association of depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) has been firmly established, but it may be difficult to distinguish between cause and effect--whether ED causes the depression or the depression causes ED--in an individual patient. In most patients who have major depression, successful reversal of the depressive syndrome results in a return of erectile capacity. In other patients--those who suffer from minor depression--restoration of erectile capacity can lead to an improvement in mood. In either case, knowing how to diagnose depression in ED patients is important, not only because depressed patients are more likely to drop out of treatment for ED, but also because untreated depression can be life-threatening.

  11. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  12. Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. Saneto DO, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. In a large cohort of children and adolescents with mitochondrial disease (n = 180, over 48% of patients developed seizures. The majority (68% of patients were younger than 3 years and medically intractable (90%. The electroencephalographic pattern of multiregional epileptiform discharges over the left and right hemisphere with background slowing occurred in 62%. The epilepsy syndrome, infantile spasms, was seen in 17%. Polymerase γ mutations were the most common genetic etiology of seizures, representing Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (14%. The severity of disease in those patients with epilepsy was significant, as 13% of patients experienced early death. Simply the loss of energy production cannot explain the development of seizures or all patients with mitochondrial dysfunction would have epilepsy. Until the various aspects of mitochondrial physiology that are involved in proper brain development are understood, epilepsy and its treatment will remain unsatisfactory.

  13. Cycling and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Šibli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: For many years medical studies have implicated bicycle riding is causing erectile dysfunction (ED in association with higher perineal pressure. This review focuses upon epidemiological studies assesing the impact of cycling on ED, pathogenesis of ED in cyclists  as well as on research considering changes of perineal pressure, hemodynamics, and nerve conduction when cycling. Investigestors were also interested in different saddle sizes, materials and geometry and also in the impact of saddle and riders position on changes to the perineum. Research on female cyclists is very limited but indicates similar genitourinary disorders as in male cyclists. We also review  research on preventative and therapeutic options regarding bicycle riding and ED.

  14. Dandy-Walker syndrome with severe velopharyngeal dysfunction: a contraindication for Le Fort I surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelke, Kamil H; Pawlak, Wojciech; Gerber, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome is a rare congenital brain deformation. Most symptoms are related with fourth ventricle and skull base malformations. Quite often, symptoms develop from infancy or progress rapidly. Cerebellar dysfunction, lack of muscle coordination, and skull deformities involving eye movement might be present. There are several Dandy-Walker syndrome complex types. We present a 23-year-old patient who had a severe dentofacial deformity with mandibular prognathism and extremely undeveloped maxillary bone resulting in palatopharyngeal and velopharyngeal dysfunction with complete lack of soft palate function resulting in increased speech tone and volume. Performing Le Fort I osteotomy in this case is greatly controversial and might result in even greater loss of function or even its total lack. Velopharyngeal complex is very important, and every surgeon should consider its value while planning Le Fort I osteotomies.

  15. Endothelins & erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Robert; Sullivan, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common and a significant contributor to poor quality of life and psychosocial morbidity in men. Normal erectile function requires effective co-ordination between a number of complex neural pathways. Penile tumescence occurs in response to rapid arterial inflow to the corpora cavernosa with simultaneous venous outflow restriction due to expansion of the lacunar spaces. This process is under both central and local neuromediation. Endothelins are potent vasoconstrictor peptides that cause strong, slowly developing but sustained contraction of trabecular smooth muscles cells of the corpora cavernosa. Multiple mechanisms of action are proposed, including transmembrane calcium flux, mobilisation of inositol triphosphate sensitive intracellular calcium stores and calcium sensitisation through the Rho-Rho kinase pathway. The exact role of endothelins in the pathogenesis of ED currently remains unclear. Elevated endothelin-1 levels are found in patients with diabetes mellitus and this alone may be sufficient to cause ED. However, this is not borne out in clinical studies. The resultant elevated intracellular calcium may, however, modulate gene expression sufficiently to cause smooth muscle proliferation. Alternatively, alterations in endothelin receptor sensitivity in conditions such as diabetes and hypertension may enhance vasoconstrictor processes. Currently there is contradictory evidence for the role of endothelin receptor antagonists in ED. Animals studies suggest they inhibit corporal vasoconstriction, improve erectile function and protect against diabetes-induced smooth muscle apoptosis. However, the results of clinical studies in ED have been less promising. Uncertainty regarding the exact role of endothelin in penile erection hampers progress in this area. It is possible that the endothelin system may only be relevant to ED in certain conditions where global endothelial dysfunction exists (e.g. diabetes mellitus, systemic sclerosis) and

  16. Estimation of age by measuring the Root Length of Mandibular Premolars & Permanent Mandibular Molar - A Digital Radiographic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vishwanath

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing teeth have been considered as a good indicator for determination of age of an individual with unknown birth data. The common methods employed have been radiographic subjective assessment of tooth development and subsequent comparisons with dental charts. The accuracy of these methods has been questioned since the distribution around an estimated age has been more than ±2 years between 10th and 90th percentile. In an attempt to avoid the short coming associated with the subjective methods, a study of objective measurement of root length of mandibular 2nd premolar and permanent 1st molar by intraoral digital radiographic technique was conducted in the age group of 10-14 years and analyzed statistically using stepwise multiple regression models. It is found that the mandibular premolars can be used for age estimation with fair degree of accuracy between the age of 10-14 years.

  17. Intra-oral mandibular sagittal osteotomy technique to correct mandibular distocclusion and mesio-occlusion. Study in canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, V G G; Gioso, M A; Carvalho, P E G; Cunha, F P; Martinez, L A V; Lemos, L S

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal malocclusions may be due to disturbances in the growth of the mandible or maxilla. In most cases, discomfort is the result of tooth-to-tooth malocclusion or tooth-to-soft-tissue contact. Currently, in veterinary medicine, these problems are treated palliatively. In humans, orthognathic surgery is indicated to correct severe skeletal malocclusions, offering aesthetic and functional benefits to the patients. This research evaluated the effects of an intra-oral mandibular sagittal split osteotomy in 20 dog cadavers with skeletal malocclusion. After sagittal osteotomy and mandibular repositioning, the osteotomies were fixed with titanium mini-plates and 1.5 mm diameter screws or 1.5 mm bicortical screws. The statistical analysis revealed a significant occlusion difference in the treated cadavers (Wilcoxon test, pmalocclusion in cadavers. However, it would be important to prepare a preoperative orthodontic-surgical treatment plan to obtain a satisfactory occlusion during the surgery in clinical patients.

