Sample records for temporally shaped picosecond

  1. Bunch-shape monitor for a picosecond single-bunch beam of a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Yoneichi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo


    A non-interactive-type bunch-shape and beam intensity monitor for a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA-type connector and an Al pipe of 50 mm inner diameter. Test measurements of the present monitor have been made under the conditions of the accelerated charges of lower than 27 nC/pulse and the pulse width ranging from 6 to 30 ps (Full Width at Half Maximum). The results show that the present monitor is applicable to bunch-shape measurement of the picosecond single-bunch beam. The monitor output is also found to be proportional to the beam intensity of more than 0.05 nC/pulse. (author)

  2. Picosecond Infrared Laser (PIRL) Application in Stapes Surgery-First Experience in Human Temporal Bones. (United States)

    Petersen, Hannes; Gliese, Alexandra; Stober, Yannick; Maier, Stephanie; Hansen, Nils-Owe; Kruber, Sebastian; Eggert, Dennis; Tóth, Miklós; Gosau, Tobias; Schlüter, Hartmut; Püschel, Klaus; Schumacher, Udo; Miller, Robert John Dwayne; Münscher, Adrian; Dalchow, Carsten


    Using a contact-free laser technique for stapedotomy reduces the risk of mechanical damage of the stapes footplate. However, the risk of inner ear dysfunction due to thermal, acoustic, or direct damage has still not been solved. The objective of this study was to describe the first experiences in footplate perforation in cadaver tissue performed by the novel Picosecond-Infrared-Laser (PIRL), allowing a tissue preserving ablation. Three human cadaver stapes were perforated using a fiber-coupled PIRL. The results were compared with footplate perforations performed with clinically applied Er:YAG laser. Therefore, two different laser energies for the Er:YAG laser (30 and 60 mJ) were used for footplate perforation of three human cadaver stapes each. Comparisons were made using histology and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis. The perforations performed by the PIRL (total energy: 640-1070 mJ) revealed a precise cutting edge with an intact trabecular bone structure and no considerable signs of coagulation. Using the Er:YAG-Laser with a pulse energy of 30 mJ (total energy: 450-600 mJ), a perforation only in the center of the ablation zone was possible, whereas with a pulse energy of 60 mJ (total energy: of 195-260 mJ) the whole ablation zone was perforated. For both energies, the cutting edge appeared irregular with trabecular structure of the bone only be conjecturable and signs of superficial carbonization. The microscopic results following stapes footplate perforation suggest a superiority of the PIRL in comparison to the Er:YAG laser regarding the precision and tissue preserving ablation.

  3. A case of mushroom shape temporal bone osteoma. (United States)

    Akamatsu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Rica; Fukui, Tsuyoshi; Miyasaka, Muneo; Yamada, Shinya


    A cranial vault Osteoma is relatively common benign tumor. Mushroom shaped skull osteoma is, however, extremely rare. Twenty seven years old female developed slow growing hard mass posterior to the ear. CT scan revealed a mushroom shaped osseous mass approximately 2.5 cm in diameter protruding from the temporal bone at the site of asterion. And the tumor was located over the right sigmoid sinus. The sigmoid sinus engraved approximately 4mm to the tumor and had a branching to one emissaries' vein. Operation was performed under general anesthesia. The tumor was excised first by cutting the base of the tumor, and then residual tumor was grinded using a round head cutting bar. A chisel dissection was not recommended because of underlining sinus. Histological findings were consistent with a benign osteoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. CT examination immediately done after operation revealed no evidence of intracranial hemorrhage, or injury of vessels. Osetoma was excised, and the surface of cranial bone at the operation site was smooth and cosmetically acceptable. At 6-months follow up, patient remains asymptomatic and recurrence free. CT examination with Multi Planer Reconstruction imaging or 3D reconstruction is highly recommended for the operational planning of cranial osteoma.

  4. Lidar receivers for picosecond remote sensing (United States)

    Stoyanov, D. V.; Dreischuh, T. N.


    The lidars of picosecond resolution are an attractive tool for remote probing of some highly dynamic objects like sea subsurface waters, small-scale turbulences in the atmosphere, etc. The picosecond lasers are suitable illuminating sources, but the main restrictions are due to the lack of proper receiving methods, combining the both high temporal and amplitude resolution, good sensitivity, short integration time, and wide dynamic range. The methods for short pulse measurements are not suitable for picosecond lidars, operating at low level, with highly dynamic signals. The streak-cameras are of high cost, lower sensitivity, and lower dynamic range (approximately 10(exp 3)). Because of the background, the single quantum regime in photomultipliers (PMT) is ineffective. The sampling of highly dynamic optical signals with resolution less than or equal to 1ns is a serious problem, limiting the application of the high speed PMT-MCP (microchannel plate) in the picosecond lidar systems. The goal of this work is to describe the use of a new photodetection technique which combines the picosecond resolution with the high amplitude resolution, dynamic range, and sensitivity.

  5. Object Representations in Human Visual Cortex Formed Through Temporal Integration of Dynamic Partial Shape Views. (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Zohary, Ehud


    We typically recognize visual objects using the spatial layout of their parts, which are present simultaneously on the retina. Therefore, shape extraction is based on integration of the relevant retinal information over space. The lateral occipital complex (LOC) can represent shape faithfully in such conditions. However, integration over time is sometimes required to determine object shape. To study shape extraction through temporal integration of successive partial shape views, we presented human participants (both men and women) with artificial shapes that moved behind a narrow vertical or horizontal slit. Only a tiny fraction of the shape was visible at any instant at the same retinal location. However, observers perceived a coherent whole shape instead of a jumbled pattern. Using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis, we searched for brain regions that encode temporally integrated shape identity. We further required that the representation of shape should be invariant to changes in the slit orientation. We show that slit-invariant shape information is most accurate in the LOC. Importantly, the slit-invariant shape representations matched the conventional whole-shape representations assessed during full-image runs. Moreover, when the same slit-dependent shape slivers were shuffled, thereby preventing their spatiotemporal integration, slit-invariant shape information was reduced dramatically. The slit-invariant representation of the various shapes also mirrored the structure of shape perceptual space as assessed by perceptual similarity judgment tests. Therefore, the LOC is likely to mediate temporal integration of slit-dependent shape views, generating a slit-invariant whole-shape percept. These findings provide strong evidence for a global encoding of shape in the LOC regardless of integration processes required to generate the shape percept. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual objects are recognized through spatial integration of features available simultaneously on

  6. Temporal Shape Changes and Future Trends in European Automotive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Costa


    Full Text Available Evolution produces genuine novelty in morphology through the selection of competing designs as phenotypes. When applied to human creativity, the evolutionary paradigm can provide insight into the ways that our technology and its design are modified through time. The shape of European utilitarian cars in the past 60 years was analyzed in order to determine whether changes occur in a gradual fashion or through saltation, clarifying which are the more conserved and more variable parts of the designs. We also attempted to predict the future appearances of the cars within the next decade, discussing all results within the framework of relevant evolutionary-like equivalences. Here, we analyzed the modification in the shape of European utilitarian cars in the past 60 years by three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to test whether these changes occurred in a gradual or more saltatory fashion. The geometric morphometric shape analysis showed that even though car brands have always been preserving distinct shapes, all followed a gradual pattern of evolution which is now converging toward a more similar fusiform and compact asset. This process was described using Darwinian evolution as a metaphor to quantify and interpret changes over time and the societal pressures promoting them.

  7. Spatio-temporal light shaping for parallel nano-biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    materials such as polymers or biological matter. Focusing ultrashort pulses compresses light and packs high energy densities that can excite multiphoton processes having much finer features. Shaping light to create an array of such high-energy chunks enables parallel processing for getting higher throughput...

  8. Temporal Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for WDM Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren


    Finite state machine sources transmitting QPSK are studied as input to WDM optical fiber systems with ideal distributed Raman amplification. The probabilities of successive constellation symbols are shaped for nonlinear transmission and gains of around 500km (5-10%) are demonstrated...

  9. Stochastic basis for curve shape, RBE and temporal dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.


    This paper uses biophysical-microdosimetric quantities, measured in a physical surrogate or phantom cell, to explain the shape of absorbed dose-quantal cell response curves, the role of radiation quality and the influence of dose rate. Responses expected are explored first in simple autonomous cell systems, followed by increasingly-complex systems. Complications seen with increasingly-complex systems appear to be confined largely to the higher dose and dose rate ranges.

  10. Diffraction characteristics of spatial and temporal Gaussian-shaped femtosecond laser pulse by rectangle reflection grating. (United States)

    Liu, Guohua; Xu, Rongrong; Yu, Wenbing; Wu, Hanping


    The exact intensity distribution expression for the spatial and temporal Gaussian-shaped femtosecond laser pulse diffracted by a rectangle reflection grating is derived. The spatial and temporal diffraction characteristics are theoretically investigated in detail, and a criterion for judging whether or not the diffraction pulse is just split into two independent pulses in the temporal domain is obtained. The results show that the diffraction intensity in the temporal domain consists of three parts: the intensity diffracted by the upper reflection surface of the grating, the intensity diffracted by the nether reflection surface, and their temporal coherent intensity. The temporal coherent intensity becomes weaker, even is zero, for the higher height from the nether surface to the upper surface of the grating. The principal maximum becomes more sharply bright for the bigger waist width of the femtosecond laser pulse in the spatial domain.

  11. Size and shape heritability in natural populations of Drosophila mediopunctata: temporal and microgeographical variation. (United States)

    Bitner-Mathé, B C; Klaczko, L B


    'Traditional morphometrics' allows us to decompose morphological variation into its major independent sources, identifying them usually as size and shape. To compare and investigate the properties of size and shape in natural populations of Drosophila mediopunctata, estimating their heritabilities and analysing their temporal and microgeographic changes, we carried out collections on seven occasions in Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brazil. In one of these collections, we took samples from five different altitudes. Measurements were taken from wild caught inseminated females and up to three of their laboratory-reared daughters. Through a principal component analysis, three major sources of variation were identified as due to size (the first one) and shape (the remaining two). The overall amount of variation among laboratory flies was about half of that observed among wild flies and this reduction was primarily due to size. Shape variation was about the same under natural and artificial conditions. A genetic altitudinal cline was detected for size and shape, although altitude explained only a small part of their variation. Differences among collections were detected both for size and shape in wild and laboratory flies, but no simple pattern emerged. Shape variation had high heritability in nature, close to or above 40% and did not vary significantly temporally. Although on the overall size heritability (18 +/- 6%) was significant its estimates were not consistent along months--they were non-significant in all but one month, when it reached a value of 51 +/- 11%. Overall, this suggests that size and shape have different genetic properties.

  12. Visual Statistical Learning Works after Binding the Temporal Sequences of Shapes and Spatial Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Watanabe


    Full Text Available The human visual system can acquire the statistical structures in temporal sequences of object feature changes, such as changes in shape, color, and its combination. Here we investigate whether the statistical learning for spatial position and shape changes operates separately or not. It is known that the visual system processes these two types of information separately; the spatial information is processed in the parietal cortex, whereas object shapes and colors are detected in the temporal pathway, and, after that, we perceive bound information in the two streams. We examined whether the statistical learning operates before or after binding the shape and the spatial information by using the “re-paired triplet” paradigm proposed by Turk-Browne, Isola, Scholl, and Treat (2008. The result showed that observers acquired combined sequences of shape and position changes, but no statistical information in individual sequence was obtained. This finding suggests that the visual statistical learning works after binding the temporal sequences of shapes and spatial structures and would operate in the higher-order visual system; this is consistent with recent ERP (Abla & Okanoya, 2009 and fMRI (Turk-Browne, Scholl, Chun, & Johnson, 2009 studies.

  13. Temporal probabilistic shaping for mitigation of nonlinearities in optical fiber systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren


    In this paper, finite state machine sources (FSMSs) are used to shape quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) for nonlinear transmission in optical fiber communication systems. The previous optimization algorithm for FSMSs is extended to cover an average power constraint, thus enabling temporal...

  14. Encoding of complexity, shape and curvature by macaque infero-temporal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greet eKayaert


    Full Text Available We recorded responses of macaque infero-temporal (IT neurons to a stimulus set of Fourier Boundary Descriptor shapes wherein complexity, general shape and curvature were systematically varied. We analyzed the response patterns of the neurons to the different stimuli using multi-dimensional scaling. The resulting neural shape space differed in important ways from the physical, image-based shape space. We found a particular sensitivity for the presence of curved versus straight contours that existed only for the simple but not for the medium and highly complex shapes. Also, IT neurons could linearly separate the simple and the complex shapes within a low-dimensional neural shape space, but no distinction was found between the medium and high levels of complexity. None of these effects could be derived from physical image metrics, either directly or by comparing the neural data with similarities yielded by two models of low-level visual processing (one using wavelet-based filters and one that models position and size invariant object selectivity through four hierarchically organized neural layers. This study highlights the relevance of complexity to IT neural encoding, both as a neurally independently represented shape property and through its influence on curvature detection.

  15. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ling eLee


    Full Text Available This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogues of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms. Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past three years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech.

  16. Effects of temporal integration on the shape of visual backward masking functions. (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Cho, Yang Seok


    Many studies of cognition and perception use a visual mask to explore the dynamics of information processing of a target. Especially important in these applications is the time between the target and mask stimuli. A plot of some measure of target visibility against stimulus onset asynchrony is called a masking function, which can sometimes be monotonic increasing but other times is U-shaped. Theories of backward masking have long hypothesized that temporal integration of the target and mask influences properties of masking but have not connected the influence of integration with the shape of the masking function. With two experiments that vary the spatial properties of the target and mask, the authors provide evidence that temporal integration of the stimuli plays a critical role in determining the shape of the masking function. The resulting data both challenge current theories of backward masking and indicate what changes to the theories are needed to account for the new data. The authors further discuss the implication of the findings for uses of backward masking to explore other aspects of cognition.

  17. Dynamic parabolic pulse generation using temporal shaping of wavelength to time mapped pulses. (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat; Piracha, Mohammad Umar; Mandridis, Dimitrios; Delfyett, Peter J


    Self-phase modulation in fiber amplifiers can significantly degrade the quality of compressed pulses in chirped pulse amplification systems. Parabolic pulses with linear frequency chirp are suitable for suppressing nonlinearities, and to achieve high peak power pulses after compression. In this paper, we present an active time domain technique to generate parabolic pulses for chirped pulse amplification applications. Pulses from a mode-locked laser are temporally stretched and launched into an amplitude modulator, where the drive voltage is designed using the spectral shape of the input pulse and the transfer function of the modulator, resulting in the generation of parabolic pulses. Experimental results of pulse shaping with a pulse train from a mode-locked laser are presented, with a residual error of less than 5%. Moreover, an extinction ratio of 27 dB is achieved, which is ideal for chirped pulse amplification applications.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Video Segmentation with Shape Growth or Shrinkage Constraint (United States)

    Tarabalka, Yuliya; Charpiat, Guillaume; Brucker, Ludovic; Menze, Bjoern H.


    We propose a new method for joint segmentation of monotonously growing or shrinking shapes in a time sequence of noisy images. The task of segmenting the image time series is expressed as an optimization problem using the spatio-temporal graph of pixels, in which we are able to impose the constraint of shape growth or of shrinkage by introducing monodirectional infinite links connecting pixels at the same spatial locations in successive image frames. The globally optimal solution is computed with a graph cut. The performance of the proposed method is validated on three applications: segmentation of melting sea ice floes and of growing burned areas from time series of 2D satellite images, and segmentation of a growing brain tumor from sequences of 3D medical scans. In the latter application, we impose an additional intersequences inclusion constraint by adding directed infinite links between pixels of dependent image structures.

  19. Spatio-temporal shaping of photocathode laser pulses for linear electron accelerators (United States)

    Mironov, S. Yu; Andrianov, A. V.; Gacheva, E. I.; Zelenogorskii, V. V.; Potemkin, A. K.; Khazanov, E. A.; Boonpornprasert, P.; Gross, M.; Good, J.; Isaev, I.; Kalantaryan, D.; Kozak, T.; Krasilnikov, M.; Qian, H.; Li, X.; Lishilin, O.; Melkumyan, D.; Oppelt, A.; Renier, Y.; Rublack, T.; Felber, M.; Huck, H.; Chen, Y.; Stephan, F.


    Methods for the spatio-temporal shaping of photocathode laser pulses for generating high brightness electron beams in modern linear accelerators are discussed. The possibility of forming triangular laser pulses and quasi-ellipsoidal structures is analyzed. The proposed setup for generating shaped laser pulses was realised at the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). Currently, a prototype of the pulse-shaping laser system is installed at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ). Preliminary experiments on electron beam generation using ultraviolet laser pulses from this system were carried out at PITZ, in which electron bunches with a 0.5-nC charge and a transverse normalized emittance of 1.1 mm mrad were obtained. A new scheme for the three-dimensional shaping of laser beams using a volume Bragg profiled grating is proposed at IAP RAS and is currently being tested for further electron beam generation experiments at the PITZ photoinjector.

  20. Picosecond high power laser systems and picosecond diagnostic technique in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hiroto; Masuko, H.; Maekawa, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yoshiji; Sugiyama, Masaru.


    Highly repetitive, high power YAG and Glass laser systems have been developed and been successfully used for the studies of laser-plasma interactions. Various picosecond diagnostic techniques have been developed for such purposes in the regions from optical to X-ray frequency. Recently highly sensitive X-ray (1 - 10 KeV) streak camera for highly repetitive operations have been developed. Preliminary experiment shows the achievement of 28ps temporal resolution (100μm slit) and good sensitivity with detectable minimum number of 10E3-1KeV photons/shot/slit area. (author)

  1. Picosecond laser ablation of porcine sclera (United States)

    Góra, Wojciech S.; Harvey, Eleanor M.; Dhillon, Baljean; Parson, Simon H.; Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.


    Lasers have been shown to be successful in certain medical procedures and they have been identified as potentially making a major contribution to the development of minimally invasive procedures. However, the uptake is not as widespread and there is scope for many other applications where laser devices may offer a significant advantage in comparison to the traditional surgical tools. The purpose of this research is to assess the potential of using a picosecond laser for minimally invasive laser sclerostomy. Experiments were carried out on porcine scleral samples due to the comparable properties to human tissue. Samples were prepared with a 5mm diameter trephine and were stored in lactated Ringer's solution. After laser machining, the samples were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, then dried and investigated under SEM. The laser used in the experiments is an industrial picosecond TRUMPF TruMicro laser operating at a wavelength of 1030nm, pulse length of 6ps, repetition rate of 1 kHz and a focused spot diameter of 30μm. The laser beam was scanned across the samples with the use of a galvanometer scan head and various ablation patterns were investigated. Processing parameters (pulse energy, spot and line separation) which allow for the most efficient laser ablation of scleral tissue without introducing any collateral damage were investigated. The potential to create various shapes, such as linear incisions, square cavities and circular cavities was demonstrated.

  2. Quantum phase amplification for temporal pulse shaping and super-resolution in remote sensing (United States)

    Yin, Yanchun

    The use of nonlinear optical interactions to perform nonclassical transformations of electromagnetic field is an area of considerable interest. Quantum phase amplification (QPA) has been previously proposed as a method to perform nonclassical manipulation of coherent light, which can be experimentally realized by use of nonlinear optical mixing processes, of which phase-sensitive three-wave mixing (PSTWM) is one convenient choice. QPA occurs when PSTWM is operated in the photon number deamplification mode, i.e., when the energy is coherently transferred among the low-frequency signal and idler waves and the high-frequency pump wave. The final state is nonclassical, with the field amplitude squeezed and the phase anti-squeezed. In the temporal domain, the use of QPA has been studied to facilitate nonlinear pulse shaping. This novel method directly shapes the temporal electric field amplitude and phase using the PSTWM in a degenerate and collinear configuration, which has been analyzed using a numerical model. Several representative pulse shaping capabilities of this technique have been identified, which can augment the performance of common passive pulse shaping methods operating in the Fourier domain. The analysis indicates that a simple quadratic variation of temporal phase facilitates pulse compression and self-steepening, with features significantly shorter than the original transform-limited pulse. Thus, PSTWM can act as a direct pulse compressor based on the combined effects of phase amplification and group velocity mismatch, even without the subsequent linear phase compensation. Furthermore, it is shown numerically that pulse doublets and pulse trains can be produced at the pump frequency by utilizing the residual linear phase of the signal. Such pulse shaping capabilities are found to be within reach of this technique in common nonlinear optical crystals pumped by pulses available from compact femtosecond chirped-pulse amplification laser systems. The use of

  3. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz


    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  4. Parallel, multi-stage processing of colors, faces and shapes in macaque inferior temporal cortex (United States)

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R.


    Visual-object processing culminates in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. To assess the organization of IT, we measured fMRI responses in alert monkey to achromatic images (faces, fruit, bodies, places) and colored gratings. IT contained multiple color-biased regions, which were typically ventral to face patches and, remarkably, yoked to them, spaced regularly at four locations predicted by known anatomy. Color and face selectivity increased for more anterior regions, indicative of a broad hierarchical arrangement. Responses to non-face shapes were found across IT, but were stronger outside color-biased regions and face patches, consistent with multiple parallel streams. IT also contained multiple coarse eccentricity maps: face patches overlapped central representations; color-biased regions spanned mid-peripheral representations; and place-biased regions overlapped peripheral representations. These results suggest that IT comprises parallel, multi-stage processing networks subject to one organizing principle. PMID:24141314

  5. Picosecond streak camera diagnostics of CO2 laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; Marjoribanks, R.S.; Sancton, R.W.; Enright, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.


    The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid targets is currently of considerable interest in laser fusion studies. Its understanding requires temporal knowledge of both laser and plasma parameters on a picosecond time scale. In this paper we describe the progress we have recently made in analysing, with picosecond time resolution, various features of intense nanosecond CO 2 laser pulse interaction experiments. An infrared upconversion scheme, having linear response and <20 ps temporal resolution, has been utilized to characterise the 10 μm laser pulse. Various features of the interaction have been studied with the aid of picosecond IR and x-ray streak cameras. These include the temporal and spatial characteristics of high harmonic emission from the plasma, and the temporal development of the x-ray continuum spectrum. (author)

  6. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail:; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)


    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  7. Picosecond Pulse Spectroscopy in Solid State Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duppen, Koos; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; Wiersma, Douwe A.


    It is shown that picosecond coherence experiments can be used to study optical dynamics in doped semiconductors and molecular solids. In the system GaP:N, picosecond photon echoes are used to study exciton relaxation and detrapping into the free exciton band. In the molecolar mixed crystal of

  8. Spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal clusters of measles incidence at the county level in Guangxi, China during 2004-2014: flexibly shaped scan statistics. (United States)

    Tang, Xianyan; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward; Deng, Qiuyun; Dong, Aihu; Zhong, Ge


    Outbreaks of measles re-emerged in Guangxi province during 2013-2014, where measles again became a major public health concern. A better understanding of the patterns of measles cases would help in identifying high-risk areas and periods for optimizing preventive strategies, yet these patterns remain largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine the patterns of measles clusters in space, time and space-time at the county level over the period 2004-2014 in Guangxi. Annual data on measles cases and population sizes for each county were obtained from Guangxi CDC and Guangxi Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Epidemic curves and Kulldorff's temporal scan statistics were used to identify seasonal peaks and high-risk periods. Tango's flexible scan statistics were implemented to determine irregular spatial clusters. Spatio-temporal clusters in elliptical cylinder shapes were detected by Kulldorff's scan statistics. Population attributable risk percent (PAR%) of children aged ≤24 months was used to identify regions with a heavy burden of measles. Seasonal peaks occurred between April and June, and a temporal measles cluster was detected in 2014. Spatial clusters were identified in West, Southwest and North Central Guangxi. Three phases of spatio-temporal clusters with high relative risk were detected: Central Guangxi during 2004-2005, Midwest Guangxi in 2007, and West and Southwest Guangxi during 2013-2014. Regions with high PAR% were mainly clustered in West, Southwest, North and Central Guangxi. A temporal uptrend of measles incidence existed in Guangxi between 2010 and 2014, while downtrend during 2004-2009. The hotspots shifted from Central to West and Southwest Guangxi, regions overburdened with measles. Thus, intensifying surveillance of timeliness and completeness of routine vaccination and implementing supplementary immunization activities for measles should prioritized in these regions.

  9. Temporal E-Beam Shaping in an S-Band Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Loos, Henrik; Dowell, David; Ferrario, Massimo; Gilevich, Sasha; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Murphy, James; Petrarca, Massimo; Serafini, Luca; Sheehy, Brian; Shen, Yuzhen; Tsang, Thomas; Vicario, Carlo; Wang, Xijie; Wu, Zilu


    New short-wavelength SASE light sources will require very bright electron beams, brighter in some cases than is now possible. One method for improving brightness involves the careful shaping of the electron bunch to control the degrading effects of its space charge forces. We study this experimentally in an S-band system, by using an acousto-optical programmable dispersive filter to shape the photocathode laser pulse that drives the RF photoinjector. We report on the efficacy of shaping from the IR through the UV, and the effects of shaping on the electron beam dynamics.

  10. Fundamentals of picosecond laser ultrasonics. (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Larciprete, Maria Cristina; Li Voti, Roberto; Wright, Oliver B


    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to picosecond laser ultrasonics, a means by which gigahertz-terahertz ultrasonic waves can be generated and detected by ultrashort light pulses. This method can be used to characterize materials with nanometer spatial resolution. With reference to key experiments, we first review the theoretical background for normal-incidence optical detection of longitudinal acoustic waves in opaque single-layer isotropic thin films. The theory is extended to handle isotropic multilayer samples, and is again compared to experiment. We then review applications to anisotropic samples, including oblique-incidence optical probing, and treat the generation and detection of shear waves. Solids including metals and semiconductors are mainly discussed, although liquids are briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of phonon propagation in water using picosecond ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F; Atay, T; Dang, C H; Grimsley, T J; Che, S; Ma, J; Zhang, Q; Nurmikko, A V; Maris, H J


    The propagation of ultra-short sound pulses in water is studied by using the picosecond ultrasonic technique. A sound pulse is generated when light is absorbed in a metal transducer film deposited onto a substrate. The sound propagates across a thin layer of water and is then reflected back to the surface at which it was generated. The efficiency of optoacoustic detection of the reflected sound is enhanced through the use of a resonant optical cavity. We show that the variation of the shape of the returning sound pulse with propagation distance agrees with that calculated by using the attenuation of sound in water that has been measured at lower frequencies

  12. Systematic study of high-order harmonic optimal control by temporal pulse shaping of laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, O.; Valentin, C.; Mercier, B.; Coquelet, Ch.; Pascal, V.; Papalazarou, E.; Rey, G.; Balcou, Ph.


    We explore experimentally and numerically the physics underlying the optimization of high-order harmonic generation by intense laser pulses, whose temporal profile is tailored by a learning genetic algorithm. Based on a large set of optimization data obtained under different generation parameters, we show that the algorithm converges toward a class of very special profiles on the leading edge of the pulse. The behavior of the harmonic signal is then compared with theoretical simulations based on the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, allowing one to identify separately the role of microscopic and macroscopic phenomena in the temporal dynamics of high-harmonic generation and optimization

  13. Spatio-temporal light shaping in 3D real-time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin


    Combining our GPC-technology with temporal focusing, we can precisely stimulate single neuronal processes, neurons or groups of neurons, despite the highly complex neuronal structures. Our recent results published in Nature Methods will be outlined and the exciting perspectives it provides for th...... for the emerging fields of neurophotonics and optogenetics....

  14. Prosodic Structure Shapes the Temporal Realization of Intonation and Manual Gesture Movements (United States)

    Esteve-Gibert, Nuria; Prieto, Pilar


    Purpose: Previous work on the temporal coordination between gesture and speech found that the prominence in gesture coordinates with speech prominence. In this study, the authors investigated the anchoring regions in speech and pointing gesture that align with each other. The authors hypothesized that (a) in contrastive focus conditions, the…

  15. Composing Focus: Shaping Temporal, Social, Media, Social Media, and Attentional Environments (United States)

    Fife, Jane


    Writers must learn to control factors that influence the ability to focus, especially in what some call a culture of distraction. In our efforts to promote metacognition and flexible writing processes, writing teachers need to engage students in study and discussion of factors in our temporal, social, media, social media, and attentional…

  16. Prior auditory information shapes visual category-selectivity in ventral occipito-temporal cortex. (United States)

    Adam, Ruth; Noppeney, Uta


    Objects in our natural environment generate signals in multiple sensory modalities. This fMRI study investigated the influence of prior task-irrelevant auditory information on visually-evoked category-selective activations in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Subjects categorized pictures as landmarks or animal faces, while ignoring the preceding congruent or incongruent sound. Behaviorally, subjects responded slower to incongruent than congruent stimuli. At the neural level, the lateral and medial prefrontal cortices showed increased activations for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli consistent with their role in response selection. In contrast, the parahippocampal gyri combined visual and auditory information additively: activation was greater for visual landmarks than animal faces and landmark-related sounds than animal vocalizations resulting in increased parahippocampal selectivity for congruent audiovisual landmarks. Effective connectivity analyses showed that this amplification of visual landmark-selectivity was mediated by increased negative coupling of the parahippocampal gyrus with the superior temporal sulcus for congruent stimuli. Thus, task-irrelevant auditory information influences visual object categorization at two stages. In the ventral occipito-temporal cortex auditory and visual category information are combined additively to sharpen visual category-selective responses. In the left inferior frontal sulcus, as indexed by a significant incongruency effect, visual and auditory category information are integrated interactively for response selection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal trends in vertebral size and shape from medieval to modern-day.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Antti Junno

    Full Text Available Human lumbar vertebrae support the weight of the upper body. Loads lifted and carried by the upper extremities cause significant loading stress to the vertebral bodies. It is well established that trauma-induced vertebral fractures are common especially among elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological factors that could have affected the prevalence of trauma-related vertebral fractures from medieval times to the present day. To determine if morphological differences existed in the size and shape of the vertebral body between medieval times and the present day, the vertebral body size and shape was measured from the 4th lumbar vertebra using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and standard osteometric calipers. The modern samples consisted of modern Finns and the medieval samples were from archaeological collections in Sweden and Britain. The results show that the shape and size of the 4th lumbar vertebra has changed significantly from medieval times in a way that markedly affects the biomechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebral column. These changes may have influenced the incidence of trauma- induced spinal fractures in modern populations.

  18. Analysis of Picosecond Pulsed Laser Melted Graphite (United States)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Bloembergen, N.


    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm{sup -1} and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm{sup -1}, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nanosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  19. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.


    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm/sup -1/ and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm/sup -1/, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  20. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.


    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm -1 and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm -1 , the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence

  1. Picosecond x-ray streak camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyanov, Yu.S.; Malyutin, A.A.; Richardson, M.C.; Chevokin, V.K.


    Some initial results of direct measurement of picosecond x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas are presented. A PIM-UMI 93 image converter tube, incorporating an x-ray sensitive photocathode, linear deflection, and three stages of image amplification was used to analyse the x-ray radiation emanating from plasmas produced from solid Ti targets by single high-intensity picosecond laser pulses. From such plasmas, the x-ray emission typically persisted for times of 60psec. However, it is shown that this detection system should be capable of resolving x-ray phenomena of much shorter duration. (author)

  2. The Interplay between Long- and Short-Range Temporal Correlations Shapes Cortex Dynamics across Vigilance States. (United States)

    Meisel, Christian; Klaus, Andreas; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Plenz, Dietmar


    Increasing evidence suggests that cortical dynamics during wake exhibits long-range temporal correlations suitable to integrate inputs over extended periods of time to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in decision making and working memory tasks. Accordingly, sleep has been suggested as a state characterized by a breakdown of long-range correlations. However, detailed measurements of neuronal timescales that support this view have so far been lacking. Here, we show that the cortical timescales measured at the individual neuron level in freely behaving male rats change as a function of vigilance state and time awake. Although quiet wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are characterized by similar, long timescales, these long timescales are abrogated in non-REM sleep. We observe that cortex dynamics exhibits rapid transitions between long-timescale states and sleep-like states governed by short timescales even during wake. This becomes particularly evident during sleep deprivation, when the interplay between these states can lead to an increasing disruption of long timescales that are restored after sleep. Experiments and modeling identify the intrusion of neuronal offline periods as a mechanism that disrupts the long timescales arising from reverberating cortical network activity. Our results provide novel mechanistic and functional links among behavioral manifestations of sleep, wake, and sleep deprivation and specific measurable changes in the network dynamics relevant for characterizing the brain's changing information-processing capabilities. They suggest a network-level function of sleep to reorganize cortical networks toward states governed by long timescales to ensure efficient information integration for the time awake. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Lack of sleep deteriorates several key cognitive functions, yet the neuronal underpinnings of these deficits have remained elusive. Cognitive capabilities are generally believed to benefit from a neural circuit

  3. A correlational method to concurrently measure envelope and temporal fine structure weights: effects of age, cochlear pathology, and spectral shaping. (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E


    The speech signal may be divided into spectral frequency-bands, each band containing temporal properties of the envelope and fine structure. This study measured the perceptual weights for the envelope and fine structure in each of three frequency bands for sentence materials in young normal-hearing listeners, older normal-hearing listeners, aided older hearing-impaired listeners, and spectrally matched young normal-hearing listeners. The availability of each acoustic property was independently varied through noisy signal extraction. Thus, the full speech stimulus was presented with noise used to mask six different auditory channels. Perceptual weights were determined by correlating a listener's performance with the signal-to-noise ratio of each acoustic property on a trial-by-trial basis. Results demonstrate that temporal fine structure perceptual weights remain stable across the four listener groups. However, a different weighting typography was observed across the listener groups for envelope cues. Results suggest that spectral shaping used to preserve the audibility of the speech stimulus may alter the allocation of perceptual resources. The relative perceptual weighting of envelope cues may also change with age. Concurrent testing of sentences repeated once on a previous day demonstrated that weighting strategies for all listener groups can change, suggesting an initial stabilization period or susceptibility to auditory training.

  4. Local neuropeptide signaling modulates serotonergic transmission to shape the temporal organization of C. elegans egg-laying behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navonil Banerjee


    Full Text Available Animal behaviors are often composed of distinct alternating behavioral states. Neuromodulatory signals are thought to be critical for establishing stable behavioral states and for orchestrating transitions between them. However, we have only a limited understanding of how neuromodulatory systems act in vivo to alter circuit performance and shape behavior. To address these questions, we have investigated neuromodulatory signaling in the context of Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying. Egg-laying activity cycles between discrete states-short bursts of egg deposition (active phases that alternate with prolonged quiescent periods (inactive phases. Here using genetic, pharmacological and optogenetic approaches for cell-specific activation and inhibition, we show that a group of neurosecretory cells (uv1 located in close spatial proximity to the egg-laying neuromusculature direct the temporal organization of egg-laying by prolonging the duration of inactive phases. We demonstrate that the modulatory effects of the uv1 cells are mediated by peptides encoded by the nlp-7 and flp-11 genes that act locally to inhibit circuit activity, primarily by inhibiting vesicular release of serotonin from HSN motor neurons. This peptidergic inhibition is achieved, at least in part, by reducing synaptic vesicle abundance in the HSN motor neurons. By linking the in vivo actions of specific neuropeptide signaling systems with the generation of stable behavioral outcomes, our study reveals how cycles of neuromodulation emanating from non-neuronal cells can fundamentally shape the organization of a behavioral program.

  5. Picosecond Laser Studies of Excited State Processes. (United States)


    Sitzmann, R. Alt, J. Langan, H. Staab, and K.B. Eisenthal, * manuscript to be submitted. [71 E.V. Sitzmann, J. Langan, D. Griller and K.B. Eisenthal...Dimesitylcarbene." in preparation. (With E. V. Sitzmann, J. Langan and D. Griller ) "Picosecond Laser Studies on the Photodissociarion of

  6. Generation of picosecond pulsed coherent state superpositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine


    We present the generation of approximated coherent state superpositions-referred to as Schrodinger cat states-by the process of subtracting single photons from picosecond pulsed squeezed states of light. The squeezed vacuum states are produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC...

  7. Laser diagnostics for picosecond e-beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelsky, I. (STI Optronics, Bellevue, WA (United States) Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Ben-Zvi, I. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))


    We propose a novel approach to picosecond e-bunch/laser pulse synchronization and spatial alignment based upon refraction and reflection of a laser beam on a plasma column created by relativistic electrons traveling through a gas or solid optical material. The technique may be used in laser accelerators and for general subpicosecond e-beam diagnostics.

  8. Laser diagnostics for picosecond e-beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelsky, I. [STI Optronics, Bellevue, WA (United States)]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    We propose a novel approach to picosecond e-bunch/laser pulse synchronization and spatial alignment based upon refraction and reflection of a laser beam on a plasma column created by relativistic electrons traveling through a gas or solid optical material. The technique may be used in laser accelerators and for general subpicosecond e-beam diagnostics.

  9. Laser diagnostics for picosecond e-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.; Ben-Zvi, I.


    We propose a novel approach to picosecond e-bunch/laser pulse synchronization and spatial alignment based upon refraction and reflection of a laser beam on a plasma column created by relativistic electrons traveling through a gas or solid optical material. The technique may be used in laser accelerators and for general subpicosecond e-beam diagnostics

  10. Picosecond optical nonlinearities in symmetrical and unsymmetrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present our experimental results on the picosecond nonlinear optical. (NLO) studies of symmetrical and unsymmetrical phthalocyanines, examined using the. Z-scan technique. Both the open-aperture ... Z-scan measurements were performed using the amplified Ti:sapphire laser system. (LEGEND, Coherent) delivering ...

  11. Picosecond chirped pulse compression in single-mode fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenhua Cao; Youwei Zhang


    In this paper, the nonlinear propagation of picosecond chirped pulses in single mode fibers has been investigated both analytically and numerically. Results show that downchirped pulses can be compressed owing to normal group-velocity dispersion. The compression ratio depends both on the initial peak power and on the initial frequency chirp of the input pulse. While the compression ratio depends both on the initial peak power and on the initial frequency chirp of the input pulse. While the compression ratio increases with the negative frequency chirp, it decreases with the initial peak power of the input pulse. This means that the self-phase modulation induced nonlinear frequency chirp which is linear and positive (up-chirp) over a large central region of the pulse and tends to cancel the initial negative chirp of the pulse. It is also shown that, as the negative chirped pulse compresses temporally, it synchronously experiences a spectral narrowing

  12. The picosecond laser for tattoo removal. (United States)

    Hsu, Vincent M; Aldahan, Adam S; Mlacker, Stephanie; Shah, Vidhi V; Nouri, Keyvan


    The prevalence of tattoos continues to grow as modern society's stigma towards this form of body art shifts towards greater acceptance. Approximately one third of Americans aged 18-25 and 40 % of Americans aged 26-40 are tattooed. As tattoos continue to rise in popularity, so has the demand for an effective method of tattoo removal such as lasers. The various colors of tattoo inks render them ideal targets for specific lasers using the principle of selective photothermolysis. Traditional laser modalities employed for tattoo removal operate on pulse durations in the nanosecond domain. However, this pulse duration range is still too long to effectively break ink into small enough particles. Picosecond (10 -12 ) lasers have emerged at the forefront of laser tattoo removal due to their shorter pulse lengths, leading to quicker heating of the target chromophores, and consequently, more effective tattoo clearance. Recent studies have cited more effective treatment outcomes using picosecond lasers. Future comparative studies between picosecond lasers of various settings are necessary to determine optimal laser parameters for tattoo clearance.

  13. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.; Kobayasi, T.; Yosida, Y.; Ohkuma, J.; Okuda, S.; Suemine, S.


    For the picosecond pulsed electron beam of a linear accelerator a simple monitor using an electric connector has been developed which is constructed with SMA, BNC, N type electric connector through pipe (inner diameter = 50 mm or 100 mm). Under the measurement conditions of peak current (26A-900A) and narrow pulse width (Pw = 10 ps(FWHM), Pw = 30 ps(FWHM)), the following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (A) rise time is less than 25 ps (B) the amplitude of the monitor output pulse is proportional directly to the area of cross section of the electrode. (author)

  14. Lifetime measurements in the picosecond range: Achievements and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, Reiner


    This contribution will review the recoil distance method (RDM), its current range of applications as well as future perspectives for the measurement of lifetimes in the picosecond range of excited nuclear levels. Recent Doppler-shift lifetime experiments with large gamma-ray spectrometers have achieved a new level of precision and sensitivity, providing new insights into nuclear structure physics. High precision RDM measurements of near-yrast states in various mass regions have revealed dynamic shape effects beyond the framework of collective models and have also allowed to study the interaction between coexisting shapes. The measurement of lifetimes in superdeformed bands has shown that lifetimes can be measured for nuclear excitations, which are only populated with a few percent of the production cross-section of a nucleus. These experiments have also enabled us to study the mechanism of the decay-out of superdeformed bands. Another example for the need of precise lifetime measurements is the recent verifications of the concept of 'magnetic rotation' in nuclei by the experimental observation of the characteristic drop of B(M1) values as a function of angular momentum. These recent breakthroughs have also opened new perspectives for the use of the RDM technique for more exotic regions of nuclei and nuclear excitations. Here the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei, which are not accessible with conventional nuclear reactions using stable beams and targets, is of special interest. Possible experimental approaches and simple estimates for the feasibility of such experiments will be presented. (author)

  15. Proton Radiography of Laser-Plasma Interactions with Picosecond Time Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A J; Patel, P K; Town, R J; Hatchett, S P; Hicks, D; Phillips, T H; Wilks, S C; Price, D; Key, M H; Lasinski, B; Langdon, B; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Kar, S


    Radiography of laser-produced plasmas with MeV protons has the potential to provide new information on plasma conditions in extreme states of matter. Protons with energies up to many hundreds MeV, produced by large scale accelerators have been recently been used to obtain mass density radiographs of the behavior of large samples which have been shocked on microsecond timescales with approximately mm spatial resolution. The recent discovery of laminar proton beams accelerated to multi-MeV energies by picosecond duration laser beams has provided the opportunity to probe dense plasmas with hitherto unparalleled temporal and spatial resolution

  16. Picosecond stability of injection of parallel high-current pulsed electron beams (United States)

    Yalandin, M. I.; Reutova, A. G.; Ul'Maskulov, M. R.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.; Klimov, A. I.; Rostov, V. V.; Mesyats, G. A.


    The stability of operation of parallel explosive-emission cathodes driven by a split high-voltage pulse with a subnanosecond leading front has been studied. It is established that, upon the training of graphite cathodes in vacuum with up to ˜104 pulses, the current pulse fronts of injected high-current electron beams exhibit a mutual temporal dispersion not exceeding ten picoseconds. The dynamics of this parameter during the training stage, the variation of the absolute spread, and the growth of a relative delay of the moments of beam injection have been investigated.

  17. Development of Adaptive Feedback Control System of Both Spatial and Temporal Beam Shaping for UV-Laser Light Source for RF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, H; Dewa, H; Hanaki, H; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Yanagida, K


    The ideal spatial and temporal profiles of a shot-by-shot single laser pulse are essential to suppress the emittance growth of the electron beam from a photo-cathode rf gun. We have been developing highly qualified UV-laser pulse as a light source of the rf gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. The gun cavity is a single-cell pillbox, and the copper inner wall is used as a photo cathode. The electron beam was accelerated up to 4.1 MeV at the maximum electric field on the cathode surface of 175 MV/m. For emittance compensation, two solenoid coils were used. As the first test run, with a microlens array as a simple spatial shaper, we obtained a minimum emittance value of 2 π·mm·mrad with a beam energy of 3.1 MeV, holding its charge to 0.1 nC/bunch. In the next test run, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping, and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We applied the both adaptive optics to automatically shape the bot...

  18. Laser ablation comparison by picosecond pulses train and nanosecond pulse (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Filippov, M. N.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.


    A comparison of laser ablation by a train of picosecond pulses and nanosecond pulses revealed a difference in laser craters, ablation thresholds, plasma sizes and spectral line intensities. Laser ablation with a train of picosecond pulses resulted in improved crater quality while ablated mass decreased up to 30%. A reduction in laser plasma dimensions for picosecond train ablation was observed while the intensity of atomic/ionic lines in the plasma spectra was greater by a factor of 2-4 indicating an improved excitation and atomization in the plasma.

  19. Preparation of Monolayer MoS2 Quantum Dots using Temporally Shaped Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Bulk MoS2 Targets in Water


    Li, Bo; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xin; Ran, Peng; Zuo, Pei; Wang, Andong; Qu, Liangti; Zhao, Yang; Cheng, Zhihua; Lu, Yongfeng


    Zero-dimensional MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) possess distinct physical and chemical properties, which have garnered them considerable attention and facilitates their use in a broad range of applications. In this study, we prepared monolayer MoS2 QDs using temporally shaped femtosecond laser ablation of bulk MoS2 targets in water. The morphology, crystal structures, chemical, and optical properties of the MoS2 QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spe...

  20. Picosecond supercontinuum generation with back seeding of different spectral parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter Morten; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Thomsen, C.L.


    We study supercontinuum generation with picosecond pumping and the spectrum obtained when coupling back the part of the output around 1200-1700 nanometres or the part around 700-900 nanometres with a variable time delay....

  1. Widely tunable picosecond optical parametric oscillator using highly nonlinear fiber. (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Cheung, Kim K Y; Yang, Sigang; Chui, P C; Wong, Kenneth K Y


    We demonstrated a fully fiber-integrated widely tunable picosecond optical parametric oscillator based on highly nonlinear fiber. The ring cavity with a 50 m highly nonlinear fiber was synchronously pumped with a picosecond mode-locked fiber laser. The tuning range was from 1413 to 1543 nm and from 1573 to 1695 nm, which was as wide as 250 nm. A high-quality pulse was generated with a pulse width narrower than that of the pump.

  2. Studies on laser material processing with nanosecond and sub-nanosecond and picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay


    In this paper, laser ablation of widely used metal (Al, Cu. stainless-steel), semiconductor (Si), transparent material (glass, sapphire), ceramic (Al2O3, AlN) and polymer (PI, PMMA) in industry were systematically studied with pulse width from nanosecond (5-100ns), picosecond (6-10ps) to sub-picosecond (0.8-0.95ps). A critical damage zone (CDZ) of up to 100um with ns laser, optimizing processing conditions.

  3. Microbial planktonic communities in the Red Sea: high levels of spatial and temporal variability shaped by nutrient availability and turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.


    The semi-enclosed nature of the Red Sea (20.2°N-38.5°N) makes it a natural laboratory to study the influence of environmental gradients on microbial communities. This study investigates the composition and structure of microbial prokaryotes and eukaryotes using molecular methods, targeting ribosomal RNA genes across different regions and seasons. The interaction between spatial and temporal scales results in different scenarios of turbulence and nutrient conditions allowing for testing of ecological theory that categorizes the response of the plankton community to these variations. The prokaryotic reads are mainly comprised of Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria (Alpha and Gamma), with eukaryotic reads dominated by Dinophyceae and Syndiniophyceae. Periodic increases in the proportion of Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae reads were associated with alterations in the physical oceanography leading to nutrient increases either through the influx of Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (south in the fall) or through water column mixing processes (north in the spring). We observed that in general dissimilarity amongst microbial communities increased when nutrient concentrations were higher, whereas richness (observed OTUs) was higher in scenarios of higher turbulence. Maximum abundance models showed the differential responses of dominant taxa to temperature giving an indication how taxa will respond as waters become warmer and more oligotrophic.

  4. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.


    A picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor for a 35 MeV linear accelerator has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA connector and aluminium pipe(inner diameter of 50mm). The following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (a) the rise time is less than 17.5 ps (b) linearity of the monitor output voltage is proportional to the peak current of beam. It is shown that this monitor can be successfully used for bunch measurements of picosecond pulsed electron beam of 35 MeV linac. (author)

  5. A fast cavity dumper for a picosecond glass laser (United States)

    Oak, S. M.; Bindra, K. S.; Narayan, B. S.; Khardekar, R. K.


    A fast cavity dumper for picosecond glass laser has been made. The optical and electrical characterization of the cavity dumper is described. An avalanche transistor Marx bank generator drives the cavity dumper. Up to 5 kV peak amplitude and 1.5 ns fall time negative polarity step pulses are generated by the Marx bank circuit. With a capacitive load like Pockels cell the pulse fall time increases to 4 ns. Optical switching times as fast as 2 ns (10%-90%) are experimentally measured. The contrast ratio of 1000 is obtained after a double pass through an amplifier. Single picosecond pulses are produced with an energy jitter of 10%.

