WorldWideScience

Sample records for temporary molar pits

  1. The sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid and the glass ionomer cement; Selamento de fossulas e fissura de segundo molar deciduo inferior com laser de Nd: YAG, acido fosforico e cimento de ionomero de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Maria Aparecida

    2003-07-01

    The main of our study was to check the sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure, in vitro, with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid at 37% and the glass ionomer cement (CIV, Fuji IX GC).The proposal was to check the structural morphologic changes in the laser irradiation upon the enamel surface to watch the pits and fissure sealing with the glass ionomer cement use after the laser irradiation and to verify the efficiency of the 'double conditioning' (phosphoric acid + Nd: YAG). At the same time we watch the evolution of the temperature in the pulp chamber's inside. Our desire was to achieve a therapeutic alternative technic to prevent the dental caries. The Nd: YAG laser parameters were the same: 79 mJ of energy per pulse; frequency of 5 Hz; mean power of 0,4 W; optical fiber on contact of 320 {mu}m diameter; fluency of 99,52 J/ cm{sup 2}, assuming that the only differential was the time of the laser application on the enamel surface. The samples were prepared with this way: Laser Nd: YAG (53 second) + acid + CIV (Fuji IX); Laser Nd: YAG (53 s); Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s) + acid + CIV; Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s); Acid + CIV; Control. Through the scanning electron microscopy (MEV) we noticed fusion and resolidification regions due to the laser irradiation and a better adaptation of the glass ionomer cement when we did the 'double conditioning'. Concerning the temperature increase we can conclude that the echeloned period was the best recommended because the temperature was found in a pattern that would not cause any damage to the dental pulp. For future studies we suggest a longer relaxing time between the laser irradiation, a comparative study of this method with other lasers, the use of other sealing materials and the study with the permanent teeth. (author)

  2. The influence of premature loss of temporary upper molars on permanent molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Maxim, Dana Cristiana; Zetu, Irina Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Premature loss of primary molars due to dental caries and their complications has been associated with space loss and eruptive difficulties, especially when the loss occurs early. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of premature loss of temporary upper molars upon the longitudinal axis of the first and second upper permanent molar. The study group included 64 patients 6-9 years old with premature loss of primary molars and a control group of 48 patients with intact temporary teeth. It was evaluated the angle between longitudinal axis of first and second upper permanent molars and occlusal plane. The sofware used is Easy Dent 4 Viewer®.The data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 20.0; SPSS, Chicago, III). It was observed that premature loss of upper second deciduous molars modifies greater the vertical axis of the permanent molars than the premature loss of first upper primary molar. First upper primary molar loss cause an acceleration eruption of first premolar, which will produce a distal inclintion of the both permanent molars. The use of space maintainers after premature loss of the second upper temporary molar is a last solution in preventing tridimensional lesions in the dental arch and occlusion.

  3. [Correlation between the lower first permanent molar axis and the premature loss of temporary molars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcu, Ana; Maxim, A; Haba, Danisia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the impact of premature loss of temporary molars upon the longitudinal axis of the first permanent molar. The study sample was formed by 94 orthopanthomografies of child patients with premature loss of lower temporary molars (first or second) after clinical eruption of the first permanent molar. All panoramic radiographs have been realized with the same panoramic unit with 1.4% magnification coefficient and were analyzed using a standardized technique of tracing the images of teeth and bone on matte acetate paper. It was evaluated the angle between longitudinal axis of first permanent lower molar and occlusal plane. It was observed that premature loss of lower second deciduous molar modifies greater the vertical axis of first permanent molar (between 61 degrees and 79 degrees) then premature loss of first lower primary molar. This is perhaps because the loss of space in the case of premature exfoliation of first primary molar is due more to distal drift of canine then mesial drift of molars. The drift to mesial of first permanent molar is more accentuated proportional with the age at which appeared premature loss and so it is loss of leeway space.

  4. Permanent versus temporary restorations after emergency pulpotomies in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelmann, Marcio; Fair, Jodi; Bimstein, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if immediate placement of a stainless steel crown (SSC) after emergency pulpotomies in primary molars would result in a better outcome when compared to different temporary restorations. Records of 94 emergency pulpotomies in primary molars performed at a university pediatric graduate dental clinic between July 2001 and June 2004 were analyzed. Inclusion criteria included: (1) teeth with a positive history of spontaneous or elicited pain; (2) deep caries with close approximation to the pulp; (3) absence of clinical and radiographic signs of pulpal degeneration; (4) abnormal mobility; or (5) swelling. Pulpotomized teeth were temporarily restored with a zinc oxide eugenol-based temporary restoration (IRM) covered with Ketac Molar or with a permanent restoration (SSC). The time interval between emergency and definitive treatment or recall, age, gender, tooth type, and arch were the variables analyzed in the study. Success was determined by record (progress notes and radiographs) verification of SSC placement in case of a temporary restoration and by confirmation of crown presence during recall exam. Data from emergency pulpotomies restored only with IRM was added to the study and included in the statistical analysis. Superior clinical success was obtained when emergency pulpotomies were restored with SSC (86%) when compared to IRM only (61%) or IRM and Ketac Molar combined (77%). Statistical significance was obtained in favor of SSC when survival analysis was performed (P.05). Immediate placement of an SSC tended to improve the chances for success when emergency pulpotomies are performed.

  5. Sealants for Preventing and Arresting Pit-and-fissure Occlusal Caries in Primary and Permanent Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John T; Tampi, Malavika P; Graham, Laurel; Estrich, Cameron; Crall, James J; Fontana, Margherita; Gillette, E Jane; Nový, Brian B; Dhar, Vineet; Donly, Kevin; Hewlett, Edmond R; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chaffin, Jeffrey; Crespin, Matt; Iafolla, Timothy; Siegal, Mark D; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso

    2016-01-01

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 data indicated that, in the United States, nearly onefourth of children and over one-half of adolescents experienced dental caries in their permanent teeth. The purpose of this review was to summarize the available clinical evidence regarding the effect of dental sealants for the prevention and management of pit-and-fissure occlusal carious lesions in primary and permanent molars, compared with a control without sealants, with fluoride varnishes, or with other head-to head comparisons. The authors included parallel and split-mouth randomized controlled trials that included at least 2 years of follow-up, which they identified using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, LILACS, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and registers of ongoing trials. Pairs of reviewers independently conducted the selection of studies, data extraction, risk of bias assessments, and quality of the evidence assessments by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Of 2,869 records screened, the authors determined that 24 articles (representing 23 studies) proved eligible. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that participants who received sealants had a reduced risk of developing carious lesions in occlusal surfaces of permanent molars compared with those who did not receive sealants (odds ratio [OR], 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.27) after 7 or more years of follow-up. When the authors compared studies whose investigators had compared sealants with fluoride varnishes, they found that sealants reduced the incidence of carious lesions after 7 or more years of follow-up (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.51); however, this finding was supported by low-quality evidence. On the basis of the evidence, the authors could not provide a hierarchy of effectiveness among the studies whose investigators had conducted head-to-head comparisons. The investigators of 2 trials provided information

  6. Systemic review of the prevention of pit and fissure caries of permanent molars by resin sealants in children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Gu, Ying; Zhu, Ling; Hu, Yukung; Sun, Ming; Xue, Haowei

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between pit and fissure sealants and the prevention of dental caries in permanent molars of children in China. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was followed. Articles published in English and Chinese from 2002 to 2013 were selected. All these studies were randomized clinical trials related to pit and fissure sealants on caries prevention. Data were analyzed using Software Review Manager 5.1. A search of the four largest Chinese medical literature databases and the PubMed/Medline database yielded a total of 397 clinical research studies about the effects of pit and fissure sealants on the prevention of dental caries; 20 original research studies were selected. In this meta-analysis, a total of 12 187 participants were included. Statistical analyses demonstrated a significant association between pit and fissure sealants and dental caries prevention for a 6-month follow-up period (combined odds ratio = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.32, P sealants preventing the occurrence of dental caries. Current clinical evidence suggests that pit and fissure sealants are effective for dental caries prevention. Sealants should be placed as part of an overall caries prevention approach. Further research with larger sample sizes and rigorously-designed clinical trials are required to corroborate the current results. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Reimbursement rates and policies for primary molar pit-and-fissure sealants across state Medicaid programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Singh, Jennifer

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about Medicaid policies regarding reimbursement for placement of sealants on primary molars. The authors identified Medicaid programs that reimbursed dentists for placing primary molar sealants and hypothesized that these programs had higher reimbursement rates than did state programs that did not reimburse for primary molar sealants. The authors obtained Medicaid reimbursement data from online fee schedules and determined whether each state Medicaid program reimbursed for primary molar sealants (no or yes). The outcome measure was the reimbursement rate for permanent tooth sealants (calculated in 2012 U.S. dollars). The authors compared mean reimbursement rates by using the t test (α = .05). Seventeen Medicaid programs reimbursed dentists for placing primary molar sealants (34 percent), and the mean reimbursement rate was $27.57 (range, $16.00 [Maine] to $49.68 [Alaska]). All 50 programs reimbursed dentists for placement of sealants on permanent teeth. The mean reimbursement for permanent tooth sealants was significantly higher in programs that reimbursed for primary molar sealants than in programs that did not ($28.51 and $23.67, respectively; P = .03). Most state Medicaid programs do not reimburse dentists for placing sealants on primary molars, but programs that do so have significantly higher reimbursement rates. Medicaid reimbursement rates are related to dentists' participation in Medicaid and children's dental care use. Reimbursement for placement of sealants on primary molars is a proxy for Medicaid program generosity.

  8. Effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices in patients with anterior open bite: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Saleem Alsafadi; Mohannad M. Alabdullah; Humam Saltaji; Anas Abdo; Mohamed Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices on the vertical facial morphology and mandibular rotation during open bite treatment in the permanent dentition. Methods We performed a systematic review of the published data in seven electronic databases up to September 2015. We considered studies for inclusion if they were examining the effects of posterior teeth intrusion on the vertical facial morphology with open bit...

  9. Dental caries and first permanent molar pit and fissure morphology in 7-to 8-year-old children in Wuhan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.D.; Chen, X.; Frencken, J.; Du, M.Q.; Chen, Z.

    2012-01-01

    To obtain the caries experience and, plaque accumulation severity and pit and fissure morphology in first permanent molars in 7-8 children in Wuhan, as a reasonable prediction of caries risk and preventive attention in the future, a convenient sample of five primary schools in the vicinity of the

  10. 75 FR 21039 - Notice of Temporary Road Closure of Coal Pit Spring-Cave Gulch Road (6287-0-B0), Within the Cave...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Road Closure of Coal Pit Spring--Cave Gulch Road (6287-0-B0), Within the Cave Gulch Area, Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... (BLM), in the Cave Gulch area, approximately 11 miles northwest of Burns, in Harney County, Oregon...

  11. Enamel pits in hamster molars, formed by a single high fluoride dose, are associated with a perturbation of transitional stage ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyaruu, D M; Vermeulen, L; Stienen, N; Bervoets, T J M; Denbesten, P K; Bronckers, A L J J

    2012-01-01

    Excessive intake of fluoride (F) by young children results in the formation of enamel subsurface porosities and pits, called enamel fluorosis. In this study, we used a single high dose of F administered to hamster pups to determine the stage of ameloblasts most affected by F and whether pit formation was related to F-related sub-ameloblastic cyst formation. Hamster pups received a single subcutaneous injection of either 20 mg or 40 mg NaF/kg body weight, were sacrificed 24 h later, and the number of cysts formed in the first molars were counted. Other pups were sacrificed 8 days after F injection, when the first molars had just erupted, to score for enamel defects. All F-injected pups formed enamel defects in the upper half of the cusps in a dose-dependent way. After injection of 20 mg NaF/kg, an average of 2.5 white spots per molar was found but no pits. At 40 mg NaF/kg, almost 4.5 spots per molar were counted as well as 2 pits per molar. The defects in erupted enamel were located in the upper half of the cusps, sites where cysts had formed at the transition stage of ameloblast differentiation. These results suggest that transitional ameloblasts, located between secretory- and maturation-stage ameloblasts, are most sensitive to the effects of a single high dose of F. F-induced cysts formed earlier at the pre-secretory stage were not correlated to either white spots or enamel pits, suggesting that damaged ameloblasts overlying a F-induced cyst regenerate and continue to form enamel. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Assessment of the consequences in premature loss of the temporary lower molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcu, Ana; Bălan, Adriana; Gavrilă, Laura Maria Vasilca; Savin, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of premature loss of temporary teeth are complex, both of functional and morphological order and the clinical presentation depends on multiple factors: the temporary tooth loss rate as compared with permanent tooth eruption sequence and the number and topography of teeth extracted, so the clinical form of edentulous, which can be frontal or lateral, symmetric or asymmetric, isolated or continuous.

  13. Dental caries and first permanent molar pit and fissure morphology in 7- to 8-year-old children in Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin-Dong; Chen, Xi; Frencken, Jo; Du, Min-Quan; Chen, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    To obtain the caries experience and, plaque accumulation severity and pit and fissure morphology in first permanent molars in 7-8 children in Wuhan, as a reasonable prediction of caries risk and preventive attention in the future, a convenient sample of five primary schools in the vicinity of the Wuhan University School and Hospital of Stomatology was drawn. Two calibrated examiners orally examined all present grade 2 children in the classroom, using standard caries plaque and tooth morpholog...

  14. Effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices in patients with anterior open bite: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafadi, Ahmad Saleem; Alabdullah, Mohannad M; Saltaji, Humam; Abdo, Anas; Youssef, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices on the vertical facial morphology and mandibular rotation during open bite treatment in the permanent dentition. We performed a systematic review of the published data in seven electronic databases up to September 2015. We considered studies for inclusion if they were examining the effects of posterior teeth intrusion on the vertical facial morphology with open bite malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Study selection, risk of bias assessment, and data-extraction were performed in duplicate. Meta-analysis was not possible due to dissimilarity and heterogeneity among the included studies. Out of the 42 articles that met the initial eligibility criteria, 12 studies were finally selected. Low level of scientific evidence was identified after risk of bias assessment of the included studies with no relevant randomized controlled trial performed. Out of the 12 selected studies, five studies used miniplates and seven studies used miniscrews. Mandibular counterclockwise rotation was found to be between 2.3° and 3.9° in six studies (as sassed by mandibular plane angle, between MeGo or GoGn and SN or FH plane) while it was less than 2° in the remaining studies. Current weak evidence suggests that molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices may cause mandibular counterclockwise autorotation. Future well-conducted and clearly reported multicenter randomized controlled trials that include a non-treatment control group are needed to make robust recommendations regarding the amount of mandibular rotation during open bite treatments.

  15. Effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices in patients with anterior open bite: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saleem Alsafadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices on the vertical facial morphology and mandibular rotation during open bite treatment in the permanent dentition. Methods We performed a systematic review of the published data in seven electronic databases up to September 2015. We considered studies for inclusion if they were examining the effects of posterior teeth intrusion on the vertical facial morphology with open bite malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Study selection, risk of bias assessment, and data-extraction were performed in duplicate. Meta-analysis was not possible due to dissimilarity and heterogeneity among the included studies. Results Out of the 42 articles that met the initial eligibility criteria, 12 studies were finally selected. Low level of scientific evidence was identified after risk of bias assessment of the included studies with no relevant randomized controlled trial performed. Out of the 12 selected studies, five studies used miniplates and seven studies used miniscrews. Mandibular counterclockwise rotation was found to be between 2.3° and 3.9° in six studies (as sassed by mandibular plane angle, between MeGo or GoGn and SN or FH plane while it was less than 2° in the remaining studies. Conclusions Current weak evidence suggests that molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices may cause mandibular counterclockwise autorotation. Future well-conducted and clearly reported multicenter randomized controlled trials that include a non-treatment control group are needed to make robust recommendations regarding the amount of mandibular rotation during open bite treatments.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of pit-and-fissure sealants on primary molars in Medicaid-enrolled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; van der Goes, David N; Ney, John P

    2014-03-01

    We compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of 2 primary molar sealant strategies-always seal and never seal-with standard care for Medicaid-enrolled children. We used Iowa Medicaid claims data (2008-2011), developed a tooth-level Markov model for 10 000 teeth, and compared costs, treatment avoided, and incremental cost per treatment avoided for the 2 sealant strategies with standard care. In 10 000 simulated teeth, standard care cost $214 510, always seal cost $232 141, and never seal cost $186 010. Relative to standard care, always seal reduced the number of restorations to 340 from 2389, whereas never seal increased restorations to 2853. Compared with standard care, always seal cost $8.12 per restoration avoided (95% confidence interval [CI] = $4.10, $12.26; P ≤ .001). Compared with never seal, standard care cost $65.62 per restoration avoided (95% CI = $52.99, $78.26; P ≤ .001). Relative to standard care, always sealing primary molars is more costly but reduces subsequent dental treatment. Never sealing costs less but leads to more treatment. State Medicaid programs that do not currently reimburse dentists for primary molar sealants should consider reimbursement for primary molar sealant procedures as a population-based strategy to prevent tooth decay and reduce later treatment needs in vulnerable young children.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Pit-and-Fissure Sealants on Primary Molars in Medicaid-Enrolled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Goes, David N.; Ney, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of 2 primary molar sealant strategies—always seal and never seal—with standard care for Medicaid-enrolled children. Methods. We used Iowa Medicaid claims data (2008–2011), developed a tooth-level Markov model for 10 000 teeth, and compared costs, treatment avoided, and incremental cost per treatment avoided for the 2 sealant strategies with standard care. Results. In 10 000 simulated teeth, standard care cost $214 510, always seal cost $232 141, and never seal cost $186 010. Relative to standard care, always seal reduced the number of restorations to 340 from 2389, whereas never seal increased restorations to 2853. Compared with standard care, always seal cost $8.12 per restoration avoided (95% confidence interval [CI] = $4.10, $12.26; P ≤ .001). Compared with never seal, standard care cost $65.62 per restoration avoided (95% CI = $52.99, $78.26; P ≤ .001). Conclusions. Relative to standard care, always sealing primary molars is more costly but reduces subsequent dental treatment. Never sealing costs less but leads to more treatment. State Medicaid programs that do not currently reimburse dentists for primary molar sealants should consider reimbursement for primary molar sealant procedures as a population-based strategy to prevent tooth decay and reduce later treatment needs in vulnerable young children. PMID:24432941

  18. Pitted pebbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1942-01-01

    As early as 1863 Sorby proved that pitted pebbles are the result of solution at the points of mutual contact in a conglomerate. As cause he suggested solution under pressure in saturated, stagnant groundwater by what has afterwards been designated Riecke’s principle. By the examination of polished

  19. MOLAR UPRIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The mesial tipping of molar is frequently found in orthodontic cases. This molar malposition must be corrected since it may cause periodontal disorders, occlusal interferences, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction, and is often needed in planning a fixed bridge. This paper is a literature study to discuss about appliance designs, indication, and contraindications, and complication and treatment protocols of molar uprighting by fixed orthodontic appliances. By knowing the techniques of molar uprighting, the moments mentioned above can be avoided.

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE LOSS OF PRIMARY MOLARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana PETCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathology of premature loss of temporary molars is a complex issue with profound impact on dental and facial harmony, urging clinician`s interest for an optimal therapeutic approach. Identification of the predisposing factors, in full agreement with the anatomical particularities of the temporary teeth, corroborated with the incidence of premature loss of molars is a main condition for an optimal therapeutic management of these patients.

  1. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  2. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaginal bleeding Molar pregnancy Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  3. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  4. Mini-implant-supported Molar Distalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary anchorage devices popularly called mini-implants or miniscrews are the latest addition to an orthodontist′s armamentarium. The following case report describes the treatment of a 16-year-old girl with a pleasant profile, moderate crowding and Angle′s Class II molar relationship. Maxillary molar distalization was planned and mini-implants were used to preserve the anterior anchorage. After 13 months of treatment, Class I molar and canine relation was achieved bilaterally and there was no anterior proclination. Thus, mini-implants provide a viable option to the clinician to carry out difficult tooth movements without any side effects.

  5. Dermoscopy of Pitted Keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Lockwood

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritated hyperhidrotic soles with multiple small pits are pathognomonic for pitted keratolysis (PK. Here we show the dermatoscopic view of typical pits that can ensure the diagnosis. PK is a plantar infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Corynebacterium. Increases in skin surface pH, hyperhidrosis, and prolonged occlusion allow these bacteria to proliferate. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical and treatment generally consists of a combination of hygienic measures, correcting plantar hyperhidrosis and topical antimicrobials.

  6. Sealants for preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal caries in primary and permanent molars: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials-a report of the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John T; Tampi, Malavika P; Graham, Laurel; Estrich, Cameron; Crall, James J; Fontana, Margherita; Gillette, E Jane; Nový, Brian B; Dhar, Vineet; Donly, Kevin; Hewlett, Edmond R; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chaffin, Jeffrey; Crespin, Matt; Iafolla, Timothy; Siegal, Mark D; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso

    2016-08-01

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 data indicated that, in the United States, nearly one-fourth of children and over one-half of adolescents experienced dental caries in their permanent teeth. The purpose of this review was to summarize the available clinical evidence regarding the effect of dental sealants for the prevention and management of pit-and-fissure occlusal carious lesions in primary and permanent molars, compared with a control without sealants, with fluoride varnishes, or with other head-to head comparisons. The authors included parallel and split-mouth randomized controlled trials that included at least 2 years of follow-up, which they identified using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, LILACS, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and registers of ongoing trials. Pairs of reviewers independently conducted the selection of studies, data extraction, risk of bias assessments, and quality of the evidence assessments by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Of 2,869 records screened, the authors determined that 24 articles (representing 23 studies) proved eligible. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that participants who received sealants had a reduced risk of developing carious lesions in occlusal surfaces of permanent molars compared with those who did not receive sealants (odds ratio [OR], 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.27) after 7 or more years of follow-up. When the authors compared studies whose investigators had compared sealants with fluoride varnishes, they found that sealants reduced the incidence of carious lesions after 7 or more years of follow-up (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.51); however, this finding was supported by low-quality evidence. On the basis of the evidence, the authors could not provide a hierarchy of effectiveness among the studies whose investigators had conducted head-to-head comparisons. The investigators of 2 trials provided

  7. Deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar incisor hypomineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; ten Cate, J.M.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Moll, H.A.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. This study focused on the relationship between Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). First permanent molars develop

  8. Sealing versus partial caries removal in primary molars: a randomized clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hesse, D; Bonifácio, C.C; Mendes, F.M; Braga, M.M; Imparato, J.C.P; Raggio, D.P

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this clinical trial is to verify the efficacy of pit and fissure sealants in arresting dentinal caries lesions compared to partial excavation and restorative treatment in primary molar teeth...

  9. Fate of fluoride-induced subameloblastic cysts in developing hamster molar tooth germs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Alberga, J.M.R.; Kwee, N.C.H.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Denbesten, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    White opacities and pits are developmental defects in enamel caused by high intake of fluoride (F) during amelogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that these enamel pits develop at locations where F induces the formation of sub-ameloblastic cysts. We followed the fate of these cysts during molar

  10. Why do Pit-Hours outlive the Pit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Ozturk (Sait); M. van der Wel (Michel); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study why a majority of trades still happen during the pit hours, i.e. when the trading pit is open, even after the pit ceased to be a liquid and informative venue. We investigate the case of 30-year U.S. Treasury futures using a ten-years-long intraday data set

  11. Second molar germectomy and third molar eruption. 11 cases of lower second molar enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumond, G

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cases followed from enucleation of the unerupted lower second molars through third molar eruption. While results were generally good, three presented third molar malpositions requiring further treatment.

  12. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  13. [Hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of molar pregnancy. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented a thyrotoxic syndrome accompanying a molar pregnancy. Serum thyroid hormones were elevated and returned to normal level after uterine evacuation of a molar pregnancy. The authors detail the role of thyroid stimulating property of human gonadotropin chorionic hormone and its structural changes during the gestational trophoblastic diseases. These changes give the latter the thyroid stimulating properties and signs of hyperthyroidism. Molar pregnancy may be a cause of hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis of molar pregnancy should be a mention to thyrotoxicosique syndrome in a woman of childbearing age. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Detecting Cavitation Pitting Without Disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhoudarian, S.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for detecting cavitation pitting in pumps, turbines, and other machinery uses low-level nuclear irradiation. Isotopes concentrated below surface emit gamma radiation, a portion of which is attenuated by overlying material. Where there are cavitation pits, output of gamma-ray detector fluctuates as detector is scanned near pits. Important to detect cavitation pits because nozzle, turbine blade, or other pump component weakened by cavitation could fail catastrophically and cause machine to explode.

  15. Removable molar power arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of force elements from the gingival hook of maxillary molar tubes during the retraction of the anterior teeth is very common in orthodontic practice. As the line of force passes below the center of resistance (CR of molar, it results its mesial tipping and also anchorage loss. To overcome this problem, the line of force should pass along the CR of molar. This article highlights a method to overcome this problem by attaching a removable power arm to the headgear tube of molar tube during the retraction of the anterior teeth.

  16. Histological structures and acidic etching sensitivities of the enamels at the occlusal pit parts in the deciduous and permanent teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masashi [Department of Dental Hygiene, Nippon Dental University College at Niigata, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan)]. E-mail: masashi@ngt.ndu.ac.jp; Zheng, Jinhua [Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan); Mori, Kazuhisa [Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan); Mataga, Izumi [Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kan [Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare the histological structures and acidic etching sensitivities of the enamels at the occlusal pit parts between the deciduous molars and permanent molars. They were observed by the polarizing and scanning electron microscopies. The enamel rods were less made slender by EDTA etching and the outlines of the apatite crystals, constituting the enamel rods, were clearer at the occlusal pit part of the deciduous molar than that of the permanent molar in reverse of that at the cusp part. It is thought that the enamel at the occlusal pit part of the permanent molar is more easily decayed by the dental caries than that of the deciduous molar because the former is more easily decayed by the acidic etching than the latter in reverse at the cusp part. It is considered that the thin superficialmost layer of the enamel at the occlusal pit part of the permanent molar has originally higher degree of resistance to the dental caries.

  17. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-19

    May 19, 2011 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Oct-Dec 2012 • Vol 15 • Issue 4. Yakasai, et al.: Tubal molar pregnancy follow-up using serial βhCG measurements similar to other trophoblastic tumors.[6] The outcome of the treatment of these patients is similar to those coming with non-molar ectopic gestation.

  18. Evaluación del distalador molar Belussi Evaluation of Belussi's molar distalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Abdel Nour Khoury

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La distalización de los molares superiores en mesogresión es una alternativa de tratamiento muy utilizado en nuestros días. Se conocen muchos métodos de distalización molar, estos han evolucionado notablemente y siguen siendo eficaces en el tratamiento. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar los cambios dentales producidos por el distalador molar Belussi. El aparato fue empleado en 11 pacientes con una edad promedio de 12 años, distoclusión de molares causada por mesogresión, y con tipo facial favorable. A cada uno se le confeccionaron modelos de estudio y se le realizaron fotografías, radiografías panorámicas y telerradiografías laterales de cráneo, antes y después del tratamiento, para analizar las variables objeto de estudio. El aparato se mantuvo en boca hasta lograr un sobretratamiento de la relación molar. Finalmente, se obtuvo una distalización molar de 4,45 mm acompañada de una inclinación de 5,55°, con una pérdida mínima de anclaje temporal.The distalization of the superior molars in mesial migration is a useful alternative treatment nowadays. Many methods of molar distalization are known. They have significantly evolved and they are still effective in the treatment. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dental changes produced by Belussi Molar Distalizer. The appliance was used in 11 patients with an average of 12 years-old, distoocclusion of molars caused by mesial migration and with a favorable facial type. Study models were made for each one of them and pictures, panoramic x-rays and lateral X-rays of the skull were taken, before and after the treatment, to analyze the variables object of study. The appliance was kept in the mouth until achieving an overtreatment of the molar relation. Finally, a molar distalization of 4.45 mm accompanied with an inclination of 5.55° was obtained, with a minimum loss of temporary anchorage.

  19. Stepwise excavation in a permanent molar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Fernanda Ferruzzi; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2010-01-01

    The current study presents a 17-year clinical report of stepwise excavation and indirect pulp capping in a lower right first molar, with great dentin destruction and a lack of dentin support of the cusps. At the first appointment, indirect pulp capping with calcium hydroxide and a temporary filling...... with zinc oxide cement were performed to minimize the risk of pulp exposure during excavation. After 45 days, the remaining carious tissue was removed and a restoration with glass-ionomer lining (Vitrebond) and resin composite (P-50) was performed. Satisfactory morphology and function of the restoration...

  20. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...

  1. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  2. Changes in electrical resistance of sound fissure enamel in first molars for 66 months from eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, S; Sakuma, S; Wang, J; Yoshihara, A; Miyazaki, H

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the enamel maturation process in the occlusal pit of sound first molars by measuring electrical resistance. Ninety-nine sound first molars in 34 children (mean age of 6.47 +/- 0.51 years) were measured electrically once every 6 months and were monitored for a maximum of 66 months. Electrical resistance increased during the posteruptive period. However, the results suggest that posteruptive enamel maturation in the occlusal pits may not be completed even 66 months after tooth eruption. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Biomechanics in Molar Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rendón Giraldo, Juan Esteban; Castaño, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate molar control is one of the difficulties that arise during mechanical treatment. When molar control is handled efficiently, it facilitates precise control of forces and moments, which increases the effectiveness of biomechanics. Knowledge of 4 x 2, 6 x 2 partial systems and the transpalatal bar with its different forms of activation offer a number of advantages that make it possible to optimize orthodontic results. The aim of this article is to clarify concepts, specify possible tr...

  4. Clinical Evaluation of the Retention of Different Pit and Fissure Sealants: A 1-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Parvathy

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of different pit and fissure sealants on the first permanent molars over a period of one year. Materials and methods: In this study, a total of 40 children with all first permanent molars erupted received four different pit and fissure sealants. The children were evaluated at 6 and 12 months. Results: The data was subjected to Chi-square test and Kaplan Meier survival analysis. The p-value was calculated using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. Conclusion: The retention rates of resin-based sealants were superior to that of glass ionomer sealant. How to cite this article: Kumaran P. Clinical Evaluation of the Retention of Different Pit and Fissure Sealants: A 1-Year Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):183-187. PMID:25206219

  5. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children – An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    Background The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. Material and Methods 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen’s criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. Results There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (psealant retention in primary and permanent molars was not significant (p>0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (psealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion. PMID:28210438

  6. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children - An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Urvashi; Goswami, Mridula

    2017-02-01

    The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen's criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (psealant retention in primary and permanent molars was not significant (p>0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (psealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion.

  7. Retention of resin-based filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants: A comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V Rajashekar; Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Mukunda, K S; Kiran, N K; Kavyarani, B S; Pradeep, M C

    2015-03-01

    The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent) and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE) pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen's criteria at 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), 8(th), 10(th) and 12(th) month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. At the end of our study period (12(th) month), 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F) pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro) pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled) sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled).

  8. Retention of resin-based filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants: A comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rajashekar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen′s criteria at 2 nd , 4 th , 6 th , 8 th , 10 th and 12 th month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: At the end of our study period (12 th month, 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled.

  9. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  10. Third molar infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease often associated with the eruption of a third molar. It can be either acute (serous and suppurative) or chronic. Pain is usually the predominant symptom in acute stages, whereas chronic forms of the disease may display very few symptoms. Both present exudate. The infection is multimicrobial, predominantly caused strictly by betalactamase-producing anaerobeic microorganisms. Treatment measures are symptomatic, antimicrobial and surgical. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated for preoperative prophylaxis when there is a high risk of postoperative infection and, during the acute stages of suppurative pericoronitis when surgery must be postponed. First-line treatment in this case consists of amoxicillin with associated clavulanic acid. Although surgical treatment of pericoronitis presenting at the third molar is indicated as a Grade C recommendation for extraction, it is the most common indication for extraction of a retained third molar, owing to the improved quality of life it can offer the patient.

  11. Pit and fissure sealants or fluoride varnishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the general advances in dental care, dental caries is still a global health problem affecting many children. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible sites in the developing permanent dentition. Dentists should use sealants or fluoride varnish - as well as other means - to limit the onset of tooth decay. Application of sealants is a recommended procedure to prevent or control caries. Sealing occlusal surfaces of newly erupted permanent molars in children and teenagers delays caries onset up to 48 months compared with unsealed teeth. However longer follow-ups shows a reduction of the preventive effect [Tikhonova et al., 2015]. A review of 2013 pointed out how sealants are effective in high risk children, however information about the benefits of sealing in other conditions is still scant [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2013]. Fluoride varnishes are frequently used to prevent early childhood caries and reduce caries increment in very young children [Weintraub et al., 2006] and in the most vulnerable populations, where the prevalence of caries is higher and specialist visits are occasional [Chu et al., 2010]. Many studies have reported the effectiveness of different types and forms of fluoride agents in preventing dental caries among children and adolescents [Divaris et al., 2013]. A review clarifies that professional application of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish leads to remineralisation of early enamel caries in children. Solutions of 38% silver diamine fluoride are effective in arresting active dentine caries [Gao et al., 2016]. The last systematic review [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2016], comparing pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes explains that the pooled estimate slightly favours resin sealants over fluoride varnishes at two years. At four and nine years, the only comparative study (with high drop-out rates) found more caries on fluoride-varnished occlusal surfaces than on resin-sealed surfaces. There is evidence

  12. Temporary internal pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Díaz-Miguel, R; Gómez Grande, M L

    2014-12-01

    Technology and insertion techniques for cardiac temporary internal pacing have experienced a remarkable development over the last few years. Despite this fact, the procedure continues to have potentially fatal associated complications. Temporary internal pacing is indicated for the treatment of bradyarrhythmias or tachyarrhythmias refractory to conventional treatment, or arrhythmias causing cardiovascular or clinical instability of the patient. On the other hand, the indications of temporary cardiac pacing are far less well defined than those of permanent pacing. Since the decision of implementing temporary pacing is complex and delicate, it should always be carefully considered, and over-indication should be avoided. We must base these decisions on robust knowledge of the arrhythmias that may benefit from temporary internal pacing, and should also acquire the habit of considering external temporary pacing among other less aggressive treatments, and to make the best use of new technologies such as echocardiography that add accuracy to the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Excess Molar Volumes and Partial Molar Volumes of Binary Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Excess molar volumes have been evaluated from density measurements over the entire composition range for binary systems of an ionic liquid ... was used to fit the excess molar volume data and the partial molar volumes were determined from the Redlich-Kister coefficients. ... ture below the boiling point of water. Most of ...

  14. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  15. Effect of an Antibacterial Monomer on the Antibacterial Activity of a Pit-and-Fissure Sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fan; Yu, Haohan; Lin, Pingting; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Xiang; Liu, Zhengya; Guo, Huihui; Huang, Li; Chen, Jihua

    Resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants are often used to form a barrier on the occlusal surface of molars to treat caries lesions; however, bacteria can remain in the pit and fissures without detection, increasing the risk of secondary caries. Sealants with antimicrobial properties or microbial repellent actions might be advantageous. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of a 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB)-incorporated sealant against Streptococcus mutans. MAE-DB (4% wt) was incorporated into a commercially available sealant, Eco-S resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Vericom Co., Ltd., Korea); a sealant without MAE-DB served as a negative control, and Clinpro™ Sealant (3M™ ESPE™), a fluoride-releasing resin, was used as a commercial control. The effects of the cured sealants and their eluents on the growth of S. mutans were determined according to colony-forming unit counts and metabolic tests. The effects of the cured sealants on the adherence and membrane integrity of S. mutans were investigated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) in conjunction with fluorescent indicators. Compared with the negative control and commercial control, the cured MAE-DB-incorporated pit-and-fissure sealant exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans (P pit-and-fissure sealant with contact antibacterial activity after polymerization via influencing the growth, adherence, and membrane integrity of S. mutans. Therefore, MAE-DB-containing pit-and-fissure sealant shows promise for preventing or controlling dental caries on occlusal pit and fissures of molars.

  16. Open bite treated with extractions and temporary anchorage devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Weinstein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old female with a chief complaint of continuing treatment presented with Class I skeletal pattern and slight facial asymmetry. Intraorally, she had Class II molar relationship on the right side, class l on the left side and 3mm. of midline discrepancy. Her upper and lower incisors were proclined and slightly crowded. She had 1 mm. overbite and 5mm. overjet in initial mounted casts. Splint therapy was suggested to stabilize mandibular position. After splint wear, a new mounting was made, which resulted in an open bite from left second molars to right second molars. A visual treatment objective was prepared with four first bicuspid extractions. After 9 months, upper second molars were extracted and temporary anchorage devices (TADs were placed in the upper arch for intrusion. Detailing strategies such as bracket repositioning, occlusal adjustment, and elastics were used. The role of segmented models, second molar extraction treatment, and superimposition analysis in patients with discrepancies in mandibular position is discussed. It is concluded that a thorough case workup is needed to provide patients with a successful treatment for open bite cases. This case was treated orthodontically in 2 years with four bicuspid and upper second molar extractions as well as vertical control with TADs.

  17. Time Dependent Development of Aluminium Pitting Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Melchers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium alloys have excellent corrosion resistance to a wide variety of exposure conditions. Usually they corrode by pitting rather than by uniform corrosion. For infrastructure applications long-term corrosion behaviour is of interest. The relatively limited long-term pitting data that is available shows that maximum and average pit depths do not follow the power law function as conventionally assumed but tend to follow a bimodal trend with exposure time. This is consistent with the bimodal trends observed previously for corrosion mass loss of aluminium alloys. Most likely it is the result of the accumulation of corrosion products over the pit mouths, leading to the gradual development of localised anoxic conditions within pits. In turn this permits the development within the pits of anoxic autocatalytic conditions, consistent with established theory for pitting corrosion of aluminium. It also is consistent with observations of hydrogen evolution from pits. The implications of this for practical applications are discussed.

  18. INTERACTIVE PIT LAKES 2004 CONFERENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This CD and the workshop provide a pit lakes forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international approaches, including arid and wet regions throughout the world. These approaches include characterization, modeling/monitoring, and treatment and r...

  19. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  20. Taurodontism in deciduous molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafna, Yash; Kambalimath, H V; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Prathibha

    2013-06-03

    Taurodont teeth are characterised by large pulp chambers at the expense of roots. An enlarged pulp chamber, apical displacement of the pulpal floor and no constriction at the level of the cement-enamel junction are the characteristic features of taurodont tooth. It appears more frequently as an isolated anomaly but its association with syndromes and other abnormalities have also been reported. Permanent dentition is more commonly affected than deciduous dentition. This paper presents a case report of taurodontism in relation to mandibular deciduous second molars.

  1. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... pit (VIP) latrines were inherited from the incorporated local entities. The VIPs in eThekwini are lined single-pits and include the four necessities of a VIP: a pit 1.5 m deep (or deeper), a foundation and cover slab, a superstructure and a vent pipe with a fly screen (Mara, 1984). After sewerage reticulation had.

  2. Gross enamel hypoplasia in molars from subadults in a 16th-18th century London graveyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, A R; Pinhasi, R; White, W J

    2007-07-01

    Dental Enamel Hypoplasia has long been used as a common nonspecific stress indicator in teeth from archaeological samples. Most researchers report relatively minor linear and pitted hypoplastic defects on tooth crown surfaces. In this work we report a high prevalence and early age of onset of extensive enamel defects in deciduous and permanent molars in the subadults from the post-medieval cemetery of Broadgate, east central London. Analysis of the dentition of all 45 subadults from the cemetery, using both macroscopic and microscopic methods, reveals disturbed cusp patterns and pitted, abnormal and arrested enamel formation. Forty-one individuals from this group (93.2%) showed some evidence of enamel hypoplasia, 28 of them showing moderate or extensive lesions of molars, deciduous or permanent (63.6% of the sample). Scanning Electron Microscope images reveal many molars with grossly deformed cuspal architecture, multiple extra cusps and large areas of exposed Tomes' process pits, where the ameloblasts have abruptly ceased matrix production, well before normal completion. This indented, rough and poorly mineralized surface facilitates both bacterial adhesion and tooth wear, and when such teeth erupt fully into the mouth they are likely to wear and decay rapidly. We suggest that this complex combination of pitted and plane-form lesions, combined with disruption of cusp pattern and the formation of multiple small cusps, should henceforth be identified as "Cuspal Enamel Hypoplasia." (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Structural Origins of Martian Pit Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Colton, S. L.; Sims, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, and are common on the surface of Mars. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that these features are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying sediments. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, karst dissolution, fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (i) visible faulting to (ii) faults and pits to (iii) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to interpret a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. The information collected in the study was then compared with non-Martian examples of pit chains and physical analog models. We evaluated the various mechanisms for pit chain development based on the data collected and conclude that dilational

  4. Essays on temporary migration

    OpenAIRE

    Mestres Domenech, J.

    2012-01-01

    My thesis dissertation focuses on the temporariness of migration, its diverse effects as well as on migration selection. The first paper, A Dynamic Model of Return Migration analyzes the decision process underlying return migration using a dynamic model. We explain how migrants decide whether to stay or to go back to their home country together with their savings and consumption decisions. We simulate our model with return intentions and perform policy simulations. The se...

  5. A temporary face support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.I.; Bakhtin, V.N.; Tolkachev, N.I.

    1980-03-30

    A temporary face support is proposed. It includes a beam supported by hydraulic jacks on the housing of the cutter-loader with a working tool and rotary pressure regulator. It differs in that to decrease the volume of unsecured roofing in the face space between the leading edge of the beam and the cutting tool of the cutter-loader, the beam is hinged onto the housing of the rotary pressure regulator by a fastened connecting rod, and the hydraulic jacks are provided with additional powered elements with a mechanism that regulates the length of the cut-off plate of the hydraulic pump when the seam pressure changes.