  18. The Influence of a Mandibular Advancement Plate on Polysomnography in Different Grades of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Raunio, Antti; Mattila, Pauli; Huuskonen, Usko; Oikarinen, Ky?sti; S?ndor, George K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a mandibular advancement device on different grades of obstructive sleep apnea using a relatively simple test for the apnea-hypopnea index to determine if a mandibular device will be effective. Material and Methods A total of 68 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) including, 31 with mild, 23 with moderate and 14 with severe OSAS were treated with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) and monitored...

  19. The Influence of a Mandibular Advancement Plate on Polysomnography in Different Grades of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Antti Raunio; Pauli Mattila; Usko Huuskonen; Kyösti Oikarinen; George K. Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a mandibular advancement device on different grades of obstructive sleep apnea using a relatively simple test for the apnea-hypopnea index to determine if a mandibular device will be effective. Material and Methods: A total of 68 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) including, 31 with mild, 23 with moderate and 14 with severe OSAS were treated with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) and monitored wi...

  20. Localization of the mandibular canal in brachycephalic dogs using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lenin Arturo Villamizar; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Lobos, Cristian Marcelo Villegas; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandão de C Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    For some surgical procedures in veterinary dentistry including exodontia, orthognathic surgery, orthopedic surgery, oncologic surgery, and for the placement of dental implants, it is important to know the accurate location of the neurovascular structures within the mandibular canal. The aim of this research was to determine the course of the mandibular canal in the mandible and its relationship with other anatomical structures in brachycephalic dogs using computerized tomography. Mandibles from 10 brachycephalic cadaver dogs were evaluated. Measurements were taken in relation to the lingual, vestibular alveolar crest, and ventral surfaces. These measurements indicated that the mandibular canal descends slightly from the mandibular foramen to the molar area, decreasing the distance of the mandibular canal from the mandibular ventral border. The mandibular canal is slightly closer to the lingual surface than the vestibular surface except in the molar tooth region. The mandibular canal continues in a rostral direction occupying the ventral region of the mandibular body, reaching its maximum distance from the alveolar crest at the level of the first molar and fourth premolar teeth. In the third and fourth premolar tooth region, the mandibular canal maintains a similar distance between the vestibular and lingual borders; then, at the level of the second premolar tooth, the distance of the mandibular canal from the lingual and ventral border increases before its termination at the mental foramen. The study reported here documents the feasibility of using CT to determine the location of the mandibular canal in relation to bony and dental parameters. Although the difference in mandible size of the group of brachycephalic dogs reported here resulted in broad ranges of measurements, it is clear that the MC course may vary between individual dogs.

  1. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  2. Cytomegalovirus induces abnormal chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during embryonic mandibular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bringas Pablo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human clinical studies and mouse models clearly demonstrate that cytomegalovirus (CMV disrupts normal organ and tissue development. Although CMV is one of the most common causes of major birth defects in humans, little is presently known about the mechanism(s underlying CMV-induced congenital malformations. Our prior studies have demonstrated that CMV infection of first branchial arch derivatives (salivary glands and teeth induced severely abnormal phenotypes and that CMV has a particular tropism for neural crest-derived mesenchyme (NCM. Since early embryos are barely susceptible to CMV infection, and the extant evidence suggests that the differentiation program needs to be well underway for embryonic tissues to be susceptible to viral infection and viral-induced pathology, the aim of this study was to determine if first branchial arch NCM cells are susceptible to mCMV infection prior to differentiation of NCM derivatives. Results E11 mouse mandibular processes (MANs were infected with mouse CMV (mCMV for up to 16 days in vitro. mCMV infection of undifferentiated embryonic mouse MANs induced micrognathia consequent to decreased Meckel's cartilage chondrogenesis and mandibular osteogenesis. Specifically, mCMV infection resulted in aberrant stromal cellularity, a smaller, misshapen Meckel's cartilage, and mandibular bone and condylar dysmorphogenesis. Analysis of viral distribution indicates that mCMV primarily infects NCM cells and derivatives. Initial localization studies indicate that mCMV infection changed the cell-specific expression of FN, NF-κB2, RelA, RelB, and Shh and Smad7 proteins. Conclusion Our results indicate that mCMV dysregulation of key signaling pathways in primarily NCM cells and their derivatives severely disrupts mandibular morphogenesis and skeletogenesis. The pathogenesis appears to be centered around the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways, and there is unusual juxtaposition of abnormal stromal

  3. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  4. Thyroid dysfunction in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-09

    Sep 9, 1997 ... hyperthyroidism and 7 of hypothyroidism. Subclinical disease was diagnosed in 40 subjects. The overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in this population was. 11.2%. In 22 (3.4%) this had previously been recognised, while in 50 (7.8%) the dysfunction was newly diagnosed by the current survey.

  5. Soft tissue and it’s affect on craniofacial growth and the dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansjur Nasir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue dysfunction, mouth breathing, tongue thrusting, incorrect swallowing and other myofunctional habits effect on malocclusion, poor facial development and relapse also Temporo Mandibular Joint (TMJ Disorder as well. How the dynamics of form and function affect the dentition, skeletal structures and the face. Soft tissues control dental position and should be considered in conjunction with any treatment. Treatment of soft tissue dysfunction will stable the result the orthodontic treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of soft tissue dysfunction is the responsibility of the General Dentist and Pedodontist and Orthodontist as well.