  6. Investigation of mid-IR picosecond image upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathez, Morgan David; Pedersen, Christian; Rodrigo, Peter John


    Imaging and spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (Mid-IR) wavelength region have received considerable attention in recent years. The reason is the high Mid-IR spectral specificity of many gases and complex molecules. In this pilot study we focus on picosecond upconversion imaging exploiting the χ(2......) nonlinearity of a bulk lithium niobate crystal as a means to convert the optical Mid-IR signal into the visible wavelength region, thus allowing the use of fast and sensitive silicon based CCD cameras. The picosecond upconversion system is synchronously pumped in order to increase the quantum efficiency, hence...

  7. Picosecond and Femtosecond Spectroscopic Instrumentation for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers (United States)


    Harry Diamond Laboratory of the US Army; Mr. Ray Tsu has joined the General Electric Research Lab; Dr. P. Lu has joined IBM; Dr. H. Zarrabi has joined...Excitation" by Hassan J. Zarrabi , 1985, AFOSR General Optronics 3. "Picosecond and Steady State Spectroscopy of Defects in Semi-Insulating CdSe" by David L

  8. Optoelectronic Picosecond Detection of Synchrotron X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Stephen M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    The goal of this research program was to develop a detector that would measure x-ray time profiles with picosecond resolution. This was specifically aimed for use at x-ray synchrotrons, where x-ray pulse profiles have Gaussian time spreads of 50-100 ps (FWHM), so the successful development of such a detector with picosecond resolution would permit x-ray synchrotron studies to break through the pulse width barrier. That is, synchrotron time-resolved studies are currently limited to pump-probe studies that cannot reveal dynamics faster than ~50 ps, whereas the proposed detector would push this into the physically important 1 ps domain. The results of this research effort, described in detail below, are twofold: 1) the original plan to rely on converting electronic signals from a semiconductor sensor into an optical signal proved to be insufficient for generating signals with the necessary time resolution and sensitivity to be widely applicable; and 2) an all-optical method was discovered whereby the x-rays are directly absorbed in an optoelectronic material, lithium tantalate, which can then be probed by laser pulses with the desired picosecond sensitivity for detection of synchrotron x-rays. This research program has also produced new fundamental understanding of the interaction of x-rays and optical lasers in materials that has now created a viable path for true picosecond detection of synchrotron x-rays.

  9. Vibrational Relaxation in Neat Crystals of Naphthalene by Picosecond CARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesp, Ben H.; Wiersma, Douwe A.


    Picosecond delayed CARS experiments on totally symmetric modes in naphthalene at 1.5 K are reported. The Raman lineshape of the vibrational excitons is lorentzian and vibrational relaxation can be surprisingly slow. The Raman lineshape of the Ag exciton level of the 766 cm-1 vibrational mode reveals

  10. Picosecond relaxation of X-ray excited GaAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkachenko, V.; Medvedev, Nikita; Lipp, V.; Ziaja, B.


    Roč. 24, Sep (2017), s. 15-21 ISSN 1574-1818 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : GaAS * X-ray excitation * picosecond relaxation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 0.908, year: 2016

  11. Picosecond mid-infrared amplifier for high average power.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR


    Full Text Available High pressure CO2 lasers are good candidates for amplifying picosecond mid infrared pulses. High pressure CO2 lasers are notorious for being unreliable and difficult to operate. In this paper a high pressure CO2 laser is presented based on well...

  12. Picosecond nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 8, 2014 ... physics pp. 321–325. Picosecond nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide with different nano-morphologies. P HARSHAVARDHAN REDDY, H SEKHAR and D NARAYANA RAO. ∗. Laser Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ∗. Corresponding author.

  13. Picosecond lasers: the next generation of short-pulsed lasers. (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua R; Kaufman, Joely; Metelitsa, Andrea I; Green, Jeremy B


    Selective photothermolysis, first discussed in the context of targeted microsurgery in 1983, proposed that the optimal parameters for specific thermal damage rely critically on the duration over which energy is delivered to the tissue. At that time, nonspecific thermal damage had been an intrinsic limitation of all commercially available lasers, despite efforts to mitigate this by a variety of compensatory cooling mechanisms. Fifteen years later, experimental picosecond lasers were first reported in the dermatological literature to demonstrate greater efficacy over their nanosecond predecessors in the context of targeted destruction of tattoo ink. Within the last 4 years, more than a decade after those experiments, the first commercially available cutaneous picosecond laser unit became available (Cynosure, Westford, Massachusetts), and several pilot studies have demonstrated its utility in tattoo removal. An experimental picosecond infrared laser has also recently demonstrated a nonthermal tissue ablative capability in soft tissue, bone, and dentin. In this article, we review the published data pertaining to dermatology on picosecond lasers from their initial reports to the present as well as discuss forthcoming technology.

  14. Adaptive shaping system for both spatial and temporal profiles of a highly stabilized UV laser light source for a photocathode RF gun (United States)

    Tomizawa, H.; Dewa, H.; Taniuchi, T.; Mizuno, A.; Asaka, T.; Yanagida, K.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Hanaki, H.; Matsui, F.


    We have been developing a stable and highly qualified ultraviolet (UV) laser pulse as a light source of an RF gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. Our gun cavity is a single-cell pillbox, and the copper inner wall is used as a photocathode. The chirped pulse amplification (CPA) Ti:sapphire laser system is operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. At the third harmonic generation (central wavelength—263 nm), the laser pulse energy after a 45 cm silica rod is up to 850 μJ/pulse. In its present status, the laser's pulse energy stability has been improved down to 0.2˜0.3% at the fundamental, and 0.7-1.4% (rms; 10 pps; 33,818 shots) at the third harmonic generation, respectively. This stability has been held for 1 month continuously, 24 h a day. The improvements we had passively implemented were to stabilize the laser system as well as the environmental conditions. We introduced a humidity-control system kept at 50-60% in a clean room to reduce damage to the optics. In addition, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We are applying both the adaptive optics to automatic optimization of the electron beam bunch to produce lower emittance with the feedback routine. Before the improvements, the electron beam produced from a cathode suffered inhomogeneous distribution caused by the quantum efficiency effect, and some pulse distortions caused by its response time. However, we can now freely form any arbitrary electron beam distribution on the surface of the cathode.

  15. Real-Time, Single-Shot Temporal Measurements of Short Electron Bunches, Terahertz CSR and FEL Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Berden, G; Van der Meer, A F G


    Electro-optic detection of the Coulomb field of electron bunches is a promising technique for single-shot measurements of the bunch length and shape in the sub-picosecond time domain. This technique has been applied to the measurement of 50 MeV electron bunches in the FELIX free electron laser, showing the longitudinal profile of single bunches of around 650 fs FWHM [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004)]. The method is non-destructive and real-time, and therefore ideal for online monitoring of the longitudinal shape of single electron bunches. At FELIX we have used it for real-time optimization of sub-picosecond electron bunches. Electro-optic detection has also been used to measure the electric field profiles of far-infrared (or terahertz) optical pulses generated by the relativistic electrons. We have characterised the far-infrared output of the free electron laser, and more recently, we have measured the temporal profile of terahertz optical pulses generated at one of the bending magnets.

  16. Picosecond neodymium:yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser peripheral iridotomy. (United States)

    Oram, O; Gross, R L; Severin, T D; Orengo-Nania, S; Feldman, R M


    We evaluated the picosecond neodymium:yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser for performing peripheral iridotomies of predetermined size and shape in various types of irides. In the first part of the study, we determined operating parameters from performing 60 iridotomies in human cadaver eyes. Subsequently, using the parameters obtained in cadaver eyes, iridotomies were created in eyes of patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma. In the cadaver eyes, the optimal parameters were a rectangular cutting pattern of 0.3 x 0.3 mm, 500-microns cutting depth, 50-microns spot separation, 200 to 400 microJ of energy per pulse, 200 to 400 pulses per second, and no focal offset distance. In 18 eyes of 11 patients, iridotomies with well-defined margins and size were created. Minimal hemorrhage occurred intraoperatively in ten of 18 eyes (55.6%), which did not affect the outcome of the procedure. Increases of postoperative intraocular pressure at one hour averaged 3.5 +/- 5.1 mm Hg, with an increase of more than 10 mm Hg in three eyes (16.7%), and a maximum of 12 mm Hg. We observed no corneal or retinal damage. The picosecond Nd:YLF laser seems to be an effective instrument for reliably performing peripheral iridotomies of precise size and shape using low energy per pulse levels. This laser, unlike the argon laser, is successful independent of iris thickness or color and can easily make a larger iridotomy than is often possible with the Nd:YAG laser.

  17. Carrier-envelope Phase Drift Detection of Picosecond Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormier E.


    Full Text Available A bandwidth-independent, linear and scalable method for carrier-envelope phase drift measurement demonstrated. Our experiments reveal that carrier-envelope phase drift of a picosecond pulse train can be directly obtained from the spectrally resolved interference pattern of a length-stabilized multiple-beam interferometer. The retrieved phase from the pattern correlates well with the strongly CEP-sensitive coupling signal between the frequency combs of the picosecond oscillator and an ultra-high finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer. Our results can lead to the generation of a robust CEP-stabilized seed pulse train for high resolution comb spectroscopy as well as to compact Compton X-ray and gamma-ray sources

  18. New and Advanced Picosecond Lasers for Tattoo Removal. (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Amir, Ruthie; Bhawalkar, Jayant; Sierra, Rafael; Bankowski, Richard; Rozen, Doran; Dierickx, Christine; Lapidoth, Moshe


    Early methods of tattoo removal ultimately resulted in unacceptable cosmetic outcomes. While the introduction of laser technology was an improvement over the existing chemical, mechanical, and surgical procedures, the use of nonselective tattoo removal with carbon dioxide and argon lasers led to scarring. Q-switched lasers with nanosecond (10-9) pulse domains were considered to have revolutionized tattoo treatment, by selectively heating the tattoo particles, while reducing the adverse sequelae to adjacent normal skin. Theoretical considerations of restricting pulse duration, to heat tattoo particles to higher temperatures, proposed the use of sub-nanosecond pulses to target particles with thermal relaxation times lower than the nanosecond pulses in Q-switched lasers. Initial studies demonstrated that picosecond (10-12) pulses were more effective than nanosecond pulses in clearing black tattoos. Advances in picosecond technology led to the development of commercially available lasers, incorporating several different wavelengths, to further refine pigment targeting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Development of sub-picosecond pulse radiolysis and synchronization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Wu, W.; Ueda, T.; Yoshii, K.; Uesaka, M.; Katsumura, Y.


    A synchronization system for higher time-resolved pump and probe experiment has been developed at NERL (Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory) 18 MeV S-band linac, the University of Tokyo. The precision of the synchronization between sub-picosecond electron beam and femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser has been measured after the completion of the system. The pulse radiolysis experiment has followed the experiment to confirm the total time resolution. (author)

  20. The generation of near millimeter radiation by picosecond pulse demodulation (United States)

    Delucia, F. C.


    Near Millimeter Waves can be generated by the demodulation of a picosecond optical pulse train by a photocathodes. Power is produced by the interaction of a microwave structure and the beam of prebunched electrons produced by the demodulation. These bunched electrons are produced at a photocathode by a picosecond optical pulse train. The separation of the bunching process from the energy extraction interaction introduces substantial flexibility into the design of devices based upon this concept. Perhaps the most important manifestation of this flexibility is the capability of these devices to provide virtually any waveform and pulse sequence desired with complete pulse to pulse phase coherence and rapid, controlled frequency agility. Furthermore, techniques are discussed that can change this coding at speeds governed only by electrooptic time scales. It is also important to note that these devices are not quantum down convertors (which would be limited by Manley-Rowe considerations to a maximum efficiency of approximately 0.1%) but rather 'classical' devices in which gain phenomena can convert DC power to microwave energy, thus providing orders of magnitude more efficiency. In this report and its appendixes, we discuss the basic physics of picosecond demodulation devices, experimental results and systems based upon these concepts.

  1. Picosecond lasers for tattoo removal: a systematic review. (United States)

    Reiter, Ofer; Atzmony, Lihi; Akerman, Lehavit; Levi, Assi; Kershenovich, Ruben; Lapidoth, Moshe; Mimouni, Daniel


    Given that the pigment particles in tattoos have a relaxation time of tattoo removal. To systematically review the evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of picosecond lasers for tattoo removal, Pubmed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),, and reference lists were searched for relevant trials. The primary outcome was >70 % clearance of tattoo pigment. Secondary outcomes were 90-100 % clearance of tattoo pigment, number of laser sessions required, and adverse effects. Eight trials were included, six with human participants (160 participants) and 2 with animal models. Seven of the eight trials explored the usage of either 755, 758, 795, 1064, or 1064/532-nm picosecond lasers for black and blue ink tattoos. In the human trials, 69-100 % of tattoos showed over 70 % clearance of pigment after 1-10 laser treatments. Reported side effects included pain, hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, blister formation and transient erythema, edema, and pinpoint bleeding. Included articles varied in type of laser investigated, mostly non-comparative studies and with a medium to high risk of bias. There is sparse evidence that picosecond lasers are more effective than their nanosecond counterparts for mainly black and blue ink tattoo removal, with minor side effects.

  2. Histology and ultrastructure of picosecond laser intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy (ISPRK) (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald R.; Quantock, Andrew J.; Ito, Mitsutoshi; Assil, Kerry K.; Schanzlin, David J.


    Picosecond intrastromal ablation is currently under investigation as a new minimally invasive way of correcting refractive error. When the laser pulses are placed in an expanding spiral pattern along a lamellar plane, the technique is called intrastromal photorefractive keratectomy (ISPRK). We performed ISPRK on six human eye bank eyes. Thirty picosecond pulses at 1000 Hz and 20 - 25 (mu) J per pulse were separated by 15 microns. A total of 3 layers were placed in the anterior stroma separated by 15 microns. The eyes were then preserved and sectioned for light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Light and scanning electron microscopy reveals that picosecond intrastromal ablation using an ISPRK pattern demonstrates multiple, coalescing intrastromal cavities oriented parallel to the corneal surface. These cavities possess a smooth appearing inner wall. Using transmission electron microscopy, we noticed tissue loss surrounding some cavities with collagen fibril termination and thinning of collagen lamella. Other cavities we formed by separation of lamella with little evidence of tissue loss. A pseudomembrane lines the edge of some cavities. Although underlying tissue disruption was occasionally seen along the border of a cavity in no case was there any evidence of thermal damage or tissue necrosis. Ablation and loss of tissue in ISPRK results in nonthermal microscopic corneal thinning around some cavities whereas others demonstrate only lamellar separation. Alternative patterns and energy parameters should be investigated to bring this technology to its full potential in refractive surgery.

  3. The first picosecond terawatt CO2 laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.


    The first terawatt picosecond CO 2 laser will be brought to operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility in 1998. System consists of a single-mode TEA oscillator, picosecond semiconductor optical switch, multi-atmosphere. The authors report on design, simulation, and performance tests of the 10 atm final amplifier that allows for direct multi-joule energy extraction in a picosecond laser pulse

  4. Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation (United States)

    Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.


    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.

  5. Temporal and spectral manipulations of correlated photons using a time-lens


    Mittal, Sunil; Orre, Venkata Vikram; Restelli, Alessandro; Salem, Reza; Goldschmidt, Elizabeth A.; Hafezi, Mohammad


    A common challenge in quantum information processing with photons is the limited ability to manipulate and measure correlated states. An example is the inability to measure picosecond scale temporal correlations of a multi-photon state, given state-of-the-art detectors have a temporal resolution of about 100 ps. Here, we demonstrate temporal magnification of time-bin entangled two-photon states using a time-lens, and measure their temporal correlation function which is otherwise not accessibl...

  6. Environmentally stable picosecond Yb fiber laser with low repetition rate (United States)

    Baumgartl, M.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Díez, A.; Rothhardt, M.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.


    A SESAM-mode-locked, all-polarization-maintaining Ytterbium fiber laser producing picosecond pulses with narrow spectral bandwidth is presented. A simple linear all-fiber cavity without dispersion compensation is realized using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Different cavity lengths are investigated and repetition rates down to 0.7 MHz are obtained. Bandwidth and pulse duration of the output pulses are mainly determined by the choice of FBG. Pulses between 30 and 200 ps are generated employing different FBGs with bandwidths between 17 and 96 pm. The experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The laser holds great potential for simple amplification setups without pulse picking.

  7. Investigations of morphological features of picosecond dual-wavelength laser ablation of stainless steel (United States)

    Zhao, Wanqin; Wang, Wenjun; Mei, Xuesong; Jiang, Gedong; Liu, Bin


    Investigations on the morphological features of holes and grooves ablated on the surface of stainless steel using the picosecond dual-wavelength laser system with different powers combinations are presented based on the scarce researches on morphology of dual-wavelength laser ablation. The experimental results show the profiles of holes ablated by the visible beam appear V-shaped while those for the near-infrared have large openings and display U-shaped, which are independent of the ablation mechanism of ultrafast laser. For the dual-wavelength beam (a combination of visible beam and near-infrared), the holes resemble sunflower-like structures and have smoother ring patterns on the bottom. In general, the holes ablated by the dual-wavelength beam appear to have much flatter bottoms, linearly sloped side-walls and spinodal structures between the bottoms of the holes and the side-walls. Furthermore, through judiciously combining the powers of the dual-wavelength beam, high-quality grooves could be obtained with a flat worm-like structure at the bottom surface and less resolidified melt ejection edges. This study provides insight into optimizing ultrafast laser micromachining in order to obtain desired morphology.

  8. Semiconductors Investigated by Time Resolved Spectroscopy Using Femtosecond and Picosecond Laser Technology. (United States)


    Measured by a Streak Camera, H. Zarrabi , R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. B32, 3947 (1985). Picosecond Pulses Produced by Mode Locking an Nd:Glass Laser with Kodak...Excitation" by Hassan J. Zarrabi , 1985, AFOSR General Optronics 3. "Picosecond and Steady State Spectroscopy of Defects in Semi-Insulating CdSe" by David L

  9. Picosecond anti-Stokes generation in a photonic-crystal fiber for interferometric CARS microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn


    We generate tunable picosecond anti-Stokes pulses by four-wave mixing of two picosecond pump and Stokes pulse trains in a photonic-crystal fiber. The visible, spectrally narrow anti-Stokes pulses with shifts over 150 nm are generated without generating other spectral features. As a demonstration,...

  10. Development of a new picosecond pulse radiolysis system by using a femtosecond laser synchronized with a picosecond linac. A step to femtosecond pulse radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Tamotsu; Miki, Miyako; Seki, Shu; Okuda, Shuichi; Honda, Yoshihide; Kimura, Norio; Tagawa, Seiichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Ushida, Kiminori


    A new picosecond pulse radiolysis system by using a Ti sapphire femtosecond laser synchronized with a 20 ps electron pulse from the 38 MeV L-band linac has been developed for the research of the ultra fast reactions in primary processes of radiation chemistry. The timing jitter in the synchronization of the laser pulse with the electron pulse is less than several picosecond. The technique can be used in the next femtosecond pulse radiolysis. (author)

  11. The use of lasers for studying ultrahigh speed phenomena (picoseconds): equipement of a picosecond spectroscopy laboratory using synchronized mode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goujon, P.; Pochon, E.; Clerc, M.


    The spectroscopy laboratory is equipped with a dye laser and a neodymium glass laser. Detection is one case is made by means of a streak picosecond camera capable of a 5 ps time interval. A second detection method uses a CS 2 Kerr cell switch based on the Duguay principle. The first qualitative results concerning the fluorescence of DODCI and chlorophyll in vivo as well as the bleaching and recovering of the absorption of the electron solvated in liquid ammonia, have shown that this equipment could effectively enable the observation of physical-chemical processes as brief as 5 ps [fr

  12. Probing Dense Sprays with Gated, Picosecond, Digital Particle Field Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Trolinger


    Full Text Available This paper describes work that demonstrated the feasibility of producing a gated digital holography system that is capable of producing high-resolution images of three-dimensional particle and structure details deep within dense particle fields of a spray. We developed a gated picosecond digital holocamera, using optical Kerr cell gating, to demonstrate features of gated digital holography that make it an exceptional candidate for this application. The Kerr cell gate shuttered the camera after the initial burst of ballistic and snake photons had been recorded, suppressing longer path, multiple scattered illumination. By starting with a CW laser without gating and then incorporating a picosecond laser and an optical Kerr gate, we were able to assess the imaging quality of the gated holograms, and determine improvement gained by gating. We produced high quality images of 50–200 μm diameter particles, hairs and USAF resolution charts from digital holograms recorded through turbid media where more than 98% of the light was scattered from the field. The system can gate pulses as short as 3 mm in pathlength (10 ps, enabling image-improving features of the system. The experiments lead us to the conclusion that this method has an excellent capability as a diagnostics tool in dense spray combustion research.

  13. The Boersch effect in a picosecond pulsed electron beam emitted from a semiconductor photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Makoto, E-mail:; Ujihara, Toru; Saitoh, Koh [Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Nambo, Yoshito; Aoki, Kota; Sameshima, Kensuke; Asano, Hidefumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Jin, Xiuguang [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Takeda, Yoshikazu [Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center, Seto 489-0965 (Japan); Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute, Nagoya 460-0008 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuo [Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)


    The space charge effect has been clearly observed in the energy distributions of picosecond pulse beams from a spin-polarized electron microscope, and was found to depend upon the quantity of charge per pulse. The non-linear phenomena associated with this effect have also been replicated in beam simulations that take into account of a three-dimensional space charge. The results show that a charge of 500 aC/pulse provides the highest brightness with a 16-ps pulse duration, a 30-keV beam energy, and an emission spot of 1.8 μm. Furthermore, the degeneracy of the wave packet of the pulsed electron beam has been evaluated to be 1.6 × 10{sup −5} with a charge of 100 aC/pulse, which is higher than that for a continuously emitted electron beam despite the low beam energy of 30 keV. The high degeneracy and high brightness contribute to the realization of high temporal and energy resolutions in low-voltage electron microscopy, which will serve to reduce radiolysis damage and enhance scattering contrast.

  14. High energy green nanosecond and picosecond pulse delivery through a negative curvature fiber for precision micro-machining. (United States)

    Jaworski, Piotr; Yu, Fei; Carter, Richard M; Knight, Jonathan C; Shephard, Jonathan D; Hand, Duncan P


    In this paper we present an anti-resonant guiding, low-loss Negative Curvature Fiber (NCF) for the efficient delivery of high energy short (ns) and ultrashort (ps) pulsed laser light in the green spectral region. The fabricated NCF has an attenuation of 0.15 dB/m and 0.18 dB/m at 532 nm and 515 nm respectively, and provided robust transmission of nanosecond and picosecond pulses with energies of 0.57 mJ (10.4 kW peak power) and 30 µJ (5 MW peak power) respectively. It provides single-mode, stable (low bend-sensitivity) output and maintains spectral and temporal properties of the source laser beam. The practical application of fiber-delivered pulses has been demonstrated in precision micro-machining and marking of metals and glass.

  15. Advanced magneto-optical microscopy: Imaging from picoseconds to centimeters - imaging spin waves and temperature distributions (invited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Onur Urs


    Full Text Available Recent developments in the observation of magnetic domains and domain walls by wide-field optical microscopy based on the magneto-optical Kerr, Faraday, Voigt, and Gradient effect are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the existence of higher order magneto-optical effects for advanced magnetic imaging. Fundamental concepts and advances in methodology are discussed that allow for imaging of magnetic domains on various length and time scales. Time-resolved imaging of electric field induced domain wall rotation is shown. Visualization of magnetization dynamics down to picosecond temporal resolution for the imaging of spin-waves and magneto-optical multi-effect domain imaging techniques for obtaining vectorial information are demonstrated. Beyond conventional domain imaging, the use of a magneto-optical indicator technique for local temperature sensing is shown.

  16. Time-resolved non-sequential ray-tracing modelling of non-line-of-sight picosecond pulse LIDAR (United States)

    Sroka, Adam; Chan, Susan; Warburton, Ryan; Gariepy, Genevieve; Henderson, Robert; Leach, Jonathan; Faccio, Daniele; Lee, Stephen T.


    The ability to detect motion and to track a moving object that is hidden around a corner or behind a wall provides a crucial advantage when physically going around the obstacle is impossible or dangerous. One recently demonstrated approach to achieving this goal makes use of non-line-of-sight picosecond pulse laser ranging. This approach has recently become interesting due to the availability of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) receivers with picosecond time resolution. We present a time-resolved non-sequential ray-tracing model and its application to indirect line-of-sight detection of moving targets. The model makes use of the Zemax optical design programme's capabilities in stray light analysis where it traces large numbers of rays through multiple random scattering events in a 3D non-sequential environment. Our model then reconstructs the generated multi-segment ray paths and adds temporal analysis. Validation of this model against experimental results is shown. We then exercise the model to explore the limits placed on system design by available laser sources and detectors. In particular we detail the requirements on the laser's pulse energy, duration and repetition rate, and on the receiver's temporal response and sensitivity. These are discussed in terms of the resulting implications for achievable range, resolution and measurement time while retaining eye-safety with this technique. Finally, the model is used to examine potential extensions to the experimental system that may allow for increased localisation of the position of the detected moving object, such as the inclusion of multiple detectors and/or multiple emitters.

  17. Pockels cell shutter operating in the 100 picosecond range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, M.; Gex, J.P.


    The object of the first part of the statement is the study and the description of a 20 x 20mm section tranversal field shutter realized as a line transmission structure, acting as a roller-blind shutter acting within the limits of a subnanosecond. It is constituted by two appropriately cut, deuterized KDP electro-optical crystals, situated on either side of a birefringent plate having its neutral lines at a 45 0 angle to their optical axis, placed within a prtion of the dual plate transmission line. A resolution above 20 pairs of lines per millimetre, as well as a Transmission/Extinction ratio greater than 100 over all the optical section are obtained for a 250 picoseconds dynamic functioning. The second part of the statement deals with the application of this shutter to photography and hyper-rapid interferometry of plasmas created by lasers. (author)

  18. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, W.K.; Luhmann, N.C.


    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band (∼8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies

  19. Compact, high-pulse-energy, picosecond optical parametric oscillator. (United States)

    Kienle, Florian; Teh, Peh Siong; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Gawith, Corin B E; Hanna, David C; Richardson, David J; Shepherd, David P


    We report a high-energy optical parametric oscillator (OPO) synchronously pumped by a 7.19 MHz, Yb:fiber-amplified, picosecond, gain-switched laser diode. The 42-m-long ring cavity maintains a compact design through the use of an intracavity optical fiber. The periodically poled MgO-doped LiNbO(3) OPO provides output pulse energies as high as 0.49 μJ at 1.5 μm (signal) and 0.19 μJ at 3.6 μm (idler). Tunability from 1.5 to 1.7 μm and from 2.9 to 3.6 μm is demonstrated, and typical M(2) values of 1.5 × 1.3 and 2.8 × 1.9 are measured for the signal and idler, respectively, at high power.

  20. Picosecond pulse generated supercontinuum as a stable seed for OPCPA. (United States)

    Indra, Lukáš; Batysta, František; Hříbek, Petr; Novák, Jakub; Hubka, Zbyněk; Green, Jonathan T; Antipenkov, Roman; Boge, Robert; Naylon, Jack A; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich


    We present a stable supercontinuum (SC) generated in a bulk YAG crystal, pumped by 3 ps chirped pulses at 1030 nm. The SC is generated in a loose focus geometry in a 13 cm long YAG crystal, allowing for stable and robust single-filament generation. The SC energy stability exceeds that of the pump laser by almost a factor of 3. Additionally, we show that the SC spectrum has long-term stability and that the SC is coherent and compressible by compressing the portions of SC spectra close to the corresponding Fourier limit. This makes the picosecond-pulse-driven SC a suitable stable seed for OPCPA amplifiers.

  1. Intensity Noise of Normal-Pumped Picosecond Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Bang, Ole


    The noise properties of supercontinuum (SC) sources are of importance in many applications. This intensity noise of the SC arises from nonlinear amplification of the input-pulse shot noise and the spontaneous Raman scattering down the fiber [1]. Low noise femtosecond SC generation (SCG) has...... previously been demonstrated [2]. However, in commercial SC sources, the SC is generated by pumping with picosecond to nanosecond pulses and the SCG is thus initiated by modulation instability (MI). Therefore, the SC is characterized by low coherence and high shot-to-shot fluctuations, in particular...... at the spectral edges [3–5]. However, the influence of the noise properties when pumping in the normal dispersion regime has so far not been investigated for long pulse pumping. In this work we have measured and compared the relative intensity noise (RIN) properties of long-pulse MI initiated SCG in three...

  2. Pico-second laser spectroscopy and reaction dynamics in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialocq, Jean-Claude


    The dynamic relaxation of excited singlet states of molecules and ions in liquid solution is investigated using picosecond laser spectroscopy. The more efficient process for the deactivation of the first excited singlet state of pinacyanol is internal conversion S 1 → S 0 between iso-energetic states. At low viscosity, the rate constant is inversely proportional to the macroscopic viscosity and depends on the relaxation of the angle between the quinoline end groups around the polymethinic chain. Electron photodetachment by 265 nm excitation of the ferrocyanide and phenolate anions and photoionisation of neutral molecules, phenol, indole and tryptophan in polar solvents give rise to the solvated electron formation. The mono-or bi-photonic nature of the ejection process and the solvent relaxation around the excess electron are analyzed. (author) [fr

  3. Upconversion imaging using short-wave infrared picosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathez, Morgan David; Rodrigo, Peter John; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    To the best of our knowledge, we present the first demonstration of short-wavelength infrared image upconversion that employs intense picosecond signal and pump beams. We use a fiber laser that emits a signal beam at 1877 nm and a pump beam at 1550 nm—both with a pulse width of 1 ps and a pulse...... by an improved model that considers the combined image blurring effect due to finite pump beam size, thick nonlinear crystal, and polychromatic infrared illumination....... beam diameter to upconvert a wider range of signal spatial frequencies in the crystal. The 1877 nm signal is converted into 849 nm—enabling an image to be acquired by a silicon CCD camera. The measured size of the smallest resolvable element of this imaging system is consistent with the value predicted...

  4. Characterestics of pico-second single bunch at the S-band linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kozawa, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Ueda, Toru; Miya, Kenzo


    Measurement of the bunch structure of a pico-second single bunch was performed using a femto-second streak camera at the S-band linear accelerator of the University of Tokyo. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of the generation of a femto-second single bunch at the S-band linac. The details of the bunch structure and energy spectrum of an original single bunch were precisely investigated in several operation modes where the RF phases in accelerating tubes and a prebuncher were varied. The femto-second streak camera was utilized to measure the bunch structure by one shot via Cherenkov radiation emitted by the electrons in the bunch. Next, an experiment for magnetic pulse compression of the original single bunch was carried out. Pulse shapes of the compressed bunchs for different energy modulation were also obtained by measuring Cherenkov radiation by one shot using the femto-second streak camera. Prior to the experiment, numerical tracking analysis to determine operating parameters for the magnetic pulse compression was also done. Measured pulse widths were compared with calculated ones. Finally, a 2 ps (full width at half maximum; FWHM) single bunch with an electric charge of 0.3 nC could be generated by the magnetic pulse compression. ((orig.))

  5. Repetition Rate Effects in Picosecond Laser Microprocessing of Aluminum and Steel in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Nicolae


    Full Text Available Picosecond laser drilling was studied in the case of industrial steel and aluminum, which are difficult to microprocess by conventional methods. The dependence of hole morphology and dimensions on the pulse repetition rate and number of pulses in water and air were ascertained. For both materials, the diameter of the hole is larger in water than in air. In water, the diameter is larger at higher repetition rates than at lower ones, and increases with the number of pulses. In air, the hole diameter is not affected by the repetition rate, and remains constant from 100 to 100,000 pulses. Overall, material removal is more efficient in water than in air. The shape of the hole is generally more irregular in water, becoming more so as the number of pulses is increased. This is probably due to debris being trapped in the hole, since water flowing over the target surface cannot efficiently remove it. In aluminum, the depth of the hole is smaller at higher repetition rates. By scanning the beam over the aluminum target in water, the laser penetrates a 400-μm thick workpiece, generating a line with comparable widths at the entrance and exit surfaces.

  6. Picosecond laser-induced fluorescence study of the collisionless photodissociation of nitrocompounds at 266 nm (United States)

    Mialocq, J. C.; Stephenson, J. C.


    The photodissociation of nitroalkanes and dimethylnitramine by picosecond laser pulses at 266 nm has been investigated by observing fluorescence from electronically excited NO* 2 formed directly in the UV photodissociation process and also by laser-induced fluoresence (LIF) probing of NO 2 formed in the electronic ground state. The formation of the ground state fragment is a monophotonic process, and follows closely the integrated laser pulse shape, implying that the NO 2 is formed within 6 ps after absorption of a 266 nm photon by CH 3NO 2 or (CH 3) 2NNO 2. Formation of NO* 2 from dimethylnitramine was monophotonic; for the nitroalkanes the observed NO* 2 formation was much less efficient and increased faster than linearly with increasing energy in the UV photolysis pulse. In the RNo 2 nitroalkanes under study (R  Ch 3, C 2H 5, n-C 3H 7 and i-C 3H 7), the quantum efficiency of NO 2 formation does not depend on the nature of the alkyl group. An estimation of the quantum yields of photodissociation is discussed.

  7. Utilization of the UV laser with picosecond pulses for the formation of surface microstructures on elastomeric plastics (United States)

    Antoszewski, B.; Tofil, S.; Scendo, M.; Tarelnik, W.


    Elastomeric plastics belong to a wide range of polymeric materials with special properties. They are used as construction material for seals and other components in many branches of industry and, in particular, in the biomedical industry, mechatronics, electronics and chemical equipment. The micromachining of surfaces of these materials can be used to build micro-flow, insulating, dispensing systems and chemical and biological reactors. The paper presents results of research on the effects of micro-machining of selected elastomeric plastics using a UV laser emitting picosecond pulses. The authors see the prospective application of the developed technology in the sealing technique in particular to shaping the sealing pieces co-operating with the surface of the element. The result of the study is meant to show parameters of the UV laser’s performance when producing typical components such as grooves, recesses for optimum ablation in terms of quality and productivity.

  8. Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Average Power All-Solid-State Picosecond Amplifier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Liu


    Full Text Available We present our research on the high energy picosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and the high average power picosecond laser running at 100 kHz based on bulk Nd-doped crystals. With diode-pumped solid state (DPSS hybrid amplifiers consisting of a picosecond oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, end-pumped single-pass amplifiers, and a side-pumped amplifier, an output energy of 64.8 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was achieved. An average power of 37.5 W at a repetition rate of 100 kHz pumped by continuous wave laser diodes was obtained. Compact, stable and high power DPSS laser amplifier systems with good beam qualities are excellent picosecond sources for high power optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA and high-efficiency laser processing.

  9. How Self-Generated Thought Shapes Mood—The Relation between Mind-Wandering and Mood Depends on the Socio-Temporal Content of Thoughts (United States)

    Ruby, Florence J. M.; Smallwood, Jonathan; Engen, Haakon; Singer, Tania


    Recent work has highlighted that the generation of thoughts unrelated to the current environment may be both a cause and a consequence of unhappiness. The current study used lag analysis to examine whether the relationship between self-generated thought and negative affect depends on the content of the thoughts themselves. We found that the emotional content could strongly predict subsequent mood (e.g. negative thoughts were associated with subsequent negative mood). However, this direct relationship was modulated by the socio-temporal content of the thoughts: thoughts that were past- and other-related were associated with subsequent negative mood, even if current thought content was positive. By contrast, future- and self-related thoughts preceded improvements of mood, even when current thought content was negative. These results highlight the important link between self-generated thought and mood and suggest that the socio-temporal content plays an important role in determining whether an individual's future affective state will be happy or sad. PMID:24194889

  10. How self-generated thought shapes mood--the relation between mind-wandering and mood depends on the socio-temporal content of thoughts. (United States)

    Ruby, Florence J M; Smallwood, Jonathan; Engen, Haakon; Singer, Tania


    Recent work has highlighted that the generation of thoughts unrelated to the current environment may be both a cause and a consequence of unhappiness. The current study used lag analysis to examine whether the relationship between self-generated thought and negative affect depends on the content of the thoughts themselves. We found that the emotional content could strongly predict subsequent mood (e.g. negative thoughts were associated with subsequent negative mood). However, this direct relationship was modulated by the socio-temporal content of the thoughts: thoughts that were past- and other-related were associated with subsequent negative mood, even if current thought content was positive. By contrast, future- and self-related thoughts preceded improvements of mood, even when current thought content was negative. These results highlight the important link between self-generated thought and mood and suggest that the socio-temporal content plays an important role in determining whether an individual's future affective state will be happy or sad.

  11. Ultrafast Beam Filamentation: Spatio-Temporal Characterization and Control (United States)


    analysis, or through SHG FROG signals generated by the novel apparatus with a slight modification. A CdTe /CdS heterojunction sample was studied...measurements of the CdTe /CdS sample, the transient dynamics indicate a short exciton lifetime on the order of several to tens of picoseconds. A high temporal...four-wave mixing experiments. For example, the simple measurement of a self-phase modulated spectrum will be Fig. 12 The TG optical layout used

  12. Simultaneous microstructuring and functionalisation of surfaces with picosecond laser (United States)

    Hildenhagen, Jens; Dickmann, Klaus; Neyer, Johannes; Wieschendorf, Christoph


    The generation of microstructures by ultrashort pulse laser irradiation is - depending on process parameters and the applied material - often accompanied with the creation of substructures like ripples or micro canals on the ablation ground. This side effect can be used to create local topographic modifications on a microscopic scale which can change functional properties of the surface. The combination of micro structuring and functionalisation within one production step can only be successful if the interaction mechanisms are well known. In this study the options to modify the wetting behavior on stainless steel, Al2O3 ceramic and PMMA plastic were analyzed. Therefore the contact angles of water drops on picoseconds-laser-produced samples were measured by a self-made measuring system. Test measurements offered post-process effects on surfaces of steel and ceramic. On those substrates the final contact angle adjusts after several hours up to days. In total with this technique contact angles between 5° and 160° could be realized, depending on the material. This allows generation of hydrophilic up to super-hydrophobic effects on precise defined areas. The combination technique offers novel options particularly for micro fluidic. Some produced samples for "Lab-on-a-Chip- Systems" should demonstrate that.

  13. Photonic-band-gap gyrotron amplifier with picosecond pulses. (United States)

    Nanni, Emilio A; Jawla, Sudheer; Lewis, Samantha M; Shapiro, Michael A; Temkin, Richard J


    We report the amplification of 250 GHz pulses as short as 260 ps without observation of pulse broadening using a photonic-band-gap circuit gyrotron traveling-wave-amplifier. The gyrotron amplifier operates with a device gain of 38 dB and an instantaneous bandwidth of 8 GHz. The operational bandwidth of the amplifier can be tuned over 16 GHz by adjusting the operating voltage of the electron beam and the magnetic field. The amplifier uses a 30 cm long photonic-band-gap interaction circuit to confine the desired TE 03 -like operating mode while suppressing lower order modes which can result in undesired oscillations. The circuit gain is >55 dB for a beam voltage of 23 kV and a current of 700 mA. These results demonstrate the wide bandwidths and a high gain achievable with gyrotron amplifiers. The amplification of picosecond pulses of variable lengths, 260-800 ps, shows good agreement with the theory using the coupled dispersion relation and the gain-spectrum of the amplifier as measured with quasi-CW input pulses.

  14. Sub-picosecond Resolution Time-to-Digital Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratov, Vladimir [Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA (United States); Katzman, Vladimir [Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA (United States); Binkley, Jeb [Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA (United States)


    Time-to-digital converters with sub-picosecond resolutions are needed to satisfy the requirements of time-on-flight measurements of the next generation of high energy and nuclear physics experiments. The converters must be highly integrated, power effective, low cost, and feature plug-and-play capabilities to handle the increasing number of channels (up to hundreds of millions) in future Department of Energy experiments. Current state-off-the-art time-to-digital converter integrated circuits do not have the sufficient degree of integration and flexibility to fulfill all the described requirements. During Phase I, the Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company in cooperation with the nuclear physics division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the architecture of a novel time-to-digital converter with multiple channels connected to an external processor through a special interfacing block and synchronized by clock signals generated by an internal phase-locked loop. The critical blocks of the system including signal delay lines and delay-locked loops with proprietary differential delay cells, as well as the required digital code converter and the clock period counter have been designed and simulated using the advanced SiGe120 BiCMOS technological process. The results of investigations demonstrate a possibility to achieve the digitization accuracy within 1ps. ADSANTEC has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed concept in computer simulations. The proposed system will be a critical component for the next generation of NEP experiments.

  15. Picosecond laser induced periodic surface structure on copper thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Thi Trang Dai; Petit, Agnès; Semmar, Nadjib


    LIPSS (Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structure) formation on copper thin films induced by a picosecond laser beam (Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm, 42 ps and 10 Hz) was studied experimentally. Copper thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering. The surface modifications of irradiated zones were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Two distinct types of LIPSS were identified with respect to the laser fluence (F), number of laser shots (N) and substrate material. Namely, with a number of laser shots (1000 2 2 ), Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (LSFL with a spatial period of Λ ∼ 260 nm and an orientation perpendicular to polarization) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS (HSFL with a spatial period of Λ ∼ 130 nm and an orientation parallel to the polarization) were observed. The regime of regular spikes formation was determined for N ≥ 1000. Moreover, the 2D-map of the relationship among LIPSS formation, laser fluence and number of laser shots on copper thin film with two different substrates was established. A physics interpretation of regular spikes and LIPSS formation on copper thin film induced by ps laser with overlapping multi-shots is proposed based on experimental data and the theory of Plateau-Rayleigh instability.

  16. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO{sub 2} laser technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelsky, I.V. [Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO{sub 2} laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO{sub 2} lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. We discuss applications of TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for {gamma}-{gamma} (or {gamma}-lepton) colliders, for a possible `table-top` source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams. (author)

  17. Picosecond and subpicosecond pulsed laser deposition of Pb thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gontad


    Full Text Available Pb thin films were deposited on Nb substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD with UV radiation (248 nm, in two different ablation regimes: picosecond (5 ps and subpicosecond (0.5 ps. Granular films with grain size on the micron scale have been obtained, with no evidence of large droplet formation. All films presented a polycrystalline character with preferential orientation along the (111 crystalline planes. A maximum quantum efficiency (QE of 7.3×10^{-5} (at 266 nm and 7 ns pulse duration was measured, after laser cleaning, demonstrating good photoemission performance for Pb thin films deposited by ultrashort PLD. Moreover, Pb thin film photocathodes have maintained their QE for days, providing excellent chemical stability and durability. These results suggest that Pb thin films deposited on Nb by ultrashort PLD are a noteworthy alternative for the fabrication of photocathodes for superconductive radio-frequency electron guns. Finally, a comparison with the characteristics of Pb films prepared by ns PLD is illustrated and discussed.

  18. Picosecond laser damage of fused silica at 355 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangjie; Liu Hongjie; Wang Fang; Zhang Zhen; An Xinyou; Huang Jin; Jiang Xiaodong; Wu Weidong; Ren Weiyi


    This paper studies the initiated damage threshold, the damage morphology and the subsequent damage growth on fused silica's input-surface and exit-surface under picosecond laser irradiation at 355 nm. Defects induced fluorescence on surface of the optical component is observed. The results demonstrate a significant dependence of the initiated damage on pulse duration and surface defects, and that of the damage growth on self-focusing, sub-surface defects. The damage-threshold is 3.98 J/cm 2 of input surface and 2.91 J/cm 2 of exit surface. The damage morphologies are quite different between input surface and exit surface. Slow growth behavior appears for the diameter of exit-surface and linear growth one for the depth of exit-surface in the lateral side of damage site with the increase of shot number. Defects have changed obviously compared with nanosecond laser damage in the damage area. Several main reasons such as electric intensification and self-focusing for the observed initiated damage and damage growth behavior are discussed. (authors)

  19. Simple method for generating adjustable trains of picosecond electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muggli


    Full Text Available A simple, passive method for producing an adjustable train of picosecond electron bunches is demonstrated. The key component of this method is an electron beam mask consisting of an array of parallel wires that selectively spoils the beam emittance. This mask is positioned in a high magnetic dispersion, low beta-function region of the beam line. The incoming electron beam striking the mask has a time/energy correlation that corresponds to a time/position correlation at the mask location. The mask pattern is transformed into a time pattern or train of bunches when the dispersion is brought back to zero downstream of the mask. Results are presented of a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating this novel technique that was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. This technique allows for easy tailoring of the bunch train for a particular application, including varying the bunch width and spacing, and enabling the generation of a trailing witness bunch.

  20. Photonic-band-gap gyrotron amplifier with picosecond pulses (United States)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Jawla, Sudheer; Lewis, Samantha M.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.


    We report the amplification of 250 GHz pulses as short as 260 ps without observation of pulse broadening using a photonic-band-gap circuit gyrotron traveling-wave-amplifier. The gyrotron amplifier operates with a device gain of 38 dB and an instantaneous bandwidth of 8 GHz. The operational bandwidth of the amplifier can be tuned over 16 GHz by adjusting the operating voltage of the electron beam and the magnetic field. The amplifier uses a 30 cm long photonic-band-gap interaction circuit to confine the desired TE03-like operating mode while suppressing lower order modes which can result in undesired oscillations. The circuit gain is >55 dB for a beam voltage of 23 kV and a current of 700 mA. These results demonstrate the wide bandwidths and a high gain achievable with gyrotron amplifiers. The amplification of picosecond pulses of variable lengths, 260-800 ps, shows good agreement with the theory using the coupled dispersion relation and the gain-spectrum of the amplifier as measured with quasi-CW input pulses.

  1. Advantages offered by high average power picosecond lasers (United States)

    Moorhouse, C.