  6. Clinical decision on pit and fissure sealing according to the occlusal morphology. A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courson, F; Velly, A M; Droz, D; Lupi-Pégurier, L; Muller-Bolla, M

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate the clinical decision on sealing pits and fissures according to the occlusal morphology in patients with low individual caries risk (ICR). A total of 222 dentists, 86 affiliated to the French Society of Paediatric Odontology (SFOP) and 136 general practice dentists (GPs), answered the same questionnaire with illustrations of 4 occlusal surfaces of permanent molars: they indicated firstly if these were at risk and secondly the corresponding decision regarding sealing. This questionnaire assessed the decision on widening pits and fissures before sealing and the type of sealant material used. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with the clinical decision to widen pits and fissures. Sealing of at-risk teeth was indicated by 89% of dentists, whereas sealing of not at-risk occlusal surfaces was recommended by 46%. SFOP dentists were more prone to recommend pit and fissures sealants. The multivariate analyses demonstrated that only the type of material was associated with the clinical decision to widen pits and fissures. Forty eight percent of dentists choose the same material in all clinical situations. The wide variations in sealant use and placement technique implies there is no apparent consensus among GP and SFOP dentists. Although the criteria are similar in numerous scientific societies, not all dentists are acting upon these recommendations.

  7. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    standard tensile test specimens and optical microscopic examination samples. Six different molar concentrations of the NaCl (0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M,. 0.5M, 0.7M and 1.0M were prepared from the regent grade NaCl and deionized water in equilibrium with the atmosphere. The specimens were exposed to these solutions by ...

  8. Fluoride: Is It Worth to be added in Pit and Fissure Sealants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahake, Prasanna T; Raju, OS; Basappa, N

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and objectives: Fluoride is being used for the prevention of dental caries since a long time. Incorporation of fluoride in pit and fissure sealants has been found to reduce initiation and progression of pit and fissure caries. Authors conducted this study to evaluate and compare the effect of fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealants on the inhibition of demineralization of adjacent enamel and to reduce wall lesion frequency. Materials and methods: A total of 60 caries-free human third molars were randomly assigned into three groups receiving conventional resin sealant without fluoride (Group A), fluoride releasing resin sealant (Group B), glass ionomer pit and fissure sealant (Group C). Fissure cavities of 5 × 2 × 1.5 mm were prepared on buccal surfaces of teeth using fissurotomy bur and sealants were applied onto the cavities. The teeth were then thermocycled and exposed to acidified gelatin gel for 6 weeks to induce caries like lesions. A 150 μ m section was taken from each tooth and observed under polarized light microscope to measure the depth of advancing front of outer enamel lesion. The outer lesion depths of all three groups were compared. Results: Enamel demineralization was least in glass ionomer pit and fissure sealant while the demineralization exhibited by nonfluoridated resin and fluoridated resin were comparable. Wall lesion frequency was found to be 0% in all groups. Conclusion and interpretation: The glass ionomer pit and fissure sealant exhibited highest anticariogenic efficacy and hence can be advocated as a means of preventing dental caries. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Dahake PT, Raju OS, Basappa N. Fluoride: Is It Worth to be added in Pit and Fissure Sealants?. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):1-5. PMID:25206126

  9. Antibacterial Properties of Fluoride Releasing Glass lonomer Cements (GICs) and Pit and Fissure Sealants on Streptococcus Mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar M, Mahesh; Pai Bh, Mithun; Gm, Prashant; Reddy, Vv Subba; Mohan Das, Usha; C, Madura; Gn, Chandu

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial properties of fluoride releasing glass Ionomer cements (GICs) and pit and fissure sealants on Streptococcus mutans. Occlusal pit and fissures are the most susceptible sites for dental caries. The clinical effectiveness of GICs and fissure sealants in preventing caries is well-documented, but there is some concern about bacteria left beneath sealants. (1) Study the antibacterial activity of GICs and pit and fissure sealants. (2) Compare between these materials. GICs (Fuji IX GP and Ketac molar) and pit and fissure sealants (Teethmate-F1 and Helioseal-F ). The strains was grown in the Brain Heart Infusion broth and was incubated anaerobically for 18 hours at 37°C and subcultured in MSB agar.Four wells measuring 5 mm diameter was prepared on each agar plate and the prepared materials was placed and further incubated anaerobically for 48 hours at 37°C. The zone of inhibition was measured. All the materials tested showed antibacterial properties to varying levels except; among pit and fissure sealants it is Teethmate-F which showed more antibacterial property. Teethmate-F1 sealant showed more antibacterial property compared to Fuji IX and Ketac molar. Helioseal-F did not show any antibacterial property.

  10. Antibacterial Properties of Fluoride Releasing Glass lonomer Cements (GICs) and Pit and Fissure Sealants on Streptococcus Mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar M, Mahesh; Pai BH, Mithun; GM, Prashant; Reddy, VV Subba; Mohan Das, Usha; C, Madura

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title: Antibacterial properties of fluoride releasing glass Ionomer cements (GICs) and pit and fissure sealants on Streptococcus mutans. Background: Occlusal pit and fissures are the most susceptible sites for dental caries. The clinical effectiveness of GICs and fissure sealants in preventing caries is well-documented, but there is some concern about bacteria left beneath sealants. Objective: (1) Study the antibacterial activity of GICs and pit and fissure sealants. (2) Compare between these materials. Methodology: GICs (Fuji IX GP and Ketac molar) and pit and fissure sealants (Teethmate-F1 and Helioseal-F ). The strains was grown in the Brain Heart Infusion broth and was incubated anaerobically for 18 hours at 37°C and subcultured in MSB agar.Four wells measuring 5 mm diameter was prepared on each agar plate and the prepared materials was placed and further incubated anaerobically for 48 hours at 37°C. The zone of inhibition was measured. Results: All the materials tested showed antibacterial properties to varying levels except; among pit and fissure sealants it is Teethmate-F which showed more antibacterial property. Conclusion: Teethmate-F1 sealant showed more antibacterial property compared to Fuji IX and Ketac molar. Helioseal-F did not show any antibacterial property. PMID:27507918

  11. MOLAR TOOTH SIGN - JOUBERT SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Ranđelović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The molar tooth sign is seen in very few conditions and is a very rare pediatric central nervous system congenital anomaly. Molar tooth sign is the result of cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, thick and maloriented superior cerebellar peduncles, and an abnormally deep interpeduncular fossa. In Joubert syndrome, this is seen in about 85% of patients. We present a case of a two-year old girl with flaccid paraparesis, regression of milestones and developmental delay. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed the characteristic molar tooth sign with apposition of cerebellar hemispheres, batwing-shaped fourth ventricle, cerebellar vermis agenesis and deep interpeduncular fossa consistent with the diagnosis of Joubert syndrome.

  12. Use of the intraosseous screw for unilateral upper molar distalization and found well balanced occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyukyilmaz Tamer

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to present a temporary anchorage device with intraosseous screw for unilateral molar distalization to make a space for the impacted premolar and to found well balanced occlusion in a case. Case presentation A 13-year-old male who have an impacted premolar is presented with skeletal Class I and dental Class 2 relationship. The screw was placed and immediately loaded to distalize the left upper first and second molar. The average distalization time to achieve an overcorrected Class I molar relationship was 3.6 months. There was no change in overjet, overbite, or mandibular plane angle measurements. Mild protrusion (0.5 mm of the upper left central incisor was also recorded. Conclusion Immediately loaded intraosseous screw-supported anchorage unit was successful in achieving sufficient unilateral molar distalization without anchorage loss. This treatment procedure was an alternative treatment to the extraction therapy.

  13. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  14. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes. Water...

  15. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (IEEE ICRA [6] Strawser et al. (2014) J. Hydrogen Energy. [7] Dubowsky et al. (2007) Proc. CLAWAR.

  16. Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Pit-and-Fissure Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-15

    This article presents evidence-based clinical recommendations for the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents. A guideline panel convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry conducted a systematic review and formulated recommendations to address clinical questions in relation to the efficacy, retention, and potential side effects of sealants to prevent dental caries; their efficacy compared with fluoride varnishes; and a head-to-head comparison of the different types of sealant material used to prevent caries on pits-and-fissures of occlusal surfaces. This is an update of the ADA 2008 recommendations on the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources to identify randomized controlled trials reporting on the effect of sealants (available on the U.S. market) when applied to the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to assess the quality of the evidence and to move from the evidence to the decisions. The guideline panel formulated 3 main recommendations. They concluded that sealants are effective in preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal carious lesions of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents compared with the nonuse of sealants or use of fluoride varnishes. They also concluded that sealants could minimize the progression of non-cavitated occlusal carious lesions (also referred to as initial lesions) that receive a sealant. Finally, based on the available limited evidence, the panel was unable to provide specific recommendations on the relative merits of 1 type of sealant material over the others

  17. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  18. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Jin; Li Fei

    2015-01-01

    The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitori...

  19. Effect of an Antibacterial Monomer on the Antibacterial Activity of a Pit-and-Fissure Sealant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yu

    Full Text Available Resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants are often used to form a barrier on the occlusal surface of molars to treat caries lesions; however, bacteria can remain in the pit and fissures without detection, increasing the risk of secondary caries. Sealants with antimicrobial properties or microbial repellent actions might be advantageous. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of a 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB-incorporated sealant against Streptococcus mutans. MAE-DB (4% wt was incorporated into a commercially available sealant, Eco-S resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Vericom Co., Ltd., Korea; a sealant without MAE-DB served as a negative control, and Clinpro™ Sealant (3M™ ESPE™, a fluoride-releasing resin, was used as a commercial control. The effects of the cured sealants and their eluents on the growth of S. mutans were determined according to colony-forming unit counts and metabolic tests. The effects of the cured sealants on the adherence and membrane integrity of S. mutans were investigated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM in conjunction with fluorescent indicators. Compared with the negative control and commercial control, the cured MAE-DB-incorporated pit-and-fissure sealant exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans (P < 0.05, whereas the eluents did not show any detectable antibacterial activity. The commercial control also showed no detectable bactericidal activity. Moreover, the aged experimental material retained its property of contact inhibition of biofilm formation. The fluorescence analysis of CLSM images demonstrated that the cured MAE-DB-incorporated sealant could hamper the adherence of S. mutans and exert a detrimental effect on bacterial membrane integrity. The incorporation of MAE-DB can render a pit-and-fissure sealant with contact antibacterial activity after polymerization via influencing the growth, adherence, and membrane

  20. Transcending Organization in Temporary Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal

    Because of their temporary nature, work and employment in project based organizations are different from what we used to see in traditional organizational forms. Temporary employment, entailing less stability within the organization changes how employment and work are organized. Temporary systems...... are organized by transcending organization that go beyond the individual firm and replaces what used to be organized inside the firm. Following several calls for further research on these topics, this dissertation is a small step along the way as it investigates how work and employment are organized...... in temporary systems that lack stability and formal order. It advances our understanding of transcending organization in creative industries by adopting a practice based perspective. Empirically, the dissertation presents an in-depth study of the Danish film industry, which is an extreme case of a project...

  1. Miniscrew-assisted mandibular molar distalization in a patient with skeletal class-III malocclusion: A clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nongrowing patients with mild skeletal Class-III malocclusion, premolar extraction or molar distalization in the lower arch can be done as a part of camouflage treatment. Temporary anchorage devices are widely used for this purpose because they do not produce undesirable reciprocal effects and do not depend on the patient′s cooperation. However, most reported cases in this regard have used interradicular miniscrews in the mandibular arch and these have a risk of failure as they can loosen due to collision with adjacent roots. This article showcases mandibular molar distalization utilizing miniscrews, inserted at the retromolar area to correct a Class-III problem. A 24-year-old girl with a mild skeletal Class-III malocclusion and dental Class-III molar and canine relationship bilaterally was referred for orthodontic treatment. The treatment plan included distalization of the lower molars bilaterally followed by full fixed appliance therapy, after third molar extractions. For the lower molar distalization, the miniscrews were inserted at the retromolar pad. At the end of 21 months, a Class-I molar and canine relationship, normal overjet and overbite were obtained. The average amount of distalization of mandibular first molar was 3.2 mm at the crown level. In conclusion, placing miniscrews at the retromolar pad area for lower molar distalization was found to be a simple and effective method for correcting anterior cross bite and mandibular anterior crowding or protrusion, without the need for patient compliance.

  2. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager or...

  3. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the l...... to the large share in price the development of lid constructions is crucial for the development of pit water storage and seasonal storage.The current report gives a survey of the most important established and planned designs from Denmark, Sweden and Germany....

  4. Assessing granular pit construction from larval Neuroptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.; Loudon, Catherine; Steeples, Don W.

    2002-03-01

    Antlion larvae, Myrmeleon carolinus, build cone-shaped pits in dry sand for prey capture. The surface of these pits are prone to avalanches that can depend upon the physical properties of the sand in the local environment. The antlion larvae are observed to be capable of assessing both sand depth and particle size. In a polydisperse granular environment, the antlion demonstrates the ability to sort the sand by size in a dynamic manner. An imaging technique is developed to investigate the potential role of air viscosity on the pit construction process.

  5. Excess Molar Volumes and Partial Molar Volumes of Binary Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excess molar volumes have been evaluated from density measurements over the entire composition range for binary systems of an ionic liquid (IL) and an alcohol at T = (298.15, 303.15 and 313.15) K. The IL is 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulphate [BMIM]+[MeSO4]– and the alcohols are methanol, ethanol or ...

  6. Performance of pit and fissure sealants according to tooth characteristics: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Dimitraki, Dionysia; Kotsanos, Nikolaos; Bekes, Katrin; van Waes, Hubertus

    2017-11-01

    Aim of this systematic review was to assess the clinical performance of sealants on various teeth in an evidence-based manner. Five databases were searched from inception to February 2017. Randomized clinical studies on humans. After duplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to the Cochrane guidelines, Paule-Mandel random-effects meta-analyses of Relative Risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 16 randomized clinical trials with 2778 patients (male/female 49.1%/50.9%) and an average age of 8.4 years were included. No significant difference in either caries incidence of sealed teeth or sealant retention could be found according to (i) mouth side (right versus left), (ii) jaw (upper versus lower), (iii) and tooth type (1st permanent molar versus 2nd permanent molar/1st permanent molar versus 2nd deciduous molar/1st deciduous molar versus 2nd deciduous molar), based on evidence of very low to low quality. On the other side, compared to 1st permanent molars, sealed premolars were significantly less likely to develop caries (3 trials; RR=0.12; 95% CI=0.03 to 0.44; P=0.001) and less likely to experience loss of the sealant (5 trials; RR=0.33; 95% CI=0.20 to 0.54; P=0.001), both based on low to moderate quality evidence. The performance of pit and fissure sealants does not seem to be negatively affected by mouth side, jaw, and tooth type, apart from the exception of a favorable retention on premolars. Based on existing evidence, pit and fissure sealants can be effectively applied on any deciduous or permanent posterior teeth without adverse effects on their clinical performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  8. Sealing of temporary cements in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes Ferraz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the coronal leakage of three temporary cements in endodontics: Bioplic® (Biodinâmica, Londrina, Brazil, IRM® (Dentsply, Petrópolis, Brazil and Coltosol® (Vigodent, Bonsucesso, Brazil. Methods: Forty human pre-molars were divided into four groups: I (Bioplic® + adhesive system, II (Bioplic®, Biodinâmica, Londrina, Brasil, III (IRM®, Dentsply, Petrópolis, Brasil, and IV (Coltosol®, Vigodent, Bonsucesso, Brasil. The teeth were immersed in 1% Rodamine and kept at 37°C for 24h. They were then thermal cycled for seven days. Temperatures ranged between 5, 37 and 50°C. After longitudinal sectioning the leakage was measured in mm and statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Tukey tests with a level of significance of 5%.Results: In the group in which Bioplic® was used with adhesive, a lower level of leakage was detected (0.37 ± 0.24. There was significant difference (p<0.05 between groups I and III, I and IV, II and III. Conclusion: It was concluded that all the tested material showed coronal leakage and that the use of the (Bioplic® Biodinâmica, Londrina, Brasilplus adhesive system showed the lowest level of leakage.

  9. AHAR: Part 1 - PIT Estimates of Homelessness

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report outlines the key findings of the 2014 Point-In-Time (PIT) and Housing Inventory (HIC) counts conducted in January 2014. Specifically, this report...

  10. Defect induced asymmetric pit formation on hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Young; Wang, Eddie; Chung, Alice; Chang, Neil; Saiz, Eduardo; Choe, Uh-Joo; Koobatian, Maxwell; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2008-10-07

    Defect sites on bone minerals play a critical role in bone remodeling processes. We investigated single crystal hydroxyapatite (100) surfaces bearing crystal defects under acidic dissolution conditions using real-time in situ atomic force microscopy. At defect sites, surface structure-dependent asymmetric hexagonal etch pits were formed, which dominated the overall dissolution rate. Meanwhile, dissolution from the flat terraces proceeded by stochastic formation of flat bottom etch pits. The resulting pit shapes were intrinsically dictated by the HAP crystal structure. Computational modeling also predicted different step energies associated with different facets of the asymmetric etch pits. Our microscopic observations of HAP dissolution are significant for understanding the effects of local surface structure on the bone mineral remodeling process and provide useful insights for the design of novel therapies for treating osteoporosis and dental caries.

  11. Crossfire-Bonds Gravel Pit NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an NPDES permit and statement of basis. The Crossfire-Bonds Gravel Pit is authorized to discharge to Deer Canyon. Authorization for discharge is limited to only those outfalls specifically listed in the permit.

  12. CLPX-Ground: ISA Snow Pit Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of snow pit data from nine study areas, within three larger-scale areas in northern Colorado (Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears Meso-cell...

  13. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable...

  14. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation and Design. ... This paper studies the Surpac and Whittle software and their application in designing an optimised pit. Exploration ... During the optimisation, a total of 82 optimal pit outlines were generated using the 3D Lerchs-Grossmann algorithm. Pit 36 ...

  15. Temporary Clusters and Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter; Bathelt, Harald; Malmberg, Anders

    2004-01-01

    to distant markets and technologies. Third, it compares such temporaryclusters with permanent territorial hubs within their respective sector or industry. If regularparticipation in temporary clusters could satisfy a firm's need to learn through interactionwith suppliers, customers, peers and rivals, why...... or participating in such events are means toidentify the current market frontier, take stock of relative competitive positions and formfuture plans. These events exhibit many of the characteristics ascribed to permanentclusters, albeit in a temporary, periodic and intensified form. The temporary clusters...... is the phenomenon of permanent clusteringso pervasive?The answer, it is claimed, lies in the restrictions imposed on economic activity whenknowledge and ideas are transformed into valuable products and services. The paper shedsnew light on how interaction among firms in current clusters coincides...

  16. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  17. Supernumerary molars. A review of 53 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Menardía Pejoan, V.; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2000-01-01

    Supernumerary molars are not uncommon and may be found nearly anywhere in the dental alveolar arches. A series of 36 patients that presented with 53 supernumerary molars are reviewed. They occurred more frequently in the maxilla (86.8%), had little or no clinical significance, tended to be impacted, and were not associated with the impactation of the third molar. Four cases of maxillary fifth molars are described

  18. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  19. Impacted lower third molars and distal caries in the mandibular second molar. Is prophylactic removal of lower third molars justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, José; Montserrat-Bosch, Marta; Vilchez-Pérez, Miguel-Angel; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of mandibular third molars and the occurrence of carious lesions in the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar. Material and Methods A retrospective cohort study comprising 327 lower third molars extracted in the Oral Surgery and Implantology Master’s Degree program of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Barcelona, Spain) was carried out. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was made. The diagnosis of caries in the second molar and the position of the mandibular third molar were evaluated through panoramic radiographies. Results The sample included 203 patients, 94 males (46.3%) and 109 females (53.7%), with a mean age of 26,8 years and 327 lower third molars. The prevalence of second molar distal caries was 25.4% (95% CI= 20.6% to 30.2%). This pathology was significantly more frequent when the third molar was in a horizontal position (27.7%), when the contact point was at (45,8%) or below (47.0%) the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), and when the distal CEJ of the mandibular second molar and the mesial CEJ of the third molar was 7 to 12 mm apart. Conclusions Horizontal lower third molars with contact points at or below the CEJ are more likely to produce distal caries in the mandibular second molars. Due to the high prevalence of this pathology (20.6% to 30.2%), a prophylactic removal of lower third molars with the above-mentioned features might be advisable. Key words:Second molar, caries, third molar, prophylactic removal. PMID:28638558

  20. Production and installation study of the ITER PF4 in-pit feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaoxi, E-mail: chenzx@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Petit, Patrick [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Xi, Weibin [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, Yonghua [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Cheng, Yong; Lu, Kun; Zhao, Wenlong; Yi, Delu; Zhang, Qingquan; Shen, Junsong; Zheng, Jinxing; Lei, Mingzhun; Liu, Chen [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Explosive bonding is used to connect the OFE copper with steel box. • During production process, alignment method is applied to ensure the precision relative positions of the busbar joints. • The assembly sequence of the PF4 in-pit feeder is developed with minimum clearance of 31 mm. • Copper shims are used to compensate the gap between busbar joints. -- Abstract: The PF4 in-pit feeder includes the In-Cryostat-Feeder (ICF) and Cryostat-Feed-Through (CFT), with busbars being their key components. The relative positions of the busbar terminal joints are measured by using a laser tracker and adjusted by positioning tools. The busbars are not fixed on the separate plate until the position errors meet the manufacture tolerances. The CFT has a 2.38° penetration angle relative to the ground and will be installed firstly. The position of the connection interface between the CFT and its lifting tool is analyzed, and to reduce the total deformation and keep the assembly precision of the joints the straight part of the CFT needs to be supported. The ICF has the most critical assembly operation space, as it must be installed on its temporary support in a temporary position. After the PF4 coil has been installed the ICF will be moved to its final position. To guarantee the 30 mm safety assembly clearance provided by ITER, the collision analysis of the ICF is performed, which demonstrates that the assembly procedures are feasible.

  1. Third molar complications requiring hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Martin; Morbach, Thomas; Kleis, Wilfried; Wagner, Wilfried

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe demographic and clinical patterns of subjects hospitalized with complications associated with third molars (M3). The investigation was designed as a prospective cohort study composed of subjects admitted to hospital for management of M3-associated complications. The predictor variable was "clinical status of the M3" defined as (A) prophylactic M3 removal, (B) nonelective M3 removal, or (C) M3 present at the time of admission. Outcome variables were infection parameters, treatment costs, length of hospital stay, and days of disability. Postoperative complications (A and B) were compared to complications based on pericoronitis (C). Complications due to prophylactic removal (A) were compared to those arising from pericoronitis or from the removal of symptomatic teeth (B and C). From January 2003 to December 2004, 45 deep space infections, 6 mandibular fractures, 2 lingual nerve injuries, 1 parapharyngeal tooth luxation, and 1 osteomyelitis were noticed. Fifteen complications resulted from prophylactic surgery (A), 25 from nonelective removal (B), and 15 from pericoronitis (C). Direct treatment costs were 147,000 euro (A: 42,000 euro; B: 74,000 euro; C: 31,000 euro). In 10 of the 15 patients of group C, deep space involvement resulted immediately from the first episode of pericoronitis. Neither clinical markers of infection nor economic parameters showed significant differences between the groups. Within the catchment area of our institution, the majority of third molar-related hospitalizations resulted from diseased third molars or their removal.

  2. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  3. Involvement of PIT-1-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hironori; Iguchi, Genzo; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Hidaka-Takeno, Ryoko; Okimura, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Tojo, Katsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    Anti-pituitary-specific transcriptional factor 1 (PIT-1) antibody syndrome is characterized by acquired growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies associated with circulating anti-PIT-1 antibodies. Although autoimmunity to PIT-1 has been suggested as a pathogenesis, the precise mechanism of the syndrome remains unclarified. To elucidate the involvement of antibody- or cell-mediated immunity in anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome. To investigate a direct effect of anti-PIT-1 antibody on pituitary cells, cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity detection assays were performed using patient serum. Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay was performed to evaluate the involvement of PIT-1-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). An immunohistochemical analysis using anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 antibody was performed to examine tissue infiltration by CTLs. Patient serum did not exhibit any inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and secretion of GH and PRL in GH3 cells. In addition, complement-dependent cytotoxicity was not detected in patient serum on GH3 cells or primary pituitary cells. The ELISpot assay revealed the presence of CTLs that specifically reacted to the recombinant PIT-1 protein in the patient's peripheral lymphocytes. CD8(+) cell infiltrations, which is the characteristic of CTLs, were observed in the pituitary gland, adrenal gland, stomach, thyroid gland, liver, and pancreas of the patient with anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome. These results suggest that the anti-PIT-1 antibody is not a cause but a marker of anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome, in which CTLs play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis.

  4. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  5. Nursing Intervention During Temporary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Judith B.

    1974-01-01

    The role of the professional nurse in asseviating or minimizing the separation anxiety and traumatic impact on families during temporary placement of a retarded child in a residential facility is seen in two case studies of girls 3 and 12 years of age. (Author/MC)

  6. Temporary risk identification in urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya

    2009-12-01

    We have been using a risk index calculation for urolithiasis, which included most of the identifiable factors promoting calculogenesis. However, it was observed that the frequency of a patient getting stone problem was not uniform in spite of similarity of the risk index in the permanent setting. Also, many of the risk indices could be changed by dietary or lifestyle modifications. The objective of this paper was to calculate the temporary risk index of a patient at the time of each visit and correlate with stone activity during such periods, so that appropriate advice could be given on drugs, diet and lifestyle changes. The temporary risk index score was based on four symptoms, namely pain (0, nil; 1, vague pain; 2, mild; 3, moderate; 4, severe; 5, excruciating), haematuria (0, nil; 1, turbid; 2, cloudy; 3, reddish; 4, occasional frank blood; 5, continuous frank blood), burning sensation (0, nil; 1, minimal; 2, moderate; 3, terminal severe; 4, occasional excruciating; 5, continuous excruciating), and dysuria (0, nil; 1, minimal; 2, moderate; 3, terminal severe; 4, occasional excruciating, 5, continuous excruciating), ultrasonography for back pressure (0, nil; 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, severe kidney and ureter; 4, unilateral total; 5, bilateral total anuria) and eight urine deposit findings (0, nil; 1, +; 2, 2+; 3, 3+; 4, 4+; 5, plenty), red blood cells, pus cells, whewellite crystals, weddellite crystals, phosphate crystals, uric acid/ammonium urate crystals, crystal clumping and crystal aggregation making a total of 13 parameters. Each parameter was given values ranging from 0 to 5. The total score was calculated and chemotherapeutic regimes were decided base on the score, which varied from 0 to 65. Hundred randomly selected patients who had been visiting the stone clinic for a minimum of five occasions were included in the study. The total scores of temporary risk were correlated with the permanent clinical risk score mentioned earlier. The temporary risk of the

  7. Nobody’s perfect: can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka ePlavcová; Steven eJansen; Matthias eKlepsch; Hacke, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable th...

  8. Pit and fissure sealants: review of literature and application technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromo, F; Guida, A; Santoro, G; Peciarolo, M R; Eramo, S

    2011-10-01

    Molars and premolars are the most vulnerable teeth to caries attack. The high susceptibility of these teeth to caries is directly related to morphology of their occlusal surface that prevents both chemical cleaning by saliva and mechanical cleaning by toothbrush. Pit and fissures are therefore the most prone areas to caries and need special protection to prevent carious lesions. Fluoride is the only chemical element used for caries prevention. In fact, it favors the remineralisation of initial lesions, prevents the production of polysaccharides essential for the development and sustainment of bacterial plaque, and the absorption of salivary glycoprotein. Fluoride also reinforces enamel, making it less susceptible to caries. Two methods of fluoroprophylaxis have been proposed: the first is the systemic fluoroprophylaxis which is particularly efficient in preventing interproximal caries, but it does not form an adequate protective barrier on the occlusal surfaces; the other is the topical application of a fluoride gel to the tooth surface, although this second method does not significantly reduce the incidence of caries. The efficacy of the sealing procedures depends on the correct application technique. Observing an operative protocol will ensure a longer lasting retention of the sealant on the occlusal surface and subsequently prolongs the protection against caries.

  9. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  10. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Tripathy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM cavity. Such cavities are known to occur following the resolution of sub-ILM bleed due to various cause including Valsalva retinopathy,2 Terson syndrome, and also in some retinitis3 cases.4 In fact, some of these cavities may simulate a neurosensory retinal detachment or central serous chorioretinopathy on cursory clinical examination.5 To confirm that the features of the current patient1 are indeed related to the optic disc pit, it is necessary for the authors to provide an OCT scan which shows a connection of the presented cavity with the optic disc pit. Also, clear OCT scans of the fovea, both at presentation and at final follow-up would help our understanding of the visual recovery of the patient. The interval between the presenting (28 June 2012 OCT and final OCT (30 Nov 2012 is 5 months and not 6 months as described in the manuscript. For an effective comparison, both the presenting and final OCT scans should have been taken using either horizontal or vertical orientation over the macula. Though the spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy is possible, visual recovery in usually unlikely and in such cases an alternate diagnosis needs to be excluded.

  11. Markov Chain Models for the Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion of metallic structures has been widely recognized. It is assumed that this kind of deterioration retains no memory of the past, so only the current state of the damage influences its future development. This characteristic allows pitting corrosion to be categorized as a Markov process. In this paper, two different models of pitting corrosion, developed using Markov chains, are presented. Firstly, a continuous-time, nonhomogeneous linear growth (pure birth Markov process is used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. A closed-form solution of the system of Kolmogorov's forward equations is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The transition probability function is identified by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the empirical deterministic mean. In the second model, the distribution of maximum pit depths in a pitting experiment is successfully modeled after the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. An analytical solution of Kolmogorov's system of equations is also found for the transition probabilities from the first Markov state. Extreme value statistics is employed to find the distribution of maximum pit depths.

  12. Characterization of PitA and PitB from Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Robyn M.; Webb, Dianne C.; Susan M Howitt; Cox, Graeme B

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains two major systems for transporting inorganic phosphate (Pi). The low-affinity Pi transporter (pitA) is expressed constitutively and is dependent on the proton motive force, while the high-affinity Pst system (pstSCAB) is induced at low external Pi concentrations by the pho regulon and is an ABC transporter. We isolated a third putative Pi transport gene, pitB, from E. coli K-12 and present evidence that pitB encodes a functional Pi transporter that may be repressed a...

  13. The Performance of ICDAS-II Using Low-Powered Magnification with Light-Emitting Diode Headlight and Alternating Current Impedance Spectroscopy Device for Detection of Occlusal Caries on Primary Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun Ari; Timucin Ari

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of occlusal caries in children is challenging for the dentists, because of the morphology of pit and fissures. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the diagnostic performance of low-powered magnification with light-emitting diode headlight (LPMLED) using ICDAS-II criteria and AC Impedance Spectroscopy (ACIS) device, on occlusal surfaces of primary molars. The occlusal surfaces of 18 extracted primary molars were examined blindly by two examiners. The teeth were sectio...

  14. [An 18 month evaluation of MM-MTA pulpotomy on primary decayed molars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chedid, J C; Mchayleh, N; Khalil, I; Melki, B; Hardan, L S

    2015-12-01

    Pulpotomy is the most performed and controversial therapeutic in pediatric dentistry. Formocresol is known to have a toxic effect on living tissues, a mutagenic and carcinogenic potential with a systemic uptake of formocresol via pulpotomized teeth, other alternative products have been investigated. 40 molars were pulpotomized using Micro Mega Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MM-MTA), which eliminates the need for the use of formocresol. The effects of this material were evaluated both clinically and radiographically. Post-operative control examinations were performed at 1, 6, 12, and 18 months trying to detect spontaneous or stimulated pain, pathological tooth mobility, abscesses or fistulas, internal or external pathological tooth resorption, periapical bone destruction, or canal obliteration. Pain was absent at 18 months post operatively. Thirty six molar treated with the MM-MTA didn't show any mobility or pain, one molar presented a pathological resorption and one molar presented an abscess without a fistula at 12 month. The observations were compared to others related to formocresol, ferric sulfate, MTA, and laser pulpotomies, using the Chi-square test x2. The abundance of positive result strongly demonstrate that the MM-MTA pulpotomy on carious temporary molars is a promising technique.

  15. Anaesthetic Challenges in Molar Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghansham Biyani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD is a spectrum of tumours with a wide range of biologic behaviour and potential for metastases, which were often fatal in the past. However, with better understanding of patho-physiology in the last few years, most women can now be cured. A Hydatidiform Mole (or Molar Pregnancy is a benign Gestational Trophoblastic Disease that originates from the placenta. Treatment consists of vacuum evacuation but rarely hysterectomy may be required. Anaesthetic management is often complicated by the associated derangements.

  16. Temporary Residences: a becoming project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ingaramo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the experimental actions fostered so far by the Compagnia di San Paolo through its Housing Program, committed in handling the complex and fragmented housing discomfort issue, the Temporary Dwellings initiative represents a unique and innovative experience, as it actually offers the chance to activate a proper managerial direction around and about the real estate development processes. In particular, the Temporary Dwellings action is marked by two key aspects: a structured co-planning vision and projects selected through a requests for proposal system. The process in the whole aims on the one hand at reaching an high transparent level of decision making , while, on the other hand, at developing a continuous and mutual monitoring and matching activity between the Housing Program and the group of cross-curricular experts teamed up in the project: technicians, designers, managers, psychologists, contractors, and the other local stakeholders.

  17. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  18. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  19. Evaluation of PIT-tagging in cyprinids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Brönmark, C.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were used to investigate how different marking procedures, with 23 mm PIT (passive integrated transponders) - tags. affected mortality, body condition and tag expulsion in small roach Rutilus rutilus and rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (117 to 163 mm total length)...

  20. Pit Crater Chains Across the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Collins, G. C.

    2010-03-01

    Pit crater chains exist on a range of planetary bodies — from small asteroids to icy moons to large terrestrial planets — raising important questions about formation mechanisms and near-surface crustal properties of solid bodies in our solar system.

  1. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  2. Pit Study, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [pit_study_LOSCO_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The 'Pit Study' was meant to identify the remnants of former oil extraction sites which pose the threat of creating an oil spill. These remnants include many other...

  3. Effect of temporary cements on the bond strength of ceramic luted to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Hamar, Sahar E; Federlin, Marianne; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Friedl, Karl-Heinz; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of either eugenol-containing or eugenol-free temporary cement removal by excavator or sandblasting on the shear bond strength of ceramic luted to dentin. A self-etching primer system, Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray Medical (PF2), and a total-etch bonding system, Excite/Variolink II, Vivadent (EXV), were used. One hundred and forty human molars, ground to expose dentin surfaces, were divided into 14 groups (seven groups for each adhesive system). For each adhesive system, either a eugenol-containing (Temp bond) or a eugenol-free (Temp bond NE) temporary cement was applied to the dentin surface for 7 days, then removed by an excavator or sandblasting (four groups). Three control groups were studied where fresh dentin was either scratched by excavator or sandblasted, or underwent no surface treatment. After application of the adhesives, ceramic cones (Cerafil inserts) were adhesively luted to standardized dentin areas. After 24 h storage in distilled water, the shear bond strengths were determined at a cross-head speed of 0.75 mm/min. For each adhesive system, neither the method of temporary cement removal nor the type of temporary cement affected the bond strength significantly (Pcements, either containing eugenol or not, does not alter the retentive strength of ceramic restorations luted to dentin using the tested adhesive systems, whether the temporary cements are removed by excavator or sandblasting.

  4. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  5. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near the...

  6. Laboratory protocols for testing the efficacy of commercial pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is considerable national interest in the use of commercial microbially derived products for controlling the rate of accumulation of the contents of pit latrines. Manufacturers claim that some of these products can reduce accumulation rates, prevent the pit from ever filling up, or even result in decreases in pit contents ...

  7. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum areas of Kampala so as to guide routine management of pit latrines. This mathematical model was developed using a mass balance approach with a sample space of 55 lined pits. The developed ...

  8. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  9. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongfang; Gang, Tieqiang; Chen, Lijie

    2017-01-01

    For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ) and pit depth (d) with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively. PMID:28772758

  10. Pulpectomy procedures in primary molar teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of primary molars can cause a number of undesirable consequences including loss of arch length, insufficient space for erupting premolars and mesial tipping of the permanent molars. Pulpectomy of primary molar teeth is considered as a reasonable treatment approach to ensure either normal shedding or a long-term survival in instances of retention. Despite being a more conservative treatment option than extraction, efficient pulpectomy of bizarre and tortuous root canals encased ...

  11. Mandibular lip bumper for molar torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Giuseppe; Longobardi, Annalisa; Cannavale, Rosangela; Perillo, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Treatment effects of lip bumpers alone include flaring of the mandibular incisors, distalization and uprighting of the mandibular first molars, and buccal expansion of the canines, premolars, and molar. Lip forces are transmitted through this appliance onto the molars. Moreover the lip bumper is able to derotate, expand or constrict, upright and reinforce the anchorage whereas torque control is lacking. Aim of this paper is the presentation of a new type of lip bumper that allows the molar torque control. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  12. Permanent molars: Delayed development and eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Delayed development and eruption of all the permanent molars is a rare phenomenon, which can cause disturbance in the developing occlusion. The eruption of permanent first and second molars is very important for the coordination of facial growth and for providing sufficient occlusal support for undisturbed mastication. In the case described, the first permanent molars were delayed in their development and were seen erupting at the age of nine and a half years. Severe disparity between the left and the right side of the dentition with respect to the rate of development of molars were also present.

  13. Eruption pattern of permanent molars: implications for school-based dental sealant programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, R A; Ashton, J J

    1989-01-01

    Dental caries remains a prevalent, chronic disease of childhood. The preponderance of dental caries is located on the pit and fissure surfaces of teeth, an area where dental sealants are most effective in preventing this malady. In the school year 1987-88, 4,879 Ohio schoolchildren participated in an assessment of dental health. Grades chosen for this assessment included 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 11. This study focuses on eruption of first and second permanent molars in development of a timing strategy for placement of occlusal sealants in a school-based program. An eruption score was developed for the determination of the first or second molar eruption status for each child. The data were analyzed for grade, sex, race, locale, fluoridation status, and percent of children on free or reduced-cost lunch programs. Analyses were performed on 2,215 children in grades 1-3 and 1,840 children in grades 6-8. Fifty-seven percent of first graders had all first permanent molars sufficiently erupted for sealant placement on the occlusal surface. Likewise, 23.6 percent of sixth graders had sufficient occlusal exposure on the second molar. Females showed an earlier eruption pattern than males for both first (P less than .05) and second (P less than .001) molars. Black children preceded white children only in the eruption of the second molar (P less than .001). This study provides dental public health decision makers with state-specific information on the earliest time to initiate a school-based occlusal sealant program.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Effect of Silver Nanoparticle-Added Pit and Fissure Sealant in the Prevention of Dental Caries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-López, Enid Karina; Pierdant-Pérez, Mauricio; Hernández-Sierra, Juan Francisco; Ruíz, Facundo; Mandeville, Peter; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury J

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pit and fissure sealant mixed with silver nanoparticles on dental caries, by means of monthly measurement of fluorescence with DIAGNOdent over six months. This study was divided in two phases: experimental and clinical. In the experimental phase, the adhesion and microleakage of the pit and fissure sealant experiment were evaluated. Two groups of 10 teeth, without serious carious lesions, were included. Conventional (group A) and silver nanoparticles (group B) were added to the pit and fissure sealant. For the clinical phase, a split-mouth study was performed on 40 children aged 6-10 years old with healthy, erupted permanent first molars. A conventional pit and fissure sealant or a silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant was randomly placed. Repeated measures analysis was performed. Conventional sealant presented an average microleakage of 30.6%, and the silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant showed 33.6% (P=NS). A three times greater reduction in fluorescence was found in the silver nanoparticles group compared to the conventional group (P<0.05). No sex- or age-based associations were found. The silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant reduced tooth demineralization significantly and likely increased remineralization, compared to the conventional sealant.

  15. Assessment of association between molar incisor hypomineralization and hypomineralized second primary molar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rakesh Mittal; Shweta Chandak; Manisha Chandwani; Prabhat Singh; Jitesh Pimpale

    2016-01-01

      Background: The term molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) has been described as a clinical entity of systemic origin affecting the enamel of one or all first permanent molars and also the incisors...

  16. [Hyperthyroidism induced by molar pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, V; Besson, L; Doussin, J F; Rondelet, B; Banssillon, V

    1993-01-01

    A case is reported of a Senegalese patient admitted for hydatiform mole. The serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration (hCG) was 900,000 UI.l-1. The patient was recognized to be clinically hyperthyroid with raised T4 and T3 values, but a very low TSH concentration. After two days of beta adrenergic blockade and carbimazole, a suction curettage was performed under general anaesthesia. Propranolol was again administered 6 hours after the surgery. Thyroid function returned to normal level two weeks after removal of the mole, suggesting that hCG was responsible for the thyrotoxicosis. Serum hCG concentrations closely paralleled those of free thyroxine, but the correlation was difficult to assess because of carbimazole. Clinical thyrotoxicosis is rare in molar pregnancy. The diagnosis being made in semi-urgent conditions, this raises the question of how to obtain rapid stabilization of the disease before surgery.