  6. Three-dimensional anatomic analysis of mandibular foramen with mandibular anatomic landmarks for inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Byun, In-Young; Kim, Jin-Hong; Park, Hee-Keun; Kim, Moon-Key

    2013-06-01

    We sought to standardize 3-dimensional anatomic positioning of the mandibular foramen (MnF) for inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia. Three-dimensional mandibular computerized tomography (CT) images were reconstructed from data for 49 patients aged 8-16 years (growth group) and 59 patients aged 18-25 years (adult group). To measure MnF position, we defined 5,6 as the superior contact point between the mandibular first molar and second premolar and 5,6 MnFP as the point on the MnF plane intersecting 5,6 at a right angle. The MnF plane passed through the MnF and parallel to the occlusal plane. In the growth group, the distance from the MnF to the anterior ramus increased with age, as did distance from the gonion to MnF. Measurements correlated significantly with age in the growth group. Needle insertion at an obtuse angle in the MnF plane from the contralateral first molar is appropriate for inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of a severely impacted mandibular third molar minimizing the risks of compromised periodontium, nerve injury, and mandibular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Christos; Rodiou, Stylianos; Stratos, Athanasios; Gkantidis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    A technique is presented for severely impacted and dentigerous-cyst-related mandibular third molar removal, avoiding any associated risks. A healthy patient complained about unpleasant smell and taste in the mouth and unilateral extraoral palpation of a protuberance, at the right corner of the mandible. Restricted field CBCT showed a severely impacted third molar, which penetrated the inferior cortical bone of the mandibular corner and was associated with a dentigerous cyst that had resorbed considerable bone in the region. Surgical exposure of the impacted tooth and cyst marsupialization procedures under local anesthesia were combined with orthodontic extrusion of the impacted tooth to facilitate third molar removal. Treatment resulted in successful bone formation and safe tooth removal. The symptoms gradually improved after the first surgery and were eliminated by 14 months later, when the third molar was removed. Follow-up examination 1 year after removal showed favorable periodontal conditions. Although it is not normally the first treatment of choice, orthodontically assisted impacted tooth removal is an alternative that can minimize the risk of compromised periodontium or injury to the adjacent tooth and the inferior alveolar nerve, as well as the risk of mandibular fracture, in complicated cases.

  8. Combined Mandibular Guidance Therapy in the Management of a Hemimandibulectomy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamayet, Nafij Bin; Fard, Asa Yazdani; Husein, Adam; Ariffin, Zaihan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    2015-01-01

    This case history report describes two different devices, maxillary ramp prostheses (MRP) and mandibular guide flange prostheses (MGFP), prescribed for managing a hemimandibulectomy patient's deviated mandible. The patient was given muscle reprogramming exercises with coordinated use of both guidance prostheses for 2 months, leading to improvements in both postsurgical mandibular deviation and occlusal equilibration. A successful intercuspal position was eventually accomplished through the use of the combination therapy. MRP and MGFP can be a useful approach to avoid mandibular deviation and compromised function following a partial mandibular resection.

  9. Mandibular lingual canals distribute to the dental crypts in prenatal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Kazunari; Fukami, Kaori; Kuribayashi, Ami; Shimoda, Shinji; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2014-07-01

    To describe configurations of human prenatal mandibular, lingual canals using a limited-field cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to examine their origin and anatomical significance. Nine fetal mandibles were examined using a CBCT. Mandibular maturity was assessed according to the mandibular size measured directly and image findings on development of dental crypts. Mandibular, lingual canals and the related foramina (mandibular, mental, and lingual foramina) were observed on axial, sagittal, and cross-sectional images. The horizontal position of mental and lingual foramina was assessed by direct observation using a loupe. In all nine mandibles, CBCT images depicted three separate mandibular canals, which individually occurred at the ramus area. One was a short canal directly connecting to the permanent molar crypt. The other two showed a parallel course, following the mandibular corpus toward the frontal area; the upper one connected to the mental foramen, and the lower one distributed anterior area of canine and incisor crypts. Lingual foramina were observed bilaterally in eight of nine mandibles, whose horizontal position was lingual against the crypt of deciduous canine. The lingual canals occurred from lingual foramina, and connected to the close deciduous tooth crypt or the mandibular canal distributing in the frontal area. It was suggested human dentition could be developed by plural mandibular and lingual canals.

  10. Maxillary palatal ramp prosthesis: A prosthodontic solution to manage mandibular deviation following surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampa Ray (Bhattacharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular resection following surgical treatment for neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity leads to numerous complications including altered mandibular movements, disfigurement, difficult in swallowing, impaired speech and articulation, and deviation of the mandible towards the resected site. Various prosthetic methods are employed to reduce or minimize mandibular deviation and improve and restore the lost functions and esthetic, like maxillomandibular fixation, implant supported prosthesis, removable mandibular guide flange prosthesis, and palatal based guidance restoration. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a patient following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.

  11. Mandibular Symmetrical Bilateral Canine-Lateral Incisors Transposition: Its Early Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshua Shapira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral mandibular tooth transposition is a relatively rare dental anomaly caused by distal migration of the mandibular lateral incisors and can be detected in the early mixed dentition by radiographic examination. Early diagnosis and interceptive intervention may reduce the risk of possible transposition between the mandibular canine and lateral incisor. This report illustrates the orthodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine-lateral incisor transposition. Correct positioning of the affected teeth was achieved on the left side while teeth on the right side were aligned in their transposed position. It demonstrates the outcome of good alignment of the teeth in the dental arch.

  12. [The relation of pericoronitis to the position of the mandibular third molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D K; Kim, B J

    1989-02-01

    Pericoronitis is the most commonly encountered pathologic condition involving the mandibular third molar. Because of the dangers associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis, prophylactic extraction of third molar at high risk has been recommended. We studied 411 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis by clinical symptoms and radiographic measurement of mandibular third molar height, wideth and angulation. The results were as follows: 1. Mandibular third molar pericoronitis is frequently seen in third decade and there are no sexual difference significantely. 2. In inflammatory type of mandibular third molar pericoronitis, chronic pericoronitis occured more frequently than acute type. 3. In relation to angulation and height, mandibular third molar most likely to be afflicted with pericoronitis is vertical eruption at occlusal plane of the second molar. 4. In relation to angulation and width, it appears that the position of the mandibular third molar most likely to be afflicted with pericoronitis is in a vertically erupted tooth of which the space between the ramus and the distal side of the second molar is less than the mesiodistal diameter of crown. (Class II). 5. In relation to height and width, it appears that the position of the mandibular third molar most likely to be afflicted with pericoronitis is class II width (described above)at occlusal plane of the second molar.