    As electronic devices shrink in size to reduce material costs, device size and weight, thinner material thicknesses are also utilized. Feature sizes are also decreasing, which is pushing manufacturers towards single step laser direct write process as an attractive alternative to conventional, multiple step photolithography processes by eliminating process steps and the cost of chemicals. The fragile nature of these thin materials makes them difficult to machine either mechanically or with conventional nanosecond pulsewidth, Diode Pumped Solids State (DPSS) lasers. Picosecond laser pulses can cut materials with reduced damage regions and selectively remove thin films due to the reduced thermal effects of the shorter pulsewidth. Also, the high repetition rate allows high speed processing for industrial applications. Selective removal of thin films for OLED patterning, silicon solar cells and flat panel displays is discussed, as well as laser cutting of transparent materials with low melting point such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). For many of these thin film applications, where low pulse energy and high repetition rate are required, throughput can be increased by the use of a novel technique to using multiple beams from a single laser source is outlined.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of picosecond laser interactions with electronic materials-laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Samuel S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Lasers having picosecond and shorter pulse duration are receiving much attention due to their capabilities for direct-write micromachining on many materials with minimal substrate damage. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of laser ablation processes, particularly the creation of plasmas that often shield the target and reduce the material processing efficiency at nanosecond time scales. However, a considerable challenge that still remains is the understanding of the underlying mechanisms during picosecond laser interactions with electronic solids. In this work we first study picosecond laser-induced electron emission from semiconductor surfaces. A theoretical model was set up based on carrier transport inside the semiconductor material during picosecond laser-semiconductor interactions. We demonstrate that nonequilibrium carrier dynamics plays a significant role for picosecond, as well as short nanosecond, laser induced electron emission from semiconductors. Photoelectric effect is found to be responsible for electron emission at low incident laser fluences, whereas thermionic emission is dominant at higher fluences. We have also performed experimental and theoretical studies on the formation and subsequent evolution of plasmas during laser-metal interactions at the picosecond time scale. Using picosecond time-resolved shadowgrams ahd interferograms, a novel type of plasma is observed, which has an electron density on the order of 1020cm-3.The origin of this picosecond plasma is attributed to gas breakdown, which is caused by laser-induced electron emission fi-om the target surface. After the laser pulse is completed, the longitudinal expansion of the plasma is suppressed. This suppression is found to result from an electric field above the target that prevents, after laser irradiation, fbrther movement of the electrons inside the plasma. Measurements of lateral plasma expansion indicate that the picosecond plasma may absorb

  3. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors act at different spatial and temporal scales to shape population structure, distribution and speciation in Italian Barbus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae). (United States)

    Buonerba, Luca; Zaccara, Serena; Delmastro, Giovanni B; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Salzburger, Walter; Gante, Hugo F


    Previous studies have given substantial attention to external factors that affect the distribution and diversification of freshwater fish in Europe and North America, in particular Pleistocene and Holocene glacial cycles. In the present paper we examine sequence variation at one mitochondrial and four nuclear loci (over 3 kbp) from populations sampled across several drainages of all species of Barbus known to inhabit Italian freshwaters (introduced B. barbus and native B. balcanicus, B. caninus, B. plebejus and B. tyberinus). By comparing species with distinct ecological preferences (rheophilic and fluvio-lacustrine) and using a fossil-calibrated phylogeny we gained considerable insight about the intrinsic and extrinsic processes shaping barbel distribution, population structure and speciation. We found that timescales of Italian barbel diversification are older than previously thought, starting in the Early Miocene, and involving local and regional tectonism and basin paleo-evolution rather than Pleistocene glacial cycles. Conversely, more recent environmental factors associated with glaciation-deglaciation cycles have influenced species distributions. These events had a more marked impact on fluvio-lacustrine than on rheophilic species by means of river confluence at low sea levels. We show that genetic structure is influenced by species ecology: populations of small rheophilic species inhabiting upper river stretches of large basins are less connected and more differentiated than large fluvio-lacustrine species that inhabit lower river courses. We report the existence of both natural and human-induced interspecific gene flow, which could have great impacts on the evolution and persistence of species involved. In addition, we provide evidence that B. tyberinus is genetically distinguishable from all other Italian taxa and that its morphological similarity to B. plebejus and intermediacy with B. caninus are best explained by recent common ancestry and similar

  4. Surface microstructure and chemistry of polyimide by single pulse ablation of picosecond laser (United States)

    Du, Qifeng; Chen, Ting; Liu, Jianguo; Zeng, Xiaoyan


    Polyimide (PI) surface was ablated by the single pulse of picosecond laser, and the effects of laser wavelength (λ= 355 nm and 1064 nm) and fluence on surface microstructure and chemistry were explored. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis found that different surface microstructures, i.e., the concave of concentric ring and the convex of porous circular disk, were generated by 355 nm and 1064 nm picosecond laser ablation, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicated that due to the high peak energy density of picosecond laser, oxygen and nitrogen from the ambient were incorporated into the PI surface mainly in the form of Cdbnd O and Csbnd Nsbnd C groups. Thus, both of the O/C and N/C atomic content ratios increased, but the increase caused by 1064 nm wavelength laser was larger. It inferred that the differences of PI surface microstructures and chemistry resulted from different laser parameters were related to different laser-matter interaction effects. For 355 nm picosecond laser, no obvious thermal features were observed and the probable ablation process of PI was mainly governed by photochemical effect; while for 1064 nm picosecond laser, obvious thermal feature appeared and photothermal effect was thought to be dominant.

  5. Tunable-wavelength picosecond vortex generation in fiber and its application in frequency-doubled vortex (United States)

    Zhang, Wending; Wei, Keyan; Wang, Heng; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Huang, Ligang; Mei, Ting; Zhao, Jianlin


    We present a method for tunable-wavelength picosecond vortex pulse generation by using an acoustically-induced fiber grating (AIFG). The AIFG-driven mode conversion characteristic was activated via a shear-mode piezoelectric transducer that excels in excitation efficiency of acoustic flexural wave and mechanical stability. The linearly-polarized ±1-order picosecond vortex pulse was experimentally generated via AIFG with a uniform coupling efficiency of ∼98.4% from the fundamental mode to the ±1-order vortex mode within the wavelength range 1540 nm ∼ 1560 nm. The topological charge and the linearly-polarized characteristic of the picosecond vortex pulse were verified by examination of the off-axial interference and the polarization angle-dependent intensity, respectively. Furthermore, the picosecond vortex pulse with wavelength tunability was input to a nonlinear BBO crystal to generate a frequency-doubled ±2-order vortex in the wavelength range 770 nm ∼ 780 nm. This technology provides a convenient apparatus for generating a picosecond vortex pulse and the frequency-doubled vortex with wavelength tunability.

  6. Antibacterial mechanisms of a novel type picosecond laser-generated silver-titanium nanoparticles and their toxicity to human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshed P


    Full Text Available Peri Korshed,1 Lin Li,2 Zhu Liu,3 Aleksandr Mironov,4 Tao Wang1 1School of Biological Science, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, 2Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, 3School of Materials, 4Core Research Facilities, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: In this study, we explored the antibacterial mechanisms for a novel type of Ag-TiO2 compound nanoparticles (NPs produced from an Ag-TiO2 alloy using a picosecond laser and evaluated the toxicity of the Ag-TiO2 NPs to a range of human cell types. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the morphology, shapes, and size distribution of the laser-generated Ag-TiO2 NPs. UV-visible spectrometer was used to confirm the shift of light absorbance of the NPs toward visible light wavelength. Results showed that the laser-generated Ag-TiO2 NPs had significant antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Increased level of reactive oxygen species was produced by E. coli after exposure to the Ag-TiO2 NPs, which was accompanied with lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, disintegration of cell membrane and protein leakage, leading to the cell death. Five types of human cells originated from lung (A549, liver (HePG2, kidney (HEK293, endothelium cells (human coronary artery endothelial cells [hCAECs], and skin (human dermal fibroblast cells [HDFc] were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the laser-generated Ag-TiO2 NPs. A weak but statistically significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed for hCAECs, A549 and HDFc cells when co-cultured with 2.5 µg/mL or 20 µg/mL of the laser-generated Ag-TiO2 NPs for 48 hours. However, this effect was no longer apparent when a higher concentration of NPs (20 µg/mL was used after 72

  7. Picosecond time resolved cathodoluminescence to study semiconductor materials and heterostructures


    Sonderegger, Samuel


    A large number of characterization tools for semiconductor based heterostructures are available nowadays. Most of these techniques deliver high temporal resolution (down to hundreds of femtoseconds) or good spatial resolution (down to sub nanometer resolution), but not both simultaneously. However, to get a complete picture of carrier recombination and diffusion processes in heterostructures, one needs a spectroscopic tool which simultaneously yields high temporal and spatial resolutions. The...

  8. Picosecond time resolved cathodoluminescence to study semiconductor materials and heterostructures


    Sonderegger, Samuel; Ganière, Jean-Daniel


    A large number of characterization tools for semiconductor based heterostructures are available nowadays. Most of these techniques deliver high temporal resolution (down to hundreds of femtoseconds) or good spatial resolution (down to sub nanometer resolution), but not both simultaneously. However, to get a complete picture of carrier recombination and diffusion processes in heterostructures, one needs a spectroscopic tool which simultaneously yields high temporal and spatial resolutions. The...

  9. High aspect ratio nanoholes in glass generated by femtosecond laser pulses with picosecond intervals (United States)

    Ahn, Sanghoon; Choi, Jiyeon; Noh, Jiwhan; Cho, Sung-Hak


    Because of its potential uses, high aspect ratio nanostructures have been interested for last few decades. In order to generate nanostructures, various techniques have been attempted. Femtosecond laser ablation is one of techniques for generating nanostructures inside a transparent material. For generating nanostructures by femtosecond laser ablation, previous studies have been attempted beam shaping such as Bessel beam and temporal tailored beam. Both methods suppress electron excitation at near surface and initiate interference of photons at certain depth. Recent researches indicate that shape of nanostructures is related with temporal change of electron density and number of self-trapped excitons. In this study, we try to use the temporal change of electron density induced by femtosecond laser pulse for generating high aspect ratio nanoholes. In order to reveal the effect of temporal change of electron density, secondary pulses are irradiated from 100 to 1000 ps after the irradiation of first pulse. Our result shows that diameter of nanoholes is increasing and depth of nanoholes is decreasing as pulse to pulse interval is getting longer. With manipulating of pulse to pulse interval, we could generate high aspect ratio nanoholes with diameter of 250-350 nm and depth of 4∼6 μm inside a glass.

  10. Study of retinal damages thresholds induced by multiple picosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, D.; Perot, J.C.; Garcia, J.; Vives, C.; Paolacci-Riera, S.; Dormont, D.; Court, L.


    This study is directed toward determining the ocular damage thresholds induced by picosecond pulses emitted in the visible spectrum in experiments carried out on the rabbit. The retinal injuries are investigated with a method using fluorescein angiography. The empirical multiple-pulse formula, predicting the exposure limit value per pulse in guidelines, is in good agreement with our data. Thermal mechanism appears to be the major component of the damaging process in the picosecond regime of time. However, shallow slopes of probit curves and small divergences between model and data suggest the involvement of a new damaging mechanism. (authors)

  11. Picosecond energy relaxation in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorosinets, Vladimir; Richter, Pablo; Mohler, Ernst; Roskos, Hartmut G.; Jakob, Gerhard


    Investigating the reflectance response dynamics of La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 thin films after excitation by femtosecond laser pulses, we identify for the first time a picosecond relaxation step which only exists below the Curie temperature T C . The relaxation time increases from zero at T C to several picoseconds at low temperatures. The data can be explained with the existence of a magnetization-related effective energy gap, and assuming relaxation between these states to be mediated by a Frohlich-type electron-lattice interaction

  12. Development of a picosecond lidar system for large-scale combustion diagnostics. (United States)

    Kaldvee, Billy; Ehn, Andreas; Bood, Joakim; Aldén, Marcus


    In the present work, a picosecond lidar system aiming at single-ended combustion diagnostics in full-scale combustion devices with limited optical access, such as power plants, is described. The highest overall range resolution of the system was found to be Bunsen burner flame. A well-characterized ethylene flame on a McKenna burner was evaluated for different equivalence ratios using Rayleigh thermometry. The results indicate both that picosecond lidar might be applicable for single-shot Rayleigh thermometry, even two-dimensional, and that there is a possibility to qualitatively map soot occurrence. Furthermore, differential absorption lidar has been investigated in acetone vapor jets for fuel visualization purposes.

  13. Electronics for a Picosecond Time-of-flight Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Andrew Gerhart [University of Texas, Arlington; Rijssenbeek, Michael [Stony Brook


    TITLE: Electronics for a Picosecond Time-of-flight Measurement ABSTRACT: Time-of-flight (TOF) detectors have historically been used as part of the particle identification capability of multi-purpose particle physics detectors. An accurate time measurement, combined with a momentum measurement based on the curvature of the track in a magnetic field, is often sufficient to determine the particle's mass, and thus its identity. Such detectors typically have measured the particle flight time extremely precisely, with an uncertainty of one hundred trillionths of a second (also referred to as 100 picoseconds). To put this in perspective it would be like counting all the people on the Earth and getting it right within 1 person! Another use of TOFs is to measure the vertex of the event, which is the location along the beam line where the incoming particles (typically protons) collide. This vertex positon is a well measured quantity for events where the protons collide “head on” as the outgoing particles produced when you blast the proton apart can be used to trace back to a vertex point from which they originated. More frequently the protons just strike a glancing blow and remain intact—in this case they are nearly parallel to the beam and you cannot tell their vertex without this ability to precisely measure the time of flight of the protons. Occasionally both happen in the same event, that is, a central system and two protons are produced. But are they from the same collision, or just a boring background where more than one collision in the same bunch crossing conspire to fake the signal of interest? That’s where the timing of the protons comes into play. The main idea is to measure the time it takes for the two protons to reach TOF detectors positioned equidistant from the center of the main detector. If the vertex is displaced to one side than that detector will measure a shorter time while the other side detector will measure a correspondingly longer time

  14. Semiconductors Investigated by Time Resolved Raman Absorption and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Using Femtoseond and Picosecond Laser Techniques. (United States)


    High Density Electron-Hole Plasma in Ga0.5 n0.5P under High Power Picosecond Laser Pulse Excitation, H. Zarrabi and R. R. Alfano, SPIE (1983) (in press...Ga0 .5 In0 .5P, H. Zarrabi and R. R. Alfano Proceedings of Society of Photo-optical Engineers, San Diego, Ca., August 24, 1983. 9. Tunable Laser

  15. A GaAs/AlAs superlattice autocorrelator for picosecond THz radiation pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnerl, S.; Pesahl, S.; Schomburg, E.; Grenzer, J.; Renk, K. F.; Pellemans, H. P. M.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Pavel' ev, D. G.; Koschurinov, Y.; Ignatov, A. A.; Melzer, B.; Ustinov, V.; Ivanov, S.; Kop' ev, P. S.


    We report on a GaAs/AlAs, wide-miniband, superlattice autocorrelator for picosecond THz radiation pulses (operated at room temperature); the autocorrelator is based on the THz radiation-induced reduction of current through the superlattice. THz radiation (frequency 7.2 THz) from the FELIX

  16. Sub-picosecond pulse break-up in an InGaAsP optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal


    For high speed optical communication system with data speed higher than 200 Gb/s sub-picosecond pulse dynamics, coherent effects become important.We have, experimentally and theoretically, investigated the pulse distortion of an 150 fs pulse due to amplification in a 250 ìm long InGaAsP ridge wav...

  17. Fiber-laser-based, green-pumped, picosecond optical parametric oscillator using fan-out grating PPKTP. (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, S; Parsa, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M


    We report a stable, Yb-fiber-laser-based, green-pumped, picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for the near-infrared based on periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) nonlinear crystal, using fan-out grating design and operating near room temperature. The OPO is continuously tunable across 726-955 nm in the signal and 1201-1998 nm in the idler, resulting in a total signal plus idler wavelength coverage of 1026 nm by grating tuning at a fixed temperature. The device generates up to 580 mW of average power in the signal at 765 nm and 300 mW in the idler at 1338 nm, with an overall extraction efficiency of up to 52% and a pump depletion >76%. The extracted signal at 765 nm and idler at 1746 nm exhibit excellent passive power stability better than 0.5% and 0.8% rms, respectively, over 1 h with good beam quality in TEM00 mode profile. The output signal pulses have a Gaussian temporal duration of 13.2 ps, with a FWHM spectral bandwidth of 3.4 nm at 79.5 MHz repetition rate. Power scaling limitations of the OPO due to the material properties of PPKTP are studied.

  18. Monochromatic x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical targets using high-energy, picoseconds LFEX laser (United States)

    Sawada, Hiroshi; Fujioka, S.; Lee, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Shigemori, K.; Nagatomo, H.; Nishimura, H.; Sunahara, A.; Theobald, W.; Perez, F.; Patel, P. K.; Beg, F. N.


    Formation of a high density fusion fuel is essential in both conventional and advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) schemes for the self-sustaining fusion process. In cone-guided Fast Ignition (FI), a metal cone is attached to a spherical target to maintain the path for the injection of an intense short-pulse ignition laser from blow-off plasma created when nanoseconds compression lasers drive the target. We have measured a temporal evolution of a compressed deuterated carbon (CD) sphere using 4.5 keV K-alpha radiography with the Kilo-Joule, picosecond LFEX laser at the Institute of Laser Engineering. A 200 μm CD sphere attached to the tip of a Au cone was directly driven by 9 Gekko XII beams with 300 J/beam in a 1.3 ns Gaussian pulse. The LFEX laser irradiated on a Ti foil to generate 4.51 Ti K-alpha x-ray. By varying the delay between the compression and backlighter lasers, the measured radiograph images show an increase of the areal density of the imploded target. The detail of the quantitative analyses to infer the areal density and comparisons to hydrodynamics simulations will be presented. This work was performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS13KUGK072). H.S. was supported by the UNR's International Activities Grant program.

  19. Picosecond Soft-X-ray studies of Dense Plasma Regimes Progress Report (April 1, 2006 - March 31, 2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Jorge; Marconi, Mario; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Dunn, James; Moon, Stephen; Nilsen, Joseph


    The goal of this project is to investigate and characterize high-density converging plasma configurations using new soft x-ray laser based interferometric techniques. The results are used to verify and validate multi-dimensional hydrodynamic codes in plasma regimes which densities and size exceed those that can be probed with optical laser beams. The dynamics of converging plasmas created by laser irradiation of half-hohlraum cylindrical cavities targets was probed using a compact 46.9 nm soft x-ray laser. The results were used for comparison with extensive simulations conducted with the multi-dimensional hydrodynamic code HYDRA. As part of this study we have also investigated plasma regimes in which the index of refraction of the plasmas can not be defined solely based on the contribution of free electron, as is usually assumed for multiply ionized plasmas. Our results demonstrate the existence of plasma regimes in which the contribution of bound electrons from ions dominates the refractive index at soft x-ray wavelengths. We are also working in extending plasma interferometry to the sub 10 nm wavelength range. In the process we are advancing soft x-ray laser plasma diagnostics techniques to allow the measurement of large-scale, high-density plasmas with picosecond temporal resolution and micrometer spatial resolution, laying the foundations for future advanced diagnostics at high energy density DOE facilities. Dense plasma diagnostics, soft x-ray laser interferometry, converging plasmas

  20. Picosecond radiography combined with other techniques to investigate microjetting from calibrated grooves in laser shock-loaded metals (United States)

    de Resseguier, Thibaut; Roland, Caroline; Prudhomme, Gabriel; Brambrink, Erik; Franzkowiak, Jean-Eloi; Loison, Didier; Lescoute, Emilien; Sollier, Arnaud; Berthe, Laurent


    Debris ejection upon shock breakout at a rough surface is a key issue for many applications. For a few years, we have used laser driven shocks to study microjetting in metallic samples with calibrated grooves in their free surface. Fast transverse optical shadowgraphy, time-resolved measurements of both planar surface and jet tip velocities, and post-recovery analyses have provided data over ranges of small spatial and temporal scales, short loading pulses (ns-order) and extremely high strain rates. The new experiment presented here involves two laser beams in a pump-probe configuration. Picosecond laser irradiation of a thin copper wire generates x-rays which are used to radiograph the microjets expanding from single grooves in tin and copper samples shock-loaded by a longer, nanosecond laser pulse. Such ultrashort radiography can be used to infer the density gradients along the jets as well as inside the samples deep beneath the grooves. It is combined with the techniques mentioned above to provide a more complete insight into the physics of microjetting.

  1. Growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan HUA


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field(PEF in vitro.Methods HeLa cells cultured in vitro were divided into experimental group and control group(with or without intense picosecond PEF.With constant pulse width,frequency and voltage,the cells in experimental group were divided into 6 sub-groups according to the number of pulse(100,200,500,1000,1500,2000,the growth inhibition of HeLa cells by PEF and the dose-effect relationship were analyzed by MTT.Caspase 3 protein activity was detected in the cells in 500,1000 and 2000 sub-groups.Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was detected by rhodamine 123 staining with the cells in 2000 sub-groups.Results MTT assay demonstrated that intense picosecond PEF significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in dose-dependent manner.The survival rates of cells declined along with the increase in pulse number,and were 96.23%±0.76%,94.11%±2.42%,90.31%±1.77%,64.59%±1.59%,32.95%±0.73%,23.85%±2.38% and 100%,respectively,in 100,200,500,1000,1500,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.01.The Caspase 3 protein activity was significantly enhanced by intense picosecond PEF,and the absorbancy indexes(A were 0.174±0.012,0.232±0.017,0.365±0.016 and 0.122±0.011,respectively,in 500,1000,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.05.The mitochondrial transmembrane potential of HeLa cells was significantly inhibited by intense picosecond PEF,and the fluorescence intensity in 2000 sub-group(76.66±13.38 was much lower than that in control group(155.81±2.33,P < 0.05.Conclusion Intense picosecond PEF may significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa cells,and induce cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

  2. Dynamics in protein powders on the nanosecond-picosecond time scale are dominated by localized motions. (United States)

    Nickels, Jonathan D; García Sakai, Victoria; Sokolov, Alexei P


    We present analysis of nanosecond-picosecond dynamics of Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) using neutron scattering data obtained on three spectrometers. GFP has a β-barrel structure that differs significantly from the structure of other globular proteins and is thought to result in a more rigid local environment. Despite this difference, our analysis reveals that the dynamics of GFP are similar to dynamics of other globular proteins such as lysozyme and myoglobin. We suggest that the same general concept of protein dynamics may be applicable to all these proteins. The dynamics of dry protein are dominated by methyl group rotations, while hydration facilitates localized diffusion-like motions in the protein. The latter has an extremely broad relaxation spectrum. The nanosecond-picosecond dynamics of both dry and hydrated GFP are localized to distances of ∼1-3.5 Å, in contrast to the longer range diffusion of hydration water.

  3. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period. (United States)

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji


    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  4. How to study picosecond solvation dynamics using fluorescent probes with small Stokes shifts (United States)

    Silori, Yogita; Dey, Shivalee; De, Arijit K.


    Xanthene dyes have wide ranging applications as fluorescent probes in analytical, biochemical and medical contexts. Being cationic/anionic in nature, the solvation dynamics of xanthene dyes confined within a negatively/positively charged interface are very interesting. Unfortunately, the floppy structure and small Stokes shift render any xanthene dye unsuitable for use as a solvation probe. Using di-sodium fluorescein, we present our work on the picosecond solvation dynamics of bulk and confined water (at pH = 9.2). We also propose a new methodology for studying picosecond solvation dynamics using any fluorescent dye with a small Stokes shift. We discuss how scattering contributions can be effectively removed, and propose an alternative way of defining zero time of solvation. Finally, we demonstrate the tuning location of the probe within confinement.

  5. A Picosecond 14.7 nm X-Ray Laser for Probing Matter Undergoing Rapid Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Nilsen, J; Nelson, A J; Van Buuren, T W; Moon, S J; Hunter, J R; Filevich, J; Rocca, J J; Marconi, M C; Shlyaptsev, V N


    With laser-driven tabletop x-ray lasers now operating in the efficient saturation regime, the source characteristics of high photon flux, high monochromaticity, picosecond pulse duration, and coherence are well-matched to many applications involving the probing of matter undergoing rapid changes. We give an overview of recent experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser using the picosecond 14.7 nm x-ray laser as a compact, ultrafast probe for surface analysis and for interferometry of laser-produced plasmas. The plasma density measurements for known laser conditions allow us to reliably and precisely benchmark hydrodynamics codes. In the former case, the x-ray laser ejects photo-electrons, from the valence band or shallow core-levels of the material, and are measured in a time-of-flight analyzer. Therefore, the electronic structure can be studied directly to determine the physical properties of materials undergoing rapid phase changes

  6. A picosecond 14.7 nm x-ray laser for probing matter undergoing rapid changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Smith, R.F.; Nilsen, J.; Nelson, A.J.; Van Buuren, T.W.; Moon, S.J.; Hunter, J.R.; Filevich, J.; Rocca, J.J.; Marconi, M.C.; Shlyaptsev, V.N.


    With laser-driven tabletop x-ray lasers now operating in the efficient saturation regime, the source characteristics of high photon flux, high monochromaticity, picosecond pulse duration, and coherence are well-matched to many applications involving the probing of matter undergoing rapid changes. We give an overview of recent experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser using the picosecond 14.7 nm x-ray laser as a compact, ultrafast probe for surface analysis and for interferometry of laser-produced plasmas. The plasma density measurements for known laser conditions allow us to reliably and precisely benchmark hydrodynamics codes. In the former case, the x-ray laser ejects photo-electrons, from the valence band or shallow core-levels of the material, and are measured in a time-of-flight analyzer. Therefore, the electronic structure can be studied directly to determine the physical properties of materials undergoing rapid phase changes

  7. Measurement of Sub-Picosecond Electron Bunches via Electro-Optic Sampling of Coherent Transition Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Timothy John [Northern Illinois U.


    Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.

  8. Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation as a diagnostic for sub-picosecond electron bunch length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.


    We suggest a novel technique of measuring sub-picosecond electron bunch length base on coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) emitted when electrons pass close to the surface of a metal grating. With electron bunch lengths comparable to the grating period, we predict that coherent SPR will be emitted at large angles with respect to direction of beam propagation. As the bunch length shortens, the coherent SPR will be enhanced over the incoherent component that is normally observed at small angles. Furthermore, the angular distribution of the coherent SPR will be shifted toward smaller angles as the bunch length becomes much smaller than the grating period. By measuring the angular distribution of the coherent SPR, one can determine the bunch length of sub-picosecond electron pulses. This new technique is easy to implement and appears capable of measuring femtosecond electron bunch lengths

  9. Contribution to the study of solvated electrons in water and alcohols and of radiolytic processes in organic carbonates by picosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torche, Faycal


    This work is part of the study area of the interaction of radiation with polar liquids. Using the picosecond electron accelerator ELYSE, studies were conducted using the techniques of pulse radiolysis combined with absorption spectrophotometry Time-resolved in the field of a picosecond. This work is divided into two separate chapters. The first study addresses the temporal variation of the radiolytic yield of solvated electron in water and simple alcohols. Due to original detection system mounted on the accelerator ELYSE, composed of a flash lamp specifically designed for the detection and a streak-camera used for the first time in absorption spectroscopy, it was possible to record the time-dependent radiolytic yields of the solvated electron from ten picoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds. The scavenging of the electron solvated by methyl viologen, was utilized to reevaluate the molar extinction coefficient of the absorption spectrum of solvated electron in water and ethanol from isobestic points which corresponds to the intersection of the absorption spectra of solvated electron which disappears and methyl viologen which is formed during the reaction. The second chapter is devoted to the study of liquid organic carbonates such as dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC) and propylene carbonate (PC). This family of carbonate which compose the electrolytes lithium batteries, has never been investigated by pulse radiolysis. The studies were focused on the PC in the light of these physicochemical characteristics, including its very high dielectric constant and its strong dipole moment of 4.9 D. The first results were obtained on aqueous solutions containing propylene carbonate to observe the reactions of reduction and oxidation of PC by radiolytic species of water (solvated electron and OH radicals). Then, after the identification (spectral and kinetic) of the species formed by interaction with the OH radical as the PC* radical resulting from the

  10. Observation of asymmetric Stark profiles from plasmas created by a picosecond KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, C.H.; Tighe, W.; Suckewer, S.; Seely, J.F.; Feldman, U.; Woltz, L.A.


    High-resolution extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectra from solid targets irradiated by a picosecond KrF* laser focused to 10 16 W/cm 2 have been recorded. The line profiles of transitions in Li-like fluorine and oxygen are asymmetric and up to 2 A in width. Calculations indicate the presence of transitions of the type 2p-3p and other forbidden Stark components. 11 refs., 6 figs

  11. 40 W picosecond fiber amplifier with the large mode-area polarized crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H; Zhou, J; Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Wang, D; Gong, M


    We reported the 5W picosecond laser with pulse width of 30 ps and the repetition rate of 100 MHz, which was amplified to 40.2 W with the linear polarized Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber (PCF), with the slope efficiency of about 58%. As much as 17.3 W second-harmonic power was achieved corresponding to the conversion efficiency of 43%

  12. Mode-Locking in Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers Enhanced by Picosecond-Pulse Injection


    Kaiser, J; Fischer, I; Elsasser, W; Gehrig, E; Hess, O


    We present combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the picosecond emission dynamics of broad-area semiconductor lasers (BALs). We enhance the weak longitudinal self-mode-locking that is inherent to BALs by injecting a single optical 50-ps pulse, which triggers the output of a distinct regular train of 13-ps pulses. Modeling based on multimode Maxwell-Bloch equations illustrates how the dynamic interaction of the injected pulse with the internal laser field efficiently couples ...

  13. Picosecond Water Radiolysis at High Temperature. Br- Oxidation - Experiments and MC-Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchino, G.; Saffre, D.; Jeunesse, J.P.; Schmidhammer, U.; Larbre, J.P.; Mostafavi, M.; Beuve, M.; Gervais, B.


    Acidic solutions of bromhydric acid have been irradiated by picosecond pulses of 7 MeV-electrons provided by ELYSE accelerator (LCP Orsay). At elevated temperatures up to 350 deg. C, salts like NaBr or KBr usually precipitate and organic compound are decomposed. Another choice of OH-scavenger may be acidic halogenates like HBr or HCl. In this situation, the processes involving H + and Br - must be considerate: while hydrated electrons are scavenged by H + , . OH reacts with Br - . Then the formations of BrOH . and Br 2 .- have been investigated by using a devoted picosecond pump-probe setup. A dedicated small-size high temperature optical flow cell has been developed for fitting the picosecond duration of the electron pulses. This cell replaces the one used also with nanosecond resolution. The picosecond time resolution remains roughly not affected by the material crossed by electrons (0.4 mm of Inconel 718) and by the white light continuum (20 mm of Sapphire windows and 6 mm of liquid solution). Depending on the concentration of HBr, the growing up of the signal can be attributed to mainly BrOH . or Br2 .- . Actually with a relatively low scavenging power ([HBr] = 25 mM), Br 2 .- is formed with a reaction between Br . and Br - which delays of around 4 ns the apparition of Br2 .- . In this particular case we then assume the absorbance is due to BrOH . . With higher and higher temperature, from 100 deg. C to 300 deg. C, the rate constant of this formation is lightly less and less. This observation must be associated to the fact that the formation of BrOH . is actually equilibrium with a lower and lower equilibrium constant value when temperature is increased. This presentation tries to explain this fact in detail by also considering Monte Carlo simulations. This will allows following all transient species from ps to μs. (authors)

  14. Infrared picosecond absorption spectroscopy of microcrystalline silicon: separation between carrier recombination in crystalline and amorphous fractions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrna, J.; Pelant, Ivan; Štěpánek, J.; Trojánek, F.; Malý, P.


    Roč. 74, - (2002), s. 253-256 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010809 Grant - others:GA UK(XC) 180/99 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ultra-fast carrier dynamics * hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon * picosecond pump and probe measurements * rate-equation model Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.231, year: 2002

  15. Observation of coherent undulator radiation from sub-picosecond electron pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocek, D.; Hernandez, M.; Kung, P.; Lihn, Hung-chi; Settakorn, C.; Wiedemann, H.


    The generation and observation of high power, coherent, far-infrared undulator radiation from sub-picosecond electron bunches at the SUNSHINE facility is reported. Coherent undulator radiation tunable from 50 to 200 microns wavelength is demonstrated. Measurements of the energy (up to 1.7 mJ per 1 microsecs macropulse), frequency spectrum, and spatial distribution of the radiation are reported. Apparent exponential growth of the radiated energy as a function of undulator length is observed.

  16. Demonstration of input-to-output gain and temporal noise mitigation in a Talbot amplifier


    Maram, Reza; Seghilani, Mohamed; Jeon, Jinwoo; Li, Xiao-Zhou; Cortes, Luis Romero; van Howe, James; Azana, Jose


    We experimentally demonstrate intensity amplification of repetitive picosecond optical pulses with an input-to-output gain up to 5.5 dB using a passive Talbot amplifier. Through the dispersion-induced temporal Talbot effect, the amplifier uses electro-optic phase modulation and a low-loss dispersive medium to exploit and coherently redistribute the energy of the original pulse train into fewer, replica, amplified pulses. In addition, we show how our passive amplifier mitigates the pulse train...

  17. Clearance of yellow tattoo ink with a novel 532-nm picosecond laser. (United States)

    Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Brauer, Jeremy A; Bae, Yoon-Soo; Geronemus, Roy G


    Although technology and tattoo removal methods continue to evolve, yellow pigment clearance continues to be challenging and usually unsuccessful. We describe a case series of six tattoos containing yellow ink, successfully treated with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG 532-nm picosecond laser. Case series with six subjects participating for the treatment of multicolored tattoos that contain yellow pigment. Treatments performed with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG 532-nm picosecond laser at 6-8 week intervals. One subject achieved complete clearance of the treated site after one session, and five subjects required 2-4 treatments to achieve over 75% clearance. Minimal downtime was experienced, and no scarring or textural skin changes were observed in any of the treated sites. This is the first case series that demonstrates effective and consistent reduction of yellow tattoo ink using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG 532-nm laser with a picosecond pulse duration. Treatments were well tolerated and subjects had positive outcomes. This is a small observational case series from an ongoing clinical trial, and studies with a larger sample size and comparative group are needed in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prediction of electromagnetic pulse generation by picosecond avalanches in high-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.


    The gas avalanche switch is a laser-activated, high-voltage switch, consisting of a set of pulse-charged electrodes in a high-pressure gas. Induced electrons from a picosecond-scale laser pulse initiate an avalanche discharge between high-voltage and grounded electrodes. If the voltage, pressure, and dimensions are correct, the rapid avalanche, fueled by the immense number of electrons available in the gas, collapses the applied voltage in picoseconds and generates electromagnetic pulses with widths as short as 1-10 ps and 3 dB bandwidths of 20-120 GHz. With proper voltage or pressure detuning, wider pulses and lower bandwidths occur. In addition to picosecond electromagnetic pulse generation, application of this switch should result in ultra-fast Marx bank pulsers. A number of versions of the switch are possible. The simplest is a parallel plate capacitor, consisting of a gas between two parallel plate conductors. High voltage is applied across the two plates. A parallel plate, Blumlein geometry features a center electrode between two grounded parallel plates. This geometry emits a single pulse in each direction along the parallel plates. A frozen wave geometry with multiple, oppositely charged center electrodes will emit AC pulses. Series switches consisting of gas gaps between two electrodes are also possible

  19. Development of a picosecond time-of-flight system in the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabas, Herve


    In this thesis, we present a study of the sensitivity to Beyond Standard Model physics brought by the design and installation of picosecond time-of-flight detectors in the forward region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The first part of the thesis present a study of the sensitivity to the quartic gauge anomalous coupling between the photon and the W boson, using exclusive WW pair production in ATLAS. The event selection is built considering the semi-leptonic decay of WW pair and the presence of the AFP detector in ATLAS. The second part gives a description of large area picosecond photo-detectors design and time reconstruction algorithms with a special care given to signal sampling and processing for precision timing. The third part presents the design of SamPic: a custom picosecond readout integrated circuit. At the end, its first results are reported, and in particular a world-class 5 ps timing precision in measuring the delay between two fast pulses. (author) [fr

  20. Multiphoton ionization of (Xe)n and (NO)n clusters using a picosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Miller, J.C.


    Mass-resolved multiphoton ionization (MPI) spectroscopy is an established technique for detecting and analyzing van der Waals molecules and larger clusters. MPI spectroscopy provides excellent detection sensitivity, moderately high resolution, and selectivity among cluster species. In addition to information provided by the analysis of photoions following MPI, photoelectron spectroscopy can reveal details regarding the structure of ionic states. Unfortunately, the technique is limited by its tendency to produce extensive fragmentation. Fragmentation is also a problem with other ionization techniques (e.g., electron impact ionization), but the intense laser beams required for MPI cause additional dissociation channels to become available. These channels include absorption of additional photons by parent ions (ion ladder mechanism), absorption of additional photons by fragment ions (ladder switching mechanism), and resonances with dissociative states in the neutral manifold. The existence of these dissociation channels can preclude the use of MPI spectroscopy in many situations. Recently, MPI studies of stable molecules using picosecond lasers (pulse length = 1 - 10 ps) have indicated that limitations due to fragmentation might be subdued. With picosecond lasers, dissociation mechanisms can be altered and in some cases fragmentation can be eliminated or reduced. Additional photon absorption competes effectively with dissociation channels when a very short laser pulse or, perhaps more importantly, a sufficiently high peak-power is used. In the case where ionic absorption and fragmentation occurs, it has been shown that picosecond MPI might favor the ion ladder mechanism rather than the ladder switching mechanism

  1. Laser Treatment of Professional Tattoos With a 1064/532-nm Dual-Wavelength Picosecond Laser. (United States)

    Kauvar, Arielle N B; Keaney, Terrence C; Alster, Tina


    Picosecond-domain laser pulses improve the photomechanical disruption of tattoos. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of a novel, dual-wavelength, 1,064/532-nm, picosecond-domain laser for tattoo clearance. This was a prospective, self-controlled, clinical study of 34 subjects with 39 tattoos treated at 2 sites with an interval of 4.8 ± 1.6 weeks and up to 10 treatments (mean, 7.5). Blinded evaluation and investigator assessment of serial digital images was performed to evaluate treatment efficacy in the 36 tattoos that received at least 3 treatments. Investigators also assessed efficacy before each treatment visit up to 10 treatments. Safety and tolerability was evaluated for all 39 tattoos that underwent at least 1 treatment. Blinded evaluation demonstrated that lightening of tattoos was achieved in all subjects, with 86% (31 of 36 tattoos) showing at least a 50% clearance after 3 treatments. Adverse events were few and transient in nature. Patient satisfaction and treatment tolerability were high. Treatment of single-colored and multicolored tattoos with this novel 1,064/532-nm picosecond laser is highly safe and effective.

  2. Schapiro Shapes (United States)

    O'Connell, Emily


    This article describes a lesson on Schapiro Shapes. Schapiro Shapes is based on the art of Miriam Schapiro, who created a number of works of figures in action. Using the basic concepts of this project, students learn to create their own figures and styles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  3. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan


    into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...

  4. In-situ and ex-situ ripples formation on copper thin films induced by nano and picosecond pulsed lasers (United States)

    Huynh, Thi Trang Dai; Petit, Agnes; Pichard, Cecile; Amin-Chalhoub, Eliane; Semmar, Nadjib


    Laser induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) process on copper thin films by nanoand picosecond pulsed lasers was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and timeresolved reflectivity (TRR) methods. The 500nm and 1000nm thickness of copper thin filmswere deposited on silicon and glass substrates by magnetron sputtering technique. Differentperiodic surface micro and nanostructures of copper thin films (thickness of 1000nm) on siliconsubstrate were observed post-mortem by SEM. Namely, a wrinkling microstructure and classicalripple with period spatial near wavelength of laser (approximately 266nm) were induced bynanosecond pulse laser at fluence 100 mJ/cm2. The conical nanostructure and ripple microstructure were induced by picosecond pulse laser. TRR method permits the real timemonitoring of melting and/or surface morphology changes. The reflectivity signals have shownthe increase of the removal copper thin film as increasing the laser fluence and of the number oflaser shots. Under the same laser conditions (fluence and number of shots), copper thin films onglass were removed easier than on silicon case due to the intrinsic thermal conductivity ofsubstrate. An obtained TRR signal of wrinkling formation was induced by nanosecond pulselaser. TRR method is suitable for monitoring LIPPS in the nanosecond but not in the picosecond. However, SEM analyses give more information and details of the structure changes in the nanoand picosecond. We can assume that mainly thermal 'drift' forces are responsible for wrinkling microstructure formation in the nanosecond regime, and photonic forces for periodic surface nanostructure formation in the picoseconds one.

  5. New theoretical approaches to atomic and molecular dynamics triggered by ultrashort light pulses on the atto- to picosecond time scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabst, Stefan Ulf


    The concept of atoms as the building blocks of matter has existed for over 3000 years. A revolution in the understanding and the description of atoms and molecules has occurred in the last century with the birth of quantum mechanics. After the electronic structure was understood, interest in studying the dynamics of electrons, atoms, and molecules increased. However, time-resolved investigations of these ultrafast processes were not possible until recently. The typical time scale of atomic and molecular processes is in the picosecond to attosecond realm. Tremendous technological progress in recent years makes it possible to generate light pulses on these time scales. With such ultrashort pulses, atomic and molecular dynamics can be triggered, watched, and controlled. Simultaneously, the need rises for theoretical models describing the underlying mechanisms. This doctoral thesis focuses on the development of theoretical models which can be used to study the dynamical behavior of electrons, atoms, and molecules in the presence of ultrashort light pulses. Several examples are discussed illustrating how light pulses can trigger and control electronic, atomic, and molecular motions. In the first part of this work, I focus on the rotational motion of asymmetric molecules, which happens on picosecond and femtosecond time scales. Here, the aim is to align all three axes of the molecule as well as possible. To investigate theoretically alignment dynamics, I developed a program that can describe alignment motion ranging from the impulsive to the adiabatic regime. The asymmetric molecule SO{sub 2} is taken as an example to discuss strategies of optimizing 3D alignment without the presence of an external field (i.e., field-free alignment). Field-free alignment is particularly advantageous because subsequent experiments on the aligned molecule are not perturbed by the aligning light pulse. Wellaligned molecules in the gas phase are suitable for diffraction experiments. From the

  6. New theoretical approaches to atomic and molecular dynamics triggered by ultrashort light pulses on the atto- to picosecond time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, Stefan Ulf


    The concept of atoms as the building blocks of matter has existed for over 3000 years. A revolution in the understanding and the description of atoms and molecules has occurred in the last century with the birth of quantum mechanics. After the electronic structure was understood, interest in studying the dynamics of electrons, atoms, and molecules increased. However, time-resolved investigations of these ultrafast processes were not possible until recently. The typical time scale of atomic and molecular processes is in the picosecond to attosecond realm. Tremendous technological progress in recent years makes it possible to generate light pulses on these time scales. With such ultrashort pulses, atomic and molecular dynamics can be triggered, watched, and controlled. Simultaneously, the need rises for theoretical models describing the underlying mechanisms. This doctoral thesis focuses on the development of theoretical models which can be used to study the dynamical behavior of electrons, atoms, and molecules in the presence of ultrashort light pulses. Several examples are discussed illustrating how light pulses can trigger and control electronic, atomic, and molecular motions. In the first part of this work, I focus on the rotational motion of asymmetric molecules, which happens on picosecond and femtosecond time scales. Here, the aim is to align all three axes of the molecule as well as possible. To investigate theoretically alignment dynamics, I developed a program that can describe alignment motion ranging from the impulsive to the adiabatic regime. The asymmetric molecule SO 2 is taken as an example to discuss strategies of optimizing 3D alignment without the presence of an external field (i.e., field-free alignment). Field-free alignment is particularly advantageous because subsequent experiments on the aligned molecule are not perturbed by the aligning light pulse. Wellaligned molecules in the gas phase are suitable for diffraction experiments. From the

  7. Formation of amorphous carbon during microcrystalline graphite melting under the action of laser picosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranat, M.B.; Ashitkov, S.I.; Kirillin, A.V.; Kostanovskij, A.V.; Fortov, V.E.; Anisimov, S.I.; Kondratenko, P.S.


    Formation of a liquid phase with a transition to a homogeneous amorphous state under the surface layer solidification is detected under picosecond laser pulse effect on the microcrystalline graphite. A periodic surface structure is produced in the heating region with the period of the order of the length of the heating pulse wave, its strokes following the direction of this pulse polarization. Study of the probing laser pulse reflection kinetics has shown, that the typical time of liquid phase and solidification life makes up ∼ 10 -10 s

  8. A non-linear optical ''photograph'' of picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhorukova, A.K.; Sukhorukov, A.P.; Telegin, L.S.; Yankina, I.B.


    Results are given of experimental and theoretical studies on the conversion of the temporary structure of picosecond pulses into a spatial diagram with noncollinated lasing of the sum frequency. Correlations are found for the crystal parameters, the pumping emission and the interaction geometry, which are needed in measuring durations in a range from 10 /sup -10/ all the way up to 10 /sup -13/ seconds. The proposed optical recording circuit in the relatively simple experiment makes it possible to measure the duration of the super short pulses of weak signals.

  9. Relativistic Channeling of a Picosecond Laser Pulse in a Near-Critical Preformed Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghesi, M.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Barringer, L.; Gaillard, R.; Gizzi, L.; Meyer, C.; Willi, O.; Pukhov, A.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.


    Relativistic self-channeling of a picosecond laser pulse in a preformed plasma near critical density has been observed both experimentally and in 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Optical probing measurements indicate the formation of a single pulsating propagation channel, typically of about 5μm in diameter. The computational results reveal the importance in the channel formation of relativistic electrons traveling with the light pulse and of the corresponding self-generated magnetic field. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Probing Transient Valence Orbital Changes with Picosecond Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    March, Anne Marie; Assefa, Tadesse A.; Boemer, Christina


    it a powerful technique for molecular studies in a wide variety of environments. A picosecond-time-resolved measurement of the complete Is X-ray emission spectrum captures the transient photoinduced changes and includes the weak valence-to-core (vtc) emission lines that correspond to transitions from occupied......We probe the dynamics of valence electrons in photoexcited [Fe(terpy)2]2+ in solution to gain deeper insight into the Fe ligand bond changes. We use hard X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), which combines element specificity and high penetration with sensitivity to orbital structure, making...

  11. Splash plasma channels produced by picosecond laser pulses in argon gas for laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mizuta


    Full Text Available Short-lived, ∼10  ps, deep plasma channels, with their lengths of ∼1  mm and diameters of ∼20  μm, are observed and characterized in Ar gas jets irradiated by moderate intensity, ∼10^{15–16}  W/cm^{2}, laser pulses with a duration from subpicosecond to several picoseconds. The channels, upon 2D particle-in-cell simulations including ionization, fit well in the guiding of high intensity femtosecond laser pulses and, therefore, in laser wakefield acceleration with a controllable electron self-injection.

  12. An autocorrelation technique for measuring sub-picosecond bunch length using coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, W.


    A new technique for determining sub-picosecond bunch length using infrared transition radiation and interferometry is proposed. The technique makes use of an infrared Michelson interferometer for measuring the autocorrelation of transition radiation emitted from a thin conducting foil placed in the beam path. The theory of coherent radiation from a charged particle beam passing through a thin conducting foil is presented. Subsequently, the analysis of this radiation through Michelson interferometry is shown to provide the autocorrelation of the longitudinal bunch profile. An example relevant to the CEBAF front end test is discussed. (author)

  13. Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber for micro-machining applications. (United States)

    Jaworski, Piotr; Yu, Fei; Maier, Robert R J; Wadsworth, William J; Knight, Jonathan C; Shephard, Jonathan D; Hand, Duncan P


    We present high average power picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery at 1030 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths respectively through a novel hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber (NCF) for high-precision micro-machining applications. Picosecond pulses with an average power above 36 W and energies of 92 µJ, corresponding to a peak power density of 1.5 TWcm⁻² have been transmitted through the fiber without introducing any damage to the input and output fiber end-faces. High-energy nanosecond pulses (>1 mJ), which are ideal for micro-machining have been successfully delivered through the NCF with a coupling efficiency of 92%. Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery have been demonstrated in fiber-based laser micro-machining of fused silica, aluminum and titanium.

  14. Multiphoton ionization of (Xe)/sub n/ and (NO)/sub n/ clusters using a picosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Miller, J.C.


    In an effort to extend the application of multiphoton ionization (MPI) spectroscopy to the study of weakly bound systems, we have begun a systematic investigation of picosecond MPI in van der Waals molecules and clusters. To our knowledge no previous picosecond MPI studies of weakly bound systems have been reported. We present here results of picosecond MPI of Xe/sub n/(n = 1-20) and (NO)/sub n/(n = 1-4) clusters. Previous MPI studies using nanosecond lasers have not detected the NO cluster series, presumably because of fast dissociation channels. The use of high peak-power allows resonant and non-resonant photon absorption to the ionization limit to compete effectively with fast dissociative processes. 10 refs., 2 figs

  15. Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard J.; Light, Roger A.; Johnston, Nicholas S.; Pitter, Mark C.; Somekh, Mike G.; Sharples, Steve D.


    This paper presents a multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound system that uses a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear array detector. This novel sensor allows parallel phase-sensitive detection of very low contrast modulated signals with performance in each channel comparable to that of a discrete photodiode and a lock-in amplifier. Application of the instrument is demonstrated by parallelizing spatial measurements to produce two-dimensional thickness maps on a layered sample, and spectroscopic parallelization is demonstrated by presenting the measured Brillouin oscillations from a gallium arsenide wafer. This paper demonstrates the significant advantages of our approach to pump probe systems, especially picosecond ultrasonics.

  16. Generating picosecond x-ray pulses in synchrotron light sources using dipole kickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo


    Full Text Available The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle, we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1–2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments.

  17. A Brief Technical History of the Large-Area Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD) Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.W.; et al.


    The Large Area Picosecond PhotoDetector (LAPPD) Collaboration was formed in 2009 to develop large-area photodetectors capable of time resolutions measured in pico-seconds, with accompanying sub-millimeter spatial resolution. During the next three and one-half years the Collaboration developed the LAPPD design of 20 x 20 cm modules with gains greater than $10^7$ and non-uniformity less than $15\\%$, time resolution less than 50 psec for single photons and spatial resolution of 700~microns in both lateral dimensions. We describe the R\\&D performed to develop large-area micro-channel plate glass substrates, resistive and secondary-emitting coatings, large-area bialkali photocathodes, and RF-capable hermetic packaging. In addition, the Collaboration developed the necessary electronics for large systems capable of precise timing, built up from a custom low-power 15-GigaSample/sec waveform sampling 6-channel integrated circuit and supported by a two-level modular data acquisition system based on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays for local control, data-sparcification, and triggering. We discuss the formation, organization, and technical successes and short-comings of the Collaboration. The Collaboration ended in December 2012 with a transition from R\\&D to commercialization.