  17. Mini-implants: mechanical resource for molars uprighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiane Allgayer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The early orthodontic treatment allows correction of skeletal discrepancies by growth control, and the elimination of deleterious habits, which are risk factors for the development of malocclusions, favoring for the correction of tooth positioning later in a second treatment stage. During development of teeth and occlusion, the mandibular second molars commonly erupt in the oral cavity after all other teeth of the anterior region. In their eruptive process there may be a condition known as tooth impaction, which precludes its complete eruption and requires proper uprighting treatment. The temporary anchorage devices allow disimpaction and movement of these teeth directly to their final position, without the need of patient compliance or reaction movements in other parts of the arch. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at describing a case report of the treatment of a patient with Angle Class II malocclusion, performed in two phases, in which mini-implants were used for uprighting the impacted mandibular second molars.INTRODUÇÃO: o tratamento ortodôntico precoce permite a correção das discrepâncias esqueléticas por meio do controle de crescimento e a eliminação de hábitos deletérios, que são fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de más oclusões, que favorecem a correção do posicionamento dentário mais tardiamente, em uma segunda fase do tratamento. Durante o desenvolvimento da dentição e da oclusão, normalmente o segundo molar inferior chega à cavidade bucal após todos os dentes posicionados anteriormente a ele. Durante seu processo eruptivo, pode ocorrer uma condição chamada "impacção dentária", em que sua erupção completa é interrompida, exigindo tratamento apropriado para verticalização. Os dispositivos temporários de ancoragem permitem a desimpacção e a movimentação desses dentes diretamente às suas posições finais, sem a necessidade de cooperação do paciente e sem movimento de reação nas

  18. Bionic research of pit vipers on infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan; Cheng, Teng; Wu, Xiaoping

    2015-07-27

    The members of viperidae crotalinae (pit viper) family have special pit organs to detect infrared radiation in normal room conditions, whereas most artificial uncooled infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) operate only in a vacuum chamber. Dissection shows that the pit membrane is a unique substrate-free structure. The temperature rise advantage of this pit organ was verified in comparison with an assumed substrate pit organ (as an artificial FPA structure). Inspired by the pit viper, we introduced this structure to infrared FPA, replacing the conventional substrate FPA. The substrate-free FPA was fabricated by micro-elctromechanical systems (MEMS) process and placed into an infrared imaging system to obtain thermal images of the human body in atmosphere and vacuum working conditions. We show that the infrared capability of the substrate-free pit organ was achieved.

  19. Investigating pitting in X65 carbon steel using potentiostatic polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Sikiru; Hua, Yong; Barker, R.; Neville, A.

    2017-11-01

    Although pitting corrosion in passive materials is generally well understood, the growth of surface pits in actively-corroding materials has received much less attention to date and remains poorly understood. One of the key challenges which exists is repeatedly and reliably generating surface pits in a practical time-frame in the absence of deformation and/or residual stress so that studies on pit propagation and healing can be performed. Another pertinent issue is how to evaluate pitting while addressing general corrosion in low carbon steel. In this work, potentiostatic polarisation was employed to induce corrosion pits (free from deformation or residual stress) on actively corroding X65 carbon steel. The influence of applied potential (50 mV, 100 mV and 150 mV vs open circuit potential) was investigated over 24 h in a CO2-saturated, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 30 °C and pH 3.8. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilised to examine pits, while surface profilometry was conducted to measure pit depth as a function of applied potential over the range considered. Analyses of light pitting (up to 120 μm) revealed that pit depth increased linearly with increase in applied potential. This paper relates total pit volume (measured using white light interferometry) to dissipated charge or total mass loss (using the current response for potentiostatic polarisation in conjunction with Faraday's law). By controlling the potential of the surface (anodic) the extent of pitting and general corrosion could be controlled. This allowed pits to be evaluated for their ability to continue to propagate after the potentiostatic technique was employed. Linear growth from a depth of 70 μm at pH 3.8, 80 °C was demonstrated. The technique offers promise for the study of inhibition of pitting.

  20. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  1. Comparative evaluation of Shear bond strength of different Pit and fissure Sealants in Primary and Permanent teeth - An In-Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, H M; Ravichandra, K S; Srikanth, Koya; Divya, G; Done, Vasanthi; Krishna, K Bala; Patil, Vishwanath

    2014-04-01

    Dental caries among children is one of the greatest challenges faced by dentists globally; especially that of susceptible surfaces like the Pit and fissures. Dental sealants have proved to be an effective way to prevent caries development. The Clinical success of any material depends upon its adhesion to tooth structure, resistance to wear and ability to withstand the masticatory or occlusal forces. Hence it is important to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS). The Present study's aim was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of different pit and fissure sealants placed on Primary molars and Permanent Premolars. Sixty noncarious extracted teeth comprising of thirty Primary molars and thirty Permanent Premolars were divided into four groups of 15 each. The buccal surfaces of all teeth were dried, etched and the etched surfaces of Primary molars (Group I) and Permanent Premolars (Group III) were placed with Helioseal-F while Groups II and IV, that included Primary molars and Permanent Premolars received Clinpro. Shear bond strength was evaluated and the mean was obtained for all the groups. The results were analyzed using twoway analysis of variance followed by Tukeys post hoc procedure to check for significant differences. The specimens of unfilled sealant Clinpro (Groups II & IV) showed higher Shear bond strength when compared to the specimens of filled sealant Helioseal-F (Groups I & III). The unfilled sealant showed a better Shear bond strength compared to the filled sealant. The bond strength in Primary molars was slightly higher compared to Permanent Premolars. How to cite the article: Pushpalatha HM, Ravichandra KS, Srikanth K, Divya G, Done V, Krishna KB, Patil V. Comparative evaluation of Shear bond strength of different Pit and fissure Sealants in Primary and Permanent teeth - An In-Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):84-9.

  2. Comparative evaluation of Shear bond strength of different Pit and fissure Sealants in Primary and Permanent teeth - An In-Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, H M; Ravichandra, K S; Srikanth, Koya; Divya, G; Done, Vasanthi; Krishna, K Bala; Patil, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries among children is one of the greatest challenges faced by dentists globally; especially that of susceptible surfaces like the Pit and fissures. Dental sealants have proved to be an effective way to prevent caries development. The Clinical success of any material depends upon its adhesion to tooth structure, resistance to wear and ability to withstand the masticatory or occlusal forces. Hence it is important to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS). The Present study’s aim was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of different pit and fissure sealants placed on Primary molars and Permanent Premolars. Materials & Methods: Sixty noncarious extracted teeth comprising of thirty Primary molars and thirty Permanent Premolars were divided into four groups of 15 each. The buccal surfaces of all teeth were dried, etched and the etched surfaces of Primary molars (Group I) and Permanent Premolars (Group III) were placed with Helioseal-F while Groups II and IV, that included Primary molars and Permanent Premolars received Clinpro. Shear bond strength was evaluated and the mean was obtained for all the groups. The results were analyzed using twoway analysis of variance followed by Tukeys post hoc procedure to check for significant differences. Results: The specimens of unfilled sealant Clinpro (Groups II & IV) showed higher Shear bond strength when compared to the specimens of filled sealant Helioseal-F (Groups I & III). Conclusion: The unfilled sealant showed a better Shear bond strength compared to the filled sealant. The bond strength in Primary molars was slightly higher compared to Permanent Premolars. How to cite the article: Pushpalatha HM, Ravichandra KS, Srikanth K, Divya G, Done V, Krishna KB, Patil V. Comparative evaluation of Shear bond strength of different Pit and fissure Sealants in Primary and Permanent teeth - An In-Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):84-9. PMID:24876707

  3. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....

  4. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Third molar agenesis and craniofacial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María José; Vicente, Ascensión; Bravo, Luis Alberto

    2009-05-01

    To test the null hypothesis that agenesis of wisdom teeth is not related with any particular craniofacial morphology. Ninety-seven patients (aged 13-19 years) were selected and divided into three groups: (1) bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars, (2) bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars, and (3) control group without agenesis. Presence or absence of third molars was determined using ortopantomographs. Cephalometric analysis was carried out from lateral teleradiographs, which included linear, angular, and proportional measurements. When data obtained were distributed normally it was analyzed by means of single-factor variance analysis and the Scheffé test (P classification in 58.8% of cases. The hypothesis is rejected. Agenesis of the maxillary third molars was related to a reduced mandibular plane angle. Patients with agenesis of the mandibular third molars showed a diminished lower third and a mandibular morphology characteristic of the brachyfacial pattern.

  6. Influence of Pitting Corrosion on Fatigue and Corrosion Fatigue of Ship and Offshore Structures, Part II: Load - Pit - Crack Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper has been discussed influence of stresses on general corrosion rate and corrosion pit nucleation rate and growth , whose presence has been questioned by some authors but accepted by most of them. Influence of roughness of pit walls on fatigue life of a plate suffering pit corrosion and presence of the so called „ non-damaging” pits which never lead to initiation of fatigue crack, has been presented. Possibility of prediction of pit-to-crack transition moment by two different ways, i.e. considering a pit a stress concentrator or an equivalent crack, has been analyzed. Also, influence of statistical distribution of depth of corrosion pits as well as anticorrosion protection on fatigue and corrosion fatigue has been described.

  7. Burn Pit Emissions Exposure and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Conditions Among Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason; Lezama, Nicholas; Gasper, Joseph; Kawata, Jennifer; Morley, Sybil; Helmer, Drew; Ciminera, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how burn pit emissions exposure is associated with the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. We examined the associations between assumed geographic and self-reported burn pit emissions exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in participants of the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry. We found significant dose-response associations for higher risk of self-reported emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with increased days of deployment within 2 miles of selected burn pits (P-trend = 0.01) and self-reported burn pit smoke exposure (P-trend = 0.0005). We found associations between burn pit emissions exposure and higher incidence of post-deployment self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but these findings should be interpreted with caution because the surrogate measurements of burn pit emissions exposure in this analysis may not reflect individual exposure levels.

  8. Stepwise Excavation Allows Apexogenesis in Permanent Molars with Deep Carious Lesions and Incomplete Root Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandéz-Gatón, Patrícia; Serrano, César Ruiz; Nelson Filho, Paulo; De Castañeda, Esther Ruiz; Lucisano, Marília P; Silva, Raquel A B da; Silva, Léa A B da

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the stepwise excavation technique in 138 permanent molars with deep carious lesions and incomplete root formation within a 24-month clinical and radiographic follow-up period. In 96.7% of the cases, success was observed (no pain, integrity of restoration margins, absence of radiographic alterations and apexogenesis). The cases of failure (3.3%) were due to the loss of the temporary restoration. In conclusion, the stepwise excavation is a promising technique for permanent teeth with deep carious lesions and incomplete root formation as a minimally invasive approach because it allows the preservation of pulp vitality and occurrence of apexogenesis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Bilateral maxillary fourth and fifth molars: An unusual radiographic appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Khemchand Asrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distomolars are supernumerary teeth present distal to third molars. Although many cases of bilateral fourth molars are reported, very few cases having bilateral fifth molars are described in literature. Here, we present a case having bilateral impacted maxillary fourth and fifth molars with the fifth molar on the left side having an unusually small appearance.

  10. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  11. 40 CFR 264.553 - Temporary Units (TU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary Units (TU). 264.553 Section... Provisions for Cleanup § 264.553 Temporary Units (TU). (a) For temporary tanks and container storage areas... Administrator may designate a unit at the facility, as a temporary unit. A temporary unit must be located within...

  12. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souki, Bernardo Q.; Cheib, Paula L.; de Brito, Gabriela M.; Pinto, Larissa S. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  13. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Q Souki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction.

  14. Comparison of Microleakage and Penetration Depth between Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Sealants in Primary Second Molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Pritesh N; Chaugule, Vishwas B; Panse, Amey M

    2016-01-01

    Optimal pit and fissure sealing is determined by surface preparation techniques and choice of materials. The performance of pit and fissure sealant materials has been intensively investigated, yet no single product is reported as an ideal sealant. In children, moisture control during cavity preparation is always a big challenge, and hence, hydrophilic sealants have been developed. To compare the microleakage and penetration depth of hydrophilic and hydrophobic sealants using acid-etching on dry and moist surfaces. Recently, extracted 28 2nd primary molars are assigned to two groups (hydrophobic group I; hydrophilic group II) depending on the surface condition (dry group: A1 and B1; moist group: A2 and B2) of 7 teeth in each group. Samples from group A1 and B1 are cleaned and dried with a 3-way syringe and etched with etching gel, and sealant is applied to the fissures and cured with visible light. Sample from A2 and B2 are immersed in 0.1 mL of fresh whole human saliva for 20 seconds and dried using a pellet cotton, and the same procedure is carried out. All samples are subjected to 1000 thermal cycles and sectioned to compare the depth of penetration and microleakage. Sections will be examined under light microscope and analyzed using an image analysis software (SigmaScan). The least microleakage was seen with hydrophilic sealant under moist surface condition, and the depth of penetration of hydrophobic sealant was found to be better than that of hydrophilic sealant in both dry and moist surface conditions. Hydrophilic pit and fissure sealants showed higher tolerance to saliva contamination with less microleakage, but in terms of penetration ability hydrophobic sealants were found to be superior. Gawali PN, Chaugule VB, Panse AM. Comparison of Microleakage and Penetration Depth between Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Sealants in Primary Second Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):291-295.

  15. Pitting corrosion in austenitic and duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jargelius-Pettersson, R.F.A.; Pires Duarte, B.; Duchamp, G. [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Various electrochemical methods have been used to evaluate the pitting corrosion resistance of two austenitic and two duplex stainless steels. Testing has been performed in a purpose-built electrochemical cell which permits simultaneous evaluation of twelve specimens and in which crevice corrosion is avoided using a flushed-port design. A potential-independent critical pitting temperature below which pitting is not observed has been evaluated from potentiodynamic measurements, pitting potentials and pit induction times have also been evaluated at various temperatures above this critical value. Statistical treatment of the data has been used to evaluate the elementary pitting probability and pit generation rates. The good differentiation obtained using a large number of pitting potential measurements has permitted quantitative evaluation of the effect of testing and alloy variables. The surface finish is shown to have a significant effect on measured pitting resistance, as has the passivation time between specimen preparation and testing. The decrease in pitting resistance as a result of short-term sensitising heat treatment of the steels has also been evaluated. (orig.) 9 refs.

  16. How will mandibular third molar surgery affect mandibular second molar periodontal parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Arabion, Hamidreza; Gholami, Mehdi

    2013-07-01

    Several conflicting findings have been published in the previous literature regarding the effects of impacted third molar surgery on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar; some authors have shown improvement of periodontal health distal to the adjacent second molar, whilst others have demonstrated loss of attachment level (AL) and reduction of alveolar bone height. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in periodontal health parameters distal to the adjacent second molar following extraction of an impacted third molar. Out of 50 patients participated in the study, 42 patients completed the study. The mean age of the sample was 20.9 (range, 18-25) years. All teeth were mesioangular impacted mandibular third molars categorized at C1 class based on the Pell and Gregory classification. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon and the same surgeon recorded the pre-operative and post-operative measurements of probing depth (PD) and AL on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars. Data analysis were carried out with the SPSS software (version 19), using the paired-samples t-test and one sample t-test. Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar resulted in a significant increase of PD on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars, whereas AL was decreased significantly after surgery (P molar after extraction of impacted third molar, our study showed a significant increase in PD at the distal aspect of the second molar. Further follow-up on clinical and radiological parameters are required for more profound understanding of the long-term effects of third molar extraction on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar.

  17. Treating Intraradicular Pockets of molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotfizade

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available It appears that until bone graft has not achieved 100% success, intraradicular diseases remain controversial and therefore, different treatment plans are suggested for them. Treating intraradicular diseases depend on many factors: maxillary molars are more prone to bone loss and have worse prognosis. To assess prognosis more carefully these factors should be considered: 1 bone loss: its apical depth, local or generalized 2 bone condition: buccal, lingual, mesial and distal aspects 3 tooth mobility: grades 2 and 3 have not good prognosis. Crown root ratio is also important. 4 the angle of divergence of roots: the more the roots are divergent, the better the prognosis would be. 5adjacent teeth health 6tooth position in jaws 7 age and general health of the patients 8 oral hygiene In general, teeth with 2 roots can be treated more effectively than 3 root ones. Maxillary first premolars are exceptions that do not respond to the treatments positively. We should look forward to the future investigations and findings.

  18. Sextant of Sapphires for Molar Distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnada, Swaroopa Rani; Palla, Yudistar Venkata; Ganugapanta, Vivek Reddy

    2016-08-01

    Space analysis quantifies the amount of crowding within the arches estimating the severity of space discrepancy. The space gaining procedures include extraction and non-extraction procedures like expansion, proximal stripping and molar distalization. To identify features seen in molar distalization cases. The sample size comprised 20 patients in whom molar distalization was decided as the treatment plan. The study models and lateral cephalograms of all the patients were taken. Occlusograms were obtained. Model analysis and cephalometric analysis were performed. Descriptive statistical analysis like mean, standard deviation, standard error and mode were done. The parameters in Question gave following results. The Bolton analysis showed anterior mandibular excess with mean value of 1.56mm±1.07. The first order discrepancy between maxillary central and lateral incisors was 5±1.95. The premolar rotation showed mean value of 16.58±5.12. The molar rotation showed the value of 7.66±2.26. The nasolabial angle showed the mean of 101.25±8.7 IMPA of 101.4±5.74. The six features studied in molar distalization cases [First order discrepancy between upper central and lateral incisors; Rotation of premolars and molars; Bolton's discrepancy in anterior dentition; Average to horizontal growth pattern; Proclined lower incisors and Obtuse nasolabial angle] can be taken as patterns seen in molar distalization cases and considered as a valid treatment plan.

  19. Fusión de un tercer molar mandibular con un cuarto molar supernumerario Fusion of mandibular third molar with supernumerary fourth molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. López Carriches

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La fusión dental es la unión de dos gérmenes dentales normalmente separados, mientras que la geminación se define como el intento de división de un único germen dental. La fusión y geminación de molares es poco frecuente en la dentición permanente. Describimos un caso clínico de un tercer molar inferior derecho fusionado a un cuarto molar supernumerario en un paciente varón de 36 años que ha presentado repetidos episodios de pericoronaritis. Tras el estudio radiológico se realiza la exodoncia del cordal semiincluido bajo anestesia local. Llevamos a cabo una revisión bibliográfica al respecto.Dental fusion is the union of two tooth buds that normally are separated, while gemination is defined as an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide. The fusion and gemination of molars is uncommon in permanent teeth. We report a clinical case of a right lower third molar fused to a supernumerary fourth molar in a 36-year-old male patient with repeated episodes of inflammation. After the radiologic study, the semi-impacted third molar was extracted under local anesthesia. The literature was reviewed.

  20. Lessons learnt from experimental temporary octopus fishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence of the fisheries effect of experimental temporary fishing closures for Octopus in the then-emergent Velondriake Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) in south-west Madagascar during 2004–2006. We present an analysis of the O. cyanea catch data for the first two years of temporary closures ...

  1. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  2. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  3. Study of kissing molars in Turkish population sample | Yanik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of kissing molars in Turkish population sample. ... refers to contacting occlusal surfaces of the impacted mandibular second and third molars. ... was to report the incidence of kissing molars (KMs), classification, incorporated pathologies, ...

  4. Coronal microleakage of four endodontic temporary restorative materials: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftçi, Aytül; Vardarli, Didem Argun; Sönmez, Işil Saroğlu

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of the temporary restorative materials Cavit-G, Ketac Molar Easymix, and IRM with a new light-curing temporary material, Clip, using a methylene blue dye penetration test. Endodontic access preparations were prepared in 48 intact extracted human premolars. The teeth were divided into 6 groups, including positive and negative control groups. After access preparation, cotton pellets were placed in the pulp chamber so that the space remaining for the restoration was 4 mm. After thermal cycling for 500 cycles (5 degrees C-55 degrees C), the teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution at neutral (pH = 7.0) in an incubator for leakage assessment. The teeth were sectioned, and the greatest depth of dye penetration was recorded. Marginal leakage was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Positive control sections exhibited complete dye penetration, and negative controls had none. In the experimental groups, the differences in the leakage scores of the Clip and Cavit-G groups and the other 2 groups were very marked. There were no statistically significant difference in marginal leakage between Cavit-G and Clip. The new light-curing temporary material Clip seals against marginal leakage as effectively as Cavit when used as a temporary filling.

  5. Molar pregnancy and thyroid storm - literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipescu G. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Molar pregnancies results from a tainted fertilization process. Trophoblastic thyroidian hyper function is an unusual complication of a molar pregnancy. The degree of thyroid stimulation and the severity of clinical hyperthyroidism is directly proportional to HCG concentration. Human chorionic gonadotrophin is almost identical with TSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone, this analogy in the structure will cause cross-reactivity with their receptors. Hyperthyroid status can vary from asymptomatic hyper function to thyroid storm. Dilation and curettage represents the treatment for hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy. Awareness of this condition is important for diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Unilateral Molar Distalization: A Nonextraction Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bhanu Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, nonextraction treatment approaches and noncompliance therapies have become more popular in the correction of space discrepancies. One of the conventional approaches for space gaining in the arches without patient compliance is done by using certain extra oral appliances or intraoral appliance. The greatest advantage of certain appliances like fixed functional and molar distalization appliances is that they minimize the dependence on patient cooperation. Molar distalization appliances like pendulum appliance which distalizes the molar rapidly without the need of head gear can be used in patients as a unilateral space gaining procedure due to buccal segment crowding.

  7. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Joe

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  8. After the sunset: the residual effect of temporary legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Fagan (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe difference between permanent legislation and temporary legislation is the default rule of termination: permanent legislation governs perpetually, while temporary legislation governs for a limited time. Recent literature on legislative timing rules considers the effect of temporary

  9. Efficiency of molar distalization with the XBow appliance related to second molar eruption stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; McGrath, L M; Heo, G; Major, P W

    2013-12-01

    To quantitatively evaluate on lateral cephalograms horizontal, vertical, and angular changes in the position of the maxillary first molar based on the presence and absence of erupted maxillary second molars when it is distalized with the XBow appliance. In this retrospective study, a total of 102 consecutively treated cases were assessed. Lateral cephalograms were obtained at the start and after completion of active treatment with the XBow appliance. In one group of patients, distal movement of the maxillary first molars was performed before the eruption of maxillary second molars; in the other group of patients, both first and second maxillary molars were simultaneously moved distally. All cephalograms were superimposed on palatal plane using the method of best-fit. In order to compare the mean horizontal, vertical, and angular changes in molar position between the treatment groups and gender, a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed with the pre-treatment class II severity used as a covariate. Regression analysis was also performed to further explore any possible relationships between the predictor variables and the quantity and quality of distalization. A MANCOVA revealed that the eruption stage of the maxillary second molar did not have a significant effect on the change in position of the maxillary first molar after treatment with a XBow appliance. When distalizing maxillary first molars with a XBow appliance, there is no difference in the amount of distalization in patients with erupted and unerupted maxillary second molars.

  10. The stochastic model of pitting corrosion of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y. H.; Wang, B. R.; Hu, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Considering that pitting corrosion is a stochastic process, the purpose of this paper is to use stochastic theory to investigate the growth process of pitting corrosion of metals. Based on the mechanism of pit growth and nonequilibrium statistical theory, the time evolution equations of pit depth and corrosion rate are obtained, and the probability density function can be derived by solving Fock-Plank Equation. Subsequently, the failure probability or reliability of metals is calculated based on the weakest link model of pitting corrosion. Finally, the stochastic model is used on the aircraft aluminum alloy LD2. Furthermore, this methodology can be applied to analyze the reliability and predict the pitting life of metals.

  11. Coordinate Measuring Machine Pit Artifact Inspection Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-31

    The goal of this document is to outline a procedure for dimensional measurement of Los Alamos National Laboratory's CMM Pit Artifact. This procedure will be used by the Manufacturing Practice's Inspection Technology Subgroup of the Interagency Manufacturing Operations Group and Joint Operations Weapon Operations Group (IMOG/JOWOG 39) round robin participants. The intent is to assess the state of industry within the Nuclear Weapons Complex for measurements made on this type of part and find which current measurement strategies and techniques produce the best results.

  12. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland, ...... sample types. At some of the West Swedish sites, food residues on pottery are the only datable material. Therefore, the reconstruction of ingredients by stable isotope analysis is vital to assess the risk of radiocarbon reservoir effects....

  13. Pitted terrains on Vesta: Thermophysical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capria, M.; Tosi, F.; De Sanctis, M.; Turrini, D.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Zambon, F.; Schroeder, S.; Denevi, B.; Williams, D.; Scully, J.; Russell, C.; Raymond, C.

    2014-07-01

    Launched in 2007, the Dawn spacecraft, after one year spent orbiting Vesta, is now on its way to Ceres. In the science payload, the Visible and Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) is devoted to the study of the mineralogical composition and thermophysical properties of Vesta's surface [1]. Disk-resolved surface temperatures of Vesta have been determined from the infrared spectra measured by VIR [2]. The observed temperatures, together with a thermophysical model, have been used to constrain the thermal properties of a large part of the surface of the asteroid [3]. The average thermal inertia of the surface is quite low, consistent with a widespread presence of a dust layer. While the global thermal inertia is low, the characterization of its surface in terms of regions showing peculiar thermophysical properties gives us the possibility to identify specific areas with different thermal and structural characteristics. These variations can be linked to strong albedo variations that have been observed, or to other physical and structural characteristics of the first few centimeters of the soil. The highest values of thermal inertia have been determined on areas coinciding with locations where pitted terrains have been found [4]. Pitted terrains, first identified on Mars, have been found in association with 4 craters on Vesta: Marcia, Cornelia, Licinia, and Numisia. The Marcia area is characterized by high hydrogen and OH content [5]. By analogy with Mars, the formation of these terrains is thought to be due to the rapid release of volatiles, triggered by heating from an impact event. A question arises on the origin of volatiles: hydrated minerals, or ground, buried ice? In order to discuss the second hypothesis, we have to assume that a comet impact delivers ice that gets buried under a layer of regolith. Successively, another impact on the same area would give origin to the pitted terrain. The buried ice has obviously to survive for the time between the two impacts

  14. A Molar Pregnancy within the Fallopian Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Allen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Discussion of the incidence of molar pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy. Role of salpingostomy and special considerations for postoperative care. Case. The patient is a 29-year-old G7P4 who presented with vaginal bleeding in the first trimester and was initially thought to have a spontaneous abortion. Ultrasound was performed due to ongoing symptoms and an adnexal mass was noted. She underwent uncomplicated salpingostomy and was later found to have a partial molar ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rare occurrence of a molar ectopic pregnancy. There was no indication of molar pregnancy preoperatively and this case highlights the importance of submitting and reviewing pathological specimens.

  15. In vitro evaluation of shear bond strength and microleakage of different pit and fissure sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Vaid, Shivali; Deep, S.; Mishra, Samvit; Srivastava, Madhulika; Manjooran, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Fissure caries is most common in children due to deep pit and fissures. Pit and fissure areas on the occlusal surface of the teeth make them susceptible to dental caries, which need to be prevented or restored. Fissures sealant reduces the risk of occlusal caries. The present study was done to evaluate microleakage and shear bond strength of various fissure sealants. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six extracted molars were randomly allocated equally (n = 12) into three groups with three different sealants to evaluate shear bond strength and microleakage at sealant space. The shear bond strengths was evaluated with one-way analysis of variance and microleakage by Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18.0 (Chicago: SPSS Inc, 2009). Results: Tetric flow (16.8 MPa) recorded the highest shear bond strength and the difference was statistically significant with enamel loc (12.8 MPa). There was no statistically significant difference in relation to microleakage (P > 0.05) in the tested groups. Conclusions: Tetric flow recorded the highest shear bond strength and the difference was statistically significant with enamel loc. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups regarding microleakage. PMID:27652241

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome presenting with neck pits and café au lait patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundram, Sathesh; Kovilpillai, Ferdinand Jesudian; Hopper, Colin

    2010-01-01

    A 10- year-old patient presented with a slow growing jaw swelling. The initial general examination did not reveal any significant findings. Conservative enucleation of the cyst confirmed it to be an odontogenic keratocyst. The patient remained asymptomatic for the following 2 years and subsequently presented cystic lesions in jaws with displaced teeth. These cysts were enucleated and were confirmed to be odontogenic keratocysts . The patient has been on regular follow up since then and subsequent scans have shown further occurrence of cysts in the jaws with displacement of the third molars. Clinical examination also revealed macrocephaly, fronto-parietal bossing, pitting on palmar and plantar surfaces, calcification of falx cerebri and splayed ribs, confirming the diagnosis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. He also presented with a cafi au lait patch and skin pits on the neck. The family history was negative for features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a condition that can cause significant morbidity if not detected early. Over the years this syndrome has presented with many other non specific phenotype presentation, of which the current finding may be one of This calls for meticulous assessment and examination of patients and a standardized protocol in screening and managing these patients that may facilitate a more beneficial outcome for the patient.

  17. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers of various commercial pit latrine additives claim that by addition of this product to pit content, accumulation rate and pit content volume can be reduced, thereby preventing the pit from ever reaching capacity. This paper presents a comprehensive study conducted to determine the effects of additives on pit ...

  18. Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-02

    A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

  19. Elastomeric impression as a diagnostic method of cavitation in proximal dentin caries in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriela Azevedo Souza Mariath

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the elastomeric impression after temporary tooth separation as a method of cavitation detection in proximal caries lesions in primary molars with outer half dentin radiolucency. Fifty-one children (4-10 years old, presenting radiolucency in the outer half of the dentin at the proximal surfaces of primary molars and proximal anatomic contact with the adjacent tooth (without restoration/cavitated caries lesion were enrolled in the study. Temporary tooth separation was performed with an orthodontic rubber ring placed around the contact point during 2-3 days. Thereafter, impression of the proximal surfaces was made. The elastomeric impressions were classified as "non-cavitated" or "cavitated" surfaces. Visual inspection after tooth separation was considered as the gold standard. Examiner reliability of visual inspection after tooth separation was determined (kappa 0.92. Impression examination was repeated every 5 participants to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. The frequency of cavitated lesions was 65%, and 67% of those were inactive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.88% (95%CI 0.73-0.95, 0.89% (95%CI 0.67-0.97, 0.94% (95%CI 0.79-0.98 and 0.80% (95%CI 0.58-0.92, respectively. Impression examination showed total agreement regarding cavitation. The evaluation of elastomeric impression after tooth separation is a useful clinical resource in cavitation detection for clinicians and researchers when visual inspection is doubtful.

  20. Efficiency of a pendulum appliance for molar distalization related to second and third molar eruption stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero S M; Fritz, Ulrike B; Sander, Franz-Günter; Diedrich, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    A modified pendulum appliance, including a distal screw and special preactivated pendulum springs (built-in straightening activation and toe-in bending), was used for bilateral maxillary molar distalization in 36 adolescent patients in various stages of the molar dentition. The patients were divided into 3 groups (PG 1-3) according to the stage of eruption of their second and third molars. In PG 1 (18 patients), eruption of the second molars had either not yet taken place or was not complete. In PG 2 (15 patients), the second molars had already developed as far as the occlusal plane, with the third molars at the budding stage. In PG 3 (3 patients), germectomy of the wisdom teeth had been carried out, and the first and second molars on both sides had completely erupted. Analysis of cephalograms to identify any changes in the sagittal plane showed that, in the direction of distalization, a tooth bud acts on the mesial neighboring tooth like a fulcrum, and that tipping of the first molars in patients in whom the second molar was still at the budding stage was thus greater. In patients whose second molars had erupted completely, the degree of tipping was greater again when a third molar bud was located in the direction of movement. After previously completed germectomy of the wisdom teeth, almost exclusively bodily distalization of both molars is possible, even without bands being applied to the second molars. However, if the first and second molars are distalized simultaneously with a pendulum appliance, the duration of therapy will be longer, greater forces will have to be applied, and more anchorage will be lost. Statistical analysis of the results of dental-angular measurements showed significant differences in the degree of molar tipping and reciprocal incisor protrusion. The degree of distal tipping of first molars was less in patients with erupted second molars (PG 2 and PG 3) than in those whose second molars were not yet erupted (PG 1). For instance, the

  1. Temporary closure of the tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    Owing to major maintenance work, the tunnel linking the various parts of the CERN site will be closed from Monday 4 July to Sunday 24 July 2005 The Host State authorities have given authorisation for persons employed by CERN or the Institutes to travel and for goods belonging to these entities to be transported between the various parts of the site via Gate E (Charles de Gaulle) while this work is being carried out, subject to strict compliance with the Rules for the Use of the Tunnel (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/8200980415.pdf). Gate E will thus be open between 7.00 a.m. and 7.00 p.m. from Monday to Friday during the period concerned. The rules governing the use of Gate E to enter the Meyrin site between 7.30 a.m. and 9.00 a.m. or to leave the site between 5.00 p.m. and 6.30 p.m. (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/12222_041027.pdf)) will remain unaffected by this temporary authorisation. Relations with the Host States Service and TS-FM Group

  2. Predicting pathology in impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveek Mukherji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rising incidence of the impacted mandibular third molars and their association with pathologies is now considered a public health problem. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the position of impacted mandibular third molars that are prone to developing pathologies and to determine the frequency and type of pathological conditions associated with these impacted teeth to facilitate planning for their prophylactic removal. Materials and Methods: Consecutive panoramic radiographs and clinical examination of 300 patients with impacted mandibular third molars were collected. They were segregated according to Pell and Gregory’s classification, Winter’s classification, and according to their state of eruption. These were correlated with associated pathologies based on clinical and radiological criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included computation of percentages, mean, and standard deviations. The statistical test applied for the analysis was Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2. For this test, confidence interval and P value were set at 93% and ≤0.03, respectively. Results: The pathology most commonly associated with impacted third molars was pericoronitis, which had the highest frequency of occurrence in partially erupted, distoangular, and IA positioned (as per Pell and Gregory classification impacted teeth. Impacted mandibular third molars, which were in IA position, placed mesially, and partially erupted, were prone to develop pathologies such as dental caries and periodontitis. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographical features of impacted third molar may be correlated to the development of their pathological complications. The partially impacted mandibular third molars with mesioangularly aligned in IA position have the highest potential to cause pathological complications.

  3. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5

  4. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C.

    1996-11-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits on copper is described. The model is used to predict the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The criteria used for immunity against pitting is that the volume of the cuprous oxide formed at the site of the metal oxidation at the bottom of a corrosion pit must be smaller than the volume of the oxidised metal. Equal volumes would give a complete coverage of the metal in a pit by adherent cuprous oxide and propagation would not be possible. For potentials where copper is not immune to pitting an estimate of the maximum growth rate is given. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution at the bottom a corrosion pit. Precipitation of oxides as well as of basic salts of copper is considered. A total of 26 aqueous species are considered in waters with compositions ranging from those of tap waters to that of sea water. Calculations are made for the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. 38 refs, 60 figs, 17 tabs

  5. Analysis of two Pit-1 gene polymorphisms: Single nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific transcription factor responsible for pituitary development and hormone expression in mammals. Pit-1 is a member of the POU domain containing proteins, a group of transcriptional regulators with a critical role in cell differentiation and proliferation. It was shown that this group of proteins control the ...

  6. Establishing Ground Vibration Threshold Level for Open Pit Mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of blasting activities on building structures in open pit mining districts in Ghana a study was carried out in Prestea, a township very close to the perimeter of the Plant North pit of the Bogoso Gold Ltd (now Golden Star Resources Bogoso/Prestea Mines), in the Western Region of Ghana. It was observed ...

  7. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  8. Scleral Autograft for Optic Nerve Head Pit Associated Chronic Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Karandikar, Smita S; Narendran, Venkatapathy

    2017-03-01

    Chronic macular edema is a common finding seen in optic nerve head pits. There is no universally accepted modality present for this condition. Herein, the authors describe a novel surgical technique where a scleral autograft is used to plug the optic pit after microincision vitreous surgery. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:251-254.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Laboratory protocols for testing the efficacy of commercial pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and after incubation) in control vessels was found to be higher in units treated with pit-latrine additive than in control units. Rig- orous statistical analysis of the data was not presented. Products that caused improved COD ...... Scientific Support for the Design and Operation of Ventilated. Improved Pit Latrines (VIPS) and The ...

  10. Pit initiation on nitinol in simulated physiological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Bruce G

    2017-08-21

    Inclusions appear to play a crucial role in the initiation of pitting on nitinol, but the reason remains unclear. Furthermore, it has not been established whether the type of inclusion is a central factor. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization together with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to provide more insight into the initiation of pits on electropolished nitinol wire. Corrosion was limited to a single primary pit on each of the few wire samples that exhibited breakdown. The pit contained numerous Ti2 NiOx inclusions, but secondary pits that developed within the primary pit provided evidence that these inclusions were the sites of pit initiation. Although several theories have been proposed to account for pit initiation at inclusions in mechanically polished and electropolished nitinol, titanium depletion in the adjacent alloy matrix appears to provide the most viable explanation. The key factor appears to be the size of the inclusion and therefore the extent of titanium depletion in the alloy matrix. The type of inclusion evidently plays a secondary role at most. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water

  12. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines | Brouckaert | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excreta (faeces and urine) that are deposited into a pit latrine are subject to biodegradation, which substantially reduces the volume that remains. On the other hand, other matter that is not biodegradable usually finds itsway into pit latrines. The net filling rate is thus dependent on both the rate of addition of material and its ...

  13. FILLING RATE OF PIT LATRINES A CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FILLING RATE OF PIT LATRINES. A CASE STUDY. Ginnay Kahssay. OXFAM Urban Project. Addis Ababa. As part of a comprehensive Urban Upgrading. Program, OXFAM (a U.K based charity organiz.ation) has been involved in the provision of basic sanitation facilities like improved pit latrines, domestic sewage disposal ...

  14. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, Kayle D. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  15. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fragments. (b) Definitions. (1) A “pit” for the purpose of the allowances in this subpart is a whole pit or.... “Practically free from pits” means that the number of pits that may be present does not exceed the allowances... cherries that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total...

  16. Modelling the mechanical behaviour of pit membranes in bordered pits with respect to cavitation resistance in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Aude; Herbette, Stephane; Jansen, Steven; Capron, Marie; Tordjeman, Philippe; Cochard, Hervé; Badel, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Various correlations have been identified between anatomical features of bordered pits in angiosperm xylem and vulnerability to cavitation, suggesting that the mechanical behaviour of the pits may play a role. Theoretical modelling of the membrane behaviour has been undertaken, but it requires input of parameters at the nanoscale level. However, to date, no experimental data have indicated clearly that pit membranes experience strain at high levels during cavitation events. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in order to quantify the pit micromorphology of four tree species that show contrasting differences in vulnerability to cavitation, namely Sorbus aria, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica and Populus tremula. This allowed anatomical characters to be included in a mechanical model that was based on the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory. A mechanistic model was developed that included the geometric features of the pits that could be measured, with the purpose of evaluating the pit membrane strain that results from a pressure difference being applied across the membrane. This approach allowed an assessment to be made of the impact of the geometry of a pit on its mechanical behaviour, and provided an estimate of the impact on air-seeding resistance. The TEM observations showed evidence of residual strains on the pit membranes, thus demonstrating that this membrane may experience a large degree of strain during cavitation. The mechanical modelling revealed the interspecific variability of the strains experienced by the pit membrane, which varied according to the pit geometry and the pressure experienced. The modelling output combined with the TEM observations suggests that cavitation occurs after the pit membrane has been deflected against the pit border. Interspecific variability of the strains experienced was correlated with vulnerability to cavitation. Assuming that air-seeding occurs at a given pit membrane strain, the pressure predicted by the model

  17. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  18. Temporary Authorizations at Permitted Waste Management Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) provides EPA with the authority to grant a permittee temporary authorization, without prior public notice and comment, to conduct activities necessary to respond promptly to changing conditions.

  19. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiiri, A; Ahovuo-Saloranta, A; Nordblad, A; Mäkelä, M

    2006-10-18

    The majority of the detected increment in dental caries is confined to pit and fissure surfaces of first molars. Application of pit and fissure sealants and topical fluorides are widely used procedures in the prevention of decay, and their effectiveness in caries prevention has been proved by systematic reviews. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes in the prevention of dental decay on occlusal surfaces. Electronic searching was performed on the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (last update November 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 4), MEDLINE (from 1966 to December 2005), EMBASE (from 1974 to November 2004), SIGLE (from 1976 to December 2004), SCISEARCH, CAplus, INSPEC, JICST-EPLUS, NTIS, PASCAL (last update December 2004), DARE, NHS EED and HTA (last update November 2005). Reference lists from articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria in this review and from review articles based on the search of MEDLINE were searched for additional relevant articles. Conference abstracts published as books or journals and handsearched by the Cochrane Oral Health Group were also included. The inclusion criteria for study selection were: random or quasi-random allocation study design; sealants versus fluoride varnish or sealants and fluoride varnish combination versus fluoride varnish alone; included studies included caries documentation on occlusal surfaces of permanent molars and the subjects were under 20 years of age. Both parallel and split-mouth study designs were accepted. The primary outcome of interest was the increment in the numbers of carious occlusal surfaces of premolars and molars. A study was excluded if sealants and fluoride varnish were not compared with each other. Two review authors carried out the baseline searches, selecting the papers on the basis of the title, keywords and

  20. PITTING CORROSION OF STAINLESS STEEL AT THE VARIOUS SURFACE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Zatkalíková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The stainless steel surface treatment is very important with regard to its pitting corrosion susceptibility. An effect of various types surfacing on pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 304stainless steel is investigated in this work. The samples of the tested material are turned, blasted, peened, grinded and a half of them are pickled to achieve higher purity of surfaces and better quality of passive film. Eight types of different finished surfaces are tested by electrochemical and immersion tests to determine corrosion behaviour in conditions where pitting is evoked by controlled potential and second by solution with high redox potential. By this way the effect of mechanical and chemical surface treatment on the resistance to pitting corrosion, character, size and shape of pits are compared in the conditions of different mechanisms of corrosion process.