  13. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L

    2014-01-01

    implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle...... in oncology practice. Significant progress has been made over the last decade in the field of exercise oncology, indicating that exercise training constitutes a potent modulator of skeletal muscle function in patients with cancer. CONCLUSION: There are clear associations between muscle dysfunction...... dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...

  14. Respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsney, K M; Forsyth, D

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory dysfunction has been associated with Parkinson's disease since it was first described in 1817. The respiratory symptoms observed in Parkinson's disease patients vary greatly. Most patients remain asymptomatic, whereas others present with acute shortness of breath and even stridor. In August 2016, an electronic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. Results were screened and studies reporting on respiratory dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease were included. Respiratory dysfunction is due to a combination of factors including restrictive changes, upper airway obstruction, abnormal ventilatory drive and response to medications. Much debate surrounds the mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, its prevalence and the effect of levodopa on respiration. It is clear from this review that larger studies, comparing patients of similar disease duration and severity using the same pulmonary function parameters, are required to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

  15. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

  16. Disease, dysfunction, and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2014-08-01

    Theorists analyzing the concept of disease on the basis of the notion of dysfunction consider disease to be dysfunction requiring. More specifically, dysfunction-requiring theories of disease claim that for an individual to be diseased certain biological facts about it must be the case. Disease is not wholly a matter of evaluative attitudes. In this paper, I consider the dysfunction-requiring component of Wakefield's hybrid account of disease in light of the artifactual organisms envisioned by current research in synthetic biology. In particular, I argue that the possibility of artifactual organisms and the case of oncomice and other bred or genetically modified strains of organism constitute a significant objection to Wakefield's etiological account of the dysfunction requirement. I then develop a new alternative understanding of the dysfunction requirement that builds on the organizational theory of function. I conclude that my suggestion is superior to Wakefield's theory because it (a) can accommodate both artifactual and naturally evolved organisms, (b) avoids the possibility of there being a conflict between what an organismic part is supposed to do and the health of the organism, and (c) provides a nonarbitrary and practical way of determining whether dysfunction occurs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hypothalamic dysfunction in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande-Lee, Simone; Velloso, Licio A

    2012-08-01

    Obesity, defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair life quality, is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. The control of energy balance in animals and humans is performed by the central nervous system (CNS) by means of neuroendocrine connections, in which circulating peripheral hormones, such as leptin and insulin, provide signals to specialized neurons of the hypothalamus reflecting body fat stores, and induce appropriate responses to maintain the stability of these stores. The majority of obesity cases are associated with central resistance to both leptin and insulin actions. In experimental animals, high-fat diets can induce an inflammatory process in the hypothalamus, which impairs leptin and insulin intracellular signaling pathways, and results in hyperphagia, decreased energy expenditure and, ultimately, obesity. Recent evidence obtained from neuroimaging studies and assessment of inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid of obese subjects suggests that similar alterations may be also present in humans. In this review, we briefly present the mechanisms involved with the loss of homeostatic control of energy balance in animal models of obesity, and the current evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction in obese humans.

  19. A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuncheng Zhou

    Full Text Available Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p1°, while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.

  20. Inter-relations between infraocclusion of primary mandibular molars, tipping of adjacent teeth, and alveolar bone height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Benjamin; Absawi-Huri, Mervat; Bercovich, Roly; Amir, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine inter-relations between infraocclusion of primary mandibular molars, tipping of adjacent teeth, and alveolar bone height of infraoccluded teeth. A total of 402 periapical radiographs of infraoccluded primary mandibular molars were reviewed. Infraocclusion, alveolar bone height, and tipping of adjacent teeth were measured. Infraocclusion was most prevalent among primary mandibular first molars. The amount of infraocclusion was most profound among primary mandibular second molars (2.79±1.25). The shortest distal alveolar crest (reflected by the highest distance between the cementoenamel junction and bone crest) was observed among infraoccluded primary mandibular first molars (0.9±0.92). The permanent mandibular first molar and the primary mandibular first molar demonstrated the maximum tipping mesially and distally. Infraocclusion of primary mandibular molars, tipping of adjacent teeth, and alveolar bone height of the infraoccluded teeth are inter-related.

  1. Radiography of the mandible prior to endosseous implant treatment. Localization of the mandibular canal and assessment of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, C.

    1996-03-01

    Mandibular autopsy specimens were examined with different radiographic techniques in order to evaluate the visibility of the mandibular canal and the measurement accuracy of distances related to the mandibular canal. Hypocycloidal, spiral and computed tomography (CT) were superior to periapical and panoramic radiography in visualizing the mandibular canal. The tomographic techniques were more accurate when measurements of distances related to the mandibular canal were performed. No difference in measurement accuracy was found between the tomographic techniques. Concerning visibility of the mandibular canal, interobserver agreement was lowest for periapical radiography and highest for CT. Intraobserver agreement was moderate or good for all techniques. A high interobserver variation was found for measurability of distances related to the mandibular canal. The trabecular bone tissue in mandibular autopsy specimens was studied concerning different characteristics. A classification system to be used prior to implant treatment, based on the trabecular pattern in periapical radiographs, was proposed. 74 refs.

  2. Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron A; Kreiborg, Sven

    Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)......Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)...