  18. Picosecond spin relaxation in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, M.; Honda, K.; Yasue, Y.; Tackeuchi, A., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Lu, S. L.; Dai, P. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou (China)


    The spin relaxation process of low-temperature-grown GaAs is investigated by spin-dependent pump and probe reflectance measurements with a sub-picosecond time resolution. Two very short carrier lifetimes of 2.0 ps and 28 ps, which can be attributed to nonradiative recombinations related to defects, are observed at 10 K. The observed spin polarization shows double exponential decay with spin relaxation times of 46.2 ps (8.0 ps) and 509 ps (60 ps) at 10 K (200 K). The observed picosecond spin relaxation, which is considerably shorter than that of conventional GaAs, indicates the strong relevance of the Elliott-Yafet process as the spin relaxation mechanism. For the first (second) spin relaxation component, the temperature and carrier density dependences of the spin relaxation time indicate that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is also effective at temperatures between 10 K and 77 K, and that the D'yakonov-Perel’ process is effective between 125 K (77 K) and 200 K.

  19. Fabrication and hydrophobic characteristics of micro / nanostructures on polydimethylsiloxane surface prepared by picosecond laser (United States)

    Bin, Wang; Dong, Shiyun; Yan, Shixing; Gang, Xiao; Xie, Zhiwei


    Picosecond laser has ultrashort pulse width and ultrastrong peak power, which makes it widely used in the field of micro-nanoscale fabrication. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a typical silicone elastomer with good hydrophobicity. In order to further improve the hydrophobicity of PDMS, the picosecond laser was used to fabricate a grid-like microstructure on the surface of PDMS, and the relationship between hydrophobicity of PDMS with surface microstructure and laser processing parameters, such as processing times and cell spacing was studied. The results show that: compared with the unprocessed PDMS, the presence of surface microstructure significantly improved the hydrophobicity of PDMS. When the number of processing is constant, the hydrophobicity of PDMS decreases with the increase of cell spacing. However, when the cell spacing is fixed, the hydrophobicity of PDMS first increases and then decreases with the increase of processing times. In particular, when the times of laser processing is 6 and the cell spacing is 50μm, the contact angle of PDMS increased from 113° to 154°, which reached the level of superhydrophobic.

  20. Nonlinear guiding of picosecond CO2 laser pulses in atmosphere(Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Tochitsky, Sergei


    During the last 20 years much attention has been given to the study of propagation of short intense laser pulses for which the peak power exceeds the critical power of self-focusing, Pcr. For a laser power P laser-ionized plasma result in the production of a high intensity laser filament in air within which a variety of nonlinear optical phenomena are observed. However, research in the 0.8-1 μm range so far has shown a fundamental limitation of guided energy to a few mJ transported within an 100 μm single channel. A long-wavelength, 0 10 μm CO2 laser is a promising candidate for nonlinear guiding because expected high Pcr values according to the modeling should allow for the increase of energy (and therefore power) in a self-guided beam from mJ (GW) to few Joules (TW). During the last decade a significant progress has been achieved in amplification of picosecond pulses to terawatt and recently to lasers open possibility for nonlinear propagation studies in an atmospheric window with high transmission. As a natural first step in a our program on picosecond CO2 laser filamentation, we have made first measurements of Kerr coefficients of air and air constituents around 10 μm. We also undertook direct measurements of n2 of air by analyzing nonlinear self-focusing in air using a 3 ps, 600 GW pulses of the BNL CO2 laser.

  1. Insights into the photochemical disproportionation of transition metal dimers on the picosecond time scale. (United States)

    Lomont, Justin P; Nguyen, Son C; Harris, Charles B


    The reactivity of five transition metal dimers toward photochemical, in-solvent-cage disproportionation has been investigated using picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Previous ultrafast studies on [CpW(CO)3]2 established the role of an in-cage disproportionation mechanism involving electron transfer between 17- and 19-electron radicals prior to diffusion out of the solvent cage. New results from time-resolved infrared studies reveal that the identity of the transition metal complex dictates whether the in-cage disproportionation mechanism can take place, as well as the more fundamental issue of whether 19-electron intermediates are able to form on the picosecond time scale. Significantly, the in-cage disproportionation mechanism observed previously for the tungsten dimer does not characterize the reactivity of four out of the five transition metal dimers in this study. The differences in the ability to form 19-electron intermediates are interpreted either in terms of differences in the 17/19-electron equilibrium or of differences in an energetic barrier to associative coordination of a Lewis base, whereas the case for the in-cage vs diffusive disproportionation mechanisms depends on whether the 19-electron reducing agent is genuinely characterized by 19-electron configuration at the metal center or if it is better described as an 18 + δ complex. These results help to better understand the factors that dictate mechanisms of radical disproportionation and carry implications for radical chain mechanisms.

  2. Temporally resolved refractive index structure parameter measurement (United States)

    Henriksson, Markus; Forsling, Robin


    The refractive index structure parameter is the most common measure of optical turbulence. It is defined as a statistical quantity for the Kolmogorov spectrum energy cascade of turbulent eddies of different sizes. As such it is formally assumed to be constant in time and space. However, the large scale variation with the diurnal cycle, with altitude or with terrain characteristics is well known. The ensemble average in the definition of the refractive index structure parameter is thus assumed to be applied over a restricted region in space and time. The question of how large volume is needed to determine the refractive index structure parameter and on how short temporal scales it can vary has not received significant attention. To study the temporal variation we have used two independent measurement systems to measure the path-averaged refractive index structure parameter over a 171 m path at 1 m above ground with higher than 1 Hz temporal resolution. One measurement system uses the differential angle-of-arrival of an array of LEDs. The other system measures the scintillation of a single path laser beam using a photon counting system, with time correlation of picosecond pulses for simultaneous measurement of signal and background and with temporal autocorrelation-based variance determination to separate turbulence related scintillations from shot noise. The data shows excellent agreement between the two measurement systems on second level temporal variation, giving confidence in that the measured values show true variation of the refractive index structure parameter. Large scale variation of up to two orders of magnitude can be coupled to solar insolation on this partly cloudy day. High frequency variations that are consistent between the systems used show factor two changes at time scales below one second.

  3. Ultrafast detection and autocorrelation of picosecond THz radiation pulses with a GaAs/AlAs superlattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnerl, S.; Seiwerth, W.; Schomburg, E.; Grenzer, J.; Renk, K. F.; Langerak, Cjgm; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Pavel' ev, D. G.; Koschurinov, Y.; Ignatov, A. A.


    We used a wide miniband GaAs/AlAs superlattice (at room temperature) for detection and autocorrelation of picosecond THz radiation pulses (frequency 4.3 THz) from a free- electron laser. The detection was based on a THz-field induced change in conductivity of the superlattice, and the correlation on

  4. Intermolecular interaction of photoexcited Cu(/TMpy-P4) with water studied by transient resonance Raman and picosecond absorption spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruglik, S.; Kruglik, Sergei G.; Ermolenkov, Vladimir V.; Shvedko, Alexander G.; Orlovich, Valentine A.; Galievsky, Victor A.; Chirvony, Vladimir S.; Otto, Cornelis; Turpin, Pierre-Yves


    photoinduced complex between Cu(TMpy-P4) and water molecules, reversibly axially coordinated to the central metal, was observed in picosecond transient absorption and nanosecond resonance Raman experiments. This complex is rapidly created (τ1 = 15 ± 5 ps) in the excited triplet (π, π*) state of

  5. Intensity noise in normal-pumped picosecond supercontinuum generation, where higher-order Raman lines cross into anomalous dispersion regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Bang, Ole


    The relative intensity noise (RIN) properties at different wavelengths and power levels for picosecond supercontinuum (SC) generated by pumping a PCF in its normal dispersion regime is investigated. For low power levels the all-normal SC is generated while the generated SC extends beyond the zero...

  6. A novel dual-wavelength, Nd:YAG, picosecond-domain laser safely and effectively removes multicolor tattoos. (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Schomacker, Kevin T; Basilavecchio, Lisa D; Plugis, Jessica M; Bhawalkar, Jayant D


    Although nanosecond-domain lasers have been the mainstay of laser tattoo removal for decades, recent disruptive innovations in laser design have introduced a new class of commercial Q-switched lasers that generate picosecond-domain pulses. A picosecond-domain, Nd:YAG laser with a KTP frequency-doubling crystal was used to treat 31 decorative tattoos in 21 subjects. Safety and effectiveness were determined by blinded evaluation of digital images in this prospective clinical study. The average clearance overall as evaluated by blinded observers evaluating randomized digital photographs was 79 ± 0.9% (mean ± sem) after an average of 6.5 treatments. Of the 31 tattoos completing treatment, 6 had evidence of mild hyper- or hypo-pigmentation by evaluation of photographs. The 350 picosecond, 532 nm, and 450 picosecond 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for removing decorative tattoos. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Use of multiple picosecond high-mass molecular dynamics simulations to predict crystallographic B-factors of folded globular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ping Pang


    Full Text Available Predicting crystallographic B-factors of a protein from a conventional molecular dynamics simulation is challenging, in part because the B-factors calculated through sampling the atomic positional fluctuations in a picosecond molecular dynamics simulation are unreliable, and the sampling of a longer simulation yields overly large root mean square deviations between calculated and experimental B-factors. This article reports improved B-factor prediction achieved by sampling the atomic positional fluctuations in multiple picosecond molecular dynamics simulations that use uniformly increased atomic masses by 100-fold to increase time resolution. Using the third immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, ubiquitin, and lysozyme as model systems, the B-factor root mean square deviations (mean ± standard error of these proteins were 3.1 ± 0.2–9 ± 1 Å2 for Cα and 7.3 ± 0.9–9.6 ± 0.2 Å2 for Cγ, when the sampling was done for each of these proteins over 20 distinct, independent, and 50-picosecond high-mass molecular dynamics simulations with AMBER forcefield FF12MC or FF14SB. These results suggest that sampling the atomic positional fluctuations in multiple picosecond high-mass molecular dynamics simulations may be conducive to a priori prediction of crystallographic B-factors of a folded globular protein.

  8. Temporal naturalism (United States)

    Smolin, Lee


    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  9. Comparison of two picosecond lasers to a nanosecond laser for treating tattoos: a prospective randomized study on 49 patients. (United States)

    Lorgeou, A; Perrillat, Y; Gral, N; Lagrange, S; Lacour, J-P; Passeron, T


    Q-switched nanosecond lasers demonstrated their efficacy in treating most types of tattoos, but complete disappearance is not always achieved even after performing numerous laser sessions. Picosecond lasers are supposed to be more efficient in clearing tattoos than nanosecond lasers, but prospective comparative data remain limited. To compare on different types of tattoos the efficacy of a nanosecond laser with two types of picosecond lasers. We conducted a prospective randomized study performed from December 2014 to June 2016 on adult patients with all types of tattoos. The tattoos were divided into two halves of equal size. After randomization, half of the tattoo was treated with a picosecond laser and the other half with a nanosecond laser. The evaluation was performed on standardized pictures performed before treatment and 2 months after the last session, by two physicians, not involved in the treatment, blinded on the type of treatments received. The main end point was a clearance above 75% of the tattoos. A total of 49 patients were included. Professional tattoos represented 85.7%, permanent make-up 8.2% and non-professional tattoo 6.1%. The majority were black or blue and 10.2% were polychromatic. No patient was lost during follow-up. A reduction of 75% or more of the colour intensity was obtained for 33% of the tattoos treated with the picosecond lasers compared to 14% with the nanosecond laser (P = 0.008). An improvement superior to 75% was obtained in 34% monochromic black or blue tattoos with the picosecond lasers compared to 9% for the nanosecond laser. Only one of the five polychromic tattoos achieved more than 75% of improvement with the two types of laser. Our results show a statistically significant superiority of the picosecond lasers compared to the nanosecond laser for tattoo clearance. However, they do not show better efficacy for polychromic tattoos and the difference in terms of side-effects was also minimal with a tendency of picosecond

  10. Competition reactions of H2O•+ radical in concentrated Cl- aqueous solutions: picosecond pulse radiolysis study. (United States)

    El Omar, Abdel Karim; Schmidhammer, Uli; Rousseau, Bernard; LaVerne, Jay; Mostafavi, Mehran


    Picosecond pulse-probe radiolysis measurements of highly concentrated Cl(-) aqueous solutions are used to probe the oxidation mechanism of the Cl(-). The transient absorption spectra are measured from 340 to 710 nm in the picosecond range for the ultrafast electron pulse radiolysis of halide solutions at different concentrations up to 8 M. The amount of Cl(2)(•-) formation within the electron pulse increases notably with increasing Cl(-) concentration. Kinetic measurements reveal that the direct ionization of Cl(-) cannot solely explain the significant amount of fast Cl(2)(•-) formation within the electron pulse. The results suggest that Cl(-) reacts with the precursor of the OH(•) radical, i.e., H(2)O(•+) radical, to form Cl(•) atom within the electron pulse and the Cl(•) atom reacts subsequently with Cl(-) to form Cl(2)(•-) on very short time scales. The proton transfer reaction between H(2)O(•+) and the water molecule competes with the electron transfer reaction between Cl(-) and H(2)O(•+). Molecular dynamics simulations show that number of water molecules in close proximity decreases with increasing concentration of the salt (NaCl), confirming that for highly concentrated solutions the proton transfer reaction between H(2)O(•+) and a water molecule becomes less efficient. Diffusion-kinetic simulations of spur reactions including the direct ionization of Cl(-) and hole scavenging by Cl(-) show that up to 30% of the H(2)O(•+) produced by the irradiation could be scavenged for solutions containing 5.5 M Cl(-). This process decreases the yield of OH(•) radical in solution on the picosecond time scale. The experimental results for the same concentration of Cl(-) at a given absorbed dose show that the radiation energy absorbed by counterions is transferred to Cl(-) or water molecules and the effect of the countercation such as Li(+), K(+), Na(+), and Mg(2+) on the oxidation yield of Cl(-) is negligible.

  11. In vivo multiphoton-microscopy of picosecond-laser-induced optical breakdown in human skin. (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Lentsch, Griffin; Korta, Dorota Z; König, Karsten; Kelly, Kristen M; Tromberg, Bruce J; Zachary, Christopher B


    Improvements in skin appearance resulting from treatment with fractionated picosecond-lasers have been noted, but optimizing the treatment efficacy depends on a thorough understanding of the specific skin response. The development of non-invasive laser imaging techniques in conjunction with laser therapy can potentially provide feedback for guidance and optimizing clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the capability of multiphoton microscopy (MPM), a high-resolution, label-free imaging technique, to characterize in vivo the skin response to a fractionated non-ablative picosecond-laser treatment. Two areas on the arm of a volunteer were treated with a fractionated picosecond laser at the Dermatology Clinic, UC Irvine. The skin response to treatment was imaged in vivo with a clinical MPM-based tomograph at 3 hours and 24 hours after treatment and seven additional time points over a 4-week period. MPM revealed micro-injuries present in the epidermis. Pigmented cells were particularly damaged in the process, suggesting that melanin is likely the main absorber for laser induced optical breakdown. Damaged individual cells were distinguished as early as 3 hours post pico-laser treatment with the 532 nm wavelength, and 24 hours post-treatment with both 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths. At later time points, clusters of cellular necrotic debris were imaged across the treated epidermis. After 24 hours of treatment, inflammatory cells were imaged in the proximity of epidermal micro-injuries. The epidermal injuries were exfoliated over a 4-week period. This observational and descriptive pilot study demonstrates that in vivo MPM imaging can be used non-invasively to provide label-free contrast for describing changes in human skin following a fractionated non-ablative laser treatment. The results presented in this study represent the groundwork for future longitudinal investigations on an expanded number of subjects to understand the response to treatment

  12. Six-frame picosecond radiation camera based on hydrated electron photoabsorption phenomena. [Laser opacity pattern in acidic aqueous cell formed by pulsed irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, G.W.; Olk, L.B.; Gates, H.A.; St. Leger-Barter, G.


    To obtain picosecond photographs of nanosecond radiation sources, a six-frame ultra-high speed radiation camera based on hydrated electron absorption phenomena has been developed. A time-dependent opacity pattern is formed in an acidic aqueous cell by a pulsed radiation source. Six time-resolved picosecond images of this changing opacity pattern are transferred to photographic film with the use of a mode-locked dye laser and six electronically gated microchannel plate image intensifiers. Because the lifetime of the hydrated electron absorption centers can be reduced to picoseconds, the opacity patterns represent time-space pulse profile images.

  13. Initiation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Samuel S.; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.


    Picosecond time-resolved images of plasma initiation were recorded during pulsed-laser ablation of metal targets in an air atmosphere. An early-stage plasma was observed to form before the release of a material vapor plume. Close to the target surface, interferometry measurements indicate that the early-stage plasma has an electron number density on the order of 10 20 cm -3 . The longitudinal expansion of the ionization front for this plasma has a velocity 10 9 cm/s, during the laser pulse. In contrast, a material--vapor plume forms approximately 200 ps after the laser pulse, and it moves away from the target at 10 6 cm/s. The experimental observations of the early-stage plasma were simulated by using a theoretical model based on a two-fluids description of laser plasmas. The results indicate that the initiation of the plasma is due to air breakdown assisted by electron emission from the target

  14. Non-destructive spatial characterization of buried interfaces in multilayer stacks via two color picosecond acoustics (United States)

    Faria, Jorge C. D.; Garnier, Philippe; Devos, Arnaud


    We demonstrate the ability to construct wide-area spatial mappings of buried interfaces in thin film stacks in a non-destructive manner using two color picosecond acoustics. Along with the extraction of layer thicknesses and sound velocities from acoustic signals, the morphological information presented is a powerful demonstration of phonon imaging as a metrological tool. For a series of heterogeneous (polymer, metal, and semiconductor) thin film stacks that have been treated with a chemical procedure known to alter layer properties, the spatial mappings reveal changes to interior thicknesses and chemically modified surface features without the need to remove uppermost layers. These results compare well to atomic force microscopy scans showing that the technique provides a significant advantage to current characterization methods for industrially important device stacks.

  15. A Novel Low-Ringing Monocycle Picosecond Pulse Generator Based on Step Recovery Diode (United States)

    Zhou, Jianming; Yang, Xiao; Lu, Qiuyuan; Liu, Fan


    This paper presents a high-performance low-ringing ultra-wideband monocycle picosecond pulse generator, formed using a step recovery diode (SRD), simulated in ADS software and generated through experimentation. The pulse generator comprises three parts, a step recovery diode, a field-effect transistor and a Schottky diode, used to eliminate the positive and negative ringing of pulse. Simulated results validate the design. Measured results indicate an output waveform of 1.88 peak-to-peak amplitude and 307ps pulse duration with a minimal ringing of -22.5 dB, providing good symmetry and low level of ringing. A high degree of coordination between the simulated and measured results is achieved. PMID:26308450

  16. Picosecond nonlinear optical studies of gold nanoparticles synthesised using coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum) (United States)

    Venugopal Rao, S.


    The results are presented from the experimental picosecond nonlinear optical (NLO) studies of gold nanoparticles synthesised using coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum) extract. Nanoparticles with an average size of ∼30 nm (distribution of 5-70 nm) were synthesised according to the procedure reported by Narayanan et al. [Mater. Lett. 2008, 62, 4588-4591]. NLO studies were carried out using the Z-scan technique using 2 ps pulses near 800 nm. Open-aperture data suggested saturation absorption as the nonlinear absorption mechanism, whereas closed-aperture data suggested a positive nonlinearity. The magnitude of third-order nonlinearity was estimated to be (3.3 ± 0.6) × 10-13 esu. A solvent contribution to the nonlinearity was also identified and estimated. A comparison is attempted with some recently reported NLO studies of similar gold nanostructures.

  17. Anti-biofouling superhydrophobic surface fabricated by picosecond laser texturing of stainless steel (United States)

    Sun, Ke; Yang, Huan; Xue, Wei; He, An; Zhu, Dehua; Liu, Wenwen; Adeyemi, Kenneth; Cao, Yu


    Anti-biofouling technology is based on specifically designed materials and coatings. This is an enduring goal in the maritime industries, such as shipping, offshore oil exploration, and aquaculture. Recently, research of the relationship between wettability and antifouling effectiveness has attracted considerable attention, due to the anti-biofouling properties of the lotus leaf and shark skin. In this study, super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) with controllable periodic structures were fabricated on AISI304 stainless steel by a picosecond laser, and their anti-biofouling performance were investigated by seawater immersion for five weeks in summertime. The results showed that the specimens with SHS demonstrate significant anti-biofouling effect as compared with the bare stainless steel plate. We observed that nearly 50% decrease of the average microbe attachment area ratio (Avg. MAAR) could be obtained. The micro-groove SHS with more abundant hierarchical micro-nano structures showed better anti-biofouling performance than the micro-pit SHS.

  18. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies on geminate ion recombination in saturated hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.; Washio, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Katsumura, Y.; Tabata, Y.


    The geminate recombination kinetics of the excess electron and the electron hole are discussed, based on time-resolved data on picosecond and nanosecond time scales. The recombination times of the excess electron and the electron hole are evaluated to be 3 ps for cyclohexane on the basis of the comparison between the experimental and the calculated results. The spin correlation decay of the geminate ion pairs and the triplet state formation before the spin correlation loss have also been discussed. The rapidly decaying species with very broad absorption spectra, which are similar to the absorption spectra of the cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons, have been observed in neat saturated hydrocarbons in the sub-nanosecond and a few nanosecond time regions. The identification of the rapidly decaying species were not definitely made but those species are tentatively assigned to the excited states and/or the tail of the geminate cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons. (author)

  19. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor; Lempert, Walter


    Time-resolved electric field measurements in hydrogen by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing are presented. Measurements are carried out in a high voltage nanosecond pulse discharge in hydrogen in plane-to-plane geometry, at pressures of up to several hundred Torr, and with a time resolution of 0.2 ns. Absolute calibration of the diagnostics is done using a sub-breakdown high voltage pulse of 12 kV/cm. A diffuse discharge is obtained by applying a peak high voltage pulse of 40 kV/cm between the electrodes. It is found that breakdown occurs at a lower field, 15--20 kV/cm, after which the field in the plasma is reduced rapidly due to plasma self shielding The experimental results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations, showing good agreement between the measured and the predicted electric field.

  20. Measurement of transient atomic displacements in thin films with picosecond and femtometer resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kozina


    Full Text Available We report measurements of the transient structural response of weakly photo-excited thin films of BiFeO3, Pb(Zr,TiO3, and Bi and time-scales for interfacial thermal transport. Utilizing picosecond x-ray diffraction at a 1.28 MHz repetition rate with time resolution extending down to 15 ps, transient changes in the diffraction angle are recorded. These changes are associated with photo-induced lattice strains within nanolayer thin films, resolved at the part-per-million level, corresponding to a shift in the scattering angle three orders of magnitude smaller than the rocking curve width and changes in the interlayer lattice spacing of fractions of a femtometer. The combination of high brightness, repetition rate, and stability of the synchrotron, in conjunction with high time resolution, represents a novel means to probe atomic-scale, near-equilibrium dynamics.

  1. Measurements of Electron Transport in Foils Irradiated with a Picosecond Time Scale Laser Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C. R. D.; Hoarty, D. J.; James, S. F.; Swatton, D.; Hughes, S. J.; Morton, J. W.; Guymer, T. M.; Hill, M. P.; Chapman, D. A.; Andrew, J. E.; Comley, A. J.; Shepherd, R.; Dunn, J.; Chen, H.; Schneider, M.; Brown, G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Emig, J.


    The heating of solid foils by a picosecond time scale laser pulse has been studied by using x-ray emission spectroscopy. The target material was plastic foil with a buried layer of a spectroscopic tracer material. The laser pulse length was either 0.5 or 2 ps, which resulted in a laser irradiance that varied over the range 10 16 -10 19 W/cm 2 . Time-resolved measurements of the buried layer emission spectra using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera were used to infer the density and temperature conditions as a function of laser parameters and depth of the buried layer. Comparison of the data to different models of electron transport showed that they are consistent with a model of electron transport that predicts the bulk of the target heating is due to return currents.

  2. Terawatt Picosecond CO2 Laser Technology for High Energy Physics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.


    Demonstration of ultra-high acceleration gradients in the SM LWFA experiments put a next objective for the laser accelerator development to achieve a low-emittance monochromatic acceleration over extended interaction distances. The emerging picosecond terawatt (ps-TW) CO 2 laser technology helps to meet this strategic goal. Among the considered examples are: the staged electron laser accelerator (STELLA) experiment, which is being conducted at the Brookhaven ATF, and the plasma-channeled LWFA. The long-wavelength and high average power capabilities of CO 2 lasers maybe utilized also for generation of intense x-ray and gamma radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser beams off relativistic electrons. We discuss applications of ps-TW CO 2 lasers for a tentative γ-γ (or γ-lepton) collider and generation of polarized positron beams

  3. Synthesis by picosecond laser ablation of ligand-free Ag and Au nanoparticles for SERS applications (United States)

    Fazio, Enza; Spadaro, Salvatore; Santoro, Marco; Trusso, Sebastiano; Lucotti, Andrea.; Tommasini, Matteo.; Neri, Fortunato; Maria Ossi, Paolo


    The morphological and optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles prepared by picosecond laser generated plasmas in water were investigated. First, the ablation efficiency was maximized searching the optimal focusing conditions. The nanoparticle size, measured by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, strongly depends on the laser fluence, keeping fixed the other deposition parameters such as the target to scanner objective distance and laser repetition frequency. STEM images indicate narrow gradients of NP sizes. Hence the optimization of ablation parameters favours a fine tuning of nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy helped to determine the appropriate laser wavelength to resonantly excite the localized surface plasmon to carry out Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. The SERS activity of Ag and Au substrates, obtained spraying the colloids synthesized in water, was tested using crystal violet as a probe molecule. The good SERS performance, observed at excitation wavelength 785 nm, is attributed to aggregation phenomena of nanoparticles sprayed on the support.

  4. High-intensity coherent FIR radiation from sub-picosecond electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, P.H.; Lihn, Hung-chi; Wiedemann, H.; Bocek, D.


    A facility to generate high-intensity, ultra-short pulses of broad-band far-infrared radiation has been assembled and tested at Stanford. The device uses sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches to generate coherent radiation through transition or synchrotron radiation in the far-infrared (FIR) regime between millimeter waves and wavelengths of about 100 μm and less. Experimental results show a peak radiation power of greater than 0.33 MW within a micro-bunch and an average FIR radiation power of 4 mW. The average bunch length of 2856 micro-bunches within a 1 μsec macro-pulse is estimated to be about 480 sec. Simulations experimental setup and results will be discussed

  5. Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses. (United States)

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Russ, Simone; Hartmann, Claudia; Siebert, Christof; Zhu, Jianqiang; Schulz, Wolfgang


    This study presents a novel numerical model for laser ablation and laser damage in glass including beam propagation and nonlinear absorption of multiple incident ultrashort laser pulses. The laser ablation and damage in the glass cutting process with a picosecond pulsed laser was studied. The numerical results were in good agreement with our experimental observations, thereby revealing the damage mechanism induced by laser ablation. Beam propagation effects such as interference, diffraction and refraction, play a major role in the evolution of the crater structure and the damage region. There are three different damage regions, a thin layer and two different kinds of spikes. Moreover, the electronic damage mechanism was verified and distinguished from heat modification using the experimental results with different pulse spatial overlaps.

  6. Precision picosecond-pulse measurements using a high-quality superconducting delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.R.


    A high-quality superconducting delay line now makes it possible to perform direct oscillographic measurements of the picosecond transition times of very fast electrical signals that do not furnish pretriggers. A 15-m superconducting delay line package has been assembled. The package consists of connectors, connector adapters, normally conducting input/output air lines, and a 15 m length of a miniature 1.6-mm superconducting coaxial transmission line. The package exhibits an attenuation of 0.8 db at 10 GHz and a system 10-90 percent transition time of 18 psec. Some applications of this delay line are shown. They include the measurement of the pulse output from a mercury switch and the transient response of a traveling-wave oscilloscope. 13 refs

  7. Numerical study of fourth-harmonic generation of a picosecond laser pulse with time predelay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Kato, Y.; Daido, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)


    We describe fourth-harmonic generation of a picosecond laser pulse with KDP crystals. The coupled nonlinear equations for the parametric process including the third-order nonlinear susceptibility have been solved. Applying a time predelay in the doubling crystal between the extraordinary and the ordinary waves of the fundamental pulse causes the group-velocity mismatch and the nonlinear phase shift in the doubling crystal to be compensated for each other, resulting in pulse duration compression at the fourth-harmonic wavelength. It is shown that the reduction from a 1-ps fundamental pulse to a 0.25-ps fourth-harmonic pulse can be achieved at an incident intensity of 50 GW/cm{sup 2}. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  8. Investigation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Machining Using 355 nm Picosecond Pulsed Laser (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Dezhi


    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been widely used in the aircraft industry and automobile industry owing to its superior properties. In this paper, a Nd:YVO4 picosecond pulsed system emitting at 355 nm has been used for CFRP machining experiments to determine optimum milling conditions. Milling parameters including laser power, milling speed and hatch distance were optimized by using box-behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). Material removal rate was influenced by laser beam overlap ratio which affects mechanical denudation. The results in heat affected zones (HAZ) and milling quality were discussed through the machined surface observed with scanning electron microscope. A re-focusing technique based on the experiment with different focal planes was proposed and milling mechanism was also analyzed in details.

  9. Laser diagnostics in combustion. Elastic scattering and picosecond laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossler, Frederik


    Elastic scattering and the Lorenz-Mie (LM) theory in particular is used for the characterization of sub-micron- and micron-sized droplets of organic fuels in sprays and aerosols. Calculations on the Lorenz-Mie theory show that backward-sideward scattered visible radiation can be used for unambiguous detection of ensembles of homogeneous droplets of organic substances with diameters around 1 micrometer (size parameter between 2 and 6). A backward feature in the polarization ratio appears with a value considerably higher than one, on the opposite to the case of the rainbow observed for larger droplets. A comparison between measurements and LM calculations showed that a large amount of droplets in aerosols and well-atomized sprays were smaller than one micrometer in diameter. The LM theory was also used to characterize different size groups in a burning spray. A 3 - D technique based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera was demonstrated for measurements of fast and turbulent biphase flows. The entire 3 - D information was obtained within a time-span of less than 15 nanoseconds. A 2 - D technique for lifetime measurements based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera has been demonstrated on static objects. An analysis indicates that the technique may be applied to measurements of lifetimes around or below one picosecond employing femtosecond lasers and femtosecond streak-cameras. The technique may in principle be used to study dynamic systems when two detectors are used. Fluorescence lifetime measurements on hydrogen and oxygen atoms in flames at atmospheric pressure demonstrate the need of lasers with suiting spectral properties such as jitter and linewidth and the need of detectors with high sensitivity in the near IR in the case of oxygen atoms. The fluorescence lifetimes of gas phase acetone and 3-pentanone at 266 nm excitation wavelength have been measured for mixtures with nitrogen and air at temperatures between 323 and 723 K and pressures between 0

  10. A High-Energy, 100 Hz, Picosecond Laser for OPCPA Pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongpeng Su


    Full Text Available A high-energy diode-pumped picosecond laser system centered at 1064 nm for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA pumping was demonstrated. The laser system was based on a master oscillator power amplifier configuration, which contained an Nd:YVO4 mode-locked seed laser, an LD-pumped Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier, and two double-pass amplifiers. A reflecting volume Bragg grating with a 0.1 nm reflective bandwidth was used in the regenerative amplifier for spectrum narrowing and pulse broadening to suit the pulse duration of the optical parametric amplifier (OPA process. Laser pulses with an energy of 316.5 mJ and a pulse duration of 50 ps were obtained at a 100 Hz repetition rate. A top-hat beam distribution and a 0.53% energy stability (RMS were achieved in this system.

  11. Picosecond Electric-Field-Induced Threshold Switching in Phase-Change Materials. (United States)

    Zalden, Peter; Shu, Michael J; Chen, Frank; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yi; Wen, Haidan; Johnston, Scott; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Landreman, Patrick; Brongersma, Mark; Fong, Scott W; Wong, H-S Philip; Sher, Meng-Ju; Jost, Peter; Kaes, Matthias; Salinga, Martin; von Hoegen, Alexander; Wuttig, Matthias; Lindenberg, Aaron M


    Many chalcogenide glasses undergo a breakdown in electronic resistance above a critical field strength. Known as threshold switching, this mechanism enables field-induced crystallization in emerging phase-change memory. Purely electronic as well as crystal nucleation assisted models have been employed to explain the electronic breakdown. Here, picosecond electric pulses are used to excite amorphous Ag_{4}In_{3}Sb_{67}Te_{26}. Field-dependent reversible changes in conductivity and pulse-driven crystallization are observed. The present results show that threshold switching can take place within the electric pulse on subpicosecond time scales-faster than crystals can nucleate. This supports purely electronic models of threshold switching and reveals potential applications as an ultrafast electronic switch.

  12. Sub-picosecond pulse break-up in an InGaAsP optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal

    For high-speed optical communication systems with data speed higher than 200 Gb/s sub-picosecond pulse dynamics, coherent effects become important. We have, experimentally and theoretically, investigated the pulse distortion of a 150 fs pulse due to amplification in a 250 μm long InGaAsP ridge...... broadening and eventual break-up for input pulse energies on the order of picoJoules. This break-up is present in the gain region (6-14 dB), while for absorption (-6 dB9 and transparency, pulse narrowing by a factor of two is evidenced. We observe that not only the amplitude is modulated, but also the linear...

  13. Sub-picosecond pulse break-up in an InGaAsP optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal


    For high speed optical communication system with data speed higher than 200 Gb/s sub-picosecond pulse dynamics, coherent effects become important.We have, experimentally and theoretically, investigated the pulse distortion of an 150 fs pulse due to amplification in a 250 ìm long InGaAsP ridge...... broadening and eventual break-up for input pulse energies on the order of picoJoules. This break-up is present in the gain region (6-14 dB), while for absorption (-6 dB) and transparency, pulse narrowing by a factor of two is evidenced. We observe that not only the amplitude is modulated, but also the linear...

  14. Femtosecond resolved diagnostics for electron beam and XUV seed temporal overlap at sFLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkeshian, Roxana


    sFLASH is a seeded experiment at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH in Hamburg. It uses a 38 nm High-Harmonic-Generation (HHG) scheme to seed the FEL-process in a 10m long variable-gap undulator. The temporal overlap between the electron and HHG pulses is critical to the seeding process. The use of a 3 rd harmonic accelerating module provides a high current electron beam with ∝ (400 fs) FWHM bunch duration. The duration of the HHG laser pulse is ≤ (30 fs) FWHM . The desired overlap is achieved in two steps. Firstly, the HHG drive laser is brought to temporal overlap with the incoherent spontaneous radiation from an upstream undulator with picosecond resolution. The temporal overlap is periodically monitored using a streak camera installed in the linear accelerator tunnel. Next, the coherent radiation from an undulator is used to determine the exact overlap of the electron beam in a modulator-radiator set-up with sub-picosecond resolution. The physical and technical principles of the setup providing the temporal overlap are described. Results of the system are analyzed. An analytical approach and simulation results for the performance of the seeding experiment are presented. First attempts at demonstration of seeding are discussed. Strategies for optimizing overlap conditions are presented. (orig.)

  15. Femtosecond resolved diagnostics for electron beam and XUV seed temporal overlap at sFLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkeshian, Roxana


    sFLASH is a seeded experiment at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH in Hamburg. It uses a 38 nm High-Harmonic-Generation (HHG) scheme to seed the FEL-process in a 10m long variable-gap undulator. The temporal overlap between the electron and HHG pulses is critical to the seeding process. The use of a 3{sup rd} harmonic accelerating module provides a high current electron beam with {proportional_to} (400 fs){sub FWHM} bunch duration. The duration of the HHG laser pulse is {<=} (30 fs){sub FWHM}. The desired overlap is achieved in two steps. Firstly, the HHG drive laser is brought to temporal overlap with the incoherent spontaneous radiation from an upstream undulator with picosecond resolution. The temporal overlap is periodically monitored using a streak camera installed in the linear accelerator tunnel. Next, the coherent radiation from an undulator is used to determine the exact overlap of the electron beam in a modulator-radiator set-up with sub-picosecond resolution. The physical and technical principles of the setup providing the temporal overlap are described. Results of the system are analyzed. An analytical approach and simulation results for the performance of the seeding experiment are presented. First attempts at demonstration of seeding are discussed. Strategies for optimizing overlap conditions are presented. (orig.)

  16. Temporal contingency. (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A


    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A compact picosecond pulsed laser source using a fully integrated CMOS driver circuit (United States)

    He, Yuting; Li, Yuhua; Yadid-Pecht, Orly


    Picosecond pulsed laser source have applications in areas such as optical communications, biomedical imaging and supercontinuum generation. Direct modulation of a laser diode with ultrashort current pulses offers a compact and efficient approach to generate picosecond laser pulses. A fully integrated complementary metaloxide- semiconductor (CMOS) driver circuit is designed and applied to operate a 4 GHz distributed feedback laser (DFB). The CMOS driver circuit combines sub-circuits including a voltage-controlled ring oscillator, a voltagecontrolled delay line, an exclusive-or (XOR) circuit and a current source circuit. Ultrashort current pulses are generated by the XOR circuit when the delayed square wave is XOR'ed with the original square wave from the on-chip oscillator. Circuit post-layout simulation shows that output current pulses injected into an equivalent circuit load of the laser have a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 200 ps, a peak current of 80 mA and a repetition rate of 5.8 MHz. This driver circuit is designed in a 0.13 μm CMOS process and taped out on a 0.3 mm2 chip area. This CMOS chip is packaged and interconnected with the laser diode on a printed circuit board (PCB). The optical output waveform from the laser source is captured by a 5 GHz bandwidth photodiode and an 8 GHz bandwidth oscilloscope. Measured results show that the proposed laser source can output light pulses with a pulse FWHM of 151 ps, a peak power of 6.4 mW (55 mA laser peak forward current) and a repetition rate of 5.3 MHz.

  18. Picosecond excitation energy transfer of allophycocyanin studied in solution and in crystals. (United States)

    Ranjbar Choubeh, Reza; Sonani, Ravi R; Madamwar, Datta; Struik, Paul C; Bader, Arjen N; Robert, Bruno; van Amerongen, Herbert


    Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis with the use of large light-harvesting antennae called phycobilisomes (PBSs). These hemispherical PBSs contain hundreds of open-chain tetrapyrrole chromophores bound to different peptides, providing an arrangement in which excitation energy is funnelled towards the PBS core from where it can be transferred to photosystem I and/or photosystem II. In the PBS core, many allophycocyanin (APC) trimers are present, red-light-absorbing phycobiliproteins that covalently bind phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores. APC trimers were amongst the first light-harvesting complexes to be crystallized. APC trimers have two spectrally different PCBs per monomer, a high- and a low-energy pigment. The crystal structure of the APC trimer reveals the close distance (~21 Å) between those two chromophores (the distance within one monomer is ~51 Å) and this explains the ultrafast (~1 ps) excitation energy transfer (EET) between them. Both chromophores adopt a somewhat different structure, which is held responsible for their spectral difference. Here we used spectrally resolved picosecond fluorescence to study EET in these APC trimers both in crystallized and in solubilized form. We found that not all closely spaced pigment couples consist of a low- and a high-energy pigment. In ~10% of the cases, a couple consists of two high-energy pigments. EET to a low-energy pigment, which can spectrally be resolved, occurs on a time scale of tens of picoseconds. This transfer turns out to be three times faster in the crystal than in the solution. The spectral characteristics and the time scale of this transfer component are similar to what have been observed in the whole cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, for which it was ascribed to EET from C-phycocyanin to APC. The present results thus demonstrate that part of this transfer should probably also be ascribed to EET within APC trimers.

  19. Treatment of tattoos with a picosecond alexandrite laser: a prospective trial. (United States)

    Saedi, Nazanin; Metelitsa, Andrei; Petrell, Kathleen; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S


    OBJECTIVE To study a picosecond 755-nm alexandrite laser for the removal of tattoos to confirm the efficacy of this therapy, focusing on the effect of therapy on the target lesion as well as the surrounding tissues and quantifying the number of necessary treatments. DESIGN Fifteen patients with tattoos were enrolled. Treatments were scheduled approximately 6 ± 2 weeks apart. Standard photographs using 2-dimensional imaging were taken at baseline, before each treatment, and 1 month and 3 months after the last treatment. SETTING Dermatology clinic at SkinCare Physicians in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. PATIENTS Fifteen patients with darkly pigmented tattoos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Treatment efficacy was assessed by the level of tattoo clearance in standard photographs. These photographs were assessed by a blinded physician evaluator and based on a 4-point scale. Efficacy was also assessed based on physician and patient satisfaction measured on a 4-point scale. RESULTS Twelve of 15 patients with tattoos (80%) completed the study. All 12 patients obtained greater than 75% clearance. Nine patients (75%) obtained greater than 75% clearance after having 2 to 4 treatments. The average number of treatment sessions needed to obtain this level of clearance was 4.25. All 12 patients (100%) were satisfied or extremely satisfied with the treatment. Adverse effects included pain, swelling, and blistering. Pain resolved immediately after therapy, while the swelling and blistering resolved within 1 week. Hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation were reported at the 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSION The picosecond 755-nm alexandrite laser is a safe and very effective procedure for removing tattoo pigment.

  20. Amplitude-temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated during subnanosecond breakdown in air and nitrogen (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.


    The amplitude-temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with an amplitude of up to 100 A, as well as of the breakdown voltage and discharge current, are studied experimentally with a picosecond time resolution. The waveforms of discharge and SAEB currents are synchronized with those of the voltage pulses. It is shown that the amplitude-temporal characteristics of the SAEB depend on the gap length and the designs of the gas diode and cathode. The mechanism for the generation of runaway electron beams in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  1. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall


    and attractive renderings of bright light sources. Based on the anatomy of the human eye, we propose a model that enables real-time simulation of dynamic glare on a GPU. This allows an improved depiction of HDR images on LDR media for interactive applications like games, feature films, or even by adding movement......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  2. Osa Topical Meeting Proceedings (4th) on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics Held in Salt Lake City, Utah on 13-15 March 1991. Volume 9 (United States)


    253 T. Gong and P. M. Fauchet Digest Summaries Picosecond Superconductive Electronics ........................... 262 T. Van Duzer High-Capacity...and N. Peyghambarian, AppI. Phys. Lett. 42, 749 (1986). Digest Summaries PICOSECOND SUPERCONDUCTIVE ELECTRONICS T. Van Duzer Department of Electrical...referred to References 1 and 2. 1. T. Van Duzer , "Superconductor Electronic Device Applications," IEEE J. Quan- tum Electronics, vol. 25, pp. 2365-2377

  3. Study of photo-activated electron transfer reactions in the first excited singlet state by picosecond and nanosecond laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doizi, Denis


    Picosecond laser spectroscopy has been used to study two photo-activated electron transfer reactions: - a bimolecular electron transfer reaction between a sensitizer, DODCI, and an electron acceptor, methylviologen. The two radical ions created with an electron transfer efficiency γ ≅ 0.07 have been identified in picosecond and nanosecond laser absorption spectroscopy by adding selective solutes such as para-benzoquinone (an electron acceptor) or L(+) ascorbic acid (an electron donor). - an intramolecular electron transfer reaction in a triad molecule consisting of a tetra-aryl-porphyrin covalently linked to both a carotenoid and a quinone. The photoinduced charge separation occurs within 30 ps and leads, with a yield of 25 pc, to the formation of a zwitterion whose half-life is 2.5 μs. The experimental results obtained in these two studies show an effective decrease in the recombination rate of the two radical ions created in the encounter pair. (author) [fr

  4. Structure of picosecond pulses of a Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Donin, V. I.; Yakovin, D. V.; Gribanov, A. V.


    The pulse duration of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, in which Q-switching with mode-locking (QML regime) is achieved using a spherical mirror and a travelling-wave acousto-optic modulator, is directly measured with a streak camera. It is found that the picosecond pulses can have a non-single-pulse structure, which is explained by excitation of several competing transverse modes in the Q-switching regime with a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz. In the case of cw mode-locking (without Q-switching), a new (auto-QML) regime is observed, in which the pulse train repetition rate is determined by the frequency of the relaxation oscillations of the laser field while the train contains single picosecond pulses.

  5. Structure of picosecond pulses of a Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donin, V I; Yakovin, D V; Gribanov, A V [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    The pulse duration of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, in which Q-switching with mode-locking (QML regime) is achieved using a spherical mirror and a travelling-wave acousto-optic modulator, is directly measured with a streak camera. It is found that the picosecond pulses can have a non-single-pulse structure, which is explained by excitation of several competing transverse modes in the Q-switching regime with a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz. In the case of cw mode-locking (without Q-switching), a new (auto-QML) regime is observed, in which the pulse train repetition rate is determined by the frequency of the relaxation oscillations of the laser field while the train contains single picosecond pulses. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  6. Megawatt-peak-power picosecond all-fiber-based laser in MOPA using highly Yb3+-doped LMA phosphate fiber (United States)

    Shi, Guannan; Fu, Shijie; Sheng, Quan; Li, Jinhui; Fang, Qiang; Liu, Huixian; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Peyghambarian, N.; Shi, Wei; Yao, Jianquan


    A megawatt-peak-power picosecond all-fiber-based laser in master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) is experimentally demonstrated. Only 34-cm-long highly Yb3+-doped large mode area (LMA) phosphate fiber was used as the gain fiber in the amplification stage to alleviate nonlinearity and achieve high peak power. Picosecond pulses with single pulse energy of 21.2 μJ and peak power of 0.96 MW were achieved at the repetition rate of 500 kHz. Evident spectral degradation can be observed as the peak power approached 1 MW, and a stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) free peak power of 0.51 MW was obtained in the experiment. Moreover, the output power under different repetition rates was investigated.

  7. 26 nJ picosecond solitons from thulium-doped single-mode master oscillator power fiber amplifier. (United States)

    Renard, William; Canat, Guillaume; Bourdon, Pierre


    We report on an all single-mode master oscillator power fiber amplifier delivering high energy picosecond solitons at 1960 nm. The Bragg stabilized and self-starting oscillator delivers 62 pJ transform-limited pulses at 11.2 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Solitons are amplified in a core-pumped single-mode heavily thulium-doped fiber up to 26 nJ. The average and peak power are 291 mW and 7.4 kW, respectively. Pulses remain transform limited without significant self-phase-modulation distortion. We discuss the limitations of picosecond pulse amplification in a core-pumped single-mode fiber amplifier.

  8. Study of the laser-induced damage of reflective components in the sub-picosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozet, Martin


    In this thesis, laser-induced damage phenomenon of reflective components is investigated in the sub-picosecond regime. These components, made of stacks of dielectric materials, are widely used in powerful laser facilities such as PETAL laser. PETAL laser has been built at the CEA-CESTA in France to deliver multi-kJ/500 fs pulses at 1053 nm and reach a power higher than 6 PW. For this kind of laser systems, reflective components are commonly used instead of optics operating in transmission to limit the accumulation of non-linear phase along the beam propagation due to the high intensities. Optical components irradiated by the highest power densities are the pulse compression gratings, transport mirrors and the focusing parabola, located at the end of the laser chain. Nowadays, laser-induced damage is the main factor that limits the overall performances of powerful laser systems. This manuscript presents three study axes to better understand and control damage phenomenon. The first one concerns the conception of reflective optics for the peta-watt applications. The design of new structures has been investigated to reach high diffraction efficiencies in the case of pulse compression gratings and a high reflectivity in the case of mirrors, while reducing the Electric-field enhancement which is one of the causes of the laser-induced damage. The second axis deals with the development of a precise damage metrology with new testing tools which brings new perspectives and a new viewpoint for the assessment of the laser resistance of optical components. Finally, the third axis concerns the study the damage growth after several irradiations in the sub-picosecond regime. The evolution of the damage area during growth sequences is observed and compared to numerical simulations. It enables to improve the understanding in the growth phenomenon. In the end, these studies will allow to develop predictive models of the laser-induced damage and new tools for the conception of

  9. Proposal for a Non-Interceptive Spatio-Temporal Correlation Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, T.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab


    Designs toward TeV-range electron-positron linear colliders include a non-zero crossing angle colliding scheme at the interaction point to mitigate instabilities and possible background. Maximizing the luminosity when operating with non-zero crossing angles requires the use of 'crab' cavities to impart a well-defined spatio-temporal correlation. In this paper we propose a novel noninterceptive diagnostic capable of measuring and monitoring the spatio-temporal correlation, i.e. the transverse position of sub-picosecond time slices, within bunch. An analysis of the proposed scheme, its spatio-temporal resolution and its limitations are quantified. Finally, the design of a proof-of-principle experiment in preparation for the Fermilab's A0 photoinjector is presented.