  1. Influence of animal waste disposal pits on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongwon; Hosaka, Akiko; Tase, Norio

    Since the implementation of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta in 1999, the number of the farmers that do not meet the management criteria is on the decline. However, there is a possibility that many of the animal waste disposal pits that have been either abandoned or refilled according to the law have been the potential contamination source. In this study, we discussed the impacts of the abandoned disposal pits to groundwater quality. The results showed that high concentrations of nitrate (above 100mg/L) were observed in the downstream of the disposal pits. It suggests that the abandoned animal waste disposal pits have been the potential pollution source even after the period of 15 years since the termination of use. Implementation of immediate countermeasure is necessary because the animal waste disposal pits are the long-term-sources of high levels of nitrate.

  2. Ketac Molar Versus Dyract Class II restorations in primary molars: twelve month clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, L A; van Amerongen, W E; Borgmeijer, P J; Groen, H J; Martens, L C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present clinical study was an in vivo evaluation of an improved conventional glass ionomer cement Ketac Molar (ESPE), compared to a polyacid modified composite resin, Dyract (Dentsply/De Trey), used in primary molars. Fifty-three Ketac Molar and fifty-two Dyract restorations were placed in box-only preparations in primary molars. The application time for the chemically cured Ketac Molar, was longer compared to the light-cured Dyract. In comparing the materials, no differences were found, comparing both materials regarding secondary caries, marginal adaptation, wear and fracture toughness. One case of recurrent caries adjacent to a Ketac Molar restoration and two cases in the Dyract group were reported. Two Ketac Molar restorations and one Dyract showed bulk fracture at the time of evaluation. At the twelve-month evaluation, no difference between the investigated materials was registered, which indicates that Ketac Molar can be used as a proximal restoration in the primary dentition. It should be emphasized, however, that one-year data should not be extrapolated to indicate the long-term success of restorations.

  3. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Worthington, Helen V

    2008-10-08

    Although pit and fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries, their efficacy may be related to the caries prevalence in the population. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the caries prevention of pit and fissure sealants in children and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3) and MEDLINE (to October 2007); EMBASE (to June 2007); SCISEARCH, CAplus, INSPEC, NTIS, PASCAL, DARE, NHS EED and HTA (to February 2008). There were no language or publication restrictions. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of at least 12 months in duration comparing sealants with no sealant or sealants from different classes of materials for preventing occlusal caries in children and adolescents under 20 years. The primary outcome was the increment in the numbers of carious occlusal surfaces of premolars and molars. Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and quality assessed trials. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated for differences between intervention and control groups and in split-mouth studies for differences of paired tooth surfaces being carious or not. The meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model. Sixteen studies were included in the review; 7 studies provided data for comparison of sealant versus control without sealant and 10 studies for comparison of sealant versus sealant. Five split-mouth studies and one parallel group study with 5 to 10 year old children found a significant difference in favour of second or third generation resin-based sealants on first permanent molars, compared to a control without sealant, with a pooled RR of 0.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.20), 0.22 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.34), 0.30 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.40), and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.51) at 12, 24, 36 and 48-54 months follow up, respectively. Further, one of those studies with 9 years of follow up found significantly more caries in the

  4. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D; Corn, Paul Stephen; Lambert, Brad A

    2006-04-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration.

  5. Gravel pit lakes in Denmark: Chemical and biological state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Lauridsen, Torben L; Johansson, Liselotte S; Jeppesen, Erik

    2018-01-15

    Mining of gravel and sand for construction purposes is big business and gravel pit lakes have become increasingly common all over the world. In Denmark, hundreds of gravel pit lakes have been created during the past decades. We investigated the chemical and biological status of 33-52 gravel pit lakes and compared the results with data from similar-sized natural Danish lakes. The area of the lakes ranged from 0.2 to 13ha and their age from 0.5 to 26years. Generally, the gravel pit lakes were clear with low nutrient concentrations, the median concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen being 0.023mg/l and 0.30mg/l compared with 0.115mg/l and 1.29mg/l, respectively, in natural lakes. Correspondingly, median chlorophyll a was 5μg/l in the gravel pit lakes and 36μg/l in the natural lakes. Submerged macrophytes were found in all gravel pit lakes, with particularly high cover in the shallow ones. Most gravel pit lakes were deeper than the natural lakes, which may restrict the area potentially to be covered by submerged macrophytes, with implications also for the biological quality of the lakes. Fish were found in most of the gravel pit lakes, roach (Rutilus rutilus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophalmus) being the most frequently observed species. Fish stocking was common and included also non-native species such as carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorchynchus mykiss). Compared with the natural lakes, fish species richness and catch per gillnet were overall lower in the gravel pit lakes. Groundwater-fed gravel pit lakes add importantly to the number of high-quality lakes in Denmark and with an optimised design and by avoiding negative side effects, they can be positive for both nature and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative evaluation of molar distalization therapy with erupted second molar: Segmented versus Quad Pendulum appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Cozzani, Mauro; Fontana, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    There are controversial opinions about the effect of erupted second molars on distalization of the first molars. Most of the distalizing devices are anchored on the first molars, without including second molars; so, differences between sequentially distalize maxillary molars (second molar followed by the first molar) or distalize second and first molars together are not clear. The aim of the study was to compare sequential versus simultaneous molar distalization therapy with erupted second molar using two different modified Pendulum appliances followed by fixed appliances. The treatment sample consisted of 35 class II malocclusion subjects, divided in two groups: group 1 consisted of 24 patients (13 males and 11 females) with a mean pre-treatment age of 12.9 years, treated with the Segmented Pendulum (SP) and fixed appliances; group 2 consisted of 11 patients (6 males and 5 females) with a mean pre-treatment age of 13.2 years, treated with the Quad Pendulum (QP) and fixed appliances. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment (T1), at the end of distalization (T2), and at the end of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy (T3). A Student t test was used to identify significant between-group differences between T1 to T2, T2 to T3, and T1 to T3. QP and SP were equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars (3.5 and 4 mm, respectively) between T1 and T2; however, the maxillary first molar showed less distal tipping (4.6° vs. 9.6°) and more extrusion (1.1 vs. 0.2 mm) in the QP group than in the SP group, as well as the vertical facial dimension, which increased more in the QP group (1.2°) than in the SP group (0.7°). At T3, the QP group maintained greater increase in lower anterior facial height and molar extrusion and decrease in overbite than the SP group. Quad Pendulum seems to have greater increase in vertical dimension and molar extrusion than the Segmented Pendulum.

  7. Microbial contents of soil from fire pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, K.; Esparza, V.; de Sandre, J.; Cheney, S.; Anderson, A.; White, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Forest fires generate polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can lead to carcinogenic compounds, which are potential health risks. PAHs can be degraded to water and carbon dioxide by certain soil microbes. Thus, during participation in a NASA-funded summer research experience at Utah State University, our high school student team sampled soils from a month-old fire pit in which plant materials had been burnt. We detected in soil samples, from surface, 10 and 20 cm depths, microbes that would grow on a defined minimal medium source. Other microbes were cultured from the roots of plants that had established at the fire pit. A diversity of microbes was present in all samples based on visible differences in cell shape and color. It was surprising that the surface ash, although exposed to sunlight over the month interval, had culturable colonies. Many of these culturable bacteria were pigmented perhaps as a protection against UV radiation from the sun. We searched for genes in the microbes that encoded enzymes called dioxygenases that in other bacteria are involved in degradation of PAHs. This test involved using polymerase chain reactions to detect the genes. PCR products were found in two of the fifteen isolates tested although their sizes differed from the control gene product from a PAH-degrading mycobacterium isolate. These results suggest that the soils did contain microbes with the possible potential to alter the PAH compounds generated from vegetation fires. Our findings serve as a starting point for future studies looking at recovery and remediation of fired acreages.

  8. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongil Jung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  9. Corrosion characteristics of Al-Si-Mg/SiC{sub p} composites with varying Si/Mg molar ratio in neutral chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalera-Lozano, R.; Pech-Canul, M.I. [Cinvestav Saltillo (Mexico); Pech-Canul, M.A.; Quintana, P. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yuc. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The corrosion resistance of Al-Mg-Si/SiC{sub p} composites produced by the pressureless infiltration method [using SiC{sub p} preforms with 50% porosity containing rice hull ash (RHA) and four custom-made alloys with varying Si/Mg molar ratio] was evaluated in neutral 0.1 M NaCl solutions. The deleterious phase Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was successfully suppressed in composites with Si/Mg molar ratios of 0.89 and 1.05, but not in those with lower Si/Mg molar ratios (0.12 and 0.49). Results of cyclic polarizations in deareated 0.1 M NaCl solutions showed that with increasing Si/Mg molar ratio, passive current density increased but pitting susceptibility decreased both for reinforced and unreinforced alloys. Immersion tests in aerated 0.1 M NaCl showed that for composites with Si/Mg molar ratios of 0.12 and 0.49 chemical degradation by hydrolysis of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was followed by intense anodic dissolution at the matrix-reinforcement interface, while composites corresponding to Si/Mg molar ratios of 0.89 and 1.05 did not exhibit intense localized attack. Possible reasons for the improvement in resistance to localized corrosion are discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    recommendation for closure of the remaining CASs in CAU 544. This will be presented in a closure report (CR) that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 27, 2010, by representatives of NDEP and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 544. The DQO process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the final action levels (FALs) leading to an NFA declaration, (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination leading to closure in place with use restrictions, (3) clean closure by remediation and verification, (4) closure in place with use restrictions with no investigation if CASs are in crater areas that have been determined to be unsafe to enter, or (5) NFA if the mud pit CAS meets the criteria established during the CAUs 530–535 SAFER investigation. The following summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 544: • Perform visual inspection of all CASs. • Perform site preparation activities (e.g., utilities clearances, construction of temporary site exclusion zones). • Removal of easily managed, nonhazardous, and nonradioactive debris, including vegetation (e.g., tumbleweeds), at various CASs that interfere with sampling, if required to inspect soil surface or collect soil sample. • Collect environmental samples from designated target populations (e.g., mud pits, cellars, stained soil) to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information. • If no COCs are present at a

  11. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Noncompliant Molar Distalizing Appliance: Bonded Molar Distalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arab

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD which is a simple molar distalizing appliance.Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth pattern were selected for bilateral distalization of maxillary molars via BMD. Thescrews were activated every other day, alternately. Lateral cephalograms and study models were obtained before treatment and after 11 weeks activation of the appliance.Results: Significant amounts of molar distalization, molar distal tipping and anchorage loss were observed. The mean maxillary first molar distal movement was 1.22±0.936 mm with a distal tipping of 2.97±3.74 degrees in 11 weeks. The rate of distal movement was0.48 mm per month. Reciprocal mesial movement of the first premolars was 2.26±1.12 mm with a mesial tipping of 4.25±3.12 degrees. Maxillary incisors moved 3.55±1.46 mm and tipped 9.87±5.03 degrees mesially. Lower anterior face height (LAFH decreased 1.28±1.36 mm.Conclusion: BMD is appropriate for distalizing maxillary molars, especially in patients with critical LAFH, although significant amounts of anchorage loss occur using this appliance.

  12. A comparative evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealant bonded using sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-generation adhesives: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirwan, Mitakshra; Nigam, Anant Gopal; Marwah, Nikhil; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Bansal, Aayushi; Gahlot, Manvendra Singh

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood infections. a number of measures are available to prevent occlusal caries; pit and fissure sealants are one of the various methods currently available to cost effectively reduce dental caries. To evaluate the retention of pit and fissure sealant bonded using sixth (Adper promt), seventh (Optibond) and eighth (Futurabond Dual Cure) generations of adhesives. A total of 37 healthy children who fulfilled the inclusion were randomly selected. A total of 148 teeth (4 in each subject) were used as samples for the study. The teeth to be sealed were then isolated using rubber dam. The placement of adhesives was done using split mouth design. The first permanent molars were randomly divided into four groups on the basis of sealant placed without and with using 6th, 7th and 8th generation bonding agents as follows: GROUP A (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed without bonding agent. GROUP B (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed following sixth generation bonding agent (ADPER PROMT). GROUP C (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed following seventh generation bonding agent. (OPTIBOND). GROUP D (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed following eighth generation bonding agent. (FUTURA BOND DUAL CURE). The integrity of the sealant placed was assessed immediately after completion of the procedure, 3 months and 6 months after placement. The post-operative evaluation for retention was done using Simonsen criteria. A score of 0 was given for complete retention, 1 for partial retention and 2 for no retention. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software version 21. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups after 3 and 6 months as the value obtained (0.133) was much greater than the p-value (0.05). This study concluded that the use of bonding agent prior to application of pit and fissure sealant does not necessarily aid in

  13. Fusión de un tercer molar mandibular con un cuarto molar supernumerario Fusion of mandibular third molar with supernumerary fourth molar

    OpenAIRE

    C. López Carriches; I. Leco Berrocal; R. Baca Pérez-Bryan

    2008-01-01

    La fusión dental es la unión de dos gérmenes dentales normalmente separados, mientras que la geminación se define como el intento de división de un único germen dental. La fusión y geminación de molares es poco frecuente en la dentición permanente. Describimos un caso clínico de un tercer molar inferior derecho fusionado a un cuarto molar supernumerario en un paciente varón de 36 años que ha presentado repetidos episodios de pericoronaritis. Tras el estudio radiológico se realiza la exodoncia...

  14. Micro X-ray computed tomography of pits and fissures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhatari, Benedicta D; Andrewartha, Kathy; White, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Most tooth cavities start to develop inside pits and fissures where brushing, saliva, fluoride toothpaste or mouthwashes have no access. Therefore, 3D morphology of pits and fissures is an important subject to be studied in relation to maintaining proper oral hygiene. This study aimed to present high resolution images of pits and fissures in human teeth using a laboratory-based micro X-ray Computed Tomography (mXCT) and also to present the basic structure evaluation that could be obtained. Three human wisdom teeth were examined. Two different set-ups were used in this study achieving resolution of 14.59 μm (Field of View of 14.9 mm) and resolution of 4.43 μm (FOV of 4.5 mm) respectively. Automated segmentation was performed for further evaluation to distinguish between empty space (pits and fissures) and the filled space (enamel). The 3D tomography results demonstrate detailed morphology with accurate dimensions and the locations of the pits and fissures, which is important to investigate the relationship with tooth decay that mostly starts deep inside pits and fissures. Segmentation from the mXCT imaging of pits and fissures provides obvious visual evidence to help in promotion of oral health and to improve personal tooth care in preventive treatment protocols.

  15. Corrosion pit depth extreme value prediction from limited inspection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, D.; Bigerelle, M.; Iost, A. [Equipe Surfaces et Interfaces ENSAM Lille, Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux - CNRS UMR 8517, 8 Boulevard Louis XIV, 59046 Lille cedex (France); Bourdeau, L.; Guillou, D. [Arcelor Recherche, CMDI / Centre de Recherches d' Isbergues, BP 15, 62330 Isbergues (France)

    2004-07-01

    Passive alloys like stainless steels are prone to localized corrosion in chlorides containing environments. The greater the depth of the localized corrosion phenomenon, the more dramatic the related damage that can lead to a structure weakening by fast perforation. In practical situations, because measurements are time consuming and expensive, the challenge is usually to predict the maximum pit depth that could be found in a large scale installation from the processing of a limited inspection data. As far as the parent distribution of pit depths is assumed to be of exponential type, the most successful method was found in the application of the statistical extreme-value analysis developed by Gumbel. This study aims to present a new and alternative methodology to the Gumbel approach with a view towards accurately estimating the maximum pit depth observed on a ferritic stainless steel AISI 409 subjected to an accelerated corrosion test (ECC1) used in automotive industry. This methodology consists in characterising and modelling both the morphology of pits and the statistical distribution of their depths from a limited inspection dataset. The heart of the data processing is based on the combination of two recent statistical methods that avoid making any choice about the type of the theoretical underlying parent distribution of pit depths: the Generalized Lambda Distribution (GLD) is used to model the distribution of pit depths and the Bootstrap technique to determine a confidence interval on the maximum pit depth. (authors)

  16. Pit above the lesser tuberosity in axial view radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Chung, Nam-Su; Park, Do Young

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiographs and rotator cuff tears and compared the demographic data between groups according to the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity. The hypothesis of this study was that the radiographic finding of a pit above the lesser tuberosity is related to rotator cuff tears. For 112 patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, plain radiographs of the symptomatic shoulder (tear side radiographs) and plain radiographs of the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder (no-tear side radiographs) were assessed. Seventeen radiological findings, including a pit above the lesser tuberosity, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and sclerosis, were recorded by one blinded observer. Demographic data such as age, duration of symptoms, sex, arm dominance, smoking history, trauma history, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and involved tendon were collected. A pit above the lesser tuberosity was noted on tear side radiographs of 40 patients (35.7 %) and on the no-tear side radiographs of 27 patients (24.1 %), representing a significant difference (P = 0.040). A pit associated with a rotator cuff tear was observed more often in the dominant arm (P = 0.040) and more often in patients with less previous trauma (P = 0.024). A pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiography was associated with a rotator cuff tear and occurred more often in the dominant arm of patients who had no trauma history. Prognostic study, Level III.

  17. Fecal indicator and Ascaris removal from double pit latrine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Digbijoy; Ridwanul Haque, A T M; Kabir, Babar; Ubaid, Sharmin Farhat

    2016-12-01

    Since May 2006, the BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programme in Bangladesh has enabled more than 30 million people to achieve hygienic sanitation, contributing to an increase in sanitation coverage from 33 to 83% in programme areas and rapid progress towards universal access. In rural areas, most families have single pit latrines that need to be emptied when full. Since 2007, BRAC has promoted the use of hygienic double-pit latrines. Use of double-pit latrines, where appropriate, is also recommended in the Bangladeshi Draft National Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy. More than 800,000 double-pit latrines are in use in BRAC WASH areas, delaying the need for emptying and allowing time for the fecal matter to decompose while the resting pit is sealed. This paper focuses on a study undertaken by BRAC WASH to treat and safely use fecal material from double pit latrines as an organic fertilizer for rice and other crops. The study investigated the removal of pathogens from pit waste through simple solar drying and conducted analysis on nutrient properties of fecal sludge. The study showed a significant positive impact on developing organic fertilizer from fecal sludge.

  18. Relationship between the Foveal Avascular Zone and Foveal Pit Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubis, Adam M.; Hansen, Benjamin R.; Cooper, Robert F.; Beringer, Joseph; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the relationship between foveal pit morphology and size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Methods. Forty-two subjects were recruited. Volumetric images of the macula were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Images of the FAZ were obtained using either a modified fundus camera or an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope. Foveal pit metrics (depth, diameter, slope, volume, and area) were automatically extracted from retinal thickness data, whereas the FAZ was manually segmented by two observers to extract estimates of FAZ diameter and area. Results. Consistent with previous reports, the authors observed significant variation in foveal pit morphology. The average foveal pit volume was 0.081 mm3 (range, 0.022 to 0.190 mm3). The size of the FAZ was also highly variable between persons, with FAZ area ranging from 0.05 to 1.05 mm2 and FAZ diameter ranging from 0.20 to 1.08 mm. FAZ area was significantly correlated with foveal pit area, depth, and volume; deeper and broader foveal pits were associated with larger FAZs. Conclusions. Although these results are consistent with predictions from existing models of foveal development, more work is needed to confirm the developmental link between the size of the FAZ and the degree of foveal pit excavation. In addition, more work is needed to understand the relationship between these and other anatomic features of the human foveal region, including peak cone density, rod-free zone diameter, and Henle fiber layer. PMID:22323466

  19. Evaluation of Different Fissure Sealant Materials and Flowable Composites Used as Pit-and-fissure Sealants: A 24-Month Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Savas, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants mainly depends on their retention and integrity over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retention rates of two different pit-and-fissure sealants compared with a flowable composite and a self-adhesive flowable composite over a 24 month period. A split-mouth study design was used for all four permanent first molars of each patient. They were subjected to different kinds of sealants--either flowable composites or with fissure sealants. The flowable composites used were: flowable composite with an adhesive system (Tetric EvoFlow); and a self-adhesive flowable composite (Vertise Flow). The fissure sealants used were: a highly filled pit-and-fissure sealant (Fissurit FX); and a highly filled nano-hybrid pit-and-fissure sealant (Grandio Seal). Evaluation of the sealants was carried out at three-, six-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up visits. The complete retention rates were 95.7 percent for Tetric EvoFlow, 80.6 percent for Fissurit FX, 73.1 percent for Grandio Seal, and 62.9 percent for Vertise Flow. The retention rate of Tetric EvoFlow was significantly higher among all materials tested (P<0.05). The flowable composite used with an adhesive system was found to be superior to other sealing materials.

  20. Sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters and phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells: redundant roles for PiT-1 and PiT-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouthamel, Matthew H; Lau, Wei Ling; Leaf, Elizabeth M; Chavkin, Nicholas W; Wallingford, Mary C; Peterson, Danielle F; Li, Xianwu; Liu, Yonggang; Chin, Michael T; Levi, Moshe; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2013-11-01

    Elevated serum phosphate has emerged as a major risk factor for vascular calcification. The sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, was previously shown to be required for phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation and calcification of cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but its importance in vascular calcification in vivo and the potential role of its homologue, PiT-2, have not been determined. We investigated the in vivo requirement for PiT-1 in vascular calcification using a mouse model of chronic kidney disease and the potential compensatory role of PiT-2 using in vitro knockdown and overexpression strategies. Mice with targeted deletion of PiT-1 in VSMCs were generated (PiT-1(Δsm)). PiT-1 mRNA levels were undetectable, whereas PiT-2 mRNA levels were increased 2-fold in the vascular aortic media of PiT-1(Δsm) compared with PiT-1(flox/flox) control. When arterial medial calcification was induced in PiT-1(Δsm) and PiT-1(flox/flox) by chronic kidney disease followed by dietary phosphate loading, the degree of aortic calcification was not different between genotypes, suggesting compensation by PiT-2. Consistent with this possibility, VSMCs isolated from PiT-1(Δsm) mice had no PiT-1 mRNA expression, increased PiT-2 mRNA levels, and no difference in sodium-dependent phosphate uptake or phosphate-induced matrix calcification compared with PiT-1(flox/flox) VSMCs. Knockdown of PiT-2 decreased phosphate uptake and phosphate-induced calcification of PiT-1(Δsm) VSMCs. Furthermore, overexpression of PiT-2 restored these parameters in human PiT-1-deficient VSMCs. PiT-2 can mediate phosphate uptake and calcification of VSMCs in the absence of PiT-1. Mechanistically, PiT-1 and PiT-2 seem to serve redundant roles in phosphate-induced calcification of VSMCs.

  1. Molar Tissue in Spleen: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral Mokhtari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An invasive mole is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease in which the molar tissue invades into the deep myometrium, cervical stroma, blood vessels or extrauterine sites. This report is of an invasive mole of spleen that has originated from an ectopic pregnancy, which was primarily though to be a choriocarcinoma.

  2. Taurodontism in deciduous Molars - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, S S; Sargod, S; Mohammed, S V

    2004-01-01

    Taurodontism has a very low incidence in deciduous dentition and very few cases are reported in the literature, it stands a challenge when it requires pulp therapy. This case report presents a case of Taurodontism in deciduous molars of a five year old male child which required pulp therapy. A clinical and radiographic follow up of the patient is discussed.

  3. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement...

  4. ERUPTION DISTURBANCES OF PERMANENT MOLARS - A REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RAGHOEBAR, GM; BOERING, G; VISSINK, A; STEGENGA, B

    Eruption disturbances of permanent molars may become clinically and radiographically manifest as impaction, primary retention or secondary retention. This may result in clinical problems such as malocclusion and loss of neighboring teeth due to caries and periodontal disease. Which of these

  5. Distalización de molares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La distoclusión es una anomalía que alcanza a más de la mitad de los pacientes ortodóncicos, entre sus causas se encuentra la mesogresión de molares superiores. Una opción terapéutica es la distalización molar, cuando se considera la corrección sin extracciones. Se presenta el caso de un paciente remitido desde la atención primaria de salud, con relación molar de distoclusión derecha, neutroclusion izquierda, resalte de seis milímetros y sobrepase corona completa. Previa confección de modelos de estudio e indicación de estudio radiográfico, se procedió a la corrección ortodóncica con la placa Cetlin, a la que se le realizaron algunas modificaciones. Se corrigió la distoclusión del primer molar permanente superior derecho hasta la neutroclusión; además del espacio requerido para el acomodamiento del canino superior derecho, se logró la corrección del sobrepase hasta un tercio de corona y se mejoró el resalte de seis a cuatro milímetros.

  6. A 1-year clinical evaluation of fissure sealants on permanent first molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Ninawe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate and compare the retention, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomical form of pit and fissure sealants. Materials and Methods : Thirty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years, who were attending the school health program regularly, had participated in the study. A split-mouth design was used in which the two fissure sealants (Helioseal-F and Glass ionomer Fuji VII were randomly placed in 60 matched contralateral pairs of permanent molar teeth. Sealants were rated by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirrors and probes following the US Public Health Service criteria. The sealants were evaluated at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year intervals. Results : The data obtained for retention, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomical form of pit and fissure sealants were tabulated and compared statistically using the Chi-square test of significance. Conclusion : The Helioseal-F sealant was better than the Glass ionomer Fuji VII sealant with respect to retention, anatomical form and surface texture. Both the materials showed similar results with respect to marginal discoloration.

  7. Bodily distalization of molars with absolute anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Ahmet; Erverdi, Nejat; Sezen, Serdar

    2003-08-01

    Palatal implants have been used over the last two decades to eliminate headgear wear and to establish stationary anchorage. In this case report, the stability of a palatal implant for distalization of molars bodily and for anchorage maintenance was assessed. The implant was a stepped screw titanium (4.5 mm diameter x 8 mm length), and it was placed in the palatal region for orthodontic purposes. A surgical template containing a metal drill housing was prepared. Angulation of the drill housing was controlled according to the radiologic tracing of the maxilla transferred to a plaster cast section in the paramedian plane. The implant was placed using a noninvasive technique (incision, flap, and suture elimination) and left transmucosally to facilitate the surgical procedure and to reduce the number of operations. The paramedian region was selected (1) to avoid the connective tissues of the palatine suture and (2) because it is considered to be a suitable host site for implant placement. After three months of healing, the implant was osseointegrated and orthodontic treatment was initiated. For molar distalization, the Keles Slider appliance was modified and, instead of a Nance button, a palatal implant was used for anchorage. The results showed that the molars were distalized bodily at five months, and no anchorage loss was observed. At the end of the treatment, the smile was improved, and an ideal Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overbite, and an ideal overjet were all achieved. In conclusion, palatal implants can be used effectively for anchorage maintenance and in space-gaining procedures. Use of a three-dimensional surgical template eliminated implant placement errors, reduced chair time, minimized trauma to the tissues, and enhanced osseointegration. This method can be used effectively to achieve distalization of molars bodily without anchorage loss.

  8. Incidence of distal caries in mandibular second molars due to impacted third molars: Nonintervention strategy of asymptomatic third molars causes harm? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Shetty, Akshay; Goswami, Rahul Dev; Apparaju, Vijay; Bagga, Vivek; Kale, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Removal of impacted third molars is the most common oral surgical procedure. Many investigators have questioned the necessity of removal in patients who are free of symptoms or associated pathologies. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of caries on distal aspect of mandibular second molars in patients referred for corresponding third molar assessment and to identify its association with angular position and depth of the impacted mandibular third molars based on the classification of Pell and Gregory. Records of 150 patients with impacted third molar presenting to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, were assessed retrospectively. The radiographic angulation and depth of mandibular third molar impaction were determined and compared to determine the relationship with incidence of caries on the distal surface of the second molar. According to this study results, 37.5% cases show caries on the distal aspect of mandibular second molars. The incidence of caries with mesioangular impacted third molars was 55%. A majority of these mesioangular cases were Level B and Class I as per the Pell and Gregory classification. The prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molars is indicated if the angulation is between 30° and 70° and is justified by incidence of distal caries in the second molars.

  9. Frequency of remnants of sealants left behind in pits and fissures of occlusal surfaces after 2 and 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuan; Zhang, WeiWei; Fan, MingWen; Mulder, Jan; Frencken, Jo E

    2017-01-01

    The null-hypothesis tested was that there was no difference in the frequency of remnants of high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants left behind in pits and fissures of occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars and that of resin composite and glass-carbomer sealants. Based on the results of a sealant trial, a sample of sealed teeth from which the material had apparently completely disappeared from at least one of the three sections into which the occlusal surface was divided, assessed through visible clinical examination, was also assessed from images of colour photographs and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) as the reference image. The sample size consisted of 112 and 120 teeth from 59 and 98 children at evaluation years 2 and 3 respectively. Two examiners performed the assessments. Fisher's Exact Test was applied to test for the differences between the dependent variable and the sealant groups. The remnants of sealant material left in the deeper parts of pits and fissures were assessed from colour photograph and SEM images in five sections at year 2 and in eight sections at year 3. The assessment found no sealant group effect. The frequency of remnants of glass-ionomer sealant in pits and fissures of occlusal surfaces in first permanent molars is not higher than the frequency of glass-carbomer and resin sealants after 2 and 3 years. Contrary to the current assumption, there appears to be no significant difference in the frequency of remnants left behind in pits and fissures between glass-ionomer and resin sealants.

  10. Need for adaptation: transformation of temporary houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Building permanent accommodation after a disaster takes time for reasons including the removal of debris, the lack of available land, and the procurement of resources. In the period in-between, affected communities find shelter in different ways. Temporary houses or transitional shelters are used when families cannot return to their pre-disaster homes and no other alternative can be provided. In practice, families stay in a standard interim solution for months or even years while trying to return to their routines. Consequently, they adapt their houses to meet their midterm needs. This study analysed temporary houses in Chile and Peru to illustrate how families modify them with or without external support. The paper underlines that guidance must be given on how to alter them safely and on how to incorporate the temporary solution into the permanent structure, because families adapt their houses whether or not they are so designed. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  11. Efficacy of sealing the mesial surfaces of first permanent molars with respect to the status of the distal surfaces of the second primary molars in children at high caries-risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, S S; Emilson, C-G; Corvalan, G C; Quiroz, M D; Moran, M P H

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of sealants at preventing caries development or arresting the progression of non-cavitated mesial carious lesions in first permanent molars (6m) with respect to the status of the distal surfaces of the second primary molars (05d). The study population comprised 121, 8- to 10-year-old schoolchildren in a high-caries community in Valparaiso, Chile. They were examined clinically and radiographically and screened for caries-related risk factors using the risk-assessment software program Cariogram. The children were divided into three groups: Group A, with no caries lesions on adjacent surfaces of 05d-6m, served as a control group. Group B, with caries on 05d, received a preventive sealant on the caries-free 6m after temporary separation, and Group C, with carious 05d, received a therapeutic sealant on a 6m with initial lesions. Standardised follow-up radiographs were taken in 110 children after 12-14 months. In group A, with no treatment, the mean percentage of sound surfaces that developed caries lesions was 3.8%. In group B, the mean percentage of sound 6m surfaces that developed caries lesions was 4.9% for sealed and 22.0% for unsealed surfaces (p caries in the proximal mesial surfaces of permanent molar teeth effectively prevents or reduces the progression of caries adjacent to lesions on the distal surfaces of the second primary molars.

  12. Pit Viper Envenomation in Military Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Poyrazoglu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are common in people living or working in rural area. Military personnel are among the risk groups for viper envenomation. In this study, we presented seven cases of vipera snakebites in military personnel and discussed how to minimize functional loss and maximize the outcome. All of the bites were located in extremities and 5 were at hands. All patients were admitted at the day of snake bite which is an indicator of good triage. Hematological complications were the most common systemic complications. Antivenom therapy was performed according to the severity of the envenomation. Local wound care, grafts and flaps were used for wound coverage. Pit viper envenomation can cause serious morbidity in military personnel especially at hot climates. A suspicion of snake bite must be managed properly. Triage is the most important step to reduce the morbidity. Almost all snake bites occur in extremities, thus protective measurement must be taken especially for hands. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 127-130

  13. A simple mini-screw assembly for simultaneous molar uprighting and distalization--a case of adjunctive adult orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vijay; Parmar, Renu; Jamadar, Irfan Abdul Razak; Reddy, Rajesh; Reddy, Deepti

    2013-01-01

    Anchorage is a major concern in adult mutilated dentition. However, with the explosive development of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) newer avenues in orthodontic treatment philosophy have opened up. Mini-screws are found to be stable during such treatments, demonstrating that they could provide absolute anchorage for tooth movement. The present article describes a simple, yet effective technique for simultaneous molar uprighting and distalization, using direct skeletal anchorage using a mini-screw supported assembly in a 38 years old male patient as part of adjunctive adult orthodontics with mutilated dentition.

  14. Study of root canal accessibility in human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Farahani, Ramin M Z; Gajan, Esrafil B

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a general scheme for pulpectomy of primary molars that may be useful for decision-making about negotiation of root canals and selection of appropriate instruments. A total of 160 vital primary molars in 85 patients (40 males, 45 females) aged 4-6 years were selected. After taking primary radiographs, local anesthesia was induced, and the teeth were isolated using a rubber dam. Canal accessibility index (CAI) and tooth accessibility index (TAI) were calculated according to initial file size. Mandibular first molars had either three canals (79.2%) or four canals (20.8%), and all second molars had four canals. Maxillary first molars had three canals and second molars had either three canals (70.9%) or four canals (29.1%). Lower accessibility of the mandibular first molar distobuccal root accounted for the lower accessibility of these teeth in comparison with mandibular second molars. While three-canal maxillary second molars were more accessible due to the lower accessibility of the distobuccal canal of the maxillary first molar, poor accessibility of the distal canal in four-canal second molars was responsible for the difficult accessibility of these teeth. In conclusion, it seems that the accessibility of a single canal in each tooth determines the difficulty of accessibility for any given tooth. Moreover, while primary second molars are more accessible than first molars, all of them are negotiable.

  15. CLPX-Ground: ISA Snow Pit Measurements, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of snow pit data from nine study areas, within three larger-scale areas in northern Colorado (Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears Meso-cell...

  16. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  17. Ultimate strength of stiffened plates with pitting corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting residual strength of corroded plates is of crucial importance for service life estimation of aged structures. A series of nonlinear finite element method is employed for ultimate strength analysis of stiffened plates with pitting corrosion. Influential parameters, including plate thickness, type and size of stiffeners, pit depth and degree of pitting are varied and more than 208 finite element models are analyzed. It is found that ultimate strength is reduced by increasing pit depth to thickness ratio. Thin and intermediate plates have minimum and maximum reduction of ultimate strength with stronger stiffeners, respectively. In weak stiffener, reduction of ultimate strength in thin and intermediate plates depends on DOP. Reduction of ultimate strength in thick plates depends on thickness ofplate and DOP. For intermediate plates, reduction for all stiffeners regardless of shape and size are the same.

  18. A critical analysis of physiochemical properties influencing pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A critical analysis of physiochemical properties influencing pit latrine emptying and feacal sludge disposal in Kampala Slums, Uganda. Ahamada Zziwa, Maureen Norah Nabulime, Nicholas Kiggundu, Robert Kambugu, Abia Katimbo, Allan John Komakech ...

  19. Closing a temporary ileostomy within two weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindenburg, Tommy; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2010-06-01

    Temporary ileostomy is frequently constructed to relieve a rectal anastomosis and avoid peritonitis if the anastomosis is leaking. Ostomy is a burden for both the patient and society and early closure is therefore desirable to counteract increased morbidity. Several prospective studies and a single randomized controlled trial have shown that closure in less than two weeks was associated with lower or equal morbidity compared with later closure. Thus, current data support early closure of temporary ileostomy performed to cover rectal anastomosis in routine clinical practice.

  20. Nurses' perceptions of temporary nursing service agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, E A; Simunek, L A

    1991-04-01

    Temporary staffing agencies have indeed carved out a role for themselves, and our free enterprise system lends itself to the perpetuation of the entrepreneurial spirit in all: nurses, agencies, and hospitals alike. It is wiser to learn to work with current structure realizing that supply and demand plays an important role in the survival and success of agencies. Although there are problems associated with temporary nursing staffing, they are surmountable. Orientation programs, performance monitoring, ensuring accountability of both nurse and agency are but a few that can enhance utilization and quality of service.

  1. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Keith J. Bourne; John C. Hermanson; Samuel V. Glass; Adriana Costa; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force–displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a...

  2. Nitrate pollution of groundwater by pit latrines in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Templeton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are one of the most common forms of onsite sanitation facilities in many developing countries. These latrines are suitable as a means of isolating human waste, however, conditions within pits often lead to nitrification of the contained waste. In areas with a near-surface aquifer, the potential for nitrate pollution arising from pit latrines cannot be ignored. In this study, site visits were made to three densely populated, peri-urban areas near three West African cities (Dakar, Abidjan, Abomey-Calavi to gather relevant information about the latrines in use and the soil and groundwater underneath the sites. Modelling was then conducted to demonstrate the potential for nitrate pollution of the groundwater from the latrines in such settings. The depth from the bottom of the pits to the water table was considered as 5, 10 or 30 m, to represent the range of aquifer depths at the study sites. Nitrate half-lives ranging from 500 to 1500 days were considered, and time scales from 6 months to several years were modelled. The results highlighted the high likelihood of nitrate pollution of groundwater reaching levels exceeding the World Health Organization guideline value for nitrate in drinking water of 50 mg/L after as short a period as two years for the aquifer situated 5 m below the pits, when considering moderate to long nitrate half-lives in the subsurface. Careful siting of latrines away from high water table areas, more frequent pit emptying, or switching to urine diversion toilets may be effective solutions to reduce nitrate passage from pit latrines into groundwater, although these solutions may not always be applicable, because of social, technical and economic constraints. The study highlights the need for more reliable data on the typical nitrate concentrations in pit latrines and the nitrate half-life in different subsurface conditions.

  3. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Price of gold. $32.15/g ($915/oz). Selling cost. $0.88/g ($25/oz). Capital cost. $55 362 000. Discount rate. 10%. Variable bench cost. $0.012/bench. Mining recovery. 95 %. Mining dilution. 5 %. Overall pit slope angle. 45o. Revenue factor range. 0.3 to 2.0 at 0.02 steps. 2.2.2.4 Generation of Pit Outlines.

  4. Predictive Index for slope instabilities in open pit mining

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, J.H.; Rapiman, M.; Lecaros, R.; Medel, F.; Padilla, F.; García, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the stability and deformation of structures, in particular the wall of an open pit mine is studied by using information obtained from a variety of remote sensors and some extra data, with a novelty approach considering the use of mathematical models and data mining techniques. In particular we present two models to help the study the slope stability of pit and the possible occurrence of movements. Primarily we present an static model for slow movements, which will help ...

  5. Optic pit maculopathy after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Coleman, Hanna; Schiff, William M; Hwang, John C; Speaker, Mark G

    2007-02-01

    Optic disc pit is an embryological malformation of the optic nerve that occurs in less than one in 10,000 people. It is 10%-15% bilateral, and 25% to 70% of patients develop a neurosensory macular detachment within the 2nd to 4th decade. We report a case of unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy 2 months after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) revision.

  6. Detection of pitting corrosion in steel using image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Bidisha; Pakrashi, Vikram; Schoefs, Franck

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an image processing based detection method for detecting pitting corrosion in steel structures. High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been carried out in this regard to demonstrate the effectiveness of such relatively inexpensive techniques that are of immense benefit to Non – Destructive – Tesing (NDT) community. The pitting corrosion of a steel sample in marine environment is successfully detected in this paper using the proposed methodology. It is observed, that the prop...

  7. An innovative technique to distalize maxillary molar using microimplant supported rapid molar distalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, enhancements in implants have made their use possible as a mode of absolute anchorage in orthodontic patients. In this paper, the authors have introduced an innovative technique to unilaterally distalize the upper left 1 st molar to obtain an ideal Class I molar relationship from a Class II existing molar relationship with an indigenous designed distalizer. Clinical Innovation: For effective unilateral diatalization of molar, a novel cantilever sliding jig assembly was utilized with coil spring supported by a buccally placed single micro implant. The results showed 3 mm of bodily distalization with 1 mm of intrusion and 2° of distal tipping of upper left 1 st molar in 1.5 months. Discussion: This appliance is relatively easy to insert, well-tolerated, and requires minimal patient cooperation compared to other present techniques of molar distalization. Moreover, it is particularly useful in cases that are Class II on one side and Class I on the other, with a minor midline discrepancy and nominal overjet. Patient acceptance level was reported to be within patients physiological and comfort limits.

  8. RNA levels of human retrovirus receptors Pit1 and Pit2 do not correlate with infectibility by three retroviral vector pseudotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uckert, Wolfgang; Willimsky, Gerald; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    1998-01-01

    cell line it used Pit1 more efficiently for entry. We conclude that (1) Pit1 and Pit2 mRNA levels in human cells are not indicative of the infectibility by GaLV and A-MuLV pseudotypes, respectively; (2) A-MuLV can infect target cells as efficiently as can GaLV, although Pit2 RNA is less abundant than......The gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) and the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) infect human cells via specific receptors, Pit1 and Pit2, respectively. mRNA levels of these receptors were determined by Northern analysis and for Pit2 in addition by quantitative RT-PCR. Pit1 and Pit2 were...... expressed in different amounts in human tissues and cell lines; Pit1-specific mRNA was generally more abundant than Pit2 mRNA. No correlation was found between Pit1 and Pit2 RNA levels and infectibility by GaLV and A-MuLV pseudotyped vectors, respectively. GaLV and A-MuLV revealed a partial reciprocal...

  9. Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Alan

    2014-09-08

    In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data.