  3. Study of the Internal Anatomy of the Mandibular Incisor Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashofteh Yazdi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Knowledge of internal anatomy of tooth plays an important role in a successful endodontics treatment. For a proper endodontic treatment, it is not only important to know the form of normal anatomy of tooth’s interior but one must also beacquainted with the possible diverse forms.Purpose: A thorough understanding of the internal anatomy of human mandibular incisors (central and lateral.Materials and Methods : A total of 205 central and lateral mandibular incisors that had healthy roots were selected and put in 10% formalin solution. After cleaning the samples with the help of brushes and other devices, they were kept in 5% sodium hypochloritesolution. Finally the roots were cleaned and the samples were prepared for next stages.Three methods were used, coloring (fushin1%, radiography (buccolingual and proximal sides, and cross-sectioning (cervical- middle-apical.Results: The result indicated that:- 88%of the teeth had a single canal and one apical foramen;- 8% of the teeth had a single canal and two apical foramena;- 3.5% of the teeth had two canals and one apical foramen;- 0.5% of the teeth had two canals and two apical foramena;Conclusion:A thorough understanding of the pulp morphology is essential for successful treatment of root canal. Therefore, a dentist should always be on the watch for the existence of two canals or a two-branched canal while working on the mandibular incisor teeth. it is essential to have the necessary precision in finding the second canal.

  4. Single implant supported mandibular overdenture: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoorkar, Sudhindra; Bhat, Srinidhi; Kant, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible by implant-supported prosthesis is a successful and satisfying treatment as suggested by many clinical trials. However, the minimum number of implants required for this restoration is debatable. Single implant retained overdenture (SIROD) has gained popularity as a simple protocol. The purpose of this review is to systematically analyze the literature on SIROD. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was done in the PubMed and Medline databases using the key words “central single implant overdenture,” “implant overdenture retained by one implant,” “implant overdenture retained by single implant,” “mandibular single implant overdenture,” “mandibular SIRODs.” Articles from 1993 to November 2012 were included in the review. Out of 208 articles, only 18 had relevant data pertaining to mandibular single implant overdenture. Two more were hand-picked from journals that are non-PubMed indexed but from reputed publishing houses. Results: Majority of studies supported the concept of SIROD. Success outcome was addressed in relation to surgical, prosthetic, functional parameters, and patient satisfaction. 65% studies evaluated the primary stabilities of the placed implants, 50% of studies assessed the marginal bone loss quarterly across a 1-year period. Prosthesis outcome was a criterion for evaluation of success rate in 45% of studies. Conclusion: The SIROD is proved to be successful and an economic treatment protocol. However, the clinical parameters such as masticatory efficiency bite force, retention, and stability needs to be investigated. PMID:27134432

  5. Pamidronate Affects the Mandibular Cortex of Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, A.C.; Figueiredo, P.T.; Guimarães, A.T.; Acevedo, A.C.; Castro, L.C.; Paula, A.P.; Paula, L.M.; Melo, N.S.; Leite, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that mandibular cortical width (MCW) is smaller in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) than in healthy children and that pamidronate can improve the cortical mandibular thickness. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the MCW on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) of children with normal bone mineral density (BMD) and with OI. We also compared the MCW of children with different types of OI regarding the number of pamidronate cycles and age at the beginning of treatment. MCW measurements were retrospectively obtained from 197 DPRs of 66 children with OI types I, III, and IV who were in treatment with a comparable dosage of cyclical intravenous pamidronate between 2007 and 2013. The control group had 92 DPRs from normal BMD children. Factorial analysis of variance was used to compare MCW measurements among different age groups and between sexes and also to compare MCW measurements of children with different types of OI among different pamidronate cycles and age at the beginning of treatment. No significant differences in results were found between male and female subjects in both OI and healthy children, so they were evaluated altogether (P > 0.05). There was an increase of MCW values related to aging in all normal BMD and OI children but on a smaller scale in children with OI types I and III. Children with OI presented lower mean MCW values than did children with normal BMD at the beginning of treatment (P < 0.05). A linear model estimated the number of pamidronate cycles necessary to achieve mean MCW values equivalent to those of healthy children. The thinning of the mandibular cortex depended on the number of pamidronate cycles, the type of OI, and the age at the beginning of treatment. DPRs could thus provide a way to identify cyclic pamidronate treatment outcomes in patients with OI. PMID:25608973

  6. Asymmetric muscle function in patients with developmental mandibular asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y; Wang, X M; Wang, M Q; Widmalm, S E

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that developmental mandibular asymmetry is associated with increased asymmetry in muscle activity. Patients with mandibular condylar and/or ramus hyperplasia having unilateral cross-bite were compared with healthy subjects with normal occlusion. Muscle activity was recorded with surface electrodes in the masseter, suprahyoid, sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and upper trapezius areas during jaw opening-closing-clenching, head-neck flexion-extension, and elevation-lowering of shoulders. Root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) values were calculated and analysed using anova and t-tests with P muscles showed co-activation during jaw and head movements, significantly more asymmetric in the patients than in the healthy subjects. The RMS and MPF values were higher in the patients than in the controls in the SCM and suprahyoid areas on both sides during jaw opening-closing movement. The results indicate that the ability to perform symmetric jaw and neck muscle activities is disturbed in patients with developmental mandibular asymmetry. This is of clinical interest because asymmetric activity may be an etiologic factor in temporomandibular joint and cervical pain. The results support that co-activation occurs between jaw and neck muscles during voluntary jaw opening and indicate that postural antigravity reflex activity occurs in the masseter area during head extension. Further studies, where EMG recordings are made from the DMA patients at early stages are motivated to verify activity sources and test if the asymmetric activity is associated with muscle and joint pain in the jaw and cervical areas.

  7. Autotransplantation of a mandibular third molar: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Najafi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tooth autotransplantation defines as transition of one tooth from one position to another, in same individual. It is a biological procedure in which teeth have the potential to induce alveolar bone growth. It can be applied in patients before adolescence growth is finished. It significantly reduces time and cost compared to implants. Healing rapidly occurs and function is regained almost immediately. Our case was a 15-year-old male that his left mandibular third molar transplanted to the second molar sight after extraction of second molar because of unrestorable crown. During 9 month follow up transplanted tooth was asymptomatic, functional and responsive to sensibility tests. (Cold test, EPT.

  8. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat.