  10. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.


    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  11. Energy transfer and distribution in the red alga Prophyra perforata studied using picosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karukstis, K.K.; Sauer, K.


    The detailed process of excitation transfer among the antenna pigments of the red alga Porphyra perforata was investigated by measuring time-resolved fluorescence emission spectra using a single-photon timing system with picosecond resolution. The fluorescence decay kinetics of intact thalli at room temperature revealed wavelength-dependent multi-component chlorophyll a fluorescence emission. Data presented here attribute the majority of chlorophyll a fluorescence to excitation originating in the antennae of photosystem (PS)II reaction centers and emitted with maximum intensities at 680 and 740 nm. Each of these fluorescence bands was characterized by two kinetic decay components, with lifetimes of 340-380 and 1700-2000 ps and amplitudes varying with wavelength and the photochemical state of the PS II reaction centers. In addition, a small contribution to the long-wavelength fluorescence band is proposed to arise from chlorophyll a antennae coupled to PS I. This component displays fast decay kinetics with a lifetime of approx. 150 ps. Desiccation of the thalli dramatically increases the contribution of this fast decay component.

  12. Development of picoseconds Time of Flight systems in Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A.; Albrow, M.; Demarteau, M.; Los, S.; /Fermilab; Malik, S.; /Rockefeller U.; Pronko, S.; Ramberg, E.; /Fermilab; Zatserklyaniy, A.; /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez


    The goal of the work is to develop time of flight (TOF) system with about 10 picosecond time resolution in real beam line when start and stop counters separated by some distance. We name the distance as 'base' for the TOF. This 'real' TOF setup is different from another one when start and stop counters located next to each other. The real TOF is sensitive to beam momentum spread, beam divergence, etc. Anyway some preliminary measurements are useful with close placement of start and stop counter. We name it 'close geometry'. The work started about 2 years ago at Fermilab Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF). The devices tested in 'close geometry' were Microchannel Plate Photomultipliers (MCP PMT) with Cherenkov radiators. TOF counters based on Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPms) with Cherenkov radiators also in 'close geometry' were tested. We report here new results obtained with the counters in the MTBF at Fermilab, including beam line data.

  13. Generation of bandwidth-limited tunable picosecond pulses by injection- locked parametric oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnitskii, S.A.; Malachova, V.I.; Tarasevich, A.P.; Tunkin, V.G.; Yakubovich, S.D.


    We report a new Nd:YAG-pumped picosecond optical parametric oscillator that generates bandwidth-limited pulses. Using two LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals, it produces tunable, (signal-wave) pulses of 18-psec duration and nu.. = 1.2 cm/sup -1/ FWHM ( nu..tau = 0.7). The output energy of the optical parametric oscillators in a signal wave is no less than 2 mJ with 10% energy stability. The key to this device is the injection of cw single-frequency GaAs diode-laser radiation. Using the injection of diode-laser radiation, we have measured the spectral intensity of a quantun noise at lambda = 0.85 The intensity was found to be 6 +- 2 W/cm/sup 2/ cm/sup -1/ sr (theoretical value, 4.7 W/cm/sup 2/ cm/sup -1/ sr).

  14. Picosecond LIBS diagnostics for Tokamak in situ plasma facing materials chemical analysis (United States)

    Morel, Vincent; Pérès, Bastien; Bultel, Arnaud; Hideur, Ammar; Grisolia, Christian


    First results are presented in relation with experimental and theoretical studies performed at the CORIA laboratory in the general framework of the determination of the chemical analysis of Tokamak plasma facing materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in picosecond regime. Experiments are performed on W in a specific chamber. This chamber is equipped with a UV-visible-near IR spectroscopic device. Boltzmann plots are derived for typical laser characteristics. We show that the initial excitation temperature is close to 12 000 K followed by a quasi steady value close to 8500 K. The ECHREM (Euler code for CHemically REactive Multicomponent laser-induced plasmas) code is developed to reproduce the laser-induced plasmas. This code is based on the implementation of a Collisional-Radiative model in which the different excited states are considered as full species. This state-to-state approach is relevant to theoretically assess the departure from excitation and chemical equilibrium. Tested on aluminum, the model shows that the plasma remains close to excitation equilibrium.

  15. A review on high-resolution CMOS delay lines: towards sub-picosecond jitter performance. (United States)

    Abdulrazzaq, Bilal I; Abdul Halin, Izhal; Kawahito, Shoji; Sidek, Roslina M; Shafie, Suhaidi; Yunus, Nurul Amziah Md


    A review on CMOS delay lines with a focus on the most frequently used techniques for high-resolution delay step is presented. The primary types, specifications, delay circuits, and operating principles are presented. The delay circuits reported in this paper are used for delaying digital inputs and clock signals. The most common analog and digitally-controlled delay elements topologies are presented, focusing on the main delay-tuning strategies. IC variables, namely, process, supply voltage, temperature, and noise sources that affect delay resolution through timing jitter are discussed. The design specifications of these delay elements are also discussed and compared for the common delay line circuits. As a result, the main findings of this paper are highlighting and discussing the followings: the most efficient high-resolution delay line techniques, the trade-off challenge found between CMOS delay lines designed using either analog or digitally-controlled delay elements, the trade-off challenge between delay resolution and delay range and the proposed solutions for this challenge, and how CMOS technology scaling can affect the performance of CMOS delay lines. Moreover, the current trends and efforts used in order to generate output delayed signal with low jitter in the sub-picosecond range are presented.

  16. Sub-picosecond pulse radiolysis and ion beam induced nanowire formation for nanolithography and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiichi Tagawa; Takahiro Kozawa; Shu Seki


    For an innovation in the future nano-lithographic technique, we clarify crucial factors determining spatial resolutions of the technique by using sub-picosecond pulse radiolysis system bearing, the world highest time resolution at present. The initial separation distance between positive and negative charges (∼ 10 nm at a few tens ps) will be a grave issue for the fabrication of nanoscale patterns in the near future. The pulse radiolysis system is one of the most powerful tools for the understanding of electron beam and X-ray patterning. As a candidate for the real nano-fabrication system using radiations, we report the formation of nanowires that have cylindrical structure of cross-linked polymers by the high-energy ion beam irradiation to thin films of Si backbone polymers. The spatial distribution and size of the isolated nanowires can be fairly controlled by this technique unlike those for producing carbon nanotubes or wires. The radius of the wire varies from a few nm to 15 nm, and is precisely controlled by simply changing the parameters of incident ion beam or molecular sizes of the target polymer. The thickness of the target film determines the length of each wire, which is also under control by the present technique. We introduce some hints of radiations for future technologies in the present paper. (Author)

  17. High peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state amplifier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Yu, H; Liu, Q; Fu, X; Yan, X; Gong, M


    We report the high peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state laser amplifier system. The passively mode-locked solid-state seed source produced an average power of 1.8 W with pulse width of 14 ps and repetition rate of 86 MHz. It was directly coupled into the first Yb-doped polarized photonic crystal fiber amplifier stage. To avoid the nonlinear effects in fiber, the output power from the first stage was merely amplified to 24 W with the narrow spectra broadening of 0.21 nm. For the improvement of the peak power, the dual-end pumped composite Nd:YVO 4 amplifier system has been chosen at the second stage. To reduce the serious thermal effect, the thermally bonded composite YVO 4 – Nd:YVO 4 – YVO 4 rod crystal was used as the gain medium. The 53 W TEM 00 mode with the peak power of 40 kW, beam quality of M 2 < 1.15, corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 42.4% was obtained at the hybrid amplifier laser system. The system allows using a low power seed source and demonstrates an increase in the peak power beyond a fiber master oscillator power amplifier's (MOPA's) limit

  18. Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass. (United States)

    Corbari, Costantino; Champion, Audrey; Gecevičius, Mindaugas; Beresna, Martynas; Bellouard, Yves; Kazansky, Peter G


    The ability of 8 picosecond pulse lasers for three dimensional direct-writing in the bulk of transparent dielectrics is assessed through a comparative study with a femtosecond laser delivering 600 fs pulses. The comparison addresses two main applications: the fabrication of birefringent optical elements and two-step machining by laser exposure and post-processing by chemical etching. Formation of self-organized nano-gratings in glass by ps-pulses is demonstrated. Differential etching between ps-laser exposed regions and unexposed silica is observed. Despite attaining values of retardance (>100 nm) and etching rate (2 μm/min) similar to fs pulses, ps pulses are found unsuitable for bulk machining in silica glass primarily due to the build-up of a stress field causing scattering, cracks and non-homogeneous etching. Additionally, we show that the so-called "quill-effect", that is the dependence of the laser damage from the direction of writing, occurs also for ps-pulse laser machining. Finally, an opposite dependence of the retardance from the intra-pulse distance is observed for fs- and ps-laser direct writing.

  19. Subharmonic synchronously intracavity pumped picosecond optical parametric oscillator for intracavity phase interferometry (United States)

    Zavadilová, Alena; Vyhlídal, David; Kubeček, Václav; Šulc, Jan


    The laser system suitable for precise intracavity phase interferometry is presented. The system is based on an intracavity pumped PPLN linear optical parametrical oscillator (OPO). For synchronous pumping of OPO a SESAM-mode-locked, picosecond, diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 linear oscillator, operating at 1.06 µm was used. The OPO cavity was set to be twice as long as the pumping Nd:YVO4 laser cavity. The pumping laser was set in such a manner that the parametric gain inside the PPLN overcame the OPO threshold only for one direction of pumping pulse propagation. This leads to the generation of two independent trains of pulses at the 1.5 µm spectral range. To verify the system performance, a LiNbO3 electro-optic phase modulator was placed inside the OPO. The RF-signal derived from the pumping pulse train, detected by a fast photodiode and divided by two, was applied on the modulator. A stable beat-note signal between the two OPO trains was successfully measured for the first time from such a compact, all-diode-pumped laser system. For RF-signal amplitude from 100 up to 700 mV beat-note frequency varied from 232 up to 1847 Hz which corresponded to detected phase-shift 36-250 µrad. The bandwidth of beat-note was less than 1 Hz (FWHM) resulting in phase-shift measurement error 1.5 × 10-7 rad.

  20. Flexible picosecond thulium-doped fiber laser using the active mode-locking technique. (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Weiqiang; Chen, He; Chen, Shengping; Hou, Jing


    An all-fiber actively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser (AML-TDFL) based on a 10 GHz bandwidth electro-optic intensity modulator (EOM) providing flexible picosecond pulses at 1980 nm is presented. The EOM is driven by electrical pulses rather than traditional sine-wave signals. The repetition rate of output pulses was 21.4 MHz at fundamental mode-locking, which could be scaled up to 1.498 GHz through the 70th order harmonic mode-locking, and the shortest measured output pulse width was 38 ps. Furthermore, the output pulse width could be tuned by either adjusting the modulation frequency with small detuning or changing the width of these driving electrical pulses without frequency detuning. In our work, the stability of these mode-locked pulses obtained from the AML-TDFL was superior; for instance, the measured supermode suppression ratio of 1.498 GHz pulses train was up to 48 dB.

  1. Ultrafast high-repetition imaging of fuel sprays using picosecond fiber laser. (United States)

    Purwar, Harsh; Wang, Hongjie; Tang, Mincheng; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Godin, Thomas; Hideur, Ammar


    Modern diesel injectors operate at very high injection pressures of about 2000 bar resulting in injection velocities as high as 700 m/s near the nozzle outlet. In order to better predict the behavior of the atomization process at such high pressures, high-resolution spray images at high repetition rates must be recorded. However, due to extremely high velocity in the near-nozzle region, high-speed cameras fail to avoid blurring of the structures in the spray images due to their exposure time. Ultrafast imaging featuring ultra-short laser pulses to freeze the motion of the spray appears as an well suited solution to overcome this limitation. However, most commercial high-energy ultrafast sources are limited to a few kHz repetition rates. In the present work, we report the development of a custom-designed picosecond fiber laser generating ∼ 20 ps pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at a repetition rate of 8.2 MHz, suitable for high-speed imaging of high-pressure fuel jets. This fiber source has been proof tested by obtaining backlight images of diesel sprays issued from a single-orifice injector at an injection pressure of 300 bar. We observed a consequent improvement in terms of image resolution compared to standard white-light illumination. In addition, the compactness and stability against perturbations of our fiber laser system makes it particularly suitable for harsh experimental conditions.

  2. Note: Space qualified photon counting detector for laser time transfer with picosecond precision and stability. (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan; Blazej, Josef


    The laser time transfer link is under construction for the European Space Agency in the frame of Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space. We have developed and tested the flying unit of the photon counting detector optimized for this space mission. The results are summarized in this Note. An extreme challenge was to build a detector package, which is rugged, small and which provides long term detection delay stability on picosecond level. The device passed successfully all the tests required for space missions on the low Earth orbits. The detector is extremely rugged and compact. Its long term detection delay stability is excellent, it is better than ±1 ps/day, in a sense of time deviation it is better than 0.5 ps for averaging times of 2000 s to several hours. The device is capable to operate in a temperature range of -55 °C up to +60 °C, the change of the detection delay with temperature is +0.5 ps/K. The device is ready for integration into the space structure now.

  3. Picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation. (United States)

    Kubo, Minoru; Shiomitsu, Eiji; Odai, Kei; Sugimoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Hideo; Ito, Etsuro


    Conformational changes of proteins are dominated by the excitation and relaxation processes of their vibrational states. To elucidate the mechanism of receptor activation, the conformation dynamics of receptors must be analyzed in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation. In this study, we chose the bending vibrational mode of the guanidinium group of Arg485 of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 based on our previous studies, and we investigated picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor caused by the vibrational excitation of Arg485 via molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational excitation energy in Arg485 in the ligand-binding site initially flowed into Lys730, and then into the J-helix at the subunit interface of the ligand-binding domain. Consequently, the atomic displacement in the subunit interface around an intersubunit hydrogen bond was evoked in about 3 ps. This atomic displacement may perturb the subunit packing of the receptor, triggering receptor activation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Precision and resolution in laser direct microstructuring with bursts of picosecond pulses (United States)

    Mur, Jaka; Petkovšek, Rok


    Pulsed laser sources facilitate various applications, including efficient material removal in different scientific and industrial applications. Commercially available laser systems in the field typically use a focused laser beam of 10-20 μm in diameter. In line with the ongoing trends of miniaturization, we have developed a picosecond fiber laser-based system combining fast beam deflection and tight focusing for material processing and optical applications. We have predicted and verified the system's precision, resolution, and minimum achievable feature size for material processing applications. The analysis of the laser's performance requirements for the specific applications of high-precision laser processing is an important aspect for further development of the technique. We have predicted and experimentally verified that maximal edge roughness of single-micrometer-sized features was below 200 nm, including the laser's energy and positioning stability, beam deflection, the effect of spot spacing, and efficient isolation of mechanical vibrations. We have demonstrated that a novel fiber laser operating regime in bursts of pulses increases the laser energy stability. The results of our research improve the potential of fiber laser sources for material processing applications and facilitate their use through enabling the operation at lower pulse energies in bursts as opposed to single pulse regimes.

  5. Rapid prototyping of flexible intrafascicular electrode arrays by picosecond laser structuring (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias; de la Oliva, Natalia; del Valle, Jaume; Delgado-Martínez, Ignacio; Navarro, Xavier; Stieglitz, Thomas


    Objective. Interfacing the peripheral nervous system can be performed with a large variety of electrode arrays. However, stimulating and recording a nerve while having a reasonable amount of channels limits the number of available systems. Translational research towards human clinical trial requires device safety and biocompatibility but would benefit from design flexibility in the development process to individualize probes. Approach. We selected established medical grade implant materials like precious metals and Parylene C to develop a rapid prototyping process for novel intrafascicular electrode arrays using a picosecond laser structuring. A design for a rodent animal model was developed in conjunction with an intrafascicular implantation strategy. Electrode characterization and optimization was performed first in saline solution in vitro before performance and biocompatibility were validated in sciatic nerves of rats in chronic implantation. Main results. The novel fabrication process proved to be suitable for prototyping and building intrafascicular electrode arrays. Electrochemical properties of the electrode sites were enhanced and tested for long-term stability. Chronic implantation in the sciatic nerve of rats showed good biocompatibility, selectivity and stable stimulation thresholds. Significance. Established medical grade materials can be used for intrafascicular nerve electrode arrays when laser structuring defines structure size in the micro-scale. Design flexibility reduces re-design cycle time and material certificates are beneficial support for safety studies on the way to clinical trials.

  6. Avalanche boron fusion by laser picosecond block ignition with magnetic trapping for clean and economic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.; Nissim, N.


    Measured highly elevated gains of proton–boron (HB11) fusion (Picciottoet al., Phys. Rev. X4, 031030 (2014)) confirmed the exceptional avalanche reaction process (Lalousiset al., Laser Part. Beams 32, 409 (2014); Horaet al., Laser Part. Beams33, 607 (2015)) for the combination of the non-thermal block ignition using ultrahigh intensity laser pulses of picoseconds duration. The ultrahigh acceleration above 10 20  cm s −2 for plasma blocks was theoretically and numerically predicted since 1978 (Hora,Physics of Laser Driven Plasmas(Wiley, 1981), pp. 178 and 179) and measured (Sauerbrey, Phys. Plasmas3, 4712 (1996)) in exact agreement (Horaet al., Phys. Plasmas14, 072701 (2007)) when the dominating force was overcoming thermal processes. This is based on Maxwell’s stress tensor by the dielectric properties of plasma leading to the nonlinear (ponderomotive) force f NL resulting in ultra-fast expanding plasma blocks by a dielectric explosion. Combining this with measured ultrahigh magnetic fields and the avalanche process opens an option for an environmentally absolute clean and economic boron fusion power reactor. Finally, this is supported also by other experiments with very high HB11 reactions under different conditions (Labauneet al., Nature Commun.4, 2506 (2013)).

  7. Fabricating micro-nano structures on stainless steel surface by picosecond laser (United States)

    Xie, Zhiwei; Dong, Shiyun; Yan, Shixing; He, Jiawu; Wang, Bin; Li, Chonghe


    This paper is mainly about the micro-nano structure on stainless steel surface was fabricated by picosecond laser under the static experimental condition, and the surface morphology after ablation is observed and measured by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) and scanning electron microscope(SEM). The technological disciplinarian of stainless steel ablation with different laser parameters, such as power percentage and processing times, was studied. The results show that the change of average power has a main influence on the energy density of laser pulse. With the increase of average power, the energy density of single pulse raises linearly, and the ablation rate increases exponentially. At the same time, the width and depth of micro-nano structures rises with the increase of average power, and the multiscale structure improves gradually. And change the number of processing mainly affects the laser pulse number, the pulse numbers increase linearly with the improve of the processing times. When processing times increase gradually, the width of the micro-nano structures remains the same and then increases and eventually keeps it steady; the depth raises firstly, then decreases, and continues growing finally, while the ablation rate decreases with the power function.

  8. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Applications of Picosecond Spectroscopy to Chemistry

    CERN Document Server


    With the development of lasers that can generate light 11 14 pulses ranging from 10- - 10- sec duration, and capable of 13 peak powers in excess of 10 watts scientists have been able to investigate the interactions of light with matter in a time and power domain not previously possible. These ultrashort laser pulses provide a powerful tool for the study of chemical phenomena at the most fundamental level. Many of the elementary processes of importance in chemistry including energy dissipa­ tion, molecular motions, structural and chemical changes occur on a very short time scale and thus require special approaches. Th~ use of ultrashort laser pulses to perturb and to probe systems of interest affords a direct approach to the time reso­ lution of very rapid chemical phenomena. It was recognition of the impact of these relatively new approaches to chemical phenomena that motivated NATO to sponsor a meeting on the applications of picosecond spectroscopy in chemistry. The primary aim of the NATO workshop was to ...

  9. Picosecond phase conjugation in two-photon absorption in poly-di-acetylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunzi, Dominique Jean-Michel


    Poly-di-acetylenes exhibit a large two-photon absorption at 1064 nm wavelength. Its different effects on phase-conjugate nonlinearity are described in the framework of picosecond experiments. In solutions, gels, and films (optically thin media), third-order susceptibility appears as an increasing intensity dependent function. Phase measurements by nonlinear interferometry with the substrate or with the solvent are compared with predictions of a resonantly driven three level system. Phase-conjugate response exhibits a multi-exponential decay. Polarization symmetries analysis shows a one-dimensional effect. Study under strong static electric field action reveals that we face charged species bound to photoconductive polymer chains. In PTS single crystals (optically thick media), response saturates and cancels at high light intensity. This is well accounted for by propagation equations solved in large two-photon absorption conditions. The effect is exploited in a phase conjugation experiment under external optical pump excitation. We thus demonstrate that enhanced nonlinearity is a two-photon absorption relayed and amplified by mid-gap absorbing species which have been created by this two-photon absorption. We formally face a four-photon absorption described by a positive imaginary seventh-order non-linearity. (author) [fr

  10. Transport in ultra-dense plasmas produced by a picosecond laser pulse (United States)

    Mehlman, G.; Burkhalter, P. G.; Newman, D. A.


    This report presents recent experimental results obtained with the Table Top Terawatt laser at the Ultrafast Science Laboratory (University of Michigan). Interaction of the picosecond laser pulse with an overdense plasma was investigated with spectroscopic observations in the XUV range using a compact 1 m grazing incidence spectrograph. The emission from laser-irradiated targets made of silicon wafers coated with aluminum layers of variable thicknesses (from 100 to 5000 A) was recorded to allow spectral line intensity measurements from silicon and aluminum L-shell ions. The experiment was conducted using laser irradiation at both wavelengths lambda L = 1.06 or 0.53 microns. The laser energy penetration depths were derived from the variation of the XUV spectral intensities with the different layer thicknesses. The values obtained cover the range 300-700 A at lambda L = 1.06 microns and 250-400 A at lambda L = 0.53 microns. The smaller penetration depth determined at the laser doubled frequency corroborates earlier x-ray results in the keV range at the same laboratory. The penetration depths derived provide a better understanding of the electron heat transport phenomena, supporting in particular the assumption of thermal condition in an overdense plasma.

  11. Picosecond laser micro/nano surface texturing of nickel for superhydrophobicity (United States)

    Wang, X. C.; Wang, B.; Xie, H.; Zheng, H. Y.; Lam, Y. C.


    A single step direct picosecond laser texturing process was demonstrated to be able to obtain a superhydrophobic surface on a nickel substrate, a key material for mold fabrication in the manufacture of various devices, including polymeric microfluidic devices. A two-scale hierarchical surface structure of regular 2D array micro-bumps with nano-ripples was produced on a nickel surface. The laser textured surface initially showed superhydrophilicity with almost complete wetting of the structured surface just after laser treatment, then quickly changed to nearly superhydrophobic with a water contact angle (WCA) of 140° in less than 1 d, and finally became superhydrophobic with a WCA of more than 150° and a contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of less than 5°. The mechanism involved in the process is discussed in terms of surface morphology and surface chemistry. The ultra-fast laser induced NiO catalytic effect was thought to play a key role in modifying the surface chemistry so as to lower the surface energy. The developed process has the potential to improve the performance of nickel mold in the fabrication of microfluidic devices.

  12. Effect of defocusing on picosecond laser-coupling into gold cones (United States)

    Bush, I. A.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Gartside, L.; Sarfraz, S.; Wagenaars, E.; Green, J. S.; Notley, M.; Lowe, H.; Spindloe, C.; Winstone, T.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Clarke, R.; Ma, T.; Yabuuchi, T.; Wei, M.; Beg, F. N.; Stephens, R. B.; MacPhee, A.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Key, M. H.; Nazarov, W.; Sherlock, M.; Pasley, J.


    Here, we show that defocusing of the laser in the interaction of a picosecond duration, 1.053 μm wavelength, high energy pulse with a cone-wire target does not significantly affect the laser energy coupling efficiency, but does result in a drop in the fast electron effective temperature. This may be beneficial for fast ignition, since not only were more electrons with lower energies seen in the experiment but also the lower prepulse intensity will reduce the amount of preplasma present on arrival of the main pulse, reducing the distance the hot electrons have to travel. We used the Vulcan Petawatt Laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and gold cone targets with approximately 1 mm long, 40 μm diameter copper wires attached to their tip. Diagnostics included a quartz crystal imager, a pair of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal spectrometers and a calibrated CCD operating in the single photon counting regime, all of which looked at the copper Kα emission from the wire. A short pulse optical probe, delayed 400 ps relative to the main pulse was employed to diagnose the extent of plasma expansion around the wire. A ray-tracing code modeled the change in intensity on the interior surface of the cone with laser defocusing. Using a model for the wire copper Kα emission coupled to a hybrid Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, we ran a series of simulations, holding the total energy in electrons constant whilst varying the electron temperature, which support the experimental conclusions.

  13. Zinc oxide nanocolloids prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation in water at different temperatures (United States)

    D'Urso, Luisa; Spadaro, Salvatore; Bonsignore, Martina; Santangelo, Saveria; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Neri, Fortunato; Fazio, Enza


    Zinc oxide with wide direct band gap and high exciton binding energy is one of the most promising materials for ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting devices. It further exhibits good performance in the degradation of non-biodegradable pollutants under UV irradiation. In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide/gold (ZnO/Au) nanocolloids are prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation (ps-PLA), using a Zn and Au metallic targets in water media at room temperature (RT) and 80°C. ZnO and Au nanoparticles (NPs) with size in the 10-50 nm range are obtained at RT, while ZnO nanorods (NRs) are formed when water is maintained at 80°C during the ps-PLA process. Au NPs, added to ZnO colloids after the ablation process, decorate ZnO NRs. The crystalline phase of all ZnO nanocolloids is wurtzite. Methylene blue dye is used to investigate the photo-catalytic activity of all the synthesised nanocolloids, under UV light irradiation.

  14. Picosecond laser pulse-driven crystallization behavior of SiSb phase change memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Li Simian; Zhai Fengxiao; Wang Yang; Lai Tianshu; Wu Yiqun; Gan Fuxi


    Highlights: → We reported crystallization dynamics of a novel SiSb phase change material. → We measured optical constants of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb areas. → Optical properties of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb thin film were compared. → Crystallization of irradiated SiSb was confirmed by using AFM and micro-Raman spectra. → The heat conduction effect of lower metal layer of multi-layer films was studied. - Abstract: Transient phase change crystallization process of SiSb phase change thin films under the irradiation of picosecond (ps) laser pulse was studied using time-resolved reflectivity measurements. The ps laser pulse-crystallized domains were characterized by atomic force microscope, Raman spectra and ellipsometrical spectra measurements. A reflectivity contrast of about 15% can be achieved by ps laser pulse-induced crystallization. A minimum crystallization time of 11 ns was achieved by a low-fluence single ps laser pulse after pre-irradiation. SiSb was shown to be very promising for fast phase change memory applications.

  15. High average/peak power linearly polarized all-fiber picosecond MOPA seeded by mode-locked noise-like pulses (United States)

    Yu, H. L.; Ma, P. F.; Tao, R. M.; Wang, X. L.; Zhou, P.; Chen, J. B.


    The characteristics of mode-locked noise-like pulses generated from a passively mode-locked fiber oscillator are experimentally investigated. By carefully adjusting the two polarization controllers, stable mode-locked noise-like pulse emission with a high radio frequency signal/noise ratio of  >55 dB is successfully achieved, ensuring the safety and possibility of high power amplification. To investigate the amplification characteristics of such pulses, one all-fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) is built to boost the power and energy of such pulses. Amplified noise-like pulses with average output power of 423 W, repetition rate of 18.71 MHz, pulse energy of 22.61 μJ, pulse duration of 72.1 ps and peak power of 314 kW are obtained. Near diffraction-limited beam is also demonstrated with M2 factor measured at full power operation of ~1.2 in the X and Y directions. The polarization extinction ratio at output power of 183 W is measured to be ~13 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of high-power amplification of noise-like pulses and the highest peak power ever reported in all-fiber picosecond MOPAs. The temporal self-compression process of such pulses and high peak power when amplified make it an ideal pump source for generation of high-power supercontinuum. Other potential applications, such as material processing and optical coherent tomography, could also be foreseen.

  16. Pattern analysis of laser-tattoo interactions for picosecond- and nanosecond-domain 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers in tissue-mimicking phantom. (United States)

    Ahn, Keun Jae; Zheng, Zhenlong; Kwon, Tae Rin; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Hye Sun; Cho, Sung Bin


    During laser treatment for tattoo removal, pigment chromophores absorb laser energy, resulting in fragmentation of the ink particles via selective photothermolysis. The present study aimed to outline macroscopic laser-tattoo interactions in tissue-mimicking (TM) phantoms treated with picosecond- and nanosecond-domain lasers. Additionally, high-speed cinematographs were captured to visualize time-dependent tattoo-tissue interactions, from laser irradiation to the formation of photothermal and photoacoustic injury zones (PIZs). In all experimental settings using the nanosecond or picosecond laser, tattoo pigments fragmented into coarse particles after a single laser pulse, and further disintegrated into smaller particles that dispersed toward the boundaries of PIZs after repetitive delivery of laser energy. Particles fractured by picosecond treatment were more evenly dispersed throughout PIZs than those fractured by nanosecond treatment. Additionally, picosecond-then-picosecond laser treatment (5-pass-picosecond treatment + 5-pass-picosecond treatment) induced greater disintegration of tattoo particles within PIZs than picosecond-then-nanosecond laser treatment (5-pass-picosecond treatment + 5-pass-nanosecond treatment). High-speed cinematography recorded the formation of PIZs after repeated reflection and propagation of acoustic waves over hundreds of microseconds to a few milliseconds. The present data may be of use in predicting three-dimensional laser-tattoo interactions and associated reactions in surrounding tissue.

  17. Shape language - How people describe shapes and shape operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.; Langeveld, L.H.; Vergeest, J.S.M.


    Many designers do not use CAD tools for shape ideation. They consider CAD systems not appropriate for the ideation phase. This research investigates how designers ideate shape, in particular which terms they use to exteriorize shape. The goal is to be able to propose digital tools that are useful

  18. Can coherent Smith-Purcell radiation be used to determine the shape of an electron bunch?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, A.; Gallerano, G.P.; Giovenale, E.; Messina, G.; Doucas, G.; Kimmitt, M.F.; Andrews, H.L.; Brownell, J.H.


    Recent measurements at Frascati of the Smith-Purcell radiation emitted from the interaction of a 2.3 MeV (total) electron beam with a 2.5 mm grating show clear evidence of coherent enhancement of the radiation, with power levels exceeding 100 mW at emission angles around 90 deg. relative to the beam direction. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions and suggest that Smith-Purcell radiation may offer a simple way of determining the shape and duration of short (picosecond) electron bunches

  19. Quantum Temporal Imaging


    Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri


    The concept of quantum temporal imaging is proposed to manipulate the temporal correlation of entangled photons. In particular, we show that time correlation and anticorrelation can be converted to each other using quantum temporal imaging.

  20. The effects of a picosecond pulsed electric field on angiogenesis in the cervical cancer xenograft models. (United States)

    Wu, Limei; Yao, Chenguo; Xiong, Zhengai; Zhang, Ruizhe; Wang, Zhiliang; Wu, Yutong; Qin, Qin; Hua, Yuanyuan


    The application of picosecond pulsed electric field (psPEF) is a new biomedical engineering technique used in cancer therapy. However, its effects on cervical cancer angiogenesis are not clear. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of psPEF on angiogenesis in cervical cancer xenograft models. Xenograft tumors were created by subcutaneously inoculating nude mice (athymic BALB/c nu/nu mice) with HeLa cells, then were placed closely between tweezer-type plate electrodes and subjected to psPEF with a gradually increased electric field intensity (0kV/cm, 50kV/cm, 60kV/cm, 70kV/cm). The direct effect on tumor tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The changes of blood vessels and oxygen saturation (sO2) of tumors were monitored in vivo by photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) were detected by immunohistochemical technique (IHC). Their protein expressions and gene transcription levels were evaluated using western blot (WB) and quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PsPEF induced obvious necrosis of cervical cancer tissue; with the increasing of electric field intensity, the MVD, vascular PA signal and sO2 values declined significantly. The protein expression and gene transcription levels of VEGF, HIF1α and HIF2α were significantly decreased at the same time. PsPEF exhibited dramatic anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects in cervical cancer xenograft models by exerting direct effect on cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells and indirect effect on tumor angiogenesis-related factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High precision laser direct microstructuring system based on bursts of picosecond pulses (United States)

    Mur, Jaka; Petelin, Jaka; Osterman, Natan; Petkovšek, Rok


    We have developed an efficient, high precision system for direct laser microstructuring using fiber laser generated bursts of picosecond pulses. An advanced opto-mechanical system for beam deflection and sample movement, precise pulse energy control, and a custom built fiber laser with the pulse duration of 65 ps have been combined in a compact setup. The setup allows structuring of single-micrometer sized objects with a nanometer resolution of the laser beam positioning due to a combination of acousto-optical laser beam deflection and tight focusing. The precise synchronization of the fiber laser with the pulse burst repetition frequency of up to 100 kHz allowed a wide range of working parameters, including a tuneable number of pulses in each burst with the intra-burst repetition frequency of 40 MHz and delivering exactly one burst of pulses to every chosen position. We have demonstrated that tightly focused bursts of pulses significantly increase the ablation efficiency during the microstructuring of a copper layer and shorten the typical processing time compared to the single pulse per spot regime. We have used a simple short-pulse ablation model to describe our single pulse ablation data and developed an upgrade to the model to describe the ablation with bursts. Bursts of pulses also contribute to a high quality definition of structure edges and sides. The increased ablation efficiency at lower pulse energies compared to the single pulse per spot regime opens a window to utilize compact fiber lasers designed to operate at lower pulse energies, reducing the overall system complexity and size.

  2. Picosecond time-gated Raman spectroscopy for transcutaneous evaluation of bone composition (United States)

    Morris, Michael D.; Draper, Edward R. C.; Goodship, Allen E.; Matousek, Pavel; Towrie, Michael; Parker, Anthony W.; Camacho, Nancy P.


    For efficacious transcutaneous monitoring of bone mineralization and matrix quality a spatially averaged measurement is needed, often over a large area. This precludes the use of confocal microscopy. We use picosecond pulsed laser excitation and Kerr-gated time-resolved data collection techniques to obtain marker bands of bone condition whilst rejecting interfering Raman scatter from skin, tendon and other overlying tissue. Alternatively, the methodology can be used to collect signals only from these overlying tissues. In all these experiments the 1 ps pulsed laser beam is focused to approximately 1 mm diameter. Raman light is then collected at specific times following the arrival of the pulse at time delays typically from 0 to 10 ps by opening an ultrafast optical shutter based on a Kerr cell that is driven by a second synchronized laser pulse. This permits specific probing of different layers of tissue. Individual delayed spectra are co-added and the resulting correction signal is subtracted from the ungated composite spectrum or from late-arriving time-resolved spectra. We have validated this methodology using tissue from the metacarpus and radius of several strains of laboratory mice. Overlying skin, flesh and tendon was removed from metacarpus and radius of one foreleg of a mouse and the tissue used as a control. The other foreleg served as the test specimen and was prepared by shaving the hair from the tissue, leaving the skin intact. Transcutaneous time-gated Raman spectra were measured on these specimens. With an 800 nm laser spatially resolved spectroscopy with depth penetration to greater than 1 mm was easily achieved. Normal and defective bone tissue were readily distinguished.

  3. Study on third-order nonlinear optical properties of 4-methylsulfanyl chalcone derivatives using picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' silva, E.D., E-mail: [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574199 (India); Podagatlapalli, G. Krishna [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Venugopal Rao, S., E-mail: [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Dharmaprakash, S.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574199 (India)


    Graphical abstract: Photograph and schematic representation of Z-scan experimental setup used to investigate third order nonlinear properties of the chalcone materials. Highlights: ► Br and NO{sub 2} substituted chalcone derivatives were exposed to picosecond laser pulses. ► Third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated. ► Compounds show promising third-order and optical limiting properties. ► These materials found suitable for electrical and optical applications. -- Abstract: In this paper we present results from the experimental study of third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of three molecules of Br and NO{sub 2} substituted chalcone derivatives namely (2E)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one (4Br4MSP), (2E)-1-(3-bromophenyl)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one (3Br4MSP) and (2E)-3[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(4-nitrophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (4N4MSP). The NLO properties have been investigated by Z-scan technique using 2 ps laser pulses at 800 nm. The nonlinear refractive indices, nonlinear absorption coefficient, and the magnitude of third-order susceptibility have been determined. The values obtained are of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/GW, 10{sup −3} cm/GW and 10{sup −14} esu respectively. The molecular second hyperpolarizability for the chalcone derivatives is of the order of 10{sup −32} esu. The coupling factor, excited state cross section, ground state cross section etc. were determined. The optical limiting (OL) property was studied. The results suggest that the nonlinear properties investigated for present chalcones are comparable with some of the reported chalcone derivatives and can be desirable for NLO applications.

  4. Surface characterization of carbon fiber reinforced polymers by picosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (United States)

    Ledesma, Rodolfo; Palmieri, Frank; Connell, John; Yost, William; Fitz-Gerald, James


    Adhesive bonding of composite materials requires reliable monitoring and detection of surface contaminants as part of a vigorous quality control process to assure robust and durable bonded structures. Surface treatment and effective monitoring prior to bonding are essential in order to obtain a surface which is free from contaminants that may lead to inferior bond quality. In this study, the focus is to advance the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique by using pulse energies below 100 μJ (μLIBS) for the detection of low levels of silicone contaminants in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Various CFRP surface conditions were investigated by LIBS using ∼10 ps, 355 nm laser pulses with pulse energies below 30 μJ. Time-resolved analysis was conducted to optimize the gate delay and gate width for the detection of the C I emission line at 247.9 nm to monitor the epoxy resin matrix of CFRP composites and the Si I emission line at 288.2 nm for detection of silicone contaminants in CFRP. To study the surface sensitivity to silicone contamination, CFRP surfaces were coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the active ingredient in many mold release agents. The presence of PDMS was studied by inspecting the Si I emission lines at 251.6 nm and 288.2 nm. The measured PDMS areal densities ranged from 0.15 to 2 μg/cm2. LIBS measurements were performed before and after laser surface ablation. The results demonstrate the successful detection of PDMS thin layers on CFRP using picosecond μLIBS.

  5. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.


    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in

  6. A case of impaired shape integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Marstrand, Lisbet; Habekost, Thomas


    We describe a patient, HE, who was left with a remarkably selective deficit in intermediate vision following an infarct in the right occipito-temporal region. Thus, HE was able to group elements by colour and proximity but impaired in grouping based on similarity in shape. This finding supports...

  7. An all-fiber continuously time-dispersion-tuned picosecond optical parametric oscillator at 1 μm region. (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Sigang; Li, Pengxiao; Wang, Xiaojian; Gou, Doudou; Chen, Wei; Luo, Wenyong; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Xie, Shizhong


    We report the experimental demonstration of a fully fiber-integrated picosecond optical parametric oscillator. The gain is provided by a 50-meters homemade photonic crystal fiber in the ring cavity. A time-dispersion-tuned technique is used to allow the oscillator to select the oscillating wavelength adaptively and synchronize with the pump pulse train. The output wavelength of the oscillator can be continuously tuned from 988 to 1046 nm and from 1085 to 1151 nm by adjusting the pump wavelength and the time-dispersion-tuned technique simultaneously.

  8. Thin disk amplifier-based 40 mJ, 1 kHz, picosecond laser at 515 nm. (United States)

    Novák, Jakub; Green, Jonathan T; Metzger, Thomas; Mazanec, Tomáš; Himmel, Bedřich; Horáček, Martin; Hubka, Zbyněk; Boge, Robert; Antipenkov, Roman; Batysta, František; Naylon, Jack A; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich


    We report on a frequency-doubled picosecond Yb:YAG thin disk regenerative amplifier, developed as a pump laser for a kilohertz repetition rate OPCPA. At a repetition rate of 1 kHz, the compressed output of the regenerative amplifier has a pulse duration of 1.2 ps and pulse energy of 90 mJ with energy stability of σ 2 < 1.2. The pulses are frequency doubled in an LBO crystal yielding 42 mJ at 515 nm.

  9. Quantitative study of the ionization-induced refraction of picosecond laser pulses in gas-jet targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.; Borghesi, M.; Iwase, A.; Jones, M.W.; Pert, G.J.; Rae, S.; Burnett, K.; Willi, O.


    A quantitative study of refractive whole beam defocusing and small scale breakup induced by optical ionization of subpicosecond and picosecond, 0.25 and 1 μm, laser pulses in gas-jet targets at densities above 1x10 19 cm -3 has been carried out. A significant reduction of the incident laser intensity was observed due to refraction from ionization-induced density gradients. The level of refraction measured with optical probing correlated well with the fraction of energy transmitted through the plasma. The numerical and analytical models were found to agree well with experimental observations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Ab initio design of picosecond infrared laser pulses for controlling vibrational-rotational excitation of CO molecules (United States)

    Herrmann, Thomas; Ren, Qinghua; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G.; Manby, Frederick R.


    Optimal control of rovibrational excitations of the CO molecule using picosecond infrared laser pulses is described in the framework of the electric-nuclear Born-Oppenheimer approximation [G. G. Balint-Kurti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 084110 (2005)]. The potential energy surface of the CO molecule in the presence of an electric field is calculated using coupled cluster theory with a large orbital basis set. The quantum dynamics of the process is treated using a full three dimensional treatment of the molecule in the laser field. The detailed mechanisms leading to efficient control of the selected excitation processes are discussed.

  11. Observation of coherently enhanced tunable narrow-band terahertz transition radiation from a relativistic sub-picosecond electron bunch train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, P.; Maxwell, T. J.; Sun, Y.-E; Ruan, J.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Rihaoui, M. M.


    We experimentally demonstrate the production of narrow-band (δf/f≅20% at f≅0.5THz) transition radiation with tunable frequency over [0.37, 0.86] THz. The radiation is produced as a train of sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches transits at the vacuum-aluminum interface of an aluminum converter screen. The bunch train is generated via a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange technique. We also show a possible application of modulated beams to extend the dynamical range of a popular bunch length diagnostic technique based on the spectral analysis of coherent radiation.

  12. Crystallization dynamics of as-deposited amorphous AgInSbTe thin film induced by picosecond laser pulses (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Zuo, Fangyuan; Zhai, Fengxiao; Wang, Yang; Lai, Tianshu; Wu, Yiqun; Gan, Fuxi


    The time-resolved crystallization dynamics of as-deposited amorphous AgInSbTe thin films induced by single picosecond laser pulses has been studied. The crystallization process was shown to be a threshold-dependent multi-stage process. For the same film structure, the total crystallization time does not change significantly with different fluences in a broad fluence range. The total crystallization time can be effectively shortened by an additional thermally conductive silver underlayer. After the film has been primed with a low-fluence single ~30 ps laser pulse, the crystallization process can be simplified to be a monotonic process with a markedly reduced crystallization time.

  13. Tracking the picosecond deactivation dynamics of a photoexcited iron carbene complex by time-resolved X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leshchev, Denis; Harlang, Tobias C. B.; Fredin, Lisa A.


    Recent years have seen the development of new iron-centered N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes for solar energy applications. Compared to typical ligand systems, the NHC ligands provide Fe complexes with longer-lived metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) states. This increased lifetime......)pyridine) is a unique complex as it exhibits a short-lived MC state with a lifetime on the scale of a few hundreds of picoseconds. Hence, this complex allows for a detailed investigation, using 100 ps X-ray pulses from a synchrotron, of strong ligand field effects on the intermediate MC state in an NHC complex. Here...

  14. Spatio-Temporal Data Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ha Le


    Full Text Available On the route to a spatio-temporal geoscience information system, an appropriate data model for geo-objects in space and time has been developed. In this model, geo-objects are represented as sequences of geometries and properties with continuous evolution in each time interval. Because geomodeling software systems usually model objects at specific time instances, we want to interpolate the geometry and properties from two models of an object with only geometrical constraints (no physical or mechanical constraints. This process is called spatio-temporal data construction or morphological interpolation of intermediate geometries. This paper is strictly related to shape morphing, shape deformation, cross-parameterization and compatible remeshing and is only concerned with geological surfaces. In this study, two main sub-solutions construct compatible meshes and find trajectories in which vertices of the mesh evolve. This research aims to find an algorithm to construct spatio-temporal data with some constraints from the geosciences, such as cutting surfaces by faulting or fracturing phenomena and evolving boundaries attached to other surfaces. Another goal of this research is the implementation of the algorithm in a software product, namely a gOcad plug-in. The four main procedures of the algorithm are cutting the surfaces, setting up constraints, partitioning and calculating the parameterizations and trajectories. The software has been tested to construct data for a salt dome and other surfaces in regard to the geological processes of faulting, deposition and erosion. The result of this research is an algorithm and software for the construction of spatio-temporal data.

  15. Experimental Studies on Transient Ni-Like Ag X-Ray Laser Pumped With the Picosecond Pulsed Laser Facility at NLHPLP (United States)

    Sun, J. R.; Wang, Ch.; Fang, Z. H.; Wang, W.; Xiong, J.; Wu, J.; Fu, S. Z.; Gu, Y.; Wang, S. J.; Zhang, G. P.; Zheng, W. D.; Huang, G. L.; Guan, F. Y.; Xie, X. L.

    The results of experimental studies on transient Ni-like Ag soft X-ray laser with the picosecond pulsed laser facility at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP), China, has been reported in this paper. An somewhat intense Ni-like Ag X-ray laser beam at 13.9 nm with output energy 5~10 nJ was obtained from the solid flat targets under the joint irradiation of a long pulse laser beam of several hundred picosecond duration and another 1ps ultra-short pulsed laser.