  10. VITRECTOMY FOR MACULAR RETINOSCHISIS WITHOUT A DETECTABLE OPTIC DISK PIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Masatoshi; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of vitrectomy in the treatment of macular retinoschisis without a detectable optic disk pit. This retrospective interventional case series included eight patients with acquired, unilateral macular retinoschisis with or without foveal detachment. Patients with an optic disk pit, vitreomacular traction, or high myopia were excluded. Six of the eight patients underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and fluid-air exchange. The surgical outcome was evaluated in terms of the improvement in the macular anatomy and the best-corrected visual acuity. During vitrectomy, all the six eyes were confirmed to have preexisting posterior vitreous detachment. Macular retinoschisis was resolved or reduced in all the six eyes after vitrectomy. The mean central foveal thickness showed significant improvement at the time of the patient's final visit after vitrectomy. The mean best-corrected visual acuity was 20/52 before surgery and 20/31 at the final visit. Vitrectomy might be effective for the treatment of macular retinoschisis without an optic disk pit. Although clinically similar to optic pit maculopathy except for the absence of pit, our intraoperative observations of the posterior hyaloid membrane suggest that maculopathy without optic disk pit has a distinct pathogenesis.

  11. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at the dental centre, University of Benin teaching hospital.

  12. Study of Kissing Molars in Turkish Population Sample

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... Mandibular third molars are the most common unerupted teeth; retention of the mandibular second molar is much less common.[1] Simultaneous retention of both teeth is quite rare. “Kissing molars” (KMs) are an interesting finding in permanent mandibular molar teeth. KMs or “rosette formation” was first ...

  13. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy | Yakasai | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molar pregnancies in most instances develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at any site. Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare event. The objective of this study was to present a case of ruptured tubal molar gestation, discuss its clinical features and ways to improve diagnostic accuracy. A 35.year.old woman presented ...

  14. Molar tooth sign - looking beyond the obvious | Mahomed | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The molar tooth sign was initially identified in Joubert syndrome, named after Marie Joubert who first described it in 1968 as a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by the neuroradiological hallmark of the molar tooth sign caused by cerebellar vermian hypoplasia. Subsequently, it emerged that the molar tooth ...

  15. Excess molar volumes, and refractive index of binary mixtures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excess molar volumes (VE) viscosities and refractive index have been evaluated for binary mixtures of glycerol + water, and glycerol + methanol at 298.15 K and 303.15 K. Excess molar volumes (VE) have been calculated from density. The excess molar volume (VE) results were fitted to the Redlich and Kister type ...

  16. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary variances. 205.290 Section 205.290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic...

  17. Temporary Tattoos and Henna/Mehndi

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For example, we can issue Import Alerts and Warning Letters. An Import Alert allows FDA to detain products that violate or ... Awareness of Safety: FDA Webinar, May 13, 2014 Warning Letter Issued to Black Henna Ink, Inc. Import Alert #53-14: Intensified Coverage of Temporary Tattoos Containing ...

  18. Closing a temporary ileostomy within two weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindenburg, Tommy; Rosenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Temporary ileostomy is frequently constructed to relieve a rectal anastomosis and avoid peritonitis if the anastomosis is leaking. Ostomy is a burden for both the patient and society and early closure is therefore desirable to counteract increased morbidity. Several prospective studies and a sing...

  19. Temporary tattoos: a novel OSCE assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Gerry; Menary, Allison; Layard, Brooke; Hart, Nigel; McCourt, Collette

    2013-08-01

    There are many issues regarding the use of real patients in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). In dermatology OSCE stations, standardised patients (SPs) with clinical photographs are often used. Temporary transfer tattoos can potentially simulate skin lesions when applied to an SP. This study aims to appraise the use of temporary malignant melanoma tattoos within an OSCE framework. Within an 11-station OSCE, a temporary malignant melanoma tattoo was developed and applied to SPs in a 'skin lesion' OSCE station. A questionnaire captured the opinions of the candidate, SP and examiners, and the degree of perceived realism of each station was determined. Standard post hoc OSCE analysis determined the psychometric reliability of the stations. The response rates were 95.9 per cent of candidates and 100 per cent of the examiners and SPs. The 'skin lesion' station achieved the highest realism score compared with other stations: 89.0 per cent of candidates felt that the skin lesion appeared realistic; only 28 per cent of candidates had ever seen a melanoma before in training. The psychometric performance of the melanoma station was comparable with, and in many instances better than, other OSCE stations. Transfer tattoo technology facilitates a realistic dermatology OSCE station encounter. Temporary tattoos, alongside trained SPs, provide an authentic, standardised and reliable experience, allowing the assessment of integrated dermatology clinical skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Closing a temporary ileostomy within two weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindenburg, Tommy; Rosenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Temporary ileostomy is frequently constructed to relieve a rectal anastomosis and avoid peritonitis if the anastomosis is leaking. Ostomy is a burden for both the patient and society and early closure is therefore desirable to counteract increased morbidity. Several prospective studies and a single...

  1. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary tolerances. 180.31 Section 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... period designed to allow the orderly marketing of the raw agricultural commodities produced while testing...

  2. Temporary Chinese Migration to Madagascar: Local Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article fills a knowledge-gap in the literature on China in Africa by exploring local perceptions of temporary Chinese migrants in Madagascar, the growth of small-scale Chinese-owned import and retail businesses in the capital, and their impacts on Malagasy producers, utilizing the country's blanket and paper industries ...

  3. Temporary Chinese Migration to Madagascar: Local Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, as public debate over their impact in Madagascar intensifies, the temporary Chinese migrant ... economic and political engagement of the continent. Following the .... all focus on either the earlier waves of migration or on the relations between the resident Chinese community and the new migrants. Notable ...

  4. 47 CFR 74.537 - Temporary authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.537 Section 74.537 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO.... However, in the case of events of widespread interest and importance which cannot be transmitted...

  5. 47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.633 Section 74.633 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... wide-spread interest and importance which cannot be transmitted successfully on these frequencies...

  6. 47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.833 Section 74.833 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... interest and importance which cannot be transmitted successfully on these frequencies, frequencies assigned...

  7. 47 CFR 74.433 - Temporary authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.433 Section 74.433 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... of events of wide-spread interest and importance which cannot be transmitted successfully on these...

  8. Effect of occlusal calculus utilized as a potential "biological sealant" in special needs patients with gastric feeding tubes: a qualitative in vitro contrast to pit and fissure sealant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Barry M; Sharp, Harry K; Fourmy, Emily E; Phebus, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report and in vitro investigation was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of intact occlusal calculus of primary molars extracted from a special needs patient who received nutrition via a gastric feeding tube. An adolescent with a history of developmental disturbance presented for routine dental care in a hospital facility. Prophylaxis was performed, and 2 mandibular permanent molars were restored. Five primary molars were extracted due to mobility and delayed retention. Heavy deposits of intact calculus were present on the occlusal surfaces of the primary teeth. The extracted teeth were immersed in methylene blue dye solution, invested in acrylic resin, sectioned into blocks, and photographed at 20× and 40× magnification. Previously photographed calculus-free molars with pit and fissure sealants were reviewed and served as contrasting "restorations." The occlusal calculus on the primary teeth extracted from the patient absorbed the dye, while the comparison teeth containing pit and fissure sealants exhibited varying degrees of marginal dye penetration (microleakage). No marginal microleakage was noted in the calculus specimens, indicating that this substrate may serve as a "natural" occlusal surface sealant and that its removal from occlusal surfaces during routine oral prophylaxis may be unnecessary.

  9. The influence of temporary cements on dental adhesive systems for luting cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José C V; Coelho, Paulo G; Janal, Malvin N; Silva, Nelson R F A; Monteiro, André J; Fernandes, Carlos A O

    2011-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that bond strength of total- and self-etching adhesive systems to dentine is not affected by the presence of remnants from either eugenol-containing (EC) or eugenol-free (EF) temporary cements after standardized cleaning procedures. Thirty non-carious human third molars were polished flat to expose dentine surfaces. Provisional acrylic plates were fabricated and cemented either with EC, EF or no temporary cements. All specimens were incubated for 7 days in water at 37°C. The restorations were then taken out and the remnants of temporary cements were mechanically removed with a dental instrument. The dentine surfaces were cleaned with pumice and treated with either total-etching (TE) or self-etching (SE) dental adhesive systems. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the presence of remnants of temporary cements before and after dentine cleaning procedures. Composite resin build-ups were fabricated and cemented to the bonded dentine surfaces with a resin luting cement. The specimens were then sectioned to obtain 0.9mm(2) beams for microtensile bond strength testing. Fractographic analysis was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. ANOVA showed lower mean microtensile bond strength in groups of specimens treated with EC temporary cement than in groups treated with either no cement or an EF cement (p<0.05). Mean microtensile bond strength was lower in groups employing the SE rather than the TE adhesive system (p<0.001). SE samples were also more likely to fail during initial processing of the samples. There was no evidence of interaction between cement and adhesive system effects on tensile strength. Fractographic analysis indicated different primary failure modes for SE and TE bonding systems, at the dentine-adhesive interface and at the resin cement-resin composite interface, respectively. The use of eugenol-containing temporary cements prior to indirect bonding restorations reduce, to a statistically similar

  10. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, N S; Bryan, R A E; Duggal, M S

    2008-12-01

    Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a qualitative defect of 1-4 first permanent molars with or without the maxillary and mandibular permanent incisors. It seems to have been recognised first in the 1970s and prevalence varies between 2.8% and 25%, dependent upon the study. The dental literature was searched using a number of key terms entered into MEDLINE, the reference list of each paper as located was examined for further papers that had been missed in the initial search. The review of the literature showed that teeth that are affected indicate a systemic cause at around the time of birth; investigators have put forward a number of possible causes; asthma, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, antibiotics, dioxins in mother's milk, tonsillitis and tonsillectomy and exanthamatous fevers of childhood. However, at the present time the aetiology remains unclear. Treatment of the affected permanent first molars can include restorations using adhesive intra-coronal restorations to extra-coronal restorations (e.g. preformed metal crowns). There is little evidence to support one option over another. In severe cases extraction at the optimum time may be the best option; allowing the permanent second molars to come forwards. There is little improvement in affected anterior teeth with microabrasion and direct or indirect composite resin restorations may be appropriate in some children. Ultrastructural and biochemical make up of MIH affected teeth seem to have been investigated less than other areas. It is important that children with MIH are diagnosed as early as possible and managed appropriately; this will involve multidisciplinary input.

  11. Ceramic onlay for endodontically treated mandibular molar

    OpenAIRE

    Roopadevi Garlapati; Bhuvan Shome Venigalla; Shekhar Kamishetty; Jayaprakash Thumu

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is important for the success of endodontic treatment. In full coverage restorations, maximum amount of tooth structure is compromised, so as to conserve the amount of tooth structure partial coverage restorations, can be preferred. This case report is on fabrication of a conservative tooth colored restoration for an endodontically treated posterior tooth. A 22-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular left first molar. After endodo...

  12. Nobody's perfect: can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Jansen, Steven; Klepsch, Matthias; Hacke, Uwe G

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology.

  13. Nobody’s perfect: can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Jansen, Steven; Klepsch, Matthias; Hacke, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology. PMID:24273549

  14. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  15. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction and its association to caries in mandibular second molar: A clinical variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Prajapati

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: According to this study, pattern of mandibular third molar impaction is in association to caries in mandibular second molar. More future studies are needed. In addition, the results of the present study can be used to screen and inform the patients about the possibility of caries in relation to third molar mandibular impaction.

  16. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  17. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  18. 30 CFR 47.44 - Temporary, portable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary, portable containers. 47.44 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.44 Temporary, portable containers. (a) The operator does not have to label a temporary, portable container if he or she...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  20. Characterization of transport mechanisms and determinants critical for Na+-dependent Pi symport of the PiT family paralogs human PiT1 and PiT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Hede, Susanne E; Grunnet, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The general phosphate need in mammalian cells is accommodated by members of the P(i) transport (PiT) family (SLC20), which use either Na(+) or H(+) to mediate inorganic phosphate (P(i)) symport. The mammalian PiT paralogs PiT1 and PiT2 are Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters...... and are exploited by a group of retroviruses for cell entry. Human PiT1 and PiT2 were characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes with (32)P(i) as a traceable P(i) source. For PiT1, the Michaelis-Menten constant for P(i) was determined as 322.5 +/- 124.5 microM. PiT2 was analyzed for the first time...... and showed positive cooperativity in P(i) uptake with a half-maximal activity constant for P(i) of 163.5 +/- 39.8 microM. PiT1- and PiT2-mediated Na(+)-dependent P(i) uptake functions were not significantly affected by acidic and alkaline pH and displayed similar Na(+) dependency patterns. However, only PiT2...

  1. Molar tubal ectopic pregnancy: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Chaouki; Jerbi, Emna; Hsayaoui, Najeh; Zouari, Fatma; Ben Brahim, Ehsen; Oueslati, Hedhili

    2015-06-01

    Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare occurrence and consequently not often considered as a diagnostic possibility. We report two cases of molar hydatidiform tubal pregnancy. Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was confirmed on clinical biological and sonographic investigations. Diagnosis of molar pregnancy was done on histopathology. The clinical course was favorable for both patients. Although rare, molar changes can occur at any site of an ectopic pregnancy. Clinical diagnosis of a molar pregnancy is difficult but histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Luisa de Brito, Pacheco; Isabel Cristina, Olegário; Clarissa Calil, Bonifácio; Ana Flávia Bissoto, Calvo; José Carlos Pettorossi, Imparato; Daniela Prócida, Raggio

    2017-11-06

    Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE) and Vitro Molar (DFL). A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%). There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98-2.62, p = 0.058). The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%). Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  3. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACHECO Anna Luisa de Brito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE and Vitro Molar (DFL. A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%. There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98–2.62, p = 0.058. The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%. Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  4. Radiologic study of mandibular third molar of Korean youths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-11-15

    The author has made a study on the classification of the mandibular 3rd molars of Korean youths through dental radiography by means of Pell and Gregory's classification and on the prevalence of the dental caries of distal surface of the mandibular 2nd molar adjacent to the mandibular 3rd molars turned anteriorly. The results are as follow; 1. It was found that the largest case number was class I (272 cases, 52.9%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar. 2. The mesio-angular position was the largest number (239 cases, 46.5%) in the relation of the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd molar to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 3. The mesio-angular position of class I was the largest number (140 cases, 27.2%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar and the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd moral to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 4. The average angle of the long axis of mandibular 3rd molar in mesioangular position or horizontal position to the occlusal plane was 143 W 5. Mandibular 3rd molar with lesion such as dental cries or pericoronitis was 73 cases (14.2). 6. The caries incidence rate of the distal surface of the 2nd molar was about 3.1%.

  5. UNILATERAL DISTALIZATION OF MAXILLARY MOLAR BY PENDULUM APPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safra Mauna

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Pendulum appliance is one of intraoral appliances to distalize molars for correction of class II molar relationship or space gaining in the maxillary arch. Its major advantages are: no need to depend on patient compliance; ease of fabrication; and better patient acceptance. In this case, 22 years old female patient with class II division 2 malocclusion was treated with pendulum appliance for unilateral distalization of the maxillary molar teeth. Pendulum can distalize second molar until 4 mm in 4 months and continues to distalize first molar in 3 months. Nevertheless, relapse 2 mm happens during anterior retraction. This case has shown that pendulum is an effective and reliable appliance for distalizing maxillary molars. However, molar distalization is at the expense of moderate anchorage loss during anterior retraction, which could possibly be reduced if the anchor unit is adequately reinforced.

  6. Bilateral lower second molar impaction in teenagers: An emergent problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinohara Elio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of simultaneously impacted second and third molars in teenagers is increasing and becoming a common occurrence in adolescent oral surgery practice. The traditional treatment is the removal of the third molar by conventional access but repositioning of the surgical flap to the distal face of the first molar can predispose to complications such as pericoronitis and delayed healing of the attached gingiva. We present a case in which we use the germectomy approach to remove the impacted third molar for the eruption of the second molar through a vestibular incision. This incision offers excellent bone exposure and exit route for the third molar without disturbing the gingiva attached architecture on the distal face of the first molar providing good healing environment.

  7. Bilateral lower second molar impaction in teenagers: an emergent problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Elio H; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo; Pedron, Irineu Gregnanin; Imparato, Jose Carlos Petorossi

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of simultaneously impacted second and third molars in teenagers is increasing and becoming a common occurrence in adolescent oral surgery practice. The traditional treatment is the removal of the third molar by conventional access but repositioning of the surgical flap to the distal face of the first molar can predispose to complications such as pericoronitis and delayed healing of the attached gingiva. We present a case in which we use the germectomy approach to remove the impacted third molar for the eruption of the second molar through a vestibular incision. This incision offers excellent bone exposure and exit route for the third molar without disturbing the gingiva attached architecture on the distal face of the first molar providing good healing environment.

  8. Stochastic nature of clathrin-coated pit assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2013-03-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a complex process through which eukaryotic cells internalize various macromolecules (cargo). The process occurs via the formation of invaginations on the cell membrane, called clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). The dynamics of CCP formation shows remarkable variability. After initiation, a fraction of CCPs, called ``productive pits'', bind to cargo and then grow and mature into clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). In contrast, a large fraction of CCPs, called ``abortive pits'', fail to bind to cargo, grow only up to intermediate sizes and then disassemble. There is notable heterogeneity in the lifetimes of both productive and abortive pits. We propose a stochastic model of CCP dynamics to explain these experimental observations. Our model includes a kinetic scheme for CCP assembly and a related functional form for the dependence of free energy of a CCP on its size. Using this model, we calculate the lifetime distribution of abortive pits (via Monte Carlo simulation) and show that the distribution fits experimental data very well. By fitting the data we determine the free energy of CCP formation and show that CCPs without cargo are energetically unstable. We also suggest a mechanism by which cargo binding stabilizes CCPs and facilitates their growth.

  9. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  10. 77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...: 14X1125] Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood... harvesting and/or tree cutting on public land within the Topaz Ranch Estates (TRE) and Preacher fires burn... and a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood collecting on areas burned by the TRE and Preacher...

  11. Initiation and propagation of a single pit on stainless steel using a local probe technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurtault, Stéphane; Robin, Raphaël; Rouillard, Fabien; Vivier, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Experiments about single pit initiation and propagation were performed on 316L stainless steel with the aim to determine the pitting corrosion behaviour for nuclear waste containers. The experimental setup permits to control the pit development at will and to create reproducible single pits in three dimensions. Radial and deep evolutions of a disc shaped pit were studied for propagation times of up to 10 hours. These evolutions were used to determine what limiting mechanism takes place during long-term pit propagation. Special attention has been paid to the chloride ion action on pitting. A minimum chloride concentration was found to be necessary in the bulk electrolyte to support pit propagation. The existence of a critical pit depth of 230 μm was also underlined.

  12. [Direct and indirect restorations of primary molars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakass, I A; Lakass, O S

    2013-01-01

    In the development of dental and facial system primary teeth undergo a series of topographic and morphological changes. Regular alignment of upper and lower dental arches temporary occlusion depends mostly on genetic factors although type of feeding may also play a significant role. According to the results of the study, conducted in 150 children aged 3 to 8 years we can conclude that the purpose of the modern restoration of deciduous teeth is to restore the aesthetic and functional architectonics of the crown, taking into account its value in the occlusion and articulation, as well as indirect influence of restoration on the growth and development of dental system.

  13. Diversity of Lactobacillus species in deep carious lesions of primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, S; Schmidt, F; Callaway, A; Willershausen, B; Rupf, S; Wicht, M; Thiede, B

    2010-08-01

    This was to determine the prevalence of Lactobacilli (LB) species in different stages of caries progression and are considered as secondary invaders of existing carious lesions and specialists for caries progression. Carious dentine samples were collected from 70 primary molars (M) during step-wise (S1, S2: n = 35 M) or one-step (O1: n = 35 M) caries treatment and after 11 months of temporary restorations (S3, O2). LB were identified by selected physiological and biochemical characteristics, ratio of lactic acid isomers, electrophoretic mobilities of lactic acid dehydrogenases, and shotgun mass mapping by MALDI mass spectrometry. LB were isolated from 46% of soft dentine samples (S1). The prevalence of LB from hard dentine collected during caries excavation (O1) reached 34%, after 8 weeks of temporary filling (S2) 11%, and 9% each after 11 months of temporary restoration (S3, O2). The mean total bacterial counts (cfu) of soft dentine (S1) were 3.6 x 10⁵. From hard dentine during caries excavation (O1) 4.4x10⁴ cfu were calculated, at S2 3.7 x 10³ cfu, at S3 0.1 x 10³ cfu, and at O2 1.8 x 10³ cfu. The percentages of LB in the cfu for LB positive dentine samples were for S1 / S2 / S3 / O1 / O2: 60% (16 M)/34% (4 M)/54% (3 M)/57% (9 M), and 64% (3 M). Five LB species were identified from carious dentine: L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. paracasei subsp. tolerans, L. rhamnosus, L. gasseri, and L. alimentarius. While L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei occurred in all caries progression stages, the other species were found only sporadically. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and L. rhamnosus might be the specialists of the LB in carious progression.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLAR SURGERY TO PRESERVE PERIODONTAL HEALTH OF SECOND MOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of impacted third molar violates surrounding soft and bony tissues. Various surgical approaches and surgical technics have an important impact on the periodontal health of the adjacent second molar. Purpose: The aim of this review is to analyse the causes that can affect postoperative periodontal outcomes for the mandibular second molars (LM2 adjacent to the impacted/ semi impacted mandibular third molars (LM3. Material and Methods: Electronic searches were conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed, Scopus, etc. databases to screen all relevant articles published from inception to April 2017. Results: Different flap techniques had no significant impact on the probing depth reduction or on the clinical attachment level of LM2. Szmyd and paramarginal flap designs may be the most effective in reducing the probing depth after third molar surgery, and the envelope flap may be the least effective. Use of bone substitutes and guided tissue regeneration therapy has been proposed, to eliminate or prevent these periodontal defects, but there is still no consensus on their predictability or clinical benefit. Higher costs and the risk of postoperative inflammatory complications should also be taken into proper account, as with any surgical procedure. “Orthodontic extraction” is indicated for that impacted M3 that present a high risk of postoperative periodontal defects at the distal aspect of adjacent M2. Conclusion: Risk factors associated with bone loss following lower third molar extraction includes age, the direction of the eruption, preoperative bone defects, and resorbtion of the LM2 root surface. Prevention of such periodontal defects continues to challenge clinicians.

  15. The effect of Diazepam in pain reduction following mandibular impacted third molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshvar M.E

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain control is of high importance in dentistry. Prescribing sedatives such a"nDiazepam, as an anti-depressant and pain threshold elevator drug is able to influence the patient's reaction to"npain and reduce it."nPurpose: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of Diazepam in pain reduction following"nmandibular impacted third molar surgery."nMaterials and Methods: In this study, which was conducted in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial"nsurgery Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical sciences. The patients were divided into two equal"ngroups (n=30. For controls, antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed after surgery. However, except the"naforementioned drugs, Diazepam (5mg, three times per day, was prescribed for the experimental group. The"namount of mouth opening was also measured as an auxiliary sign after one week. The data were compared by"nX2 test after one week."nResults: 60% of the experimental group and 13.8% of the control group felt a weak pain. Statistically"nsignificant differences were observed regarding pain feeling between two groups (P<0.001. Severe pain"nfeeling was 34.5% and 10%, for control and experimental groups, respectively."nConclusion: It is suggested that Diazepam is an effective pain reduction drug following third molar surgery."nThis drug has also a relative effect on temporary trismus resulting probably from muscle trauma or pain.

  16. Sealing distal proximal caries lesions in first primary molars: efficacy after 2.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, S; Tellez, M; Santamaría, R M; Gomez, J; Ekstrand, K R

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of proximal caries in primary molar teeth is high in many countries. (1) To study by means of a split-mouth design the 1- and 2.5-year efficacy of sealing proximal lesions vs. flossing instructions (control) on primary molar teeth. (2) To assess children's behaviour and pain perception during the procedure. Ninety-one 4- to 6-year-old children from Bogotá, Colombia participated. Participants had to have at least two proximal lesions scored according to the following radiographic classification system: radiolucency (1) in enamel outer half, (2) restricted to enamel-dentine junction, or (3) restricted to dentine outer third. Baseline, 1- and 2.5-year follow-up bitewing radiographs were taken. Test and control lesions were randomly selected. After temporary separation test lesions were sealed (adhesive). Parents/caregivers received a flossing leaflet for their children. Progression of the lesions was assessed by means of independent reading of conventional bitewing radiographs. One-year (n = 73) test vs. control lesion progression was 27.4 vs. 50.7%, respectively (p caries baseline data. More than 88% of the participants presented positive to definitively positive behaviour and very low or low pain intensity at both first and second appointments. The sealing technique was superior to flossing instructions both after 1 and 2.5 years of follow-up and the majority of the participants had no anxiety or pain during the treatment. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Pit Distribution Design for Computer-Generated Waveguide Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shogo; Imai, Tadayuki; Ueno, Masahiro; Ohtani, Yoshimitsu; Endo, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Fukuda, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    Multilayered waveguide holography (MWH) is one of a number of page-oriented data multiplexing holographies that will be applied to optical data storage and three-dimensional (3D) moving images. While conventional volumetric holography using photopolymer or photorefractive materials requires page-by-page light exposure for recording, MWH media can be made by employing stamping and laminating technologies that are suitable for mass production. This makes devising an economical mastering technique for replicating holograms a key issue. In this paper, we discuss an approach to pit distribution design that enables us to replace expensive electron beam mastering with economical laser beam mastering. We propose an algorithm that avoids the overlapping of even comparatively large adjacent pits when we employ laser beam mastering. We also compensate for the angular dependence of the diffraction power, which strongly depends on pit shape, by introducing an enhancement profile so that a diffracted image has uniform intensity.

  18. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninglian Wang

    Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  19. Optimal grade control sampling practice in open-pit mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    Misclassification of ore grades results in lost revenues, and the need for representative sampling procedures in open pit mining is increasingly important in all mining industries. This study evaluated possible improvements in sampling representativity with the use of Reverse Circulation (RC) drill...... sampling compared to manual Blast Hole (BH) sampling in the Leveäniemi open pit mine, northern Sweden. The variographic experiment results showed that sampling variability was lower for RC than for BH sampling. However, the total costs for RC drill sampling are significantly exceeding current costs...... for manual BH sampling, which needs to be compensated for by other benefits to motivate introduction of RC drilling. The main conclusion is that manual BH sampling can be fit-for-purpose in the studied open pit mine. However, with so many mineral commodities and mining methods in use globally...

  20. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging......The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  1. Congenital upper lip pit: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the rarest developmental malformations of the lip is congenital lip pits. They are usually seen as bilateral depressions in the vermilion zone of the lip and occur on the paramedian portion of the vermilion border of the lip. They are extremely rare in the upper lip. Lip pits are due to the failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of the lip/notching of lip at an early stage of development with fixation of tissues of the base of the notch. Lip pits have also been associated with a variety of other congenital disorders and other malformations. The clinical and pathologic picture and the therapeutic aspects of this condition are discussed in this paper.

  2. Detection of Pitting in Gears Using a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; a new method for gear pitting fault detection is presented. The presented method is developed based on a deep sparse autoencoder. The method integrates dictionary learning in sparse coding into a stacked autoencoder network. Sparse coding with dictionary learning is viewed as an adaptive feature extraction method for machinery fault diagnosis. An autoencoder is an unsupervised machine learning technique. A stacked autoencoder network with multiple hidden layers is considered to be a deep learning network. The presented method uses a stacked autoencoder network to perform the dictionary learning in sparse coding and extract features from raw vibration data automatically. These features are then used to perform gear pitting fault detection. The presented method is validated with vibration data collected from gear tests with pitting faults in a gearbox test rig and compared with an existing deep learning-based approach.

  3. Clinical study of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in primary molars. Comparison between Grey and White MTA--a long term follow-up (84 months).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Silva, Cristina; Barbería, Elena; Maroto, Myriam; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a clinical and radiographic long-term evaluation of pulpotomy in temporary molars performed with Grey and White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and compare the results of Grey and White MTA pulpotomies in a sample of 233 primary molars with a maximum follow-up period of 84 months. The sample was selected from patients treated at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. This prospective study included first and second primary molars treated with pulpotomy with Grey or White MTA, controlled for a maximum follow-up period of 84 months. Statistical analysis of clinical and radiographic findings was completed using ANOVA (PMTA presented abscess and pathological mobility. Radiographic examination of the 210 molars revealed unfavourable pulp response in only 6 molars (internal or furcation root resorption), without statistically significant differences between Grey and White MTA. Two radiological findings were noticed: dentine bridge formation and partial or total root canal stenosis. Grey MTA induced a higher percentage of dentine bridges with statistically significant differences (PMTA presented high levels of clinical and radiographic success. Although the present study showed evidence of a very good biologic response with both types of MTA, Grey MTA showed significantly higher number of dentine bridge formation than White MTA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molar Pregnancy Presents as Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Davari Tanha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidiform moles are abnormal gestations characterized by the presence of hydropic changesaffecting some or all of the placental villi. Hydatidiform moles arise as a result of the fertilizationof an abnormal ovum. In this report, the patient was a 29 year old Asian woman who had inductionof ovulation with letrozol. Since the majority of molar gestations arise within the uterine cavitythus the occurrence of a hydatidiform mole within ectopic gestational tissue is rare. It is importantto differentiate a hydatidiform mole from a conventional ectopic pregnancy, particularly in infertilewomen who have a history of ovulation induction.

  5. Restorative management of severely ankylosed primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Pontes, Alessandra Silva; Brito, Maria Hellen Sâmia Fortes; de Deus Moura, Lucia; de Deus Moura de Lima, Marina; de Melo Simplício, Alexandre Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Severe dentoalveolar ankylosis is an etiological factor for malocclusion. When infraocclusion occurs early, it progresses with time, leading to severe consequences in young children because of compensatory supra-eruption of the antagonist tooth and mesialization of adjacent teeth. Early diagnosis allows for interception of the problem and may prevent orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this manuscript is to report two cases of infraocclusion of primary mandibular second molars that were diagnosed early and were treated with composite resin crowns. The use of indirect composite restorations for ankylosed teeth is a good option for primary teeth with a moderate/ severe degree of ankylosis.

  6. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara; Muga, Luis M.

    2006-12-31

    Previous work relevant to current efforts is summarized. A description of an improved version of a new electrochemical probe, the ArtPit, is given. The distinct feature of the probe for investigating metastable pitting of carbon steels is specified and compared to other approaches. The electrochemical response of the ArtPit under the gamma irradiation and elevated temperature conditions that occur at high level waste (HLW) storage tanks is presented. In particular, the Tafel slope determinations and chemical analyses of the ArtPit confined volume electrolyte are described. Based on results a possible approach for reducing the corrosion rate of HLW tank walls is suggested. Additional statistical analysis of the occurrence of short duration (passivated pits) and long term (stable pitting) electrochemical pulses (current surges) during exposure confirm that radiation enhances the occurrence of both more and smaller sized pits due to increased likelihood of repassivation.

  7. The effects of opaque and clear pit and fissure sealants on infrared laser fluorescence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololoomi, Z; Khodabakhsh, M; Khaksar, Y

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of placing sealants is to inhibit caries by physical closure of the pits and fissures of teeth. A device named DIAGNOdent is useful in detecting occlusal caries by employing laser fluorescence (LF). However, there are contradictory results in the influence of sealants on LF measurements. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two different types of fissure sealants on LF measurements. In this in vitro study, 86 extracted permanent third molars were divided randomly into two groups and clear or opaque sealant was applied on the occlusal surfaces. Two examiners performed pre- and post-seal fluorescence measurements twice with one week interval by employing DIAGNOdent device. Finally, measured values were evaluated through the statistical paired t-test by means of SPSS 17 software. The mean value of LF measurements increased significantly due to the application of clear sealant (p= 0.001) while the statistical changes in this measurement was negligible after applying opaque sealant (p= 0.311). Clear sealants increase the LF measured values but opaque sealants cause almost no changes. Therefore, DIAGNOdent device is not reliable for detecting caries beneath the clear sealant.

  8. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-11-03

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104.

  9. Sudden onset of pitting corrosion on stainless steel as a critical phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punckt, C; Bölscher, M; Rotermund, H H; Mikhailov, A S; Organ, L; Budiansky, N; Scully, J R; Hudson, J L

    2004-08-20

    Stainless steels undergo a sharp rise in pitting corrosion rate as the potential, solution concentration, or temperature is changed only slightly. We report experiments using real-time microscopic in situ visualizations that resolve the nucleation and evolution of individual pits during the transition. They suggest that the sudden onset of corrosion is explained by an explosive autocatalytic growth in the number of metastable pits and that stabilization of individual pits takes place only later. This finding agrees with a theoretical approach treating the onset of pitting corrosion as a cooperative critical phenomenon resulting from interactions among metastable pits, and it extends perspectives on the control and prevention of corrosion onset.

  10. Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Melissa A; McAllister, John T; Cooper, Robert F; Dubis, Adam M; Patitucci, Teresa N; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L; Stepien, Kimberly E; Costakos, Deborah M; Connor, Thomas B; Wirostko, William J; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A; Brilliant, Murray H; Summers, C Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-05-20

    Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Upper Extremity Injuries in NASCAR Drivers and Pit Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Gary; Gaston, R. Glenn; Heisel, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the position-specific musculoskeletal forces placed on the body of athletes facilitates treatment, prevention, and return-to-play decisions. While position-specific injuries are well documented in most major sports, little is known about the epidemiology of position-specific injuries in National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) drivers and pit crew. Purpose: To investigate position-specific upper extremity injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to assess position-specific injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Included in the study were patients seen by a single institution between July 2003 and October 2014 with upper extremity injuries from race-related NASCAR events or practices. Charts were reviewed to identify the diagnosis, mechanism of injury, and position of each patient. Results: A total of 226 NASCAR team members were treated between July 2003 and October 2014. Of these, 118 injuries (52%) occurred during NASCAR racing events or practices. The majority of these injuries occurred in NASCAR changers (42%), followed by injuries in drivers (16%), carriers (14%), jack men (11%), fuel men (9%), and utility men (8%). The majority of the pit crew positions are at risk for epicondylitis, while drivers are most likely to experience neuropathies, such as hand-arm vibration syndrome. The changer sustains the most hand-related injuries (42%) on the pit crew team, while carriers commonly sustain injuries to their digits (29%). Conclusion: Orthopaedic injuries in NASCAR vary between positions. Injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members are a consequence of the distinctive forces associated with each position throughout the course of the racing season. Understanding these forces and position-associated injuries is important for preventive measures and facilitates diagnosis and return-to-play decisions

  12. Fracture resistance of various temporary crown materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Asude; Baydaş, Seyfettin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of various provisional crown materials using an in vitro model test system. In the present study polycarbonate crowns, prefabricated by the manufacturer (3M Polycarbonate Crown), and the temporary crowns, fabricated in the dental laboratory environment, were fabricated using bis-acryl composite (Protemp II), autopolymerizing PMMA resin (BISICO Temp S), and heat-polymerized PMMA resin (Major C&B-V Dentine). All temporary crowns were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at room temperature prior to testing. The crowns were seated on metal dies, fabricated from Cr-Co alloy (AZ Dental, Konstanz, Germany), and then tested using the indenter of a Hounsfield testing machine (Hounsfield Tensometer, Hounsfield Test Equipment, Raydon, England). The tip of the indenter was located at a position one-third of the way down the inciso-palatine surface at 135 masculine. The data were statistically analyzed for differences using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test (P polycarbonate crowns were significantly different from the BISICO Temp S, Protemp II, and Major C&B-V Dentine (P polycarbonate crowns may be preferable to the other types of temporary crowns used in this study.

  13. Root growth during molar eruption in extant great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay; Dean, Christopher; Ross, Sasha

    2009-01-01

    While there is gradually accumulating knowledge about molar crown formation and the timing of molar eruption in extant great apes, very little is known about root formation during the eruption process. We measured mandibular first and second molar root lengths in extant great ape osteological specimens that died while either the first or second molars were in the process of erupting. For most specimens, teeth were removed so that root lengths could be measured directly. When this was not possible, roots were measured radiographically. We were particularly interested in the variation in the lengths of first molar roots near the point of gingival emergence, so specimens were divided into early, middle and late phases of eruption based on the number of cusps that showed protein staining, with one or two cusps stained equated with immediate post-gingival emergence. For first molars at this stage, Gorilla has the longest roots, followed by Pongo and Pan. Variation in first molar mesial root lengths at this stage in Gorilla and Pan, which comprise the largest samples, is relatively low and represents no more than a few months of growth in both taxa. Knowledge of root length at first molar emergence permits an assessment of the contribution of root growth toward differences between great apes and humans in the age at first molar emergence. Root growth makes up a greater percentage of the time between birth and first molar emergence in humans than it does in any of the great apes. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Taking advantage of an unerupted third molar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Igor Figueiredo; Santiago, Fernando Zander Mucci; Sette-Dias, Augusto Cesar; Noronha, Vladimir Reimar Augusto de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Treatments with dental surgery seek to displace tooth to the correct position within the dental arch. To report a clinical case that took advantage of an unerupted third molar. A male patient, 18 years of age, was referred by his dentist to evaluate the third molars. The clinical exam revealed no visible lower third molars. The computed tomography (CT) exam showed the presence of a supernumerary tooth in the region of the mandibular ramus, on the left side, and impaction of the third molar, which was causing root resorption on the second molar, thus making it impossible to remain in the buccal cavity. The preferred option, therefore, was to remove both second molar and the supernumerary tooth, in addition to attaching a device to the third molar during surgery for further traction. After 12 months, the third molar reached the proper position. When a mandibular second permanent molar shows an atypical root resorption, an impacted third molar can effectively substitute the tooth by using an appropriate orthodontic-surgical approach.

  15. Ablation layers to prevent pitting in laser peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A

    2016-08-09

    A hybrid ablation layer that comprises a separate under layer is applied to a material to prevent pitting resulting from laser peening. The underlayer adheres to the surface of the workpiece to be peened and does not have bubbles and voids that exceed an acceptable size. One or more overlayers are placed over and in contact with the underlayer. Any bubbles formed under the over layers are insulated from the surface to be peened. The process significantly reduces the incidence of pits on peened surfaces.

  16. Development of an automated pit packaging system for Pantex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrenholtz, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a system that uses robots to package pits at Pantex in the AT-400A pit storage and transportation container. This report will give an overview of the AT-400A packaging process, and the parts of the overall AT-400A packaging operation that will be performed robotically. The process employed to move from development in the laboratory at Sandia to production use at Pantex will be described. Finally, important technology components being developed for and incorporated into the robotic system will be described. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Paramedian bilateral lip pits with sinuses (Van der Woude syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirupambaram Natarajasundaram Uma Maheswari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes the basic units of heredity, contain blue prints for human growth and development. A change or alteration in a single gene on chromosome number causes one Van der Woude syndrome (VWS. Features of VWS include lip pits on the lower lip, cleft palate alone or with cleft lip in some cases, missing teeth, syngnathia and ankyloglossia. The features of VWS are discussed along with two clinical case presentations. Bilateral lip pits with sinuses, surgically corrected cleft lip, cleft palate and few missing teeth were appreciated in both the cases.

  18. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Mohammed Allazzam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n=267  from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM, erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children’s medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB, atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P=0.01. The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P=0.001, adenoiditis (P=0.001, asthma (P=0.001, fever (P=0.014, and antibiotics intake (P=0.001. Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake.

  19. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical and radiog......The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical...... longevity of sealings and restorations until retreatments, and 3) compare effectiveness of sealings and restorations to halt caries progression in sealed lesions and beneath restorations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing longevity and the effectiveness of sealings and restorations.......001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  20. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Shahin; Heravi, Farzin; Radvar, Mehrdad; Anbiaee, Najmeh; Madani, Azam Sadat

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of skeletal anchorage system, recently it is possible to successfully intrude molar teeth. On the other hand, there have been concerns about periodontal changes associated with intrusion and there are few studies on this topic, especially for posterior teeth. Ten female patients were enrolled in this study. Maxillary molar intrusion was achieved by inserting two miniscrews and a 17 × 25 titanium molybdenum alloy spring. Crestal height changes were evaluated at three intervals including: Baseline (T0), end of active treatment (T1) and 6 months after retention (T2). Other variables including probing depth, gingival recession, attachment level and bleeding on probing were evaluated by clinical measurements in the three above mentioned intervals. One-sample Kolmogrov-Smirnov test ascertained the normality of the data. For all patients, the changes in tooth position and crestal height were evaluated using one-sample t-test. (P intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height.

  1. Pitting Corrosion Topography Characteristics and Evolution Laws of LC4 Aluminum Alloy in Service Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiguo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft aluminum alloy is easy to initiate pitting corrosion in the service environment, the pitting corrosion topography characteristics could directly affect the fatigue mechanical property of structure material. In order to obtain the pitting corrosion topography characteristics of LC4 aluminum alloy in the service environment, the accelerated corrosion test was carried out along the accelerated corrosion test environment spectrum which imitated the service environment spectrum, and the corrosion topography characteristic parameters of corrosion pit depth H,corrosion pit surface length L and corrosion pit surface width W were defined respectively. During the corrosion test process,the three parameters of typical corrosion pit were successively measured in different equivalent corrosion years for obtaining the corrosion pit damage size data, then the data were analysed through the statistics method and fractal theory. Further more in order to gain the pit topography characteristics in the same equivalent corrosion year and the topography evolution laws during different equivalent corrosion years were gained. The analysis results indicate that LC4 aluminum alloy corrosion pit topography characteristics in the service environment include the following:firstly, the pit topography characteristic parameters conform to the lognormal distributions in the same equivalent corrosion years; secondly,the pit topography characteristic parameters gradually reflect the fractal feature in accordance with the equivalent corrosion year increment, and the pits tend to be shallow, long and moderate wide topography character.