  9. Treatment of Ectopic Mandibular Second Permanent Molar with Elastic Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic eruption is a developmental disturbance in which the tooth fails to follow its normal eruption pathway. Ectopic eruption of the second molar is relatively rare. This paper presents the case of thirteen-year-old male with an ectopic mandibular second permanent molar. The condition was corrected with surgical exposure and placement of elastic separators. This case report lays emphasis on the practice of basic methods to obtain acceptable results rather than extensive surgical or orthodontic corrections. It is advised that ectopic teeth should not be neglected especially when it concerns developing caries and malocclusion.

  10. Risk of marginal mandibular nerve injury in neck dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2012-01-01

    The immediate and permanent frequency of injury to the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (MMN) after neck dissection has only scarcely been addressed in the medical literature. We investigated the risk of injury in 159 consecutive patients after neck dissection for various reasons....... Recognition of the MMN during the operation, pre- or postoperative radiation therapy, re-operation for deep hemorrhage, age, gender or postoperative infection did not have any statistically significant influence on the frequency of MMN injury. In conclusion we found a moderate risk of injury to the MMN after...

  11. Mandibular Ameloblastoma in an Elderly Patient: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Kokoro; Shimizu, Kasumi; Sato, Chu; Morita, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Tagawa, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastomas frequently occur in relatively young people, but are rarely seen in people aged 80 years or older. We report a case of mandibular ameloblastoma in an elderly patient with a review of the literature. The patient was a 82-year-old man who noticed swelling of the gingiva approximately 2 weeks prior to his initial visit. Computed tomography showed a radiolucent area with little radiopacity. Internal uniformity was observed at the site, with thinning of cortical bone which lacked continuity in some areas. The excision and curettage were performed under general anaesthesia. No recurrence has been observed 14 months after surgery. PMID:23533821

  12. Mandibular Ameloblastoma in an Elderly Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokoro Nagata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas frequently occur in relatively young people, but are rarely seen in people aged 80 years or older. We report a case of mandibular ameloblastoma in an elderly patient with a review of the literature. The patient was a 82-year-old man who noticed swelling of the gingiva approximately 2 weeks prior to his initial visit. Computed tomography showed a radiolucent area with little radiopacity. Internal uniformity was observed at the site, with thinning of cortical bone which lacked continuity in some areas. The excision and curettage were performed under general anaesthesia. No recurrence has been observed 14 months after surgery.

  13. An unusual case report of bilateral mandibular radicular cysts

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    Niyanta S Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A radicular cyst is one of the most common odontogenic cysts of anterior maxilla, not commonly seen in adolescence. Here, we present a rare, atypical case, of bilateral radicular cysts of the mandibular posterior region in a 13-year-old girl. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac under general anesthesia followed by rehabilitation of the same area. The purpose of this article is to lay emphasis on the pedodontist′s role in early diagnosis and treatment of such lesions.

  14. Irregular Periapical Radiopacity in Mandibular Premolars and Molars

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    S. Aravind Warrier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased deposition of cementum is observed in a wide number of both benign and malignant conditions. Many cases are often diagnosed during routine examination as an incidental finding. Diagnosing correctly without confusing it with other similarly appearing lesions, thus avoiding subjecting the patient to unnecessary investigations and stress, is of prime importance. We report one such case, where the patient presented with the routine complaint of a painful tooth, during the investigation of which he was also diagnosed with hypercementosis affecting the mandibular second premolars and molars bilaterally. The literature review reveals that not many cases of hypercementosis are frequently reported.

  15. Functional Treatment of a Child with Extracapsular Mandibular Fracture

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    Diana Cassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Condylar fractures are among the most frequent fractures in the context of traumatic lesions of the face. The management of condylar fractures is still controversial, especially when fractures occur in children: if overlooked or inappropriately treated, these lesions may lead to severe sequelae, both cosmetic and functional. The therapy must be careful because severe long-term complications can occur. In this case report, the authors present a case of mandibular fracture in which the decision between surgical therapy and functional therapeutic regimen may be controversial due to the particular anatomy of the fracture line and the age of the patient.

  16. Buccal-sided mandibular angle exostosis - A rare case report

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    Salman Basha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal exostoses are benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. They are painless and self-limiting, but occasionally may become several centimeters across and then contribute to periodontal disease of the adjacent teeth by forcing food during chewing in toward the teeth instead of away from them, as is normally the case. The following paper presents a very rare case of buccal-sided mandibular angle exoxtosis and its management with surgical exploration.

  17. Massive bilateral mandibular metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma

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    Siti Asmat Md Arepen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC comprises almost eighty percent of differentiated thyroid malignancy. It affects female more than male in the age range between 40–50 years old. It usually metastasizes to ipsilateral regional lymph nodes of neck and rarely have distant metastasis. Common route of dissemination of tumour is through lymphatic system. We reported a rare case of bilateral mandibular metastasis from incomplete resection of follicular variant of PTC. Keywords: Papillary thyroid carcinoma, Metastasis, Mandible

  18. Mandibular bone necrosis after use of paraformaldehyde-containing paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-hwan Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraformaldehyde has been used in the past as a pulpotomy agent. However, it has a severe cytotoxic effect and may cause alveolar bone necrosis. Depulpin, a devitalizing agent containing 49% paraformaldehyde, is no longer used frequently due to its severe side effects. In the two cases described in the present study, Depulpin was used as a devitalizing agent during root canal treatment. It caused a gradual loss of sensibility in adjacent teeth, gingival necrosis, and osteomyelitis. This case report demonstrates the serious side effects of using a paraformaldehyde-containing paste as a devitalizing agent for pulp, particularly mandibular bone necrosis.