  16. The temporal Fresnel number in terms of ray matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuhong; Fan Dianyuan


    By using the analogy between temporal ray matrix and the well known ray matrix, the temporal Fresnel number, which gives the qualitative and quasiquantitative characteristics (shape, width and chirp) of optical pulses, is derived. A concept of effective propagation time is introduced. Several typical examples are discussed. 6 refs

  17. Influence of picosecond pulse electric field to invasive ability of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-mei WU


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of picosecond pulse electric field (psPEF to the invasive ability of cervical cancer. Methods The model of cervical cancer was reproduced in BALB/c nude mice (n=24, and they were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 when the xenografts had grown reaching a diameter of 0.8-1.0cm: control group (psPEF was not given, low field intensity group (50kV/cm, moderate field intensity group (60kV/cm and high field intensity group (70kV/cm. Seven days after the psPEF treatment, the histomorphological changes were observed with HE staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9 were determined with immunohistochemical (IHC staining, and the changes in protein level of VEGF and MMP-9 were assessed with Western blotting. Results After psPEF treatment, the area of necrosis was found to be increased with an increase in psPEF intensity. With TEM different degrees of apoptosis and necrosis in tumor cells with an increase of psPEF intensity were found. IHC showed that the number of VEGF and MMP-9 positive cells in cancer tissue was decreased with an increase in psPEF intensity. The average optical density (AOD of VEGF and MMP-9 proteins decreased significantly in psPEF treatment groups compared with that in control group, and the AOD values in psPEF treatment groups decreased with an increase in psPEF intensity, and the decrease was statistically significant (P<0.05. Western blotting showed the expressive levels of VEGF and MMP-9 proteins declined gradually with an increase in psPEF intensity, and the difference between groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion psPEF may have anti-cervical cancer effects by inhibiting the secretion of VEGF and MMP-9 and reducing the invasive ability of cervical cancer cells. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.03

  18. Picosecond Laser Treatment for Tattoos and Benign Cutaneous Pigmented Lesions (Secondary publication). (United States)

    Kasai, Kenichiro


    The selective removal of tattoos and benign cutaneous pigmented lesions with laser energy evolved rapidly with the development of the nanosecond-domain Q-switched laser (ns-laser). Recently, however, a series of picosecond-domain lasers (ps-lasers) with pulsewidths less than 1 ns has become commercially available, enabling more efficient and faster removal of pigmented lesions in the field of dermatologic laser surgery. The efficacy of the ns-laser depended on the theory of selective photothermolysis, whereby an extremely short pulse width was delivered less than the thermal relaxation time (TRT) of a target. At sub-ns pulsewidths, i.e. in the ps-domain, this efficacy is dramatically extended through defeating the stress relaxation time (SRT) of a target allowing for even more effective pigment destruction with even less damage to the surrounding normal tissue. This will be discussed in detail. The ps-laser has been reported as achieving tattoo removal in fewer sessions than the ns-laser, with less in the way of unwanted side effects. Tattoos recalcitrant to ns-laser treatment have responded well to the ps-laser, and although true 'color blindness' is not yet completely achieved with the ps-domain pulses currently available, multicolored tattoos have also responded very favorably. The ability to limit damage precisely to the pigment target gives greater efficacy in treatment of epidermal lesions with less induction of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation in the PIH-susceptible Asian skin, and dermal melanocytosis also respond very well to ps-laser treatment. Illustrative clinical examples from the author's experience are given. Current ps-lasers could be a revolutionary advance for laser tattoo removal but may be less effective for some specific aesthetic indications such as melasma and other cosmetic procedures. Manufacturers must make an effort to reduce the current comparatively long ps-domain pulsewidths to deliver a 'true' ps-domain laser, with more basic

  19. Measuring sub-picosecond optical propagation delay changes on optical fibre using photonics and radio frequency components (United States)

    Julie, Roufurd P. M.; Abbott, Thomas


    To synchronise the elements of a radio interferometer array, a phase stable reference frequency from a central clock is disseminated to the different elements of array. The reference frequency is modulated onto an optical carrier and transported over optical fibre over a distance of up to 12 km. For radio interferometric efficiency, the propagation delay of the transferred reference frequency is required to be stable to less than 3 picoseconds (ps) over 20 minutes. To enable this, the optical fibre transmission line is thermally shielded to minimise length changes due to thermal expansion and contraction on the optical fibre. A test setup and procedure, that measures propagation delay changes to the required accuracy and precision, is required to verify the efficiency of the thermal shielding on the installed optical fibre. This paper describes a method using photonic and radio frequency (RF) components together with an RF vector network analyser (VNA) and post-processing to measure changes in propagation delay on the optical fibre link to sub-picosecond levels. The measurement system has been tested to a stability of < 200 femtoseconds (fs) and a resolution of < 10 fs.

  20. Non-Pulse-Leakage 100-kHz Level, High Beam Quality Industrial Grade Nd:YVO4 Picosecond Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenao Bai


    Full Text Available A non-pulse-leakage optical fiber pumped 100-kHz level high beam quality Nd:YVO4 picosecond amplifier has been developed. An 80 MHz, 11.5 ps mode-locked picosecond laser is used as the seed with single pulse energy of 1 nJ. By harnessing the double β-BaB2O4 (BBO crystal Pockels cells in both the pulse picker and regenerative amplifier, the seed pulse leakage of the output is suppressed effectively with an adjustable repetition rate from 200 to 500 kHz. Through one stage traveling-wave amplifier, a maximum output power of 24.5 W is generated corresponding to the injected regenerative amplified power of 9.73 W at 500 kHz. The output pulse duration is 16.9 ps, and the beam quality factor M2 is measured to be 1.25 with near-field roundness higher than 99% at the full output power.

  1. Shape memory polymers (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.


    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  2. Reduced time as a unified parameter determining fixity and free recovery of shape memory polymers (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Ge, Qi; Qi, H. Jerry


    Shape memory polymers are at the forefront of recent materials research. Although the basic concept has been known for decades, recent advances in the research of shape memory polymers demand a unified approach to predict the shape memory performance under different thermo-temporal conditions. Here we report such an approach to predict the shape fixity and free recovery of thermo-rheologically simple shape memory polymers. The results show that the influence of programming conditions to free recovery can be unified by a reduced programming time that uniquely determines shape fixity, which consequently uniquely determines the shape recovery with a reduced recovery time. Furthermore, using the time-temperature superposition principle, shape recoveries under different thermo-temporal conditions can be extracted from the shape recovery under the reduced recovery time. Finally, a shape memory performance map is constructed based on a few simple standard polymer rheology tests to characterize the shape memory performance of the polymer.

  3. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.


    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  4. Mesial temporal sclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 29, 2005 ... tail of the hippocampus were involved, with associated poor grey- white matter differentiation. In addi- tion, there was atrophy of the hip- pocampus and fornix, with dilatation of the temporal horn (Figs 1 - 4). Discussion. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the commonest cause of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  5. A 1.8 mJ, picosecond Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier pump front-end system for high-accuracy XUV-frequency comb spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenweg, J.; Eikema, K.S.E.


    We present an 880 nm quasi-continuously pumped, grazing-incidence "bounce" amplifier system, capable of producing picosecond pulses (12 - 100 ps) and tailored pulse sequences at the mJ-level. More than 1.8 mJ of pulse energy was achieved for a 58 ps pulse, using sub-100 pJ seeding energy (up to a

  6. High power gain switched laser diodes using a novel compact picosecond switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor structure for pumping (United States)

    Vainshtein, Sergey; Kostamovaara, Juha


    A number of up-to-date applications, including advanced optical radars with high single-shot resolution, precise 3 D imaging, laser tomography, time imaging spectroscopy, etc., require low-cost, compact, reliable sources enabling the generation of high-power (1-100 W) single optical pulses in the picosecond range. The well-known technique of using the gain-switching operation mode of laser diodes to generate single picosecond pulses in the mW range fails to generate high-power single picosecond pulses because of a lack of high-current switches operating in the picosecond range. We report here on the achieving of optical pulses of 45W / 70ps, or alternatively 5W / 40ps, with gain-switched commercial quantum well (QW) laser diodes having emitting areas of 250 × 200 μm and 75 × 2 μm, respectively. This was made possible by the use of a novel high-current avalanche switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor (BJT) structure with a switching time (transistor structure.) A simulation code developed earlier but modified and carefully verified here allowed detailed comparison of the experimental and simulated laser responses and the transient spectrum.

  7. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene. (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J


    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Investigation of the dynamic behavior in materials submitted to sub-picosecond laser driven shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuq-Lelandais, Jean-Paul


    Laser driven shocks allow to investigate materials behavior at high strain rate and present a great interest for research and industrial applications. The latest laser technologies evolutions provide an access to shorter regimes in duration, below the picosecond. This work, which results from a collaboration between the P' institute, the PIMM laboratory and the CEA-DAM, is dedicated to the characterization of the metallic material behavior in this ultra-short mode (aluminium, tantalum), leading to extreme dynamic solicitation in the target (>10 7 s -1 ). The study includes the validation of experimental results obtained on the LULI 100 TW facility by comparison with numerical model. First, the study is orientated to the femtosecond (fs) laser-matter interaction, which is different from what happens in nanosecond regime. Indeed, the characteristic duration scale is comparable to several molecular phenomena like non-equilibrium electrons-ions states. The aim is to determine the equivalent pressure loading induced by the laser pulse on the target. Then, the shock wave propagation within the target has been studied and particularly its pressure decay, notably strong in this regime. In this configuration, the spalls observed are thin, a few μm order, and show a planar rupture morphology. The results obtained by post-mortem observation show that the spall thickness is thinner if the target thickness is reduced. The spalls are characterized by the VISAR measurement. Within the framework of dynamic damage modeling and rupture criteria dimensioning, particularly those which have been validated in the ns regime as Kanel, shots with different thicknesses have been carried out to determine the damage properties in function of strain rate and validate the parameters by prolongation to the ultra-shorts modes. Then, the study has been generalized to the 2D propagation waves, which can explain the spall diameter evolutions. Meanwhile, microscopic simulations of ultra-short laser

  9. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves


    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... shape-changing interfaces be used for, (b) which parts of the design space are not well understood, and (c) why studying user experience with shape-changing interfaces is important....

  10. Self-erecting shapes (United States)

    Reading, Matthew W.


    Technologies for making self-erecting structures are described herein. An exemplary self-erecting structure comprises a plurality of shape-memory members that connect two or more hub components. When forces are applied to the self-erecting structure, the shape-memory members can deform, and when the forces are removed the shape-memory members can return to their original pre-deformation shape, allowing the self-erecting structure to return to its own original shape under its own power. A shape of the self-erecting structure depends on a spatial orientation of the hub components, and a relative orientation of the shape-memory members, which in turn depends on an orientation of joining of the shape-memory members with the hub components.

  11. Method to control depth error when ablating human dentin with numerically controlled picosecond laser: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Sun, Yuchun; Yuan, Fusong; Lv, Peijun; Wang, Dangxiao; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yong


    A three-axis numerically controlled picosecond laser was used to ablate dentin to investigate the quantitative relationships among the number of additive pulse layers in two-dimensional scans starting from the focal plane, step size along the normal of the focal plane (focal plane normal), and ablation depth error. A method to control the ablation depth error, suitable to control stepping along the focal plane normal, was preliminarily established. Twenty-four freshly removed mandibular first molars were cut transversely along the long axis of the crown and prepared as 48 tooth sample slices with approximately flat surfaces. Forty-two slices were used in the first section. The picosecond laser was 1,064 nm in wavelength, 3 W in power, and 10 kHz in repetition frequency. For a varying number (n = 5-70) of focal plane additive pulse layers (14 groups, three repetitions each), two-dimensional scanning and ablation were performed on the dentin regions of the tooth sample slices, which were fixed on the focal plane. The ablation depth, d, was measured, and the quantitative function between n and d was established. Six slices were used in the second section. The function was used to calculate and set the timing of stepwise increments, and the single-step size along the focal plane normal was d micrometer after ablation of n layers (n = 5-50; 10 groups, six repetitions each). Each sample underwent three-dimensional scanning and ablation to produce 2 × 2-mm square cavities. The difference, e, between the measured cavity depth and theoretical value was calculated, along with the difference, e 1, between the measured average ablation depth of a single-step along the focal plane normal and theoretical value. Values of n and d corresponding to the minimum values of e and e 1, respectively, were obtained. In two-dimensional ablation, d was largest (720.61 μm) when n = 65 and smallest when n = 5 (45.00 μm). Linear regression yielded the quantitative

  12. Pulsed-diode-pumped, all-solid-state, electro-optically controlled picosecond Nd:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunkov, Mikhail V; Shabalin, Yu V; Konyashkin, A V; Kostryukov, P V; Olenin, A N; Tunkin, V G; Morozov, V B; Rusov, V A; Telegin, L S; Yakovlev, D V


    The results of the development of repetitively pulsed, diode-pumped, electro-optically controlled picosecond Nd:YAG lasers of two designs are presented. The first design uses the active-passive mode locking with electro-optical lasing control and semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM). This design allows the generation of 15-50-ps pulses with an energy up to 0.5 mJ and a maximum pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz. The laser of the second design generates 30-ps pulses due to combination of positive and negative electro-optical feedback and the control of the electro-optical modulator by the photocurrent of high-speed semiconductor structures. (active media. lasers)

  13. Study on the Cross Plane Thermal Transport of Polycrystalline Molybdenum Nanofilms by Applying Picosecond Laser Transient Thermoreflectance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Miao


    Full Text Available Thin metal films are widely used as interconnecting wires and coatings in electronic devices and optical components. Reliable thermophysical properties of the films are required from the viewpoint of thermal management. The cross plane thermal transport of four polycrystalline molybdenum nanofilms with different thickness deposited on glass substrates has been studied by applying the picosecond laser transient thermoreflectance technique. The measurement is performed by applying both front pump-front probe and rear pump-front probe configurations with high quality signal. The determined cross plane thermal diffusivity of the Mo films greatly decreases compared to the corresponding bulk value and tends to increase as films become thicker, exhibiting significant size effect. The main mechanism responsible for the thermal diffusivity decrease of the present polycrystalline Mo nanofilms is the grain boundary scattering on the free electrons. Comparing the cross plane thermal diffusivity and inplane electrical conductivity indicates the anisotropy of the transport properties of the Mo films.

  14. Picosecond wide-field time-correlated single photon counting fluorescence microscopy with a delay line anode detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Le Marois, Alix; Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Becker, Wolfgang; Smietana, Stefan [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Milnes, James; Conneely, Thomas [Photek Ltd., 26 Castleham Rd, Saint Leonards-on-Sea TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Jagutzki, Ottmar [Institut für Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)


    We perform wide-field time-correlated single photon counting-based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with a crossed delay line anode image intensifier, where the pulse propagation time yields the photon position. This microchannel plate-based detector was read out with conventional fast timing electronics and mounted on a fluorescence microscope with total internal reflection (TIR) illumination. The picosecond time resolution of this detection system combines low illumination intensity of microwatts with wide-field data collection. This is ideal for fluorescence lifetime imaging of cell membranes using TIR. We show that fluorescence lifetime images of living HeLa cells stained with membrane dye di-4-ANEPPDHQ exhibit a reduced lifetime near the coverslip in TIR compared to epifluorescence FLIM.

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide with a high repetition rate picosecond fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Turkka; Hahtala, Mikko; Seppaelae, Ilkka; Niemi, Tapio; Pessa, Markus


    We report the use of a mode-locked fiber laser in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide. The fiber laser produces picosecond pulses with megahertz repetition rates at the wavelength of 1060 nm. We have investigated the effects of the time delay and the physical overlapping of the consecutive pulses on the ablation thresholds and the properties of the deposited films. Our results show existence of two distinct evaporation modes: (1) a single pulse evaporation mode observed for low overlapping and long time delays between the pulses and (2) a high repetition rate evaporation mode for high overlapping with short delays. The first mode is characterized by evaporation of nanoparticles and clusters and yields structured films with high surface area. The second mode yields smooth films, with evaporation characteristics closer to those of thermal evaporation than traditional PLD. (orig.)

  16. Development and performance test of picosecond pulse x-ray excited streak camera system for scintillator characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Akira


    To observe time and wavelength-resolved scintillation events, picosecond pulse X-ray excited streak camera system is developed. The wavelength range spreads from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to near infrared region (110-900 nm) and the instrumental response function is around 80 ps. This work describes the principle of the newly developed instrument and the first performance test using BaF 2 single crystal scintillator. Core valence luminescence of BaF 2 peaking around 190 and 220 nm is clearly detected by our system, and the decay time turned out to be of 0.7 ns. These results are consistent with literature and confirm that our system properly works. (author)

  17. The Hue of Shapes (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo


    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  18. Building with shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Mooney, Carla


    There are shapes everywhere you look. You can put shapes together or build with them. What can you build with three circles? In this title, students will explore and understand that certain attributes define what a shape is called. This title will allow students to identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

  19. High performance light trapping structures for Si-based photoelectronics fabricated by hybrid picosecond laser irradiation and chemical corrosion (United States)

    Ji, Lingfei; Lv, Xiaozhan; Wu, Yan; Lin, Zhenyuan; Jiang, Yijian


    We propose the fabrication of two types high performance texturized antireflective structures on crystalline (100) silicon (c-Si) surface by hybrid picosecond laser scanning irradiation followed by chemical corrosion. The design and the fabrication with high controllable performance were studied. The hybrid method includes 1064 nm picosecond (ps) laser scanning to form micro-hole array and subsequently short-time alkaline corrosion. After ps laser processing, there is little reconsolidation and heat affect zone on the silicon surface, which is beneficial to achieve the precise chemical corrosion effect. Depending on the laser scanning intervals, scanning times and chemical corrosion time, a variety of surface texture morphologies, even a special micro-nano hierarchical structure in which finer nano-structures formed in the micro units of the texture, were achieved. Observing with SEM, the average diameter of the micro-holes in the micro-nano hierarchica is 25~30 μm, while the average size of the nano-level ladder-like structures on the micro-hole wall is from dozens to hundreds of nanometers. Comparing to the traditional laser texturing techniques for c-Si solar cell, the whole laser processing was carried out in an open air ambient without using etch mask and SF6/O2 plasma. The results show the reflectance value of the fabricated c-Si surfaces can reach as low as 6% (400 nm~1000 nm). This is a potential method for economical antireflective structures fabrication which is ideal for using in the high-efficiency silicon-based photoelectronic devices.

  20. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter


    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  1. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham


    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  2. Transforming shape in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Miquel; Lim, Sungwoo; Jowers, Iestyn


    This paper is concerned with how design shapes are generated and explored by means of sketching. It presents research into the way designers transform shapes from one state to another using sketch representations. An experimental investigation of the sketching processes of designers is presented...... phenomenon of ‘subshape' and suggests that a computational mechanism for detecting sub-shapes in design sketches might augment explorative sketching by providing important opportunities for manipulating and generating shape in design........ Connections between sketches are defined in terms of shape transformations and described according to shape rules. These rules provide a formal description of the shape exploration process and develop understanding of the mechanics of sketching in design. The paper concludes by discussing the important...

  3. Temporal Processing in Audition: Insights from Music. (United States)

    Rajendran, Vani G; Teki, Sundeep; Schnupp, Jan W H


    Music is a curious example of a temporally patterned acoustic stimulus, and a compelling pan-cultural phenomenon. This review strives to bring some insights from decades of music psychology and sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) literature into the mainstream auditory domain, arguing that musical rhythm perception is shaped in important ways by temporal processing mechanisms in the brain. The feature that unites these disparate disciplines is an appreciation of the central importance of timing, sequencing, and anticipation. Perception of musical rhythms relies on an ability to form temporal predictions, a general feature of temporal processing that is equally relevant to auditory scene analysis, pattern detection, and speech perception. By bringing together findings from the music and auditory literature, we hope to inspire researchers to look beyond the conventions of their respective fields and consider the cross-disciplinary implications of studying auditory temporal sequence processing. We begin by highlighting music as an interesting sound stimulus that may provide clues to how temporal patterning in sound drives perception. Next, we review the SMS literature and discuss possible neural substrates for the perception of, and synchronization to, musical beat. We then move away from music to explore the perceptual effects of rhythmic timing in pattern detection, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Finally, we review the neurophysiology of general timing processes that may underlie aspects of the perception of rhythmic patterns. We conclude with a brief summary and outlook for future research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.


    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  5. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin


    Full Text Available Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  6. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.


    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  7. Dynamic Temporal Decoupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mountakis, K.S.; Klos, T.; Witteveen, C.


    Temporal decoupling is a method to distribute a temporal constraint problem over a number of actors, such that each actor can solve its own part of the problem. It then ensures that the partial solutions provided can be always merged to obtain a complete solution. This paper discusses static and

  8. Perspectives in shape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie


    This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...

  9. Shaping of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.


    The phases of stellar evolution and the development of planetary nebulae are examined. The relation between planetary nebulae and red giants is studied. Spherical and nonspherical cases of shaping planetaries with stellar winds are described. CCD images of nebulae are analyzed, and it is determined that the shape of planetary nebulae depends on ionization levels. Consideration is given to calculating the distances of planetaries using radio images, and molecular hydrogen envelopes which support the wind-shaping model of planetary nebulae

  10. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina


    Interaction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. Temporal form is what enables poetry. In music, temporal form is the composition o...

  11. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.


    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  12. Shape from touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.


    The shape of objects cannot only be recognized by vision, but also by touch. Vision has the advantage that shapes can be seen at a distance, but touch has the advantage that during exploration many additional object properties become available, such as temperature (Jones, 2009), texture (Bensmaia,

  13. Comparison of treatment with an Alexandrite picosecond laser and Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos. (United States)

    Zhang, Mengli; Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Tong; Wu, Qiuju


    To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of an Alexandrite picosecond laser versus Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black eyeliner tattoos which have existed more than 10 years. A total of 40 patients were treated with an Alexandrite picosecond laser in our department from August 2015 to July 2017, with a fluence of 1.96-6.37J/cm 2 , spot size of 2.0-3.6 mm, and pulse width of 750 ps. Another 32 patients were treated with an Nd:YAG nanosecond laser, with a fluence of 2.80-7.00 J/cm 2 , spot size of 3 mm, and pulse width of 5-20 ns. All analysed patients completed at least one treatment and follow-up. The median number of treatment for all the patients was 1 (range, 1-4). After a single session, no difference was found between the two lasers for the eyeliner removal (p > 0.05). For the people who achieved an excellent response of tattoo clearance, there was still no difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). Transient side effects were observed in two groups, but neither group had significant adverse reactions. To treat blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos over 10 years, Alexandrite picosecond laser does not provide better clearance than the Nd:YAG nanosecond laser.

  14. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas


    , these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient...... translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages....

  15. Design and implementation of an optimal laser pulse front tilting scheme for ultrafast electron diffraction in reflection geometry with high temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pennacchio


    Full Text Available Ultrafast electron diffraction is a powerful technique to investigate out-of-equilibrium atomic dynamics in solids with high temporal resolution. When diffraction is performed in reflection geometry, the main limitation is the mismatch in group velocity between the overlapping pump light and the electron probe pulses, which affects the overall temporal resolution of the experiment. A solution already available in the literature involved pulse front tilt of the pump beam at the sample, providing a sub-picosecond time resolution. However, in the reported optical scheme, the tilted pulse is characterized by a temporal chirp of about 1 ps at 1 mm away from the centre of the beam, which limits the investigation of surface dynamics in large crystals. In this paper, we propose an optimal tilting scheme designed for a radio-frequency-compressed ultrafast electron diffraction setup working in reflection geometry with 30 keV electron pulses containing up to 105 electrons/pulse. To characterize our scheme, we performed optical cross-correlation measurements, obtaining an average temporal width of the tilted pulse lower than 250 fs. The calibration of the electron-laser temporal overlap was obtained by monitoring the spatial profile of the electron beam when interacting with the plasma optically induced at the apex of a copper needle (plasma lensing effect. Finally, we report the first time-resolved results obtained on graphite, where the electron-phonon coupling dynamics is observed, showing an overall temporal resolution in the sub-500 fs regime. The successful implementation of this configuration opens the way to directly probe structural dynamics of low-dimensional systems in the sub-picosecond regime, with pulsed electrons.

  16. Method for single-shot measurement of picosecond laser pulse-lengths without electronic time dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.


    A two-source shear pattern recording is proposed as a method for single-shot measurement of the pulse shape from nearly monochromatic sources whose pulse lengths are shorter than their coherence times. The basis of this method relies on the assertion that if two identical electromagnetic pulses are recombined with a time delay greater than the sum of their pulse widths, the recordable spatial pattern has no fringes in it. At an arbitrary delay, translated into an actual spatial recording position, the recorded modulated intensity will sample the corresponding laser intensity at that delay time, but with a modulation due to the coherence function of the electromagnetic pulse. Two arrangements are proposed for recording the pattern. The principles, the design parameters, and the methodologies of these arrangements are presented. Resolutions of the configurations and their limitations are given as well

  17. Temporal Lobe Seizure (United States)

    ... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  18. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.


    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  19. Temporal bone meningiomas. (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Robertson, J H; Gardner, G; Heilman, C B


    Meningiomas involving the temporal bone may originate from arachnoid cell nests present within the temporal bone (intratemporal), but more frequently originate from arachnoid cell nests of the posterior or middle cranial fossa with secondary invasion of the TB (extratemporal). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients with meningiomas involving the temporal bone who underwent surgery. Tumors of the posterior fossa with only temporal bone hyperostosis, but without invasion, were excluded. Patients presented primarily with otologic symptoms and signs. The tumors originated in the temporal bone (5/13), jugular foramen (4/13), petroclival region (2/13), the asterion (1/13) or the internal auditory meatus (1/13). All of the intratemporal meningiomas had the radiological appearance of en-plaque menigiomas. The tumor extended into the middle ear (11/13), eustachian tube (5/13), and/or the labyrinth (3/13). A gross total resection was achieved in 11 patients and a subtotal resection in 2 patients. The lower cranial nerves were infiltrated by tumor in 4 patients, and were sacrificed. At a mean follow-up of approximately 6 years, 12 patients are currently alive and doing well and 1 died from tumor progression. Six patients showed tumor recurrence and were reoperated on (5/6) or followed conservatively (1/6). Surgical treatment of temporal bone meningiomas is associated with high recurrence rate due to indiscreet tumor margins. Combined surgical approaches (temporal craniotomy and mastoidectomy) by neurosurgical and otological teams are recommended for meningiomas originating in the temporal bone.

  20. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  1. Picosecond dynamics of reactions in the liquid phase: studies of iodine photodissociation and development of new laser techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.A.


    Iodine photodissociation and recombination was studied as a model for processes common to chemical reaction in the liquid phase. Picosecond transient absorption measurements from 1000 to 295 nm were used to monitor the dynamics in a variety of solvents. Most of the atoms which undergo geminate recombination were found to do so in less than or equal to 15 ps, in agreement with the results of existing molecular dynamics simulations. Vibrational relaxation times vary from approx.15 ps near the middle of the ground state well to approx.150 ps for complete relaxation to v = 0. The prediction of strong resonant vibrational energy transfer to chlorinated methane solvents was not supported, but some evidence for this mechanism was found for alkane solvents. Current theory is unable to explain the large variation (65 to 2700 ps) of the excited A'-state lifetime in various solvents. The 10-Hz amplified, synchronously-pumped dye laser which was used in these studies is described and characterized. SERS (Stimulated Electronic Raman Scattering) and difference frequency mixing were used in the generation of the infrared and far-infrared, respectively. 54 refs., 38 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Intense picosecond pulsed electric fields induce apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway in HeLa cells (United States)



    The application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is emerging as a new technique for tumor therapy. Picosecond pulsed electric fields (psPEF) can be transferred to target deep tissue non-invasively and precisely, but the research of the biological effects of psPEF on cells is limited. Electric theory predicts that intense psPEF will target mitochondria and lead to changes in transmembrane potential, therefore, it is hypothesized that it can induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. HeLa cells were exposed to psPEF in this study to investigate this hypothesis. MTT assay demonstrated that intense psPEF significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Typical characteristics of apoptosis in HeLa cells were observed, using transmission electron microscopy. Loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was explored using laser scanning confocal microscopy with Rhodamine-123 (Rh123) staining. Furthermore, the mitochondrial apoptotic events were also confirmed by western blot analysis for the release of cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria into the cytosol. In addition, activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, upregulation of Bax, p53 and downregulation of Bcl-2 were observed in HeLa cells also indicating apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that intense psPEF induce cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway. PMID:22307872

  3. Photosensitivity of the Er/Yb-Codoped Schott IOG1 Phosphate Glass Using 248 nm, Femtosecond, and Picosecond Laser Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissadakis, S.; Michelakaki, I.


    The effect of 248 nm laser radiation, with pulse duration of 5 picoseconds, 500 femtosecond, and 120 femtosecond, on the optical properties and the Knoop hardness of a commercial Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass is presented here. Refractive index changes of the order of few parts of 10-4 are correlated with optical absorption centers induced in the glass volume, using Kramers-Kroning relationship. Accordingly, substantially lower refractive index changes are measured in volume Bragg gratings inscribed in the glass, indicating that, in addition to the optical density changes, volume dilation changes of negative sign may also be associated with the 248 nm ultrafast irradiation. The Knoop hardness experimental results reveal that the glass matrix undergoes an observable initial hardening and then a reversing softening and volume dilation process for modest accumulated energy doses, where the Knoop hardness follows a nonmonotonic trend. Comparative results on the Knoop hardness trend are also presented for the case of 193 nm excimer laser radiation. The above findings denote that the positive or negative evolution of refractive index changes induced by the 248 0nm ultrafast radiation in the glass is dominated by the counteraction of the color center formation and the volume modification effects.

  4. Micro-joule pico-second range Yb3+-doped fibre laser for medical applications in acupuncture (United States)

    Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Rivera-Manrique, S. I.; Jacques, S. L.


    The work described here is based on the optical design, simulation and on-going implementation of a pulsed (Q-switch) Yb3+-doped, 1-um diffraction-limited fibre laser with pico-second, 10 micro-Joule-range energy pulses for producing the right energy pulses which could be of benefit for patients who suffer chronic headache, photophobia, and even nausea which could is sometimes triggered by a series of factors. The specific therapeutic effect known as acupunctural analgesia is the main objective of this medium-term project. It is a simple design on which commercially available software was employed for laser cavity design. Monte Carlo technique for skin light-transport, thermal diffusion and the possible thermal de-naturalization optical study and prediction will also be included in the presentation. Full optical characterization will be included and a complete set of recent results on the laser-skin interaction and the so called moxi-bustion from the laser design will be extensively described.

  5. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on tool steel by multiple picosecond laser pulses of different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorčič, Peter, E-mail: [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sedlaček, Marko; Podgornik, Bojan [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Reif, Jürgen [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet – BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)


    Highlights: • Low number of differently polarized ps laser pulses is superimposed on tool steel. • Last pulses determine the ripples orientation for single spot and coherent traces. • Previously formed structures are overridden by later incident pulses. • Ripples contrast depends on total exposure, independent on pulses’ polarization. • Weak role of pre-formed structures makes interference scenarios questionable. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are produced on cold work tool steel by irradiation with a low number of picosecond laser pulses. As expected, the ripples, with a period of about 90% of the laser wavelength, are oriented perpendicular to the laser polarization. Subsequent irradiation with the polarization rotated by 45° or 90° results in a corresponding rotation of the ripples. This is visible already with the first pulse and becomes almost complete – erasing the previous orientation – after as few as three pulses. The phenomenon is not only observed for single-spot irradiation but also for writing long coherent traces. The experimental results strongly defy the role of surface plasmon-polaritons as the predominant key to LIPSS formation.

  6. Nonlinear Optical Properties Tuning in Meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin Derivatives Substituted with Donor/Acceptor Groups in Picosecond and Nanosecond Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghong Ao


    Full Text Available meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP and its two substituted derivatives (meso-tetrakis(4-cyanophenylporphyrin [TPP(CN4] and meso-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenylporphyrin [TPP(OMe4] were synthesized. Their nonlinear absorption and refraction properties were studied using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond (ps and nanosecond (ns regimes. The open aperture Z-scan results reveal that TPP and TPP(CN4 display an identical reverse saturable absorption (RSA character in the ps and ns regimes. While TPP(OMe4 exhibits a transition from saturable absorption (SA to RSA in the ps regime and a typical RSA character in the ns regime. The closed aperture Z-scan results show that TPP(CN4 and TPP(OMe4 have regular enhancement of the magnitude of nonlinear refraction as compared to their parent TPP in both the ps and ns regimes. In addition, the second-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities (γ of these three porphyrins are calculated, and the γ values of TPP(CN4 and TPP(OMe4 are remarkable larger than that of TPP. The introduction of the electron-withdrawing group CN and the electron-donating group OMe into TPP has enhanced its nonlinear refraction and γ value, and tuned its nonlinear absorption (TPP(OMe4, which could be useful for porphyrin-related applications based on the desired NLO properties.

  7. High-power all fiber-integrated linearly polarized picosecond ytterbium-doped master-oscillator power amplifier (United States)

    Hong, Chang; Liu, Jiang; Sun, Ruoyu; Shi, Yuhang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Pu


    We demonstrated an all-fiber-integrated linearly-polarized picosecond ytterbium-doped master-oscillator power-amplifier system, which yielded 225-W of average output power and the corresponding slope efficiency is 70.5%. The seed source was a compact passively mode-locked polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-fiber oscillator with a pulse duration of 80-ps at 58.2-MHz repetition rate. In combination with two pre-amplifiers and a large-mode-area polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-fiber master amplifier, output pulse energy up to 3.8-μJ with 48.3-kW pulse peak power was obtained without the need of complex free-space coupling and output setups. The polarization extinction ratio were measured to be 14.5 dB and the beam quality M2 factors was less than 1.49 in the both orthogonal directions at maximum output power.

  8. Wavelength tunable parametric mid-IR source pumped by a high power picosecond thin-disk laser (United States)

    Vyvlečka, Michal; Novák, Ondřej; Smrž, Martin; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš


    High average power wavelength tunable picosecond mid-IR source based on parametric down-conversion is being developed. The conversion system is pumped by a Yb:YAG thin-disk laser delivering 100 W of average power at 100 kHz repetition rate, 1030 nm wavelength, and 3 ps pulse width. First, part of the beam pumps an optical parametric generator (OPG) consisting of a PPLN crystal. The generated wavelength is determined by PPLN's poling period and temperature. Signal beam covered wavelength range between 1.46 mμ and 1.95 mμ. The corresponding idler wavelengths are 3.5 mμ and 2.18 mμ, respectively. Signal beam of about 20 mW was generated at 2 W pumping and double pass arrangement of the OPG stage. The signal pulse energy is further boosted in an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) consisting of two KTP crystals. The signal beam was amplified to 2 W at pumping of 38 W. The idler beam is taken out of the OPA stage as well. Wavelength tuning by KTP crystals' phase-matching angle change was achieved in ranges and 1.7 - 1.95 μm and 2.18 - 2.62 mμ for signal and idler beam, respectively.

  9. Effects of picosecond laser repetition rate on ablation of Cr12MoV cold work mold steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Baoye; Deng, Leimin; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Fei; Duan, Jun, E-mail:; Zeng, Xiaoyan


    In this paper, the effects of pulse repetition rate on ablation efficiency and quality of Cr12MoV cold work mold steel have been studied using a picosecond (ps) pulse Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser system at λ= 1064 nm. The experimental results of area ablation on target surface reveal that laser repetition rate plays a significant role in controlling ablation efficiency and quality. Increasing the laser repetition rate, while keeping a constant mean power improves the ablation efficiency and quality. For each laser mean power, there is an optimal repetition rate to achieve a higher laser ablation efficiency with low surface roughness. A high ablation efficiency of 42.29, 44.11 and 47.52 μm{sup 3}/mJ, with surface roughness of 0.476, 0.463 and 0.706 μm could be achieved at laser repetition rate of 10 MHz, for laser mean power of 15, 17 and 19 W, respectively. Scanning electron microcopy images revels that the surface morphology evolves from rough with numerous craters, to flat without pores when we increased the laser repetition rate. The effects of laser repetition rate on the heat accumulation, plasma shield and ablation threshold were analyzed by numerical simulation, spectral analysis and multi-laser shot, respectively. The synergetic effects of laser repetition rate on laser ablation rate and machining quality were analyzed and discussed systemically in this paper.

  10. Fabrication of superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic self-cleaning metal surfaces using picosecond laser pulses and chemical fluorination (United States)

    Zheng, Buxiang; Jiang, Gedong; Wang, Wenjun; Mei, Xuesong


    Bioinspired superhydrophilic/phobic self-cleaning surfaces have recently drawn a lot of interest in both fundamental and applied research. A hybrid method to produce the self-cleaning property of micro/nanostructured surface using ultra-fast laser pulses followed by chemical fluorination is proposed. The typical micro/nanocomposite structures that form from microporous arrays and microgroove groups have been processed by picosecond laser on titanium alloy surface. The surface hydrophilic/phobic and self-cleaning properties of micro/nanostructures before and after fluorination with fluoroalkyl-silane were investigated using surface contact angle measurements. The results indicate that surface properties change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic after fluorination, and the micro/nanostructured surface with increased roughness contributes to the improvement of surface hydrophobicity. The micro/nanomodification can make the original hydrophilic titanium alloy surface more hydrophilic or superhydrophilic. It also can make an originally hydrophobic fluorinated titanium alloy surface more hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. The produced micro/nanostructured titanium alloy surfaces show excellent self-cleaning properties regardless of the fluorination treatment, although the fluorinated surfaces have slightly better self-cleaning properties. It is found that surface treatment using ultra-fast laser pulses and subsequent chemical fluorination is an effective way to manipulate surface wettability and obtain self-cleaning properties.

  11. Pseudo-topotactic conversion of carbon nanotubes to T-carbon nanowires under picosecond laser irradiation in methanol. (United States)

    Zhang, Jinying; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Xi; Pan, Aifei; Han, Chenxiao; Li, Xin; Dan Zhao; Ma, Chuansheng; Wang, Wenjun; Su, Haibin; Niu, Chunming


    Pseudo-topotactic conversion of carbon nanotubes into one-dimensional carbon nanowires is a challenging but feasible path to obtain desired diameters and morphologies. Here, a previously predicted but experimentally unobserved carbon allotrope, T-carbon, has been produced from pseudo-topotactic conversion of a multi-walled carbon nanotube suspension in methanol by picosecond pulsed-laser irradiation. The as-grown T-carbon nanowires have the same diameter distribution as pristine carbon nanotubes, and have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fast Fourier transform, electron energy loss, ultraviolet-visible, and photoluminescence spectroscopies to possess a diamond-like lattice, where each carbon is replaced by a carbon tetrahedron, and a lattice constant of 7.80 Å. The change in entropy from carbon nanotubes to T-carbon reveals the phase transformation to be first order in nature. The computed electronic band structures and projected density of states are in good agreement with the optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the T-carbon nanowires.T-carbon is a previously predicted but so far unobserved allotrope of carbon, with a crystal structure similar to diamond, but with each atomic lattice position replaced by a carbon tetrahedron. Here, the authors produce T-carbon nanowires via laser-irradiating a suspension of carbon nanotubes in methanol.

  12. Picosecond dynamics of reactions in the liquid phase: studies of iodine photodissociation and development of new laser techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.A.


    Iodine photodissociation and recombination was studied as a model for processes common to chemical reaction in the liquid phase. Picosecond transient absorption measurements from 1000 to 295 nm were used to monitor the dynamics in a variety of solvents. Most of the atoms which undergo geminate recombination were found to do so in less than or equal to 15 ps, in agreement with the results of existing molecular dynamics simulations. Vibrational relaxation times vary from approx.15 ps near the middle of the ground state well to approx.150 ps for complete relaxation to v = 0. The prediction of strong resonant vibrational energy transfer to chlorinated methane solvents was not supported, but some evidence for this mechanism was found for alkane solvents. Current theory is unable to explain the large variation (65 to 2700 ps) of the excited A'-state lifetime in various solvents. The 10-Hz amplified, synchronously-pumped dye laser which was used in these studies is described and characterized. SERS (Stimulated Electronic Raman Scattering) and difference frequency mixing were used in the generation of the infrared and far-infrared, respectively. 54 refs., 38 figs., 3 tabs. (WRF)

  13. Shaping light with MOEMS (United States)

    Noell, W.; Weber, S.; Masson, J.; Extermann, J.; Bonacina, L.; Bich, A.; Bitterli, R.; Herzig, H. P.; Kiselev, D.; Scharf, T.; Voelkel, R.; Weible, K. J.; Wolf, J.-P.; de Rooij, N. F.


    Shaping light with microtechnology components has been possible for many years. The Texas Instruments digital micromirror device (DMD) and all types of adaptive optics systems are very sophisticated tools, well established and widely used. Here we present, however, two very dedicated systems, where one is an extremely simple MEMS-based tunable diffuser, while the second device is complex micromirror array with new capabilities for femtosecond laser pulse shaping. Showing the two systems right next to each other demonstrates the vast options and versatility of MOEMS for shaping light in the space and time domain.

  14. Influence of Helical Cell Shape on Motility of Helicobacter Pylori (United States)

    Hardcastle, Joseph; Martinez, Laura; Salama, Nina; Bansil, Rama; Boston University Collaboration; University of Washington Collaboration


    Bacteria's body shape plays an important role in motility by effecting chemotaxis, swimming mechanisms, and swimming speed. A prime example of this is the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori;whose helical shape has long been believed to provide an advantage in penetrating the viscous mucus layer protecting the stomach lining, its niche environment. To explore this we have performed bacteria tracking experiments of both wild-type bacteria along with mutants, which have a straight rod shape. A wide distribution of speeds was found. This distribution reflects both a result of temporal variation in speed and different shape morphologies in the bacterial population. Our results show that body shape plays less role in a simple fluid. However, in a more viscous solution the helical shape results in increased swimming speeds. In addition, we use experimentally obtained cell shape measurements to model the hydrodynamic influence of cell shape on swimming speed using resistive force theory. The results agree with the experiment, especially when we fold in the temporal distribution. Interestingly, our results suggest distinct wild-type subpopulations with varying number of half helices can lead to different swimming speeds. NSF PHY

  15. Experimental installation for excitation of semiconductors and dielectrics by picosecond pulsed electron beam and electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A.S.; Berezhnoj, K.V.; Shapkin, P.V.; Reutova, A.G.; Shunajlov, S.A.; Yalandin, M.I.


    The experimental facility for shaping high-voltage pulses with amplitudes of 30-250 kV and durations of 100-500 ps and electron beams with a current density of up to 1000 A/cm -2 is described. The facility was built using the principle of energy compression of a pulse from a nanosecond high-voltage generator accompanied by the subsequent pulse sharpening and cutting. The setup is equipped with two test coaxial chambers for radiation excitation in semiconductor crystals by an electron beam or an electric field in air at atmospheric pressure and T = 300 K. Generation of laser radiation in the visible range under field and electron pumping was attained in ZnSSe, ZnSe, ZnCdS, and CdS (462, 480, 515, and 525 nm, respectively). Under the exposure to an electric field (up to 10 6 V x cm -1 ), the laser generation region is as large as 300-500 μm. The radiation divergence was within 5 Deg C. The maximum integral radiation power (6 kW at λ = 480 nm) was obtained under field pumping of a zinc selenide sample with a single dielectric mirror [ru

  16. Coherent stacking of picosecond laser pulses in a high-Q optical cavity for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Telegin, Yu.N.


    We have performed the harmonic analysis of the steady-state coherent pulse-stacking process in a high-Q Fabry-Perot cavity. The expression for the stacked pulse shape is obtained as a function of both the laser cavity and pulse-stacking cavity parameters. We have also estimated the pulse power gains attainable in the laser-optical system of NESTOR storage ring, which is under development at Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology. It is shown that high power gains (∼10 4 ) can be, in principle, achieved in a cavity, formed with low-absorption, high reflectivity (R ∼ 0.9999) mirrors, if the laser cavity length will differ exactly by half wavelength from the pulse-stacking cavity length. It implies development of the sophisticated frequency stabilization loop for maintaining the cavity length constant within a sub-nanometer range. At the same time, power gains of ∼10 3 can be obtained with medium reflectivity mirrors (R ∼ 0.999) at considerably lower cost

  17. All optical detection of picosecond spin-wave dynamics in 2D annular antidot lattice (United States)

    Porwal, Nikita; Mondal, Sucheta; Choudhury, Samiran; De, Anulekha; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan; Datta, Prasanta Kumar


    Novel magnetic structures with precisely controlled dimensions and shapes at the nanoscale have potential applications in spin logic, spintronics and other spin-based communication devices. We report the fabrication of 2D bi-structure magnonic crystal in the form of embedded nanodots in a periodic Ni80Fe20 antidot lattice structure (annular antidot) by focused ion-beam lithography. The spin-wave spectra of the annular antidot sample, studied for the first time by a time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect microscopy show a remarkable variation with bias field, which is important for the above device applications. The optically induced spin-wave spectra show multiple modes in the frequency range 14.7 GHz-3.5 GHz due to collective interactions between the dots and antidots as well as the annular elements within the whole array. Numerical simulations qualitatively reproduce the experimental results, and simulated mode profiles reveal the spatial distribution of the spin-wave modes and internal magnetic fields responsible for these observations. It is observed that the internal field strength increases by about 200 Oe inside each dot embedded within the hole of annular antidot lattice as compared to pure antidot lattice and pure dot lattice. The stray field for the annular antidot lattice is found to be significant (0.8 kOe) as opposed to the negligible values of the same for the pure dot lattice and pure antidot lattice. Our findings open up new possibilities for development of novel artificial crystals.

  18. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites (United States)

    Cao, Feina

    Shape memory polymers are smart materials which can remember their original shapes. However, the low recovery stress and low mechanical strength limit the commercial applications of shape memory polymers. In this study, nanoclays were introduced to shape memory polyurethanes (SMPU) to augment these properties by enhance the network of SMPU. Several factors which influence the shape recovery stress were evaluated, including the nature of polymer chain by using different monomers, type of clay particles, extent of filler dispersion, clay content and deformation conditions. It was found that only reactive clay particles were well dispersed into polyurethane matrix by the tethering between --CH2CH 2OH functional groups in clay surfactants and polyurethane chains. Two different shape memory polyurethanes (Systems I & II) prepared by bulk polymerization were compared. The shape memory effect of System I was triggered by melting of the soft segment crystals, while that of System II was by glass transition of the soft segments. It was seen that the reactive clay particles dispersed well in both polyurethane matrices and augmented the recovery stress, e.g., 20% increase with 1 wt % nanoclay in System I and 40% increase with 5 wt % nanoclay in System II were observed. In System I, clay particles interfered with soft segment crystallization, and promoted phase mixing between the hard and soft segments, thus affecting the fixity and recovery ratio. Nevertheless, the soft segment crystallinity was still enough and in some cases increased due to stretching to exhibit excellent shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. The higher loading of clay particles accelerated the stress relaxation, resulting in reduction of recovery stress. In System II, no significant effect of clay particles in phase separation was observed, so there was no influence of clay on shape fixity and recovery ratio. The recovery stress increased with reactive nanoclay content. It was also found that the recovery

  19. Shaping the Global Environment (United States)


    SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL MICHAEL D. ELLERBE United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Michael D. Ellerbe United States Army Colonel Jef Troxel Project Advisor The views expressed in this...Distribution is unlimited. ii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Michael D. Ellerbe TITLE: SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April

  20. Shape memory alloy engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.


    This paper discusses a shape memory alloy engine, developed for the purpose of extracting the mechanical energy from a small difference in temperature. The engine is mainly composed of two pulleys (high temperature and low temperature) and single belt made of the nickel titanium shape memory alloy. The alloy memorizes a shape arcing in the direction opposite to the direction of the belt arc around the pulleys. When the temperature of the belt which is in contact with the high temperature pulley rises above the transformation temperature, a return to the memorized shape generates a force which rotates the pulleys. To make the heat transfer more effective, the engine was designed so that the lower part of the two pulleys are embedded in hot and cold water, respectively. To predict the performance of the shape memory alloy engine, the stress change of the shape memory alloy caused by temperature change has been also investigated with the bending stress test, and a torque loss of the engine system was measured. The predicted results were coincident with the output power experiment

  1. On Characterizing Particle Shape (United States)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon


    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  2. Deformation of Brillouin gain spectrum shape caused by strain varying linearly with respect to time (United States)

    Naruse, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Ayako; Tateda, Mitsuhiro


    The shape of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) that is produced in an optical fiber undergoing strain varying linearly with respect to time, which is a typical example of temporally non-uniform strain, is theoretically derived through an analysis similar to that by which the BGS under spatially non-uniform strain would be derived. The BGS shape that is theoretically derived agrees well with the shape experimentally observed. The characteristics of the BGS deformation and strain measurement error under the temporally linear strain are discussed based on their similarity to the BGS shape derived under spatially linear strain.

  3. Shape and spin determination of Barbarian asteroids (United States)

    Devogèle, M.; Tanga, P.; Bendjoya, P.; Rivet, J. P.; Surdej, J.; Hanuš, J.; Abe, L.; Antonini, P.; Artola, R. A.; Audejean, M.; Behrend, R.; Berski, F.; Bosch, J. G.; Bronikowska, M.; Carbognani, A.; Char, F.; Kim, M.-J.; Choi, Y.-J.; Colazo, C. A.; Coloma, J.; Coward, D.; Durkee, R.; Erece, O.; Forne, E.; Hickson, P.; Hirsch, R.; Horbowicz, J.; Kamiński, K.; Kankiewicz, P.; Kaplan, M.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Konstanciak, I.; Kruszewki, A.; Kudak, V.; Manzini, F.; Moon, H.-K.; Marciniak, A.; Murawiecka, M.; Nadolny, J.; Ogłoza, W.; Ortiz, J. L.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Pallares, H.; Peixinho, N.; Poncy, R.; Reyes, F.; de los Reyes, J. A.; Santana-Ros, T.; Sobkowiak, K.; Pastor, S.; Pilcher, F.; Quiñones, M. C.; Trela, P.; Vernet, D.