  2. Extrações de molares na Ortodontia Molar extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Schroeder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento ortodôntico com extração de molares em pacientes adultos é tecnicamente mais complexo, devido a inúmeros fatores. Em geral, o espaço a ser fechado é maior do que o espaço dos pré-molares e, por isso, a ancoragem é crítica e o tempo de tratamento mais longo. É comum esses casos apresentarem algum grau de comprometimento periodontal por causa da idade dos pacientes e, portanto, necessitam de maior controle da mecânica ortodôntica para reduzir os efeitos colaterais do fechamento do espaço. Por isso, bons resultados de finalização são mais difíceis de ser alcançados. Sendo assim, este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar as razões para a indicação de extração de molares nos tratamentos ortodônticos, as contraindicações, as diferentes fases da mecânica ortodôntica, esclarecer os fatores envolvidos nesse tipo de planejamento e tratamento e apresentar casos clínicos tratados com extração de molares.Orthodontic treatment with extraction of molars in adult patients is technically more complex due to a number of factors. In general, the space to be closed is greater than premolar spaces rendering critical anchorage and longer treatment time. Often such cases exhibit some degree of periodontal involvement due to patient age. Hence, the need for greater control over orthodontic mechanics to reduce the side effects of space closure. Therefore, good finishing results can be more difficult to achieve. Thus, the purpose of this article is to determine the reasons for molar extraction indications, describe different stages of orthodontic mechanics, and explain the issues involved in this kind of planning and treatment. Additionally, it aims at describing some treatments with molar extractions.

  3. A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Marsh-Tootle, Wendy; Harb, Elise N; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Qinghua; Anderson, Heather A; Norton, Thomas T; Weise, Katherine K; Gwiazda, Jane E; Hyman, Leslie

    2016-11-01

    High-quality optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular scans make it possible to distinguish a range of normal and diseased states by characterising foveal pit shape. Existing mathematical models lack the flexibility to capture all known pit variations and thus characterise the pit with limited accuracy. This study aimed to develop a new model that provides a more robust characterisation of individual foveal pit variations. A Sloped Piecemeal Gaussian (SPG) model, consisting of a linear combination of a tilted line and a piecemeal Gaussian function (two halves of a Gaussian connected by a separate straight line), was developed to fit retinal thickness data with the flexibility to characterise different degrees of pit asymmetry and pit bottom flatness. It fitted the raw pit data between the two rims of the fovea to improve accuracy. The model was tested on 3488 macular scans from both eyes of 581 young adults (376 myopes and 206 non-myopes, mean (S.D.) age 21.9 (1.4) years). Estimates for retinal thickness, wall height and slope, pit depth and width were derived from the best-fitting model curve. Ten variations of Gaussian and Difference of Gaussian models were fitted to the same scans and compared with the SPG model for goodness of fit (by Root mean square error, RMSE), model complexity (by the Bayesian Information Criteria) and model fidelity. The SPG model produced excellent goodness of fit (mean RMSE = 4.25 and 3.89 μm; 95% CI: 4.20, 4.30 and 3.86, 3.93 for fitting horizontal and vertical profiles respectively). The SPG model showed pit asymmetry, with average nasal walls 17.6 (11.6) μm higher and 0.96 (0.61)(°) steeper than temporal walls and average superior walls 7.0 (12.2) μm higher and 0.41 (0.65)(°) steeper than the inferior walls. The SPG model also revealed a continuum of human foveal shapes, from round bottoms to extended flat bottoms (up to 563 μm). 49.1% of foveal profiles were best fitted with a flat bottom >30 μm wide. Compared with

  4. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction and its association to caries in mandibular second molar: A clinical variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, V K; Mitra, Ruchi; Vinayak, K M

    2017-01-01

    Caries in second molar is common and prophylactic removal of the impacted teeth may be considered appropriate. Caries detection and restoration can be difficult and a restored second molar can undergo recurrent caries if the third molar is not removed prophylactically. In this study, the clinical findings related to impaction and its association with angular position and depth of impacted third molar were evaluated. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out among the patients visiting the outpatient, department of Dentistry, RIMS, Ranchi. The clinical examination, periapical radiographs and Pre-op OPG were taken. Teeth positions were analyzed by Pell and Gregory and Winter classification. The angulation and depth of mandibular third molar impaction and caries in the second molar with the eruption status of the mandibular third molar was determined. A total of 200 patients were included in the study between age group 17-45 years. Majority of the Patients reported to the hospital with complaints of decayed tooth (66%) and pain (59%). The most common third molar impaction was mesioangular followed by distoangular. A statistically highly significant difference (P = 0.001) was obtained with the presence of caries in second molar adjacent to mesioangular third molar in class I and level B. According to this study, pattern of mandibular third molar impaction is in association to caries in mandibular second molar. More future studies are needed. In addition, the results of the present study can be used to screen and inform the patients about the possibility of caries in relation to third molar mandibular impaction.

  5. Survival of sealants in molars affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization: 18-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Bussaneli, Diego Girotto; Jeremias, Fabiano; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Dos; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola

    2017-04-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical survival of sealants applied in first permanent molars (FPMs) affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), at 18 months of follow-up. Forty-one first permanent molars were selected from 21 children, 6-8 years of age. MIH was classified by one calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.80) according to EAPD criteria. The inclusion criteria were fully erupted FPMs with MIH or sound FPMs (without MIH) for which sealant treatment was indicated. The FPMs were assigned to two groups: CG (control group) and HG (MIH group). Both groups were treated with sealant (FluroShield). Clinical follow-up was performed from baseline to 18 months to assess anatomical form, marginal adaptation, retention and presence of caries, according to criteria set by the United States Public Health Service-Modified, and was conducted by a blinded examiner (kappa = 0.80). The actuarial method was used to evaluate the survival of the sealants. The survival rates for the groups were compared using Fisher's exact test (α = 5%). The cumulative survival rates were 81% at 1 month, 68.8% at 6 months, 68.8% at 12 months, and 62.6% at 18 months for CG, and 88% at 1 month, 84% at 6 months, 76% at 12 months, and 72% at 18 months for HG. No significant difference was found between the groups. The sealants in molars affected by MIH presented a survival rate similar to the sealants in the control, suggesting that sealants may be an adequate approach for preventing carious lesions in MIH-affected molars.

  6. Survival of sealants in molars affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization: 18-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Bullio FRAGELLI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical survival of sealants applied in first permanent molars (FPMs affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH, at 18 months of follow-up. Forty-one first permanent molars were selected from 21 children, 6–8 years of age. MIH was classified by one calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.80 according to EAPD criteria. The inclusion criteria were fully erupted FPMs with MIH or sound FPMs (without MIH for which sealant treatment was indicated. The FPMs were assigned to two groups: CG (control group and HG (MIH group. Both groups were treated with sealant (FluroShield. Clinical follow-up was performed from baseline to 18 months to assess anatomical form, marginal adaptation, retention and presence of caries, according to criteria set by the United States Public Health Service-Modified, and was conducted by a blinded examiner (kappa = 0.80. The actuarial method was used to evaluate the survival of the sealants. The survival rates for the groups were compared using Fisher’s exact test (α = 5%. The cumulative survival rates were 81% at 1 month, 68.8% at 6 months, 68.8% at 12 months, and 62.6% at 18 months for CG, and 88% at 1 month, 84% at 6 months, 76% at 12 months, and 72% at 18 months for HG. No significant difference was found between the groups. The sealants in molars affected by MIH presented a survival rate similar to the sealants in the control, suggesting that sealants may be an adequate approach for preventing carious lesions in MIH-affected molars.

  7. Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabbati Ravi kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous transplantation is a feasible, fast, and economical option for the treatment of nonsalvageable teeth when a suitable donor tooth is available. This paper presents successful autotransplantation of a mature mandibular left third molar (38 without anatomical variances is used to replace a mandibular left second molar (37. The mandibular second molar was nonrestorable due to extensive root caries and resorption of distal root. After extraction of mandibular second and third molars, root canal therapy was done for the third molar extraorally, and the tooth was reimplanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. After one year, clinical and radiographic examination revealed satisfactory outcome with no signs or symptoms suggestive of pathology. In selected cases, autogenous tooth transplantation, even after complete root formation of the donor tooth, may be considered as a practical treatment alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation or implant treatment.

  8. Prevalence of eruption status of third molars in Libyan students

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    Sujata Byahatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to determine the number of third molars per person, angulation, level, amount of space for eruption of third molar between ramus of mandible and second molar and the eruption status of third molar in a group of Libyan students, with different impaction patterns and agenesis of third molars. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive retrospective study, a total of 200 students (100 male and 100 female students of bachelor of dental surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Garyounis University, Benghazi, Libya were enrolled. Students who had complete complement of teeth within the age group 17-26 years were selected for this study, while those cases who had history of extraction of any of the teeth or who refused to give consent were excluded. Before starting the study, ethical concern from the ethical committee, IRB and informed consent from each student who underwent radiography were obtained. Results: The results showed that 5% of third molars were congenitally missing. Approximately 93.5% of the subjects had all four third molars, 1% had two third molars and 0.5% had one third molars with 2.5% having agenesis of all third molars. Third molar agenesis showed predilection for maxilla with higher proportion in females (3% than males (2.1%. Angular position was maximum with vertical position (5.83%, with least being horizontal impactions. Level of occlusal plane of third molar similar to that of adjacent tooth was seen in 44.74%, below the occlusal plane in 24.76%, totally impacted noted in 30%. Conclusion: The present study showed that 33% of the teeth were fully erupted and 66% were in various stages of eruption and 5% were congenitally missing in these students.

  9. Unusal canal configuration in maxillary and mandibular second molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Ragunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical article describes three different case reports of maxillary and mandibular second molars with the unusual anatomy of single root with a single canal and their endodontic management. An unusual case of bilateralism is observed in the first two cases in the form of single-rooted second mandibular molars in both the quadrant of the same patient. The presence of maxillary second molar with single root and single canal in the third case is unusual.

  10. Bilateral lower second molar impaction in teenagers: An emergent problem

    OpenAIRE

    Shinohara Elio; Kaba Shajadi; Pedron Irineu; Imparato Jose

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of simultaneously impacted second and third molars in teenagers is increasing and becoming a common occurrence in adolescent oral surgery practice. The traditional treatment is the removal of the third molar by conventional access but repositioning of the surgical flap to the distal face of the first molar can predispose to complications such as pericoronitis and delayed healing of the attached gingiva. We present a case in which we use the germectomy approach to remove the impa...

  11. Intraoperative accidents associated with surgical removal of third molars

    OpenAIRE

    SEBASTIANI,Aline Monise; Todero,Sara Regina Barancelli; Gabardo,Giovana; Costa,Delson João da; Rebelatto,Nelson Luis Barbosa; Scariot, Rafaela

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of intraoperative accidents associated with extraction of third molars and identify possible risk factors. Methods: Prospective study with patients undergoing third molar surgery by residents of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service at the Federal University of Parana. Epidemiological data were collected from preoperative evaluation forms. During the surgical procedure were evaluated the radiographic position classifications of all third molars removed, us...

  12. In vitro comparison of coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials used in endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahi Sh.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The use of proper temporary restorative materials between appointments is critical in successful root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials including Zonalin, Zamherir, Coltosol and IRM. "nMaterials and Methods: In this in vitro study, standard access cavities were prepared in 120 intact extracted maxillary and mandibular human first molars. Canal preparation was carried out by the step-back technique, and obturation was performed with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using the lateral condensation technique. Teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups of 25 teeth each and two positive and negative control groups, each containing 10 teeth. In each experimental group the access cavity was restored with one of the tested materials (Zamherir, Zonalin, IRM and Coltosol. In the negative control group the access cavity was filled entirely with sticky wax and in the positive control group no restorative material was applied. Dye penetration technique was used to evaluate microleakage which was measured under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. "nResults: Dye penetration was observed in all groups. Zonalin and Coltosol had the highest and the lowest dye penetration respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in dye penetration between IRM, and either Coltosol or Zamherir (p>0.05. "nConclusion: The results of this study showed that using Coltosol as a temporary restorative material can provide a better coronal seal in endodontic treatments

  13. Sealing ability, water sorption, solubility and toothbrushing abrasion resistance of temporary filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C M; Zanchi, C H; Rodrigues-Junior, S A; Moraes, R R; Pontes, L S; Bueno, M

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate marginal seal, water sorption, solubility and loss of mass after brushing of several temporary filling materials. For marginal seal, Class I cavities, including endodontic access preparations, were made in human molar teeth and restored using one or other of several temporary filling materials (n = 10): zinc oxide/calcium sulphate-based cement (Cavit, 3M,ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), zinc oxide/eugenol cement (IRM, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA), glass ionomer cement (Vidrion R, SSWhite, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) or a dimethacrylate-based filling (Bioplic, Biodinâmica, Londrina, PR, Brazil). Dye penetration was assessed after thermocycling and immersion in 0.5% basic fuchsine solution. For water sorption, solubility and loss of mass analyses, disc-shaped specimens were made. Water sorption and solubility were evaluated by mass alteration after storage in distilled water for 7 days (n = 7). Loss of mass was calculated based on the difference of mass after abrasion with a toothbrush (n = 5), and surfaces were analysed by SEM. Data of water sorption, solubility and loss of mass were submitted to anova and Tukey's test, and marginal sealing data to Kruskal-Wallis test (P Cavit had the greatest water sorption and solubility. Vidrion R and Bioplic had the lowest solubility. Loss of mass after brushing was higher for Cavit, followed by Bioplic, IRM and Vidrion R. Cavit and Vidrion R were worn aggressively by brushing. The resin-based temporary filling Bioplic produced the best marginal seal, and was associated with the lowest water sorption, solubility and loss of mass.

  14. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (5PIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The 5PIT prototype is a...

  15. Pitted terrains on (1) Ceres and implications for shallow subsurface volatile distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, H.G.; Platz, Thomas; Schorghofer, Norbert; Prettyman, Thomas; De Sanctis, Maria Christina; Crown, David A.; Schmedemann, Nico; Nessemann, Andeas; Kneissl, Thomas; Simone Marchi,; Schenk, Paul M.; Bland, Michael; Schmidt, B.E.; Hughson, Kynan H.G.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F; Mest, S.C.; Yingst, R.A.; Williams, D.A.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Prior to the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at Ceres, the dwarf planet was anticipated to be ice-rich. Searches for morphological features related to ice have been ongoing during Dawn's mission at Ceres. Here we report the identification of pitted terrains associated with fresh Cerean impact craters. The Cerean pitted terrains exhibit strong morphological similarities to pitted materials previously identified on Mars (where ice is implicated in pit development) and Vesta (where the presence of ice is debated). We employ numerical models to investigate the formation of pitted materials on Ceres and discuss the relative importance of water ice and other volatiles in pit development there. We conclude that water ice likely plays an important role in pit development on Ceres. Similar pitted terrains may be common in the asteroid belt and may be of interest to future missions motivated by both astrobiology and in situ resource utilization.

  16. Pitted terrains on (1) Ceres and implications for shallow subsurface volatile distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, H. G.; Platz, T.; Schorghofer, N.; Prettyman, T. H.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Crown, D. A.; Schmedemann, N.; Neesemann, A.; Kneissl, T.; Marchi, S.; Schenk, P. M.; Bland, M. T.; Schmidt, B. E.; Hughson, K. H. G.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Mest, S. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2017-07-01

    Prior to the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at Ceres, the dwarf planet was anticipated to be ice-rich. Searches for morphological features related to ice have been ongoing during Dawn's mission at Ceres. Here we report the identification of pitted terrains associated with fresh Cerean impact craters. The Cerean pitted terrains exhibit strong morphological similarities to pitted materials previously identified on Mars (where ice is implicated in pit development) and Vesta (where the presence of ice is debated). We employ numerical models to investigate the formation of pitted materials on Ceres and discuss the relative importance of water ice and other volatiles in pit development there. We conclude that water ice likely plays an important role in pit development on Ceres. Similar pitted terrains may be common in the asteroid belt and may be of interest to future missions motivated by both astrobiology and in situ resource utilization.

  17. Understanding Regolith Distribution on 433 Eros Using Analyses of Pit Chains and Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Buczkowski, D. L.

    2006-03-01

    The distribution of pit chains and grooves on Eros provides clues to the internal structure and the spatial distribution of regolith. Additional analyses of pit slopes and volumes provide information on regolith thickness and mechanical properties.

  18. Evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the use of pit-and-fissure sealants: A report of the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John T; Crall, James J; Fontana, Margherita; Gillette, E Jane; Nový, Brian B; Dhar, Vineet; Donly, Kevin; Hewlett, Edmond R; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chaffin, Jeffrey; Crespin, Matt; Iafolla, Timothy; Siegal, Mark D; Tampi, Malavika P; Graham, Laurel; Estrich, Cameron; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso

    2016-08-01

    This article presents evidence-based clinical recommendations for the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents. A guideline panel convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry conducted a systematic review and formulated recommendations to address clinical questions in relation to the efficacy, retention, and potential side effects of sealants to prevent dental caries; their efficacy compared with fluoride varnishes; and a head-to-head comparison of the different types of sealant material used to prevent caries on pits and fissures of occlusal surfaces. This is an update of the ADA 2008 recommendations on the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources to identify randomized controlled trials reporting on the effect of sealants (available on the US market) when applied to the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to assess the quality of the evidence and to move from the evidence to the decisions. The guideline panel formulated 3 main recommendations. They concluded that sealants are effective in preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal carious lesions of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents compared with the nonuse of sealants or use of fluoride varnishes. They also concluded that sealants could minimize the progression of noncavitated occlusal carious lesions (also referred to as initial lesions) that receive a sealant. Finally, based on the available limited evidence, the panel was unable to provide specific recommendations on the relative merits of 1 type of sealant material over the others. These

  19. Fundus Autofluorescence Features of Optic Disc Pit Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optic nerve head is dark (black) due to the absence of. RPE (and hence no lipofuscin). The blood vessels also ... pathology of macula changes associated with optic disc pits, different surgical techniques have been .... biosynthesis of A2E, a fluorophore of aging retina, involves the formation of the precursor, A2‑PE, in the ...

  20. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... An in vitro study was conducted by mixing small amounts of green pit viper venom with blood and observing changes. At a concentration of 10 µg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility slightly increased. RBC morphology changed to spherical shape which was compatible with what was.

  1. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  2. Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by electropolymerized conducting polymer coating in 0·5 M NaCl solution. T DHANABAL, G AMIRTHAGANESAN. ∗ and J RAVICHANDRAN. Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science,.

  3. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro study was conducted by mixing small amounts of green pit viper venom with blood and observing changes. At a concentration of 10 mg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility slightly increased. RBC morphology changed to spherical shape which was compatible with what was observed in scanning ...

  4. Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...

  5. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  6. Intrafamilial heterogeneity of congenital optic disc pit maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Settimio; De Rosa, Giuseppe; D'Alterio, Francesco Maria; Orrico, Ada; Banfi, Sandro; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Optic disc pit is a very rare clinical entity. The main complication of this condition is the maculopathy. Report of cases: A 40-year-old Caucasian man and his 6-year-old daughter underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. In both cases ophthalmoscopy examination showed a bilateral white-yellow oval depression in the optic disc. Optical coherence tomography showed maculopathy with different degrees of severity in the two cases. Microperimetry and multifocal-electroretinography showed different degrees of retinal dysfunction in both cases. Molecular genetic analysis was performed and the possible pathogenic role of the MIR204 gene was excluded. The findings of our familial cases support the hypothesis that optic disc pit associated with maculopathy could be a genetic disease with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Optical coherence tomography is the most helpful diagnostic tool to assess maculopathy associated with optic disc pit. Microperimetry and multifocal-electroretinography are useful for the diagnosis of macular dysfunction in the early stages, and for the prognosis and follow-up of optic disc pit-maculopathy which is the main cause of visual impairment in these patients. Furthermore, in consideration of the variable expressivity and disease severity reported in our cases, genetic anticipation may be hypothesized.

  7. Contamination of Groundwater Resources by Pit Latrines in Kwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At Shimba Hills, there was relatively less contamination and Msambweni having intermediate magnitudes of contamination. It is prcposed that boreholes should not be sited within 150 m from a pit latrine, particularly in areas of coral limestone. Organisations concerned with community water projects should either devise ...

  8. Contamination of Groundwater Resources by Pit Latrines in Kwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is prcposed that boreholes should not be sited within 150 m from a pit latrine, particularly in areas of coral limestone. Organisations concerned with community water projects should either devise remedial measures to bacteria contamination or abandon the concept of community hand pump projects in favour of deeper ...

  9. A Measure of College Student Persistence in the Sciences (PITS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanauer, David I.; Graham, Mark J.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Curricular changes that promote undergraduate persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines are likely associated with particular student psychological outcomes, and tools are needed that effectively assess these developments. Here, we describe the theoretical basis, psychometric properties, and predictive abilities of the Persistence in the Sciences (PITS) assessment survey designed to measure these in course-based research experiences (CREs). The survey...

  10. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  11. 7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fragments. (b) Definitions. (1) A pit, for the purposes of the allowances in this section, is a whole cherry... cherries does not exceed the allowances for this classification as set forth in Table IV. (d) (B... above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). “Reasonably...

  12. Second molar impaction associated with lip bumper therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Helder Baldi; LeMert, Shawn; Alexander, Richard G; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Although lip bumpers (LBs) provide significant clinical gain of mandibular arch perimeter in mixed-dentition patients, orthodontists are reluctant to use them due to the possibility of permanent second molar eruptive disturbances. The present study was conducted to assess second molar impaction associated with the use of LBs, and to investigate how they can be solved. Lateral and panoramic radiographs of 67 patients (34 females and 33 males) were assessed prior (T₁) and post-LB treatment (T₂). LB therapy lasted for approximately 1.8 ± 0.9 years. Concomitant rapid palatal expansion (RPE) was performed in the maxilla at LB treatment onset. Impaction of mandibular second molars was assessed by means of panoramic radiographs in relation to the position of first mandibular molars. Horizontal and vertical movements of first and second molars were assessed cephalometrically on lateral cephalometric radiographs based on mandibular superimpositions. Eight (11.9%) patients had impacted second molars at the end of LB therapy. Two patients required surgical correction, whereas five required spacers and one patient was self-corrected. Mandibular first molar tip and apex migrated forward 1.3 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. Second molar tip showed no statistically significant horizontal movement. Although LB therapy increased the risk of second molar impaction, impactions were, in most instances, easily solved.

  13. Second molar impaction associated with lip bumper therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Baldi Jacob

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although lip bumpers (LBs provide significant clinical gain of mandibular arch perimeter in mixed-dentition patients, orthodontists are reluctant to use them due to the possibility of permanent second molar eruptive disturbances.OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to assess second molar impaction associated with the use of LBs, and to investigate how they can be solved.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lateral and panoramic radiographs of 67 patients (34 females and 33 males were assessed prior (T1 and post-LB treatment (T2. LB therapy lasted for approximately 1.8 ± 0.9 years. Concomitant rapid palatal expansion (RPE was performed in the maxilla at LB treatment onset. Impaction of mandibular second molars was assessed by means of panoramic radiographs in relation to the position of first mandibular molars. Horizontal and vertical movements of first and second molars were assessed cephalometrically on lateral cephalometric radiographs based on mandibular superimpositions.RESULTS: Eight (11.9% patients had impacted second molars at the end of LB therapy. Two patients required surgical correction, whereas five required spacers and one patient was self-corrected. Mandibular first molar tip and apex migrated forward 1.3 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. Second molar tip showed no statistically significant horizontal movement.CONCLUSION: Although LB therapy increased the risk of second molar impaction, impactions were, in most instances, easily solved.

  14. Epidemiological Status of Third Molars in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Impaction of third molars is a common phenomenon. The incidence of impacted third molars varies in different populations. Objectives The aim of this study is to assess radiographic status (root development degree, angulation, and eruption level of the third molar in Iranian population via panoramic radiographs. Patients and Methods 647 patients, ranging in age from 17 - 25, were selected from three regions of Iran. Based on their panoramic radiographs, their root development degree, angulation, and eruption levels were analyzed. Results The angulation of upper third molars were vertical (44.6%, distoangular (44.1%, mesioangular (10.7%, and horizontal (0.6%. For lower third molars, the angulation was mesioangular (44.5%, vertical (33.8%, distoangular (12.2%, and horizontal (9.5%. The eruption levels of maxillary third molars were C > A> B, and for mandibular third molars they were A > B> C. The order of root development prevalence of the maxillary and mandibular third molars was complete > 2/3 > 1/3. Conclusions The most common status of impaction of the third molars in the maxilla was vertical angulation, level C of eruption, and complete root formation. In the mandible it was mesioangular, level A of eruption, and complete root formation. Since the study sample consists of patients from the north, middle, and south of Iran, the sample can represent the whole population of Iran.

  15. Inventory of wildlife use of mortality pits as feeding sites: implications of pathogen exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Jeremy W.; Shriner, Susan A.; McLean, Hailey E.; Petersen, Lauren; Root, J. Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the use of mortality pits by wildlife and possible pathogen dissemination from the resulting wildlife contact in these areas, we used 8 camera traps on 4 mortality pits in Colorado from June to December 2014 to create a species inventory and establish use estimates for those species. We observed 43 species visiting (in or near) the mortality pits during 1,168 total camera trap days. Of these, 24 species directly interacted with the mortality pits or carcasses contained wi...

  16. Analysis of Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize clocks between spacecraft in proximity, the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol has been proposed. PITS is based on the NTP Interleaved On-Wire Protocol and is capable of being adapted and integrated into CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minimal modifications. In this work, we will discuss the correctness and liveness of PITS. Further, we analyze and evaluate the performance of time synchronization latency with various channel error rates in different PITS operational modes.

  17. Outcomes and stability in patients with anterior open bite and long anterior face height treated with temporary anchorage devices and a maxillary intrusion splint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Nicole R.; Proffit, William R.; Phillips, Ceib

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporary skeletal anchorage devices now offer the possibility of closing anterior open bites and decreasing anterior face height by intruding maxillary posterior teeth, but data for treatment outcomes are lacking. This article presents outcomes and posttreatment changes for consecutive patients treated with a standardized technique. Methods The sample included 33 consecutive patients who had intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth with a maxillary occlusal splint and nickel-titanium coil springs to temporary anchorage devices in the zygomatic buttress area, buccal and apical to the maxillary molars. Of this group, 30 had adequate cephalograms available for the period of treatment, 27 had cephalograms including 1-year posttreatment, and 25 had cephalograms from 2 years or longer. Results During splint therapy, the mean molar intrusion was 2.3 mm. The mean decrease in anterior face height was 1.6 mm, less than expected because of a 0.6-mm mean eruption of the mandibular molars. During the postintrusion orthodontics, the mean change in maxillary molar position was a 0.2-mm extrusion, and there was a mean 0.5-mm increase in face height. Positive overbite was maintained in all patients, with a slight elongation (Intrusion of the maxillary posterior teeth can give satisfactory correction of moderately severe anterior open bites, but 0.5 to 1.5 mm of reeruption of these teeth is likely to occur. Controlling the vertical position of the mandibular molars so that they do not erupt as the maxillary teeth are intruded is important in obtaining a decrease in face height. PMID:25439210

  18. Periodontal Healing Distally to Second Mandibular Molar After Third Molar Coronectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignudelli, Elisabetta; Monaco, Giuseppe; Gatto, Maria Rosaria Antonella; Franco, Simonetta; Marchetti, Claudio; Corinaldesi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Coronectomy of mandibular third molars is a procedure that still raises a number of questions. The aim of the present study was to answer one unsolved question: the periodontal healing distal to the mandibular second molar after third molar coronectomy. A prospective cohort study was performed of 30 patients treated at the Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Science of the University of Bologna. The predictor variables were the probing pocket depth (PPD), the distance between the marginal crest (MC) and the bottom of the osseous defect (BOD), and the distance between the cementum enamel junction (CEJ) and the BOD. These clinical indexes were recorded on 3 points of the distal surface of second molar: the distobuccal (DB), distomedial (DM), and distolingual (DL) sites. The other variables evaluated included root migration and postoperative complications. The Wilcoxon test for paired data and Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient was used to evaluate all variables. The significance level was set at P = .05. The cohort was composed of 30 patients with 34 high-risk mandibular third molars (9 men and 21 women), with a mean age of 28 ± 7 years. At 9 months, a statistically significant reduction in the PPD of 2 ± 3, 1 ± 2, and 2 ± 2 mm and a statistically significant reduction in the MC-BOD distance of 4 ± 4, 4 ± 4, and 4 ± 5 mm for the DB, DM, and DL sites, respectively, was observed (P = .001). Also, the intraoperative CEJ-BOD distance showed a statistically significant reduction for the DB, DM, and DL sites. After coronectomy, restoration of a clinical healthy periodontium distal to the second molar was observed. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary clinical results and to compare periodontal healing between coronectomy and complete extraction. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Second molar periodontal inflammatory disease after third molar removal in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicus, Carolyn; Blakey, George H; Faulk-Eggleston, Jan; Hoverstad, Eric; Offenbacher, Steven; Phillips, Ceib; White, Raymond P

    2010-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of periodontal inflammatory disease on the distal side of second molars after third molar removal and the association between presurgical and surgical variables and postsurgical periodontal outcomes. Data before and after surgery from 2 studies approved by an institutional review board were used. In 1 study, 26 subjects had 4 asymptomatic third molars and in the other 49 subjects had at least 1 mandibular third molar with symptoms of pericoronitis. Full-mouth periodontal probing data, 6 sites per tooth, were obtained as a measurement of periodontal status before and after surgery. A probing depth (PD) ≥4 mm on either of the 2 possible probing sites on the distal side of any second molar (D2M) served as an indicator of periodontal inflammatory disease; periodontal health was defined as all D2M PD <4 mm. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel row mean score tests compared the subjects' postsurgical periodontal status (all D2M PD <4 mm and at least 1 D2M PD ≥4 mm) with respect to age and time intervals, and the Fisher exact test was used to compare ethnicity, gender, and clinical data at surgery. The McNemar test was used to assess the discordance between subjects' pre- and postsurgical periodontal status. The level of significance was set at .05. Of the 75 subjects, 52% were women and 65% were white. The median age at surgery was 23.6 years (interquartile range, 20.9 to 26.6 years). At enrollment, 53 of 75 subjects (71%) had at least 1 D2M PD ≥4 mm. Subjects were significantly more likely to have an improved D2M periodontal status after surgery than a deteriorated status (P < .01). Fewer subjects, 17 of 75 (24%), had at least 1 D2M PD ≥4 mm after surgery. D2M PD ≥4 mm was more likely after surgery if presurgical D2M was PD ≥4 mm (P < .01). Gender, ethnicity, age, presurgical symptoms, and data estimating the extensiveness of surgery were not significantly associated with postsurgical D2M periodontal outcomes. After third molar removal

  20. Empirical correlation methods for temporary anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Thomas; Weber, Rebecca J

    2011-06-23

    A temporary anion is a short-lived radical anion that decays through electron autodetachment into a neutral molecule and a free electron. The energies of these metastable species are often predicted using empirical correlation methods because ab initio predictions are computationally very expensive. Empirical correlation methods can be justified in the framework of Weisskopf-Fano-Feshbach theory but tend to work well only within closely related families of molecules or within a restricted energy range. The reason for this behavior can be understood using an alternative theoretical justification in the framework of the Hazi-Taylor stabilization method, which suggests that the empirical parameters do not so much correct for the coupling of the computed state to the continuum but for electron correlation effects and that therefore empirical correlation methods can be improved by using more accurate electronic structure methods to compute the energy of the confined electron. This idea is tested by choosing a heterogeneous reference set of temporary states and comparing empirical correlation schemes based on Hartree-Fock orbital energies, Kohn-Sham orbital energies, and attachment energies computed with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method. The results show that using more reliable energies for the confined electron indeed enhances the predictive power of empirical correlation schemes and that useful correlations can be established beyond closely related families of molecules. Certain types of σ* states are still problematic, and the reasons for this behavior are analyzed. On the other hand, preliminary results suggest that the new scheme can even be useful for predicting energies of bound anions at a fraction of the computational cost of reliable ab initio calculations. It is then used to make predictions for bound and temporary states of the furantrione and croconic acid radical anions.

  1. Adjacent dentigerous cysts with the ectopic displacement of a third mandibular molar and supernumerary (forth) molar: a rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Shane

    2009-06-01

    Dentigerous cysts are the most common odontological cysts of the jaws, being associated with the crowns of permanent teeth, especially unerupted mandibular third molars. Multiple dentigerous cysts are rare and most often occur in association with a developmental syndrome. This article presents an unusual case of nonsyndromic adjacent dentigerous cysts associated with a mandibular third molar and a supernumerary molar. This occurrence has not been previously reported.

  2. Ceramic onlay for endodontically treated mandibular molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopadevi Garlapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is important for the success of endodontic treatment. In full coverage restorations, maximum amount of tooth structure is compromised, so as to conserve the amount of tooth structure partial coverage restorations, can be preferred. This case report is on fabrication of a conservative tooth colored restoration for an endodontically treated posterior tooth. A 22-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular left first molar. After endodontic treatment, composite material was used as postendodontic restoration. The tooth was then prepared to receive a ceramic onlay and bonded with self-adhesive universal resin cement. Ceramic onlay restoration was periodically examined up to 2 years.

  3. Studies on soil and water characteristics of Burrow pits for possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on soil and water characteristics of Burrow pits for possible conversion into fish ponds in Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... Soil and water parameters were investigated in 34 burrow pits in Egiland, Rivers State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The pits surface areas and depths ranged from 30,000 to 40,000 m2 and 1.00 to ...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device composed of resin, such...

  5. Recipes for the fabrication of strictly ordered Ge islands on pit-patterned Si(001) substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grydlik, Martyna; Langer, Gregor; Fromherz, Thomas; Schäffler, Friedrich; Brehm, Moritz

    2013-03-15

    We identify the most important parameters for the growth of ordered SiGe islands on pit-patterned Si(001) substrates. From a multi-dimensional parameter space we link individual contributions to isolate their influence on ordered island growth. This includes the influences of: the pit size, pit depth and pit period on the Si buffer layer and subsequent Ge growth; the pit sidewall inclination on Ge island growth; the amount of Ge on island morphologies as well as the influences of the pit-size homogeneity, the pit period, the Ge growth temperature and rate on island formation. We highlight that the initial pit shape and pit size in combination with the growth conditions of the Si buffer layer should be adjusted to provide suitable preconditions for the growth of Ge islands with the desired size, composition and nucleation position. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the wetting layer between pits can play the role of a stabilizer that inhibits shape transformations of ordered islands. Thus, dislocation formation within islands can be delayed, uniform arrays of one island type can be fabricated and secondary island nucleation between pits can be impeded. These findings allow us to fabricate perfectly ordered and homogeneous Ge islands on one and the same sample, even if the pit period is varied from a few hundred nanometres to several micrometres.

  6. Pit membranes in tracheary elements of Rosaceae and related families: New records of tori and pseudotori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Sano, Y.; Choat, B.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.; Dute, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    The micromorphology of pits in tracheary elements was examined in 35 species representing 29 genera of Rosaceae and related families to evaluate the assumption that angiosperm pits are largely invariant. In most Rosaceae, pit membranes between fibers and tracheids frequently appear to have amorphous

  7. Effect of PIT tags on the survival and recruitment of Great Tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Bouwman, Karen M.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of subcutaneous passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in nestling and adult Great Tits Parus major. We investigated whether subcutaneous PIT tags affected fledging success, winter condition, survival and/or recruitment. We found no negative effects of PIT tags on any of these

  8. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  9. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  10. Criteria for diagnosis of temporary gluten intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, A S; Rolles, C J; Arthur, L J

    1976-04-01

    Strict criteria for the diagnosis of temporary gluten intolerance are formulated in the light of the case of an 8-week-old infant with severe diarrhoea and failure to thrive, who recovered on an elimination diet that was gluten-free. 8 weeks later an oral challenge with 2.5 g twice daily of powdered gluten for one day produced diarrhoea, weight loss, and impaired xylose absorption. Gluten was successfully reintroduced into the diet 9 months later without incident. Jejunal histology remains normal after 26 months of a daily diet that contains 5 to 10 g gluten.

  11. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  12. Comparative evaluation of the length of resin tags, viscosity and microleakage of pit and fissure sealants – an in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, A.R.; Murthy, Sankriti A.; Sugandhan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In this era of preventive dentistry, many techniques are available for prevention of caries, such as plaque control, use of systemic and local fluorides and pit and fissure sealants. The rationale of pit and fissure sealants is that, when they are applied into the caries prone fissures, they penetrate and seal them from the oral environment. This study aims to correlate the relationship between the viscosity of the sealant, resin tag length and microleakage. Materials and Methods: 30 third molars were selected for study. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group E: Embrace wetbond, H: Helioseal, G: Guardian seal. Teeth were cleaned with pumice prophylaxis and pretreated with acid etching and bonding agent. The respective pit and fissure sealants were applied. Teeth were placed in 1% methylene blue dye and sectioned mesio-distally into two halves. These were used to assess the microleakage using stereomicroscope and resin tag length using SEM. Viscosity was assessed using Brooke's field viscometer. Results: Viscosity was lowest for Embrace wetbond and highest for Guardian seal. Microleakage scores were highest with Guardian seal and lowest with Embrace wetbond. Resin tag lengths were longer with Embrace wetbond as compared to other groups. There is a definite negative correlation between viscosity, resin tag length and microleakage. Lower the viscosity, the longer were the resin tags and the microleakage decreased. Embrace wetbond pit and fissure sealant had lowest viscosity, longest resin tag length and lowest microleakage scores. Conclusion: Embrace wetbond appears to be compatible with residual moisture and ideal for use in children, where isolation is a problem. PMID:22346161

  13. Comparative evaluation of the length of resin tags, viscosity and microleakage of pit and fissure sealants - an in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Prabhakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In this era of preventive dentistry, many techniques are available for prevention of caries, such as plaque control, use of systemic and local fluorides and pit and fissure sealants. The rationale of pit and fissure sealants is that, when they are applied into the caries prone fissures, they penetrate and seal them from the oral environment. This study aims to correlate the relationship between the viscosity of the sealant, resin tag length and microleakage. Materials and Methods : 30 third molars were selected for study. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group E: Embrace wetbond, H: Helioseal, G: Guardian seal. Teeth were cleaned with pumice prophylaxis and pretreated with acid etching and bonding agent. The respective pit and fissure sealants were applied. Teeth were placed in 1% methylene blue dye and sectioned mesio-distally into two halves. These were used to assess the microleakage using stereomicroscope and resin tag length using SEM. Viscosity was assessed using Brooke′s field viscometer. Results : Viscosity was lowest for Embrace wetbond and highest for Guardian seal. Microleakage scores were highest with Guardian seal and lowest with Embrace wetbond. Resin tag lengths were longer with Embrace wetbond as compared to other groups. There is a definite negative correlation between viscosity, resin tag length and microleakage. Lower the viscosity, the longer were the resin tags and the microleakage decreased. Embrace wetbond pit and fissure sealant had lowest viscosity, longest resin tag length and lowest microleakage scores. Conclusion : Embrace wetbond appears to be compatible with residual moisture and ideal for use in children, where isolation is a problem.

  14. Local hypertrichosis: A rare complication of a temporary henna tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpolat, Nebahat Demet; Aras, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Temporary henna tattoos have become increasingly widespread among children and young people, especially in holiday spots in recent years. Although reactions to henna tattoo are becoming progressively more common, only few cases of a henna pseudo-tattoo resulting in temporary hypertrichosis have been reported so far. Here, we have reported a 5-year-old girl who developed allergic contact dermatitis and localized hypertrichosis on her right arm after application of temporary henna tattoo during summer holiday.