  19. Mandibular bone necrosis after use of paraformaldehyde-containing paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-hwan; Choi, Yoorina

    2016-01-01

    Paraformaldehyde has been used in the past as a pulpotomy agent. However, it has a severe cytotoxic effect and may cause alveolar bone necrosis. Depulpin, a devitalizing agent containing 49% paraformaldehyde, is no longer used frequently due to its severe side effects. In the two cases described in the present study, Depulpin was used as a devitalizing agent during root canal treatment. It caused a gradual loss of sensibility in adjacent teeth, gingival necrosis, and osteomyelitis. This case report demonstrates the serious side effects of using a paraformaldehyde-containing paste as a devitalizing agent for pulp, particularly mandibular bone necrosis. PMID:27847756

  20. Recurrent unicystic ameloblastoma in mandibular anterior teeth area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Do; Lee, Wan; Kim, Jin Hoa; Choi, Dong Hoon; Paeng, Jun Young; Kim, Eun Cheol [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    The unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is a variant of the solid or multicystic ameloblastoma, a less encountered variant of the ameloblastoma. It appears more frequently in the second or third decade with no sexual or racial predilection. It is almost exclusively encountered asymptomatically in the posterior mandible. We report a case of a 43-year old patient with UA, who had previously undergone a surgical treatment on the same site about 1 year ago, this lesion recurred and presented as an exophytic gingival lesion in the anterior mandibular region.

  1. Taking the guesswork out of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Hnat, W P; Hnat, T W; Legan, H L

    2001-02-01

    Mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis has recently been introduced as a means of resolving arch length deficiencies in the anterior segment and as a method of reducing large vestibular spaces related to a narrow mandible. Accurately relating the required distraction for a given anterior tooth mass and desired future anteroposterior location of the central incisors has not been possible until recently. The relationship between these 3 controlling factors has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic cosine function and a computer program designed for easy use by the clinician. Two clinical cases illustrate the application of the program. A Web site where the program can be downloaded at no cost is mentioned.

  2. Adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular levels of the brain’s endogenous anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant adenosine largely depend on an astrocyte-based adenosine cycle, comprised of ATP release, rapid degradation of ATP into adenosine, and metabolic reuptake of adenosine through equilibrative nucleoside transporters and phosphorylation by adenosine kinase (ADK). Changes in ADK expression and activity therefore rapidly translate into changes of extracellular adenosine, which exerts its potent anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects by activation of pre- and postsynaptic adenosine A1 receptors. Increases in ADK increase neuronal excitability, whereas decreases in ADK render the brain resistant to seizures and injury. Importantly, ADK was found to be overexpressed and associated with astrogliosis and spontaneous seizures in rodent models of epilepsy, as well as in human specimen resected from patients with hippocampal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. Several lines of evidence indicate that overexpression of astroglial ADK and adenosine deficiency are pathological hallmarks of the epileptic brain. Consequently, adenosine augmentation therapies constitute a powerful approach for seizure prevention, which is effective in models of epilepsy that are resistant to conventional antiepileptic drugs. The adenosine kinase hypothesis of epileptogenesis suggests that adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy undergoes a biphasic response: An acute surge of adenosine that can be triggered by any type of injury might contribute to the development of astrogliosis via adenosine receptor –dependent and –independent mechanisms. Astrogliosis in turn is associated with overexpression of ADK, which was shown to be sufficient to trigger spontaneous recurrent electrographic seizures. Thus, ADK emerges as a promising target for the prediction and prevention of epilepsy. PMID:22700220

  3. Biocompatibility and bone formation with porous modified PMMA in normal and irradiated mandibular tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lye, K.W.; Tideman, H.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Chin, F.K.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    A cemented mandibular endoprosthesis is a potentially viable option for mandibular reconstruction after ablative surgery. The commonly used PMMA cement has the inherent weakness of a lack of bioactivity. Improvement by the addition of porosities and bioactive compounds like calcium phosphates may

  4. Prognosis of teeth in the line of mandibular fracture: 5 - year clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to highlight our experience with the prognosis of teeth retained in the line of mandibular fracture after treatment of the fracture. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective evaluation of 62 patients with 200 teeth in the line of mandibular fracture seen and treated at the Dental and ...

  5. Prevalence of Three-rooted Primary Mandibular First Molars in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Gene Tu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The data presented here indicate that approximately 5% of Taiwanese subjects had a three-rooted mandibular primary first molar and 80% of such teeth occurred unilaterally. Dentists should take into account the prevalence of these three-rooted variants in primary mandibular first molars among Taiwanese patients during their daily endodontic and exodontic procedures.

  6. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander Al-Abdulwahhab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the morphology of the root canal system of mandibular premolars has been demonstrated. This diverse morphology challenges for the clinician to clean, shape, and fill the entire root canal system. A case report of a mandibular second premolar with four root canals separated at the apical third and underwent endodontic treatment is presented.

  7. Effectiveness of lingual retainers bonded to the canines in preventing mandibular incisor relapse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Al-Assad, S.; Bronkhorst, E.; Weindel, S.; Katsaros, C.; Lisson, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A retainer bonded to the lingual surfaces of the mandibular canines (3-3 retainer) is a widely used type of retention. Our aim in this study was to assess the effectiveness of the 3-3 mandibular lingual stainless steel retainer to prevent relapse of the orthodontic treatment in the

  8. Tissue-engineered mandibular bone reconstruction for continuity defects: a systematic approach to the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanchareonsook, N.; Junker, R.; Jongpaiboonkit, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite significant surgical advances over the last decades, segmental mandibular bone repair remains a challenge. In light of this, tissue engineering might offer a next step in the evolution of mandibular reconstruction. Purpose: The purpose of the present report was to (1)

  9. Predictive factors for premature loss of Martin 2.7 mandibular reconstruction plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Rijt, E. E. M.; Noorlag, R.; Koole, R.; Abbink, J. H.; Rosenberg, A. J. W. P.