    Context. The so-called Barbarian asteroids share peculiar, but common polarimetric properties, probably related to both their shape and composition. They are named after (234) Barbara, the first on which such properties were identified. As has been suggested, large scale topographic features could play a role in the polarimetric response, if the shapes of Barbarians are particularly irregular and present a variety of scattering/incidence angles. This idea is supported by the shape of (234) Barbara, that appears to be deeply excavated by wide concave areas revealed by photometry and stellar occultations. Aims: With these motivations, we started an observation campaign to characterise the shape and rotation properties of Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) type L and Ld asteroids. As many of them show long rotation periods, we activated a worldwide network of observers to obtain a dense temporal coverage. Methods: We used light-curve inversion technique in order to determine the sidereal rotation periods of 15 asteroids and the convergence to a stable shape and pole coordinates for 8 of them. By using available data from occultations, we are able to scale some shapes to an absolute size. We also study the rotation periods of our sample looking for confirmation of the suspected abundance of asteroids with long rotation periods. Results: Our results show that the shape models of our sample do not seem to have peculiar properties with respect to asteroids with similar size, while an excess of slow rotators is most probably confirmed. The light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  4. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian


    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....

  5. Treatment of pigmentary disorders in patients with skin of color with a novel 755 nm picosecond, Q-switched ruby, and Q-switched Nd:YAG nanosecond lasers: A retrospective photographic review. (United States)

    Levin, Melissa Kanchanapoomi; Ng, Elise; Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Brauer, Jeremy A; Geronemus, Roy G


    Laser procedures in skin of color (SOC) patients are challenging due to the increased risk of dyspigmentation and scarring. A novel 755 nm alexandrite picosecond laser has demonstrated effectiveness for tattoo removal and treatment of acne scars. No studies to date have evaluated its applications in pigmentary disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the safety profile and efficacy of the picosecond alexandrite laser compared to the current standard treatment, Q-switched ruby and neodynium (Nd):YAG nanosecond lasers, for pigmentary disorders in SOC patients. A retrospective photographic and chart evaluation of seventy 755 nm alexandrite picosecond, ninety-two Q-switched frequency doubled 532 nm and 1,064 nm Nd:YAG nanosecond, and forty-seven Q-switched 694 nm ruby nanosecond laser treatments, in forty-two subjects of Fitzpatrick skin types III-VI was conducted in a single laser specialty center. The picosecond laser was a research prototype device. Treatment efficacy was assessed by two blinded physician evaluators, using a visual analog scale for percentage of pigmentary clearance in standard photographs. Subject assessment of efficacy, satisfaction, and adverse events was performed using a questionnaire survey. The most common pigmentary disorder treated was Nevus of Ota (38.1%), followed by solar lentigines (23.8%). Other pigmentary disorders included post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, congenital nevus, café au lait macule, dermal melanocytosis, Nevus of Ito, and Becker's nevus. Clinical efficacy of the Q-switched nanosecond lasers and picosecond laser treatments were comparable for lesions treated on the face with a mean visual analog score of 2.57 and 2.44, respectively, corresponding to approximately 50% pigmentary clearance. Subject questionnaires were completed in 58.8% of the picosecond subjects and 52.0% of the Q-switched subjects. Eighty four percent of subjects receiving Q-switched nanosecond laser treatments and 50% of the

  6. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter


    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  7. Temporal Experience and Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Peebles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The well-known phenomenological argument draws metaphysical conclusions about time, specifically about change through time and the resulting passage or flow of time, from our temporal experience. The argument begins with the phenomenological premise that there is a class of properties which underlies our experience of time and change through time, and its conclusion is that these properties are not merely experienced but exemplified. I argue that the phenomenological argument is best served by the adoption of a representational theory of perception. I then present a representational theory of temporal experience.

  8. The effects of aging on haptic 2D shape recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvliet, K.E.; Wagemans, J.; Krampe, R.T.


    We use the image-mediation model (Klatzky & Lederman, 1987) as a framework to investigate potential sources of adult age differences in the haptic recognition of two-dimensional (2D) shapes. This model states that the low-resolution, temporally sequential, haptic input is translated into a visual

  9. SHAPE selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R


    transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES...

  10. Do endothelial cells dream of eclectic shape? (United States)

    Bentley, Katie; Philippides, Andrew; Ravasz Regan, Erzsébet


    Endothelial cells (ECs) exhibit dramatic plasticity of form at the single- and collective-cell level during new vessel growth, adult vascular homeostasis, and pathology. Understanding how, when, and why individual ECs coordinate decisions to change shape, in relation to the myriad of dynamic environmental signals, is key to understanding normal and pathological blood vessel behavior. However, this is a complex spatial and temporal problem. In this review we show that the multidisciplinary field of Adaptive Systems offers a refreshing perspective, common biological language, and straightforward toolkit that cell biologists can use to untangle the complexity of dynamic, morphogenetic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shape memory polymer medical device (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA


    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  12. Efficient processing of CFRP with a picosecond laser with up to 1.4 kW average power (United States)

    Onuseit, V.; Freitag, C.; Wiedenmann, M.; Weber, R.; Negel, J.-P.; Löscher, A.; Abdou Ahmed, M.; Graf, T.


    Laser processing of carbon fiber reinforce plastic (CFRP) is a very promising method to solve a lot of the challenges for large-volume production of lightweight constructions in automotive and airplane industries. However, the laser process is actual limited by two main issues. First the quality might be reduced due to thermal damage and second the high process energy needed for sublimation of the carbon fibers requires laser sources with high average power for productive processing. To achieve thermal damage of the CFRP of less than 10μm intensities above 108 W/cm² are needed. To reach these high intensities in the processing area ultra-short pulse laser systems are favored. Unfortunately the average power of commercially available laser systems is up to now in the range of several tens to a few hundred Watt. To sublimate the carbon fibers a large volume specific enthalpy of 85 J/mm³ is necessary. This means for example that cutting of 2 mm thick material with a kerf width of 0.2 mm with industry-typical 100 mm/sec requires several kilowatts of average power. At the IFSW a thin-disk multipass amplifier yielding a maximum average output power of 1100 W (300 kHz, 8 ps, 3.7 mJ) allowed for the first time to process CFRP at this average power and pulse energy level with picosecond pulse duration. With this unique laser system cutting of CFRP with a thickness of 2 mm an effective average cutting speed of 150 mm/sec with a thermal damage below 10μm was demonstrated.

  13. Molecular dynamics investigation of desorption and ion separation following picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) ablation of an ionic aqueous protein solution (United States)

    Zou, J.; Wu, C.; Robertson, W. D.; Zhigilei, L. V.; Miller, R. J. D.


    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to characterize the ablation process induced by a picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) operating in the regime of desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) of a model peptide (lysozyme)/counter-ion system in aqueous solution. The simulations were performed for ablation under typical experimental conditions found within a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), that is in vacuum with an applied electric field (E = ± 107 V/m), for up to 2 ns post-ablation and compared to the standard PIRL-DIVE ablation condition (E = 0 V/m). Further, a simulation of ablation under an extreme field condition (E = 1010 V/m) was performed for comparison to extend the effective dynamic range of the effect of the field on charge separation. The results show that the plume dynamics were retained under a typical TOF-MS condition within the first 1 ns of ablation. Efficient desorption was observed with more than 90% of water molecules interacting with lysozyme stripped off within 1 ns post-ablation. The processes of ablation and desolvation of analytes were shown to be independent of the applied electric field and thus decoupled from the ion separation process. Unlike under the extreme field conditions, the electric field inside a typical TOF-MS was shown to modify the ions' motion over a longer time and in a soft manner with no enhancement to fragmentation observed as compared to the standard PIRL-DIVE. The study indicates that the PIRL-DIVE ablation mechanism could be used as a new, intrinsically versatile, and highly sensitive ion source for quantitative mass spectrometry.

  14. Jet Shapes at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kurt, Pelin


    The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector will observe high transverse momentum jets produced in the final state of proton-proton collisions at the center of mass energy of 14 TeV. These data will allow us to measure jet shapes, defined as the fractional transverse momentum distribution as a function of the distance from the jet axis. Since jet shapes are sensitive to parton showering processes they provide a good test of Monte Carlo event simulation programs. In this note we present a study of jet shapes reconstructed using calorimeter energies. We compare the predictions of the Monte Carlo generators PYTHIA and HERWIG++. Presented results are expected for $pp$ collisions at 14 TeV assuming an integrated luminosity of 10 pb$^{-1}$.

  15. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  16. Flexible shaping: how learning in small steps helps. (United States)

    Krueger, Kai A; Dayan, Peter


    Humans and animals can perform much more complex tasks than they can acquire using pure trial and error learning. This gap is filled by teaching. One important method of instruction is shaping, in which a teacher decomposes a complete task into sub-components, thereby providing an easier path to learning. Despite its importance, shaping has not been substantially studied in the context of computational modeling of cognitive learning. Here we study the shaping of a hierarchical working memory task using an abstract neural network model as the target learner. Shaping significantly boosts the speed of acquisition of the task compared with conventional training, to a degree that increases with the temporal complexity of the task. Further, it leads to internal representations that are more robust to task manipulations such as reversals. We use the model to investigate some of the elements of successful shaping.

  17. Prospective study of removing solar lentigines in Asians using a novel dual-wavelength and dual-pulse width picosecond laser. (United States)

    Negishi, Kei; Akita, Hirotaka; Matsunaga, Yukiko


    Quality-switched (QS) lasers are known to be an effective treatment for removing solar lentigines, however, high incidence of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a concern in darker skin types. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a dual-wavelength and dual-pulse width picosecond Nd:YAG laser for removing solar lentigines in Asians. This was a prospective, IRB-approved study. Twenty cases with solar lentigines on the face were enrolled for treatment and evaluated at 1- and 3-month after the final treatment. Results were assessed by blinded evaluators using a 5-grade percentage improvement scale and Melanin index (MI) measured by a reflectance spectrophotometer. A patient self-assessment questionnaire was also administered using a 5-grade improvement scale. Additional treatment was performed if the improvement was less than 75% or the lentigo partially remained after 4 weeks. Histological evaluation was performed to compare the differences between the current picosecond laser and a QS Nd:YAG laser 532-nm using light and electron microscopy. Forty-three lesions in 20 females, skin type III or IV, age 53.7 ± 9.75 were treated and evaluated. The laser setting was: 532-nm, 750 picoseconds, average fluence of 0.35 ± 0.06 J/cm [2] using a spot size of 3 or 4 mm. Forty lesions (93.02%) achieved over 75% clearance with a single treatment and the other three lesions (6.98%) needed two treatments. PIH occurred only in 4.65% of lesions. The average score of the blinded evaluators' assessment was 4.77 and 4.58 on a 5-grade percentage improvement scale. The patients' self-assessment rating was 4.76 and 4.67 on a 5-grade scale at 1- and 3-month follow-up, respectively. The improvement rate of relative MI (MI in the lesion minus that of the normal area) was 77.60 ± 36.27% and 76.93 ± 20.95% at 1-and 3-month follow-up. Histology showed vacuolar formation by both lasers in the epidermis that were different sizes

  18. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M


    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  19. Temporal compressive sensing systems (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.


    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  20. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny


    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  1. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan


    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  2. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  3. Dynamic epistemic temporal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renne, B.; Sack, Joshua; Yap, Audrey; He, X.; Horty, J.; Pacuit, E.


    We introduce a new type of arrow in the update frames (or "action models") of Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a way that enables us to reason about epistemic temporal dynamics in multi-agent systems that need not be synchronous. Since van Benthem and Pacuit (later joined by Hoshi and Gerbrandy) showed

  4. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology


    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  5. Information and Temporality (United States)

    Flender, Christian


    Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality).

  6. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.


    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  7. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.


    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  8. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer


    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  9. Social Shaping of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Mack, Alexandra

    - in particular in a large corporation? This workshop explores how innovation is socially shaped in organizations. Based on our experiences with practices around innovation and collaboration, we start from three proposition about the social shaping of innovation: • Ideas don't thrive as text (i.e. we need...... to consider other media) • Ideas need socialization (ideas are linked to people, we need to be careful about how we support the social innovation context) • Ideas are local (ideas spring out of a local contingency, we need to take care in how we like them to travel)....

  10. Conscious and nonconscious memory effects are temporally dissociable. (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D; Schacter, Daniel L


    Intentional (explicit) retrieval can reactivate sensory cortex, which is widely assumed to reflect conscious processing. In the present study, we used an explicit visual memory event-related potential paradigm to investigate whether such retrieval related sensory activity could be separated into conscious and nonconscious components. During study, abstract shapes were presented in the left or right visual field. During test, old and new shapes were presented centrally and participants classified each shape as "old-left", "old-right", or "new". Conscious activity was isolated by comparing accurate memory for shape and location (old-hits) with forgotten shapes (old-misses), and nonconscious activity was isolated by comparing old-left-misses with old-right-misses and vice versa. Conscious visual sensory activity had a late temporal onset (after 800 ms) while nonconscious visual sensory activity had an early temporal onset (before 800 ms). These results suggest explicit memory related sensory activity reflects both conscious and nonconscious processes that are temporally dissociable.

  11. Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. (United States)

    Henn, T; Kiessling, T; Ossau, W; Molenkamp, L W; Biermann, K; Santos, P V


    We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast "white light" supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  12. Comparison of manually shaped and computer-shaped titanium mesh for repairing large frontotemporoparietal skull defects after traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Luo, JianMing; Liu, Bin; Xie, ZeYu; Ding, Shan; Zhuang, ZeRui; Lin, Lan; Guo, YanChun; Chen, Hui; Yu, Xiaojun


    The object of this study was to compare the effects and complications of manual and computer-aided shaping of titanium meshes for repairing large frontotemporoparietal skull defects following traumatic brain injury. From March 2005 to June 2011, 161 patients with frontotemporoparietal skull defects were observed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the repair materials used for cranioplasty: 83 cases used computer-aided shaping for the titanium mesh, whereas the remaining 78 cases used a manually shaped titanium mesh. The advantages and disadvantages of the 2 methods were compared. No case of titanium mesh loosening occurred in either group. Subcutaneous fluid collection, titanium mesh tilt, and temporal muscle pain were the most common complications. In the manually shaped group, there were 14 cases of effusion, 10 cases of titanium mesh tilt, and 15 cases of temporal muscle pain. In the computer-aided group, there were 6 cases of effusion, 3 cases of titanium mesh tilt, and 6 cases of temporal muscle pain. The differences were significant between the 2 groups (p computer-aided group, the operative time decreased (p Computer-aided shaping of titanium mesh for repairing large frontotemporoparietal skull defects decreases postoperative complications and the operative duration, reduces the number of screws used, increases the satisfaction of patients, and restores the appearance of the patient's head, making it an ideal choice for cranioplasty.

  13. Trends Shaping Education 2010 (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010


    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  14. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig


    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  15. Shape Up Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Jensen, Bjarne Bruun

    "Shape Up: a School Community Approach to Influencing the Determinants of Childhood Overweight and Obesity, Lessons Learnt" is a report that aims to provide a synthesis of the project overall evaluation documentation, with a view to systematically review and discuss lessons learnt, and to suggest...

  16. Perceiving animacy from shape. (United States)

    Schmidt, Filipp; Hegele, Mathias; Fleming, Roland W


    Superordinate visual classification-for example, identifying an image as "animal," "plant," or "mineral"-is computationally challenging because radically different items (e.g., "octopus," "dog") must be grouped into a common class ("animal"). It is plausible that learning superordinate categories teaches us not only the membership of particular (familiar) items, but also general features that are shared across class members, aiding us in classifying novel (unfamiliar) items. Here, we investigated visual shape features associated with animate and inanimate classes. One group of participants viewed images of 75 unfamiliar and atypical items and provided separate ratings of how much each image looked like an animal, plant, and mineral. Results show systematic tradeoffs between the ratings, indicating a class-like organization of items. A second group rated each image in terms of 22 midlevel shape features (e.g., "symmetrical," "curved"). The results confirm that superordinate classes are associated with particular shape features (e.g., "animals" generally have high "symmetry" ratings). Moreover, linear discriminant analysis based on the 22-D feature vectors predicts the perceived classes approximately as well as the ground truth classification. This suggests that a generic set of midlevel visual shape features forms the basis for superordinate classification of novel objects along the animacy continuum.

  17. The moon changes shape

    CERN Document Server

    Beaton, Kathryn


    "Young children are naturally curious about the world around them. The Moon Changes Shape offers answers to their most compelling questions about the lunar phases. Age-appropriate explanations and appealing photos encourage readers to continue their quest for knowledge. Additional text features and search tools, including a glossary and an index, help students locate information and learn new words."-- Provided by publisher.

  18. Bend me, shape me

    CERN Document Server


    A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).

  19. How life shaped Earth. (United States)

    Gross, Michael


    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  20. Tree invasion of a montane meadow complex: temporal trends, spatial patterns, and biotic interactions (United States)

    Charles B. Halpern; Joseph A. Antos; Janine M. Rice; Ryan D. Haugo; Nicole L. Lang


    We combined spatial point pattern analysis, population age structures, and a time-series of stem maps to quantify spatial and temporal patterns of conifer invasion over a 200-yr period in three plots totaling 4 ha. In combination, spatial and temporal patterns of establishment suggest an invasion process shaped by biotic interactions, with facilitation promoting...

  1. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John


    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  2. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology. (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G


    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  3. Qualitative and temporal aggregation


    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont


    Behavioral assumptions, rational or otherwise, are not solid enough to be eligible as first principles of theoretical economics. Hence all endeavors to lay the formal foundation on a new site and at a deeper level actually need no further vindication. The present paper suggests three non-behavioral axioms as groundwork and applies them to the analysis of qualitative and temporal aggregation in the pure consumption economy. It turns out that the structural axiom set is self-similar with regard...

  4. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan


    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  5. Nanoreinforced shape memory polyurethane (United States)

    Richardson, Tara Beth

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are functional materials, which find applications in a broad range of temperature sensing elements and biological micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These polymers are capable of fixing a transient shape and recovering to their original shape after a series of thermo-mechanical treatments. Generally, these materials are thermoplastic segmented polyurethanes composed of soft segments, usually formed by a polyether macroglycol, and hard segments formed from the reaction of a diisocyanate with a low molecular mass diol. The hard segment content is a key parameter to control the final properties of the polymer, such as rubbery plateau modulus, melting point, hardness, and tensile strength. The long flexible soft segment largely controls the low temperature properties, solvent resistance, and weather resistance properties. The morphology and properties of polyurethanes (PU) are greatly influenced by the ratio of hard and soft block components and the average block lengths. However, in some applications, SMPs may not generate enough recovery force to be useful. The reinforcement of SMPs using nanofillers represents a novel approach of enhancing the performance of these materials. The incorporation of these fillers into SMPs can produce performance enhancements (particularly elastic modulus) at small nanoparticle loadings (˜1-2 wt %). An optimal performance of nanofiller-polymer nanocomposites requires uniform dispersion of filler in polymers and good interfacial adhesion. The addition of nanofillers like cellulose nanofibers (CNF), conductive cellulose nanofibers (C-CNF), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allows for the production of stiffer materials with deformation capacity comparable to that of the unfilled polymer. Additionally, the use of conductive nanoreinforcements such as C-CNF and CNTs leads to new pathways for actuation of the shape memory effect. During this work, thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes were synthesized with

  6. A method for ultrashort electron pulse-shape measurement using coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Yurkov, M.V.


    In this paper we discuss a method for nondestructive measurements of the longitudinal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches for X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The method is based on the detection of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) spectrum produced by a bunch passing a dipole magnet system. This work also contains a systematic treatment of synchrotron radiation theory which lies at the basis of CSR. Standard theory of synchrotron radiation uses several approximations whose applicability limits are often forgotten: here we present a systematic discussion about these assumptions. Properties of coherent synchrotron radiation from an electron moving along an arc of a circle are then derived and discussed. We describe also an effective and practical diagnostic technique based on the utilization of an electromagnetic undulator to record the energy of the coherent radiation pulse into the central cone. This measurement must be repeated many times with different undulator resonant frequencies in order to reconstruct the modulus of the bunch form-factor. The retrieval of the bunch profile function from these data is performed by means of deconvolution techniques: for the present work we take advantage of a constrained deconvolution method. We illustrate with numerical examples the potential of the proposed method for electron beam diagnostics at the TESLA test facility (TTF) accelerator. Here we choose, for emphasis, experiments aimed at the measure of the strongly non-Gaussian electron bunch profile in the TTF femtosecond-mode operation. We demonstrate that a tandem combination of a picosecond streak camera and a CSR spectrometer can be used to extract shape information from electron bunches with a narrow leading peak and a long tail. (orig.)

  7. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Diagnostics of Dense Sprays Using Gated, Femtosecond, Digital Holography, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a proposal to develop a unique, gated, picosecond, digital holography system for characterizing dense particle fields in high pressure combustion...

  8. Biomedical Shape Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Xue-lin


    Full Text Available Shape memory polymers(SMPs are a class of functional "smart" materials that have shown bright prospects in the area of biomedical applications. The novel smart materials with multifunction of biodegradability and biocompatibility can be designed based on their general principle, composition and structure. In this review, the latest process of three typical biodegradable SMPs(poly(lactide acide, poly(ε-caprolactone, polyurethane was summarized. These three SMPs were classified in different structures and discussed, and shape-memory mechanism, recovery rate and fixed rate, response speed was analysed in detail, also, some biomedical applications were presented. Finally, the future development and applications of SMPs are prospected: two-way SMPs and body temperature induced SMPs will be the focus attension by researchers.

  9. Evaluating persistence of shape information using a matching protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Greene


    Full Text Available Many laboratories have studied persistence of shape information, the goal being to better understand how the visual system mediates recognition of objects. Most have asked for recognition of known shapes, e.g., letters of the alphabet, or recall from an array. Recognition of known shapes requires access to long-term memory, so it is not possible to know whether the experiment is assessing short-term encoding and working memory mechanisms, or has encountered limitations on retrieval from memory stores. Here we have used an inventory of unknown shapes, wherein a string of discrete dots forms the boundary of each shape. Each was displayed as a target only once to a given respondent, with recognition being tested using a matching task. Analysis based on signal detection theory was used to provide an unbiased estimate of the probability of correct decisions about whether comparison shapes matched target shapes. Four experiments were conducted, which found the following: a Shapes were identified with a high probability of being correct with dot densities ranging from 20% to 4%. Performance dropped only about 10% across this density range. b Shape identification levels remained very high with up to 500 milliseconds of target and comparison shape separation. c With one-at-a-time display of target dots, varying the total time for a given display, the proportion of correct decisions dropped only about 10% even with a total display time of 500 milliseconds. d With display of two complementary target subsets, also varying the total time of each display, there was a dramatic decline of proportion correct that reached chance levels by 500 milliseconds. The greater rate of decline for the two-pulse condition may be due to a mechanism that registers when the number of dots is sufficient to create a shape summary. Once a summary is produced, the temporal window that allows shape information to be added may be more limited.

  10. Debris-free rear-side picosecond laser ablation of thin germanium wafers in water with ethanol (United States)

    Zhang, Dongshi; Gökce, Bilal; Sommer, Steffen; Streubel, René; Barcikowski, Stephan


    In this paper, we perform liquid-assisted picosecond laser cutting of 150 μm thin germanium wafers from the rear side. By investigating the cutting efficiency (the ability to allow an one-line cut-through) and quality (characterized by groove morphologies on both sides), the pros and cons of this technique under different conditions are clarified. Specifically, with laser fluence fixed, repetition rate and scanning speed are varied to show quality and efficiency control by means of laser parameter modulation. It is found that low repetition rate ablation in liquid gives rise to a better cut quality on the front side than high repetition rate ablation since it avoids dispersed nanoparticles redeposition resulting from a bubble collapse, unlike the case of 100 kHz which leads to large nanorings near the grooves resulting from a strong interaction of bubbles and the case of 50 kHz which leads to random cutting due to the interaction of the former pulse induced cavitation bubble and the subsequent laser pulse. Furthermore, ethanol is mixed with pure distilled water to assess the liquid's impact on the cutting efficiency and cutting quality. The results show that increasing the ethanol fraction decreases the ablation efficiency but simultaneously, greatly improves the cutting quality. The improvement of cut quality as ethanol ratio increases may be attributed to less laser beam interference by a lower density of bubbles which adhere near the cut kerf during ablation. A higher density of bubbles generated from ethanol vaporization during laser ablation in liquid will cause stronger bubble shielding effect toward the laser beam propagation and therefore result in less laser energy available for the cut, which is the main reason for the decrease of cut efficiency in water-ethanol mixtures. Our findings give an insight into under which condition the rear-side laser cutting of thin solar cells should be performed: high repetition, pure distilled water and high laser power

  11. Tailoring Ion Charge State Distribution in Tetramethyltin Clusters under Influence of Moderate Intensity Picosecond Laser Pulse: Role of Laser Wavelength and Rate of Energy Deposition (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod; Das, Soumitra; Vatsa, Rajesh K.


    Systematic manipulation of ionic-outcome in laser-cluster interaction process has been realized for studies carried out on tetramethyltin (TMT) clusters under picosecond laser conditions, determined by choice of laser wavelength and intensity. As a function of laser intensity, TMT clusters exhibit gradual enhancement in overall ionization of its cluster constituents, up to a saturation level of ionization, which was distinct for different wavelengths (266, 355, and 532 nm). Simultaneously, systematic appearance of higher multiply charged atomic ions and shift in relative abundance of multiply charged atomic ions towards higher charge state was observed, using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. At saturation level, multiply charged atomic ions up to (C2+, Sn2+) at 266 nm, (C4+, Sn4+) at 355 nm, and (C4+, Sn6+) at 532 nm were detected. In addition, at 355 nm intra-cluster ion chemistry within the ionized cluster leads to generation of molecular hydrogen ion (H2 +) and triatomic molecular hydrogen ion (H3 +). Generation of multiply charged atomic ions is ascribed to efficient coupling of laser pulse with the cluster media, facilitated by inner-ionized electrons produced within the cluster, at the leading edge of laser pulse. Role of inner-ionized electrons is authenticated by measuring kinetic energy distribution of electrons liberated upon disintegration of excessively ionized cluster, under the influence of picosecond laser pulse.

  12. Picosecond laser texturization of mc-silicon for photovoltaics: A comparison between 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm radiation wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetti, Simona [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Le Donne, Alessia, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Rolfi, Andrea [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Jäggi, Beat; Neuenschwander, Beat [Bern University of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Information Technology, Institute for Applied Laser, Photonics and Surface Technologies ALPS, Pestalozzistrasse 20, CH-3400 Burgdorf (Switzerland); Busto, Chiara [ENI Spa, Via Giacomo Fauser, 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Frigeri, Cesare [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco Area Delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, 43010 Parma (Italy); Scorticati, Davide; Longoni, Luca; Pellegrino, Sergio [Laserpoint Srl, Via Della Burrona 51, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy)


    Highlights: • Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on mc-Si. • Three laser wavelengths were used which effectively reduce Si reflectivity up to 8%. • The subsurface damage induced by the three lasers was studied in detail. • μ-Raman, PL and TEM proved that UV laser provides the lowest subsurface damage. • UV laser induced damage is located above the depletion region of the p–n junction. - Abstract: Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on multi-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. Three different laser wavelengths were employed (i.e. 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and the resulting morphologies were observed to effectively reduce the reflectivity of the samples after laser irradiation. Besides, a comparative study of the laser induced subsurface damage generated by the three different wavelengths was performed by confocal micro-Raman, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. The results of both the structural and optical characterization showed that the mc-Si texturing performed with the laser at 355 nm provides surface reflectivity between 11% and 8% over the spectral range from 400 nm to 1 μm, while inducing the lowest subsurface damage, located above the depletion region of the p–n junction.

  13. Picosecond pulse radiolysis of highly concentrated sulfuric acid solutions: evidence for the oxidation reactivity of radical cation H2O(•+). (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Schmidhammer, Uli; Mostafavi, Mehran


    Aqueous solution of sulfuric acid is used as a suitable system to investigate the reactivity of the short-lived radical cation H2O(•+) which is generated by radiation in water. Ten aqueous solutions containing sulfuric acid with concentration from 1 to 18 mol L(-1) are studied by picosecond pulse radiolysis. The absorbance of the secondary radical SO4(•-) (or HSO4(•)) formed within the 10 ps electron pulse is measured by a pulse-probe method in the visible range. The analysis of the kinetics show that the radicals of sulfuric acid are formed within the picosecond electron pulse via two parallel mechanisms: direct electron detachment by the electron pulse and oxidation by the radical cation of water H2O(•+). In highly concentrated solution when SO4(2-) is in contact with H2O(•+), the electron transfer becomes competitive against proton transfer with another water molecule. Therefore, H2O(•+) may act as an extremely strong oxidant. The maximum radiolytic yield of scavenged H2O(•+) is estimated to be 5.3 ± 0.1 × 10(-7) mol J(-1).

  14. Antiferroelectric Shape Memory Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Uchino


    Full Text Available Antiferroelectrics (AFE can exhibit a “shape memory function controllable by electric field”, with huge isotropic volumetric expansion (0.26% associated with the AFE to Ferroelectric (FE phase transformation. Small inverse electric field application can realize the original AFE phase. The response speed is quick (2.5 ms. In the Pb0.99Nb0.02[(Zr0.6Sn0.41-yTiy]0.98O3 (PNZST system, the shape memory function is observed in the intermediate range between high temperature AFE and low temperature FE, or low Ti-concentration AFE and high Ti-concentration FE in the composition. In the AFE multilayer actuators (MLAs, the crack is initiated in the center of a pair of internal electrodes under cyclic electric field, rather than the edge area of the internal electrodes in normal piezoelectric MLAs. The two-sublattice polarization coupling model is proposed to explain: (1 isotropic volume expansion during the AFE-FE transformation; and (2 piezoelectric anisotropy. We introduce latching relays and mechanical clampers as possible unique applications of shape memory ceramics.

  15. Audiometric shape and presbycusis. (United States)

    Demeester, Kelly; van Wieringen, Astrid; Hendrickx, Jan-jaap; Topsakal, Vedat; Fransen, Erik; van Laer, Lut; Van Camp, Guy; Van de Heyning, Paul


    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of specific audiogram configurations in a healthy, otologically screened population between 55 and 65 years old. The audiograms of 1147 subjects (549 males and 598 females between 55 and 65 years old) were collected through population registries and classified according to the configuration of hearing loss. Gender and noise/solvent-exposure effects on the prevalence of the different audiogram shapes were determined statistically. In our population 'Flat' audiograms were most dominantly represented (37%) followed by 'High frequency Gently sloping' audiograms (35%) and 'High frequency Steeply sloping' audiograms (27%). 'Low frequency Ascending' audiograms, 'Mid frequency U-shape' audiograms and 'Mid frequency Reverse U-shape' audiograms were very rare (together less than 1%). The 'Flat'-configuration was significantly more common in females, whereas the 'High frequency Steeply sloping'-configuration was more common in males. Exposure to noise and/or solvents did not change this finding. In addition, females with a 'Flat' audiogram had a significantly larger amount of overall hearing loss compared to males. Furthermore, our data reveal a significant association between the prevalence of 'High frequency Steeply sloping' audiograms and the degree of noise/solvent exposure, despite a relatively high proportion of non-exposed subjects showing a 'High frequency Steeply sloping' audiogram as well.

  16. Genetic control of organ shape and tissue polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A Green


    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which genes control organ shape are poorly understood. In principle, genes may control shape by modifying local rates and/or orientations of deformation. Distinguishing between these possibilities has been difficult because of interactions between patterns, orientations, and mechanical constraints during growth. Here we show how a combination of growth analysis, molecular genetics, and modelling can be used to dissect the factors contributing to shape. Using the Snapdragon (Antirrhinum flower as an example, we show how shape development reflects local rates and orientations of tissue growth that vary spatially and temporally to form a dynamic growth field. This growth field is under the control of several dorsoventral genes that influence flower shape. The action of these genes can be modelled by assuming they modulate specified growth rates parallel or perpendicular to local orientations, established by a few key organisers of tissue polarity. Models in which dorsoventral genes only influence specified growth rates do not fully account for the observed growth fields and shapes. However, the data can be readily explained by a model in which dorsoventral genes also modify organisers of tissue polarity. In particular, genetic control of tissue polarity organisers at ventral petal junctions and distal boundaries allows both the shape and growth field of the flower to be accounted for in wild type and mutants. The results suggest that genetic control of tissue polarity organisers has played a key role in the development and evolution of shape.

  17. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory. (United States)

    Song, Kun; Luo, Huan


    Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation.

  18. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Song


    Full Text Available Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation.

  19. Shape descriptors for mode-shape recognition and model updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W; Mottershead, J E; Mares, C


    The most widely used method for comparing mode shapes from finite elements and experimental measurements is the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC), which returns a single numerical value and carries no explicit information on shape features. New techniques, based on image processing (IP) and pattern recognition (PR) are described in this paper. The Zernike moment descriptor (ZMD), Fourier descriptor (FD), and wavelet descriptor (WD), presented in this article, are the most popular shape descriptors having properties that include efficiency of expression, robustness to noise, invariance to geometric transformation and rotation, separation of local and global shape features and computational efficiency. The comparison of mode shapes is readily achieved by assembling the shape features of each mode shape into multi-dimensional shape feature vectors (SFVs) and determining the distances separating them.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  1. Oriented active shape models. (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K


    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  2. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.


    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  3. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat


    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  4. Amplification of picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers. Denshi beam reiki KrF laser zofukuki ni yoru piko byo pulse no zofuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, I.; Tomie, T.; Owadano, Y.; Yano, M. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Experiments on the amplification of a picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers were carried out for the purpose of its application to the field such as excitation light source for soft X-ray laser which requires large energy besides peak power. The picosecond pulse was amplified by a discharge pumped KrF amplifier and two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers(at the middle stage and the final stage). The energy of 4J, which was the largest energy for short pulse excimer laser so far, was obtained by these devices. About 90% of the window area of the final amplifier with 29cm diameter was filled by the input beam, and energy density of the picosecond beam reached 3.9 times saturation energy density. Measured energy of amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) showed good agreement with the theoretically estimated value. Most of ASE was derived from the discharge pumped laser as the first amplifier. As for the focused power density, the power density ratio of the picosecond pulse to ASE was estimated to be as large as 10{sup 5}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Mast Wake Reduction by Shaping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beauchamp, Charles H


    The present invention relates to various mast shapes, in which the mast shapes minimize the production of visible, electro-optic, infrared and radar cross section wake signatures produced by water surface piercing masts...

  6. Pairwise harmonics for shape analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi


    This paper introduces a simple yet effective shape analysis mechanism for geometry processing. Unlike traditional shape analysis techniques which compute descriptors per surface point up to certain neighborhoods, we introduce a shape analysis framework in which the descriptors are based on pairs of surface points. Such a pairwise analysis approach leads to a new class of shape descriptors that are more global, discriminative, and can effectively capture the variations in the underlying geometry. Specifically, we introduce new shape descriptors based on the isocurves of harmonic functions whose global maximum and minimum occur at the point pair. We show that these shape descriptors can infer shape structures and consistently lead to simpler and more efficient algorithms than the state-of-the-art methods for three applications: intrinsic reflectional symmetry axis computation, matching shape extremities, and simultaneous surface segmentation and skeletonization. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Mean gust shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, K.S.


    The gust events described in the IEC-standard are formulated as coherent gusts of an inherent deterministic character, whereas the gusts experienced in real situation are of a stochastic nature with a limited spatial extension. This conceptual difference may cause substantial differences in the load patterns of a wind turbine when a gust event is imposed. Methods exist to embed a gust of a prescribed appearance in a stochastic wind field. The present report deals with a method to derive realistic gust shapes based only on a few stochastic features of the relevant turbulence field. The investigation is limited to investigation of the longitudinal turbulence component, and consequently no attention is paid to wind direction gusts. A theoretical expression, based on level crossing statistics, is proposed for the description of a mean wind speed gust shape. The description also allows for information on the spatial structure of the wind speed gust and relies only on conventional wind field parameters. The theoretical expression is verified by comparison with simulated wind fields as well as with measured wind fields covering a broad range of mean wind speed situations and terrain conditions. The work reported makes part of the project 'Modelling of Extreme Gusts for Design Calculations' (NEWGUST), which is co-funded through JOULEIII on contract no. JOR3-CT98-0239. (au)

  8. Issues in Biological Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape or appear......This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape...

  9. Review of 'Temporal Love. Temporality and Romantic Relationships' by Mira Moshe, New York, Nova Science Publishers, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Buturoiu


    Full Text Available Moshe’s book entitled Temporal Love. Temporality and Romantic Relationships deals with a classical but fashionable part of sociological studies, namely the sociology of emotions. As the third in a series dealing with this challenging topic, the book is a valid proof for Moshe’s interest in how emotions develop and influence various aspects of people’s lives. In an era which “enables us to perceive different time dimensions simultaneously” (p. vii, the author aims at addressing the role of time in shaping both people’s ideas about romantic relationships and the relationships themselves.

  10. Ferromagnetic shape memory materials (United States)

    Tickle, Robert Jay

    Ferromagnetic shape memory materials are a new class of active materials which combine the properties of ferromagnetism with those of a diffusionless, reversible martensitic transformation. These materials have been the subject of recent study due to the unusually large magnetostriction exhibited in the martensitic phase. In this thesis we report the results of experiments which characterize the magnetic and magnetomechanical properties of both austenitic and martensitic phases of ferromagnetic shape memory material Ni2MnGa. In the high temperature cubic phase, anisotropy and magnetostriction constants are determined for a range of temperatures from 50°C down to the transformation temperature, with room temperature values of K1 = 2.7 +/- 104 ergs/cm3 and lambda100 = -145 muepsilon. In the low temperature tetragonal phase, the phenomenon of field-induced variant rearrangement is shown to produce anomalous results when traditional techniques for determining anisotropy and magnetostriction properties are employed. The requirement of single variant specimen microstructure is explained, and experiments performed on such a specimen confirm a uniaxial anisotropy within each martensitic variant with anisotropy constant Ku = 2.45 x 106 ergs/cm3 and a magnetostriction constant of lambdasv = -288 +/- 73 muepsilon. A series of magnetomechanical experiments investigate the effects of microstructure bias, repeated field cycling, varying field ramp rate, applied load, and specimen geometry on the variant rearrangement phenomenon in the martensitic phase. In general, the field-induced strain is found to be a function of the variant microstructure. Experiments in which the initial microstructure is biased towards a single variant state with an applied load generate one-time strains of 4.3%, while those performed with a constant bias stress of 5 MPa generate reversible strains of 0.5% over a period of 50 cycles. An increase in the applied field ramp rate is shown to reduce the

  11. Model Based Temporal Reasoning (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.


    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  12. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson


    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  13. Shape memory heat engines (United States)

    Salzbrenner, R.


    The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

  14. Shape Bonding method (United States)

    Pontius, James T. (Inventor)


    The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

  15. Boosted Higgs Shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaffer, Matthias; Takeuchi, Michihisa; Weiler, Andreas; Wymant, Chris


    The inclusive Higgs production rate through gluon fusion has been measured to be in agreement with the Standard Model (SM). We show that even if the inclusive Higgs production rate is very SM-like, a precise determination of the boosted Higgs transverse momentum shape offers the opportunity to see effects of natural new physics. These measurements are generically motivated by effective field theory arguments and specifically in extensions of the SM with a natural weak scale, like composite Higgs models and natural supersymmetry. We show in detail how a measurement at high transverse momentum of $H\\to 2\\ell+\\mathbf{p}\\!\\!/_T$ via $H\\to \\tau\\tau$ and $H\\to WW^*$ could be performed and demonstrate that it offers a compelling alternative to the $t\\bar t H$ channel. We discuss the sensitivity to new physics in the most challenging scenario of an exactly SM-like inclusive Higgs cross-section.

  16. Digital pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L. F.; Preston, J.; Pozzi, S.; Flaska, M.; Neal, J.


    Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) has been utilised for about 40 years as a method to obtain estimates for dose in mixed neutron and photon fields. Digitizers that operate close to GHz are currently available at a reasonable cost, and they can be used to directly sample signals from photomultiplier tubes. This permits one to perform digital PSD rather than the traditional, and well-established, analogous techniques. One issue that complicates PSD for neutrons in mixed fields is that the light output characteristics of typical scintillators available for PSD, such as BC501A, vary as a function of energy deposited in the detector. This behaviour is more easily accommodated with digital processing of signals than with analogous signal processing. Results illustrate the effectiveness of digital PSD. (authors)

  17. [Temporal meaning of suffering]. (United States)

    Porée, J


    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  18. Investigation of novel shape-controlled linearly and circularly polarized attosecond pulse sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, György; Tibai, Zoltán; Nagy-Csiha, Zsuzsanna; Márton, Zsuzsanna; Almási, Gábor; Hebling, János


    In this article, we investigate the temporal shape of one- or few-cycle, 20–180 nm central wavelength attosecond pulses that are produced in a scheme based on coherent undulator radiation. It is demonstrated, that the carrier–envelope phase (CEP) of the radiated electric field can be chosen arbitrarily by shaping the magnetic field of the radiator undulator appropriately. It is shown that the temporal shape and the spectrum of the generated electric field are influenced by the spatial shape and amplitude of the magnetic field of the radiator undulator for different central wavelength pulses, while both are practically independent of the energy of the initial electron bunch. Shape distortions at high K undulator parameters are also discussed.

  19. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M


    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  20. SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data. (United States)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R; Krogh, Anders; Vinther, Jeppe


    Selective 2' Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) is an accurate method for probing of RNA secondary structure. In existing SHAPE methods, the SHAPE probing signal is normalized to a no-reagent control to correct for the background caused by premature termination of the reverse transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES-based selection of cDNA-RNA hybrids on streptavidin beads effectively removes the large majority of background signal present in SHAPE probing data and that sequencing-based SHAPES data contain the same amount of RNA structure data as regular sequencing-based SHAPE data obtained through normalization to a no-reagent control. Moreover, the selection efficiently enriches for probed RNAs, suggesting that the SHAPES strategy will be useful for applications with high-background and low-probing signal such as in vivo RNA structure probing. © 2015 Poulsen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Temporal Instabilities in Amblyopic Perception: A Quantitative Approach. (United States)

    Thiel, Aylin; Iftime, Adrian


    The purpose of this study is to quantify the temporal characteristics of spatial misperceptions in human amblyopia. Twenty-two adult participants with strabismus, strabismic, anisometropic, or mixed amblyopia were asked to describe their subjective percept of static geometrical patterns with different spatial frequencies and shapes, as seen with their non-dominant eye. We generated digital reconstructions of their perception (static images or movies) that were subsequently validated by the subjects using consecutive matching sessions. We calculated the Shannon entropy variation in time for each recorded movie, as a measure of temporal instability. Nineteen of the 22 subjects perceived temporal instabilities that can be broadly classified in two categories. We found that the average frequency of the perceived temporal instabilities is ∼1 Hz. The stimuli with higher spatial frequencies yielded more often temporally unstable perceptions with higher frequencies. We suggest that type and amount of temporal instabilities in amblyopic vision are correlated with the etiology and spatial frequency of the stimulus.

  2. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.


    with equality predicates rather than the inequality predicates prevalent in valid-time queries. Second, the presence of temporally varying data dramatically increases the size of a database. These factors indicate that specialized techniques are needed to efficiently evaluate temporal joins. We address......, if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency....

  3. On the biphoton excitation of the fluorescence of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules of purple photosynthetic bacteria by powerful near IR femto-picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A. Yu., E-mail: [Moscow State University, Belozersky Institute of Physicochemical Biology (Russian Federation)


    The authors of a number of experimental works detected nonresonance biphoton excitation of bacteriochlorophyll molecules, which represent the main pigment in the light-absorbing natural 'antenna' complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm). They believe that IR quanta excite hypothetic forbidden levels of the pigments of these bacteria in the double frequency range 625-750 nm. We propose and ground an alternative triplet mechanism to describe this phenomenon. According to our hypothesis, the mechanism of biphoton excitation of molecules by IR quanta can manifest itself specifically, through high triplet levels of molecules in the high fields induced by femtosecond-picosecond laser pulses.

  4. Dispersion tuning of a narrow-linewidth picosecond OPO based on chirped quasi-phase matching with a volume Bragg grating (United States)

    Descloux, Delphine; Walter, Guillaume; Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gorju, Guillaume; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Raybaut, Myriam; Drag, Cyril; Godard, Antoine


    We report on a widely tunable synchronously-pumped picosecond OPO combining an aperiodically poled MgOdoped LiNbO3 crystal as a broadband gain medium and an intracavity axially chirped volume Bragg (VBG). Owing to the high dispersion induced by the chirped VBG, only a narrow spectral band, corresponding to a thin slice of the VBG, satisfies the synchronous-pumping condition. At a fixed position, the VBG is thus a narrow-band filtering element; variation of its position along the cavity axis enables to tune the idler wavelength over 215nm around 3.82 μm. Rapid continuous tuning over 150nm in 100 ms is also demonstrated.

  5. Design of a Sub-Picosecond Jitter with Adjustable-Range CMOS Delay-Locked Loop for High-Speed and Low-Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal I. Abdulrazzaq


    Full Text Available A Delay-Locked Loop (DLL with a modified charge pump circuit is proposed for generating high-resolution linear delay steps with sub-picosecond jitter performance and adjustable delay range. The small-signal model of the modified charge pump circuit is analyzed to bring forth the relationship between the DLL’s internal control voltage and output time delay. Circuit post-layout simulation shows that a 0.97 ps delay step within a 69 ps delay range with 0.26 ps Root-Mean Square (RMS jitter performance is achievable using a standard 0.13 µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS process. The post-layout simulation results show that the power consumption of the proposed DLL architecture’s circuit is 0.1 mW when the DLL is operated at 2 GHz.

  6. Laser surface texturing of cast iron steel: dramatic edge burr reduction and high speed process optimisation for industrial production using DPSS picosecond lasers (United States)

    Bruneel, David; Kearsley, Andrew; Karnakis, Dimitris


    In this work we present picosecond DPSS laser surface texturing optimisation of automotive grade cast iron steel. This application attracts great interest, particularly in the automotive industry, to reduce friction between moving piston parts in car engines, in order to decrease fuel consumption. This is accomplished by partially covering with swallow microgrooves the inner surface of a piston liner and is currently a production process adopting much longer pulse (microsecond) DPSS lasers. Lubricated interface conditions of moving parts require from the laser process to produce a very strictly controlled surface topography around the laser formed grooves, whose edge burr height must be lower than 100 nm. To achieve such a strict tolerance, laser machining of cast iron steel was investigated using an infrared DPSS picosecond laser (10ps duration) with an output power of 16W and a repetition rate of 200 kHz. The ultrashort laser is believed to provide a much better thermal management of the etching process. All studies presented here were performed on flat samples in ambient air but the process is transferrable to cylindrical geometry engine liners. We will show that reducing significantly the edge burr below an acceptable limit for lubricated engine production is possible using such lasers and remarkably the process window lies at very high irradiated fluences much higher that the single pulse ablation threshold. This detailed experimental work highlights the close relationship between the optimised laser irradiation conditions as well as the process strategy with the final size of the undesirable edge burrs. The optimised process conditions are compatible with an industrial production process and show the potential for removing extra post)processing steps (honing, etc) of cylinder liners on the manufacturing line saving time and cost.

  7. The Temporality of Power and the Power of Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher


    This paper extends existing understandings of power, resistance and subjectivity in professional service organizations by developing an analysis of how these relate to temporality. Drawing in particular on Hoy’s reading of the Foucauldian account of temporality, we conceive of disciplinary power...... light on the interplay of power, resistance and subjectivity....

  8. Surface shape memory in polymers (United States)

    Mather, Patrick


    Many crosslinked polymers exhibit a shape memory effect wherein a permanent shape can be prescribed during crosslinking and arbitrary temporary shapes may be set through network chain immobilization. Researchers have extensively investigated such shape memory polymers in bulk form (bars, films, foams), revealing a multitude of approaches. Applications abound for such materials and a significant fraction of the studies in this area concern application-specific characterization. Recently, we have turned our attention to surface shape memory in polymers as a means to miniaturization of the effect, largely motivated to study the interaction of biological cells with shape memory polymers. In this presentation, attention will be given to several approaches we have taken to prepare and study surface shape memory phenomenon. First, a reversible embossing study involving a glassy, crosslinked shape memory material will be presented. Here, the permanent shape was flat while the temporary state consisted of embossed parallel groves. Further the fixing mechanism was vitrification, with Tg adjusted to accommodate experiments with cells. We observed that the orientation and spreading of adherent cells could be triggered to change by the topographical switch from grooved to flat. Second, a functionally graded shape memory polymer will be presented, the grading being a variation in glass transition temperature in one direction along the length of films. Characterization of the shape fixing and recovery of such films utilized an indentation technique that, along with polarizing microscopy, allowed visualization of stress distribution in proximity to the indentations. Finally, very recent research concerning shape memory induced wrinkle formation on polymer surfaces will be presented. A transformation from smooth to wrinkled surfaces at physiological temperatures has been observed to have a dramatic effect on the behavior of adherent cells. A look to the future in research and

  9. Modeling the shape memory effect of shape memory polymer (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Liu, Yanju; Wang, Zhenqing; Leng, Jin-Song


    Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests are conducted on the styrene-based shape memory polymer (SMP) to investigate its state transition behaviors. Tensile tests at various constant temperatures are carried out to reveal the stressstrain- temperature relationship of the styrene-based SMP. A new mechanical constitutive equation is developed to describe the stress-strain-temperature relationship of the styrene-based SMP. Numerical calculations illustrate the proposed theory well describes the thermo-mechanical cycle of shape memory of styrene-based SMP, such as deformation at high temperature, shape fixity, unloading at low temperature and shape recovery.