  15. Presence of third molars in orthodontic patients from northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Georgia Barka,1 Georgios Tretiakov,1 Theodosios Theodosiou,2 Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou31School of Dentistry, 2Biostatistics, Department of Informatics, School of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceObjective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of presence of third molar teeth and their distribution in each jaw and each side, according to sex, in a group of orthodontic patients with permanent dentition from northern Greece.Methods: The sample included panoramic radiographs from 220 patients with permanent dentition (mean age 13.62 ± 1.81. The Χ2 test was used to assess the relationships between the variables, and the Fisher's exact test was used in cases where the expected frequencies in each cell were <5.Results: The frequency of third molar presence was 79.1%, and 20.9% was the frequency of third molar agenesis. Intersexual differences in the number of third molars was not statistically significant. There was a correlation between the distribution of third molars on the right and the left side (Fisher's exact test = 100.788; P = 0. The two sides showed the same tendency toward the presence or absence of third molars. A correlation was also found between the distribution of maxillary and mandibular third molars (Fisher's exact test = 24.372; P = 0. In each jaw, the presence or absence of third molars was highly related to the number of third molars found in the other jaw.Conclusion: The present results showed that in this orthodontic group of northern Greek patients, presence accounted for 79.1% and agenesis for 20.9%. No significant difference was found between the frequencies of third molar presence on the left and right sides in either the maxilla or mandible.Keywords: third molars, presence, orthodontic population, Greeks

  16. Surgical Management of Accidentally Displaced Mandibular Third Molar into the Pterygomandibular Space: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Yueh Huang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical removal of the mandibular third molar is a regular surgical procedure in dental clinics, and like all operations, it may have some complications, such as infection, bleeding, nerve injuries, trismus and so on. An accidentally displaced lower third molar is a relatively rare complication, but may cause severe tissue injury and medicolegal problems. As few papers and cases have been published on this topic, we report this case to remind dentists on ways to prevent and manage this complication. The patient, a 28-year-old male, had his right lower mandibular third molar extraction in January 2006. The dentist resected the crown and attempted to remove the root but found that it had suddenly disappeared from the socket. Assuming that the root had been suctioned out he closed the wound. The patient was not followed up regularly because he studied abroad. About 3 months later, the patient felt a foreign body sensation over his right throat, and visited a local hospital in Australia. He was told after a computed tomography (CT scan that there was a root-like radio-opaque image in the pterygomandibular space. The patient came to our hospital for further examination and management in June 2006. We rechecked with both Panorex and CT and confirmed the location of the displaced root. Surgery for retrieving the displaced root was performed under general anesthesia by conventional method without difficulty, and the wound healed uneventfully except for a temporary numbness of the right tongue. This case reminds us that the best way to prevent a displaced mandibular third molar is to evaluate the condition of the tooth carefully preoperatively, select adequate instruments and technique, and take good care during extraction. If an accident does occur, dentists should decide whether to retrieve it immediately by themselves or refer the case to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and should not try to remove the displaced root without proper assurance

  17. Histological validation of a laser fluorescence device for occlusal caries detection in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, D; Lagouvardos, P; Kavvadia, K; Papagiannoulis, L

    2009-11-01

    This was to validate in vitro a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent 2095 - DD, on the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars using the histological examination as the gold standard and to compare the laser fluorescence findings to the results of the conventionally used diagnostic methods. 111 occlusal pits in 24 extracted primary molars were examined for caries by one trained operator (Intra-examiner Reliability K>0.83), using direct visual (DV), indirect visual (IDV), radiographic (XR) and fluorescence (DD) examinations and then the extent of caries was determined histologically. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the ROC curve - AUC were calculated for all methods, using the histological evaluation as the gold standard. Differences between examination methods were estimated by pair-wise comparison of their respective AUC. DD's sensitivity for enamel and for dentine lesions respectively was 0.90 and 0.36, its specificity 0.36 and 0.91 and its accuracy 0.61 and 0.65. The DD device exhibited better sensitivity than specificity for enamel lesions and better specificity than sensitivity for lesions into dentine. The DD device was found to have the highest sensitivity for lesions into enamel, specificity and accuracy and as well as the largest AUC compared with all other methods. For lesions into dentine however, according to AUC values the DD was not statistically significant different from the other methods. Compared with the other methods, the DD had the highest validity for enamel caries while its validity for caries into dentine was not statistical different from the other methods.

  18. Shear bond strength evaluation of bonded molar tubes on fluorotic molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Benítez, Erika L; Zavala-Alonso, Veronica; Martinez-Castanon, Gabriel A; Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan P; Patiño-Marin, Nuria; Ortega-Pedrajo, Irene; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    To study the shear bond strength (SBS), sites of failure, and micromorphology of bonded molar tubes used on teeth affected by dental fluorosis. This in vitro study included 140 first molars classified according to Dean's index for dental fluorosis. Samples were divided into seven groups: (1) healthy teeth etched for 15 seconds, (2) teeth with moderate fluorosis (MOF) etched for 15 seconds, (3) teeth with MOF etched for 150 seconds, (4) teeth with MOF microabrasion etched for 15 seconds, (5) teeth with severe fluorosis (SEF) etched for 15 seconds, (6) teeth with SEF etched for 150 seconds, and (7) teeth with SEF microabrasion etched for 15 seconds. All samples were incubated and were then submitted to the SBS test and evaluated with the modified adhesive remnant index (ARI) and analyzed by using a scanning electronic microscope. The SBS mean value for healthy enamel was 20 ± 10.2 MPa. For the group with MOF, the etched 150-second mean value was the highest (19 ± 7.6 MPa); for the group with SEF treated with microabrasion and etched for 15 seconds, the mean value was (13 ± 4.1 MPa). Significant differences (P ≤ .05) were found in the ARI between healthy and fluorosed groups. Fluorotic enamel affects the adhesion of bonded molar tubes. The use of overetching in cases of MOF and the combination of microabrasion and etching in SEF provides a suitable adhesion for fixed appliance therapy.

  19. Histomorphometric evaluation of maxillary molar roots and surrounding periodontium following molar intrusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y J; Kim, K H; Lee, K J; Chung, C J; Park, Y C

    2015-02-01

    To investigate periodontal tissue changes during and after molar intrusion in rats. The Department of Orthodontics at Yonsei University. Thirty 12-week-old male rats were assigned to 1 control and 5 experimental groups (n = 5 each). In the experimental groups, two maxillary molars were intruded for 2 weeks; the control group underwent the same procedures without the intrusion force. After 2 weeks of intrusion, rats in one of the experimental groups and in the control group were killed. In the other four experimental groups, the new molar positions were either retained or not retained with an occlusal bite block for 1 or 2 weeks prior to euthanization. Histomorphometric analysis was performed for sulcus depth, osteoclast number per unit alveolar bone length, and root resorption area per unit root surface length. Sulcus depth increased during intrusion (P intrusion (P intrusion, irrespective of the retention regimen, relative to that of the control group (P intrusion and that the surrounding periodontium remodeled accordingly as tooth positions were altered, regardless of retention regime. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An audit of impacted mandibular third molar surgery | Obimakinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: We carried out a descriptive clinical study involving patients who presented for management of impacted third molar between January 2010 and December 2011. Demography of the patients including third molar spatial relationship, indications for surgery and pre- and post-operative visual analogue score for ...

  1. Internal root morphology in maxillary first permanent molars in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the internal root morphology and gender variations in maxillary first permanent molars in a Kenyan population. Design: In vitro descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi. Subject: One hundred and eighty seven maxillary first permanent molars were ...

  2. Incomplete molar pregnancy with live coexisting fetus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pourali

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The rate of pregnancy complications such as hypertension, hyperthyroidism, and obstetrics hemorrhage and also the risk of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm (GTN are increasing in incomplete molar pregnancy. Therefore, early diagnosis and timely treatment of molar pregnancy is very important to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

  3. Case report - Ectopic molar pregnancy: A case report | Bousfiha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 ...

  4. Evaluation of radiographic features of embedded primary molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The roots of primary molars were found in the permanent dentition without symptoms on the clinical or radiographic examination. However, their incidence could not be achieved on the current literature. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiographic features of the embedded primary molar roots ...

  5. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impacted mandibular third molar surgery: 1‑year results. Int. J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1993;13:397. 43. Edwards MJ, Brickley MR, Goodey RD, Shepherd JP. The cost, effectiveness and cost effectiveness of removal and retention of asymptomatic, disease free third molars. Br Dent. J 1999;187:380‑4. 44. Smith WP.

  6. excess molar volumes, and refractive index of binary mixtures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    mixtures of glycerol + water, and glycerol + methanol at 298.15 K and 303.15 K. Excess molar volumes (VE) have been calculated ... KEY WORDS: Excess molar, Density, Refractive index, Glycerol, Water, Methanol ... Biodiesel, defined as “a substitute for, or a additive to diesel fuel that is derived from the oils and fats of ...

  7. [Supernumerary teeth located in molar region: three cases report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jie; Yang, Weijiang; Shen, Xuanjiang

    2011-08-01

    Supernumerary teeth is one of the teeth dysplasia that the number of teeth exceeded normal. Most of supernumerary teeth reported were located in anterior teeth region, but rare cases were reported in molar region. This paper reported three cases that supernumerary teeth located in molar region.

  8. Molar incisor hypomineralisation: clinical management of the young patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Dympna

    2009-04-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. It presents at eruption of these teeth. Early diagnosis is essential since rapid breakdown of tooth structure may occur, giving rise to acute symptoms and complicated treatment. The purpose of this article is to review MIH and illustrate its clinical management in young children.

  9. Changes in heart rate during third molar surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, M. H. J.; Schortinghuis, J.; Vissink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is an undesirable psychological phenomenon. Patients are usually anxious when subjected to third molar surgery, but the pattern of anxiety is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity and course of anxiety during third molar surgery. This study included 48 consecutive

  10. Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and impacted teeth. Isaac Kipyator Bokindo, Fawzia Butt, Francis Macigo. Abstract. The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology which leads to increased difficulty during its extraction. The root morphology ...

  11. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  12. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Remaining five binary mixtures, n-heptane + toluene, cyclohexane + n-heptane, cyclohexane + n-hexane, toluene + nhexane and n-decane + n-hexane show negative excess molar volumes over the whole composition range. However, the large negative values of excess molar volume becomes dominant in toluene + ...

  13. Indications and risk factors for complications of lower third molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the surgical indications and risk factors for complications of third molar surgery at a Nigerian teaching hospital. ... records of patients referred to the Oral Surgery Clinic of our institution for surgical extraction of their impacted mandibular third molars from January 2008 to December ...

  14. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords like impaction, mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, complications, anatomy, inferior alveolar nerve injury, lingual nerve injury were used to search the databases. A total of 826 articles were screened, and 50 articles were included in the review which was obtained from 1980 to February 2015.

  15. Prematurely erupted tooth in the molar region | Denloye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the case of a thirty-three-day old male child who was seen at the outpatient clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan with a tooth- like structure in the maxillary right molar region. This firm structure which resembled a primary molar had only two definite buccal cusps, no lingual cusp and no occlusal ...

  16. Pathomorphology of Molar Gestation in Zaria | Mayun | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Molar gestations are a source of significant morbidity with increased risk of mortality from their complications if not identified and treated early enough. Objective: This study aims at histologically reviewing and analyzing all cases of molar gestations seen in the Histopathology Department of Ahmadu Bello ...

  17. Internal root morphology in mandibular first permanent molars in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the internal root morphology and gender variations in mandibular first permanent molars in a Kenyan population. Design: In vitro descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi Results: The mesial root of mandibular first molars had two canals in 96.3% of ...

  18. Molar pregnancy: a ten year review at Onitsha, Nigeria | Obiechina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of molar pregnancy was 1:332 deliveries or 1.416 pregnancies. There was no definite age pattern in the distribution of molar pregnancy. The commonest clinical presentation was recurrent vaginal bleeding 90.6% while the least was uterine size less than date in 3.8% of the cases. Syntocinon induction with ...

  19. [Clinical analysis of caries status of the mandibular second molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chun-an; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Ning; Su, Qin

    2014-04-01

    To collect the cases which have caries on the mandibular second molar and analyze the caries status and correlative factors. Patients treated in the Department of Endodontics in West China Hospital of Stomatology were randomly collected. The baseline information, primary sites and severity of dental caries on the mandibular second molar, and eruption pattern of the mandibular third molar were recorded. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Four hundred eighty-one patients including 227 males and 254 females were collected. Caries on the mandibular second molar starting from the occlusal, distal proximal and buccal surfaces accounted for 33.8%, 33.2% and 24.4%, respectively. Caries involving dental pulp (49.7%) were significantly more than deep and shallow to moderate caries (31.7% and 18.6%). Gender was not correlated with the site and severity of caries. However, impacted mandibular third molars and age were significantly related to both caries site and severity. Occlusal and distal proximal surfaces are the most predisposed sites to have caries on mandibular second molar. Impacted mandibular third molar and age are significantly related to caries of mandibular second molar.

  20. Prevalent of root resorption of second molar adjustment the impacted third molar in prepiacal and panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahimi Saravi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Impacted third molar reduces the bone level in the distal aspect of second molar, and sometimes it can lead to root resorption of the adjacent tooth. The purpose of this study was to determine this resorption using panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study 54 patient (28 men, 26 women above 15 years old with the average of 22 years in Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Tehran University were studied. A periapical radiography from the third molar and a panoramic radiograph were taken from each patient (Because of their routine use and evaluation of accuracy of panoramic compared with periapical, and the magnitude of the root resorption for the second molar was determined by 2 observers and written in a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher test.   Results: The prevalence of the root resorption of the second molar adjacent to the impacted third molar in the panoramic and the periapical radiographies, with respect to the limitation of the sample size were 46.3% and 31.5%, respectively, with 95% confidence(P>0.05. Most of these resorptions were in the cervical third of the second molar roots and in cases in which the third molars were mesially oriented or horizontal. There was also no significant difference between panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Conclusion: Due to the increased risk of the resorption of the second molar adjacent to the third molar, extraction of the impacted third molars, especiall y mesially oriented or horizontal ones are recommended.

  1. Aqueous geochemistry of pit lakes:two cases studies at Rävlidmyran and Udden, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Lu

    2002-01-01

    Two abandoned pit lakes in northern Sweden were studied in order to improve the understanding of the geochemistry of pit lakes, Rävlidmyran Pit Lake and Udden Pit Lake. Both lakes show strong similarity with other mining lakes in terms of low pH and high metal and sulphate contents. Still, the two lakes have distinctly limnological and geochemical characteristics. Rävlidmyran Pit Lake is oligotrophic and meromictic. The lake is permanently stratified and three layers, the mixolimnion at the t...

  2. Pulpotomies with portland cement in human primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Regina Conti

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Two clinical cases in which Portland cement (PC was applied as a medicament after pulpotomy of mandibular primary molars in children are presented. Pulpotomy using PC was carried out in two mandibular first molars and one mandibular second molar, which were further followed-up. At the 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up appointments, clinical and radiographic examinations of the pulpotomized teeth and their periradicular area revealed that the treatments were successful in maintaining the teeth asymptomatic and preserving pulpal vitality. Additionally, the formation of a dentin bridge immediately below the PC could be observed in the three molars treated. PC may be considered as an effective alternative for primary molar pulpotomies, at least in a short-term period. Randomized clinical trials with human teeth are required in order to determine the suitability of PC before unlimited clinical use can be recommended.

  3. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes : Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are

  4. Heterogeneous distribution of pectin epitopes and calcium in different pit types of four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hacke, Uwe G

    2011-12-01

    Intervessel pits act as safety valves that prevent the spread of xylem embolism. Pectin-calcium crosslinks within the pit membrane have been proposed to affect xylem vulnerability to cavitation. However, as the chemical composition of pit membranes is poorly understood, this hypothesis has not been verified. Using electron microscopy, immunolabeling, an antimonate precipitation technique, and ruthenium red staining, we studied the distribution of selected polysaccharides and calcium in the pit membranes of four angiosperm tree species. We tested whether shifts in xylem vulnerability resulting from perfusion of stems with a calcium chelating agent corresponded with the distribution of pectic homogalacturonans (HG) and/or calcium within interconduit pit membranes. No HG were detected in the main part of intervessel pit membranes, but were consistently found in the marginal membrane region known as the annulus. Calcium colocalized with HG in the annulus. In contrast to intervessel pits, the membrane of vessel-ray pits showed a high pectin content. The presence of two distinct chemical domains, the annulus and the actual pit membrane, can have substantial implications for pit membrane functioning. We propose that the annulus could affect the observed shift in xylem vulnerability after calcium removal by allowing increased pit membrane deflection. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Inverted autologous internal limiting membrane for management of optic disc pit with macular detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Osman Abdelzaher; Pai, Anant

    2013-01-01

    Macular detachment causes visual deterioration in 25-75% of patients with congenital optic disc pit. A number of treatment options have been reported to manage the macular detachment in optic pit. An optic disc pit represents a defect in the lamina cribrosa; theoretically, an ideal procedure to treat optic pit associated macular detachment would be one that prevents the flow of fluid across the pit by creating an additional barrier. We present a new surgical technique that employs an autologous internal limiting membrane (ILM) to create this barrier. The technique involves standard vitrectomy along-with ILM peeling. Subsequently, the peeled ILM was inverted and transplanted onto the optic disc pit to close the optic nerve pit. This technique showed satisfactory anatomic result with good functional improvement in visual acuity.

  6. ["Pit picking" surgery for patients with pilonidal disease : mid-term results and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iesalnieks, I; Deimel, S; Schlitt, H J

    2015-05-01

    Minimally invasive procedures have increasingly been used to treat pilonidal disease; however, the mid-term and long-term results have not been evaluated extensively yet. All patients underwent "pit picking" surgery. The surgery was performed under local anesthesia. The technique of "pit picking" was: all midline pits were removed by excising a margin of skin of pit picking" surgery between June 2007 and November 2010. Follow-up information was available for 148 patients (97 %). Of the patients 74% had no recurrence after a median follow-up time of 30 months and 8 more patients (5 %) remained asymptomatic after a second"pit picking" procedure. By multivariate analysis, smoking (hazard ratio [HR] 2.1) and occurrence of an abscess during the course of disease (HR 2.7) were statistically significantly associated with the disease recurrence after "pit picking" surgery. Approximately three quarters of selected patients with pilonidal disease benefit from minimally invasive "pit picking" surgery.

  7. The Effects of Hot Corrosion Pits on the Fatigue Resistance of a Disk Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Hazel, Brian; Mourer, David P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot corrosion pits on low cycle fatigue life and failure modes of the disk superalloy ME3 were investigated. Low cycle fatigue specimens were subjected to hot corrosion exposures producing pits, then tested at low and high temperatures. Fatigue lives and failure initiation points were compared to those of specimens without corrosion pits. Several tests were interrupted to estimate the fraction of fatigue life that fatigue cracks initiated at pits. Corrosion pits significantly reduced fatigue life by 60 to 98 percent. Fatigue cracks initiated at a very small fraction of life for high temperature tests, but initiated at higher fractions in tests at low temperature. Critical pit sizes required to promote fatigue cracking were estimated, based on measurements of pits initiating cracks on fracture surfaces.

  8. The Feature of Deformation at Convex Corner of Deep Foundation Pit Based on FLAC3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shun-li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study on the space-time feature of foundation pit deformation has important significance to ensure the stability of foundation pit engineering. In the present study, the relationship between the space-time fractal feature of foundation pit deformation and the stability of the foundation pit has not been studied adequately. By combining the concrete engineering example, used the FLAC3D software for numerical simulation, and the simulated values were compared with the actual value. Finally, we researched on the relationship between the foundation pit deformation and the stability of foundation pit. Research showed that FLAC3D could reveal the complex spatial and temporal characteristics of foundation pit deformation. But compared with the actual monitoring value, it still has some limitations.

  9. Extraction of maxillary first molars improves second and third molar inclinations in Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, C.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Booij, J.W.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the changes in inclination of the maxillary second (M2) and third (M3) molars after orthodontic treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion with extraction of maxillary first molars. METHODS: Two groups of subjects were studied. The experimental

  10. Surface aspects of pitting and stress corrosion cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhan, J. S., Jr.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The pitting and stress corrosion cracking of a stable austenitic stainless steel in aqueous chloride environments were investigated using a secondary ion mass spectrometer as the primary experimental technique. The surface concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, the hydroxide, and chloride ion, magnesium or sodium, chromium and nickel were measured as a function of potential in both aqueous sodium chloride and magnesium chloride environments at room temperature and boiling temperatures. It was found that, under anodic conditions, a sharp increase in the chloride concentration was observed to occur for all environmental conditions. The increase may be associated with the formation of an iron chloride complex. Higher localized chloride concentrations at pits and cracks were also detected with an electron microprobe.

  11. Predictive Index for slope instabilities in open pit mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, J H; Lecaros, R; Medel, F; Padilla, F; García, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the stability and deformation of structures, in particular the wall of an open pit mine is studied by using information obtained from a variety of remote sensors and some extra data, with a novelty approach considering the use of mathematical models and data mining techniques. In particular we present two models to help the study the slope stability of pit and the possible occurrence of movements. Primarily we present an static model for slow movements, which will help us identify areas of possible risks areas with time horizons of several months or years, depends on the available information, before the wall start moving, and secondly a dynamic short-term model, which help us to determine risks of collapse zones with several days in advance. We remark that this methodology can be a powerful tool to plain future actions in order to simulate possible scenarios considering the production plans.

  12. Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-10-01

    A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures.

  13. Analysis of traversable pits model to make intelligent wheeled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of passing wheeled vehicles from pits is discussed. The issue is modeled by defining the limits of passing wheeled vehicles. The proposed model has been studied based on changes in the effective parameters. Finally, in order to describe the problem, the proposed model has been solved for wheeled vehicles based on the effective parameters by using one of the numerical methods.

  14. Retrospective Analysis of Mosh-Pit-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsten, Andrew M; Tennyson, Joseph; Weisberg, Stacy

    2017-12-01

    Moshing is a violent form of dancing found world-wide at rock concerts, festivals, and electronic dance music events. It involves crowd surfing, shoving, and moving in a circular rotation. Moshing is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report epidemiologic information on patient presentation rate (PPR), transport to hospital rate (TTHR), and injury patterns from patients who participated in mosh-pits. Materials and Methods Subjects were patrons from mosh-pits seeking medical care at a single venue. The events reviewed were two national concert tours which visited this venue during their tour. The eight distinct events studied occurred between 2011 and 2014. Data were collected retrospectively from prehospital patient care reports (PCRs). A single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provided medical care at this venue. The following information was gathered from each PCR: type of injury, location of injury, treatment received, alcohol or drug use, Advanced Life Support/ALS interventions required, age and gender, disposition, minor or parent issues, as well as type of activity engaged in when injured. Attendance for the eight events ranged from 5,100 to 16,000. Total patient presentations ranged from 50 to 206 per event. Patient presentations per ten thousand (PPTT) ranged from 56 to 130. The TTHR per 10,000 ranged from seven to 20. The mean PPTT was 99 (95% CI, 77-122) and the median was 98. The mean TTHR was 16 (95% CI, 12-29) and the median TTHR was 17. Patients presenting from mosh-pits were more frequently male (57.6%; PTennyson J , Weisberg S , Retrospective analysis of mosh-pit-related injuries. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):636-641.

  15. Open Pit Optimisation and Design: A Stepwise Approach*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Price of gold. $40.6/g ($1134.00/oz). Selling cost. $0.90/g ($25.70/oz). Capital cost. $64 000 000. Discount rate. 10 %. Mining recovery. 95 %. Mining dilution. 5 %. Revenue factor range. 0.3 to 2 at 0.02 steps. Overall pit slope angle. 45º. 2.2.3 Generation of Structure Arcs. The structure arcs necessary for the ...

  16. Environmental Enrichment in Kennelled Pit Bull Terriers (Canis lupus familiaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiddie, Jenna; Bodymore, Anna; Alex, Dittrich

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Rescue shelters, although set-up with good intentions, may lead to poor welfare of the animals that they house, especially when the shelter organisation is under-resourced. This study therefore investigated the behavioural effects of cheap and locally accessible objects added to the cages of rescued Pit Bull Terrier type dogs in the Philippines to determine whether it is possible for shelter organisations with limited funds and staffing to improve the welfare of their dogs with...

  17. [Surgical treatment of the optic disc pit maculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krásnik, V; Strmen, P; Atefanicková, J; Ferková, S

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate long-term effects of anatomic and functional changes after the surgical treatment of the optic disc pit maculopathy in a retrospective study. Six patients with unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy were included in this study. Four were females and 2 males, age ranged from 13 to 35 years (mean, 26 years). All patients underwent the pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling and the intraocular tamponade with the air-gas mixture. These 6 patients were divided into two groups: group A, the surgical treatment without aimed argon laser photocoagulation, and group B, the surgical treatment with aimed argon laser photocoagulation during 2 months after the pars plana vitrectomy. The follow-up period ranged from 41 to 73 months (mean, 53.3 months). In the group A, the best-corrected visual acuity improved by 2 and more lines (Snellen optotype) in all 3 patients. In the group B, the improvement by 2 and more lines was found out in 2 patients and the decrease by 2 lines was observed in one patient. The recurrence of the maculopathy occurred in 2 patients from the group A. In the group B, the recurrence of the maculopathy was recorded in one patient 53 months after pars plana vitrectomy and aimed argon photocoagulation. The surgical intervention by pars plana vitrectomy for the optic disc pit maculopathy improves the anatomic and functional prognosis. The suitable aimed argon laser photocoagulation after the surgical treatment in selected patients improves outcome and reduce the recurrence of the optic disc pit maculopathy.

  18. Testing Aerospace Gears for Bending Fatigue, Pitting, and Scuffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy; Anderson, Cody; Shareef, Iqbal; Fetty, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This work was motivated by the goal to increase the power to weight ratio of rotorcraft drive systems. Experiments were conducted to establish the performance of gears made from an aerospace alloy used in production aircraft. Bending fatigue, pitting, and scuffing test procedures and results are documented. The data establishes a baseline for evaluation of new technologies. Recommendations are made to improve test procedures for future work.

  19. Pitting Corrosion Susceptibility of AISI 301 Stainless Steel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions - 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.5M and 0.7M and 1.0M. Tensile tests and microscopic examinations were performed on samples prepared from the steel after exposure in the various environments.

  20. Eruption status of third molars in South Indian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata M Byahatti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study is to determine the number of third molars per person, angulation, level, amount of space for eruption of third molar between ramus of mandible and second molar status of root and also to study the difficulty index. Objective: To study the eruption status of third molar in South Indian population. Materials and methods: The study conducted at Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Maratha Mandals NG Halgekar College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. Belgaum, Karnataka, India A total of 150 patients (54 females and 96 males visiting outpatient department between the age group of 17 and 30 with a mean age of 23.5 years were selected- Before starting the study, ethical concern taken from the ethical committee and informed consent from each patent who underwent radiographic examination. Results: The results showed approximately 94.66% of the subjects had all four third molars, 8.6% had three third molars, 4.6% had two third molars and 2% had one third molars with 3.3% having agenesis of all third molars. Third molar agenesis showed predilection for upper jaw with higher proportion in females (5 5% than males (2%. Angular position seen maximum with vertical position (66.16% with least being horizontal impactions. Level of occlusal plane of third molar similar to that of adjacent tooth seen in 52.65%. Below the occlusal plane in 19.61 %, totally impacted teeth noted in 27.73%. More than 75% of the teeth had complete root formation. Among total number of teeth, 518 (91.51 % teeth were easy to extract and remaining 33 (5.8% were difficult to extract. Conclusion: Radiological and clinical findings have correlated to assess whether teeth were easy to extract or difficult. Because of the increasing incidence of unerupted third molars and the association of numerous complications with these retained teeth, assessment of germ position and prognosis of third molar eruption is necessary for better patient management.

  1. 8 CFR 245a.2 - Application for temporary residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (No. 76-C-4268 (N.D. ILL. March 22, 1977)); that is, an alien from an independent country of the... States was due merely to a brief temporary trip abroad due to emergent or extenuating circumstances... employment and travel abroad for temporary resident status applicants under section 245A(a) of the Act may...

  2. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Temporary registration numbers may not be used to fly aircraft into the United States for the purpose of... for as many temporary registration numbers as are necessary for his business. The application must be... used on a flight outside the United States for delivery purposes, the holder shall record the...

  3. 23 CFR 1235.5 - Temporary removable windshield placards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary removable windshield placards. 1235.5 Section 1235.5 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.5 Temporary removable windshield placards. (a)...

  4. Temporary Employment Contracts in Academia: A Real Option View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the strategic use of temporary employment contracts in dealing with supply uncertainty in the form of employee ability that is slow to reveal itself, for example in academia where there exist significant time lags in demonstration of research ability. A temporary contract is modeled as a real option, specifically as a…

  5. 25 CFR 700.175 - Temporary emergency moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... move not been made. (iv) The Commission will pay all costs in connection with the move to temporary... temporary move, based upon the criteria set forth by the Commission. (2) The estimated duration of the... Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES...

  6. 22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... articles, unless exempted from this requirement pursuant to § 123.4. This requirement applies to: (1) Temporary imports of unclassified defense articles that are to be returned directly to the country from... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A license (DSP-61) issued by the Directorate of...

  7. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample Temporary...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.154 - Temporary heating devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary heating devices. 1926.154 Section 1926.154 Labor... Temporary heating devices. (a) Ventilation. (1) Fresh air shall be supplied in sufficient quantities to... heating devices shall be installed to provide clearance to combustible material not less than the amount...

  9. Investigation on Floating Lid Construction, pit Water Storage, Ottrupgaard, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    At Ottrupgaard a pit water storage of 1,500 m3 and a lid area of about 700 m2 is built for seasonal storage of a solar collector field of 560 m2. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 57%, more precisely 1,163 Dkr./m2. Due to the large share in price...... the development of lid constructions is crucial for the development of pit water storage and seasonal storage, as it seems that the development of solar collectors will not have a breakthrough in the near future.The Ottrupgaard lid design is basically a sandwich element construction of PUR-foam between two...... conditions floating on hot water. The test lids were examined for tightness by a number of means. The results showed critical construction errors of the first lid design. A redesigned lid showed acceptable results, but also some water penetration into the lid insulation. The entered water gathers...

  10. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  11. Minimal gauge vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy: Our results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Gogia, Varun; Nagpal, Ritu; Roy, Sangeeta; Gupta, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the surgical technique and clinical outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without laser or gas tamponade in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy at our centre. Six eyes of six consecutive patients presenting with unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy were enrolled. Preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to determine the presence and extent of schisis and macular detachment. All eyes underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with induction of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes were closed under fluid. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months post-surgery. Median age of patients was 22.5 years. Five of six eyes had neurosensory detachment (NSD) at the presentation; whereas, inner layer schisis was present in all patients. None of the patients had any evidence of vitreomacular or vitreopapillary adhesion or PVD either clinically or on OCT. Inner and outer retinal schisis resolved in all eyes after follow-up of at least 6 months. Resolution of subretinal fluid in eyes with NSD was seen in 4 of 5 eyes. There was a significant visual acuity improvement from mean preoperative visual acuity of 0.79 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units to 0.36 logMAR units at 12 months (P = 0.001). Thus, vitrectomy with ILM peeling and PVD induction alone could achieve good functional outcomes in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy. PMID:26862100

  12. The Origin of Subretinal Fluid in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Taskapan, Cagtay

    2016-03-01

    A surgical approach for the drainage of fluid leaking over the pit in optic disc pit maculopathy is described, and a theory of the origin of fluid is discussed. In two cases, complete fluid-air exchange was performed. The air infusion pressure was decreased to 5 mm Hg, and the collected fluid was drained by raising the infusion pressure to 25 mm Hg. The fluid inside the back-flush needle was routed via a microcentrifuge tube. Biochemical analyses of the fluids were conducted in order to find their origin. Results of the first and second case were comparable to normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels (chloride: 125 mmol/L, 122 mmol/L; sodium: 146 mmol/L, 147 mmol/L; potassium: 2.8 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L; protein: 29 mg/dL, 18.4 mg/ dL; and glucose: 60 mg/dL, 57 mg/dL, respectively). These findings suggest that the origin of subretinal fluid found in the submacular space in optic disc pit maculopathy is CSF. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Minimal gauge vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy: Our results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe the surgical technique and clinical outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without laser or gas tamponade in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy at our centre. Six eyes of six consecutive patients presenting with unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy were enrolled. Preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT was performed to determine the presence and extent of schisis and macular detachment. All eyes underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with induction of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD and internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling and eyes were closed under fluid. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months post-surgery. Median age of patients was 22.5 years. Five of six eyes had neurosensory detachment (NSD at the presentation; whereas, inner layer schisis was present in all patients. None of the patients had any evidence of vitreomacular or vitreopapillary adhesion or PVD either clinically or on OCT. Inner and outer retinal schisis resolved in all eyes after follow-up of at least 6 months. Resolution of subretinal fluid in eyes with NSD was seen in 4 of 5 eyes. There was a significant visual acuity improvement from mean preoperative visual acuity of 0.79 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR units to 0.36 logMAR units at 12 months (P = 0.001. Thus, vitrectomy with ILM peeling and PVD induction alone could achieve good functional outcomes in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy.

  14. Minimal gauge vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy: Our results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Gogia, Varun; Nagpal, Ritu; Roy, Sangeeta; Gupta, Shikha

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the surgical technique and clinical outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without laser or gas tamponade in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy at our centre. Six eyes of six consecutive patients presenting with unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy were enrolled. Preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to determine the presence and extent of schisis and macular detachment. All eyes underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with induction of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes were closed under fluid. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months post-surgery. Median age of patients was 22.5 years. Five of six eyes had neurosensory detachment (NSD) at the presentation; whereas, inner layer schisis was present in all patients. None of the patients had any evidence of vitreomacular or vitreopapillary adhesion or PVD either clinically or on OCT. Inner and outer retinal schisis resolved in all eyes after follow-up of at least 6 months. Resolution of subretinal fluid in eyes with NSD was seen in 4 of 5 eyes. There was a significant visual acuity improvement from mean preoperative visual acuity of 0.79 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units to 0.36 logMAR units at 12 months (P = 0.001). Thus, vitrectomy with ILM peeling and PVD induction alone could achieve good functional outcomes in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy.

  15. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  16. Transfer factors for natural radioactivity into date palm pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeb, Mohammad Abu; Alharbi, Thamer; Baloch, Muzahir Ali; Rahman Alsamhan, Omar Abdul

    2017-02-01

    Palm pits are used in various human and animal feed products. In this study, the natural radioactivity levels from soil and date palm pits of 9 samples collected from major date palm farms in three different regions (Buraidah, Al-Zulfi and Al-Majmaah) of Saudi Arabia were determined by using the high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K in soil samples were 12.8 ± 2.2, 10.2 ± 2.1, 0.28 ± 0.10 and 329 ± 87 Bg kg-1, respectively. Similarly the mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in date palm pits were 5.6 ± 1.2, 2.8 ± 0.4 and 181 ± 17 Bq kg-1, respectively, whereas 137Cs could not be detected. The geometric mean of TF values (geometric standard deviation in parentheses) of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 0.33 (2.1), 0.22 (1.8) and 0.51 (2.0), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Neanderthal deciduous human molar with incipient carious infection from the Middle Palaeolithic De Nadale cave, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Julie; Benazzi, Stefano; Romandini, Matteo; Livraghi, Alessandra; Panetta, Daniele; Salvadori, Piero A; Volpe, Lisa; Peresani, Marco

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study is the assessment of Nadale 1, a Neanderthal deciduous tooth recently discovered in Northeastern Italy in the De Nadale cave (Middle Palaeolithic). Together with the clear archaeological context of the site, this study brings new insight on Neanderthal behavior and dental morphological variability. We used microCT data to provide a morphological description and morphometric analysis (diameter measurements and dental tissue volumes) of the Nadale 1 human tooth. Microwear analysis, taphonomical investigation and caries identification were performed using a stereomicroscope and Scanning Electron Microscope. In terms of morphology (i.e., incipient tuberculum molare, marked mesial marginal ridge and well-developed mid-trigonid crest connecting the protoconid and the metaconid, deep anterior fovea) and size, Nadale 1 presents features frequently observed in Neanderthal lower first deciduous molars. Microscope investigations reveal the presence of a small pit which could be correlated to an incipient caries. Nadale 1 expands the Italian Middle Palaeolithic fossil record and provides further information on Neanderthal dm1s in terms of dimensional and morphological variability. Furthermore, the presence of an incipient caries brings further data on Neanderthal diet. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 75 FR 48322 - McCloud-Pit Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission McCloud-Pit Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the McCloud-Pit Hydroelectric Project and Intention To Hold Public Meetings July 30...-Pit Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 2106), located on the McCloud and Pit Rivers in Shasta County...

  19. Asymmetric molar distalization with miniscrews to correct a severe unilateral Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiao Ling; Conley, R Scott; Wu, Tuojiang; Li, Huang

    2016-05-01

    Asymmetries are among the most challenging problems in orthodontics. Proper diagnosis is critical to discern first whether the asymmetry is dental or skeletal. If it is dental, one must then determine whether one dental arch or both are at fault. Once diagnosed, the next challenge is determining not only an appropriate treatment plan, but also the appropriate mechanics plan. This aim of this article is to present a patient with a severe asymmetry to emphasize the importance of a problem-based differential diagnosis to develop both a sound treatment plan and a mechanics plan that successfully integrates miniscrews from the start of the process. An 18-year-old woman had a Class III subdivision left malocclusion, an asymmetric lower facial third, and a deviated midline. The treatment plan consisted of asymmetric distalization of the maxillary right and mandibular left posterior dentitions to create space to resolve the deviated midlines, correct the canted occlusal plane, and obtain an ideal occlusion. Active treatment with Clarity ceramic 0.022 × 0.028-in appliances (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), temporary anchorage devices, and a pendulum appliance lasted 22 months. The final result and the 2-year retention records demonstrate that a harmonious facial balance, an attractive smile, ideal occlusal relationships, and a stable outcome were achieved. This case report shows that with proper planning, asymmetric use of temporary anchorage devices in multiple posterior quadrants can be used to obtain molar distalization, and this approach is an effective alternative to dental extraction therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporary anchorage devices – Mini-implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamlesh; Kumar, Deepak; Jaiswal, Raj Kumar; Bansal, Amol

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontists are accustomed to using teeth and auxiliary appliances, both intraoral and extraoral, to control anchorage. These methods are limited in that it is often difficult to achieve results commensurate with our idealistic goals. Recently, a number of case reports have appeared in the orthodontic literature documenting the possibility of overcoming anchorage limitations via the use of temporary anchorage devices—biocompatible devices fixed to bone for the purpose of moving teeth, with the devices being subsequently removed after treatment. Although skeletal anchorage is here to stay in orthodontics, there are still many unanswered questions. This article describes the development of skeletal anchorage and provides an overview of the use of implants for orthodontic anchorage. PMID:22442547

  1. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of 4-Fluoroisobutyryl Fentanyl into Schedule I. Temporary scheduling order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl.

  2. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: Therapeutic challenge to paediatric dentistry practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Branislava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization indicates the appearance of enamel hypomineralization of systemic origin which occurs in 1-4 first permanent molars, which is often accompanied by changes on permanent incisors. Variations in clinical manifestation, together with commonly present asymmetry, are the reason for large variations in the needs for therapeutic treatment of these structural enamel defects. Case study: Two patients with diagnosed molar incisor hypomineralization are shown. The first patient, a six-year-old girl, with diagnosed mild clinical form, visited the dentist immediately after the eruption of the first permanent molars. Early diagnosis and timely application of preventive-profilactic measures, together with mild clinical form, are the reason for prevention of dental caries and further spreading of posteruptive enamel breakdown on affected first molars. Unlike the first one, the second patient, a 7,5-year-old girl had the diagnosis of moderate molar incisor hypomineralization. She developed dental caries on tooth 46 as well as complication in dental caries on tooth 36 which was extracted soon after the eruption. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and the severity of clinical appearance are the most important factors which determine therapeutic outcome of the treatment of molar incisor hypomineralization.

  3. Research Resource: T-Antigen Transformation of Pituitary Cells Captures Three Novel Cell Lines in the Pit-1 Lineage

    OpenAIRE

    Sizova, Daria; Ho, Yugong; Cooke, Nancy E.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the establishment of three distinct pituitary-derived murine cell lines generated by targeted T-antigen-induced transformation. The Pit1/0 line expresses pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (Pit-1) but lacks expression of GH, prolactin (Prl), or TSH, and the Pit1/Prl line is selectively positive for Pit-1 and Prl. The third line, Pit1/Triple, expresses Pit-1 and all three of the Pit-1-dependent hormones: GH, Prl, and TSHβ/glycoprotein hormone α-subunit. The three corresponding...

  4. Response of molars and non-molars to a strict supragingival control in periodontal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Daniela Melchiors Angst

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The posterior position in the arches is one of the factors that underlies the poor prognosis of molar teeth (M. It is speculated that M do not benefit from the oral hygiene routine as well as non-molars (NM do. This study evaluated the response of M and NM to supragingival control during a 6-month period in 25 smokers (S and 25 never-smokers (NS with moderate-to-severe periodontitis. One calibrated examiner assessed visible plaque (VPI and gingival bleeding (GBI indexes, periodontal probing depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment loss (CAL at days 0 (baseline, 30 and 180. At baseline, M showed significantly higher mean values of VPI (p = 0.017 and PPD (p < 0.001 compared with NM; CAL was also greater in M (p < 0.001 and was affected by smoking (p = 0.007. The reductions obtained for periodontal indicators at day 180 showed similar responses between M and NM. For CAL, M (NS 0.57 ± 0.50; S 0.67 ± 0.64 and NM (NS 0.38 ± 0.23; S 0.50 ± 0.33 reached an almost significant difference (p = 0.05. Smoking did not influence the response to treatment. Multilevel analysis revealed that, only for PDD reductions, the interaction between sites, teeth and patient was significant (p < 0.001. It was concluded that M benefit from an adequate regimen of supragingival biofilm control; therefore, supragingival condition should be considered in the prognosis of molar teeth.

  5. Surgical approach to impacted mandibular third molars--operative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-El Naaj, Imad; Braun, Refael; Leiser, Yoav; Peled, Micha

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to suggest a convenient way to classify the position of the impacted third mandibular molar relative to the mandibular canal and to suggest indications for the use of each surgical approach for mandibular third molar extraction. The presented new typing system, Third Molar Classification (TMC), is a simple and easy-to-apply method for the surgical management of mandibular third molars and can be extended for any ectopic or impacted mandibular tooth. There are 3 major types of third molar positions. The second type is subdivided further into 2 subtypes. In the present study, 9 patients with high-risk mandibular third molars were treated according to the present classification and are presented and discussed. Patients typed as TMC IIb were treated with a sagittal split osteotomy approach and patients typed as TMC III were treated with an extraoral approach. The operative classification was successfully implemented in very rare cases of deeply impacted mandibular third molars. In 3 of 9 cases (33%) minor complications included some degree of hypoesthesia using the extraoral approach; these complications resolved spontaneously without the need for any intervention. The present study describes the use of a new surgical classification system for treatment planning in all types of mandibular third molar extractions. We believe that the present classification could help the oral and maxillofacial surgeon in decision-making and limit the possible risks that are present when attempting to extract impacted mandibular third molars. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  7. In vitro Evaluation of Magnification and LED Illumination for Detection of Occlusal Caries in Primary and Permanent Molars Using ICDAS Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timucin Ari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of occlusal caries in children is challenging for the dentists, because of the morphology of pit and fissures. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of low-powered magnification (×2.5 and its association with LED headlight illumination for occlusal caries detection in primary and permanent molars using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS criteria.Methods: The occlusal surfaces of 36 extracted teeth (n=18 primary molars, n=18 permanent molars were examined using ICDAS criteria with unaided visual examination, low-powered magnification and low-powered magnification plus LED headlight illumination. Three examiners evaluated one occlusal site per tooth twice independently with one week interval, using all methods. The teeth (n = 36 were sectioned and examined under light microscopy using Downer’s histological criteria as the gold standard. Results: The weighted kappa values for inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility for the ICDAS examinations were almost perfect (Kappa values 0.72–0.96 in all three examination methods. The correlation with histology and overall AUC performance (0.96–0.98 of low-powered magnification plus LED headlight illumination was statistically significant in permanent molars. In primary molars, both low-powered magnification (0.82–0.90 and low-powered magnification plus LED headlight illumination (0.87–0.93 showed statistically significant correlation with histology and good to excellent AUC performance than unaided examination. Conclusion: Visual aids have the potential to improve the performance of early caries detection and clinical diagnostics in children.