    Mandibular reconstruction with a plate, with or without a vascularised free (bone) flap, is commonly used to treat patients with a segmental mandibular defect. Common complications are loosening of the osteosynthesis screws, malposition, intraoral or extraoral exposure, or infection. To define

  10. Anatomic study to determine a safe surgical reference point for mandibular ramus osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Gi-Jung; Park, Hyung-Sik; Jung, Young-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify a surgical reference point on the mandibular ramus that can be used during ramus osteotomy to prevent injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. A total of 125 subjects' mandibles were analyzed and compared on a three-dimensional (3D) model constructed from computed tomography (CT). 25 volunteer subjects with normal class I occlusion (group I, control), 50 consecutive subjects (25 females and 25 males) diagnosed with mandibular retrognathism (group II), and 50 consecutive subjects (25 females and 25 males) with prognathism (group III) were included. This study created a landmark (the midwaist point) at the halfway point on a horizontal plane between the most concave points on the anterior and posterior borders of mandibular ramus, with the vertical plane bisecting the horizontal plane. The midwaist point was compared to other anatomic landmarks including antilingula, lingula, and mandibular foramen for correlation. The distance from the midwaist point to lingula and mandibular foramen along the horizontal plane was not significantly different among three groups. Lingula and mandibular foramen were mostly located within 2 mm posterior of the midwaist point, whereas the locations of lingula and mandibular foramen along the vertical plane to the midwaist point were highly variable. The midwaist point is an excellent intraoperative reference point that can help surgeons to identify the position of the lingual and the mandibular foramen, thus preventing inferior alveolar nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of soft-tissue artifacts when using anatomical and technical markers to measure mandibular motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: It appears that markers on the frontal nose bridge are good alternatives to transoral rigid devices for measuring mandibular motion, compared to optical frame markers and other skin markers on the face. The results of the current study will be helpful for establishing guidelines for marker placement when measuring mandibular movements in patients with potential temporomandibular disorders.

  12. Long-term functional outcome of mandibular reconstruction with stainless steel AO reconstruction plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Minnen, B; Nauta, JM; Vermey, A; Bos, RRM; Roodenburg, JLN

    Mandibular continuity defects are usually reconstructed with bone grafts. However, factors associated with the tumour and the patient can still be reasons to choose reconstruction plates. The aim of this study was to find out the results of mandibular reconstructions with stainless steel AO

  13. Mandibular reconstruction of a partial hemimandibulectomy in a dog with severe malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrieau, Randy J; Mitchell, Susan L; Seeherman, Howard

    2004-01-01

    To report treatment of severe mandibular malocclusion (after left partial hemimandibulectomy, approximately 7 cm gap). Clinical report. A 14-month-old golden retriever. After corrective osteotomy of the right horizontal mandibular ramus, normal occlusion was reestablished and temporarily maintained while both mandibles were stabilized by miniplates on the lateral alveolar surface spanning the bilateral mandibular defects (right=1.5 cm, left=7 cm). A fenestrated, monocortical rib graft was positioned beneath the left gingival surface to protect the synthetic graft, which was secured to the miniplate. A mandibular reconstruction plate (right) and a locking mandibular reconstruction plate (left) were secured to the ventral borders of the mandibles. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivered in collagen tricalcium phosphate sponges (rhBMP-2 collagen-TCP sponge) was inserted into both mandibular defects. New bone formation was identified at 3 months and bony remodeling was evident at recheck examinations up to 4 years. Scintigraphy (6 months, 1 year) confirmed graft revascularization and viability. Bone collected (1 year) from the left defect site had robust new bone formation and evidence of continued remodeling. Only minor complications were encountered during the postoperative period and were easily resolved. Reconstruction of a large mandibular defect was facilitated by use of an osteoinductive factor (rhBMP-2 collagen-TCP sponge) as a graft substitute. One-step salvage and reconstruction facilitated by use of an osteoinductive factor, as a graft substitute, may be an alternative strategy for repair of large mandibular defects.

  14. Mandibular implant-supported overdentures and oral function : a 10-year Follow-up Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bilt, Andries; Burgers, M.; van Kampen, F. M. C.; Cune, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Oral rehabilitation by means of implant-retained mandibular overdentures is known to improve oral function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of mandibular implant treatment on oral function. We quantified maximum bite force and masticatory performance 10 years

  15. An unusual presentation of all the mandibular anterior teeth with two root canals - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiku A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of two root canals in all mandibular anterior teeth is presented. The patient initially reported for the treatment of mandibular right central and lateral incisors. However, radiographic evaluation revealed variant root canal and apical foramen patterns.

  16. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  17. Function impairment and pain after closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.U.; Stegenga, B.; de Bont, L.G.; Bos, R.R.

    Background: To determine the prognosis of fractures of the mandibular condyle after closed treatment. Methods: Patients (n = 144) with a fracture of the mandibular condyle, all treated closed, were included in the study. Fracture types and position of the fracture parts were determined on

  18. Combined maxillary and mandibular midline and mandibular ramus distraction osteogenesis for treatment of a Class II patient with implants as orthodontic anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ichiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2010-03-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a woman with severe mandibular retrusion and maxillomandibular transverse deficiency. Her malocclusion was characterized by a large overjet, a deep overbite, and a V-shaped dental arch, and she had a skeletal Class II profile. Treatement included combined maxillary and mandibular midline expansion, maxillary downward repositioning, and mandibular ramus lengthening with distraction osteogenesis with implants as orthodontic anchorage. During the postdistraction orthodontic treatment period, some skeletal relapse occurred. Implants provided absolute orthodontic anchorage to overcome the unexpected skeletal changes. Combined orthodontic treatment with implants for anchorage and distraction osteogenesis successfully expanded the maxilla and the mandible and corrected the mandibular deficiency. Two-year follow-up records show a morphologically and functionally stable result. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influência da proporção entre as alturas do ramo mandibular e dentoalveolar posterior na inclinação do plano mandibular

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brandão Filho, Rivail Almeida; Bittencourt, Marcos Alan Vieira; Campos, Paulo Sérgio Flores

    2008-01-01

    ...) com a altura dentoalveolar posterior total (ADAPT) e a inclinação do plano mandibular (PM). MÉTODOS: dois examinadores avaliaram 81 telerradiografias laterais de pacientes, com idades a partir de 18 anos, do arquivo do curso...

  20. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol......This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive...... neuropsychological test battery must be used to detect POCD and a well-matched control group is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the test RESULTS: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with a high incidence of POCD. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to explain this difference, but randomized...