  10. Temporal decision-making: insights from cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Luhmann


    Full Text Available Decisions frequently have consequences that play out over time and these temporal factors can exert strong influences on behavior. For example, decision-makers exhibit delay discounting, behaving as though immediately consumable goods are more valuable than those available only after some delay. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we are now beginning to characterize the physiological bases of such behavior in humans and to link work on this topic from neuroscience, psychology, and economics. Here we review recent neurocognitive investigations of temporal decision-making and outline the theoretical picture that is beginning to take shape. Taken as a whole, this body of work illustrates the progress made in understanding temporal choice behavior. However, we also note several questions that remain unresolved and areas where future work is needed.

  11. All-optical temporal integration of ultrafast pulse waveforms. (United States)

    Park, Yongwoo; Ahn, Tae-Jung; Dai, Yitang; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José


    An ultrafast all-optical temporal integrator is experimentally demonstrated. The demonstrated integrator is based on a very simple and practical solution only requiring the use of a widely available all-fiber passive component, namely a reflection uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This design allows overcoming the severe speed (bandwidth) limitations of the previously demonstrated photonic integrator designs. We demonstrate temporal integration of a variety of ultrafast optical waveforms, including Gaussian, odd-symmetry Hermite Gaussian, and (odd-)symmetry double pulses, with temporal features as fast as ~6-ps, which is about one order of magnitude faster than in previous photonic integration demonstrations. The developed device is potentially interesting for a multitude of applications in all-optical computing and information processing, ultrahigh-speed optical communications, ultrafast pulse (de-)coding, shaping and metrology.

  12. Vaccines: Shaping global health. (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando


    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  13. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara


    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  14. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  15. Spatial Grouping Determines Temporal Integration (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Scharnowski, Frank; Herzog, Michael H.


    To make sense out of a continuously changing visual world, people need to integrate features across space and time. Despite more than a century of research, the mechanisms of features integration are still a matter of debate. To examine how temporal and spatial integration interact, the authors measured the amount of temporal fusion (a measure of…

  16. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Jensen, K; Podelski, A.


    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  17. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette


    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  18. Combined Shape and Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman

    Shape and topology optimization seeks to compute the optimal shape and topology of a structure such that one or more properties, for example stiffness, balance or volume, are improved. The goal of the thesis is to develop a method for shape and topology optimization which uses the Deformable...... Simplicial Complex (DSC) method. Consequently, we present a novel method which combines current shape and topology optimization methods. This method represents the surface of the structure explicitly and discretizes the structure into non-overlapping elements, i.e. a simplicial complex. An explicit surface...... representation usually limits the optimization to minor shape changes. However, the DSC method uses a single explicit representation and still allows for large shape and topology changes. It does so by constantly applying a set of mesh operations during deformations of the structure. Using an explicit instead...

  19. The shape of the oceanic nitracline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Omand


    Full Text Available In most regions of the ocean, nitrate is depleted near the surface by phytoplankton consumption and increases with depth, exhibiting a strong vertical gradient in the pycnocline (here referred to as the nitracline. The vertical supply of nutrients to the surface euphotic zone is influenced by the vertical gradient (slope of the nitracline and by the vertical separation (depth of the nitracline from the sunlit surface layer. Hence it is important to understand the shape (slope and curvature and depth of the oceanic nitracline. By using density coordinates to analyze nitrate profiles from autonomous Autonomous Profiling EXplorer floats with In-Situ Ultraviolet Spectrophotometers (APEX-ISUS and ship-based platforms (World Ocean Atlas – WOA09; Hawaii Ocean Time-series – HOT; Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study – BATS; and California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations – CalCOFI, we are able to eliminate much of the spatial and temporal variability in the profiles and derive robust relationships between nitrate and density. This allows us to characterize the depth, slope and curvature of the nitracline in different regions of the world's oceans. The analysis reveals distinguishing patterns in the nitracline between subtropical gyres, upwelling regions and subpolar gyres. We propose a one-dimensional, mechanistic model that relates the shape of the nitracline to the relative depths of the surface mixed layer and euphotic layer. Though heuristic, the model accounts for some of the seasonal patterns and regional differences in the nitrate–density relationships seen in the data.

  20. A technique for measuring an electron beam close-quote s longitudinal phase space with sub-picosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosson, E.R.; Berryman, K.W.; Richman, B.A.; Smith, T.I.; Swent, R.L.


    We have developed a technique for measuring the longitudinal phase space distribution of the Stanford Superconducting Accelerator close-quote s (SCA) electron beam which involves applying tomographic techniques to energy spectra taken as a function of the relative phase between the beam and the accelerating field, and optionally, as a function of the strength of a variable dispersion section in the system. The temporal profile of the beam obtained by projecting the inferred distribution onto the time axis is compared with that obtained from interferometric transition radiation measurements. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Shape resonances in molecular fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.


    A shape resonance is a quasibound state in which a particle is temporarily trapped by a potential barrier (i.e., the shape of the potential), through which it may eventually tunnel and escape. This simple mechanism plays a prominent role in a variety of excitation processes in molecules, ranging from vibrational excitation by slow electrons to ionization of deep core levels by x-rays. Moreover, their localized nature makes shape resonances a unifying link between otherwise dissimilar circumstances. One example is the close connection between shape resonances in electron-molecule scattering and in molecular photoionization. Another is the frequent persistence of free-molecule shape resonant behavior upon adsorption on a surface or condensation into a molecular solid. The main focus of this article is a discussion of the basic properties of shape resonances in molecular fields, illustrated by the more transparent examples studied over the last ten years. Other aspects to be discussed are vibrational effects of shape resonances, connections between shape resonances in different physical settings, and examples of shape resonant behavior in more complex cases, which form current challenges in this field

  2. Women in Shape Modeling Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Tari, Sibel


    Presenting the latest research from the growing field of mathematical shape analysis, this volume is comprised of the collaborations of participants of the Women in Shape Modeling (WiSh) workshop, held at UCLA's Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics in July 2013. Topics include: Simultaneous spectral and spatial analysis of shape Dimensionality reduction and visualization of data in tree-spaces, such as classes of anatomical trees like airways and blood vessels Geometric shape segmentation, exploring shape segmentation from a Gestalt perspective, using information from the Blum medial axis of edge fragments in an image Representing and editing self-similar details on 3D shapes, studying shape deformation and editing techniques Several chapters in the book directly address the problem of continuous measures of context-dependent nearness and right shape models. Medical and biological applications have been a major source of motivation in shape research, and key topics are examined here in detail. All...

  3. "H"-shape second order NLO polymers: synthesis and characterization. (United States)

    Li, Zhong'an; Hu, Pan; Yu, Gui; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Zuoquan; Liu, Yunqi; Ye, Cheng; Qin, Jingui; Li, Zhen


    In this work, two "H"-shape and one "AB"-type second order nonlinear optical (NLO) polymers were prepared for the first time. The linkage positions of chromophores in the "H"-shape polymers were shoulder-to-shoulder, in which the chromophore moieties were part of the polymeric backbone. The subtle structure could be easily modified by the introduction of different isolation groups, to adjust the property of the resultant polymers. All the polymers exhibited good film-forming ability and thermal stability. The second harmonic generation (SHG) experiments demonstrated that the two "H"-shape polymers (P1 and P2) exhibited large SHG coefficients of d(33) values (up to 90 pm V(-1)), and P2 even demonstrated relatively good long-term temporal stability.

  4. Optimizing implosion yields using rugby-shaped hohlraums (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Robey, H.; Amendt, P.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.


    We present the first experimental results on optimizing capsule implosion experiments by using rugby-shaped hohlraums [1] on the Omega laser, University of Rochester. This campaign compared D2-filled capsule performance between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums for demonstrating the energetics advantages of the rugby geometry. Not only did the rugby-shaped hohlraums show nearly 20% more x-ray drive energy over the cylindrical hohlraums, but also the high-performance design of the capsules provided nearly 20 times more DD neutrons than in any previous Omega hohlraum campaigns, thereby enabling use of neutron temporal diagnostics. Comparison with simulations on neutron burn histories, x-ray core imaging, backscattered laser light and radiation temperature are presented. [1] P. Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 012702 (2008)

  5. Nitro Stretch Probing of a Single Molecular Layer to Monitor Shock Compression with Picosecond Time-Resolution (United States)

    Berg, Christopher; Lagutchev, Alexei; Fu, Yuanxi; Dlott, Dana


    To obtain maximum possible temporal resolution, laser-driven shock compression of a molecular monolayer was studied using vibrational spectroscopy. The stretching transitions of nitro groups bound to aromatic rings was monitored using a nonlinear coherent infrared spectroscopy termed sum-frequency generation, which produced high-quality signals from this very thin layer. To overcome the shock opacity problem, a novel polymer overcoat method allowed us to make the observation window (witness plate) a few micrometers thick. The high signal-to-noise ratios (>100:1) obtained via this spectroscopy allowed us to study detailed behavior of the shocked molecules. To help interpret these vibrational spectra, additional spectra were obtained under conditions of static pressures up to 10 GPa and static temperatures up to 1000 C. Consequently, this experiment represents a significant step in resolving molecular dynamics during shock compression and unloading with both high spatial and temporal resolution. Supported by the Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliance Program from the Carnegie-DOE Alliance Center under grant number DOE CIW 4-3253-13 and the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research under award number FAA9550-09-1-0163.

  6. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    ending up with lexical data models. In particular we look upon the representations by sets of normalised tables, by sets of 1NF tables and by sets of N1NF/nested tables. At each translation step we focus on how the temporal semantic is consistently maintained. In this way we recognise the requirements...... for representation of temporal properties in different models and the correspondence between the models. The results rely on the assumptions that the temporal dimensions are interdependent and ordered. Thus for example the valid periods of existences of a property in a mini world are dependent on the transaction...... periods in which the corresponding recordings are valid. This is not the normal way of looking at temporal dimensions and we give arguments supporting our assumption....

  7. Young Children's Concepts of Shape. (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Swaminathan, Sudha; Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Sarama, Julie


    Investigates, by conducting individual clinical interviews of 97 children ages 3 to 6, the criteria preschool children use to distinguish members of a class of shapes from other figures, emphasizing identification and descriptions of shapes and reasons for these identifications. Concludes that young children initially form schemas on the basis of…

  8. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.


    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins wit...... to implementation, is on non-index-based join algorithms. Such algorithms do not rely on auxiliary access paths but may exploit sort orderings to achieve efficiency......., if any, comparison of the various operators. We then address evaluation algorithms, comparing the applicability of various algorithms to the temporal join operators and describing a performance study involving algorithms for one important operator, the temporal equijoin. Our focus, with respect...

  9. Functional and shape data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj


    This textbook for courses on function data analysis and shape data analysis describes how to define, compare, and mathematically represent shapes, with a focus on statistical modeling and inference. It is aimed at graduate students in analysis in statistics, engineering, applied mathematics, neuroscience, biology, bioinformatics, and other related areas. The interdisciplinary nature of the broad range of ideas covered—from introductory theory to algorithmic implementations and some statistical case studies—is meant to familiarize graduate students with an array of tools that are relevant in developing computational solutions for shape and related analyses. These tools, gleaned from geometry, algebra, statistics, and computational science, are traditionally scattered across different courses, departments, and disciplines; Functional and Shape Data Analysis offers a unified, comprehensive solution by integrating the registration problem into shape analysis, better preparing graduate students for handling fu...

  10. Pileup subtraction for jet shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Soyez, Gregory; Kim, Jihun; Dutta, Souvik; Cacciari, Matteo


    Jet shapes have the potential to play a role in many LHC analyses, for example in quark-gluon discrimination or jet substructure analyses for hadronic decays of boosted heavy objects. Most shapes, however, are significantly affected by pileup. We introduce a general method to correct for pileup effects in shapes, which acts event-by-event and jet-by-jet, and accounts also for hadron masses. It involves a numerical determination, for each jet, of a given shape's susceptibility to pileup. Together with existing techniques for determining the level of pileup, this then enables an extrapolation to zero pileup. The method can be used for a wide range of jet shapes and we show its successful application in the context of quark/gluon discrimination and top-tagging.

  11. Snout shape in extant ruminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Tennant

    Full Text Available Snout shape is a prominent aspect of herbivore feeding ecology, interacting with both forage selectivity and intake rate. Previous investigations have suggested ruminant feeding styles can be discriminated via snout shape, with grazing and browsing species characterised by 'blunt' and 'pointed' snouts respectively, often with specification of an 'intermediate' sub-grouping to represent ambiguous feeding styles and/or morphologies. Snout shape morphology is analysed here using a geometric morphometric approach to compare the two-dimensional profiles of the premaxilla in ventral aspect for a large sample of modern ruminant species, for which feeding modes are known from secondary criteria. Results suggest that, when browsing and grazing ruminants are classified ecologically based on a range of feeding style indicators, they cannot be discriminated unambiguously on the basis of snout profile shape alone. Profile shapes in our sample form a continuum with substantial overlap between groupings and a diverse range of morphologies. Nevertheless, we obtained an 83.8 percent ratio of correct post hoc feeding style categorisations based on the proximity of projected profile shapes to group centroids in the discriminant space. Accordingly, this procedure for identifying species whose feeding strategy is 'unknown' can be used with a reasonable degree of confidence, especially if backed-up by additional information. Based on these results we also refine the definitions of snout shape varieties, taking advantage of the descriptive power that geometric morphometrics offers to characterize the morphological disparities observed. The shape variance exhibited by both browsing and grazing ruminants corresponds strongly to body mass, providing further evidence for an interaction between snout shape, feeding style, and body size evolution. Finally, by exploring the role of phylogenetic similarity in snout shape, we find a slight increase in successful categorisation

  12. Treatment of Temporal Bone Fractures (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C.; Cervenka, Brian; Brodie, Hilary A.


    Traumatic injury to the temporal bone can lead to significant morbidity or mortality and knowledge of the pertinent anatomy, pathophysiology of injury, and appropriate management strategies is critical for successful recovery and rehabilitation of such injured patients. Most temporal bone fractures are caused by motor vehicle accidents. Temporal bone fractures are best classified as either otic capsule sparing or otic capsule disrupting-type fractures, as such classification correlates well with risk of concomitant functional complications. The most common complications of temporal bone fractures are facial nerve injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and hearing loss. Assessment of facial nerve function as soon as possible following injury greatly facilitates clinical decision making. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in the setting of CSF leak is controversial; however, following critical analysis and interpretation of the existing classic and contemporary literature, we believe its use is absolutely warranted. PMID:27648399

  13. Temporal bone trauma and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, K.; Czerny, C.; Wunderbaldinger, P.; Steiner, E.


    Fractures of the temporal bone result from direct trauma to the temporal bone or occur as one component of a severe craniocerebral injury. Complications of temporal trauma are hemotympanon, facial nerve paralysis, conductive or sensorineur hearing loss, and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Erly recognition and an appropiate therapy may improve or prevent permanent deficits related to such complications. Only 20-30% of temporal bone fractures can be visualized by plain films. CT has displaced plain radiography in the investigation of the otological trauma because subtle bony details are best evaluated by CT which even can be reformatted in multiple projections, regardless of the original plane of scanning. Associated epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions are better defined by MRI. (orig.) [de

  14. The grounding of temporal metaphors. (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H


    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A theory of shape identification

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Frédéric; Morel, Jean-Michel; Musé, Pablo; Sur, Frédéric


    Recent years have seen dramatic progress in shape recognition algorithms applied to ever-growing image databases. They have been applied to image stitching, stereo vision, image mosaics, solid object recognition and video or web image retrieval. More fundamentally, the ability of humans and animals to detect and recognize shapes is one of the enigmas of perception. The book describes a complete method that starts from a query image and an image database and yields a list of the images in the database containing shapes present in the query image. A false alarm number is associated to each detection. Many experiments will show that familiar simple shapes or images can reliably be identified with false alarm numbers ranging from 10-5 to less than 10-300. Technically speaking, there are two main issues. The first is extracting invariant shape descriptors from digital images. The second is deciding whether two shape descriptors are identifiable as the same shape or not. A perceptual principle, the Helmholtz princi...

  16. Direct observation of an isopolyhalomethane O-H insertion reaction with water: Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman (ps-TR3) study of the isobromoform reaction with water to produce a CHBr2OH product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, W.M.; Zhao Cunyuan; Li Yunliang; Guan Xiangguo; Phillips, David Lee


    Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman (ps-TR 3 ) spectroscopy was used to obtain the first definitive spectroscopic observation of an isopolyhalomethane O-H insertion reaction with water. The ps-TR 3 spectra show that isobromoform is produced within several picoseconds after photolysis of CHBr 3 and then reacts on the hundreds of picosecond time scale with water to produce a CHBr 2 OH reaction product. Photolysis of low concentrations of bromoform in aqueous solution resulted in noticeable formation of HBr strong acid. Ab initio calculations show that isobromoform can react with water to produce a CHBr 2 (OH) O-H insertion reaction product and a HBr leaving group. This is consistent with both the ps-TR 3 experiments that observe the reaction of isobromoform with water to form a CHBr 2 (OH) product and photolysis experiments that show HBr acid formation. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for the phase dependent behavior of polyhalomethane photochemistry in the gas phase versus water solvated environments

  17. Shape reconstruction from gradient data. (United States)

    Ettl, Svenja; Kaminski, Jürgen; Knauer, Markus C; Häusler, Gerd


    We present a generalized method for reconstructing the shape of an object from measured gradient data. A certain class of optical sensors does not measure the shape of an object but rather its local slope. These sensors display several advantages, including high information efficiency, sensitivity, and robustness. For many applications, however, it is necessary to acquire the shape, which must be calculated from the slopes by numerical integration. Existing integration techniques show drawbacks that render them unusable in many cases. Our method is based on an approximation employing radial basis functions. It can be applied to irregularly sampled, noisy, and incomplete data, and it reconstructs surfaces both locally and globally with high accuracy.

  18. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T


    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  19. The organization of shape and color in vision and art. (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio


    The aim of this work is to study the phenomenal organization of shape and color in vision and art in terms of microgenesis of the object perception and creation. The idea of "microgenesis" is that the object perception and creation takes time to develop. Our hypothesis is that the roles of shape and color are extracted in sequential order and in the same order these roles are also used by artists to paint objects. Boundary contours are coded before color contours. The microgenesis of the object formation was demonstrated (i) by introducing new conditions derived from the watercolor illusion, where the juxtaposed contours are displaced horizontally or vertically, and based on variations of Matisse's Woman, (ii) by studying descriptions and replications of visual objects in adults and children of different ages, and (iii) by analyzing the linguistic sequence and organization in a free naming task of the attributes related to shape and color. The results supported the idea of the microgenesis of the object perception, namely the temporal order in the formation of the roles of the object properties (shape before color). Some general principles were extracted from the experimental results. They can be a starting point to explore a new domain focused on the microgenesis of shape and color within the more general problem of object organization, where integrated and multidisciplinary studies based on art and vision science can be very useful.

  20. The organization of shape and color in Vision and Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baingio ePinna


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the phenomenal organization of shape and color in vision and art in terms of microgenesis of the object perception and creation. The idea of ‘microgenesis’ is that the object perception and creation takes time to develop. Our hypothesis is that the roles of shape and color are extracted in sequential order and in the same order these roles are also used by artists to paint objects. Boundary contours are coded before color contours. The microgenesis of the object formation was demonstrated (i by introducing new conditions derived from the watercolor illusion, where the juxtaposed contours are displaced horizontally or vertically, and based on variations of Matisse’s Woman, (ii by studying descriptions and replications of visual objects in adults and children of different ages, and (iii by analyzing the linguistic sequence and organization in a free naming task of the attributes related to shape and color. The results supported the idea of the microgenesis of the object perception, namely the temporal order in the formation of the roles of the object properties (shape before color. Some general principles were extracted from the experimental results. They can be a starting point to explore a new domain focused on the microgenesis of shape and color within the more general problem of object organization, where integrated and multidisciplinary studies based on art and vision science can be very useful.

  1. Aging changes in body shape (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Aging changes in body shape URL of this page: // ...

  2. Shape morphing Kirigami mechanical metamaterials. (United States)

    Neville, Robin M; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Pirrera, Alberto


    Mechanical metamaterials exhibit unusual properties through the shape and movement of their engineered subunits. This work presents a new investigation of the Poisson's ratios of a family of cellular metamaterials based on Kirigami design principles. Kirigami is the art of cutting and folding paper to obtain 3D shapes. This technique allows us to create cellular structures with engineered cuts and folds that produce large shape and volume changes, and with extremely directional, tuneable mechanical properties. We demonstrate how to produce these structures from flat sheets of composite materials. By a combination of analytical models and numerical simulations we show how these Kirigami cellular metamaterials can change their deformation characteristics. We also demonstrate the potential of using these classes of mechanical metamaterials for shape change applications like morphing structures.

  3. Shape-morphing nanocomposite origami. (United States)

    Andres, Christine M; Zhu, Jian; Shyu, Terry; Flynn, Connor; Kotov, Nicholas A


    Nature provides a vast array of solid materials that repeatedly and reversibly transform in shape in response to environmental variations. This property is essential, for example, for new energy-saving technologies, efficient collection of solar radiation, and thermal management. Here we report a similar shape-morphing mechanism using differential swelling of hydrophilic polyelectrolyte multilayer inkjets deposited on an LBL carbon nanotube (CNT) composite. The out-of-plane deflection can be precisely controlled, as predicted by theoretical analysis. We also demonstrate a controlled and stimuli-responsive twisting motion on a spiral-shaped LBL nanocomposite. By mimicking the motions achieved in nature, this method offers new opportunities for the design and fabrication of functional stimuli-responsive shape-morphing nanoscale and microscale structures for a variety of applications.

  4. Shape Deformations in Atomic Nuclei


    Hamamoto, Ikuko; Mottelson, Ben R.


    The ground states of some nuclei are described by densities and mean fields that are spherical, while others are deformed. The existence of non-spherical shape in nuclei represents a spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  5. Temporal species richness-biomass relationships along successional gradients (United States)

    Guo, Q.


    Diversity-biomass relationships are frequently reported to be hump-shaped over space at a given time. However, it is not yet clear how diversity and biomass change simultaneously and how they are related to each other over time (e.g. in succession) at one locality. This study develops a temporal model based on the projected changes of various community variables in a generalized terrestrial environment after fire and uses post-fire succession data on Santa Monica Mountains of southern California and other published succession data to examine the temporal diversity-biomass relationships. The results indicate that in the early stages of succession, both diversity and biomass increase and a positive relationship appears, while in the late stages of succession, biomass continued to increase but diversity usually declines; thus a negative relationship may be observed. When the scales of measurement become sufficiently large so that the measured diversity and biomass cross various stages of succession, a 'hump-shaped' relationship can emerge. The diversity-biomass relationship appears to be concordant in space and time when appropriate scales are used. Formerly proposed explanations for spatial patterns may well apply to the temporal patterns (particularly colonization, facilitation and competitive exclusion).

  6. Electrochromic fiber-shaped supercapacitors. (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Deng, Jue; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Guan, Guozhen; Peng, Huisheng


    An electrochromic fiber-shaped super-capacitor is developed by winding aligned carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite sheets on an elastic fiber. The fiber-shaped supercapacitors demonstrate rapid and reversible chromatic transitions under different working states, which can be directly observed by the naked eye. They are also stretchable and flexible, and are woven into textiles to display designed signals in addition to storing energy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. ESR powder line shape calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitko, J. Jr.; Huddleston, R.E.


    A program has been developed for computing the ESR spectrum of a collection of randomly oriented spins subject only to an electronic Zeeman interaction and having a Lorentzian single crystal line shape. Other single crystal line shapes, including numerical solutions of the Bloch equations, can be accommodated with minor modifications. The program differs in several features from those existing elsewhere, thus enabling one to study saturation effects, over-modulation effects, both absorptive and dispersive signals, and second and higher order derivative signals.

  8. Shape changes in 101Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinesh, S.; Carmel Vigila Bai, G.M.; Santhosh Kumar, S.; Anusha, B.


    In heavy ion collision compound nuclei can be formed with high excitation energies and with very high angular momenta. Most of these emphasize and discuss the structure effects, yrast traps etc. The spin degree of freedom inherently involves deformation and structural or shape changes. The shape of a nucleus should be very sensitive to the increase of its temperature. The increasing temperature affects the occupations of the single particle levels near the Fermi energy are investigated

  9. Temporal anteroinferior encephalocele: An underrecognized etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy? (United States)

    Saavalainen, Taavi; Jutila, Leena; Mervaala, Esa; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva; Immonen, Arto


    To report the increasing frequency with which temporal anteroinferior encephalocele is a cause of adult temporal lobe epilepsy, to illustrate the clinical and imaging characteristics of this condition, and to report its surgical treatment in a series of 23 adult patients. Epilepsy patients diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele from January 2006 to December 2013 in a national epilepsy reference center were included in this noninterventional study. Twenty-three epilepsy patients (14 female, mean age 43.8 years) were diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele in our institute. Thirteen patients had ≥2 encephaloceles; 7 cases presented bilaterally. The estimated frequency of this condition was 0.3% among MRI examinations performed due to newly diagnosed epilepsy (n = 6) and 1.9% among drug-resistant patients referred to our center (n = 17). Nine patients with local encephalocele disconnection (n = 4) or anterior temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy (n = 5) have become seizure-free (Engel 1) for a mean 2.8 years (range 3 months-6.2 years) of follow-up. Three patients with local encephalocele disconnection were almost seizure-free or exhibited worthwhile improvement. Histologically, all 12 surgical patients had gliosis at the base of the encephalocele; some had cortical laminar disorganization (n = 5) or mild hippocampal degeneration (n = 1). The possibility of a temporal encephalocele should be considered when interpreting MRI examinations of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. These patients can significantly benefit from unitemporal epilepsy surgery, even in cases with bilateral encephaloceles. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Deformation Based Curved Shape Representation. (United States)

    Demisse, Girum G; Aouada, Djamila; Ottersten, Bjorn


    In this paper, we introduce a deformation based representation space for curved shapes in Rn. Given an ordered set of points sampled from a curved shape, the proposed method represents the set as an element of a finite dimensional matrix Lie group. Variation due to scale and location are filtered in a preprocessing stage, while shapes that vary only in rotation are identified by an equivalence relationship. The use of a finite dimensional matrix Lie group leads to a similarity metric with an explicit geodesic solution. Subsequently, we discuss some of the properties of the metric and its relationship with a deformation by least action. Furthermore, invariance to reparametrization or estimation of point correspondence between shapes is formulated as an estimation of sampling function. Thereafter, two possible approaches are presented to solve the point correspondence estimation problem. Finally, we propose an adaptation of k-means clustering for shape analysis in the proposed representation space. Experimental results show that the proposed representation is robust to uninformative cues, e.g. local shape perturbation and displacement. In comparison to state of the art methods, it achieves a high precision on the Swedish and the Flavia leaf datasets and a comparable result on MPEG-7, Kimia99 and Kimia216 datasets.

  11. Electric field measurements in a near atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulse discharge with picosecond electric field induced second harmonic generation (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Chng, Tat Loon; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard B.


    We present an optical electric field measurement method for use in high pressure plasma discharges. The method is based upon the field induced second harmonic generation technique and can be used for localized electric field measurements with sub-nanosecond resolution in any gaseous species. When an external electric field is present, a dipole is induced in the typically centrosymmetric medium, allowing for second harmonic generation with signal intensities which scale by the square of the electric field. Calibrations have been carried out in 100 Torr room air, and a minimum sensitivity of 450 V/cm is demonstrated. Measurements were performed with nanosecond or faster temporal resolution in a 100 Torr room air environment both with and without a plasma present. It was shown that with no plasma present, the field follows the applied voltage to gap ratio, as measured using the back current shunt method. When the electric field is strong enough to exceed the breakdown threshold, the measured field was shown to exceed the anticipated voltage to gap ratio which is taken as an indication of the ionization wave front as it sweeps through the plasma volume.

  12. Direct comparison of shot-to-shot noise performance of all normal dispersion and anomalous dispersion supercontinuum pumped with sub-picosecond pulse fiber-based laser (United States)

    Klimczak, Mariusz; Soboń, Grzegorz; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Abramski, Krzysztof M.; Buczyński, Ryszard


    Coherence of supercontinuum sources is critical for applications involving characterization of ultrafast or rarely occurring phenomena. With the demonstrated spectral coverage of supercontinuum extending from near-infrared to over 10 μm in a single nonlinear fiber, there has been a clear push for the bandwidth rather than for attempting to optimize the dynamic properties of the generated spectrum. In this work we provide an experimental assessment of the shot-to-shot noise performance of supercontinuum generation in two types of soft glass photonic crystal fibers. Phase coherence and intensity fluctuations are compared for the cases of an anomalous dispersion-pumped fiber and an all-normal dispersion fiber. With the use of the dispersive Fourier transformation method, we demonstrate that a factor of 100 improvement in signal-to-noise ratio is achieved in the normal-dispersion over anomalous dispersion-pumped fiber for 390 fs long pump pulses. A double-clad design of the photonic lattice of the fiber is further postulated to enable a pump-related seeding mechanism of normal-dispersion supercontinuum broadening under sub-picosecond pumping, which is otherwise known for similar noise characteristics as modulation instability driven, soliton-based spectra. PMID:26759188

  13. Picosecond studies of excitation transport in a finite volume: The clustered transport system octadecyl rhodamine B in triton X-100 micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, M.D.; Domingue, R.P.; Fayer, M.D.


    A detailed experimental and theoretical examination of electronic excited state transport in the finite volume system, octadecyl rhodamine B molecules in triton X-100 micelles, is presented. Picosecond fluorescence mixing and transient grating techniques were used to examine systems in which the average number of chromophores per micelle ranged from 0.1 to 11. Because of the clustering of chromophores in the small micelles, the energy transport observed is extremely efficient. A statistical mechanical theory, based on a density expansion with a Pade approximant, is developed for donor--donor transport on a spherical surface. This theory accurately accounts for the experimental data with only the micelle radius as an adjustable parameter. The radius obtained from this procedure is in good agreement with determinations by other methods. This demonstrates that quantitative information about the spatial extent of chromophore distributions in small volumes can be obtained when appropriate finite volume energy transport theories are employed. It is shown that theories developed for infinite volumes are not applicable to systems such as the ones considered here. Finally the partitioning of rhodamine B and octadecyl rhodamine B between aqueous and micellar phases is measured, and lifetimes and rotation times are reported

  14. SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Rays with Matter, Stanford, CA, January 23-24, 1997

    CERN Document Server

    Tatchyn, R


    This is the proceedings volume of the 1997 SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter. The workshop theme evolved out of design and R and D studies, undertaken at SLAC, DESY, and elsewhere [1,2], of the new class of linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XRFELs) operating with photocathode-based, low-emittance electron beams in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime [3]. It can be noted that, following the conclusion of the workshop, funded design study reports on R and D facilities based on these novel sources have been completed and published by both laboratories [4,5]. Topical significance was imparted to the workshop agenda by a series of prior workshops organized to explore scientific and technological applications of linac driven XRFELs [6,7,8,9]. These served to highlight underlying concerns regarding the potential loading effects of the highly intense radiation pulses from this new class of light source on the instrumentation, s...

  15. Effect of circuital currents on the speed and efficiency of picosecond-range switching in a GaAs avalanche transistor (United States)

    Vainshtein, Sergey; Yuferev, Valentin; Kostamovaara, Juha


    Ultrafast (picosecond range) switching of a GaAs-based BJT (bipolar junction transistor) in the avalanche mode has recently been demonstrated experimentally. It was found to be caused by the formation and spread of ultra-high amplitude multiple Gunn domains, which cause extremely powerful avalanching in the volume of the switching filaments. Unavoidable parasitic impedance of an external circuit limits the rate of avalanche carrier generation in the channels, however, which slows down the switching and increases the residual voltage across the switch. We present here the results of simulations which show that the switching transient can be significantly accelerated and the residual voltage reduced due to the supporting of a higher current density in the channels by the charge stored in the barrier capacitance of the non-switched part of the structure. The corresponding circuital currents are confined in low-inductance loops inside the structure and are not critically affected by the parameters of the external circuit. This provides very fast and effective reduction in the collector voltage, provided the parameters of the semiconductor layers and the geometry of the device are selected properly. Particularly significant in this process is the effect of circuital current saturation in the lightly doped collector region of the non-switched part of the transistor. The results of the simulations with the barrier capacitance included in the model are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Shape analysis in medical image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João


    This book contains thirteen contributions from invited experts of international recognition addressing important issues in shape analysis in medical image analysis, including techniques for image segmentation, registration, modelling and classification, and applications in biology, as well as in cardiac, brain, spine, chest, lung and clinical practice. This volume treats topics such as, anatomic and functional shape representation and matching; shape-based medical image segmentation; shape registration; statistical shape analysis; shape deformation; shape-based abnormity detection; shape tracking and longitudinal shape analysis; machine learning for shape modeling and analysis; shape-based computer-aided-diagnosis; shape-based medical navigation; benchmark and validation of shape representation, analysis and modeling algorithms. This work will be of interest to researchers, students, and manufacturers in the fields of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computationa...

  17. Envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Tôrres das Neves

    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma revisão breve da literatura sobre envelhecimento auditivo, abordando os estudos sobre o envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo, especificamente, estudos sobre detecção de interrupções em sons, por sujeitos adultos de mais idade. São apresentadas definições e descrições da presbiacusia, suas conseqüências, e sua prevalência. São descritos os procedimentos experimentais para estudo de processamento temporal envolvendo a detecção de interrupções em ruídos com faixas amplas de freqüência, a discriminação de sons com reversão temporal, a detecção de mudanças na amplitude de sons, a detecção de interrupções em sons com faixas estreitas de freqüências, a detecção de diferenças de duração entre dois estímulos, bem como a discriminação da ordem temporal de diferentes canais de freqüência componentes de tons complexos. São revisados, adicionalmente, estudos que descrevem as características psicofísicas do processamento auditivo temporal em idosos. Finalmente, são apresentadas sugestões sobre direções futuras para pesquisa.

  18. Envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Vera Tôrres das


    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma revisão breve da literatura sobre envelhecimento auditivo, abordando os estudos sobre o envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo, especificamente, estudos sobre detecção de interrupções em sons, por sujeitos adultos de mais idade. São apresentadas definições e descrições da presbiacusia, suas conseqüências, e sua prevalência. São descritos os procedimentos experimentais para estudo de processamento temporal envolvendo a detecção de interrupções em ruídos com faixas amplas de freqüência, a discriminação de sons com reversão temporal, a detecção de mudanças na amplitude de sons, a detecção de interrupções em sons com faixas estreitas de freqüências, a detecção de diferenças de duração entre dois estímulos, bem como a discriminação da ordem temporal de diferentes canais de freqüência componentes de tons complexos. São revisados, adicionalmente, estudos que descrevem as características psicofísicas do processamento auditivo temporal em idosos. Finalmente, são apresentadas sugestões sobre direções futuras para pesquisa.

  19. Temporal coordination between performing musicians. (United States)

    Loehr, Janeen D; Palmer, Caroline


    Many common behaviours require people to coordinate the timing of their actions with the timing of others' actions. We examined whether representations of musicians' actions are activated in coperformers with whom they must coordinate their actions in time and whether coperformers simulate each other's actions using their own motor systems during temporal coordination. Pianists performed right-hand melodies along with simple or complex left-hand accompaniments produced by themselves or by another pianist. Individual performers' preferred performance rates were measured in solo performance of the right-hand melody. The complexity of the left-hand accompaniment influenced the temporal grouping structure of the right-hand melody in the same way when it was performed by the self or by the duet partner, providing some support for the action corepresentation hypothesis. In contrast, accompaniment complexity had little influence on temporal coordination measures (asynchronies and cross-correlations between parts). Temporal coordination measures were influenced by a priori similarities between partners' preferred rates; partners who had similar preferred rates in solo performance were better synchronized and showed mutual adaptation to each other's timing during duet performances. These findings extend previous findings of action corepresentation and action simulation to a task that requires precise temporal coordination of independent yet simultaneous actions.

  20. Thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior for epoxy-shape memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianguo; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong


    There are various applications for shape memory polymer (SMP) in the smart materials and structures field due to its large recoverable strain and controllable driving method. The mechanical shape memory deformation mechanism is so obscure that many samples and test schemes have to be tried in order to verify a final design proposal for a smart structure system. This paper proposes a simple and very useful method to unambiguously analyze the thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior of SMP smart structures. First, experiments under different temperature and loading conditions are performed to characterize the large deformation and thermoviscoelastic behavior of epoxy-SMP. Then, a rheological constitutive model, which is composed of a revised standard linear solid (SLS) element and a thermal expansion element, is proposed for epoxy-SMP. The thermomechanical coupling effect and nonlinear viscous flowing rules are considered in the model. Then, the model is used to predict the measured rubbery and time-dependent response of the material, and different thermomechanical loading histories are adopted to verify the shape memory behavior of the model. The results of the calculation agree with experiments satisfactorily. The proposed shape memory model is practical for the design of SMP smart structures. (paper)

  1. Triple shape memory effect of star-shaped polyurethane. (United States)

    Yang, Xifeng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wenxi; Chen, Hongmei; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Shaobing


    In this study, we synthesized one type of star-shaped polyurethane (SPU) with star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactone) (SPCL) containing different arm numbers as soft segment and 4,4'-diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) as well as chain extender 1,4-butylene glycol (BDO) as hard segment. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) confirmed the chemical structure of the material. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results indicated that both the melting temperature (Tm) and transition temperature (Ttrans) of SPU decreased with the hard segment composition increase. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrated that the increase of the crystallinity of SPU following the raised arm numbers endowed a high shape fixity of six-arm star-shaped polyurethane (6S-PU) and a wide melting temperature range, which resulted in an excellent triple-shape memory effect of 6S-PU. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay evaluated with osteoblasts through Alamar blue assay demonstrates that this copolymer possessed good cytocompatibility. This material can be potentially used as a new smart material in the field of biomaterials.

  2. Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S [Castro Valley, CA; Maitland, Duncan J [Pleasant Hill, CA


    A system for occluding a physical anomaly. One embodiment comprises a shape memory material body wherein the shape memory material body fits within the physical anomaly occluding the physical anomaly. The shape memory material body has a primary shape for occluding the physical anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly.

  3. Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.


    A system for occluding a physical anomaly. One embodiment comprises a shape memory material body wherein the shape memory material body fits within the physical anomaly occluding the physical anomaly. The shape memory material body has a primary shape for occluding the physical anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly.

  4. Processing Temporal Constraints: An ERP Study (United States)

    Baggio, Giosue


    This article investigates how linguistic expressions of time--in particular, temporal adverbs and verb tense morphemes--are used to establish temporal reference at the level of brain physiology. First, a formal semantic analysis of tense and temporal adverbs is outlined. It is argued that computing temporal reference amounts to solving a…

  5. Temporal interpolation in Meteosat images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Hansen, Johan Dore; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    in such animated films are perceived as being jerky due to t he low temporal sampling rate in general and missing images in particular. In order to perform a satisfactory temporal interpolation we estimate and use the optical flow corresponding to every image in the sequenc e. The estimation of the optical flow...... a threshold between clouds and land/water. The temperature maps are estimated using observations from the image sequence itself at cloud free pixels and ground temperature measurements from a series of meteor ological observation stations in Europe. The temporal interpolation of the images is bas ed on a path...... of each pixel determined by the estimated optical flow. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by the interpolation of a sequence of Meteosat infrared images....

  6. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.


    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  7. The shaped pulses control and operation on the SG-III prototype facility (United States)

    Ping, Li; Wei, Wang; Sai, Jin; Wanqing, Huang; Wenyi, Wang; Jingqin, Su; Runchang, Zhao


    The laser driven inertial confined fusion experiments require careful temporal shape control of the laser pulse. Two approaches are introduced to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the close loop feedback system for long term operation in TIL; the first one is a statistical model to analyze the variation of the parameters obtained from previous shots, the other is a matrix algorithm proposed to relate the electrical signal and the impulse amplitudes. With the model and algorithm applied in the pulse shaping in TIL, a variety of shaped pulses were produced with a 10% precision in half an hour for almost three years under different circumstance.

  8. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups. (United States)

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H


    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  9. Emotions are temporal interpersonal systems. (United States)

    Butler, Emily A


    Several characteristics of emotions are that they: first, evolve dynamically over time, second, extend beyond the individual to incorporate multiple people, and third, function as a system. In other words, emotions can be seen as temporal interpersonal systems. This review summarizes current models for temporal interpersonal emotion systems (TIES), evidence they matter beyond levels of emotional responding, their connections with relationship quality and interpersonal regulation, and some of the challenges for studying them. Important directions for future research include distinguishing between different patterns of interpersonal emotional dynamics and extending theory and experimental work to uncover mechanisms for altering harmful TIES and promoting beneficial ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethnographies of Youth and Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line; Frederiksen, Martin Demant; Højlund, Susanne

    As we experience and manipulate time—be it as boredom or impatience—it becomes an object: something materialized and social, something that affects perception, or something that may motivate reconsideration and change. The editors and contributors to this important new book, Ethnographies of Youth...... and Temporality, have provided a diverse collection of ethnographic studies and theoretical explorations of youth experiencing time in a variety of contemporary socio-cultural settings. The essays in this volume focus on time as an external and often troubling factor in young people’s lives, and show how...... of Youth and Temporality use youth as a prism to understand time and its subjective experience....

  11. Shape selection in Landsat time series: A tool for monitoring forest dynamics (United States)

    Gretchen G. Moisen; Mary C. Meyer; Todd A. Schroeder; Xiyue Liao; Karen G. Schleeweis; Elizabeth A. Freeman; Chris Toney


    We present a new methodology for fitting nonparametric shape-restricted regression splines to time series of Landsat imagery for the purpose of modeling, mapping, and monitoring annual forest disturbance dynamics over nearly three decades. For each pixel and spectral band or index of choice in temporal Landsat data, our method delivers a smoothed rendition of...

  12. A case of impaired shape integration: Implications for models of visual object processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Marstrand, Lisbeth; Habekost, Thomas


    We describe a patient, HE, who was left with a remarkably selective deficit in intermediate vision following an infarct in the right occipito-temporal region. Thus, HE was able to group elements by colour and proximity but impaired in grouping based on similarity in shape. This finding supports...



    Vali Shaik, Mastan; Sujatha, P


    Most data sources in real-life are not static but change their information in time. This evolution of data in time can give valuable insights to business analysts. Temporal data refers to data, where changes over time or temporal aspects play a central role. Temporal data denotes the evaluation of object characteristics over time. One of the main unresolved problems that arise during the data mining process is treating data that contains temporal information. Temporal queries on time evolving...

  14. Statistical models of shape optimisation and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Rhodri; Taylor, Chris


    Deformable shape models have wide application in computer vision and biomedical image analysis. This book addresses a key issue in shape modelling: establishment of a meaningful correspondence between a set of shapes. Full implementation details are provided.

  15. Enhanced lubricant film formation through micro-dimpled hard-on-hard artificial hip joint: An in-situ observation of dimple shape effects. (United States)

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Rebenda, David; Sasaki, Shinya; Hekrle, Pavel; Vrbka, Martin; Zou, Min


    This study evaluates the impact of dimple shapes on lubricant film formation in artificial hip joints. Micro-dimples with 20-50 µm lateral size and 1 ± 0.2 µm depths were fabricated on CrCoMo hip joint femoral heads using a picosecond laser. Tribological studies were performed using a pendulum hip joint simulator to apply continuous swing flexion-extension motions. The results revealed a significantly enhanced lubricant film thickness (≥ 500 nm) with micro-dimpled prosthesis heads at equilibrium position after the lubricant film has fully developed. The average lubricant film thickness of dimpled prostheses with square- and triangular-shaped dimple arrays over time is about 3.5 that of the non-dimpled prosthesis (204 nm). Remarkably, the prosthesis with square-shaped dimple arrays showed a very fast lubricant film formation reaching their peak values within 0.5 s of pendulum movement, followed by prosthesis with triangular-shaped dimple arrays with a transition period of 42.4 s. The fully developed lubricant film thicknesses (≥ 700 nm) are significantly higher than the surface roughness (≈ 25 nm) demonstrating a hydrodynamic lubrication. Hardly any scratches appeared on the post-experimental prosthesis with square-shaped dimple array and only a few scratches were found on the post-experimental prosthesis with triangular-shaped dimple arrays. Thus, prostheses with square-shaped dimple arrays could be a potential solution for durable artificial hip joints. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Individual Sensitivity to Spectral and Temporal Cues in Listeners with Hearing Impairment (United States)

    Souza, Pamela E.; Wright, Richard A.; Blackburn, Michael C.; Tatman, Rachael; Gallun, Frederick J.


    Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate use of spectral and temporal cues under conditions in which both types of cues were available. Method: Participants included adults with normal hearing and hearing loss. We focused on 3 categories of speech cues: static spectral (spectral shape), dynamic spectral (formant change), and temporal…

  17. Spatial and temporal changes in the morphology of preosteoblastic cells seeded on microstructured tantalum surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Lorentzen, M.; Andersen, L. K.


    It has been widely reported that surface morphology on the micrometer scale affects cell function as well as cell shape. In this study, we have systematically compared the influence of 13 topographically micropatterned tantalum surfaces on the temporal development of morphology, including spreadi...

  18. Shapes formed by interacting cracks (United States)

    Daniels, Karen


    Brittle failure through multiple cracks occurs in a wide variety of contexts, from microscopic failures in dental enamel and cleaved silicon to geological faults and planetary ice crusts. In each of these situations, with complicated stress geometries and different microscopic mechanisms, pairwise interactions between approaching cracks nonetheless produce characteristically curved fracture paths. We investigate the origins of this widely observed ``en passant'' crack pattern by fracturing a rectangular slab which is notched on each long side and subjected to quasi-static uniaxial strain from the short side. The two cracks propagate along approximately straight paths until they pass each other, after which they curve and release a lens-shaped fragment. We find that, for materials with diverse mechanical properties, each curve has an approximately square-root shape, and that the length of each fragment is twice its width. We are able to explain the origins of this universal shape with a simple geometrical model.

  19. Shape Synthesis in Mechanical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Teng


    Full Text Available The shaping of structural elements in the area of mechanical design is a recurrent problem. The mechanical designer, as a rule, chooses what is believed to be the “simplest” shapes, such as the geometric primitives: lines, circles and, occasionally, conics. The use of higher-order curves is usually not even considered, not to speak of other curves than polynomials. However, the simplest geometric shapes are not necessarily the most suitable when the designed element must withstand loads that can lead to failure-prone stress concentrations. Indeed, as mechanical designers have known for a while, stress concentrations occur, first and foremost, by virtue of either dramatic changes in curvature or extremely high values thereof. As an alternative, we propose here the use of smooth curves that can be simply generated using standard concepts such as non-parametric cubic splines. These curves can be readily used to produce either extruded surfaces or surfaces of revolution. 

  20. Shape morphing hinged truss structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofla, A Y N; Elzey, D M; Wadley, H N G


    Truss structures are widely used for the support of structural loads in applications where minimum mass solutions are required. Their nodes are normally constructed to resist rotation to maximize their stiffness under load. A multi-link node concept has recently been proposed that permits independent rotation of tetrahedral trusses linked by such a joint. High authority shape morphing truss structures can therefore be designed by the installation of linear displacement actuators within the truss mechanisms. Examples of actuated structures with either linear or planar shapes are presented and their ability to bend, twist and undulate is demonstrated. An experimental device has been constructed using one-way shape memory wire actuators in antagonistic configurations that permit reversible actuated structures. It is shown that the actuated structure displacement response is significantly amplified by use of a mechanically magnified design