  8. 78 FR 44965 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... human body a controlled substance in violation of any state or Federal law, or regulation issued... Desert playa. DATES: The temporary closure and temporary restrictions will be in effect from August 12... approved by the BLM authorized officer. B. Alcohol 1. Possession of an open container of an alcoholic...

  9. Germectomy or delayed removal of mandibular impacted third molars: the relationship between age and incidence of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapasco, M; Crescentini, M; Romanoni, G

    1995-04-01

    To analyze and compare complications and side effects after removal of 1,500 mandibular impacted third molar teeth in three age groups. The sample comprised 868 patients, 462 women and girls and 406 men and boys aged 9 to 67 years. The patients were divided according to age into the following three groups: group A, aged 9 to 16 years; group B, aged 17 to 24 years; group C, older than 24 years of age. The incidence of complications and side effects was 2.6% in group A, 2.8% in group B, and 7.4% in group C. All complications were temporary except in one instance of mandibular nerve paresthesia that occurred in a group C patient, in whom symptoms were still present 25 months after surgery. This study showed no significant difference in the complication rate between groups A and B, but complications significantly increased in group C.

  10. Autotransplantation of a mandibular third molar: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Najafi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tooth autotransplantation defines as transition of one tooth from one position to another, in same individual. It is a biological procedure in which teeth have the potential to induce alveolar bone growth. It can be applied in patients before adolescence growth is finished. It significantly reduces time and cost compared to implants. Healing rapidly occurs and function is regained almost immediately. Our case was a 15-year-old male that his left mandibular third molar transplanted to the second molar sight after extraction of second molar because of unrestorable crown. During 9 month follow up transplanted tooth was asymptomatic, functional and responsive to sensibility tests. (Cold test, EPT.

  11. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  12. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly......Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... with molar mass at fixed elongation rate....

  13. [Germectomy. The germ of the third mandibular molar in children: remove or preserve?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorsmit, R A; van den Bergh, A W

    1992-11-01

    Third molars are often removed in order to prevent complications and various other problems associated with impacted third molars and their removal. Abortion of mandibular third molars is a procedure carried out at an early age in those subjects where there is insufficient room for the eruption of the third molars. On the other hand one can also decide to remove the second molars and to annexate orthodontically the third molars in the arch.

  14. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of molar distalization with a palatal plate, pendulum, and headgear according to molar eruption stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju-Man; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Oh, Moonbee; Park, Chong Ook; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of maxillary second and third molar eruption status on the distalization of first molars with a modified palatal anchorage plate (MPAP), and (2) compare the results to the outcomes of the use of a pendulum and that of a headgear using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Three eruption stages were established: an erupting second molar at the cervical one-third of the first molar root (Stage 1), a fully erupted second molar (Stage 2), and an erupting third molar at the cervical one-third of the second molar root (Stage 3). Retraction forces were applied via three anchorage appliance models: an MPAP with bracket and archwire, a bone-anchored pendulum appliance, and cervical-pull headgear. An MPAP showed greater root movement of the first molar than crown movement, and this was more noticeable in Stages 2 and 3. With the other devices, the first molar showed distal tipping. Transversely, the first molar had mesial-out rotation with headgear and mesial-in rotation with the other devices. Vertically, the first molar was intruded with an MPAP, and extruded with the other appliances. The second molar eruption stage had an effect on molar distalization, but the third molar follicle had no effect. The application of an MPAP may be an effective treatment option for maxillary molar distalization.

  15. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara

    2005-05-19

    An investigation was undertaken of the effect of gamma radiation on metastable pitting of mild carbon steels immersed in a solution similar to those existing at high level waste (HLW) deposits in the US. The object was to observe the extent to which a dosage rate of 1 Mrad/hour (10 Kgrey/hour) affected measurable electrochemical parameters such as pitting potential, open circuit potential, rate of metastable pitting and repassivation potential. Methods for reliably measuring electrochemical potentials in a high radiation field were developed. Exploratory analyses were made of the ion product release and electrolyte composition change in a confined volume simulating the conditions of a corrosion initiated pit during gamma irradiation. As expected the results indicated that the metastable pitting rate (as well as the general rate of corrosion) was significantly enhanced by a radiation field.

  16. Directional sensitivity in the thermal response of the facial pit in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Tobias; Colayori, Samantha E; Westhoff, Guido; Bakken, George S; Young, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    Recent work published in the accompanying paper used a combination of 3D morphological reconstruction to define optical spread functions and heat transfer physics to study how external heat energy would reach the sensory membrane within the facial pit of pitvipers. The results from all of the species examined indicated asymmetric directional sensitivity, e.g. the pit would preferentially respond to stimuli located below and behind the snake. The present study was intended as a test of these findings through a quantitative neurophysiological analysis of directional sensitivity in the facial pit of the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. An infrared emitter was positioned through a coordinate system (with varying angular orientations and distances) and the response it evoked measured through neurophysiological recordings of a trigeminal nerve branch composed of the afferents from the sensory membrane of the facial pit. Significant differences were found in the strength of the membrane's neural response to a constant stimulus presented at different orientations (relative to the facial pit opening) and over different distances. The peak sensitivity (at 12 deg above and 20 deg in front of the facial pit opening) was in good agreement with the predicted directional sensitivities based on optical spread functions and 3D topography. These findings support the hypothesis that the topography, and functional performance, of the facial pit has undergone an adaptive radiation within the pit vipers, and that differences in the behavioral ecology of the pit vipers (i.e. terrestrial versus arboreal) are reflected within the facial pits.

  17. Eye and pit size are inversely correlated in crotalinae: Implications for selection pressure relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Qin; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Lu, Fang; Tang, Yezhong

    2016-01-01

    Mate, prey, and predator recognition often depend on the integration of information from multiple sensory modalities including visual, auditory, and/or olfactory inputs. In Crotalinae, the eyes sense visible light while the pit organs detect infrared (IR) radiation. Previous studies indicate that there is significant overlap between the eye and pit sensory fields and that both senses are involved in recognition processes. This study investigated the relationships between eye and pit sizes in this taxonomic group as a function of phylogeny and habitat. In view of the fact that pit orientation depends largely on snout shape, pit vipers were grouped as follows: 1) arboreal, 2) terrestrial with rounded snout, and 3) terrestrial with pointed snout. The pit orientations and habitant patterns were fully independent of the Crotalinae phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic generalized least squares model showed that both eye and pit areas were not of significantly phylogenetic relatedness, implying alternatively a strong effect of adaptation on eye and pit sizes. Negative correlations between relative eye and pit areas in terrestrial (both pointed and rounded snouts) and arboreal species were statistically significant. Our results suggest that the eyes and pits function in a complementary fashion such that selection for IR-perception relaxes selection pressures on the visual system and selection for visual discrimination relaxes selection pressures acting on the IR-system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Indoxyl sulfate promotes vascular smooth muscle cell calcification via the JNK/Pit-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiru; Han, Xue; Wang, Liyan; Diao, Zongli; Liu, Wenhu

    2016-11-01

    We determined the effect of indoxyl sulfate (IS) on Pit-1 expression and the role of Pit-1 in IS-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess osteoblastic differentiation and Pit-1 expression, VSMCs were incubated with various concentrations of IS for different durations. Phosphonoformic acid (PFA), a competitive inhibitor of Pit-1, was used to verify the role of Pit-1. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to assess Pit-1 protein and mRNA levels, respectively. To evaluate calcification, calcium content was measured. After IS treatment, we observed osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs and up-regulation of Pit-1 expression. Moreover, the effect of IS on osteoblastic differentiation and Pit-1 expression was partly dose- and time-dependent. PFA abrogated the IS-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs to a certain extent. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway was activated after treatment with IS, whereas inhibition of the JNK pathway partially attenuated the effect of IS on both the stimulation of Pit-1 expression and calcium deposition. Our study is the first to demonstrate that IS promotes Pit-1 expression in part by activation of the JNK pathway that is involved in the mechanism of IS-induced osteoblastic differentiation and matrix mineralization.

  19. Numerical simulation of the double pits stress concentration in a curved casing inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour or sweet oil fields development is common in recent years. Casing and tubing are usually subjected to pitting corrosion because of exposure to the strong corrosion species, such as CO2, H2S, and saline water. When the corrosion pits formed in the casing inner surface, localized stress concentration will occur and the casing strength will be degraded. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the degree of stress concentration factor accurately. This article performed a numerical simulation on double pits stress concentration factor in a curved inner surface using the finite element software ABAQUS. The results show that the stress concentration factor of double pits mainly depends on the ratio of two pits distance to the pit radius (L/R. It should not be only assessed by the absolute distance between the two pits. When the two pits are close and tangent, the maximum stress concentration factor will appear on the inner tangential edges. Stress concentration increased by double pits in a curved casing inner surface is more serious than that in a flat surface. A correction factor of 1.9 was recommended in the curved inner surface double pits stress concentration factor predict model.

  20. Mud Pit Identification Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (September 2001, Rev. No. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2001-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection completed the Mud Pit Strategy, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (DOE/NV, 2001) to document a systematic process for identifying and categorizing potentially contaminated mud pits located on the NTS, and systematically evaluating them for inclusion in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The objectives of this report are to summarize the process used to define the six mud pit categories, identify mud pits, discuss the mud pits that do not meet FFACO entry criteria, identify mud pits for proposed FFACO entry, and describe the general mud pit distribution. Underground nuclear testing conducted since 1951 at the NTS has produced mud pits that were used for the transfer and collection of drilling mud, rock cuttings, and drilling fluids. This report documents the execution of the strategy document by examining the identification process and documenting these results. For clarification purposes, this document uses the term ''entry'' to indicate inclusion of mud pits into the FFACO and ''exclusion'' to indicate those mud pits which do not meet the ''entry'' criteria defined in this report. Based on this criteria, 257 mud pits identified that have been proposed for FFACO entry were found in 14 separate areas of the NTS. Each of the 257 mud pits proposed for FFACO entry will need to be located in the field, photographed, and documented during future Industrial Sites Project, Preliminary Assessment activities. If the field review determines that a mud pit was misidentified or improperly categorized, the appropriate FFACO modification request will be submitted for review and approval.

  1. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B. Manbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess: (1 how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2 from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3 whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  2. Review of molar tooth structure research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Kuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, molar tooth structure (MTS has been studied. The study developed in three stages. During the first stage (before 1980, researchers described three basic morphologies of MTS, mainly from the Belt Supergroup in North America, and they provided several hypotheses for the origin of MTS. During the second stage (1980–1999, the frequent discoveries of MTS on all continents resulted in many detailed descriptions of their shape and in several hypotheses concerning the origin of MTS. Notably, hypotheses of MTS’s origin such as seismic activity and biological activity were developed. Since 2000, research has progressed into a new stage (the third stage. This is due to discoveries of MTS in the Meso–Neoproterozoic of China and elsewhere, and the ongoing debate on the seismic or biological origin is replaced by a hypothesis that involves gas expansion and chemically-controlled carbonate precipitation (both of them possibly affected by biological activities. This latter idea has gradually been commonly recognized as the mainstream theory. Despite continued disagreements, researchers now agree that microsparry calcite played a controlling role regarding the development and the global distribution of MTS in time and space during the Proterozoic, the morphological diversity, and the impact on the sedimentary environment. The present contribution analyses the three major hypotheses regarding the origin of MTS; it also discusses the shortcomings of the hypotheses regarding a seismic or biologic origin, and it details the modern hypothesis that links formation of cracks to the precipitation of sparry calcite. It is deduced that important questions dealing with the Precambrian can be answered, among other aspects regarding the depositional palaeogeography and stratigraphic correlations.

  3. Preformed crowns for decayed primary molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Nicola P T; Ricketts, David; Chong, Lee Yee; Keightley, Alexander J; Lamont, Thomas; Santamaria, Ruth M

    2015-12-31

    Crowns for primary molars are preformed and come in a variety of sizes and materials to be placed over decayed or developmentally defective teeth. They can be made completely of stainless steel (know as 'preformed metal crowns' or PMCs), or to give better aesthetics, may be made of stainless steel with a white veneer cover or made wholly of a white ceramic material. In most cases, teeth are trimmed for the crowns to be fitted conventionally using a local anaesthetic. However, in the case of the Hall Technique, PMCs are pushed over the tooth with no local anaesthetic, carious tissue removal or tooth preparation. Crowns are recommended for restoring primary molar teeth that have had a pulp treatment, are very decayed or are badly broken down. However, few dental practitioners use them in clinical practice. This review updates the original review published in 2007. Primary objectiveTo evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of all types of preformed crowns for restoring primary teeth compared with conventional filling materials (such as amalgam, composite, glass ionomer, resin modified glass ionomer and compomers), other types of crowns or methods of crown placement, non-restorative caries treatment or no treatment. Secondary objectiveTo explore whether the extent of decay has an effect on the clinical outcome of primary teeth restored with all types of preformed crowns compared with those restored with conventional filling materials. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 21 January 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 21 January 2015) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 21 January 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials and Open Grey for grey literature (to

  4. Structures of Bordered Pits Potentially Contributing to Isolation of a Refilled Vessel from Negative Xylem Pressure in Stems of Morus australis Poir.: Testing of the Pit Membrane Osmosis and Pit Valve Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooeda, Hiroki; Terashima, Ichiro; Taneda, Haruhiko

    2017-02-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counteracts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels. Here, using the single-vessel method, we assessed these hypotheses in shoots of mulberry (Morus australis Poir.). First, we confirmed the occurrence of xylem refilling under negative pressure in the potted mulberry saplings. To examine the pit membrane osmosis hypothesis, we estimated the semi-permeability of pit membranes for molecules of various sizes and found that the pit membranes were not semi-permeable to polyethylene glycol of molecular mass osmosis mechanism in mulberry would be unrealistically large. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Mandibular second molar periodontal healing after impacted third molar extraction in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana Inocêncio; Gallas-Torreira, Mercedes; López-Ratón, Mónica

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of preoperative periodontal defects and analyze 12-month spontaneous healing on the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar (M2) after impacted mandibular third molar (M3) extraction. This prospective clinical study was conducted in 25 healthy young patients (21.03 ± 4.38 yr old) with 40 extractions of higher-risk periodontal impacted M3s. Plaque and gingival indexes, recession, bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and attachment level were recorded before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery at 5 sites on the distal aspect of the M2. The initial mean PD was 5.70 ± 3.80 mm, with the deepest mean PD at the lingual side. At 12 months, a mean PD average of 3.77 ± 2.86 mm was recorded, with a total average recovery of 1.93 ± 2.46 mm (P periodontal defects that are deepest at the lingual side and almost recover at 12 months after extraction. The first 3 months is considered the cutoff for periodontal healing. Young adults with high-risk periodontal M3 impactions may benefit from early extraction, which increases spontaneous periodontal healing. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hipomineralização molar-incisivo = Molar incisor hypomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basso, Ana Paula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hipomineralização-molar incisivo (HMI é um defeito de origem sistêmica no esmalte dentário de primeiros molares e incisivos permanentes. Nesta condição, o esmalte hipomineralizado é frágil e pode se destacar facilmente, deixando a dentina exposta e causando, assim, problemas como sensibilidade dentária e maior risco ao estabelecimento de lesões de cárie. A HMI é freqüentemente confundida com fluorose ou amelogênese imperfeita e sua prevalência varia de 3,6 a 25%. Vários fatores etiológicos são citados para a condição e estão freqüentemente relacionados com doenças na infância nos primeiros três anos de vida. O tratamento envolve desde a restauração dos dentes afetados com materiais adesivos ou até mesmo a extração dos mesmos, dependendo da severidade do caso

  7. Permanent and temporary pacemaker implantation after orthotopic heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacal Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To determine the indication for and incidence and evolution of temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. METHODS: A retrospective review of 114 patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation InCor (Heart Institute USP BR between March 1985 and May 1993. We studied the incidence of and indication for temporary pacing, the relationship between pacing and rejection, the need for pemanent pacing and the clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Fourteen of 114 (12%heart transplant recipients required temporary pacing and 4 of 114 (3.5% patients required permanent pacing. The indication for temporary pacing was sinus node dysfunction in 11 patients (78.5% and atrioventricular (AV block in 3 patients (21.4%. The indication for permanent pacemaker implantation was sinus node dysfunction in 3 patients (75% and atrioventricular (AV block in 1 patient (25%. We observed rejection in 3 patients (21.4% who required temporary pacing and in 2 patients (50% who required permanent pacing. The previous use of amiodarone was observed in 10 patients (71.4% with temporary pacing. Seven of the 14 patients (50% died during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Sinus node dysfunction was the principal indication for temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. The need for pacing was related to worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation.

  8. Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems Containing Mesitylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morávková, L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of density measurements for binary systems containing 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene with a variety of organic compounds at atmospheric pressure. Literature data of the binary systems were divided into nine basic groups by the type of contained organic compound with mesitylene. The excess molar volumes calculated from the experimental density values have been compared with literature data. Densities were measured by a few experimental methods, namely using a pycnometer, a dilatometer or a commercial apparatus. The overview of the experimental data and shape of the excess molar volume curve versus mole fraction is presented in this paper. The excess molar volumes were correlated by Redlich–Kister equation. The standard deviations for fitting of excess molar volume versus mole fraction are compared. Found literature data cover a huge temperature range from (288.15 to 343.15 K.

  9. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Combined ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  10. Prediction of postoperative pain after mandibular third molar surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudin, Asa; Eriksson, Lars; Liedholm, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive potential of preoperative psychological and psychophysiological variables in estimating severity of postoperative pain following mandibular third molar surgery (MTMS). Methods: Following ethical committee approval and informed consent, 40 consecutive patients scheduled...

  11. Evidence for an explosive origin of central pit craters on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathan R.; Bell, James F.; Christensen, Philip R.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2015-05-01

    Kilometer-scale pits are nested in the centers of many impact craters on Mars as well as on icy satellites. They have been inferred to form in the presence of a water-ice rich substrate; however, the process(es) responsible for their formation is still debated. Previous models invoke origins by either explosive excavation of potentially water-bearing crustal material, or by subsurface drainage of meltwater and/or collapse. If explosive excavation forms central pits, pit-derived ejecta should be draped around the pits, whereas internal collapse should not deposit significant material outside pit rims. Using visible wavelength images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) instruments and thermal infrared images from the Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument, we conducted a survey to characterize, in detail, the global population of central pits in impact craters ⩾10 km in diameter. We specifically examined the morphology and thermophysical characteristics of the pits for evidence of pit ejecta. Our analysis of thermal images suggests that coarse-grained materials are distributed proximally around many central pits on the floors of their host craters. The decrease in average grain size with distance from pit rims is consistent with pit-derived ejecta. These observations and interpretations better support an explosive origin for central pits on Mars than they do an origin of subsurface meltwater drainage and collapse of the overlying substrate. A major weakness to previous explosive central pit formation models is the inability for them to form pits late enough in the impact process to be preserved. To address this, we present an alternative "melt contact model" where a central uplift brings ice-bearing substrate into contact with impact melt to generate steam explosions and excavate central pits during the impact modification stage. Theoretical calculations show

  12. Return to Work After Temporary Disability Pension in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija

    2015-09-01

    When it is possible that the employee's work ability can be restored through treatment or rehabilitation, disability pension in Finland is granted for a fixed period. We examined which factors are associated with return to work (RTW) after such temporary disability pension. The study included all Finnish residents whose temporary disability pension from the earnings-related pension system started in 2008 (N = 10,269). Competing risks regression analysis was applied to examine register-based determinants for RTW after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, other diseases, and injury over a 4-year follow-up period. The overall cumulative incidence of RTW was 25%. RTW was more probable after temporary disability pension due to injury and musculoskeletal diseases and less probable after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders. Younger age and higher education increased RTW but differences between genders, private and public sector employees, and occupational classes were relatively small. The probability of RTW was higher among those who were employed before their temporary disability pension (subhazard ratio in multivariate analysis 2.41 (95% CI 2.13-2.72) and among the 9% who participated in vocational rehabilitation during their pension [SHR 2.10 (95% CI 1.90-2.31)]. With some exceptions, the results were fairly similar for all diagnostic causes of temporary disability pension. Return to work after temporary disability pension was relatively uncommon. Nevertheless, in all diagnostic groups RTW continued for the whole follow-up period. The low educated and those not employed before temporary disability pension need more support in their RTW. The strong association between vocational rehabilitation and RTW suggests that increasing rehabilitation among those with impaired work ability may promote RTW.

  13. Managing molar-incisor hypomineralization: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhennawy, Karim; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-12-01

    We systematically reviewed treatment modalities for MIH-affected molars and incisors. Trials on humans with ≥1 MIH molar/incisor reporting on various treatments were included. Two authors independently searched and extracted records. Sample-size-weighted annual failure rates were estimated where appropriate. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Google Scholar) were screened, and hand searches and cross-referencing performed. Fourteen (mainly observational) studies were included. Ten trials (381 participants) investigated MIH-molars, four (139) MIH-incisors. For molars, remineralization, restorative or extraction therapies had been assessed. For restorative approaches, mean (SD) annual failure rates were highest for fissure sealants (12[6]%) and glass-ionomer restorations (12[2]%), and lowest for indirect restorations (1[3]%), preformed metal crowns (1.3 [2.1]%) and composite restorations (4[3]%). Ony study assessed extraction of molars in young patients (median age 8.2 years), the majority of them without malocclusions, but third molars in development. Spontaneous alignment of second molars was more frequent in the maxilla (55%) than the mandible (47%). For incisors, desensitizing agents successfully managed hypersensitivity. Micro-abrasion and composite veneers improved aesthetics. Few, mainly moderate to high-risk-studies investigated treatment of MIH. Remineralization or sealants seem suitable for MIH-molars with limited severity and/or hypersensitivity. For severe cases, restorations with composites or indirect restorations or preformed metal crowns seem suitable. Prior to tooth extraction as last resort factors like the presence of a general malocclusion, patients' age and the status of neighboring teeth should be considered. No recommendations can be given for MIH-incisors. Dentists need to consider the specific condition of each tooth and the needs and expectations of

  14. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jordão Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving “second and third” molar.

  15. Anxiety before extraction of impacted lower third molars

    OpenAIRE

    Tarazona Álvarez, Beatriz; Tarazona Álvarez, Pablo; Peñarrocha Oltra, David; Rojo Moreno, Juan; Peñarrocha Diago, María

    2015-01-01

    Objetives: Assess levels of trait anxiety, state anxiety and dental anxiety before extraction of lower third molars and check the correlation and reliability of the scales used for the measurement of preoperative anxiety. Study Design: A prospective study of patients treated with extraction of a lower third molar between September 2010 to December 2010 was carried out. A total of 125 patients were included in the study. All of them were patients of the Oral Surgery and Implantology Department...

  16. A retrospective study of sodium hypochlorite pulpotomies in primary molars

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tzu-Ying; Chuang, Li-Chuan; Aileen I Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Background/purpose: Formocresol has been a popular pulpotomy medicament for primary molars, however, its toxicity and potential carcinogenicity leaves room for other alternatives such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic success rate of 5% NaOCl pulpotomy in primary molars. Materials and methods: A retrospective research of patient records from January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 was conducted to evaluate the clinical and ...

  17. One-Year Clinical Success of Embrace Hydrophilic and Helioseal-F Hydrophobic Sealants in Permanent First Molars: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Askarizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to compare the one-year clinical success of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic fissure sealant in permanent first molars.Materials and Methods: This split-mouth clinical trial was conducted on 23 six to nine year olds who had four fully erupted sound first molars. Helioseal-F and Embrace sealants were randomly applied on the first molars, and follow-ups were scheduled at three, six and 12 months to examine the teeth according to USPHS criteria (retention, marginal adaptation, color match, surface smoothness and caries recurrence. The Wilcoxon signed rank test, the Friedman test and the Mann Whitney test were applied for statistical analyses (P<0.05.Results: No significant differences were noted between Embrace and Helioseal-F in retention, smoothness of surface, marginal adaptation, color match or caries at three, six or 12 months (all P>0.05. In addition, the retention of sealants between the maxilla and mandible was not significantly different (P>0.05. Friedman test revealed no significant difference in any of the five parameters at different time points in any sealant group (P>0.05. Conclusions: Embrace hydrophilic and Helioseal-F hydrophobic sealants have the same one-year clinical success rate.Key words: Pit and Fissure Sealants; Embrace WetBond; Helioseal; Dentition, Permanent

  18. Heterogeneous nucleation of pits via step pinning during Si(100) homoepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitamben, E. N.; Butera, R. E.; Swartzentruber, B. S.; Simonson, R. J.; Misra, S.; Carroll, M. S.; Bussmann, E.

    2017-11-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we investigate oxide-induced growth pits in Si thin films deposited by molecular beam epitaxy. In the transition temperature range from 2D adatom islanding to step-flow growth, systematic controlled air leaks into the growth chamber induce pits in the growth surface. We show that pits are also correlated with oxygen-contaminated flux from Si sublimation sources. From a thermodynamic standpoint, multilayer growth pits are unexpected in relaxed homoepitaxial growth, whereas oxidation is a known cause for step pinning, roughening, and faceting on elemental surfaces, both with and without growth flux. Not surprisingly, pits are thermodynamically metastable and heal by annealing to recover a smooth periodic step arrangement. STM reveals new details about the pits’ atomistic origins and growth dynamics. We give a model for heterogeneous nucleation of pits by preferential adsorption of Å-sized oxide nuclei at intrinsic growth antiphase boundaries, and subsequent step pinning and bunching around the nuclei.

  19. A Novel Clinical Entity of Autoimmune Endocrinopathy: Anti-PIT-1 Antibody Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Genzo; Bando, Hironori; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (PIT-1; POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (POU1F1)) is an essential transcription factor for the differentiation of somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and thyrotrophs, and for the expression of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Mutations in PIT-1 cause congenital defects in GH and PRL secretion and severe TSH insufficiency. Anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome, firstly reported in 2011, is characterized by acquired GH, PRL, and TSH deficiencies without PIT-1 mutation and is associated with the presence of the circulating antibody against PIT-1 protein as a marker. Various autoantibodies are detected with multiple endocrine organopathies in this syndrome; therefore, it meets the criteria of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Mechanistically, cytotoxic T lymphocytes specifically reacting with PIT-1 protein play an important role in the development of this syndrome. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Droplet impact near a millimetre-size hole: closed pit versus open-ended pore

    CERN Document Server

    de Jong, Rianne; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2014-01-01

    We investigate drop impact dynamics near both closed pits and open- ended pores experimentally. The resulting impact phenomena differ greatly for a pit or a pore. For the first, we observe three phenomena: a splash, a jet and an air bubble, whose appearance depends on the distance between impact location and pit. Furthermore, we found that splash velocities can reach up to seven times the impact velocity. Drop impact near a pore, however, results solely in splashing. Surprisingly, two distinct and disconnected splashing regimes occur, with a region of plain spreading in-between. For pores, splashes are less pronounced than in the pit case. We state that, for the pit case, the presence of air inside the pit plays a crucial role: it promotes splashing and allows for air bubbles to appear.

  1. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti intermetallic compound was investigated as function of chloride concentration by using electrochemical method and scanning electron microscope in sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  In addition, the pitting corrosion of type C276 alloy was also studied under the same experimental condition for comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the intermetallic compound decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potential and pitting potential of Ni3(Si,Ti were lower than those of C276 alloy, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of C276 alloy was higher than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Interactions between Corrosion Pits on Stainless Steel under Loading Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haitao; Han, En-Hou [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2017-04-15

    The interactions between corrosion pits on stainless steel under loading conditions are studied by using a cellular automata model coupled with finite element method at a mesoscopic scale. The cellular automata model focuses on a metal/film/electrolyte system, including anodic dissolution, passivation, diffusion of hydrogen ions and salt film hydrolysis. The Chopard block algorithm is used to improve the diffusion simulation efficiency. The finite element method is used to calculate the stress concentration on the pit surface during pit growth, and the effect of local stress and strain on anodic current is obtained by using the Gutman model, which is used as the boundary conditions of the cellular automata model. The transient current characteristics of the interactions between corrosion pits under different simulation factors including the breakdown of the passive film at the pit mouth and the diffusion of hydrogen ions are analyzed. The analysis of the pit stability product shows that the simulation results are close to the experimental conclusions.

  3. Pit Formation during the Self-Assembly of Dithiol Monolayers on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdairmid, A. R.; Cappello, M. L.; Keeler, W. J.; Banks, J. T.; Gallagher, M. C.

    2000-03-01

    The formation of pits one gold atom deep during the growth of alkanethiol monolayers on Au(111), has been observed previously by others. Explanations for pit formation include etching of the substrate, or mass transport of gold atom + thiol molecule on the surface, due to changes in surface energy^1. We have investigated the structure of dithiothreitol (DTT) SAMs on Au(111). Ex situ STM measurements indicate similar pitting occurs during formation of the dithiol monolayer. The degree of pitting depends on exposure time, sample temperature during formation, and subsequent annealing of the sample. Pitting is enhanced considerasbly when DTT is coordinated with Ti, in fact DTT/Ti films exhibit considerable pit motion during STM imaging. ^1 F. Teran et al. Electrochimica Acta 44, 1053 (1998).

  4. Spur Gear Tooth Pitting Propagation Assessment Using Model-based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xi-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Liang; Pan, Jun; Zuo, Ming Jian

    2017-11-01

    Tooth pitting is a common failure mode of a gearbox. Many researchers investigated dynamic properties of a gearbox with localized pitting damage on a single gear tooth. The dynamic properties of a gearbox with pitting distributed over multiple teeth have rarely been investigated. In this paper, gear tooth pitting propagation to neighboring teeth is modeled and investigated for a pair of spur gears. Tooth pitting propagation effect on time-varying mesh stiffness, gearbox dynamics and vibration characteristics is studied and then fault symptoms are revealed. In addition, the influence of gear mesh damping and environmental noise on gearbox vibration properties is investigated. In the end, 114 statistical features are tested to estimate tooth pitting growth. Statistical features that are insensitive to gear mesh damping and environmental noise are recommended.

  5. Prevalence of Taurodont molars in a North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Ramesh; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Arya, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    It is very important for dentists to be familiar with anomalies of teeth not only for the clinical complications but also their management. Taurodontism also provides a valuable clue in detecting its association with various syndromes and other systemic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Taurodont molars among a North Indian population. A total of 1000 patients' full-mouth periapical radiographs were screened. The radiographs were evaluated under optimal conditions using double magnifying glasses. A total of 7615 molars (including third molars) were evaluated. The relative incidence and the correlations regarding the location of Taurodont teeth (right versus left side and maxillary versus mandibular) were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Twenty-eight patients were found to have a Taurodont molar (11 women and 17 men [P = 0.250]). The prevalence of Taurodont molar was 2.8%. Males had a higher prevalence rate than females (3.4% vs. 2.2%, respectively). A cluster analysis of total Taurodonts in the mandible (45%) versus maxilla (55%) of both males and females combined showed a statistically significant difference (P Taurodontism is basically based on racial expression in different populations. These variations in prevalence between different populations may be due to ethnic variations. The occurrence of Taurodont molars among this Indian population was rare.

  6. Cuartos molares supernumerarios: relato de caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nascimento Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Los dientes supernumerarios se diagnostican mediante exámenes radiográficos de rutina, pues generalmente son asintomáticos. Los cuartos molares representan el segundo grupo de dientes supernumerarios con más frecuencias; ocurren en posición distal a los terceros molares, especialmente en el maxilar superior, y en la mayoría de casos, estos están incluidos. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar la presentación de un caso, de una mujer de 30 anos con los cuartos molares incluidos en el maxilar inferior y describir la técnica para su remoción.Supernumerary teeth are generally asymptomatic and are diagnosed by routine X-ray tests. The fourth molar teeth represent the second group of the most frequent supernumerary teeth, occur in distal position to the third molar teeth, specially in the superior maxilla and, in most of the cases, they are included. The aim of this paper is to comment on the case of a 30-year-old woman with the fourth molar teeth included in the inferior maxilla and to describe the technique used for their removal.

  7. Caries Management Strategies for Primary Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, R.M.; Innes, N.P.T.; Machiulskiene, V.; Evans, D.J.P.; Splieth, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. There is also increasing interest in techniques where no caries is removed. We present the 1-yr results of clinical efficacy for 3 caries management options for occlusoproximal cavitated lesions in primary molars: conventional restorations (CR; complete caries removal and compomer restoration), Hall technique (HT; no caries removal, sealing in with stainless steel crowns), and nonrestorative caries treatment (NRCT; no caries removal, opening up the cavity, teaching brushing and fluoride application). In sum, 169 children (3-8 yr old; mean, 5.56 ± 1.45 yr) were enrolled in this secondary care–based, 3-arm, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Treatments were carried out by specialist pediatric dentists or postgraduate trainees. One lesion per child received CR, HT, or NRCT. Outcome measures were clinical failure rates, grouped as minor failure (restoration loss/need for replacement, reversible pulpitis, caries progression, etc.) and major failure (irreversible pulpitis, abscess, etc.). There were 148 children (87.6%) with a minimum follow-up of 11 mo (mean, 12.23 ± 0.98 mo). Twenty teeth were recorded as having at least 1 minor failure: NRCT, n = 8 (5%); CR, n = 11 (7%); HT, n = 1 (1%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Only the comparison between NRCT and CR showed no significant difference (p = .79, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.80). Nine (6%) experienced at least 1 major failure: NRCT, n = 4 (2%); CR, n = 5 (3%); HT, n = 0 (0%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Individual comparison of NRCT and CR showed no statistically significant difference in major failures (p = .75, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.76). Success and failure rates were not significantly affected by pediatric dentists’ level of experience (p = .13, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.14). The HT was significantly more successful

  8. Influence of dentin contamination by temporary cements on the bond strength of adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimeri Hebling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin contaminated by temporary cements with or without eugenol. Method: Flat dentin surfaces were obtained from twenty-four human third molars. With exception of the control group (n=8, the surfaces were covered with Interim Restorative Material (Caulk Dentsplay, Milford, DE, USA or Cavit (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA and kept in an oven at 37oC for seven days. After removing the cements, the adhesive systems Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA or Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan were applied in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations, and then the crowns were constructed in of resin composite. The teeth were sectioned into specimens with a cross-sectional bond area of 0.81mm2, which were sub mitted to microtensile testing in a mechanical test machine at an actuator speed of 0.5mm/min. The data were analyzed by t- and ANOVA tests, complemented by Tukey tests (α=0.05. Results: For Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA, bond strength did not differ statistically (p>0.05 for all the experimental conditions. For Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan, only the Interim Restorative Material (Caulk Dentsplay, Milford, DE, USA Group showed significantly lower bond strength (30.1±13.8 MPa in comparison with the other groups; control (38.9±13.5 MPa and Cavit (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA (42.1±11.0 MPa, which showed no significant difference between them.Conclusion: It was concluded that the previous covering of dentin with temporary cement containing eugenol had a deleterious effect on the adhesive performance of the self-etching system only.

  9. Development of diagnostic tools to predict incidence of bitter pit during apple storage

    OpenAIRE

    MIRZAEE, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Bitter pit is an important physiological disorder of many apple cultivars where the low uptake and poor distribution of calcium within the cortex of apples pervades. Controlled atmosphere storage and application of 1-MCP (SmartFreshSM) can delay the onset of bitter pit symptoms by delaying maturity and senescence; however, significant losses may occur in long-term stored apples. It is hard to detect internal bitter pit using external examination alone.\\ud \\ud Previous studies have focused on ...

  10. Intermetallic particles-induced pitting corrosion in 6061-T651 aluminium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -Induced Pitting Corrosion in 6061-T651 Aluminium Alloy Kalenda Mutombo Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa kmutombo@csir.co.za Keywords: pitting corrosion, 6061-T651 aluminium alloy, intermetallic particles, 3.5% Na... extrudability, reasonable weldability and good corrosion resistance. This alloy finds widespread application in ship building and in the fabrication of tank containers for transporting various liquids. 6061-T651 aluminium alloy is, however, prone to pitting...

  11. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    fracture surfaces close to the corrosion pits. Because of planar slip dislocation mechanism these images exhibit a smooth region along the crack front...surfaces 0.5 mm away from corrosion pit, in which microstructure looks more rough due to wavy slip dislocation mechanism. 57 Figure 4.13b...CRACK INITIATION AND GROWTH BEHAVIOR AT CORROSION PIT IN 2024-T3 ALUMINUM ALLOY THESIS Al-Qahtani

  12. Scanning Probe Investigation of Pitting Corrosion on Aluminum 5083 H131

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    solution, and a pit is subsequently formed. Dislocation of the particle may have been facilitated by the AFM tip, formation of corrosion products, or...Scanning Probe Investigation of Pitting Corrosion on Aluminum 5083 H131 by Joseph P. Labukas and Kenneth E. Strawhecker ARL-TR-6925 May...Scanning Probe Investigation of Pitting Corrosion on Aluminum 5083 H131 Joseph P. Labukas and Kenneth E. Strawhecker Weapons and Materials

  13. Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0218 REVIEW AND STUDY OF PHYSICS DRIVEN PITTING CORROSION MODELING IN 2024-T3 ALUMINUM ALLOYS (POSTPRINT) Lingyu...2014 – 1 April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REVIEW AND STUDY OF PHYSICS DRIVEN PITTING CORROSION MODELING IN 2024-T3 ALUMINUM ALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a...turbines, marine structures and so on. In the work presented in this paper, we reviewed and studied several physics based pitting corrosion models that

  14. Effect of solution treatment on pitting behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, H.; Li, X.G.; Dong, C.F.; Xiao, K.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of solution heat treatment on pitting behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel was investigated by EDS, potentiodynamic polarization and SECM. The contrast experiments were carried out on the original steel. The results demonstrate that for the original sample, when the potential was at the open circuit potential, there were many pitting precursor areas, due to the local breakdown of passive film on the surface, the pitting current fluctuations on the scale of pA. On the contrary, a...

  15. Endodontic treatment of mandibular molar with root dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniely Amorin Meireles

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical preparation of root canals with accentuated curvature is challenging. New rotatory systems, such as Reciproc, require a shorter period of time to prepare curved canals, and became a viable alternative for endodontic treatment of teeth with root dilaceration. Thus, this study aimed to report a clinical case of endodontic therapy of root with accentuated dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system. Mandibular right second molar was diagnosed as asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Pulp chamber access was performed, and glide path was created with #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer and PathFile #13, #16 and #19 (Dentsply Maillefer up to the temporary working length. The working length measured corresponded to 20 mm in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual canals, and 22 mm in the distal canal. The R25 file (VDW GmbH was used in all the canals for instrumentation and final preparation, followed by filling with Reciproc gutta-percha cones (VDW GmbH and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer, using thermal compaction technique. The case has been receiving follow-up for 6 mon and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. Despite the difficulties, the treatment could be performed in a shorter period of time than the conventional methods.

  16. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  17. Storage and Management of Open-pit Transportation Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aiming at the actual demand of open-pit mine daily production scheduling and positioning monitoring. After extracting data from existing topographic maps and other information, it discusses the feasibility of using this data to establish thematic database. By considering the extensive application of GPS data, utilizing new spatial data types of SQL Server 2008 for data storage and management. Extracting data algorithms such as the node spatial data, the regional boundary and the path are implemented, then spatial data storage and management is also realized. It provides the basis for the production of decision-making and production cost savings.

  18. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  19. El teorema de Pitágoras en la escuela

    OpenAIRE

    Echavarría, Carlos; Bermúdez, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Este taller estará dirigido a docentes de la educación básica y media y personas en general que estén interesados en conocer estrategias para la enseñanza del teorema de Pitágoras, en este se mostrarán algunos rompecabezas y se estudiaran, además se mostraran a través de una metodología llamada Aula Taller y finalmente se harán reflexiones alrededor de la enseñanza de la geometría en la escuela.

  20. Optic disc pit maculopathy after prone positioning spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sánchez, Marcos; Rodríguez-González-Herrero, Maria E; Ruiz-Sará, Jenifer

    2017-08-30

    To report a case of optic disc pit maculopathy after spine surgery performed in the prone position. Case report. A 32-year-old man underwent spine surgery for disc herniation repair. He complained of visual acuity loss immediately after the procedure. Optic disc maculopathy with internal limiting membrane detachment was found to be the cause. Vitrectomy was scheduled after a 12-month follow-up without resolution of the maculopathy. Optic disc maculopathy has not previously been associated with nonocular surgery or patient positioning. Physiologic changes induced by the prone position likely altered the pressure gradient in the eye and led to the development of the maculopathy.